Science.gov

Sample records for small detention ponds

  1. Using Stormwater Detention Ponds for Aquatic Science Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahoon, Lawrence B.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of recently constructed stormwater detention ponds to conduct a set of field and laboratory exercises in an undergraduate limnology course. Provides a number of logistical advantages that can benefit those teaching aquatic sciences. (JRH)

  2. Effectiveness of an urban runoff detention pond - Wetlands system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of an urban detention system, composed of a detention pond and wetlands in series, in reducing constituent loads carried in runoff was determined. The detention pond was effective in reducing loads of suspended solids and suspended metals. Suspended-phase efficiencies for solids, lead, and zinc ranged between 42 and 66%. Nutrient efficiencies were variable, ranging for all species and phases, from less than 0 to 72%. The wetlands generally was effective in reducing both suspended and dissolved loads of solids and metals. Total (dissolved + suspended) solids, lead, and zinc efficiencies ranged between 41 and 73%. Efficiencies for total nitrogen and phosphorus were 21 and 17%, respectively. The system, by combining the treatment of the pond of wetlands, was very effective in reducing loads of most constituents. Total solids, lead, and zinc efficiencies ranged between 55 and 83%. Total nitrogen and phosphorus efficiencies were 36 and 43%, respectively.The effectiveness of an urban detention system, composed of a detention pond and wetlands in series, in reducing constituent loads carried in runoff was determined. The detention pond was effective in reducing loads of suspended solids and suspended metals. Nutrient efficiencies were variable, ranging for all species and phases, from less than 0 to 72 percent. The wetlands generally was effective in reducing both suspended and dissolved loads of solids and metals. The system, by combining the treatment of the pond and wetlands, was very effective in reducing loads of most constituents.

  3. Load-detention efficiencies in a dry-pond basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Larry M.; Hess, Larry G.

    1989-01-01

    Inflow and outflow to a dry-pond detention basin in Topeka, Kansas, were monitored for 19 storms during a 14-month period. Samples of runoff were collected automatically at two inflow and one outflow locations. Inflow and outflow constituent loads were computed with subsequent computation of load-detention efficiencies. Three constituents (dissolved solids, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, and total organic carbon) had negative (larger loads out than in) median detention efficiencies (-78.5 percent, -9.0 percent, and -3.0 percent, respectively). Median detention efficiencies for the other constituents were: suspended solids (2.5 percent), chemical oxygen demand (15.5 percent), nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen (20.0 percent), ammonia nitrogen (69.0 percent), total phosphorus (18.5 percent), dissolved phosphorus (0.0 percent), total lead (66.0 percent), and total zinc (65.0 percent).

  4. Pollutant removal efficacy of three wet detention ponds.

    PubMed

    Mallin, Michael A; Ensign, Scott H; Wheeler, Tracey L; Mayes, David B

    2002-01-01

    Monthly inflow and outflow data were collected from three wet detention ponds in Wilmington, North Carolina, for a 29-mo period. Two ponds drained urban areas consisting primarily of residential, mixed services, and retail usage, while the third mainly drained residential and golf course areas. One of the urban ponds achieved significant reductions in total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, and fecal coliform bacterial counts. This pond was characterized by a high length to width ratio, with most inputs directed into the upper area, and extensive coverage by a diverse community of aquatic macrophyte vegetation. The second urban pond achieved significant reductions in turbidity and fecal coliform bacterial counts, but there were no significant differences between inflowing and outflowing water nutrient concentrations. There were substantial suburban runoff inputs entering the mid- and lower-pond areas that short-circuited pollutant removal contact time. The golf course pond showed significant increases in nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate in the outflow relative to the inflow, probably as a result of course fertilization. However, nutrient concentrations in the outflow water were low compared with discharges from a selection of other area golf courses, possibly a result of the outflow passing through a wooded wetland following pond discharge. To achieve good reduction in a variety of pollutants, wet pond design should include maximizing the contact time of inflowing water with rooted vegetation and organic sediments. This can be achieved through a physical pond design that provides a high length to width ratio, and planting of native macrophyte species.

  5. Geochemistry and toxicity of sediment porewater in a salt-impacted urban stormwater detention pond.

    PubMed

    Mayer, T; Rochfort, Q; Borgmann, U; Snodgrass, W

    2008-11-01

    A comprehensive study was carried out to investigate the impacts of road salts on the benthic compartment of a small urban detention facility, Rouge River Pond. Although the pond is an engineered water body, it is representative of many small urban lakes, ponds and wetlands, which receive road runoff and are probable high impact areas. Specific objectives of the study were to document the porewater chemistry of an aquatic system affected by elevated salt concentrations and to carry out a toxicological assessment of sediment porewater to determine what factors may cause porewater toxicity. The results indicate that the sediment porewater may itself attain high salt concentrations. The computations show that increased chloride levels have important implications on the Cd complexation, augmenting its concentration in porewater. The toxicity tests suggest that the toxicity in porewater is caused by metals or other toxic chemicals, rather than high levels of chloride.

  6. Implementation of reactive and predictive real-time control strategies to optimize dry stormwater detention ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaborit, Étienne; Anctil, François; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Pelletier, Geneviève

    2013-04-01

    Dry detention ponds have been widely implemented in U.S.A (National Research Council, 1993) and Canada (Shammaa et al. 2002) to mitigate the impacts of urban runoff on receiving water bodies. The aim of such structures is to allow a temporary retention of the water during rainfall events, decreasing runoff velocities and volumes (by infiltration in the pond) as well as providing some water quality improvement from sedimentation. The management of dry detention ponds currently relies on static control through a fixed pre-designed limitation of their maximum outflow (Middleton and Barrett 2008), for example via a proper choice of their outlet pipe diameter. Because these ponds are designed for large storms, typically 1- or 2-hour duration rainfall events with return periods comprised between 5 and 100 years, one of their main drawbacks is that they generally offer almost no retention for smaller rainfall events (Middleton and Barrett 2008), which are by definition much more common. Real-Time Control (RTC) has a high potential for optimizing retention time (Marsalek 2005) because it allows adopting operating strategies that are flexible and hence more suitable to the prevailing fluctuating conditions than static control. For dry ponds, this would basically imply adapting the outlet opening percentage to maximize water retention time, while being able to open it completely for severe storms. This study developed several enhanced RTC scenarios of a dry detention pond located at the outlet of a small urban catchment near Québec City, Canada, following the previous work of Muschalla et al. (2009). The catchment's runoff quantity and TSS concentration were simulated by a SWMM5 model with an improved wash-off formulation. The control procedures rely on rainfall detection and measures of the pond's water height for the reactive schemes, and on rainfall forecasts in addition to these variables for the predictive schemes. The automatic reactive control schemes implemented

  7. Effects of detention on water quality of two stormwater detention ponds receiving highway surface runoff in Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampson, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    Water and sediment samples were analyzed for major chemical constituents, nutrients, and heavy metals following ten storm events at two stormwater detention ponds that receive highway surface runoff in the Jacksonville, Florida, metropolitan area. The purpose of the sampling program was to detect changes in constituent concentration with time of detention within the pond system. Statistical inference of a relation with total rainfall was found in the initial concentrations of 11 constituents and with antecedent dry period for the initial concentrations of 3 constituents. Based on graphical examination and factor analysis , constituent behavior with time could be grouped into five relatively independent processes for one of the ponds. The processes were (1) interaction with shallow groundwater systems, (2) solubilization of bottom materials, (3) nutrient uptake, (4) seasonal changes in precipitation, and (5) sedimentation. Most of the observed water-quality changes in the ponds were virtually complete within 3 days following the storm event. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Fast eutrophication assessment for stormwater wet detention ponds via fuzzy probit regression analysis under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Tahsin, Subrina; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2016-02-01

    Stormwater wet detention ponds have been a commonly employed best management practice for stormwater management throughout the world for many years. In the past, the trophic state index values have been used to evaluate seasonal changes in water quality and rank lakes within a region or between several regions; yet, to date, there is no similar index for stormwater wet detention ponds. This study aimed to develop a new multivariate trophic state index (MTSI) suitable for conducting a rapid eutrophication assessment of stormwater wet detention ponds under uncertainty with respect to three typical physical and chemical properties. Six stormwater wet detention ponds in Florida were selected for demonstration of the new MTSI with respect to total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and Secchi disk depth (SDD) as cognitive assessment metrics to sense eutrophication potential collectively and inform the environmental impact holistically. Due to the involvement of multiple endogenous variables (i.e., TN, TP, and SDD) for the eutrophication assessment simultaneously under uncertainty, fuzzy synthetic evaluation was applied to first standardize and synchronize the sources of uncertainty in the decision analysis. The ordered probit regression model was then formulated for assessment based on the concept of MTSI with the inputs from the fuzzy synthetic evaluation. It is indicative that the severe eutrophication condition is present during fall, which might be due to frequent heavy summer storm events contributing to high-nutrient inputs in these six ponds.

  9. Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater wet detention ponds.

    PubMed

    Istenic, Darja; Arias, Carlos A; Matamoros, Víctor; Vollertsen, Jess; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded with sand filters and other means to improve the removal of micropollutants. The concentrations of sigmaPAH in the sediments varied between 6 +/- 5 and 2,222 +/- 603 ng g(-1) dry weight (mean +/- standard deviation), and were highest in the ponds with lower pond volume per catchment area and did not clearly reflect different activities in the catchments. In general, the concentrations of PAHS in the sediments decreased from inlet to outlet, especially in the systems with good conditions for sedimentation such as systems with flow perpendicular sand dikes and extensive submerged vegetation. High molecular weight PAHs were predominant in the sediments indicating the pyrogenic origin of the PAHS. There was no correlation between PAH species concentrations in water or sediments and their hydrophobicity (log K(ow)). PAH concentrations in water fluctuated in response to intensity and frequency of rain events, whereas concentrations in the sediments integrated the pollutant load over time. Pond systems expanded with sand filters and other technologies to enhance removal of micropollutants consistently had concentrations of PAHS in the effluents below the detection level.

  10. Water quality of an urban wet detention pond in Madison, Wisconsin, 1987-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, L.B.; Waschbusch, R.J.; Hughes, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    A 5,670-sq m wet detention pond was monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey to determine its effect on the water quality of urban runoff. The pond has a drainage area of 0.96-sq km, composed primarily of single-family residential land use. Event-mean concentrations (EMC) were determined from samples collected for sediment, nutrients, and selected metals at the pond's inflow and outflow sites. EMC samples were collected for 64 runoff events during the study period from February 1987 to April 1988. Storm precipitation ranged from 1 to 51 mm during these events. Inflow and outflow EMC and constituent loads were compared to determine the trap efficiency of the pond. Trap efficiency varied considerably among water-quality constituents. In general, the detention pond decreased the EMC of sampled constituents at the outlet compared to the inlet. The median decrease in EMC for suspended solids was 88 percent, 60 percent for total chemical oxygen demand (COD), 43 percent for total phosphorus, 38 percent for total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 65 percent for total nitrite plus nitrate, and 71 percent for total lead. A notable exception to the general decrease in EMC is for chloride. The EMC for chloride was generally higher in outflow from the pond than in the inflow. This is attributed to an unmonitored influx of chloride to the pond during the winter that subsequently was flushed out during monitored runoff events. The total study-period loads of most constituents were less leaving the pond than the loads entering it. This decrease is attributed to the constituents transported on suspended sediment being deposited in the pond. The decrease in total load of suspended solids was 88 percent, 62 percent for total COD, 58 percent for total phosphorus, 46 percent for total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 62 percent for total nitrite plus nitrate, 97 percent for total copper, and 93 percent for total lead. (USGS)

  11. 3D modelling of transport, deposition and resuspension of highway deposited sediments in wet detention ponds.

    PubMed

    Bentzen, T R

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results from an experimental and numerical study of flows and transport of primarily particle bound pollutants in highway wet detention ponds. The study presented here is part of a general investigation on road runoff and pollution in respect to wet detention ponds. The objective is to evaluate the quality of long term simulation based on historical rains series of the pollutant discharges from roads and highways. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and mud transport model is used for the investigation. The transport model has been calibrated and validated on e.g. experiments in a 30 m long concrete channel with width of 0.8 m and a water depth of approximately 0.8 m and in circular flume experiments in order to reproduce near-bed specific processes such as resuspension and consolidation. With a fairly good agreement with measurements, modelling of hydrodynamics, transport of dissolved pollutants and particles in wet detention ponds is possible with application of a three dimensional RANS model and the advection/dispersion equation taken physical phenomena like wind, waves, deposition, erosion and consolidation of the bottom sediment into account.

  12. The Legacy Ecosystem Management Framework: From Theory to Application in the Detention Pond Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Coty, J; Stevenson, M; Vogt, K A

    2002-02-01

    The Detention Pond is a constructed and lined storm water treatment basin at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that serves multiple stakeholder objectives and programmatic goals. This paper examines the process and outcome involved in the development of a new management plan for the Detention Pond. The plan was created using a new ecosystem management tool, the Legacy Framework. This stakeholder-driven conceptual framework provides an interdisciplinary methodology for determining ecosystem health, appropriate management strategies, and sensitive indicators. The conceptual framework, the Detention Ponds project, and the use of the framework in the context of the project, are described and evaluated, and evaluative criteria for this and other ecosystem management frameworks are offered. The project benefited in several ways from use of the Legacy Framework, although refinements to the framework are suggested. The stakeholder process created a context and environment in which team members became receptive to using an ecosystem management approach to evaluate and support management alternatives previously not considered. This allowed for the unanimous agreement to pursue support from upper management and organizational funding to implement a progressive management strategy. The greatly improved stakeholder relations resulted in upper management support for the project.

  13. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and bottom sediment at three stormwater detention ponds, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario; Hutchinson, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of three detention ponds in Pinellas County, Florida indicated little potential for chemical contamination of surficial-aquifer ground water; however, concentrations of contami- nants in some sediments are sufficient to indicate possible hazardous levels of bioconcentration in benthic organisms. The general direction of ground- water movement at three pond sites indicates that the ponds are ground-water discharge points. Shallow ground water tends to move laterally toward these ponds, which have surface outflow, instead of from the ponds into the aquifer. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from a 1-year-old pond were collected and analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The concentrations were either near or below analytical detection limits. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from the other two ponds, 20- and 30-years old, respectively, also were analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The water quality of these older ponds was not significantly different from that of the 1-year-old pond. However, bottom sediments in the 20- and 30-year-old ponds contained 16 and 23 organic compounds, respectively. None of the organic compounds were in sufficient concentrations to cause concern about their chronic effects on aquatic life. Concentrations of dichlordiphenyl-trichlorethane, dieldrin, and heptachlor were above the hazardous level with respect to bioconcentration in the food chain.

  14. Development of baseline water quality stormwater detention pond model for Chesapeake Bay catchments

    SciTech Connect

    Musico, W.J.; Yoon, J.

    1999-07-01

    An environmental impact assessment is required for every proposed development in the Commonwealth of Virginia to help identify areas of potential concerns. The purpose of the Chesapeake Bay Local Assistance Department (CBLAD), Guidance Calculation Procedures is to ensure that development of previously constructed areas do not further exacerbate current problems of stormwater-induced eutrophication and downstream flooding. The methodology is based on the post development conditions that will not generate greater peak flows and will result in a 10% overall reduction of total phosphorus. Currently, several well-known models can develop hydrographs and pollutographs that accurately model the real response of a given watershed to any given rainfall event. However, conventional method of achieving the desired peak flow reduction and pollutant removal is not a deterministic procedure, and is inherently a trail and error process. A method of quickly and accurately determining the required size of stormwater easements was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative stormwater collection and treatment systems. In this method, predevelopment conditions were modeled first to estimate the peak flows and subsequent pollutants generation that can be used as a baseline for post development plan. Resulting stormwater easement estimates facilitate decision-making processes during the planning and development phase of a project. The design can be optimized for the minimum cost or the smallest-possible pond size required for peak flow reduction and detention time given the most basic data such as: inflow hydrograph and maximum allowable pond depth.

  15. Efficiency of a stormwater detention pond in reducing loads of chemical and physical constituents in urban streamflow, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrowitz, I.H.; Woodham, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    A multipurpose wet stormwater detention pond in Pinellas Park, Florida was studied to determine its effectiveness in reducing the load of selected water-quality constituents commonly found in urban streamflow. Water-quality samples, and data on streamflow and precipitation were collected at the outflow and principal inflow of detention area 3 on Saint Joe Creek. To compare the constituent loads entering and leaving the detention pond, flows and water quality were monitored simultaneously at the inflow and outflow sites for six storms, and were monitored intermittently during periods of base flow. Lodas od 19 selected chemical and physical constituents were determined. Because all the stormwater entering the detention pond was not measured at the inflow site, computed stormwater inflow loads were adjusted to account for loads from the unmonitored areas. The ratio of storm- water volume measured at the outflow site to stormwater volume measured at the inflow site was used to adjust inflow loads for individual storms. Pond efficiencies for selected water- quality constituents for each of the storms were estimated by dividing the difference in outflow and adjusted inflow loads by the adjusted inflow load. Stormwater loads of the major ions (chloride, calcium and bicarbonate) and dissolved solids at the outflow site exceeded loads at the inflow site, partly as a result of mixing with base flow stored within the pond. However, the detention pond was effective in reducing the stormwater load of such urban-runoff contaminants as metals, nutrients, suspended solids, and biochemical and chemical oxygen demand. Estimated median pond efficiencies for reducing constituent loads ranged from 25 to more than 60 percent for metals, 2 to 52 percent for nutrients, 2 to 52 percent for nutrients, 7 to 11 percent for two measurements of suspended solids, and 16 to 49 percent for the oxygen- consuming substances. The reductions of constituent loads in stormwater are probably a result of

  16. The effects of flow-path modification on water-quality constituent retention in an urban stormwater detention pond and wetland system, Orlando, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gain, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in constituent retention in a wet stormwater-detention pond and wetland system in Orlando, Florida, were evaluated following the 1988 installation of a flow barrier which approximately doubled the flow path and increased detention time in the pond. The pond and wetland were arranged in series so that stormwater first enters the pond and overflows into the wetland before spilling over to the regional stream system. Several principal factors that contribute to constituent retention were examined, including changes in pond-water quality between storms, stormwater quality, and pond-water flushing during storms. A simple, analytical pond-water mixing model was used as the basis for interpreting changes in retention efficiencies caused by pond modification. Retention efficiencies were calculated by a modified event-mean concentration efficiency method using a minimum variance unbiased estimator approach. The results of this study generally support the hypothesis that changes in the geometry of stormwater treatment systems can significantly affect the constituent retention efficiency of the pond and wetland system. However, the results also indicate that these changes in efficiency are caused not only by changes in residence time, but also by changes in stormwater mixing and pond water flushing during storms. Additionally, the use of average efficiencies as indications of treatment effectiveness may fail to account for biases associated with sample distribution and independent physical properties of the system, such as the range and concentrations of constituents in stormwater inflows and stormwater volume. Changes in retention efficiencies varied among chemical constituents and were significantly different in the pond and wetland. Retention efficiency was related to inflow concentration for most constituents. Increased flushing of the pond after modification caused decreases in retention efficiencies for constituents that concentrate in the pond between storms

  17. Monitoring the startup of a wet detention pond equipped with sand filters and sorption filters.

    PubMed

    Vollertsen, J; Lange, K H; Pedersen, J; Hallager, P; Bruus, A; Laustsen, A; Bundesen, V W; Brix, H; Nielsen, A H; Nielsen, N H; Wium-Andersen, T; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T

    2009-01-01

    The startup of a wet retention pond designed for extended stormwater treatment was monitored by more than one year of continual measurement of hydraulic parameters, nutrients and quality parameters in the pond itself (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity). The data revealed that photosynthesis played an important role for dissolved oxygen and pH for most of the year. Another important observation was that the pond behaved more like a completely mixed reactor than like a plug flow reactor--even though the length to width ratio was as high as 4.5:1. The pond was equipped with sand filters and sorption filters whereby very good nutrient removal efficiencies were achieved.

  18. Screening-level ecological and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater detention pond sediments of Coastal South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, John E; Crawford, Kevin D; Garner, Thomas R; Flemming, Alan J

    2010-06-15

    Screening-level ecological and human health assessments were performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of 19 stormwater detention ponds located in coastal South Carolina. For ecological screening benchmarks, we used threshold and probable effect concentrations (TEC and PEC) derived from consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for individual PAH analytes and equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmarks-toxic units (SigmaESB-TU) derived for PAH mixtures. For human health benchmarks, we used preliminary remediation goals (PRGs). Sediments of five stormwater ponds (four commercial ponds and one residential pond with a large drainage area) exceeded PEC values for several PAH analytes and the SigmaESB-TU safe value of 1 for PAH mixtures. These same five stormwater ponds also exceeded the PRG values for five carcinogenic PAH analytes. These results suggest that the PAH levels in sediments from certain commercial and residential ponds have the potential to pose moderate to high risks for adverse, chronic effects to benthic organisms in situ and an increased risk of cancer to humans ex situ following excavation and on-site disposal. We recommend that sediment from these stormwater ponds be tested prior to excavation to determine the appropriate method of disposal. We also recommend that regulatory agencies enforce guidelines for periodic sediment removal as this should reduce both in situ and ex situ risks resulting from sediment PAH exposure.

  19. Trapping carbon in small ponds and wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, J. N.; Ockenden, M. C.; Deasy, C.; Favaretto, N.

    2012-04-01

    There is no doubt that carbon (C) is on the move. Recent estimates have suggested that the global sediment flux in agricultural landscapes due to water and tillage erosion is 35±10 Pg C y-1. Some of this C is oxidised and lost to the atmosphere, other material may be deposited and burried in colluvium and some may be delivered through both surface and subsurface flow paths to surface waters. In many agricultural landscapes these surface waters may take the form of small ponds and wetlands (field wetlands). In this paper we explore the potential of field wetlands to trap particulate C and influence the fate of dissolved organic carbon within the context of a small agricultural catchments in England. Since 2008 the mitigation options for phosphorus and sediment project (MOPS) has established ten monitored field wetlands across three catchments in the UK at Crake Trees, Cumbria (silt soils, rainfall 1500 mm y-1), Whinton Hill Cumbria (sandy soils, rainfall 1200 mm y-1), Newton Rigg, Cumbria (Silt soils, rainfall c1200 mm y-1) and Loddington, Leicestershire (Clay soils, rainfall 650 mm y-1). Although originally designed to capture sediment and phosphorus, their potential for influencing catchment scale C dynamics is becoming apparent. The C contents of sediments from the three catchments are typically in the range of 1.8 - 3.0% at Crake Trees Catchment, 2.5 to 9% at Whinton Hill and 2.0 to 3.1 % at Crake Trees. At the high rainfall sites the wetlands trap upwards of 20 t y-1 of sediment equating to several hundred kilograms of C. There is also some evidence that the ponds and wetlands may influence DOC, with DOC concentrations falling from approximately 35 mg l-1 to 15 mg l-1 at the Whinton Hill site as water passes through a series of field wetlands. In this paper we will present data from the last two years of monitoring and consider the wider implications for C sequestration by ponds and wetlands in agricultural landscapes.

  20. Treatment efficiency of a wet detention pond combined with filters of crushed concrete and sand: a Danish full-scale study of stormwater.

    PubMed

    Sønderup, Melanie J; Egemose, Sara; Bochdam, Timm; Flindt, Mogens R

    2015-12-01

    Traditional wet detention ponds and sand filters remove particles efficiently, whereas only a minor part of the dissolved and bioavailable load is removed. To improve the retention of dissolved substances, we tested crushed concrete as a filter material simultaneously with a traditional sand filter placed after an existing wet pond. The particulate fractions (particles, organic matter, phosphorus, and heavy metals) were removed efficiently in the pond and both filter materials, with the concrete filter often being best seen over a year. Dissolved heavy metals (lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd)) were largely retained, though a washout was observed from the pond (Ni and Cu), concrete filter (Cr), and sand filter (Ni) during the first month. The pond only retained total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) during summer. Crushed concrete and sand had a high (>70%) retention of TDP within the first months of operation, but the retention dropped in both filters due to a large oil load into the system (4 kg impermeable ha(-1) in 1 month). The poor retention might to some degree be due to mineralization processes turning particulate phosphorus (PP) into TDP. The massive oil load was retained efficiently (99.3%) in the pond and both filters, clearly illustrating that both filter materials were able to retain either oil or TDP. An additional pilot study showed that at residence times of 1 h, crushed concrete bound 90% TDP whereas sand only bound 22% TDP. Retention of TDP and PP decreased with shorter residence time in both materials, but fastest in sand.

  1. Greenhouse Gas Exchange in Small Arctic Thaw Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurion, I.; Bégin, P. N.; Bouchard, F.; Preskienis, V.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic lakes and ponds can represent up to one quarter of the land surface in permafrost landscapes, particularly in lowland tundra landscapes characterized by ice wedge organic polygons. Thaw ponds can be defined as the aquatic ecosystems associated to thawing of organic soils, either resulting from active layer processes and located above low-center peat polygons (hereafter low-center polygonal or LCP ponds), or resulting from thermokarst slumping above melting ice wedges linked to the accelerated degradation of permafrost (hereafter ice-wedge trough or IWT ponds). These ponds can merge together forming larger water bodies, but with relatively stable shores (hereafter merged polygonal or MPG ponds), and with limnological characteristics similar to LCP ponds. These aquatic systems are very small and shallow, and present a different physical structure than the larger thermokarst lakes, generated after years of development and land subsidence. In a glacier valley on Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, thermokarst and kettle lakes together represent 29% of the aquatic area, with a thermal profile resembling those of more standard arctic lakes (mixed epilimnion). The IWT ponds (44% of the area) are stratified for a large fraction of the summer despite their shallowness, while LCP and MPG ponds (27% of the area) show a more homogeneous water column. This will affect gas exchange in these diverse aquatic systems, in addition to their unique microbiota and organic carbon lability that control the production and consumption rates of greenhouse gases. The stratification in IWT ponds generates hypoxic conditions at the bottom, and together with the larger availability of organic carbon, stimulates methanogenesis and limits the mitigating action of methanotrophs. Overall, thaw ponds are largely supersaturated in methane, with IWT ponds dominating the emissions in this landscape (92% of total aquatic emissions estimated for the same valley), and they present large variations in

  2. A holistic water depth simulation model for small ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shakir; Ghosh, Narayan C.; Mishra, P. K.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-10-01

    Estimation of time varying water depth and time to empty of a pond is prerequisite for comprehensive and coordinated planning of water resource for its effective utilization. A holistic water depth simulation (HWDS) and time to empty (TE) model for small, shallow ephemeral ponds have been derived by employing the generalized model based on the Green-Ampt equation in the basic water balance equation. The HWDS model includes time varying rainfall, runoff, surface water evaporation, outflow and advancement of wetting front length as external inputs. The TE model includes two external inputs; surface water evaporation and advancement of wetting front length. Both the models also consider saturated hydraulic conductivity and fillable porosity of the pond's bed material as their parameters. The solution of the HWDS model involved numerical iteration in successive time intervals. The HWDS model has successfully evaluated with 3 years of field data from two small ponds located within a watershed in a semi-arid region in western India. The HWDS model simulated time varying water depth in the ponds with high accuracy as shown by correlation coefficient (R2 ⩾ 0.9765), index of agreement (d ⩾ 0.9878), root mean square errors (RMSE ⩽ 0.20 m) and percent bias (PB ⩽ 6.23%) for the pooled data sets of the measured and simulated water depth. The statistical F and t-tests also confirmed the reliability of the HWDS model at probability level, p ⩽ 0.0001. The response of the TE model showed its ability to estimate the time to empty the ponds. An additional field calibration and validation of the HWDS and TE models with observed field data in varied hydro-climatic conditions could be conducted to increase the applicability and credibility of the models.

  3. Small zebrafish in a big chemical pond.

    PubMed

    Helenius, I Taneli; Yeh, J-R Joanna

    2012-07-01

    The number of possible small organic molecules of different structure is virtually limitless. One of the main goals of chemical biologists is to identify, from this "chemical space", entities that affect biological processes or systems in a specific manner. This can lead to a better understanding of the regulation and components of various biological machineries, as well as provide insights into efficacious therapeutic targets and drug candidates. However, the challenges confronting chemical biologists are multiple. How do we efficiently identify compounds that possess desirable activities without unwanted off-target effects? Once a candidate compound has been found, how do we determine its mode of action? In this Prospects piece, we call attention to recent studies using embryonic and larval zebrafish to illustrate the breadth and depth of questions in chemical biology that may be addressed using this model, and hope that they can serve as catalysts for future investigational ideas.

  4. Agricultural runoff pollution control by a grassed swales coupled with wetland detention ponds system: a case study in Taihu Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhui; Zhao, Yaqian; Zhao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    The performance of a field grassed swales (GSs) coupled with wetland detention ponds (WDPs) system was monitored under four typical rainfall events to assess its effectiveness on agricultural runoff pollution control in Taihu Basin, China. The results indicated that suspended solids (SS) derived from the flush process has significant influence on pollution loads in agricultural runoff. Determination of first flush effect (FFE) indicated that total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) exhibited moderate FFE, while chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) showed weak FFE. Average removal efficiencies of 83.5 ± 4.5, 65.3 ± 6.8, 91.6 ± 3.8, and 81.3 ± 5.8 % for TSS, COD, TN, and TP were achieved, respectively. The GSs played an important role in removing TSS and TP and acted as a pre-treatment process to prevent clogging of the subsequent WDPs. Particle size distributions (PSDs) analysis indicated that coarse particles larger than 75 μm accounted for 80 % by weight of the total particles in the runoff. GSs can effectively reduce coarse particles (≥75 μm) in runoff, while its removal efficiency for fine particles (<75 μm) was low, even minus results being recorded, especially for particles smaller than 25 μm. The length of GSs is a key factor in its performance. The WDPs can remove particles of all sizes by sedimentation. In addition, WDPs can improve water quality due to their buffering and dilution capacity during rainfall as well as their water purification ability during dry periods. Overall, the ecological system of GSs coupled with WDPs is an effective system for agricultural runoff pollution control.

  5. Waste Stabilization Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koundakjian, Philip

    This self-paced course contains reading assignments from a waste stabilization ponds operating manual, supportive text, example problems, and review questions, and a final examination. The course covers calculation of pond surface area, pond volume, organic load, detention time, drawdown, storage capacity, efficiency, and discharge. In addition,…

  6. Production ecology of invertebrates in small experimental ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Franco, P.J.; Goyert, J.C.; Lesslie, P.A.

    1986-07-01

    Production of invertebrates is estimated for a series of small experimental ponds in Tennessee. Annual dry weight production of predator insects is about 4.5 g/m/sup 2/ and of herbivore-detritivore insects about 3.8 g/m/sup 2/; insects whose trophic position could not be classified account for an annual dry weight production of about 0.3 g/m/sup 2/. Annual dry weight production of zooplankton is about 14.5 t/m/sup 2/, of annelids 25.4 g/m/sup 2/ and of snails 3.1 g/m/sup 2/. The data are consistent with published information that the predator insects probably depend on a variety of energy sources to support their estimated production rate.

  7. Hydrologic modeling of detention pond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urban watersheds produce an instantaneous response to rainfall. That results in stormwater runoff in excess of the capacity of drainage systems. The excess stormwater must be managed to prevent flooding and erosion of streams. Management can be achieved with the help of structural stormwater Best...

  8. Economics in Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elonge, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Economics in Detention is a University of Maryland Extension program that teaches inmates essential principles of economics as a foundation to a spectrum of decision making. Also, the program includes an emphasis on starting a small business after incarceration. The idea of this program emanates from an invitation by the Baltimore City Detention…

  9. Methane production in sediments of small tundra ponds during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrae, M. L.; Fishback, L.; Bourbonniere, R. A.; Duguay, C. R.; Soliman, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Shallow tundra ponds in the Churchill region of the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) store large quantities of organic material in the form of sediments. Organic sediments in ponds and wetlands have been identified as a source of atmospheric methane (CH4) during the summer season in many landscapes. However, less is known about CH4 production and emission during the winter months, following the formation of an ice layer on the water surface. Unfrozen sediments may continue to produce methane (CH4) during this time, which may become trapped in the ponds beneath the ice layer. This occurrence has been identified in some regions through the sampling and analysis of CH4 bubbles frozen in lake ice. The goal of this project is to examine the potential for the production and trapping of CH4 in ponds beneath the pond ice (water/ice and sediment profiles) in the Churchill region of the HBL. Thermistor and gas sampling arrays were installed in the water and sediments of two ponds. Gas samples were collected at 1-4 week intervals at the sediment-water interface and at 0-15cm and 20-35 cm depth. Results show that sediments are indeed thawed for 3-4 months of the winter season, and deeper sediments remain within the range of 0 to -5 C whereas shallow sediment temperatures ranged between 10 and -10 C over an annual cycle. Laboratory experiments showed that little difference in CH4 production was observed at sediment temperatures between -2 and 5 C, whereas production was very low at -10 C. No significant differences in CH4 production rates were observed for different sediment depths in the laboratory. Field data collected between August 2010 and June 2011 showed consistent accumulation of CH4 in sediments following the formation of an ice layer on pond surfaces. However, CH4 concentrations in gas samplers decreased in February through April after sediments were frozen, but began to increase again (May-June) as sediments thawed and began to warm. Future work will include the examination

  10. Distribution of trematodes in snails in ponds at integrated small-scale aquaculture farms.

    PubMed

    Boerlage, Annette S; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Verreth, Johan A; de Jong, Mart C M

    2013-03-01

    In integrated small-scale aquaculture farming, animal and human excreta maybe used as fish feed and pond fertilizer, thereby enhancing transmission of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) from final hosts, like humans, pigs and chickens, to snails. Areas within a pond could vary in trematode egg-load due to the immediate bordering land, and this might provide implications for control of these trematodes or sampling in field studies measuring FZT prevalence in snails. We therefore estimated the effect of bordering land use on prevalence and FZT burden in snails in different areas within small-scale aquaculture ponds. Nine sampling areas within a pond were assigned in six ponds. For each sampling area, about 120 Melanoides tuberculata snails were collected. Based on land use bordering a sampling area, these were categorized in 5 risk-categories: low-risk (road, rice planted in pond, agriculture, or middle of pond), human access point to pond, livestock sty (pigs or poultry), both human access point and livestock sty, and water connection to canal. In total, 5392 snails were collected. Percentages of snails with parapleurolophocercous cercariae varied between 6% in areas categorized as low-risk and areas with livestock sty only to 15% in areas with both human access point and livestock sty; only this 15% was significantly different from the prevalence in the low-risk category. Percentages of snails with xiphidio cercariae did not differ between risk-categories and varied between 5% and 10%. Mean snail size was 15.2mm, and was significantly associated with both the probability of infection as well as parasite burden. Very small differences in parasite burden were found at different land use areas; the maximum difference was about 11 cercariae. This study demonstrated only small differences between areas surrounding a pond on risk of snails to be infected with fish-borne trematodes within different pond areas. In field studies on FZTs in M. tuberculata snails in ponds

  11. Could high salinity be used to control bullfrogs in small ponds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Finch, Colton; Blasius, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    We examined survival of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) eggs and tadpoles at 3 ppt and 6 ppt salinity in the laboratory to determine if low-level salinity could be used to eradicate bullfrogs from small ponds that contain native fishes. Bullfrog eggs and tadpoles <10 days old experienced 100% mortality when held at 6 ppt salinity for 10 days. Bullfrog tadpoles 10–15 days old experienced significantly reduced survival when exposed to salinity of 6 ppt for 10 days. Older bullfrog tadpoles (>9 months old) appeared unaffected by 14 days of 6 ppt salinity. Salinity of 3 ppt did not impact survival of bullfrog tadpole eggs or tadpoles at any of the life stages we tested. Adding salt to ponds in the early spring to increase salinity to 6 ppt may be a cost effective way to eradicate bullfrogs from small ponds without harming native fishes.

  12. 78 FR 15017 - Guidance for Industry: What You Need To Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: What You Need To Know About... availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``What You Need to Know About Administrative Detention of... Act of 1996 (SBREFA). The title of the October 2011 guidance was ``What You Need to Know...

  13. Impact of Herbivory and Plant Competition on the Growth of Hydrilla in Small Ponds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-08 February 2007 Impact of Herbivory and Plant Competition on the Growth of Hydrilla in Small Ponds by Michael J...the Gulf and Atlantic coastal states, the western states of Arizona and California, Tennessee, and recently Arkansas (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS...the Asian leaf- mining fly (Hydrellia pakistanae). The larval life stages (three-instars) damage the plant by penetrating, mining and destroying

  14. Improving microalgal growth with small bubbles in a raceway pond with swing gas aerators.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zongbo; Cheng, Jun; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-09-01

    A novel swing gas aerator was developed to generate small bubbles for improving the mass transfer coefficient and microalgal growth rate in a raceway pond. A high-speed photography system (HSP) was used to measure the bubble diameter and generation time, and online precise dissolved oxygen probes and pH probes were used to measure the mass transfer coefficient and mixing time. Bubble generation time and diameter decreased by 21% and 9%, respectively, when rubber gas aerators were swung in the microalgae solution. When water pump power and gas aeration rate increased in a raceway pond with swing gas aerators and oscillating baffles (SGAOB), bubble generation time and diameter decreased but solution velocity and mass transfer coefficient increased. The mass transfer coefficient increased by 25% and the solution velocity increased by 11% when SGAOB was used, and the microalgal biomass yield increased by 18%.

  15. Identifying small depressional wetlands and using a topographic position index to infer hydroperiod regimes for pond-breeding amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Jeffrey W.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Barichivich, William J.; Walls, Susan C.

    2017-01-01

    Small, seasonal pools and temporary ponds (<4.0 ha) are the most numerous and biologically diverse wetlands in many natural landscapes. Thus, accurate determination of their numbers and spatial characteristics is beneficial for conservation and management of biodiversity associated with these freshwater systems. We examined the utility of a topographic position index (TPI) landscape classification to identify and classify depressional wetlands. We also assessed relationships between topographic characteristics and ponded duration of known wetlands to allow hydrological characteristics to be extended to non-monitored locations in similar landscapes. Our results indicate that this approach was successful at identifying wetlands, but did have higher errors of commission (10%) than omission (5%). Additionally, the TPI procedure provided a reasonable means to correlate general ponded duration characteristics (long/short) with wetland topography. Although results varied by hydrologic class, permanent/long ponded duration wetlands were more often classified correctly (80%) than were short ponded duration wetlands (67%). However, classification results were improved to 100 and 75% for permanent/long and short ponded duration wetlands, respectively, by removing wetlands occurring on an abrupt marine terrace that erroneously inflated pond topographic characteristics. Our study presents an approach for evaluating wetland suitability for species or guilds that are associated with key habitat characteristics, such as hydroperiod.

  16. Fate and biological effects of polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate and homologs) in small artificial ponds.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, F; Jaeger, K; Sporenberg, W

    1996-03-01

    The effects from a simulated accidental pollution event in a pond with polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate and homologs) on different trophic levels of the aquatic ecosystem were investigated in small artificial ponds. Three 4.5-m3 volume ponds, interconnected with closable locks, were provided with natural lake sediment and ground water. Caged fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) were added to each pond, and the interconnecting locks were kept open to establish nearly identical physicochemical and biological conditions. At this stage, the ponds were isolated from one another and MDI was added at a dosage of 1 g/liter on top of the sediment of treated part of the first pond, 10 g/liter to the second pond, and 0 g/liter to the third pond (untreated control). Neither the applied monomer MDI nor its potential reaction product MDA (4,4'-diphenylmethanediamine) was detected in water or accumulated by fish. The MDI polymerized to inert polyurea on the sediment of the test ponds. This polymerization formed carbon dioxide, released as bubbles which floated to the water surface. Some carbon dioxide was solubilized in water and reduced the water pH of about 9 by 2.0 units as an average in the high-dosed pond and 0.7 in the low-dosed pond. This reduction caused some other minor changes in the physicochemical characteristics of the pond water. Neither application rate caused any direct effect on the pelagic community (phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, macrophytes) of the test ponds. Some minor indirect effects caused by the production of carbon dioxide were observed in phyto- and zooplankton community structures. Also, an increase of macrophyte growth was noted. Organisms living in the untreated part of the sediment (macrobenthos) were affected as a result of physical obstructions in this habitat. These populations, however, regained densities equivalent to the control after some weeks, except for Bivalvia which have too long of a generation time for the test

  17. Nogales flood detention study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  18. Small thaw ponds: an unaccounted source of methane in the Canadian high Arctic.

    PubMed

    Negandhi, Karita; Laurion, Isabelle; Whiticar, Michael J; Galand, Pierre E; Xu, Xiaomei; Lovejoy, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Thawing permafrost in the Canadian Arctic tundra leads to peat erosion and slumping in narrow and shallow runnel ponds that surround more commonly studied polygonal ponds. Here we compared the methane production between runnel and polygonal ponds using stable isotope ratios, ¹⁴C signatures, and investigated potential methanogenic communities through high-throughput sequencing archaeal 16S rRNA genes. We found that runnel ponds had significantly higher methane and carbon dioxide emissions, produced from a slightly larger fraction of old carbon, compared to polygonal ponds. The methane stable isotopic signature indicated production through acetoclastic methanogenesis, but gene signatures from acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea were detected in both polygonal and runnel ponds. We conclude that runnel ponds represent a source of methane from potentially older C, and that they contain methanogenic communities able to use diverse sources of carbon, increasing the risk of augmented methane release under a warmer climate.

  19. Small Thaw Ponds: An Unaccounted Source of Methane in the Canadian High Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Negandhi, Karita; Laurion, Isabelle; Whiticar, Michael J.; Galand, Pierre E.; Xu, Xiaomei; Lovejoy, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Thawing permafrost in the Canadian Arctic tundra leads to peat erosion and slumping in narrow and shallow runnel ponds that surround more commonly studied polygonal ponds. Here we compared the methane production between runnel and polygonal ponds using stable isotope ratios, 14C signatures, and investigated potential methanogenic communities through high-throughput sequencing archaeal 16S rRNA genes. We found that runnel ponds had significantly higher methane and carbon dioxide emissions, produced from a slightly larger fraction of old carbon, compared to polygonal ponds. The methane stable isotopic signature indicated production through acetoclastic methanogenesis, but gene signatures from acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea were detected in both polygonal and runnel ponds. We conclude that runnel ponds represent a source of methane from potentially older C, and that they contain methanogenic communities able to use diverse sources of carbon, increasing the risk of augmented methane release under a warmer climate. PMID:24236014

  20. Don Quixote Pond: A Small Scale Model of Weathering and Salt Accumulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S. N.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of Don Quixote Pond in the North Fork of Wright Valley, Antarctica, is a model for unique terrestrial calcium, chlorine, and sulfate weathering, accumulation, and distribution processes. The formation of Don Quixote Pond by simple shallow and deep groundwater contrasts more complex models for Don Juan Pond in the South Fork of Wright Valley. Our study intends to understand the formation of Don Quixote Pond as unique terrestrial processes and as a model for Ca, C1, and S weathering and distribution on Mars.

  1. Replicating Detention Reform: Lessons from the Florida Detention Initiative. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Donna M.; Griset, Pamala L.

    This report describes lessons learned from the Broward Detention Initiative (BDI) in Broward County, Florida, a successful detention reform effort that led to attempts at replication. Chapter 1, "The Predecessor Program: The Broward Detention Initiative," explains key factors in BDI's success (e.g., the site was ready, problems were…

  2. 15N tracer application to evaluate nitrogen dynamics of food webs in two subtropical small-scale aquaculture ponds under different managements.

    PubMed

    Pucher, Johannes; Mayrhofer, Richard; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Focken, Ulfert

    2014-01-01

    Small, semi-intensively managed aquaculture ponds contribute significantly to the food security of small-scale farmers around the world. However, little is known about nutrient flows within natural food webs in such ponds in which fish production depends on the productivity of natural food resources. (15)N was applied as ammonium at 1.1 and 0.4 % of total nitrogen in a traditionally managed flow-through pond and a semi-intensively managed stagnant pond belonging to small-scale farmers in Northern Vietnam and traced through the natural food resources over 7 days. Small-sized plankton (1-60 μ m) was the dominant pelagic biomass in both ponds with higher biomass in the stagnant pond. This plankton assimilated major portions of the applied tracer and showed a high sedimentation and turnover rate. High re-activation of settled nutrients into the pelagic food web was observed. The tracer was removed more quickly from the flow-through pond than from the stagnant pond. A steady nutrient supply could increase fish production.

  3. 21 CFR 800.55 - Administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... paragraph (j) of this section, or the detention period expires, whichever occurs first. (b) Criteria for... paragraph (j) of this section, terminate a detention before the expiration of the detention period. (d... hour of the detention order; (viii) The period of the detention; (ix) The text of section 304(g) of...

  4. From Ponds to Predictions: What Do We Need to Know About Small-Scale Sea Ice Processes in a Rapidly Changing Arctic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, H.; Petrich, C.

    2014-12-01

    Areal coverage and spatial distribution of sea-ice melt ponds are key factors in determining the response of the Arctic Ocean's ice cover to changes in atmospheric forcing, its importance in enhancing high-latitude warming and its function in polar marine ecosystems. A review of remote-sensing and field observations, in conjunction with process studies in coastal Alaska, highlights the importance of sub-floe scale ice properties and processes in controlling ponding, thereby constraining seasonal evolution and decay of the ice cover. Field observations and model simulations have shown how pond areal extent and hence ice albedo depend on the combination of snow or ice ablation rates, ice permeability and surface topography. Seasonal and short-term variations of these three factors explain much of the observed spatial and temporal variability in the large-scale pond areal fraction. Recent work on Alaska shorefast ice suggests that the snow-cover depth distribution may predetermine ponding patterns months ahead of spring melt. Specifically, through the formation of wind crusts, snow depth variations are locked in place. After onset of melt, formation and deepening of ponds is enhanced in thin-snow areas, with pond spatial patterns replicating snow dune topography. Both deepening of ponds and preferential pond drainage through small-scale flaws and cracks then constrain the eventual break-up of the ice cover. Field observations and aerial photography indicate that with increasing wave action in an ice-diminished Arctic Ocean, ponds and drainage features precondition ice for break-up and fragmentation. Model simulations by Schröder et al. (doi:10.1038/nclimate2203) hint at other, as of yet poorly understood mechanisms that link pond coverage to the degree of seasonal ice retreat. Key measurements and potential datasets that can help improve understanding and prediction of a changing ice cover on seasonal scales will be discussed.

  5. An environmental problem hidden in plain sight? Small human-made ponds, emergent insects, and mercury contamination of biota in the Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W

    2015-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of small human-made ponds and surrounding terrestrial communities may be 1 of the largest unstudied Hg-pollution problems in the United States. Humans have built millions of small ponds in the Great Plains of the United States, and these ponds have become contaminated with atmospherically deposited mercury. In aquatic ecosystems, less toxic forms of Hg deposited from the atmosphere are converted to highly toxic methylmercury (MeHg). Methylmercury is incorporated into the aquatic food web and then can be transferred to terrestrial food webs via emergent aquatic insects. The authors present a conceptual model that describes the movement of MeHg produced in aquatic ecosystems to terrestrial consumers via insects emerging from small human-made ponds. The authors hypothesize that pond permanence and the level of Hg contamination of the food web control this emergent insect-mediated flux of MeHg. The highest insect-mediated flux of MeHg is predicted to be from fishless semipermanent ponds with food webs that are highly contaminated with MeHg. Further development and testing of the conceptual model presented in the present column, particularly in the context of a changing climate, will require research at the regional, watershed, and pond scales.

  6. Effects of acidification of metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B. . Patuxent Wildlife Research Center)

    1993-06-01

    Compared were concentrations of Al,Cd,Ca,Cu,Fe,Pb,Mg,Mn,Hg,Ni,P, and Zn in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentration of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations in water significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal concentrations poorly correlated with metal concentrations in water. Concentrations of metals exceeded acceptable dietary levels more frequently in plants than in invertebrates. Concerns about metal toxicity in birds that feed on invertebrates and plants from acidified waters seems to be unwarranted. Positive correlations among pH, Ca in water, Ca in insects, and Ca in plants imply that acidification can reduce the Ca content of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects were low in Ca, but crayfishes and snails, which are adversely affected by low pH, were very high. A concern for waterfowl is Ca deprivation from decreased Ca availability in low-pH wetlands, ponds, and small lakes..

  7. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    High concentrations of trace metals in the water of low-pH lakes and streams could result in elevated amounts of metals within or adsorbed to aquatic plants and, possibly, invertebrates. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Hg, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic invertebrates of wetlands, ponds, and small lakes in Maryland and Maine. The accumulation of metals by aquatic plants and insects and the concentrations of metals in water were not greatly affected by pH. None of the metal concentrations significantly correlated with metals in insects. Plant metal concentrations poorly correlated with metal concentrations in water. Concentrations of metals exceeded acceptable dietary levels more frequently in plants than in invertebrates. Concerns about metal toxicity in birds that feed on invertebrates and plants from acidified waters seem to be unwarranted. Positive correlations among pH, Ca in water, Ca in insects, and Ca in plants imply that acidification can reduce the Ca content of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects were low in Ca, but crayfishes and snails, which are adversely affected by low pH, were very high. A concern for waterfowl is Ca deprivation from decreased Ca availability in low-pH wetlands, ponds, and small lakes.

  8. Agricultural ponds support amphibian populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Richardson, W.B.; Reineke, D.M.; Gray, B.R.; Parmelee, J.R.; Weick, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In some agricultural regions, natural wetlands are scarce, and constructed agricultural ponds may represent important alternative breeding habitats for amphibians. Properly managed, these agricultural ponds may effectively increase the total amount of breeding habitat and help to sustain populations. We studied small, constructed agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota to assess their value as amphibian breeding sites. Our study examined habitat factors associated with amphibian reproduction at two spatial scales: the pond and the landscape surrounding the pond. We found that small agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota provided breeding habitat for at least 10 species of amphibians. Species richness and multispecies reproductive success were more closely associated with characteristics of the pond (water quality, vegetation, and predators) compared with characteristics of the surrounding landscape, but individual species were associated with both pond and landscape variables. Ponds surrounded by row crops had similar species richness and reproductive success compared with natural wetlands and ponds surrounded by nongrazed pasture. Ponds used for watering livestock had elevated concentrations of phosphorus, higher turbidity, and a trend toward reduced amphibian reproductive success. Species richness was highest in small ponds, ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) present, and lacking fish. Multispecies reproductive success was best in ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, less emergent vegetation, and lacking fish. Habitat factors associated with higher reproductive success varied among individual species. We conclude that small, constructed farm ponds, properly managed, may help sustain amphibian populations in landscapes where natural wetland habitat is rare. We recommend management actions such as limiting livestock access to the pond to improve water quality, reducing nitrogen input, and

  9. Complex interactions among nutrients, chlorophyll-a, and microcystins in three stormwater wet detention basins with floating treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hartshorn, Nicholas; Marimon, Zachary; Xuan, Zhemin; Cormier, Jessica; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Stormwater wet detention ponds hold a permanent pool of water and offer many beneficial uses including flood mitigation, pollution prevention, downstream erosion control, increased aesthetics, and recreational uses. Although the removal of nutrients is generally low for stormwater wet detention ponds in urban areas, floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) can be installed to offer an innovative solution toward naturally removing excess nutrients and aiding in stormwater management. To improve the stormwater reuse potential, this study assessed nutrient, microcystin, and chlorophyll-a interactions in three Florida stormwater wet detention ponds with recently implemented FTWs. Both episodic (storm events) and routine (non-storm events) sampling campaigns were carried out at the three ponds located in Ruskin, Gainesville, and Orlando. The results showed a salient negative correlation between total phosphorus and microcystin concentrations for both storm and non-storm events across all three ponds. The dominant nutrient species in correlation seemed to be total phosphorus, which correlated positively with chlorophyll-a concentrations at all ponds and sampling conditions, with the exception of Orlando non-storm events. These results showed a correlation conditional to the candidate pond and sampling conditions for microcystin and chlorophyll-a concentrations.

  10. Special Detention Cases: Strategies for Handling Difficult Populations. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhart, David

    This report discusses strategies for handling difficult juvenile detention populations (warrant cases, probation violators, and post-adjudication detention). It offers strategies used in the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI) sites and in other jurisdictions to reduce unnecessary detention in these special cases. Chapter 1,…

  11. Planning for Juvenile Detention Reforms: A Structured Approach. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhart, David

    This report is a guide to juvenile detention planning, based largely on the experiences of Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI) sites. Its eight chapters include: (1) "Why Is Comprehensive Juvenile Detention Planning Needed?"; (2) "Guiding Principles" (e.g., detention planning must be based on adequate data, must…

  12. Detention of Immigrant Children.

    PubMed

    Linton, Julie M; Griffin, Marsha; Shapiro, Alan J

    2017-03-13

    Immigrant children seeking safe haven in the United States, whether arriving unaccompanied or in family units, face a complicated evaluation and legal process from the point of arrival through permanent resettlement in communities. The conditions in which children are detained and the support services that are available to them are of great concern to pediatricians and other advocates for children. In accordance with internationally accepted rights of the child, immigrant and refugee children should be treated with dignity and respect and should not be exposed to conditions that may harm or traumatize them. The Department of Homeland Security facilities do not meet the basic standards for the care of children in residential settings. The recommendations in this statement call for limited exposure of any child to current Department of Homeland Security facilities (ie, Customs and Border Protection and Immigration and Customs Enforcement facilities) and for longitudinal evaluation of the health consequences of detention of immigrant children in the United States. From the moment children are in the custody of the United States, they deserve health care that meets guideline-based standards, treatment that mitigates harm or traumatization, and services that support their health and well-being. This policy statement also provides specific recommendations regarding postrelease services once a child is released into communities across the country, including a coordinated system that facilitates access to a medical home and consistent access to education, child care, interpretation services, and legal services.

  13. Freshwater ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter summarizes aquaculture pond ecology. The underlying theme is how ponds supply essential life-support functions (food, oxygen, and waste treatment) and how those functions are subsidized by external resources as culture intensity increases. Ponds are confined bodies of standing wate...

  14. Solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    This report first describes the different types of solar ponds including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. It then discusses the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds, and compares the economics of salty and saltless ponds as a function of salt cost. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirements is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

  15. 21 CFR 800.55 - Administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... believed to be adulterated or misbranded. Administrative detention is intended to protect the public by... act, is adulterated or misbranded. (c) Detention period. The detention is to be for a reasonable... adulterated or misbranded, and issued to the owner, operator, or agent in charge of the place where...

  16. 21 CFR 800.55 - Administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... believed to be adulterated or misbranded. Administrative detention is intended to protect the public by... act, is adulterated or misbranded. (c) Detention period. The detention is to be for a reasonable... adulterated or misbranded, and issued to the owner, operator, or agent in charge of the place where...

  17. 21 CFR 800.55 - Administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... believed to be adulterated or misbranded. Administrative detention is intended to protect the public by... act, is adulterated or misbranded. (c) Detention period. The detention is to be for a reasonable... adulterated or misbranded, and issued to the owner, operator, or agent in charge of the place where...

  18. 21 CFR 800.55 - Administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... believed to be adulterated or misbranded. Administrative detention is intended to protect the public by... act, is adulterated or misbranded. (c) Detention period. The detention is to be for a reasonable... adulterated or misbranded, and issued to the owner, operator, or agent in charge of the place where...

  19. Solar ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor, H.

    1981-01-01

    The history and current status of salt-gradient non-convecting solar ponds are presented. These ponds are large-area collectors, capable of providing low-cost thermal, mechanical, or electrical energy using low-temperature turbo-generators. The basic theory of salt-gradient solar ponds is sketched; the effects of wind, leakage, and fouling and their constraints on location selection for solar ponds are discussed. The methods of building and filling the ponds, as well as extracting heat from them are explained in detail. Practical operating temperatures of 90 C can be obtained with collection efficiencies between 15% and 25%, demonstrating the practical use of the ponds for heating and cooling purposes, power production, and desalination. A condensed account of solar pond experience in several countries is given. This includes the 150 kW solar pond power station (SPPS) operating in Israel since December, 1979 and a 5000 kW unit currently under development. A study of the economics involved in using the ponds is presented: despite a low conversion efficiency, the SPPS is shown to have applications in many countries.

  20. Big Fish in Small Ponds: Massive Stars in the Low-mass Clusters of M83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. E.; Calzetti, D.; Chandar, R.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Kim, Hwihyun; Krumholz, Mark R.; Lee, J. C.; McElwee, Sean; O'Connell, R. W.; Whitmore, B.

    2014-09-01

    We have used multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data of the starbursting spiral galaxy M83 in order to measure variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (uIMF) using the production rate of ionizing photons in unresolved clusters with ages <= 8 Myr. As in earlier papers on M51 and NGC 4214, the uIMF in M83 is consistent with a universal IMF, and stochastic sampling of the stellar populations in the lap103 M ⊙ clusters are responsible for any deviations in this universality. The ensemble cluster population, as well as individual clusters, also imply that the most massive star in a cluster does not depend on the cluster mass. In fact, we have found that these small clusters seem to have an over-abundance of ionizing photons when compared to an expected universal or truncated IMF. This also suggests that the presence of massive stars in these clusters does not affect the star formation in a destructive way.

  1. Big Fish in Small Ponds: massive stars in the low-mass clusters of M83

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J. E.; Calzetti, D.; McElwee, Sean; Chandar, R.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Kim, Hwihyun; Krumholz, Mark R.; Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B.; O'Connell, R. W. E-mail: callzetti@astro.umass.edu

    2014-09-20

    We have used multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data of the starbursting spiral galaxy M83 in order to measure variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (uIMF) using the production rate of ionizing photons in unresolved clusters with ages ≤ 8 Myr. As in earlier papers on M51 and NGC 4214, the uIMF in M83 is consistent with a universal IMF, and stochastic sampling of the stellar populations in the ∼<10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} clusters are responsible for any deviations in this universality. The ensemble cluster population, as well as individual clusters, also imply that the most massive star in a cluster does not depend on the cluster mass. In fact, we have found that these small clusters seem to have an over-abundance of ionizing photons when compared to an expected universal or truncated IMF. This also suggests that the presence of massive stars in these clusters does not affect the star formation in a destructive way.

  2. Treatment shaft for combined sewer overflow detention.

    PubMed

    Wright, Steven J; Ghalib, Saad; Eloubaidy, Aziz

    2010-05-01

    A deep, large-diameter underground shaft to provide detention storage for combined sewer overflow control may be advantageous in urban environments, where space limitations require solutions with a small footprint. An underflow baffle wall is provided at the center of the treatment shaft to prevent short-circuiting of the flow. An additional objective is to maintain low headlosses through the structure. A physical model study was conducted to determine the effect of the bottom elevation of the baffle wall on the headloss and breakthrough curve for dye injected to the inflow. It was found that there is a considerable range of elevations for which the structure behaves acceptably in providing adequate contact time for disinfectant while maintaining small headlosses.

  3. Effects of three highway-runoff detention methods on water quality of the surficial aquifer system in central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffer, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Water quality of the surficial aquifer system in central Florida was evaluated at one exfiltration pipe, two ponds (detention and retention), and two swales in central Florida, representing three runoff-detention methods, to detect any effect from infiltrating highway runoff. Concentrations of major ions, metals, and nutrients in groundwater and bottom sediments were measured from 1984 through 1986. At each study area, constituent concentrations in groundwater near the structure were compared to concentrations in groundwater from an upgradient control site. Groundwater quality data were also pooled by detention method and statistically compared to detect any significant differences between methods. Significantly greater mean phosphorus concentrations in groundwater near the exfiltration pipe than those in the control well was the only evidence of increasing constituent concentrations in groundwater near structures. The quality of water was more variable, and had greater constituent concentrations in the unsaturated zone than in the saturated zone near the exfiltration pipe. Values of water quality variables measured in groundwater at all study areas generally were within State drinking water standards. The main exception was dissolved iron, which commonly exceeded 300 micrograms/L at one swale and the detention pond. Results of the study indicate that natural processes occurring in soils attenuate inorganic constituent concentrations prior to reaching the receiving groundwater. However, organic compounds detected in bottom sediments at the retention pond indicate a potential problem that may eventually affect the quality of the receiving groundwater. (USGS)

  4. [Research of controlling condition for aeration stabilization pond dealing with sanitary waste of countryside].

    PubMed

    Li, Huai-Zheng; Yao, Shu-Jun; Xu, Zu-Xin; Chen, Wei-Bing

    2012-10-01

    According to research of some problems, such as the hydraulic detention time that aeration stabilization pond deals with sanitary waste of countryside, dissolved oxygen in pond during the process of aeration, the concentration distribution of sludge and different aeration periods affecting on the treatment efficiency, we can acquire good treatment efficiency and energy consumption of economy. The results indicate that under the aeration stabilization pond of this experiment, 4 d is the best hydraulic detention time with this aeration stabilization pond. Time of the discontinuous running aeration should be greater than 15 min. The concentration distribution of sludge can reach equilibrium at each point of aeration stabilization pond between 2 min and 10 min. The best aeration period of dislodging the pollutant is 0.5 h aeration/1.0 h cut-off.

  5. The Little School Pond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawitscher-Kunkel, Erika

    1973-01-01

    A small pond in a schoolyard provided year-round biological activities for children. As seasons changed, concepts and life relations also changed. Besides microscopic organisms in water, children learned about microscopic algae, detritus, and food chains. Concepts of predator-prey relationships and of ecosystems were successfully developed. (PS)

  6. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals in Stormwater Detention Basin Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schifman, L. A.; Kasaraneni, V. K.; Boving, T. B.; Craver, V.

    2015-12-01

    Stormwater runoff is a conduit for several pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into surface and ground water bodies. The control of runoff and pollutants is typically addressed by best management practices, such as retention/detention ponds. While the effectiveness of catchment basins in runoff volume reduction and removal of some contaminants has been established, very little is known about contaminant fate within these structures. Particularly in coastal regions and places with shallow groundwater tables PAH accumulation in the bottom sediments poses a potential threat for groundwater contamination. The concentrations of PAHs accumulated in the sediments of these catchment basins will primarily depend on the sources of runoff origin and the surrounding land use. Here, five stormwater catchment basins along the I-95 corridor in Rhode Island were selected based on the stormwater runoff origin and land use (industrial, urban, highway, and commercial). To study the stratification of PAHs one foot sediment cores were collected and analyzed for 17 PAHs (16 EPA parent PAH and Retene). The concentrations of PAHs in sediments of detention ponds in urban and industrial land use areas ranged from 20 μg/g to 200 μg/g. Generally higher concentrations of contaminants were found in sediments near the pond inlet and a decreasing concentration gradient is observed laterally and vertically throughout the pond. To compare stormwater ponds in various land use settings a new index based on sediment contamination, pond size and age, and catchment area will be presented. Further, it will be investigated whether BMP maintenance has to be targeted towards pollutant removal to maintain an effective stormwater treatment system.

  7. Effectiveness of a stormwater collection and detention system for reducing constituent loads from bridge runoff in Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Y.E.

    1996-01-01

    The quantity and quality of stormwater runoff from the Bayside Bridge were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of the stormwater collection and detention pond system of the bridge in reducing constituent loads to Old Tampa Bay. Water-quality samples of stormwater runoff from the bridge and outflow from the detention pond were collected during and after selected storms. These samples were used to compute loads for selected constituents. Stormwater on the Bayside Bridge drained rapidly during rain events. The volume of stormwater runoff from 24 storms measured during the study ranged from 4,086 to 103,705 cubic feet. Storms were most frequent during July through September and were least frequent from February through May. Concentrations of most constituents in stormwater runoff before the bridge opened to traffic were less than or equal to concentrations measured after the bridge was opened to traffic. However, concentrations of arsenic in the outflow from the detention pond generally were greater before the bridge opened than concentrations after, and concentrations of orthophosphorus in the stormwater runoff and outflow from the pond were greater before the bridge opened than during over half the sampled storms after the bridge opened. Concentrations of most constituents measured in stormwater runoff from the bridge were greatest at the beginning of the storm and decreased as the storm continued. Variations in suspended solids, nutrients, and trace element concentrations were not always concurrent with each other. The source of the measured constituent (rainfall or road debris) and the phase of the constituent (suspended or dissolved) probably affected the timing of concentration changes. The quality of stormwater runoff from the Bayside Bridge varied with total runoff volume, with the length of the dry period before the storm, and with season. Average concentrations of suspended solids, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen

  8. Performance evaluation of a natural treatment system for small communities, composed of a UASB reactor, maturation ponds (baffled and unbaffled) and a granular rock filter in series.

    PubMed

    Dias, D F C; Passos, R G; Rodrigues, V A J; Matos, M P de; Santos, C R S; Sperling, M von

    2017-03-08

    Post-treatment of anaerobic reactor effluent with maturation ponds is a good option for small to medium-sized communities in tropical climates. The treatment line investigated, operating in Brazil, with an equivalent capacity to treat domestic sewage from 250 inhabitants, was comprised of a UASB reactor followed by two shallow maturation ponds (unbaffled and baffled) and a granular rock filter (decreasing grain size) in series, requiring an area of only 1.5 m(2).inhabitant(-1). With an overall hydraulic retention time of only 6.7 days, the performance was excellent for a natural treatment system. Based on over two years of continuous monitoring, median removal efficiencies were: BOD = 93%, COD = 79%, TSS = 87%, ammonia = 43% and E. coli = 6.1 log units. The final effluent complied with European discharge standards and WHO guidelines for some forms of irrigation, and showed to be a suitable alternative for treating domestic sewage for small communities in warm areas, especially in developing countries.

  9. Detention Operations, Behavior Modification, and Counterinsurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    cumulative effects would help tremendously in ensuring long-term national stability. In Iraq, 160,000 people have been through the detention process, and we...care and custody may influence up to 16 million of Iraq’s 26 million inhabitants. To see the potential future effects of current detention operations...one need only recall that many former detainees such as Nelson Mandela , Fidel Castro, Daniel Ortega, and Jomo Kenyatta became important national

  10. Long-term fate of organochlorine xenobiotics in aquatic ecosystems. Distribution, residual behavior, and metabolism of hexachlorobenzene, pentachloronitrobenzene, and 4-chloroaniline in small experimental ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Schauerte, W.; Lay, J.P.; Klein, W.; Korte, F.

    1982-12-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), and 4-chloroaniline (4-CA) were dosed into the water of small experimental ponds in Southern Germany. The average concentration of the chemicals in the pond water during the application period (4-6 weeks) was about 50 micrograms/liter. Chemical residue concentrations were determined in water, sediment, and flora and fauna species up to 166 weeks after application. The decrease of all chemicals in the water phase follows exponential functions and can be correlated to some extent with the physicochemical properties such as volatility from water and vapor pressure. Although chemically quite different, the residual behavior of the model compounds followed a similar pattern resulting in relatively high initial concentrations in biota and a slow buildup and subsequent decline of concentrations in the sediment. As to some fauna species (backswimmers and libellula larvae) and to sediment (0- to 20-cm layers), even 3 years after application, 14C residues of about 0.1 mg/kg could be found. In all analyzed flora species, however, no more residues could be measured in the new vegetation period after application. The amounts of the chemicals used did not cause detectable symptoms of poisoning over the investigation period. Anisols and azo compounds were found to be conversion products of pentachloronitrobenzene and 4-chloroaniline.

  11. Solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Shallow pools of liquid to collect low-temperature solar generated thermal energy are described. Narrow elongated trenches, grouped together over a wide area, are lined with a heat-absorbing black liner. The heat-absorbing liquid is kept separate from the thermal energy removing fluid by means such as clear polyethylene material. The covering for the pond may be a fluid or solid. If the covering is a fluid, fire fighting foam, continuously generated, or siloons are used to keep the surface covering clean and insulated. If the thermal energy removing fluid is a gas, a fluid insulation layer contained in a flat polyethlene tubing is used to cover the pond. The side of the tube directed towards the sun is treated to block out ultraviolet radiation and trap in infrared radiation.

  12. Psychiatric and Medical Health Care Policies in Juvenile Detention Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen A.; Kelleher, Kelly; Gupta, Ravindra A.; Rolls, Jennifer; Gardner, William

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine the existing health care policies in U.S. juvenile detention centres. The results conclude that juvenile detention facilities have many shortfalls in providing care for adolescents, particularly mental health care.

  13. 21 CFR 1.391 - Who approves a detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Fda Order A Detention? § 1.391 Who approves a detention order? An authorized FDA representative, i.e., the FDA District Director in whose district the article of food involved is located or an FDA...

  14. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... foster care facility approved by the tribe; (2) A detention home approved by the tribe; or (3) A private... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A...

  15. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... foster care facility approved by the tribe; (2) A detention home approved by the tribe; or (3) A private... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A...

  16. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... foster care facility approved by the tribe; (2) A detention home approved by the tribe; or (3) A private... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A...

  17. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... foster care facility approved by the tribe; (2) A detention home approved by the tribe; or (3) A private... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A...

  18. 25 CFR 11.1004 - Detention and shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... foster care facility approved by the tribe; (2) A detention home approved by the tribe; or (3) A private... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Detention and shelter care. 11.1004 Section 11.1004... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1004 Detention and shelter care. (a) A...

  19. 8 CFR 1236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 1236.3... ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release....

  20. Intermediate pond sizes contain the highest density, richness, and diversity of pond-breeding amphibians.

    PubMed

    Semlitsch, Raymond D; Peterman, William E; Anderson, Thomas L; Drake, Dana L; Ousterhout, Brittany H

    2015-01-01

    We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a significant predictor of density, species richness, and diversity of amphibians and if values peaked at intermediate pond areas. We found that in all cases a quadratic model fit our data significantly better than a linear model. Because small ponds have a high probability of pond drying and large ponds have a high probability of fish colonization and accumulation of invertebrate predators, drying and predation may be two mechanisms driving the peak of density and diversity towards intermediate values of pond size. We also found that not all intermediate sized ponds produced many larvae; in fact, some had low amphibian density, richness, and diversity. Further analyses of the subset of ponds represented in the peak of the area distribution showed that fish, hydroperiod, invertebrate density, and canopy are additional factors that drive density, richness and diversity of ponds up or down, when extremely small or large ponds are eliminated. Our results indicate that fishless ponds at intermediate sizes are more diverse, produce more larvae, and have greater potential to recruit juveniles into adult populations of most species sampled. Further, hylid and chorus frogs are found predictably more often in ephemeral ponds whereas bullfrogs, green frogs, and cricket frogs are found most often in permanent ponds with fish. Our data increase understanding of what factors structure and maintain amphibian diversity across large landscapes.

  1. THE ECOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF PONDS AND WETLANDS AS "BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPS)" FOR STREAMS IN DEVELOPING LANDSCAPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ponds and constructed wetlands, also referred to as detention/retention basins, have a long history as best management practices (BMPs) used to mitigate the impacts of stormwater runoff from developed lands on receiving waters. Initially designed for flood control by peak flow at...

  2. 19 CFR 12.19 - Detention; samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Detention; samples. 12.19 Section 12.19 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals §...

  3. 19 CFR 12.14 - Detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detention. 12.14 Section 12.14 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES... Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs and...

  4. 19 CFR 12.19 - Detention; samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Detention; samples. 12.19 Section 12.19 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals §...

  5. 19 CFR 12.19 - Detention; samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detention; samples. 12.19 Section 12.19 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals §...

  6. 21 CFR 1.393 - What information must FDA include in the detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information must FDA include in the detention... Consumption How Does Fda Order A Detention? § 1.393 What information must FDA include in the detention order? (a) FDA must issue the detention order in writing, in the form of a detention notice, signed...

  7. Closing the Guantanamo Detention Center: Legal Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-15

    has stated his intent to close the Guantanamo detention facility.6 Secretary of Defense Robert Gates has also described the closure of the Guantanamo...See Robert M. Chesney, “Leaving Guantánamo: The Law of International Detainee Transfers,” 40 U. Rich. L. Rev. 657 (2006) (arguing that detainees may...of law”). See also Malloy v. Hogan, 378 U.S. 1, 7 (1964) (incorporating the Fifth Amendment self-incrimination clause to the states). Throughout the

  8. American and Soviet Relations Since Detente

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    which arise out of their diverse histories, ide- ologies, and cultures. Burke, Virginia Manhattan , Kansas AMERICAN AND SOVIET RELATIONS SINCE DETENTE...Network ( CNN ) and the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) have both been in con- tact with Soviet officials from the State Committee for Television...computers and related Straiegic Technology 83 hardware and software, electro-optical sensors (such as underwater low-light television cameras), radars

  9. Purification of Solar Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flocculatory agents added to solar saltponds remove turbidity to increase solar-energy collection efficiency. Flocculating agent or bacteriocide used to remove micro-organisms sprayed onto pond from airplane and allowed to settle to bottom of pond.

  10. Composting process design criteria. II. Detention time

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, R.T.

    1986-09-01

    Attention has always been directed to detention time as a criteria for design and operation of composting systems. Perhaps this is a logical outgrowth of work on liquid phase systems, where detention time is a fundamental parameter of design. Unlike liquid phase systems, however, the interpretation of detention time and actual values required for design have not been universally accepted in the case of composting. As a case in point, most compost systems incorporate facilities for curing the compost product. However, curing often is considered after the fact or as an add on with little relationship to the first stage, high-rate phase, whether reactor (in-vessel), static pile, or windrow. Design criteria for curing and the relationships between the first-stage, high-rate and second-stage, curing phases of a composting system have been unclear. In Part 2 of this paper, the concepts of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids residence time (SRT) are applied to the composting process. Definitions and design criteria for each are proposed. Based on these criteria, the first and second-stages can be designed and integrated into a complete composting system.

  11. Immigration detention and faith-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Susanna; Bell, Holly; Busch-Armendariz, Noël

    2015-04-01

    Immigration detention is a hot contemporary issue in the United States, with over 33,000 individuals held in detention facilities daily and reports of poor conditions and human rights abuses. Building on a growing body of theory exploring the role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in social services provision, and seeking to address a gap in the literature concerning services provided to immigrants in detention, this qualitative study explored the responses of FBOs to immigration detainees. Twenty in-depth interviews with volunteers and staff members of FBOs as well as field notes from participant observation were analyzed using thematic coding techniques. Findings suggest that FBOs are active leaders in this area of social work practice and provide significant resources to isolated and vulnerable detained immigrants in a variety of ways. Simultaneously, they face challenges surrounding access and constricted activity. The study indicates that considerable scope exists for expanding and enhancing faith-based and other social work engagement in this crucial field.

  12. Lagoons and Oxidation Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers lagoons and oxidation ponds, and it includes some areas such as improving the effluents from ponds, stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons, and oxidation ditches. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Gradient zone erosion in seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, J.; Hart, R.A.; Kleis, S.J.; Bannerot, R.B.

    1995-11-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to examine the feasibility of using seawater solar ponds in mariculture operations along the Texas gulf coast to protect fish crops from the potentially lethal, cold temperatures experienced in outdoor ponds. Seawater solar ponds in the form of floating thermal refuge areas are proposed as a method for reducing the loss of heat from small sections of a pond. Gradient zone erosion under various ambient and operating conditions is examined. Comparisons with previous laboratory studies show a much lower entrainment rate in the natural environment. A simple (linear) correlation of entrainment rate with wind speed was found, for conditions which are typical of those encountered in mariculture pond operations.

  14. Using Media Advocacy to Promote Detention Reform: A Practice Guide to Juvenile Detention Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Written specifically for juvenile justice advocates and officials, this handbook provides step-by-step media approaches to promote the system reforms achieved through the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). Those interested in learning all the nuts and bolts of media advocacy may choose to read this guide from cover to cover. Others…

  15. Mental health care in juvenile detention facilities: a review.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rani A; Goulet, Joseph L; Robbins, Judith; Chapman, John F; Migdole, Scott J; Hoge, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile detention facilities have come under increasing legal pressure to provide mental health services to detainees, and mental health clinicians may be asked to design and implement programs in detention facilities. However, there is little consensus on what types of services should be provided, and virtually no data on the effectiveness of such services in a detention setting. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the existing literature on mental health services in juvenile detention and to make suggestions about future research needs. Specifically, it highlights the tension surrounding the provision of mental health care in juvenile detention, presents data on the prevalence of psychiatric problems in detention settings and what types of services are currently provided, and draws on the larger child and adolescent mental health literature to suggest what types of services might be most appropriate for juvenile detention settings. We conclude that, although there are some suggestions of promising interventions that may be appropriate, much more research, specifically in detention settings, is needed to determine their effectiveness.

  16. 28 CFR 0.123 - Federal Detention Trustee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Detention Trustee. 0.123 Section 0.123 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 3... functions as may be necessary for the effective policy-level coordination of detention operations....

  17. Detention Center in Hong Kong: A Young Offender's Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chui, Wing Hong

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a clinical inquiry at how one young male ex-offender described his time in custody, how his time had been constructively spent during detention, and the effect of a detention center order on his offending behavior one year after his discharge. In so doing, it allowed him to talk about his institutionalized experience and to…

  18. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a notification in accordance with § 26.193(b), the appropriate...

  19. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a notification in accordance with § 26.193(b), the appropriate...

  20. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a notification in accordance with § 26.193(b), the appropriate...

  1. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a notification in accordance with § 26.193(b), the appropriate...

  2. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a notification in accordance with § 26.193(b), the appropriate...

  3. Detente: A Role for U.S.-Soviet Exchanges?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Paul F., Jr.

    The contribution of international exchanges (e.g., cultural activities, tourism, student exchange) to detente enhancement is assessed. International exchanges have a capacity for engendering trust and for providing cultural, political, and economic benefit, two characteristics of policy acts which tend to enhance detente. A comparison of four very…

  4. Developing an AIDS Program in a Juvenile Detention Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelber, Seymour

    1988-01-01

    Examines what is being done and what more must be done in terms of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) testing, screening, counseling. Discusses education about AIDS for young people in juvenile detention centers, penal institutions, and residential rehabilitation programs. Dade County Juvenile Detention Center (Florida) exemplifies…

  5. The Restorative Justice Center: An Alternative to School Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Julie; Van Bockern, Steve; Ailts, Julie; Donnelly, Jason; Erickson, Kelsey; Woltermann, Jenna

    2008-01-01

    The traditional "stay silent, sit still, do nothing" school detention approach is a punitive and ineffective way to change behavior. It does little to create positive school climates. For children who have been traumatized through fear, isolation, and emotional abuse, poorly managed detention can add to that trauma. A restorative justice approach…

  6. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11.4 Section 11.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For...

  7. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11.4 Section 11.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For...

  8. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  9. Harris County Juvenile Detention Center (1990-91).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Carla J.; And Others

    The Houston Independent School District's (HISD) educational program at the Harris County Juvenile Detention Center provided instruction to the 1,138 youths residing at that facility from August 1990 to March 1991. The youth at the Detention Center had been detained by Harris County Law Enforcement Officials and were awaiting court action. The…

  10. 8 CFR 236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 236.3... Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release. Juveniles for whom bond has been posted,...

  11. [Primary care in a detention environment].

    PubMed

    Beer, Daniel; Gravier, Bruno

    2006-11-22

    Detention is a severe and psychologically traumatising form of withdrawal from society of people who, often, are already jeopardized or suffering from psychical or somatic diseases. Yet, the individual deprived of freedom has fundamental rights to obtain medical care that should be of equal quality than the general population. One of the numerous missions of the penitentiary practitioner is to fulfil his practice with total independence within a repressive environment, with multiple constraints of order, respecting both security and judiciary requirements and the fundamental ethical principles of penitentiary medicine.

  12. Autopilot Servoactuator With Pressurized Detented Centering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aring, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Centering valve allows use of mechanical override in autopilot mode. Alternate system designed incorporates centering valves into four FBW servos, providing detents for reacting mechanical system forces following FBW shutdown. Required linkage hard point incorporated directly into autopilot servoactuator by centering valve assembly shown. All components in this functional hydraulic schematic usually present in contemporary aircraft flight-control-system autopilot servoactuators, with exception of centering valve. Centering valve, which serves as hard-point linkage for mechanical system forces, incorporated directly into flight control system.

  13. 8 CFR 241.3 - Detention of aliens during removal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Detention of aliens during removal period. 241.3 Section 241.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal § 241.3 Detention...

  14. 8 CFR 241.3 - Detention of aliens during removal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Detention of aliens during removal period. 241.3 Section 241.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal § 241.3 Detention...

  15. 8 CFR 241.3 - Detention of aliens during removal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Detention of aliens during removal period. 241.3 Section 241.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal § 241.3 Detention...

  16. 8 CFR 241.3 - Detention of aliens during removal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention of aliens during removal period. 241.3 Section 241.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal § 241.3 Detention...

  17. 8 CFR 241.3 - Detention of aliens during removal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Detention of aliens during removal period. 241.3 Section 241.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal § 241.3 Detention...

  18. 21 CFR 1.392 - Who receives a copy of the detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Fda Order A Detention? § 1.392 Who receives a copy of the detention order? (a) FDA must issue the... place where the article is detained, FDA must provide a copy of the detention order to the owner of the article of food if the owner's identity can be determined readily. (b) If FDA issues a detention order...

  19. Applying Positive Psychology to Illuminate the Needs of Adolescent Males Transitioning Out of Juvenile Detention.

    PubMed

    Tracey, Danielle; Hanham, José

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the recidivism of young offenders is a critical research issue, not only to enhance the future outcomes for the young person but also to reduce the future risk to the community. Navigating the immediate transition from detention back into the community is positioned as a critical milestone. This small qualitative study describes how young offenders participating in a formal mentoring program in Australia experienced the transition from detention to the community and the intrinsic drivers of their behaviour throughout this transition. Perspectives of their mentors and caseworker were also solicited. Importantly, their stories were interpreted through the lens of positive psychology and self-determination theory to discuss the relevance of one's pursuit of autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Increasing our understanding of these intrinsic motivators will assist young offenders to pursue a better life away from crime and benefit both themselves and the wider community.

  20. Healthcare and complicity in Australian immigration detention.

    PubMed

    Essex, Ryan

    2016-06-01

    Australian immigration detention has received persistent criticism since its introduction almost 25 years ago. With the recent introduction of offshore processing, these criticisms have intensified. Riots, violence, self-harm, abuse and devastating mental health outcomes are all now well documented, along with a number of deaths. Clinicians have played a central role working in these environments, faced with the overarching issue of delivering healthcare while facilitating an abusive and harmful system. Since the re-introduction of offshore processing a number of authors have begun to discuss the possibility of a boycott. While taking such action may lead to change, further discussion is needed, not only in relation to the impact of a boycott, but whether it is possible for clinicians to engage with this system in more productive, ethical ways. This article utilises a framework proposed by Lepora and Goodin (On complicity and compromise, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013) that provides a structured approach to examine complicity and seeks to explore how clinicians have engaged with Australian immigration detention and ultimately whether they should continue to do so.

  1. HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Ralf; Nowak, Manfred; Day, Marcus

    2011-05-19

    The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners.The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed.

  2. HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners. The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed. PMID:21595957

  3. Simulation of the operation of detention tanks.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Paolo S; Viviani, Gaspare

    2006-01-01

    The performance of detention tanks with different characteristics (volume, on-line and off-line arrangement) has been evaluated according to the results of a continuous simulation. The conceptual simplified model for sewer system simulation (COSMOSS) model has been used to simulate the operation of the tanks. The differences between the performance of on-line and off-line tanks and the influence of the characteristics of different catchments have been examined. According to the results of the simulations detention tanks demonstrated good performances in total suspended solids retention and this evenience can certainly help to prevent water pollution of receiving water bodies in urban areas, even if the differences between the catchments, especially regard to the first flush effect, influence the performance of the tanks. Anyway considerable good efficiencies can be obtained with tank volumes of about 30-50 m(3)/ha(imp), in terms of number, maximum concentrations and duration of overflows, generally not guaranteed only with overflow devices.

  4. Solar ponds: a selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations on: regular solar ponds; shallow solar ponds; and patents. Certain references are specifically recommended. The data bases searched for the bibliography are listed. (LEW)

  5. Urban ponds as an aquatic biodiversity resource in modified landscapes.

    PubMed

    Hill, Matthew J; Biggs, Jeremy; Thornhill, Ian; Briers, Robert A; Gledhill, David G; White, James C; Wood, Paul J; Hassall, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Urbanization is a global process contributing to the loss and fragmentation of natural habitats. Many studies have focused on the biological response of terrestrial taxa and habitats to urbanization. However, little is known regarding the consequences of urbanization on freshwater habitats, especially small lentic systems. In this study, we examined aquatic macro-invertebrate diversity (family and species level) and variation in community composition between 240 urban and 782 nonurban ponds distributed across the United Kingdom. Contrary to predictions, urban ponds supported similar numbers of invertebrate species and families compared to nonurban ponds. Similar gamma diversity was found between the two groups at both family and species taxonomic levels. The biological communities of urban ponds were markedly different to those of nonurban ponds, and the variability in urban pond community composition was greater than that in nonurban ponds, contrary to previous work showing homogenization of communities in urban areas. Positive spatial autocorrelation was recorded for urban and nonurban ponds at 0-50 km (distance between pond study sites) and negative spatial autocorrelation was observed at 100-150 km and was stronger in urban ponds in both cases. Ponds do not follow the same ecological patterns as terrestrial and lotic habitats (reduced taxonomic richness) in urban environments; in contrast, they support high taxonomic richness and contribute significantly to regional faunal diversity. Individual cities are complex structural mosaics which evolve over long periods of time and are managed in diverse ways. This facilitates the development of a wide range of environmental conditions and habitat niches in urban ponds which can promote greater heterogeneity between pond communities at larger scales. Ponds provide an opportunity for managers and environmental regulators to conserve and enhance freshwater biodiversity in urbanized landscapes whilst also facilitating

  6. Experimental analysis of green roof substrate detention characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yio, Marcus H N; Stovin, Virginia; Werdin, Jörg; Vesuviano, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Green roofs may make an important contribution to urban stormwater management. Rainfall-runoff models are required to evaluate green roof responses to specific rainfall inputs. The roof's hydrological response is a function of its configuration, with the substrate - or growing media - providing both retention and detention of rainfall. The objective of the research described here is to quantify the detention effects due to green roof substrates, and to propose a suitable hydrological modelling approach. Laboratory results from experimental detention tests on green roof substrates are presented. It is shown that detention increases with substrate depth and as a result of increasing substrate organic content. Model structures based on reservoir routing are evaluated, and it is found that a one-parameter reservoir routing model coupled with a parameter that describes the delay to start of runoff best fits the observed data. Preliminary findings support the hypothesis that the reservoir routing parameter values can be defined from the substrate's physical characteristics.

  7. 13. Building 202 exhaust scrubber water detention tank, looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Building 202 exhaust scrubber water detention tank, looking southeast from bed of Abram Creek. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. 1. VIEW OF DETENTION WARD AREA, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM Y ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF DETENTION WARD AREA, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM Y STREET - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1065, Northeast of Intersection of South Ninth Avenue & South "Y" Street, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  9. Detention Basins may Help Reduce Nutrient Loads to Lake Tahoe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    Water clarity in Lake Tahoe has been declining at a rate of about one foot per year for more than 35 years. In an attempt to decrease sediment and associated nutrients from reaching the lake, many detention basins have been installed, although their efficiency was uncertain. Many basins were constructed near alpine streams. This setting effectively reduces sediments from reaching surface water, but may allow transport of nutrients by ground water beneath the detention basins possibly discharging to streams farther downgradient or directly to Lake Tahoe. Determining the effectiveness of detention basins in the Lake Tahoe area requires an understanding of the shallow subsurface environment in which nutrients travel. A study was carried out at Cattlemans detention basin, situated adjacent to Cold Creek, a tributary to Lake Tahoe. Ground-water and solute transport models were used to evaluate complex ground-water interactions with Cold Creek near Cattlemans detention basin. Based on observations that urban runoff entering the basin rarely exited as surface water, each model assumes all water entering the basin either infiltrates or is consumed by evapotranspiration. Modeling results indicated that the detention basin has altered the local ground-water flow system while efficiently reducing suspended sediments, although nutrients are not filtered out as readily. Nutrient discharge points were tracked by calculating ground-water flow paths and endpoints. Approximately 45 percent of ground water originating from the detention basin discharges to Cold Creek within the modeled area downstream of the detention basin. The remaining 55 percent of ground water could discharge to evapotranspiration, to Cold Creek farther downstream, or to Lake Tahoe.

  10. 1. Streetscape of north ends of Detention Wards, Building Nos. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Streetscape of north ends of Detention Wards, Building Nos. 9946-B (left) and 9945-B (middle). Walled-in courtyard adjoins Building No. 9944-B at extreme right edge. Steam plant is in distance. This photo makes a panorama with photo WA-202-10-2. - Madigan Hospital, Detention Wards, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  11. Falmouth pond watchers: Water quality monitoring of Falmouth's coastal ponds. Report from the 1992 season

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, B.L.; Goehringer, D.D.

    1993-04-01

    1992 has seen a significant expansion in the focus of the Pond Watchers program. The long-term, high quality data base for the ponds is now enabling more emphasis on the ecological management and remediation aspects of the study, the ultimate goal of the program. Overall, 1992 saw only slight variation in the water quality conditions of Oyster, Little, Green, Great and Bournes Ponds from previous years, with a declining trend for Green Pond and small improvements in lower Great and Bournes Ponds. However, Oyster Pond showed a potentially significant improvement in bottom water oxygen conditions which suggests a new management direction for this system. All of the ponds continue to exhibit high nutrient levels and periodic bottom water oxygen depletion, especially in their upper reaches, and all stations exceed the nutrient levels specified by the Nutrient Overlay Bylaw. In contrast, the first year measurements in West Falmouth Harbor indicate high levels of water quality, although the inner reaches of the harbor do exceed those levels specified by the Bylaw.

  12. Exploring Pond Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raun, Chester E.; Metz, William C.

    1975-01-01

    An activity utilizing a bucket of pond water for study of microorganisms as presented to elementary school preservice and inservice teachers, and subsequently to their pupils, is described. Procedures for collecting, studying, tabulating data and extended activities are presented. (EB)

  13. Appeals against detention in excessive security (outcomes of appeals against detention in conditions of excessive security in Scotland).

    PubMed

    Slater, Alexander; Bennett, Daniel M; Vojt, Gabriele; Thomson, Lindsay

    2016-07-01

    The Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003 introduced the right for patients in high-security psychiatric care to appeal against detention in conditions of excessive security. A previous study examined the first 100 patients to appeal under this provision. In this study we compare them with the next cohort of 110 patients to lodge an appeal, finding, contrary to expectations, no change in patient characteristics or the outcome of their appeals. The clinical, legal and demographic features of successful and unsuccessful appellants, who made up 38% and 27% of the 110 patients, respectively, were also compared. Those patients with the support of their responsible medical officer and those already included on a transfer list had a significantly better chance of success (p = 0.00). It was also found that a history of excessive alcohol consumption was associated with successful appeals (p = 0.002). A diagnosis of learning disability was associated with unsuccessful appeals (p = 0.018), though the sub-sample was very small. These findings are important given the forthcoming extension of this right of appeal to other levels of security.

  14. Pumping performance of a modified commercial paddlewheel aerator for split-pond aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The split-pond aquaculture system consists of a small fish-holding basin connected to a waste-treatment lagoon by two conduits. Split ponds require large water volumes circulated between the two basins (10,000 to 20,000 gal/min for 5- to 10-ac ponds) to remove fish waste and provide oxygenated water...

  15. Pumping performance of a slow-rotating paddlewheel for split-pond aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial catfish farmers are intensifying production by retrofitting ponds with variations of the partitioned aquaculture system (PAS). The split-pond system is the most common variation used commercially. The split-pond consists of a small fish-holding basin connected to a waste treatment lagoon ...

  16. Pumping performance of a slow-rotating paddlewheel for split-ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial catfish farmers are intensifying production by retrofitting ponds with variations of the partitioned aquaculture system. The split-pond system is the most common variation used commercially. The split-pond consists of a small fish-holding basin connected to a waste treatment lagoon by two...

  17. Life After Juvenile Detention Isn't Easy, Especially for Minorities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162625.html Life After Juvenile Detention Isn't Easy, Especially for Minorities Only ... lives back on track after being released from juvenile detention, especially those from racial and ethnic minorities, ...

  18. 19 CFR 113.70 - Bond condition to indemnify United States for detention of copyrighted material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section and shall be a single entry bond. Bond Condition To Indemnify United States for Detention of... detention in the event it is finally determined that the articles are not a piratical copy of the material....

  19. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

  20. 76 FR 25538 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... amending its regulations on administrative detention of food for human or animal consumption. As required... detention of food for human or animal consumption under the Bioterrorism Act (68 FR 25242 at 25250)....

  1. 19 CFR 125.35 - Report of loss, detention, or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Report of loss, detention, or accident. 125.35 Section 125.35 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., detention, or accident. Any loss or detention of bonded merchandise, or any accident happening to a...

  2. 19 CFR 125.35 - Report of loss, detention, or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Report of loss, detention, or accident. 125.35 Section 125.35 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., detention, or accident. Any loss or detention of bonded merchandise, or any accident happening to a...

  3. 19 CFR 125.35 - Report of loss, detention, or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Report of loss, detention, or accident. 125.35 Section 125.35 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., detention, or accident. Any loss or detention of bonded merchandise, or any accident happening to a...

  4. 19 CFR 125.35 - Report of loss, detention, or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Report of loss, detention, or accident. 125.35 Section 125.35 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., detention, or accident. Any loss or detention of bonded merchandise, or any accident happening to a...

  5. 19 CFR 125.35 - Report of loss, detention, or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Report of loss, detention, or accident. 125.35 Section 125.35 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., detention, or accident. Any loss or detention of bonded merchandise, or any accident happening to a...

  6. Controlling the Front Gates: Effective Admissions Policies and Practices. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Frank

    This report identifies policies and practices essential to overcoming problems with admissions to juvenile detention facilities, using information from the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). Chapter 1, "Why Objective Admissions Policies and Practices Are Critical to Detention Reform," describes factors contributing to…

  7. 48 CFR 3017.204-90 - Detention Facilities and Services (ICE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detention Facilities and... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options. 3017.204-90 Detention Facilities and Services (ICE). The ICE Head of...' duration for detention or incarceration space or facilities, including related services....

  8. The School Principal and the Use of Detention, Suspension and Expulsion as Disciplinary Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David G.

    In discussing school discipline, the place to begin is by considering whether detention, suspension, and expulsion help students and resolve discipline problems. Detention seems to be most effective when the student is detained on the same day and as close as possible to the time the offense occurs, but too often detention is used merely as a…

  9. 21 CFR 1.378 - What criteria does FDA use to order a detention?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What criteria does FDA use to order a detention? 1... General Provisions § 1.378 What criteria does FDA use to order a detention? An officer or qualified employee of FDA may order the detention of any article of food that is found during an...

  10. International law and the detention of refugees and asylum seekers.

    PubMed

    Goodwin-gill, G S

    1986-01-01

    The detention of refugees and asylum-seekers throughout the world remains a serious issue, currently affecting thousands of individuals. This article examines national concepts, powers, and practices of detention and these with individual right of refugees and asylum-seekers under international law. The general role of international law, in conjunction with the UN High Commission for Refugees, is to protect refugees. International law requires that access to detainees be granted and information given whenever refugees and asylum-seekers are detained. Detention itself is no solution, in either the remedial or the preventive sense. It is symptomatic of a variety of real problems and needs covering the broad range of movements of people, and cannot be separated from causes or from the necessity to find appropriate durable solutions. Principles of international solidarity and burden-sharing may offer a basis for the improvement of the lot of refugees and asylum-seekers.

  11. The Effectiveness of Cattlemans Detention Basin, South Lake Tahoe, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Jena M.

    2006-01-01

    Lake Tahoe (Nevada-California) has been designated as an 'outstanding national water resource' by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in part, for its exceptional clarity. Water clarity in Lake Tahoe, however, has been declining at a rate of about one foot per year for more than 35 years. To decrease the amount of sediment and nutrients delivered to the lake by way of alpine streams, wetlands and stormwater detention basins have been installed at several locations around the lake. Although an improvement in stormwater and snowmelt runoff quality has been measured, the effectiveness of the detention basins for increasing the clarity of Lake Tahoe needs further study. It is possible that poor ground-water quality conditions exist beneath the detention basins and adjacent wetlands and that the presence of the basins has altered ground-water flow paths to nearby streams. A hydrogeochemical and ground-water flow modeling study was done at Cattlemans detention basin, situated adjacent to Cold Creek, a tributary to Lake Tahoe, to determine whether the focusing of storm and snowmelt runoff into a confined area has (1) modified the ground-water flow system beneath the detention basin and affected transport of sediment and nutrients to nearby streams and (2) provided an increased source of solutes which has changed the distribution of nutrients and affected nutrient transport rates beneath the basin. Results of slug tests and ground-water flow modeling suggest that ground water flows unrestricted northwest across the detention basin through the meadow. The modeling also indicates that seasonal flow patterns and flow direction remain similar from year to year under transient conditions. Model results imply that about 34 percent (0.004 ft3/s) of the total ground water within the model area originates from the detention basin. Of the 0.004 ft3/s, about 45 percent discharges to Cold Creek within the modeled area downstream of the detention basin. The remaining 55 percent

  12. Corrosive places, inhuman spaces: mental health in Australian immigration detention.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, Pauline; Warin, Megan

    2008-06-01

    Since their establishment in 1992, Australian Immigration Detention Centres have been the focus of increasing concern due to allegations of their serious impact on the mental health of asylum seekers. Informed by Foucault's treatise on surveillance and the phenomenological work of Casey, this paper extends the current clinical data by examining the architecture and location of detention centres, and the complex relationships between space, place and mental health. In spatialising these relationships, we argue that Immigration Detention Centres operate not only as Panopticons, but are embodied by asylum seekers as 'anti-places': as places that mediate and constitute thinned out and liminal experiences. In particular, it is the embodied effects of surveillance and suspended liminality that impact on mental health. An approach which locates the embodiment of place and space as central to the poor mental health of asylum seekers adds an important dimension to our understandings of (dis)placement and mental health in the lives of the exiled.

  13. Falling head ponded infiltration in the nonlinear limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triadis, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Green and Ampt infiltration solution represents only an extreme example of behavior within a larger class of very nonlinear, delta function diffusivity soils. The mathematical analysis of these soils is greatly simplified by the existence of a sharp wetting front below the soil surface. Solutions for more realistic delta function soil models have recently been presented for infiltration under surface saturation without ponding. After general formulation of the problem, solutions for a full suite of delta function soils are derived for ponded surface water depleted by infiltration. Exact expressions for the cumulative infiltration as a function of time, or the drainage time as a function of the initial ponded depth may take implicit or parametric forms, and are supplemented by simple asymptotic expressions valid for small times, and small and large initial ponded depths. As with surface saturation without ponding, the Green-Ampt model overestimates the effect of the soil hydraulic conductivity. At the opposing extreme, a low-conductivity model is identified that also takes a very simple mathematical form and appears to be more accurate than the Green-Ampt model for larger ponded depths. Between these two, the nonlinear limit of Gardner's soil is recommended as a physically valid first approximation. Relative discrepancies between different soil models are observed to reach a maximum for intermediate values of the dimensionless initial ponded depth, and in general are smaller than for surface saturation without ponding.

  14. Appropriate medical care for persons in detention.

    PubMed

    Idris, I

    2003-03-01

    The people who are in detention are screened by the Medical Officer of the Prison and if they are found to be unwell, these prisoners will be accommodated in the sickbay and medical treatment will be provided. If their sickness needs further investigations and management, they will be sent to the Government Hospital. If the prisoners are found to have infectious or contagious diseases, steps will be taken to prevent the spread of these diseases to other prisoners in the prison. Prisoners are given time to exercise to maintain good health and their clothing are regularly washed to make sure that they will not contract skin diseases, e.g. scabies, ringworm, etc. The Prison Department since 1989 has increasing numbers of HIV positive prisoners. The Department complies with this problem by sending staff for courses, lectures and seminars so that they will be able to handle these prisoners more efficiently in the prison. When these HIV/AIDS prisoners' condition turns bad, they are usually transferred to a Government Hospital. Another of the Prison Department's prominent medical problem among the prisoners is drug addiction. Staff trained with skill and techniques are counselors for the drug related prisoners. Realizing and in anticipation that the sickbays in the prisons are going to be full of HIV/AIDS prisoners and drug related prisoners, special attention will be given to more allocation to upgrade the sickbays in the prison. White attires will be provided to the sick prisoners in the sickbays so that they will look neat and clean. More doctors, medical assistants and nurses will be employed so that appropriate medical care or rather more appropriate medical care can be provided to the sick prisoners in the prisons. The Prison Department is in the process of privatizing medical care for prisoners in the prison and the Department is also trying to convert some prisons to be medical prisons so that adequate medical care can be given to the sick prisoners.

  15. Saltless solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, E. I. H. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A solar pond adapted for efficiently trapping and storing radiant solar energy without the use of a salt concentration gradient in the pond is disclosed. A body of water which may be fresh, saline, relatively clear or turbid, is substantially covered by a plurality of floating honeycomb panels. The honeycomb panels are made of a material such as glass which is pervious to short wave solar radiation but impervious to infrared radiation. Each honeycomb panel includes a multitude of honeycomb cells. The honeycomb panels are divided into the elongated honeycomb cells by a multitude of intermediate plates disposed between a bottom plate and top plate of the panel. The solar pond is well suited for providing hot water of approximately 85 to 90 C temperature for direct heating applications, and for electrical power generation.

  16. Evaluation of solar pond performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The City of Miamisburg, Ohio, constructed during 1978 a large, salt-gradient solar pond as part of its community park development project. The thermal energy stored in the pond is being used to heat an outdoor swimming pool in the summer and an adjacent recreational building during part of the winter. This solar pond, which occupies an area of 2020 m/sup 2/ (22,000 sq. ft.), was designed from experience obtained at smaller research ponds located at Ohio State University, the University of New Mexico and similar ponds operated in Israel. During the summer of 1979, the initial heat (40,000 kWh, 136 million Btu) was withdrawn from the solar pond to heat the outdoor swimming pool. All of the data collection systems were installed and functioned as designed so that operational data were obtained. The observed performance of the pond was compared with several of the predicted models for this type of pond. (MHR)

  17. Salt-gradient Solar Ponds: Summary of US Department of Energy Sponsored Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.; Johnson, D. H.; Jones, G. F.; Zangrando, F.

    1984-01-01

    The solar pond research program conducted by the United States Department of Energy was discontinued after 1983. This document summarizes the results of the program, reviews the state of the art, and identifies the remaining outstanding issues. Solar ponds is a generic term but, in the context of this report, the term solar pond refers specifically to saltgradient solar pond. Several small research solar ponds have been built and successfully tested. Procedures for filling the pond, maintaining the gradient, adjusting the zone boundaries, and extracting heat were developed. Theories and models were developed and verified. The major remaining unknowns or issues involve the physical behavior of large ponds; i.e., wind mixing of the surface, lateral range or reach of horizontally injected fluids, ground thermal losses, and gradient zone boundary erosion caused by pumping fluid for heat extraction. These issues cannot be scaled and must be studied in a large outdoor solar pond.

  18. Effects of hydrology on zooplankton communities in high-mountain ponds, Mount Rainier National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Girdner, Scott; Larson, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    Ten high-mountain ponds in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, were studied from ice-out in June through September1992 to investigate the influences of fluctuating pond volumes on zooplankton communities. All of the ponds were at maximum volume immediately after ice-out. The temporary pond with the shortest wet phase was inhabited by rotifer taxa with short generation times and a crustacean taxon with the ability to encyst as drought-resistant resting bodies at immature stages of development. Dominant zooplankton taxa in three other temporary ponds and six permanent ponds were similar. Rotifer densities typically were lower in temporary ponds relative to those in permanent ponds, although Brachionus urceolaris was abundant shortly before the temporary ponds dried. Large volume loss was associated with large declines in total abundances of crustacean populations. Daphnia rosea was not present in temporary ponds following fall recharge. In deep-permanent ponds, copepods had slower developmental rates, smaller temporal changes in total abundances of crustacean populations and two additional large-bodied crustacean taxa were present relative to the characteristics of crustacean communities in shallow-permanent ponds. Owing to their small sizes and sensitivity to environmental change, collectively ponds such as these may provide an early signal of long-term climate change in aquatic systems.

  19. Revisiting salt marsh resilience to sea level rise: Are ponds responsible for permanent land loss?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, G.

    2016-07-01

    Ponds are unvegetated rounded depressions commonly present on marsh platforms. The role of ponds on the long-term morphological evolution of tidal marshes is unclear—at times ponds expand but eventually recover the marsh platform, at other times ponds never recover and lead to permanent marsh loss. Existing field observations indicate that episodic disturbances of the marsh vegetation cause the formation of small (1-10 m) isolated ponds, even if the vegetated platform keeps pace with relative sea level rise (RSLR) and that isolated ponds tend to deepen and enlarge until they eventually connect to the channel network. Here I implement a simple model to study the vertical and planform evolution of a single connected pond. A newly connected pond recovers if its bed lies above the limit for marsh plant growth or if the inorganic deposition rate is larger than the RSLR rate. A pond that cannot accrete faster than RSLR will deepen and enlarge, eventually entering a runaway erosion by wave edge retreat. A large tidal range, a large sediment supply, and a low rate of RSLR favor pond recovery. The model suggests that inorganic sediment deposition alone controls pond recovery, even in marshes where organic matter dominates accretion of the vegetated platform. As such, halting permanent marsh loss by pond collapse requires to increase inorganic sediment deposition. Because pond collapse is possible even if the vegetated platform keeps pace with RSLR, I conclude that marsh resilience to RSLR is less than previously quantified.

  20. Stormwater ponds, constructed wetlands, and other best management practices as potential breeding sites for West Nile virus vectors in Delaware during 2004.

    PubMed

    Gingrich, Jack B; Anderson, Robert D; Williams, Gregory M; O'Connor, Linda; Harkins, Kevin

    2006-06-01

    We performed longitudinal surveys of mosquito larval abundance (mean mosquito larvae per dip) in 87 stormwater ponds and constructed wetland in Delaware from June to September 2004. We analyzed selected water quality factors, water depth, types of vegetation, degree of shade, and level of insect predation in relation to mosquito abundance. The 2004 season was atypical, with most ponds remaining wet for the entire summer. In terms of West Nile virus (WNV) vectors, wetlands predominantly produce Aedes vexans, culex pipiens pipiens, and Culex restuans. Retention ponds generally produced the same species as wetlands, except that Cx. p. pipiens was more abundant than Cx. restuans in retention ponds. Aedes vexans and Culex salinarius were the most abundant species to Conservation Restoration Enhancement Program ponds. Sand filters uniquely produced high numbers of Cx. restuans, Cx. p. pipiens, and Aedes japonicus japonicus, a newly invasive vector species. Site that alternately dried and flooded, mostly detention ponds, forebays of retention ponds, and some wetlands often produced Ae. vexans, an occasional WNV bridge vector species. Overall, seasonal distribution of vectors was bimodal, with peaks occurring during early and late summer. Ponds with shallow sides and heavy shade generally produced an abundance of mosquitoes, unless insect predators were abundant. Bright, sunny ponds with steep sides and little vegetation generally produced the fewest mosquitoes. The associations among mosquito species and selected vegetation types are discussed.

  1. Gradient-zone erosion in seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, J.; Hart, R.A.; Kleis, S.J.; Bannerot, R.B.

    1997-02-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to examine the feasibility of using seawater solar ponds in mariculture operations along the Texas gulf coast to protect fish crops from the potentially lethal, cold temperatures experienced in outdoor ponds. Seawater solar ponds in the form of floating thermal refuge areas are proposed as a method for reducing the loss of heat from small sections of a pond. Gradient zone erosion under various ambient and operating conditions is examined. Comparisons with previous laboratory studies show a much lower entrainment rate in the natural environment. For conditions which are typical of those encountered in mariculture pond operation, the entrainment rate was found to depend only weakly on the Richardson number. For these conditions, a simple (linear) correlation of entrainment rate with wind speed was developed.

  2. 50 CFR 14.53 - Detention and refusal of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detention and refusal of clearance. 14.53 Section 14.53 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE...

  3. Vocational Training in Juvenile Detention: A Call for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ameen, Edward J.; Lee, Debbiesiu L.

    2012-01-01

    Given high recidivism rates and the vulnerability of detained youth, the authors posit that juvenile detention centers may be most efficacious by serving as both place and process to create career opportunity through vocational training. The authors review the psychosocial factors contributing to delinquency and the primary theories of…

  4. 27 CFR 20.28 - Detention of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detention of containers. 20.28 Section 20.28 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM...

  5. 49 CFR 453.3 - Detention orders and other orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY SAFETY APPROVAL OF CARGO CONTAINERS CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT § 453.3 Detention..., or other person having actual control over the container involved. Prompt notification is also given to the owner of the container, or his agent. The notification identifies the container involved,...

  6. 8 CFR 1236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 1236.3 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS... before the Service or the Immigration Court or to ensure the juvenile's safety or that of others....

  7. 8 CFR 1236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 1236.3 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS... before the Service or the Immigration Court or to ensure the juvenile's safety or that of others....

  8. 76 FR 27079 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Detention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Detention AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 30-Day notice and request for comments; Extension of an existing information collection: 1651-0073. SUMMARY: U.S....

  9. Jail Pedagogy: Liberatory Education inside a California Juvenile Detention Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 2 million juveniles are arrested each year. Half are sentenced to serve terms of incarceration. Although many scholars have written about teaching in detention facilities, few directly address how prisoners are being taught. This research explores the experiences, teaching philosophy, and practices of correctional educators. To learn…

  10. 8 CFR 1236.1 - Apprehension, custody, and detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL... United States. (3) Criminal aliens eligible to be considered for release. Except as provided in this... appear for any scheduled proceeding (including any appearance required by the Service or EOIR) in...

  11. 8 CFR 1236.1 - Apprehension, custody, and detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL... United States. (3) Criminal aliens eligible to be considered for release. Except as provided in this... appear for any scheduled proceeding (including any appearance required by the Service or EOIR) in...

  12. Conditions of Confinement: Juvenile Detention and Corrections Facilities. Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Dale G.; And Others

    The most comprehensive nationwide research ever conducted on the juvenile detention and corrections field was a study by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) assessing conditions of confinement for juveniles and determining the extent to which those conditions conform to recognized national professional standards. The…

  13. Designing a constructed wetland for the detention of agricultural runoff for water quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Millhollon, Eddie P; Rodrigue, Paul B; Rabb, James L; Martin, Danny F; Anderson, Russell A; Dans, Darinda R

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to construct a wetland that would detain runoff from a 162-ha watershed for the purposes of improving water quality. The volume of runoff that needed to be detained was determined to be that amount coming off the 162-ha watershed consisting of 146 ha of cultivated crop land and 16 ha of pasture that exceeded the amount that would have come off of the watershed in its natural, forested state. The Soil Conservation Service (now the Natural Resource Conservation Service [NRCS]) runoff curve number method was used to estimate runoff from the watershed in its natural, forested state and in its current state of cultivated crop land and pasture. The design of the constructed wetland was accomplished using the natural topography of the wetland site and the design criteria for a sediment containment system developed by NRCS. The SPAW (Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Water Field & Pond Hydrology) computer model was used to model depth and volume in the wetland to determine if the constructed wetland design would accommodate typical runoff events. Construction of the wetland occurred over a 4-mo period. The capabilities of the system were verified when Hurricane Rita deposited above-normal rainfall to the wetland site area. The wetland was able to accommodate this event, allowing flow through the system for 9 d, followed by continued detention of remaining runoff for water quality improvement.

  14. Comorbidity and Continuity of Psychiatric Disorders in Youth After Detention

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Karen M.; Zwecker, Naomi A.; Welty, Leah J.; Hershfield, Jennifer A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Psychiatric disorders and comorbidity are prevalent among incarcerated juveniles. To date, no large-scale study has examined the comorbidity and continuity of psychiatric disorders after youth leave detention. OBJECTIVE To determine the comorbidity and continuity of psychiatric disorders among youth 5 years after detention. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective longitudinal study of a stratified random sample of 1829 youth (1172 male and 657 female; 1005 African American, 296 non-Hispanic white, 524 Hispanic, and 4 other race/ethnicity) recruited from the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, Chicago, Illinois, between November 20, 1995, and June 14, 1998, and who received their time 2 follow-up interview between May 22, 2000, and April 3, 2004. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES At baseline, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3. At follow-ups, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (child and young adult versions) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Version IV (substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder). RESULTS Five years after detention, when participants were 14 to 24 years old, almost 27% of males and 14% of females had comorbid psychiatric disorders. Although females had significantly higher rates of comorbidity when in detention (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7), males had significantly higher rates than females at follow-up (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-3.3). Substance use plus behavioral disorders was the most common comorbid profile among males, affecting 1 in 6. Participants with more disorders at baseline were more likely to have a disorder approximately 5 years after detention, even after adjusting for demographic characteristics. We found substantial continuity of disorder. However, some baseline disorders predicted alcohol and drug use disorders at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although prevalence rates of comorbidity decreased in youth after detention, rates

  15. Problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region

    SciTech Connect

    Hassab, M.A.; Tag, I.A.; Kamal, W.A. ); Al-Noaimi, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper highlights the main problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region, characterized by hot, windy, and dusty environment. These problems are excessive erosion of the gradient zone, the formation of sizeable localized convective zones, the deterioration of pond water clarity and the high rates of surface evaporation. These weather-related problems severely impair the pond operation, as they lead to a serious drop in its collection and storage efficiency, and an excessive increase in salt consumption. Experience gained from operating a 1,600 m{sup 2} pond and a small-scale experimental pond is presented.

  16. Homing and movement of yellow-phase American eels in freshwater ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamothe, P.J.; Gallagher, M.; Chivers, D.P.; Moring, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Ten yellow-phase American eels, Anguilla rostrata, were captured from Hammond Pond, a small freshwater pond located in central Maine, U.S.A. The eels were implanted with radio transmitters and released into nearby Hermon Pond. At the same time, 10 eels were captured from Hermon Pond, implanted with radio transmitters and returned to Hermon Pond to serve as a control group. The two ponds are connected by a 1.6km section of Souadabscook Stream. We tracked the 20 eels over the 90-day duration of the experiment. Four of the ten displaced eels returned to their home pond. None of the control fish were located outside of their home pond during the study. Three of the four eels that successfully returned to their home pond did so under the darkness of the new moon and the fourth made the journey during the first quarter moon phase. Location data showed that translocated and native eels tended to occupy different areas of Hermon Pond. This study provides evidence of homing behavior in American eels living in small freshwater ponds and indications that homing activity may be linked to lunar cycle.

  17. Microalgal separation from high-rate ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Nurdogan, Y.

    1988-01-01

    High rate ponding (HRP) processes are playing an increasing role in the treatment of organic wastewaters in sunbelt communities. Photosynthetic oxygenation by algae has proved to cost only one-seventh as much as mechanical aeration for activated sludge systems. During this study, an advanced HRP, which produces an effluent equivalent to tertiary treatment has been studied. It emphasizes not only waste oxidation but also algal separation and nutrient removal. This new system is herein called advanced tertiary high rate ponding (ATHRP). Phosphorus removal in HRP systems is normally low because algal uptake of phosphorus is about one percent of their 200-300 mg/L dry weights. Precipitation of calcium phosphates by autofluocculation also occurs in HRP at high pH levels, but it is generally not complete due to insufficient calcium concentration in the pond. In the case of Richmond where the studies were conducted, the sewage is very low in calcium. Therefore, enhancement of natural autoflocculation was studied by adding small amounts of lime to the pond. Through this simple procedure phosphorus and nitrogen removals were virtually complete justifying the terminology ATHRP.

  18. Pond fractals in a tidal flat.

    PubMed

    Cael, B B; Lambert, Bennett; Bisson, Kelsey

    2015-11-01

    Studies over the past decade have reported power-law distributions for the areas of terrestrial lakes and Arctic melt ponds, as well as fractal relationships between their areas and coastlines. Here we report similar fractal structure of ponds in a tidal flat, thereby extending the spatial and temporal scales on which such phenomena have been observed in geophysical systems. Images taken during low tide of a tidal flat in Damariscotta, Maine, reveal a well-resolved power-law distribution of pond sizes over three orders of magnitude with a consistent fractal area-perimeter relationship. The data are consistent with the predictions of percolation theory for unscreened perimeters and scale-free cluster size distributions and are robust to alterations of the image processing procedure. The small spatial and temporal scales of these data suggest this easily observable system may serve as a useful model for investigating the evolution of pond geometries, while emphasizing the generality of fractal behavior in geophysical surfaces.

  19. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  20. Functional Impairment in Youth Three Years after Detention

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Karen M.; Choe, Jeanne Y.; Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin G.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This article examines functional impairment across global and specific dimensions among youth 3 years after their detention. Methods Functional impairment was assessed using the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) in a large, stratified, random sample of formerly detained youth (N = 1653). Results More than one-fifth of the sample were scored as having marked impairment that required, at minimum, “multiple sources of care” (CAFAS Total Score of 100 or higher); 7.0% required “intensive intervention” (CAFAS Total Score ≥140). Most of the sample had impairment; only 7.5% of the sample had “no noteworthy impairment” (CAFAS Total Score ≤10). Significantly more males were impaired than females. Among males living in the community at follow-up, African Americans and Hispanics were more likely to be impaired than non-Hispanic whites. In comparison to males living in the community, males who were incarcerated at follow-up were significantly more likely to have impaired thinking and impaired functioning at their place of residence but less likely to have substance use problems. Conclusions Three years after detention, most youth struggle in one or more life domains; more than one in five have marked impairment in functioning. These findings underscore the ongoing costs, to both youth and society, of our failure to provide effective rehabilitation to youth after detention. PMID:19465316

  1. Are healthcare professionals working in Australia's immigration detention centres condoning torture?

    PubMed

    Isaacs, David

    2016-07-01

    Australian immigration detention centres are in secluded locations, some on offshore islands, and are subject to extreme secrecy, comparable with 'black sites' elsewhere. There are parallels between healthcare professionals working in immigration detention centres and healthcare professionals involved with or complicit in torture. In both cases, healthcare professionals are conflicted between a duty of care to improve the health of patients and the interests of the government. While this duality of interests has been recognised previously, the full implications for healthcare professionals working in immigration detention have not been addressed. The Australian Government maintains that immigration detention is needed for security checks, but the average duration of immigration detention has increased from 10 weeks to 14 months, and detainees are not informed of the progress of their application for refugee status. Long-term immigration detention causes major mental health problems, is illegal in international law and arguably fulfils the recognised definition of torture. It is generally accepted that healthcare professionals should not participate in or condone torture. Australian healthcare professionals thus face a major ethical dilemma: patients in immigration detention have pressing mental and physical health needs, but providing healthcare might support or represent complicity in a practice that is unethical. Individual healthcare professionals need to decide whether or not to work in immigration detention centres. If they do so, they need to decide for how long and to what extent restrictive contracts and gagging laws will constrain them from advocating for closing detention centres.

  2. METAPOPULATION STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF POND BREEDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our review indicates that pond breeding amphibians exhibit highly variable spatial and temporal population dynamics, such that no single generalized model can realistically describe these animals. We propose that consideration of breeding pond permanence, and adaptations to pond ...

  3. A simple pond parametrization for malaria transmission models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, A. M.; Asare, E.; Amekudzi, L. K.

    2012-04-01

    In order to model malaria effectively using a dynamical modelling approach, a realistic representation of the surface hydrology is required. Achieving this goal is hindered by the fact that key vector breeding sites are small in spatial scale, ranging from small permanent ponds to temporary puddles. This small spatial scale confounds modelling efforts as the topography on such small scales is unknown, and also renders detection by remote sensing techniques difficult implying a requirement of in-situ measurements. Results from ongoing measurements of breeding sites in Kumasi (Ghana) are shown, along with attempts to reproduce these using a simple pond 'parametrization'. The significant impact of the pond model implementation and settings on malaria simulations using the new VECTRI dynamical disease model is demonstrated.

  4. Flood-frequency and detention-storage characteristics of Bear Branch watershed, Murfreesboro, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Outlaw, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model [DR3M] was applied to a 2.27-square-mile portion of Bear Branch watershed at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, to demonstrate the application of this model to small urban watersheds in central Tennessee. Kinematic wave theory was used to route excess rainfall overland and through a branched system of stream channels. The model was calibrated with hyetographs from two raingages, hydrographs from two streamflow gages, and peak-stage elevations from two crest-stage gages that were operated in the watershed from March 1989 through July 1992. Standard errors of estimate for peak discharge at Northfield Boulevard and Compton Road are 41.1 and 92.2 percent, respectively. Standard errors of estimate for runoff volumes at Northfield Boulevard and Compton Road are 53.5 and 97.6 percent, respectively. The calibrated model was used to simulate flood hydrographs for 73 large storms occurring during the period 1901-1990 and the simulated flood peaks were used to develop flood-frequency relations for present (1992) conditions in the watershed. Flood discharges for the 100-year recurrence-interval storm were estimated as 350 cubic feet per second at Northfield Boulevard, 1,000 cubic feet per second upstream of DeJarnett Lane, 610 cubic feet per second downstream of DeJarnett Lane, 800 cubic feet per second upstream of Osborne Lane, 790 cubic feet per second downstream of Osborne Lane, and 1,000 cubic feet per second at Compton Road. The effect of detention storage on flood hydrographs was simulated at several locations in the watershed. Detention storage upstream of DeJarnett Lane significantly reduces downstream flood peaks, whereas detention storage upstream of Osborne Lane has almost no effect. The results of this study indicate that the Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model could be an important tool for testing the effects of future development and flood storage alternatives on flooding in small urban

  5. Schoolyard Ponds: Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2001-01-01

    Engaging, attractive schoolyard ponds provide habitat for wildlife and hold great educational promise. Reviews water safety and liability issues including mud, stagnant pond water that serves as mosquito breeding grounds, and drowning. Offers ideas for creatively addressing those issues through site planning, shallow water depth, signage and…

  6. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management

    PubMed Central

    Soomets, Elin; Rannap, Riinu; Lõhmus, Asko

    2016-01-01

    Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles) in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction) and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc.) and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal species for

  7. Farmed Areas Predict the Distribution of Amphibian Ponds in a Traditional Rural Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hartel, Tibor; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. Methodology/Findings Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii) to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata) and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo). Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking) and Bufo bufo in fishponds. Conclusions/Significance Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes. PMID:23704928

  8. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management.

    PubMed

    Soomets, Elin; Rannap, Riinu; Lõhmus, Asko

    2016-01-01

    Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles) in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction) and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc.) and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal species for

  9. Multimetric Evaluation of Detention Basin Retrofit to Reduce Hydrologic Alteration of Urbanization and Restore Stream Stability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Conventional stormwater detention basins are ubiquitous in the developed portions of U.S., particularly those areas developed since the 1980s. Because most detention basins were designed exclusively for flood control, they are not being utilized to their fullest potent...

  10. 76 FR 4369 - Interim Deputation Agreements; Interim BIA Adult Detention Facility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Interim Deputation Agreements; Interim BIA Adult Detention Facility Guidelines... publication of the Interim BIA Adult Detention Facility Guidelines and the Interim Model Deputation Agreements... of 2010. Three Interim Model Deputation Agreements will be used: one agreement for tribes in...

  11. 25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country... ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY DETENTION FACILITIES AND PROGRAMS § 10.1 Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs? Policies and standards are required to ensure that all Bureau...

  12. 25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country... ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY DETENTION FACILITIES AND PROGRAMS § 10.1 Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs? Policies and standards are required to ensure that all Bureau...

  13. 25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country... ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY DETENTION FACILITIES AND PROGRAMS § 10.1 Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs? Policies and standards are required to ensure that all Bureau...

  14. 25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country... ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY DETENTION FACILITIES AND PROGRAMS § 10.1 Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs? Policies and standards are required to ensure that all Bureau...

  15. 78 FR 7994 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption'' that published in the Federal Register on May 5, 2011... food for human or animal consumption which were established to implement changes to the FD&C Act...

  16. Developing and Implementing a Stress Management Program for Special Educators in a Juvenile Detention Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Joan R.

    This paper describes a practicum designed to increase the stress management skills of 10 special educators working in a juvenile detention center. Teachers at the juvenile detention center were taking an inordinate amount of sick leave and engaging in behaviors that were counter-productive to their delivery of educational services to detained…

  17. 21 CFR 1.384 - When does a detention order terminate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When does a detention order terminate? 1.384 Section 1.384 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption...

  18. 21 CFR 1.384 - When does a detention order terminate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When does a detention order terminate? 1.384 Section 1.384 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption...

  19. 25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... police, detention, and conservation enforcement functions? 12.4 Section 12.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement... uniformed police operations, detention facilities, and conservation enforcement operations at any...

  20. 25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... police, detention, and conservation enforcement functions? 12.4 Section 12.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement... uniformed police operations, detention facilities, and conservation enforcement operations at any...

  1. 25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... police, detention, and conservation enforcement functions? 12.4 Section 12.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement... uniformed police operations, detention facilities, and conservation enforcement operations at any...

  2. 25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... police, detention, and conservation enforcement functions? 12.4 Section 12.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation enforcement... uniformed police operations, detention facilities, and conservation enforcement operations at any...

  3. US EPA WINTER FLOUNDER PROJECTS AND OTHER WORK IN RHODE ISLAND SALT PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We will briefly summarize selected EPA research in Rhode Island's salt ponds from 2000 through 2003. In one project, during the summer of 2000, we used a 1.75 m2 drop sampler to quantify populations of juvenile flatfishes and other small nekton in Ninigret Pond. Mean abundance ...

  4. Waterbird use of high saltmarsh ponds created for open marsh water management (mosquito control)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Howe, M.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The excavation of small (1 ha) natural ponds or pannes or adjacent tidal creeks. Recent modifications in pond construction in Delaware and New Jersey allow for shallower, more sloping basins which should enhance use by waterfowl and shorebirds while still ensuring a water reservoir to support fish populations.

  5. Pond Ecology in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneidl, Sally Stenhouse

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities with organisms from freshwater ponds and ditches. Several experiments involve predation, some involve habitat choices, and one addressees the role of sunlight in supporting plant-eating animals. (PR)

  6. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels into artificial ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, T.J.; Monroe, E.M.; Kenyon, R.; Gutreuter, S.; Welke, K.I.; Thiel, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Relocation of unionid mussels into refuges (e.g., hatchery ponds) has been suggested as a management tool to protect these animals from the threat of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion. To evaluate the efficacy of relocation, we experimentally relocated 768 mussels, representing 5 species (Leptodea fragilis, Obliquaria reflexa, Fusconaia flava, Amblema plicata, and Quadrula quadrula) into an earthen pond at a National Fish Hatchery or back into the river. In both locations, mussels were placed into 1 of 4 treatments (mesh bags, corrals, and buried or suspended substrate-filled trays). Mussels were examined annually for survival, growth (shell length and wet mass), and physiological condition (glycogen concentration in foot and mantle and tissue condition index) for 36 mo in the pond or 40 mo in the river. We observed significant differences in mortality rates between locations (mortality was 4 times greater in the pond than in the river), among treatments (lowest mortality in the suspended trays), and among species (lower mortality in the amblemines than lamp-silines). Overall survival in both locations averaged 80% the 1st year; survival in the pond decreased dramatically after that. Although length and weight varied between locations and over time, these changes were small, suggesting that their utility as short-term measures of well being in long-lived unionids is questionable. Mussels relocated to the pond were in poor physiological condition relative to those in the river, but the magnitude of these differences was small compared to the inherent variability in physiological condition of reference mussels. These data suggest that relocation of unionids into artificial ponds is a high-risk conservation strategy; alternatives such as introduction of infected host fish, identification of mussel beds at greatest risk from zebra mussels, and a critical, large-scale assessment of the factors contributing to their decline should be explored.

  7. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  8. Biogeochemical ecology of aquaculture ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Weisburd, R.S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two methods to determine rates of organic matter production and consumption were applied in shrimp aquaculture ponds. Several questions were posed: can net rates of organic matter production and consumption be determined accurately through application of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) mass balance in a pond with high advective through-put Are organically loaded aquaculture ponds autotrophic How do rates of organic production vary temporally Are there diurnal changes in respiration rates Four marine ponds in Hawaii have been evaluated for a 53 day period through the use of geochemical mass balances. All fluxes of DIC into and out of the ponds were considered. DIC was calculated from hourly pH measurements and weekly alkalinity measurements. Average uptake of DIC from the pond water, equivalent to net community production, revealed net autotrophy in all cases. Hourly and longer period variations in organic matter production rates were examined. The daily cycle dominated the variation in rates of net community production. Maximal rates of net community production were maintained for four to six hours starting in mid-morning. Respiration rates decreased rapidly during the night in two of the ponds and remained essentially constant in the others. A similar pattern of decreasing respiration at night was seen in freshwater shrimp ponds which were studied with incubations. A new method involving isotope dilution of {sup 14}C-labeled DIC was used to measure respiration rates in light and dark bottles. This method is an inexpensive and convenient procedure which should also be useful in other environments. The incubations demonstrated that plankton respiration rates peak at or soon after solar noon and vary over the course of the day by about a factor of two.

  9. Stable Stratification for Solar Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, G. D.

    1982-01-01

    Stable density gradient forms in pond saturated with disodium phosphate (DSP). Volume of DSP saturated water tends to develop temperature and density layers. Since tests indicate thermal and density gradients remain in equilibrium at heat removal rates of 60 percent or more of heat input rate, pond containing DSP would be suitable for collecting solar energy and transferring it to heat exchanger for practical use.

  10. Salton Sea solar pond project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.; Meitlis, I.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of constructing salt gradient solar ponds within the Salton Sea is being studied. These ponds would serve a dual purpose: (1) become a depository for unwanted salt and (2) supply thermal energy for driving turbine electric power systems. Under present circumstances, the rise in salinity is expected to eliminate fish life and create other unfavorable conditions. The proposed concept would have a power generation potential of 600 MWe.

  11. Heat transfer through a solar pond nonconvective zone of recycled glass

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    The heat transfer through a recycled glass/water porous medium is examined experimentally to determine the medium's effectiveness as a nonconvective zone in a solar pond. Temperature distributions within clear bottle or broken glass/water mediums are studied with heated from above, and heated from below orientations. A small solar pond of glass bottles as well as a numerical simulation of a glass sphere solar pond are also investigated. Results of the experimental study show that convection was not suppressed by using bottles during bottom heating and indicate that stagnation will only occur with very small glass fragments. The computer simulation further indicated that even with perfect transmittance through the medium, pond efficiency will be far less than for a salt gradient pond. The small pond tests show no temperature gradient (indicating little stagnation), show little radiation transmittance through the medium (less than 10% for a .4 meter pond), and confirm the conclusion that a glass bottle or broken glass/water medium is unsuitable as a solar pond nonconvective zone.

  12. Detainees, staff, and health care services in immigration detention centres: a descriptive comparison of detention systems in Sweden and in the Benelux countries

    PubMed Central

    Puthoopparambil, Soorej J.; Bjerneld, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Background Immigration detention has been shown to negatively affect the health and well-being of detainees. The aim of the study was to describe and compare policies and practices that could affect the health and well-being of immigrant detainees in the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) to those in Sweden. Design This was a case study. Data were collected in two phases using a questionnaire developed particularly for this study. In the first phase, authorities in the Benelux countries responded to the questionnaire via email. During the second phase, a research team visited detention centres in the Benelux countries to observe and further explore, strengthening findings through triangulation. Data on Swedish detention centres were collected in previous studies. Results Compared to the Benelux countries, Sweden has limited health care provision available in the detention centres. Swedish detention centres did not have mental health care professionals working at the centres and had fewer restrictions within the centres with regard to access to mobile phone, internet, and various recreational activities. Compared to Sweden, the detention centres in the Benelux countries have more staff categories providing services to the detainees that are provided with relevant and timely on-the-job training. All the countries, except Belgium, provide subsistence allowances to detainees. Conclusion Despite the Common European Asylum System framework, differences exist among the four European Union member states in providing services to immigrant detainees. This study highlights these differences, thereby providing a window on how these diverse approaches may serve as a learning tool for improving services offered to immigrant detainees. In Sweden, the health care available to detainees and training and recruitment of staff should be improved, while the Benelux countries should strive to reduce restrictions within detention centres. PMID:26950568

  13. Detainees, staff, and health care services in immigration detention centres: a descriptive comparison of detention systems in Sweden and in the Benelux countries.

    PubMed

    Puthoopparambil, Soorej J; Bjerneld, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Background Immigration detention has been shown to negatively affect the health and well-being of detainees. The aim of the study was to describe and compare policies and practices that could affect the health and well-being of immigrant detainees in the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) to those in Sweden. Design This was a case study. Data were collected in two phases using a questionnaire developed particularly for this study. In the first phase, authorities in the Benelux countries responded to the questionnaire via email. During the second phase, a research team visited detention centres in the Benelux countries to observe and further explore, strengthening findings through triangulation. Data on Swedish detention centres were collected in previous studies. Results Compared to the Benelux countries, Sweden has limited health care provision available in the detention centres. Swedish detention centres did not have mental health care professionals working at the centres and had fewer restrictions within the centres with regard to access to mobile phone, internet, and various recreational activities. Compared to Sweden, the detention centres in the Benelux countries have more staff categories providing services to the detainees that are provided with relevant and timely on-the-job training. All the countries, except Belgium, provide subsistence allowances to detainees. Conclusion Despite the Common European Asylum System framework, differences exist among the four European Union member states in providing services to immigrant detainees. This study highlights these differences, thereby providing a window on how these diverse approaches may serve as a learning tool for improving services offered to immigrant detainees. In Sweden, the health care available to detainees and training and recruitment of staff should be improved, while the Benelux countries should strive to reduce restrictions within detention centres.

  14. Feasibility of using saturated solar ponds for brine unmixing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-30

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate in the laboratory the feasibility of using saturated solar ponds for unmixing a brine of intermediate concentration into dilute and concentrated brine streams for salinity gradient energy conversion systems. This objective was accomplished by conducting experiments on laboratory saturated ponds using borax, potassium perchlorate, potassium nitrate, disodium phosphate and potassium alum. Results from ponds using borax, potassium nitrate and disodium phosphate conclusively demonstrated that saturated solar ponds can self-generate and self-maintain a stable density gradient. Moreover, these ponds reestablished stable density profiles after the ponds were externally mixed. Based on preliminary results, the residence time for unmixing of a brine of intermediate concentration into dilute and concentrated brine streams varies from a few days for the borax pond to about two weeks for the disodium phosphate pond, depending upon the characteristics of the individual saturated solution. Because of only a very small increase in the density of saturated solutions from 25/sup 0/C to 90/sup 0/C, the potassium perchlorate pond could not establish a stable density stratification.

  15. Waterbird use of saltmarsh ponds created for open marsh water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Hatfield, J.S.; Howe, M.A.; Klugman, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    Open Marsh Water Management (OMWM) as an alternative to pesticides for mosquito control in saltmarshes along the Atlantic Coast has created debate among biologists. We designed an experiment to determine waterbird (American black duck (Anas rubripes) and other waterfowl, wading birds, shorebirds, gulls, and terns) use (during daylight) of ponds created for mosquito control compared with use of pre-existing water bodies (i.e., natural tidal ponds, creeks, old ditches) and refuge impoundments. We also evaluated the influence of pond size and depth on waterbird use of wetlands. We documented bird use of different habitats for 1 year. The highest densities of waterfowl, in autumn, occurred in 0.030.06ha ponds (P lt 0.05) versus ponds either lt 0.02 ha or gt 0.08 ha; highest shorebird densities occurred in summer in ponds gt 0.10 ha (P lt 0.05). Pond depth affected shorebird and other waterfowl use in some seasons. Comparisons of mean number of birds using created (OMWM) ponds with mean number of birds using other water bodies revealed that most species showed no pattern (P gt 0.05) of disproportionate use versus availability. At high tidal levels, most species groups used OMWM ponds in the marsh more often (P lt 0.05) than other water bodies. Black ducks and other waterfowl used nearby refuge impoundments in higher densities than they did OMWM ponds, for nesting and during autumn-winter (all Ps lt 0.05). Creating small ( lt 0.1 ha) ponds for mosquito control does not enhance waterbird habitat, at least not where large impoundments are in close proximity. We recommend that in areas where OMWM practices seem appropriate, fewer large ( gt 0.10 ha) ponds be constructed with shallow ( lt 15 cm) basins and sloping sides.

  16. Blogging from North Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziali, C. G.; Edwards, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    Sea going research expeditions provide an ideal opportunity for outreach through blogs: the finite duration limits the author's commitment; scientists are usually in a remote location with fewer distractions; and fieldwork is visual and interesting to describe. Over four weeks this winter, Katrina Edwards of USC authored a blog about her deep-sea drilling expedition to North Pond, a depression in the ocean crust in the mid-Atlantic. She emailed daily dispatches and photos to USC Media Relations, which maintained a (still accessible) blog. Written for the general public, the blog quickly attracted interest from lay readers as well as from media organizations. Scientific American carried the blog on its web site, and the National Science Foundation linked to it in its "Science 360" electronic news digest. The blog also led to a Q&A with Edwards in the widely-read "Behind the Scenes" feature of LiveScience. Interest from science bloggers and National Geographic towards the end suggests that the blog could have expanded its reach given more time: expeditions lasting between six weeks and three months, such as occur during ocean drilling expeditions, would appear to be ideal candidates for a blog. Most importantly, the blog educated readers about the importance to planetary life of what Edwards calls the "intraterrestrials": the countless microbes that inhabit the oceanic crust and influence major chemical and biological cycles. Considering that the subjects of the expedition were invisible critters in a pitch-dark place, the blog shows what can be accomplished by scientists and institutions committed to public outreach.

  17. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  18. Solar pond power plant feasibility study for Davis, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y. C.; Singer, M. J.; Marsh, H. E.; Harris, J.; Walton, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of constructing a solar pond power plant at Davis, California was studied. Site visits, weather data compilation, soil and water analyses, conceptual system design and analyses, a material and equipment market survey, conceptual site layout, and a preliminary cost estimate were studied. It was concluded that a solar pond power plant is technically feasible, but economically unattractive. The relatively small scale of the proposed plant and the high cost of importing salt resulted in a disproportionately high capital investment with respect to the annual energy production capacity of the plant. Cycle optimization and increased plant size would increase the economical attractiveness of the proposed concept.

  19. Role of probiotics on the environment of shrimp pond.

    PubMed

    Sambasivam, S; Chandran, R; Khan, S Ajmal

    2003-01-01

    Recent disease outbreak in shrimp farming caused mainly by bacteria, virus, fungi or a combination of these etiologic agents is attributed to disturbance in the environment of pond. To combat this, different antibiotics and chemicals are being used which are reported to be not environment friendly. Of late, a new and unique biotechnological product called "Probiotics " is being used widely by all the shrimp farmers worldwide, which is found to be more effective and environmentally safe also. In the present study 2 probiotics were used in a small 0.7 ha shrimp farm near Pattukottai in Tamil Nadu State for one culture period for the management of pond environment and also the gut ecology of Penaeus monodon. The environmental parameters analysed were within the acceptable limits. It was evident from the results that the production was better in the experimental pond where the probiotics were used. The biological parameters such as the average body weight, FCR and total harvest achieved were better in the experimental pond than the control pond, all due to congenial environment, which obtained in the former mainly due to the use of probiotics.

  20. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-12-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation.Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp.

  1. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  2. [Personality disorders self-inflicted woundings in detention].

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Nino; Mirigliani, Alessia

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorders, especially borderline and antisocial, are pre-eminent in a penitentiary. Under detention, among 100 patients valuated, 75% have a personality disorder; the 55% of these is diagnosed with borderline personality, while the 20% have a diagnosis of antisocial personality. Borderline disorder is often unnoticed instead of antisocial that is emphasized by self-inflicted wounding and behavioural disorders. The most frequent self-damaging behaviours are, first of all, slashes, then ingestion of foreign bodies and finally burnings and using sharp objects. Environment associated with narrowness, overcrowding, low drugs effects, heighten self-inflicted wounding. Psychiatrists, psychologists and prison guards must consider this manipulative, recriminating, self-therapeutic behavioural way aimed just by obtaining benefits.

  3. Design and use of brushless dc motor without detent torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wavre, N.

    1990-03-01

    Two applications of motors which cannot accept a residual detent torque due to the rotor magnets are presented. The first application concerns the joint mechanism of the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite/HERA project. The brushless torque motor drives a reversible harmonic drive with a high gear ratio of 500. The motor is designed to produce a stall torque of 3.0 Nm with a total imput power of 30 W for a total weight of 1.5 kg, with a no load speed of 500 rpm. The second application concerns the driving mechanism of an infrared sensor. The need to take all geometrical and magnetic parameters into consideration in designing space mechanisms is stressed.

  4. Heavy Metal Removal in a Detention Basin for Road Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belizario, Paulo; Scalize, Paulo; Albuquerque, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Road runoff produced during rainfalls has significant pollutant load, which can cause important environmental impacts on waste and soil. The efficiency of a detention basin for removing heavy metals (Cr, Cu and Zn) in road runoffwas evaluated for 8 rainfalls over one year with different intensities (between 16mmand 103 mm) and durations (higher than 3 hours). The basin showed good performance for removing all metals for precipitation intensities between 16mmand 103mmand rainfall durations up to 3 hours. The volume of the basin is suitable for retaining all the road runoff coming from rainfalls with intensities lower than 29.4mmand duration longer than 6 hours. This type of monitoring should be introduced in Environmental Monitoring Plans of roads because it allows evaluating the effectiveness of treatment systems and preventing the possible impacts of discharges into the environment.

  5. Tidal day organic and inorganic material flux of ponds in the Liberty Island freshwater tidal wetland.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Peggy W; Mayr, Shawn; Liu, Leji; Tang, Alison

    2015-01-01

    The loss of inorganic and organic material export and habitat produced by freshwater tidal wetlands is hypothesized to be an important contributing factor to the long-term decline in fishery production in San Francisco Estuary. However, due to the absence of freshwater tidal wetlands in the estuary, there is little information on the export of inorganic and organic carbon, nutrient or phytoplankton community biomass and the associated mechanisms. A single-day study was conducted to assess the potential contribution of two small vegetated ponds and one large open-water pond to the inorganic and organic material flux within the freshwater tidal wetland Liberty Island in San Francisco Estuary. The study consisted of an intensive tidal day (25.5 h) sampling program that measured the flux of inorganic and organic material at three ponds using continuous monitoring of flow, chlorophyll a, turbidity and salt combined with discrete measurements of phytoplankton community carbon, total and dissolved organic carbon and nutrient concentration at 1.5 h intervals. Vegetated ponds had greater material concentrations than the open water pond and, despite their small area, contributed up to 81% of the organic and 61% of the inorganic material flux of the wetland. Exchange between ponds was important to wetland flux. The small vegetated pond in the interior of the wetland contributed as much as 72-87% of the total organic carbon and chlorophyll a and 10% of the diatom flux of the wetland. Export of inorganic and organic material from the small vegetated ponds was facilitated by small-scale topography and tidal asymmetry that produced a 40% greater material export on ebb tide. The small vegetated ponds contrasted with the large open water pond, which imported 29-96% of the inorganic and 4-81% of the organic material into the wetland from the adjacent river. This study identified small vegetated ponds as an important source of inorganic and organic material to the wetland and the

  6. Simulated pond-aquifer interactions under natural and stressed conditions near Snake Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Donald A.; Masterson, John P.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model was used to simulate pond-aquifer interactions under natural and stressed conditions near Snake Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Simulation results show that pond-bottom hydraulic conductivity, which represents the degree of hydraulic connection between the pond and the aquifer, is an important control on these interactions. As this parameter was incrementally increased from 10 to 350 feet per day, the rate of ground-water inflow into the pond under natural conditions increased by about 250 percent, the associated residence times of water in the pond decreased by about 50 percent, and ground-water inflow to the pond shifted closer to the pond shore. Most ground-water inflow (90 to 98 percent) was in the upper model layer, which corresponded to shallow, near-shore areas of the pond, over the entire range of pond-bottom hydraulic conductivity. Ground-water flow paths into the pond became more vertical, the contributing area to the pond became larger, and the pond captured water from greater depths in the aquifer as the hydraulic conductivity of the pond bottom was increased. The pond level, however, remained nearly constant, and regional ground-water levels and gradients differed little over the range of pond-bottom hydraulic conductivity, indicating that calibrated models with similar head solutions can have different pond-aquifer interaction characteristics. Hydrologic stresses caused by a simulated plume-containment system that specifies the extraction and injection of large volumes of ground water near the pond increased the pond level by about 0.4 foot and ground-water inflow rates into the pond by about 25 percent. Several factors related to the operation of the simulated containment system are affected by the hydraulic conductivity of the pond bottom. With increasing pond-bottom hydraulic conductivity, the amount of injected water that flows into Snake Pond increased and the amount of water recirculated between extraction and injection wells

  7. Assessment of fish passage technology applicable to John Sevier detention dam

    SciTech Connect

    Pasch, R.W.

    1986-12-01

    This report provides an assessment of existing technologies and developments in fish passage technology applicable to moving sauger and paddlefish upstream and downstream of the John Sevier detention dam. (ACR)

  8. Considering the use and usefulness of juvenile detention: operationalizing social theory.

    PubMed

    Rettig, R P

    1980-01-01

    Detention can be a tool provided the juvenile caseworker. Current use depends largely upon professional judgments operating within a framework of laws and broad guides. Overuse and misuse would indicate that practitioners need more helpful guides for sound detention. Failure to recognize the impact of detention upon children and their families prohibits employment of sound, principled casework approaches. Objective research and evaluation of the effects of detention is needed. It may be that the use of juvenile detention should be diminished. Meanwhile, social casework experience suggests methods and techniques useful to those willing to adapt. In Respect to Intake: 1. Only the most seriously disturbed children should be detained in the first place. This requires stringent intake policies. 2. Every effort should be made to work with the children in the community and in their own home if possible rather than sending them to detention. Detention as a Helping Process: When the detention community is fulfilling its philosophy and stated purposes in helping adolescents, the following contributions are possible: 1. A system of controls or limits to protect both the child and the community while insuring the child's legal rights. 2. A life experience which enables the child to be studied in his physical, social-emotional, and spiritual dimensions. 3. Resources such as a program, personnel, and facilities especially equipped and oriented to meet both the normal and special physical, social and emotional needs during a time of crisis in the child's life. 4. A sociological climate conducive to working on the problems of the detained child through understanding, acceptance, consistency, limits, structure, and individual and group counseling which together provide emotional security and first aid and enable the child to have constructive experiences contributing to personality growth. 5. A sound and integrated detention program outlining and specifying the limited treatment

  9. Cameroon: UN group finds detention of gay men a violation of human rights.

    PubMed

    Pearshouse, Richard; Klein, Alana

    2006-12-01

    In an opinion issued on 11 October 2006, the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention declared that the detention of 11 men in Cameroon on the basis of their presumed sexual orientation constituted an arbitrary deprivation of liberty and a violation of the principle of equal protection of the law. The Working Group called on the Cameroonian government to "examine the possibility of amending the legislation" criminalizing homosexual sex.

  10. Lagoons and oxidation ponds. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A review of the literature on waste stabilization pond systems is presented. Factors such as wastewater temperature, and levels of heavy metals that affect the stability of the lagoons and oxidation ponds, and methods to upgrade stabilization pond effluent to meet state and federal effluent requirements are discussed. Model simulations utilized to predict the treatment efficiency of various waste stabilization pond geometries, and inlet and outlet configurations are reviewed. (KRM)

  11. Suspensions and detentions in an urban, low-income school: punishment or reward?

    PubMed

    Atkins, Marc S; McKay, Mary M; Frazier, Stacy L; Jakobsons, Lara J; Arvanitis, Patrice; Cunningham, Tim; Brown, Catherine; Lambrecht, Linda

    2002-08-01

    Disciplinary records for 3rd through 8th grade students (n = 314) in an inner-city, public school were examined for one school year to assess students' variation in response to discipline. Rates of disciplinary referrals were compared for students who received no detentions or suspensions throughout the year ("never group" n = 117), students who received one or more detention or suspension in the fall but not in the spring ("fall group" n = 62), and students who received one or more detention or suspension in the fall and one or more detention or suspension in the spring ("fall + spring group" n = 75). Results indicated that during the fall, the "fall group" had nearly equivalent rates of referrals to the "fall + spring group"; however, the "fall group" exhibited significantly lower rates of referrals during winter and spring that were nearly equivalent to the "never group," as would be expected for a punishment procedure. In contrast, the "fall + spring group" evidenced increases in referrals across the year, suggesting the possibility that detentions and suspensions were functioning as rewards for this group. The "fall + spring group" was rated by teachers and peers at mid-year as highly aggressive, lacking social skills, and high on hyperactivity, whereas the "fall group" and the "never group" were statistically equivalent on teacher and peer ratings. Implications for mental health programs for urban schools are discussed, especially the need for alternatives to detention and suspension for the subset of students who account for the majority of school discipline.

  12. Compulsory drug detention in East and Southeast Asia: evolving government, UN and donor responses.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph J; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane E; Schleifer, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    According to official accounts, more than 235,000 people are detained in over 1000 compulsory drug detention centers in East and South East Asia. Individuals in such centers are held for periods of months to years, and can experience a wide range of human rights abuses, including violation of the rights to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment; freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention; a fair trial; privacy; the highest attainable standard of health; and freedom from forced labor. Since 2010, an increasing number of United Nations agencies, human rights experts, and others have expressed concerns about rights abuses associated with compulsory drug detention centers, and since 2012, called for their closure. Although they do not represent a complete break from the past, these calls mark a significant shift from past engagement with drug detention, which included direct and indirect funding of detention centers and activities in detention centers by some donors. However, the lack of transparent governance, restrictions on free speech and prohibitions on monitoring by independent, international human rights organizations make assessing the evolving laws, policies and practices, as well as the attitudes of key governments officials, difficult. Looking specifically at publicly announced reforms and statements by government officials in China, Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR reveals possible improvements in respect for the rights of drug users, and on-going challenges.

  13. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  14. Stabilization Pond Operation and Maintenance Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexauer, Willard N.; Karn, Roger V.

    This manual provides the waste stabilization pond operator with the basics necessary for the treatment of wastewater in stabilization ponds. The material is organized as a comprehensive guide that follows the normal operation and maintenance procedures from the time the wastewater enters the left station until it leaves the pond. A comprehensive…

  15. Distance Education of Pennsylvania Pond Owners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Katherine L.; Swistock, Bryan R.; Sharpe, William E.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations by 175 of 557 Pennsylvania pond owners who attended an Extension program via satellite revealed that most were interested in aesthetic/recreational pond use and pond management. They wanted more in-depth information over a shorter time frame. Only 10% did not favor satellite delivery. Shorter, more focused satellite programs and…

  16. How Healthy Is Our Pond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.; Hargrove, Dori L.

    2014-01-01

    With crosscutting concepts such as stability and change in the "Next Generation Science Standards," this article was written for those who have wondered how to teach these concepts in a way that is relevant to students. In this investigation, students ask the question, "Why is the pond dirty?" As students investigate the health…

  17. Nitrogen Removal in Wastewater Ponds,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    by convection to the interaction between the algae and the CO,/ and radiation. Eckenfelder ’ developed the follow- alkalinity system in the pond. If...Pollu- 4. Eckenfelder , W.W. (1966) Industrial Water tion Control Federation, 54(4): 344. Pollution Control. New York: McGraw-Hill. 19. Porcella, D.B., P.H

  18. Spatial variability of methane ebullition from permafrost thaw ponds in a subarctic mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, A.; Varner, R. K.; Osman, M.; Burke, S. A.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Methane (CH4) has an important role in the energy budget of the atmosphere. Warming due to radiative forcing by this and other greenhouse gases is amplified at high latitudes. Rising soil and air temperatures in these regions lead to permafrost thaw and the potential release of large amounts of CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere. Where permafrost thaw is occurring, a changing landscape may lead to new CH4 sources. Small ponds are key features of these landscapes. Forming in depressions of previously frozen ground, thaw ponds may release large quantities of CH4 through ebullition (bubbling), yet little has been done to assess their potential contribution to carbon emissions from ecosystems with thawing permafrost. We have made summer measurements of CH4 ebullition from thaw ponds located within the Stordalen Mire, a subarctic permafrost complex in northern Sweden. Our findings suggest that small water bodies can be a substantial local CH4 source. Ebullition occurred episodically and varied spatially, both within and among the ponds. Over a three-week period in July 2013, average bubble CH4 concentration varied from 2 ppm to 1.6% and total bubble flux from 0 to 5456 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. Fluxes were highest from deeper ponds while shallower, and presumably younger, ponds produced significantly less gas with a much lower CH4 concentration. Temperatures and physical characterization of the ponds suggest that substrate type may be as important as heat in influencing the rate of ebullitive flux. Although spatial and temporal variability make CH4 flux from thaw ponds difficult to quantify, these findings suggest that continued warming may drive a positive feedback for CH4 emission and permafrost degradation in the Arctic. Future data on thaw pond cover across Stordalen Mire will allow us to better understand the changing contribution of these ponds to the local total CH4 emission.

  19. Phylogenetics of pond and lake lifestyles in Chaoborus midge larvae.

    PubMed

    Berendonk, Thomas U; Barraclough, Timothy G; Barraclough, Jonelle C

    2003-09-01

    Aquatic invertebrates experience strong trade-offs between habitats due to the selective effects of different predators. Diel vertical migration and small body size are thought to be effective strategies against fish predation in lakes. In the absence of fish in small ponds, migration is ineffective against invertebrate predators and large body size is an advantage. Although widely discussed, this phenomenon has never been tested in a phylogenetic context. We reconstructed a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) tree to investigate the phylogenetic distribution of pond and lake lifestyles among 10 species of northern temperate Chaoborus midge larvae. The mtDNA tree is similar to previous morphological trees for Chaoborus, the only difference being the disruption of the subgenus Chaoborus sensu stricto. At least three shifts have occurred between pond and lake lifestyles, each time associated with evolution of diel vertical migration in the lake taxon. The trend in larval body size with habitat type is sensitive to tree and character reconstruction methods, only weakly consistent with the effects of fish predation. Despite long time periods over which adaptation to each habitat type could have occurred, there remains significant phylogenetic heritability in larval body size. The tree provides a framework for comparative studies of the metapopulation genetic consequences of pond and lake lifestyles.

  20. Substantial overnight reaeration by convective cooling discovered in pond ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holgerson, Meredith A.; Zappa, Christopher J.; Raymond, Peter A.

    2016-08-01

    Trends in freshwater dissolved oxygen (DO) reflect whole-ecosystem properties and influence organismal survival and behavior. Here we show that small ponds have unique oxygen dynamics that differ from larger lakes. We discovered that ponds undersaturated in DO experienced substantial increases in oxygen concentration overnight. Nighttime increases in DO occurred on 45% of the nights sampled and resulted in DO saturation increasing 12-fold (22% saturation) on average. Oxygen spikes were likely to occur when ponds became at least 1.8°C warmer than the air and later in the season when oxygen levels were low (<31% saturation) and the air was warm (≥5.8°C). We demonstrate that overnight increases in surface water DO resulted from atmospheric oxygen invasion as opposed to internal production. Convective cooling enhanced turbulence and air-water gas exchange, leading to intense bursts of oxygen invasion during nighttime hours. This mechanism has not been demonstrated before and has important implications for the biogeochemistry of these systems, as well as understanding how organisms survive in hypoxic small ponds.

  1. A preliminary evaluation of the occurrence and characteristics of cut-off ponds of the Maryland shores of the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Under the auspices of the Maryland Power Plant Siting Program, a preliminary investigation of occurrence and characteristics of cut-off ponds in the Maryland portion of the Chesapeake Bay was conducted. These small ponds occur commonly along the Bay shore. A sand berm separates the freshwaters of the ponds from the saline waters of the Bay; this berm is occasionally breached permitting interchange between ponds and Bay. A survey of aerial maps and photographs has revealed approximately 1800 ponds bordering the mid and upper Bay.

  2. POND MOUNTAIN AND POND MOUNTAIN ADDITION ROADLESS AREAS, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffitts, W.R.; Bitar, Richard

    1984-01-01

    As a result of a mineral study of the Pond Mountain Roadless Areas, Tennessee, a probable potential for the occurrence of tin, niobium, and tungsten resource with associated beryllium, molybdenum, zinc, and fluorite was identified in rocks of Precambrian age particularly in the southeastern part of the area. Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical sampling of the soils and rocks in the area of Precambrian rocks is recommended to identify and delimit the areas of potential resources of tin, niobium, and tungsten.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of ERTS-1 for determining numbers and distribution of prairie ponds and lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Work, E. A., Jr.; Gilmer, D. S.; Klett, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 and aircraft multispectral data collected over a North Dakota test site during July 1972, are compared to evaluate the capability of the satellite sensors to detect numbers and distribution of prairie ponds and lakes. Recognition maps using ERTS-1, MSS 7 data are generated using a level slicing technique. Surface water areas larger than two acres are recognized, but ponds in the one-to two-acre range are detected only at random. The proportion estimation technique will improve the accuracy of area determination and small pond detection.

  4. Design, construction, and initial operation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory salt-gradient solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.F.; Meyer, K.A.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Dreicer, J.S.; Grimmer, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    A 232 m/sup 2/ solar pond was constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the purpose of studying pond hydrodynamics on a large scale and to complement the flow visualization and one-dimensional pond simulator experiments that are ongoing at the Laboratory. Design methods and construction techniques, some of which are unique to this pond, are described in detail. The pond was excavated from a soft volcanic rock known as tuff; such rock forms a large fraction of the Los Alamos area surface geology. Because tuff has a small thermal conductivity, little insulation was required to reduce perimeter energy losses. In addition, the strength of tuff permitted the pond to be built with vertical side walls; this design eliminated local side wall convection in the gradient zone that is possible with sloping side walls. Instrumentation in the pond consists of traversing and fixed rakes of thermometers and salinity probes, an underwater pyranometer, and a weather station. The traversing rake is a wheeled trolley driven vertically on a rectangular rail. Installed on the trolley are coplanar platinum RTDs, a point conductivity probe, and an induction salinometer. The stationary rake supports 28 thermocouples and 28 sample-fluid withdrawal taps located every 10 cm. About 127 T of sodium chloride has been introduced and is nearly dissolved. A 120-cm-thick salinity gradient was established and the pond is heating. Preliminary results indicate a lower-convective-zone heating rate of 1.2/sup 0/C/day during the pond's first month of operation. Recommendations on pond design, construction, and instrumentation are presented.

  5. Research ethics and the plight of refugees in detention.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Rousseau, Cecile; Crepeau, Francois

    2004-10-01

    Health researchers may have a strategic role to play in confronting the predicament of refugee detainees because they can lend their analytic skills and authority to document the personal cost and impact of this practice. The justification for such 'subversive' research comes from the discrepancy between the sources of legitimacy and legality for government action. The practice of detention may be legal but illegitimate, judged against the standards of international human rights. Hence, research to explore the consequences of this policy is both morally and politically legitimate. Morally, it reflects a commitment to uncover and oppose unjustified violence against others; politically, it represents an attempt to identify and challenge abuses of power by the state. However, doing research without official approval or with the use of deception raises concerns for the safety of detainees as vulnerable research subjects as well as the credibility of researchers and the research enterprise. Researchers also may face sanctions that will limit their future effectiveness. An international network of researchers working on issues of human rights and the health of asylum seekers can provide an institutional basis to support work that challenges local practices.

  6. The Absent Interpreter in Administrative Detention Center Medical Units.

    PubMed

    Rondeau-Lutz, Murielle; Weber, Jean-Christophe

    2017-03-01

    The particular situation of the French administrative detention center (ADC) medical units appears to be an exemplary case to study the difficulties facing medical practice. Indeed, the starting point of our inquiry was an amazing observation that needed to be addressed and understood: why are professional interpreters so seldom requested in ADC medical units, where one would expect that they would be "naturally" present? Aiming to fully explore the meanings of the "absent interpreter", this article takes into account the possible meanings of this situation: the recourse to professional interpreters in France is far from expected given cumulative evidence of its benefits; perceptions of illegal immigrants and medical habitus itself may both hamper the use of a third party; the ADCs are a very stressful place for healthcare professionals, with conflicting missions, political issues enmeshed with medical goals, and heavy affective burden that may lead to self-protection. Silencing voices of suffering others might be seen as the hidden indecent truth of the "absent interpreter". These reflections open a window to a larger issue with regard to the full range of medicine: what are the place, the role and the function of patient's words and narratives in contemporary medicine? The highly invested somatic perspective and its political corollary giving primacy to bare life harbor potential risks of obscuring speeches and undervaluing narratives.

  7. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND TRAUMA IN YOUTH IN JUVENILE DETENTION

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; Charles, Devon R.; Longworth, Sandra L.; McClelland, Gary M.; Dulcan, Mina K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine prevalence estimates of exposure to trauma and 12-month rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (sex, race/ethnicity, and age). Design Epidemiologic study of juvenile detainees. Master’s level clinical research interviewers administered the posttraumatic stress disorder module of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) to randomly selected detainees. Setting A large, temporary detention center for juveniles in Cook County, Illinois (which includes Chicago and surrounding suburbs). Participants Randomly selected, stratified sample of 898 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic youth (532 males, 366 females, ages 10–18) arrested and newly detained. Main Outcome Measures Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV). Results Most participants (92.5%) had experienced one or more traumas (mean = 14.6 incidents, median = 6 incidents). Significantly more males (93.2%) than females (84.0%) reported at least one traumatic experience; 11.2% of the sample met criteria for PTSD in the past year. Over half of the participants with PTSD reported witnessing violence as the precipitating trauma. Conclusion Trauma and PTSD appear to be more prevalent among juvenile detainees than in community samples. We recommend directions for research and discuss implications for mental health policy. PMID:15066899

  8. Spatial variability of sediment ecotoxicity in a large storm water detention basin.

    PubMed

    Merchan, Carolina Gonzalez; Perrodin, Yves; Barraud, Sylvie; Sébastian, Christel; Becouze-Lareure, Céline; Bazin, Christine; Kouyi, Gislain Lipeme

    2014-04-01

    Detention basins are valuable facilities for urban storm water management, from both the standpoint of flood control and the trapping of pollutants. Studies performed on storm water have shown that suspended solids often constitute the main vector of pollutants (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), etc.). In order to characterise the ecotoxicity of urban sediments from storm water detention basins, the sediments accumulated over a 6-year period were sampled at five different points through the surface of a large detention basin localised in the east of Lyon, France. A specific ecotoxicological test battery was implemented on the solid phase (raw sediment) and the liquid phase (interstitial water of sediments). The results of the study validated the method formulated for the ecotoxicological characterization of urban sediments. They show that the ecotoxicological effect of the sediments over the basin is heterogeneous and greater in areas often flooded. They also show the relationship between, on one hand, the physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments and, on the other hand, their ecotoxicity. Lastly, they contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of the pollution close to the bottom of detention basins, which can be useful for improving their design. The results of this research raise particularly the issue of using oil separators on the surface of detention basins.

  9. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    PubMed

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo.

  10. Orientation and migration distances of a pond-breeding salamander (Notophthalmus perstriatus, Salamandridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    Habitat loss and modification have played a significant role in the decline of amphibian populations and species. Loss of wetlands, which are used as breeding sites for many amphibians, has contributed to the decline. The protection of small, isolated wetlands and core areas of associated uplands is one way in which population declines in certain species can be slowed or prevented. Nevertheless, migration distances of individuals of most amphibian species from their breeding sites are unknown. Using drift fences and pitfall traps, I studied migration distance and orientation of striped newts (Notophthalmus perstriatus) at a breeding pond in northern Florida, USA. Newts entered (immigration) and exited (emigration) the pond basin in a nonrandom fashion but no obvious effects of upland habitat were apparent. Patterns of emigration and immigration differed significantly between sexes, life-history stages, and migration events. Individuals tended to exit and enter the pond basin within the same quadrant, sometimes leaving and returning at the same point. Newts moved hundreds of meters into the sandhill uplands surrounding the pond. I found an inverse relationship between the proportion of newts migrating and distance from the pond. Nonetheless, I estimated that at least 16% of individuals breeding at the pond migrated in excess of 500 m from the pond. Thus, a core of protected upland with a radius of approximately 800 m from the pond would be needed to preserve the area used by the vast majority of individuals that breed at the pond. These data underscore the need to study upland habitat requirements for amphibians; findings for one taxon (e.g. ambystomatids) may not be applicable to others (e.g., salamandrids). Without such data, designating terrestrial core habitat to conserve aquatic-breeding amphibians will be difficult or impossible. However, without better protection of small, isolated wetlands, arguments to preserve surrounding uplands are irrelevant.

  11. Review of SERI solar pond work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrando, F.; Johnson, D. H.

    1985-07-01

    This report provides documentation of SERI's solar pond research effort, which began in 1979. The SERI staff analyzed solar pond topics from modeling and feasibility studies to laboratory experiments on physical properties and hydrodynamical stability. The SERI's perspective on the maturity of this solar technology is described, including the technical state-of-the-art of salt-gradient solar ponds, state of knowledge of pond design, estimated cost ranges for various locations and applications, and perceived barriers to commercial development. Recommendations for future work are also presented. The SERI research and development on solar ponds is described, emphasizing analytical and experimental tools developed at SERI. All AERI and subcontract reports dealing with solar ponds or related system components are summarized, and a bibliography is provided.

  12. Mental Disorders among Adolescents in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities: A Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis of 25 Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazel, Seena; Doll, Helen; Langstrom, Niklas

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a meta-analysis of all existing surveys on the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in adolescents in juvenile detention and correctional facilities in order to assess the prevalence of mental disorders. Findings indicate adolescents in detention are 10 times more likely to suffer from psychosis than the general adolescent…

  13. 25 CFR 10.2 - Who is responsible for developing and maintaining the policies and standards for detention and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is responsible for developing and maintaining the policies and standards for detention and holding facilities in Indian country? 10.2 Section 10.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY DETENTION...

  14. 25 CFR 12.4 - Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... police, detention, and conservation enforcement functions? 12.4 Section 12.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Responsibilities § 12.4 Who supervises the Bureau of Indian Affairs uniformed police, detention, and conservation...

  15. 31 CFR 585.215 - Conveyances and cargo suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking. 585.215 Section 585.215 Money and... and cargo suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking. (a) Except... § 585.201, but which are suspected of a violation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions No....

  16. Contesting Institutional Discourse to Create New Possibilities for Understanding Lived Experience: Life-Stories of Young Women in Detention, Rehabilitation, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Suniti

    2010-01-01

    This research explores autobiographies of young women in detention, rehabilitation, and education as counter-stories to the official, institutional stories of their lives. The context of the study is a private detention facility in the United States; the participants are young women aged 15-19 years in a detention classroom; and data for the study…

  17. Linkage between seasonal hydrology and carbon flux dynamics in tundra ponds: Samoylov Island, Lena River Delta, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abnizova, Anna; Bornemann, Niko; Boike, Julia

    2010-05-01

    Arctic ponds have been recently recognized as being highly sensitive to changing climate. To date, ponds and lakes are disappearing in Alaska, Siberia and Canadian High Arctic because of climate warming (Fitzgerald et al. 2003; Smith et al. 2005; and Smol et al. 2007). While numerous limnological studies have been done on arctic ponds located in the Canadian High Arctic (Douglas and Smol, 1994; Hamilton et al. 2001; Lim et al., 2001), there is a limited number of studies on tundra ponds located in other circumpolar environments (e.g. Northern Siberia). Duff et al. (1999) describes tundra lakes in northern Russia as clear, dilute, oligotrophic lakes with low nutrients and dissolved organic carbon concentration. While numerous ponds and lakes exists in the Lena River Delta averaging to 2120 lakes of all sizes for every 1000 km2, no studies have been done to understand carbon flux dynamics of these freshwater ecosystems. In this study hydrological monitoring based on water balance framework was applied to a series of ponds and lakes located on Samoylov Island, 120 km south of the Arctic Ocean in the southern central Lena River Delta (72° 22' N, 126 ° 30' E) from July to September 2008. To better understand spatial differences in pond hydrology and carbon flux dynamics, the physical and biochemical data was collected from 42 tundra ponds. The selection of the ponds was based on their size (small, medium, large) and depth values ranging from 10 to 120 cm. The estimation of the seasonal water budget in 2008 showed that losses through evapotranspiration were offset by similar precipitation inputs and resulted in the equilibrium storage values in the study ponds prior to the freeze-back. Preliminary analysis showed that more than 50% of the ponds had DOC > 6.5 mg/l which exceeds average value of other Arctic ponds reported in literature (Duff et al. 1999 and Hamilton et al. 2001). Elevated DOC concentrations (> 8 mg/l) were found in the small and medium ponds with depth

  18. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  19. Too much detention? Street Triage and detentions under Section 136 Mental Health Act in the North-East of England: a descriptive study of the effects of a Street Triage intervention

    PubMed Central

    Keown, Patrick; French, Jo; Gibson, Graham; Newton, Eddy; Cull, Steve; Brown, Paul; Parry, Jo; Lyons, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the impact of Street Triage (ST) on the number and rate of Section 136 Mental Health Act (S136) detentions in one NHS Mental Health and Disability Trust (Northumberland, Tyne and Wear (NTW)). Design Comparative descriptive study of numbers and rates of S136 detentions prior to and following the introduction of ST in NTW. More detailed data were obtained from one local authority in the NTW area. Setting NTW, a secondary care NHS Foundation Trust providing mental health and disability services in the north-east of England, in conjunction with Northumbria Police Service. Participants People being detained under S136 Mental Health Act (MHA). Routine data on S136 detentions and ST interventions were obtained from NTW, Northumbria Police, Sunderland Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and Sunderland Local Authority. Interventions Introduction of a ST service in NTW. The main outcome measures were routinely collected data on the number and rate of ST interventions as well as patterns of the numbers and rates of S136 detentions. These were collected retrospectively. Results The annual rate of S136 detentions reduced by 56% in the first year of ST (from 59.8 per 100 000 population to 26.4 per 100 000). There was a linear relationship between the rate of ST in each locality and the reduction in rate of S136 detentions. There were 1623 ST contacts in the first 3 localities to have a ST service during its first year; there were also 403 fewer S136 detentions. Data from Sunderland indicate a 78% reduction in S136 use and a significant reduction in the number and proportion of adult admissions that originated from S136 detentions. Conclusions There is evidence to support the hypothesis that ST decreases the rate of s136 detention. When operating across the whole of NTW, ST resulted in 50 fewer S136 detentions a month, which represents a substantial reduction. PMID:27872112

  20. Polyculture of penaeid shrimp in ponds receiving brackish heated effluent from a power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, J.L.W.

    1983-01-01

    White shrimp Penaeus setiferus, were grown in monoculture or in polyculture with blue shrimp P. stylirostris, or striped mullet Mugil cephalus in 0.1-ha earthen ponds receiving heated effluent from the Houston Lighting and Power Company's Cedar Bayou Generating Station east of Baytown, Texas during 1978 and 1979. No detrimental effect of either species on white shrimp survival or yield was found. Blue shrimp was greater than that of white shrimp in the same ponds. Total yield was increased by polyculture. An experiment was performed in which blue shrimp were stocked conventionally into ponds, or stocked in three successive increments (staggered stocking study). A preliminary experiment was made in 1978, followed by a more expanded version in 1979. Staggered stocking increased pond yields compared to expected values from the control pond yields. There was no detrimental effect of staggered stocking on shrimp survival. Pond salinities were much lower in 1979 than in 1978, associated with lower shrimp growth, survival and yield. A distribution study performed in the staggered stocking study ponds revealed that blue shrimp in mixed-size culture tend to segregate by size, and that small shrimp show somewhat different distribution patterns and temporal activity patterns than large shrimp. All the organisms used also served as biological monitors of water quality. No detectable levels of pesticides were found in any of the cultured animals. The only heavy metal found in higher concentrations than in previous years at this site was chromium.

  1. Water quality performance of a batch-type stormwater detention basin.

    PubMed

    Middleton, John R; Barrett, Michael E

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this research was to modify an extended detention basin to provide batch treatment of stormwater runoff. An automated valve/controller was developed and placed on the outlet of a detention basin in Austin, Texas, which allowed the water quality volume to be retained in the basin for a preset length of time. The influent and effluent of the modified basin were monitored for total suspended solids (TSS), nutrients, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total and dissolved metals. Statistically significant removal of total metals, COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and TSS was observed, with a discharge event mean TSS concentration of 7 mg/L and a TSS removal efficiency of 91%. The modified basin has substantially better pollutant removal than conventional extended detention basins and is comparable with that of Austin sand filters, which are a common structural stormwater treatment system in the Austin area. The valve also can be used to isolate hazardous material spills.

  2. Throwing Away the Key: The Ethics of Risk Assessment for Preventive Detention Schemes

    PubMed Central

    McSherry, B.

    2014-01-01

    Preventive detention schemes that aim to protect the community from certain ‘dangerous’ individuals have long existed. While risk assessment is now pervasive in the management and treatment of many individuals, it raises particular issues when a person's liberty is at stake on the basis of what that person might do. This R.G. Myers Memorial Lecture addresses the ethical issues raised by mental health practitioners providing risk assessments for legislative schemes that involve the deprivation of liberty. It will focus in particular on Australian post-sentence preventive detention schemes for sex offenders that have been held by the United Nations Human Rights Committee to breach fundamental human rights. However, the ethical issues discussed also have repercussions for civil commitment laws that enable the detention of those with severe mental or intellectual impairments. PMID:25431531

  3. Psychological acculturation and juvenile delinquency: comparing Moroccan immigrant families from a general and pretrial detention population.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Veen, Violaine C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-04-01

    Although several theoretical notions have been proposed predicting a relationship between acculturation orientation and juvenile delinquency, the available empirical research is scarce and limited. To extend former research, in this study, we used latent class analyses to compare bidimensional psychological acculturation orientation of Moroccan immigrant boys in pretrial detention with those of Moroccan boys in the general population. We also examined their parents' acculturation orientation. We found that boys in pretrial detention were clearly overrepresented in the integrated psychological acculturation class and underrepresented in the separated psychological acculturation class when we compared them with the boys in the general population. Highly similar results were found for their parents. In contrast, boys in pretrial detention were as likely to be faced with an intergenerational acculturation gap as boys from the general population.

  4. Disparities in justice and care: persons with severe mental illnesses in the U.S. immigration detention system.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Kristen C; Pleasants, Gregory L; Penn, Joseph V; Stone, David C

    2010-01-01

    As the total number of persons held within the U.S. immigration detention system has grown, the number of detained persons with severe mental illnesses has grown correspondingly. Reports issued by the government, legal and human rights advocates, and the media have brought to light a problematic and growing detention system with pervasive legal and mental health care disparities. Described are the structure and funding of the U.S. immigration detention system, the legal state of affairs for immigration detainees with mental illnesses, and what is known about the present system of mental health care within the U.S. immigration detention system. Attention is given to the paucity of legal protections for immigration detainees with severe mental illnesses, such as no right to appointed legal counsel and no requirement for mental competence before undergoing deportation proceedings. A case example and discussion of potential alternatives to detention highlight the need for wide-ranging reform.

  5. Review of SERI Solar Pond Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zangrando, F.; Johnson, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Development of models of pond thermal performance; analysis of solar pond use for building space heat and hot water production; use of low-temperature pond-produced heat for industrial processes, desalination, and electricity production; development of direct-contact heat exchanger to reduce conversion equipment cost; determination of effects of extracted heat and mass from the storage layer on pond performance; and investigation of factors which determine gradient layer stability and the stability of this interface between this level and the upper and lower convecting layers were described.

  6. Freshwater Detention by Oyster Reefs: Quantifying a Keystone Ecosystem Service.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, David A; Olabarrieta, Maitane; Frederick, Peter; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo

    2016-01-01

    Oyster reefs provide myriad ecosystem services, including water quality improvement, fisheries and other faunal support, shoreline protection from erosion and storm surge, and economic productivity. However, their role in directing flow during non-storm conditions has been largely neglected. In regions where oyster reefs form near the mouth of estuarine rivers, they likely alter ocean-estuary exchange by acting as fresh water "dams". We hypothesize that these reefs have the potential to detain fresh water and influence salinity over extensive areas, thus providing a "keystone" ecosystem service by supporting estuarine functions that rely on the maintenance of estuarine (i.e., brackish) conditions in the near-shore environment. In this work, we investigated the effects of shore-parallel reefs on estuarine salinity using field data and hydrodynamic modeling in a degraded reef complex in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Results suggested that freshwater detention by long linear chains of oyster reefs plays an important role in modulating salinities, not only in the oysters' local environment, but over extensive estuarine areas (tens of square kilometers). Field data confirmed the presence of salinity differences between landward and seaward sides of the reef, with long-term mean salinity differences of >30% between sides. Modeled results expanded experimental findings by illustrating how oyster reefs affect the lateral and offshore extent of freshwater influence. In general, the effects of simulated reefs were most pronounced when they were highest in elevation, without gaps, and when riverine discharge was low. Taken together, these results describe a poorly documented ecosystem service provided by oyster reefs; provide an estimate of the magnitude and spatial extent of this service; and offer quantitative information to help guide future oyster reef restoration.

  7. Freshwater Detention by Oyster Reefs: Quantifying a Keystone Ecosystem Service

    PubMed Central

    Olabarrieta, Maitane; Frederick, Peter; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo

    2016-01-01

    Oyster reefs provide myriad ecosystem services, including water quality improvement, fisheries and other faunal support, shoreline protection from erosion and storm surge, and economic productivity. However, their role in directing flow during non-storm conditions has been largely neglected. In regions where oyster reefs form near the mouth of estuarine rivers, they likely alter ocean-estuary exchange by acting as fresh water “dams”. We hypothesize that these reefs have the potential to detain fresh water and influence salinity over extensive areas, thus providing a “keystone” ecosystem service by supporting estuarine functions that rely on the maintenance of estuarine (i.e., brackish) conditions in the near-shore environment. In this work, we investigated the effects of shore-parallel reefs on estuarine salinity using field data and hydrodynamic modeling in a degraded reef complex in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Results suggested that freshwater detention by long linear chains of oyster reefs plays an important role in modulating salinities, not only in the oysters’ local environment, but over extensive estuarine areas (tens of square kilometers). Field data confirmed the presence of salinity differences between landward and seaward sides of the reef, with long-term mean salinity differences of >30% between sides. Modeled results expanded experimental findings by illustrating how oyster reefs affect the lateral and offshore extent of freshwater influence. In general, the effects of simulated reefs were most pronounced when they were highest in elevation, without gaps, and when riverine discharge was low. Taken together, these results describe a poorly documented ecosystem service provided by oyster reefs; provide an estimate of the magnitude and spatial extent of this service; and offer quantitative information to help guide future oyster reef restoration. PMID:27936184

  8. Phosphorus Retention by Stormwater Detention Areas: Estimation, Enhancement, and Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, A.; Shukla, S.; Hodges, A.

    2015-12-01

    Stormwater detention areas (SDAs) are considered an important best management practice (BMP) both in agricultural and urban areas. In sub-tropical Florida where sandy soils and shallow water table make the nutrient leaching losses from agricultural areas inevitable, the SDAs are relied upon as a last point of treatment. Field-measured water and phosphorus (P) fluxes from an agricultural SDA showed that contrary to generally held view, the SDA was a source of P for the first year (retention efficiency = -12%). For the next year, the SDA served as a sink (54%). The source function of the SDA was a combined effect of high rainfall, dilution of agricultural drainage with rainfall from a tropical storm, and legacy-based soil P saturation. Volume reduction was the main reason for P retention because of no remaining P sorption capacity in the soil in most of the SDA area. Although a net sink of P for Year 2, an event-wise analysis showed the SDA to be a source of P for three out of seven outflow events in Year 2 indicating P release from soil. Because surface P treatment efficiency during both years was either less than or approximately the same as surface water retention efficiency, volume reduction and not sorption or biological assimilation controlled P retention. Hydraulic (e.g. increased storage), managerial (biomass harvesting) and chemical (alum treatment) modifications were evaluated by using a stormwater treatment model and field data. The model was successfully field-verified using well accepted performance measures (e.g. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency). Maximum additional P retention was shown to be achieved by biomass harvesting (>100%) followed by chemical treatment (71%), and increased spillage level (29%). Economic feasibility of the aforementioned modifications and development of a payment for environmental services (PES) program was identified through a cost-benefit analysis for maintaining these SDAs as sink of P in the long-term.

  9. Psychiatric Disorders and Violence: A Longitudinal Study of Delinquent Females and Males After Detention

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; Jakubowski, Jessica A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Welty, Leah J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and violence in delinquent youth after detention. Method The Northwestern Juvenile Project is a longitudinal study of youth from the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (Chicago, Illinois). Violence and psychiatric disorders were assessed via self-report in 1,659 youth (56% African American, 28% Hispanic, 36% female, ages 13–25) interviewed up to 4 times between three and five years after detention. Using generalized estimating equations and logistic regression, we examined (1) the prevalence of violence three and five years after detention; (2) the contemporaneous relationships between psychiatric disorders and violence as youth age; and (3) if the presence of a psychiatric disorder predicts subsequent violence. Results Rates of any violence decreased between 3 and 5 years after detention, from 35% to 21% (males), and from 20% to 17% (females). Contemporaneous relationship between disorder and violence: Compared to the group with no disorder, males and females with any disorder had greater odds of any violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.0 [95%CI, 1.9–4.7] and AOR, 4.4 [95%CI, 3.0–6.3], respectively). All specific disorders were associated contemporaneously with violence, except for major depressive disorder/dysthymia among males. Disorder and subsequent violence: Males with other drug use disorder and females with marijuana use disorder 3 years after detention had greater odds of any violence 2 years later (AOR, 3.4 [95%CI, 1.4–8.2] and AOR, 2.0 [95%CI, 1.1–3.8], respectively). Conclusion Aside from substance use disorders, the psychiatric disorders studied may not be useful markers of subsequent violence. Violence assessment and reduction must be key components of ongoing psychiatric services for high-risk youth. PMID:25791147

  10. Education in Juvenile Detention Facilities in the State of Connecticut: A Glance at the System

    PubMed Central

    Macomber, Donna; Skiba, Thomas; Blackmon, Jaime; Esposito, Elisa; Hart, Lesley; Mambrino, Elisa; Richie, Thompson; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    The state of Connecticut detained 7,444 children and youth and committed approximately 270 to the Department of Children and Families for out of home placement in the 2007-2008 calendar year. A significant number of children and youth have special education needs that are often unidentified by home school districts. State and federal law mandate the provision of special education and related services to this population. In addition, education of these individuals is imperative as research indicates educational success is a key component for decreasing recidivism (relapse into unlawful activity) rates and providing opportunities toward productive adulthood. The cost of recidivism to detention is not only monetary; criminal misconduct also threatens the safety of society members as well. The Yale University Child Study Center under the auspices of the Connecticut Judicial Branch, Court Support Services Division (CSSD) conducted a situational analysis of the juvenile detention centers and community residential centers. The focus of this analysis was to: (1) describe the educational characteristics of detained children and youth; (2) describe the educational programs currently used in detention and assess whether the educational programming provided is consistent with the framework of the State of Connecticut Department of Education; (3) typify the community of teachers working with students in detention, identify systemic obstacles and/or challenges to educating this population, ascertain the pathways of educational records of detained children and youth; and (4) identify system barriers or challenges to delivering education to this population and teaching in detention or alternative to detention settings. This report is a summary of findings. PMID:26379367

  11. Bioflocculating high-rate algal ponds: Control and implementation of an innovative wastewater treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    High Rate Algal Ponds (HRPs) are multi-channel racetrack designs 0.2-0.5 meters deep, with pump or paddlewheel mixing, operated at 2-10 days detention time. HRPs produce higher algal concentrations (200-300 mg/L) than conventional oxidation ponds, requiring effluent algal removal to meet discharge limits. This study investigated the long-term performance of bioflocculation and sedimentation for HRP algal removal. Thirteen experiments were conducted between April 1980 and November 1982 using two 0.1 ha paddlewheel mixed HRPs at the University of California at Berkeley's Sanitary Engineering and Environmental Health Research Laboratory. Most experiments were conducted at 35 cm depth, with hydraulic loading varied seasonally to maintain settleability in response to changing insolation. Continuous 12 cm/sec paddlewheel mixing with consistent primary effluent hydraulic loading (4-11 cm/day) and sunlight loading (30-60 Kcal/L) were essential for maintaining high settleability. Bioflocculation and increased settleability were able to be induced in non-settleable ponds within several days to a few weeks after 12 cm/sec continuous paddlewheel mixing was started. Variable hydraulic loading temporarily decreases HRP settleability. Mixed HRPs achieved over 90% 24 hour TSS removals (11 mg/L) during 83 weeks of stable operation versus less than 50% (77 mg/L) for unmixed HRPS. Settling column removals reached 48% in 30 minutes (60 cm/hr) and 69% in 120 minutes under stable operational conditions. Algal morphology and settleability varied with operational and climatic conditions, with colonial Micractinium and Scenedesmus dominant. Unmixed HRPs produced minimally settleable colonies.

  12. The development of fire evaluation system for detention and correctional occupancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, H. E.; Shibe, A. J.

    1984-12-01

    A fire safety evaluation system for detention and correctional occupancies was developed. It can be used for determining if a facility has fire safety equivalent to that obtained by meeting the requirement of a given code. The system was calibrated for use with proposed chapters for detention and correctional occupancies of the Life Safety Code (1985). There are separate sets of requirements for each of four use conditions: one for zoned egress, one for zoned impeded egress, one for impeded egress, and one for contained. Within each set, there are two levels of evaluation: one for partially sprinklered and nonsprinklered buildings, and one for totally sprinklered buildings.

  13. Digital Discover of Ephemeral Ponds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    ER D C/ CE RL T R - 12 -2 1 Center Directed Research Program Digital Discover of Ephemeral Ponds En gi ne er R es ea rc h an d D ev el...r.mapcalc formula : r.terraflow lidar_elev filled=elev_filled \\ accum=elev_accum memory=2000 \\ dir=elev_dir swater=elev_sink tci =elev_tci...J. D., M. Shapiro, W. D. Goran, and D. P. Gerdes. 1992. Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Version 4.0 User’s Reference Manual . N

  14. Assessing Risks of Shallow Riparian Groundwater Quality Near an Oil Sands Tailings Pond.

    PubMed

    Roy, J W; Bickerton, G; Frank, R A; Grapentine, L; Hewitt, L M

    2016-07-01

    The potential discharge of groundwater contaminated by oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is a concern for aquatic ecosystems near tailings ponds. Groundwater in the area, but unaffected by OSPW, may contain similar compounds, complicating the assessment of potential ecological impacts. In this study, 177 shallow groundwater samples were collected from riparian areas along the Athabasca River and tributaries proximate to oil sands developments. For "pond-site" samples (71; adjacent to study tailings pond), Canadian aquatic life guidelines were exceeded for 11 of 20 assessed compounds. However, "non-pond" samples (54; not near any tailings pond) provided similar exceedances. Statistical analyses indicate that pond-site and non-pond samples were indistinguishable for all but seven parameters assessed, including salts, many trace metals, and fluorescence profiles of aromatic naphthenic acids (ANA). This suggests that, regarding the tested parameters, groundwater adjacent to the study tailings pond generally poses no greater ecological risk than other nearby groundwaters at this time. Multivariate analyses applied to the groundwater data set separated into 11 smaller zones support this conclusion, but show some variation between zones. Geological and potential OSPW influences could not be distinguished based on major ions and metals concentrations. However, similarities in indicator parameters, namely ANA, F, Mo, Se, and Na-Cl ratio, were noted between a small subset of samples from two pond-site zones and two OSPW samples and two shallow groundwater samples documented as likely OSPW affected. This indicator-based screening suggests that OSPW-affected groundwater may be reaching Athabasca River sediments at a few locations.

  15. Reconciling the role of terrestrial leaves in pond food webs: a whole-ecosystem experiment.

    PubMed

    Holgerson, Meredith A; Post, David M; Skelly, David K

    2016-07-01

    Terrestrial carbon and nutrients can subsidize the detrital pool of freshwater ecosystems; yet, the importance of terrestrial subsidies to lake and pond food webs is uncertain and debated. Terrestrial detritus is expected to have the greatest impact on food webs when water bodies are small and shallow with low levels of incident light. Temporary forested ponds fit this description and are often assumed to have a leaf detritus-based food web, but this has not been quantified. In a whole-ecosystem experiment, we traced the flow of isotopically enriched leaf litter to primary producers and consumers in a small, forested pond. We found that terrestrial leaves provided nutrients to algae, offering an indirect pathway in which leaf litter can enter the food web. Terrestrial leaves were also consumed directly, and larval caddisfly (Limnephilus sp.) shredders likely mobilized leaf nutrients to other consumers, a process overlooked in many previous small-scale experiments that did not incorporate shredders. Unexpectedly, most consumers relied heavily upon algal food pathways despite low light and net heterotrophic conditions. Overall, our study highlights the interconnectedness of algal and leaf litter pathways in small pond food webs, and emphasizes that algal pathways are prevalent and important even in small, shaded ponds with high loads of terrestrial leaf litter.

  16. Assessing optical earth observation systems for mapping and monitoring temporary ponds in arid areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soti, Valérie; Tran, Annelise; Bailly, Jean-Stéphane; Puech, Christian; Seen, Danny Lo; Bégué, Agnes

    2009-10-01

    Remote sensing methods for locating and monitoring temporary ponds over large areas in arid lands were tested on a study site in Northern Senegal. Three main results are presented, validated with field data and intended to highlight different spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics of the methods: (1) Among several water indices tested, two Middle Infrared-based indices (MNDWI—Modified Normalized Difference Water Index and NDWI 1—Normalized Difference Water Index) are found to be most efficient; (2) an objective method is given prescribing the necessary sensor spatial resolution in terms of minimal detected pond area; and (3) the potential of multi-temporal MODIS imagery for tracking the filling phases of small ponds is illustrated. These results should assist in epidemiological studies of vector-borne diseases that develop around these ponds, but also more generally for land and water management and preservation of threatened ecosystems in arid areas.

  17. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  18. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  19. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  20. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  1. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  2. WMOST v2 Case Study: Monponsett Ponds

    EPA Science Inventory

    This webinar presents an overview of the preliminary results of a case study application of EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool v2 (WMOST) for stakeholders in the Monponsett Ponds Watershed Workgroup. Monponsett Ponds is a large water system consisting of two ba...

  3. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief…

  4. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  5. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

  6. Thermal stratification patterns in urban ponds and their relationships with vertical nutrient gradients.

    PubMed

    Song, Keunyea; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A; Buttle, James M; Marsalek, Jiri; Wagner, Nicole D; Pick, Frances R; Frost, Paul C

    2013-09-30

    Ponds that collect and process stormwater have become a prominent feature of urban landscapes, especially in areas recently converted to residential land use in North America. Given their increasing number and their tight hydrological connection to residential catchments, these small aquatic ecosystems could play an important role in urban biogeochemistry. However, some physicochemical aspects of urban ponds remain poorly studied. Here we assessed the frequency and strength of water column stratification, using measurements of vertical water temperature profiles at high spatial and temporal frequency, in 10 shallow urban stormwater management ponds in southern Ontario, Canada. Many of the ponds were well stratified during much of the summer of 2010 as indicated by relatively high estimates of thermal resistance to mixing (RTRM) indices. Patterns of stratification reflected local weather conditions but also varied among ponds depending on their morphometric characteristics such as maximum water depth and surface area to perimeter ratio. We found greater vertical nutrient gradients and more phosphorus accumulation in bottom waters in ponds with strong and persistent stratification, which likely results from limited particle resuspension and more dissolved phosphorus (P) release from sediments. However, subsequent mixing events in the fall diminished vertical P gradients and possibly accelerated internal loading from the sediment-water interface. Our results demonstrate that stormwater ponds can experience unexpectedly long and strong thermal stratification despite their small size and shallow water depth. Strong thermal stratification and episodic mixing in ponds likely alter the quantity and timing of internal nutrient loading, and hence affect water quality and aquatic communities in downstream receiving waters.

  7. "It is a thin line to walk on": challenges of staff working at Swedish immigration detention centres.

    PubMed

    Puthoopparambil, Soorej J; Ahlberg, Beth M; Bjerneld, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Detention of irregular migrants awaiting deportation is widely practiced in many countries and has been shown to have profound negative impact on health and well-being of detainees. Detention staff, an integral part of the detention environment, affect and are affected by detainees' health and well-being. The objective of the study was to explore experiences of staff working at Swedish immigration detention centres. Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff in three Swedish detention centres and were analysed using thematic analysis. The results indicate that the main challenge for the staff was to manage the emotional dilemma entailed in working as migration officers and simultaneously fellow human beings whose task was to implement deportation decisions while being expected to provide humane service to detainees. They tried to manage their dilemma by balancing the two roles, but still found it challenging. Among the staff, there was a high perception of fear of physical threat from detainees that made detention a stressful environment. Limited interaction between the staff and detainees was a reason for this. There is thus a need to support detention staff to improve their interaction with detainees in order to decrease their fear, manage their emotional dilemma, and provide better service to detainees. It is important to address staff challenges in order to ensure better health and well-being for both staff and detainees.

  8. “It is a thin line to walk on”: Challenges of staff working at Swedish immigration detention centres

    PubMed Central

    Puthoopparambil, Soorej J.; Ahlberg, Beth M.; Bjerneld, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Detention of irregular migrants awaiting deportation is widely practiced in many countries and has been shown to have profound negative impact on health and well-being of detainees. Detention staff, an integral part of the detention environment, affect and are affected by detainees’ health and well-being. The objective of the study was to explore experiences of staff working at Swedish immigration detention centres. Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff in three Swedish detention centres and were analysed using thematic analysis. The results indicate that the main challenge for the staff was to manage the emotional dilemma entailed in working as migration officers and simultaneously fellow human beings whose task was to implement deportation decisions while being expected to provide humane service to detainees. They tried to manage their dilemma by balancing the two roles, but still found it challenging. Among the staff, there was a high perception of fear of physical threat from detainees that made detention a stressful environment. Limited interaction between the staff and detainees was a reason for this. There is thus a need to support detention staff to improve their interaction with detainees in order to decrease their fear, manage their emotional dilemma, and provide better service to detainees. It is important to address staff challenges in order to ensure better health and well-being for both staff and detainees. PMID:25833827

  9. USE OF A RHODE ISLAND SALT POND BY JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER, PSEUDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a 1.75 m2 drop ring sampler in June and July of 2000 to quantify populations of juvenile flatfishes and other small nekton in Ninigret Pond, Rhode Island. The drop sampler was deployed in approximately 1 m of water from a boom mounted on the bow of a small boat. Abundance...

  10. 42 CFR 70.6 - Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... diseases. 70.6 Section 70.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... specific diseases. Regulations prescribed in this part authorize the detention, isolation, quarantine, or... of the communicable diseases listed in an Executive Order setting out a list of...

  11. 42 CFR 70.6 - Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... diseases. 70.6 Section 70.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... specific diseases. Regulations prescribed in this part authorize the detention, isolation, quarantine, or... of the communicable diseases listed in an Executive Order setting out a list of...

  12. 42 CFR 70.6 - Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... diseases. 70.6 Section 70.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... specific diseases. Regulations prescribed in this part authorize the detention, isolation, quarantine, or... of the communicable diseases listed in an Executive Order setting out a list of...

  13. 42 CFR 70.6 - Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... diseases. 70.6 Section 70.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... specific diseases. Regulations prescribed in this part authorize the detention, isolation, quarantine, or... of the communicable diseases listed in an Executive Order setting out a list of...

  14. 42 CFR 70.6 - Apprehension and detention of persons with specific diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... diseases. 70.6 Section 70.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... specific diseases. Regulations prescribed in this part authorize the detention, isolation, quarantine, or... of the communicable diseases listed in an Executive Order setting out a list of...

  15. 78 FR 42381 - Administrative Detention of Drugs Intended for Human or Animal Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... July 15, 2013 Part IV Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts... / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 1 and 16 Administrative Detention of Drugs Intended for Human or Animal Use AGENCY: Food and...

  16. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Youth in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This practice parameter presents recommendations for the mental health assessment and treatment of youths in juvenile detention and correctional facilities. Mental and substance-related disorders are significant public health problems affecting youths in juvenile justice settings. Sufficient time is necessary to conduct a comprehensive diagnostic…

  17. 49 CFR 453.1 - Unsafe and noncomplying containers subject to detention or control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... plate attached to it is subject to detention or other control by a District Commander or Captain of the... plate attached to it meets the standards of the convention, the District Commander or Captain of the... containers. (b) If a District Commander or Captain of the Port finds that a container used in or offered...

  18. 49 CFR 453.1 - Unsafe and noncomplying containers subject to detention or control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... plate attached to it is subject to detention or other control by a District Commander or Captain of the... plate attached to it meets the standards of the convention, the District Commander or Captain of the... containers. (b) If a District Commander or Captain of the Port finds that a container used in or offered...

  19. Bridging Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Preventing Unnecessary Detention of Foster Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Timothy; Conger, Dylan; Armstrong, Molly

    2002-01-01

    Project Confirm aims to address the problem of foster children ending up in detention because of police and probation officers' difficulty in locating guardians to appear on behalf of arrested children. Project Confirm locates juveniles' caseworkers and informs them of their legal responsibilities. The program reached most of its implementation…

  20. 25 CFR 10.1 - Why are policies and standards needed for Indian country detention programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities are supporting constitutional rights and are complying with the Indian Law Enforcement Reform Act... detention programs? 10.1 Section 10.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND... programs under the Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, Public Law 99-570,...

  1. 9 CFR 381.210 - Poultry and other articles subject to administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry and other articles subject to..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention;...

  2. 9 CFR 381.210 - Poultry and other articles subject to administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry and other articles subject to..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention;...

  3. 9 CFR 381.210 - Poultry and other articles subject to administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry and other articles subject to..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention;...

  4. 9 CFR 381.210 - Poultry and other articles subject to administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry and other articles subject to..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention;...

  5. 9 CFR 381.210 - Poultry and other articles subject to administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry and other articles subject to..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention;...

  6. [Living conditions, nutritional status and morbidity in children in prisons and detention centers in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Ye, D; Zoma, A; Kabore, A; Yonaba, C; Savadogo, H; Ouedraogo, S A P; Dao, L; Koueta, F

    2015-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, although children are sometimes separated from adults in prisons, they still live in the same conditions of overcrowding, which can reach 180% of the capacity. The aim of our study was to describe living conditions, nutritional status, and morbidity of children in detention centers of Burkina Faso. The objective of this cross-sectional descriptive study is to describe the social and health conditions of children held in 20 detention centers in Burkina Faso. During the study period, 109 children, with a mean age of 16.3 years, were examined in 20 correction centers. The main reason for incarceration was theft (66% cases, n = 72). Detention exceeded more than one month for 76 children (70%), and 59% (N = 46) had had fewer than one visit per month since their incarceration. Of these 20 facilities, 6 had no separate quarters for children. The main symptoms and diseases encountered in these children were fever in 19% of the cases (N = 16), macroscopic hematuria in 13% (N = 11), urinary tract infection in 12% (N = 10) and diarrhea in 12% (N = 10). These results show that there is a need to take preventive measures to protect these children's health, especially by improving the quality of living conditions in detention center.

  7. 28 CFR 35.152 - Jails, detention and correctional facilities, and community correctional facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jails, detention and correctional facilities, and community correctional facilities. 35.152 Section 35.152 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT...

  8. 28 CFR 35.152 - Jails, detention and correctional facilities, and community correctional facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jails, detention and correctional facilities, and community correctional facilities. 35.152 Section 35.152 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT...

  9. 21 CFR 1.378 - What criteria does FDA use to order a detention?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....378 Section 1.378 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... employee of FDA may order the detention of any article of food that is found during an inspection... the article of food is adulterated or misbranded....

  10. 21 CFR 1.392 - Who receives a copy of the detention order?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 1.392 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... detention order to the owner, operator, or agent in charge of the place where the article of food is located. If the owner of the article of food is different from the owner, operator, or agent in charge of...

  11. Rap, Recidivism and the Creative Self: A Popular Music Programme for Young Offenders in Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sarah; Homan, Shane

    2007-01-01

    Popular music is increasingly being viewed by local, state and national governments as a useful form of creative activity for at-risk youth both within and outside young offender institutions. This paper examines a music programme operating for a group of predominantly black youth within one North American detention centre, and considers the range…

  12. The Challenges of Reintegrating Indigenous Youth after Their Release from Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Glenn Desmond

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for the juvenile justice system is to successfully reintegrate young offenders back to their communities so that they do not re-offend and return to detention. This challenge is even greater for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth who are over-represented in the Queensland juvenile justice system in…

  13. Effects of Stormwater Infiltration on Quality of Groundwater Beneath Retention and Detention Basins

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of stormwater retention and detention basins has become a popular method for managing urban and suburban stormwater runoff. Infiltration of stormwater through these basins may increase the risk to ground-water quality, especially in areas where the soil is sandy and the wate...

  14. Detention Home Teens as Tutors: A Cooperative Cross-Age Tutoring Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazerson, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Concerned professionals in the juvenile justice field frequently express concern for effective programs that help youth offenders successfully rejoin society. This mixed-method pilot study involved detention home teens functioning as tutors for special education students in a public school. Tutors were selected who, based on previous assessment as…

  15. Detention of People Lost to Follow-Up on TB Treatment in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Restoy, Enrique; Kibuchi, Evaline; Holland, Paula; Harries, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adherence to treatment is a key element for global TB control. Public health laws can be used to enforce isolation, adherence, and completion of TB treatment. However, the practical application of public health laws can potentially range from voluntary measures to involuntary detention approaches. This paper explores the potential risks and impacts of using detention approaches to enforce TB treatment adherence. In August 2015, we conducted a literature search regarding the application of public health laws to enforce adherence to TB treatment globally, and specifically in Kenya. Texts were analyzed using narrative synthesis. Results indicated that in Kenya, people lost to follow-up on TB treatment were frequently detained in prisons. However, incarceration and detention approaches curtail the rights to health, informed consent, privacy, freedom from non-consensual treatment, freedom from inhumane and degrading treatment, and freedom of movement of people lost to follow-up. Detention could also worsen social inequalities and lead to a paradoxical increase in TB incidence. We suggest the incorporation of less intrusive solutions in legislation and policies. These include strengthening health systems to reduce dependency on prisons as isolation spaces, decentralizing TB treatment to communities, enhancing treatment education, revising the public health laws, and addressing socioeconomic and structural determinants associated with TB incidence and loss to follow-up. PMID:27780998

  16. Artistry in Lockdown: Transformative Music Experiences for Students in Juvenile Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcum, Travis

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, there were approximately 137,000 court-involved minor children in residential detention and rehabilitation facilities in the United States as a result of committing a crime. Most of these children have no opportunity to participate in music education while serving long-term sentences in residential lockdown. A program in Austin, Texas,…

  17. Academic Potential among African American Adolescents in Juvenile Detention Centers: Implications for Reentry to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toldson, Ivory A.; Woodson, Kamilah M.; Braithwaite, Ronald; Holliday, Rhonda C.; De La Rosa, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The study explores Black adolescent detainees' academic potential and motivation to return to school, to inform best practices and policies for juvenile reentry to educational settings. Adolescent detainees (N = 1,576) who were recruited from 1 male and 1 female youth detention facility, responded to surveys that assessed postdetention educational…

  18. The Role of Open and Distance Higher Education in Detainees in Greek Detention Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linardatou, Charitini; Manousou, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the results of the qualitative research conducted in Detention Facilities in Greece in connection with the preparation of the thesis (Linardatou, 2012). This is a case study of two prisoners attending Open Universities. The study concerned the characteristics and peculiarities of Open and Distance…

  19. 45 CFR 506.4 - Survivors entitled to award of detention benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Civilian American Citizens § 506.4 Survivors entitled to award of detention benefits. In case of death of a... or husband if there is no child or children of the deceased; (b) Widow or dependent husband and child or children of the deceased, one-half to the widow or dependent husband and the other half to...

  20. 45 CFR 506.4 - Survivors entitled to award of detention benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Civilian American Citizens § 506.4 Survivors entitled to award of detention benefits. In case of death of a... or husband if there is no child or children of the deceased; (b) Widow or dependent husband and child or children of the deceased, one-half to the widow or dependent husband and the other half to...

  1. Restoration of ponds in rural landscapes: modelling the effect on nitrate contamination of surface water (the Seine River Basin, France).

    PubMed

    Passy, Paul; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Fesneau, Corinne; Tournebize, Julien

    2012-07-15

    Ponds were ubiquitous features of the traditional rural waterscape in the Seine watershed, as shown by the 18th century Cassini map. Using the result of a water quality survey at the entrance and the outlet of a small pond receiving agricultural drainage water, the Seneque/Riverstrahler biogeochemical model was shown to accurately simulate the observed 30% reduction in nitrogen fluxes crossing this pond. The model was then used to simulate the effect of various scenarios of pond restoration (inspired by their 18th century geographical distribution as revealed by the Cassini map) on surface water nitrate contamination at different spatial scales. In regions with an impermeable lithological substrate, the restoration of ponds at a density of 5% of the agricultural area would reduce the riverine nitrogen export by up to 25% on an annual basis. It is suggested that such waterscape management, used in conjunction with more preventive measures, can be a useful means to reduce nitrate contamination of water resources.

  2. Stable density stratification solar pond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A stable density-stratification solar pond for use in the collection and storage of solar thermal energy including a container having a first section characterized by an internal wall of a substantially cylindrical configuration and a second section having an internal wall of a substantially truncated conical configuration surmounting the first section in coaxial alignment therewith, the second section of said container being characterized by a base of a diameter substantially equal to the diameter of the first section and a truncated apex defining a solar energy acceptance opening is discussed. A body of immiscible liquids is disposed within the container and comprises a lower portion substantially filling the first section of the container and an upper portion substantially filling the second section of the container, said lower portion being an aqueous based liquid of a darker color than the upper portion and of a greater density. A protective cover plate is removably provided for covering the acceptance opening.

  3. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  4. Can Environmental Education Actions Change Public Attitudes? An Example Using the Pond Habitat and Associated Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Eunice; Quintino, Victor; Palhas, Jael; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Teixeira, José

    2016-01-01

    Ponds provide vital ecological services. They are biodiversity hotspots and important breading sites for rare and endangered species, including amphibians and dragonflies. Nevertheless, their number is decreasing due to habitat degradation caused by human activities. The “Ponds with Life” environmental education project was developed to raise public awareness and engagement in the study of ponds by promoting the direct contact between the public and nature, researchers and pedagogical hands-on exploration activities. A pre-post- project survey was set-up to assess the effects of the project on the environmental consciousness, knowledge and attitude changes towards ponds and the associated biodiversity of school students aged 15 to 18. The survey questions were based on Likert scales and their pre-post project comparisons used an innovative multivariate hypothesis testing approach. The results showed that the project improved the students’ knowledge and attitudes towards ponds and associated biodiversity, especially the amphibians. Ponds can be found or constructed in urban areas and despite small sized, they proved to be interesting model habitats and living laboratories to foster environmental education, by encompassing a high number of species and a fast ecological succession. PMID:27148879

  5. Photosynthesis and fish production in culture ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Szyper, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    The widely-cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, has been the major species used in standardized experiments by the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program (PD/ACRSP). Yields of Nile Tilapia from fertilized, unfed ponds have served as a bioassay for effectiveness of pond management protocols developed during worldwide tropical experiments. Yield rates near 10 T/ha/y can be achieved without feed inputs in ponds which maintain high standing stocks of phytoplankton and exhibit high rates near 10 T/ha/y can be achieved without feed inputs in ponds which maintain high standing stocks of phytoplankton and exhibit high rates of primary production. Fish production is related to daytime net photosynthetic production, but it is not clear whether production of food materials or oxygen is the more direct influence. Excessively high standing stocks of phytoplankton are not the best net producers, and increase and risk of nighttime oxygen depletion. Fish readily grow to individual sizes of 200-300 g/fish in fertilized ponds, which is sufficient market size in many locations. Supplemental feeding of caged or free-ranging fish greatly accelerates growth beyond 300 g and potentiates high areal yields; the PD/A CRSP has also developed efficient feeding regimes and shown that supplemental feeding need not begin before fish reach 200 g weight. High standing stocks of phytoplankton and high photosynthetic rates in eutrophic ponds make study of photosynthesis possible without radioisotopes. Such ponds also exhibit complete extinction of incident solar radiation within shallow depths, and vertical temperature structure resembling that of deeper bodies of water. These characteristics make ponds useful as microcosms for study of some aspects of photosynthesis in natural waters.

  6. Environmental Services from Agricultural Stormwater Detention Systems in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, A.; Shukla, S.; Knowles, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural Stormwater Detention Areas (ADAs) commonly exist for the purpose of downstream flood protection in high water table regions of Florida. In addition to flood protection, they are also considered an important Best Management Practice due to their presumed effectiveness in reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads to the Kissimmee-Lake Okeechobee-Everglades (KLE) ecosystem. The KLE ecosystem has been adversely impacted due to excessive P loads. Despite their presumed water quality effectiveness, limited data exist on actual N and P treatment efficiencies. A study was conducted at two ADAs (ADA 1 and ADA 2) located in two row crop farms to quantify the total N and P treatment efficiencies. Water, N, and P inflow and outflows at both ADAs were monitored for a year. Results from ADA 1 suggested that P treatment efficiency was below zero indicating that the ADA was a source of P rather than a sink. On the other hand, N treatment efficiency was found to be 20%. Mean inflow and outflow N concentrations for ADA 1 were 1.6 and 1.4 mg/l respectively, indicating a 9% reduction. Mean inflow and outflow P concentrations were 0.04 and 0.06 mg/l respectively, showing an increase of 67%. Although ADA 1 was effective in retaining N it was not for P. In contrast to ADA 1, the P treatment efficiency of ADA 2 was positive (20%). Nitrogen treatment efficiency of ADA 2 was 22%. Mean inflow and outflow N concentrations for ADA 2 were 4.0 and 2.0 mg/l respectively, indicating 50% reduction. A reduction of 32% was observed for P concentrations with mean inflow and outflow P concentrations of 0.5 and 0.3 mg/l respectively. No P retention at ADA 1 was mainly due to low P adsorption capacity of the soil. Analysis of surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (10-20 cm) soil P retention characteristics suggested that ADA 1 had no remaining P storage capacity which resulted in it being a source of P. At ADA 2, a large fraction of the area still had P storage capacity which resulted in

  7. Solar ponds. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-08-01

    Federally funded research on the design, performance, and use of solar ponds is discussed on these. Topic areas cover the use of solar ponds in industrial process heat production, roof ponds for passive solar buildings, and solar ponds use in the production of biomass for renewable fuels.

  8. Pond-aquifer interaction at South Pond of Lake Cochituate, Natick, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesz, Paul J.; Church, Peter E.

    2001-01-01

    A U.S. Army facility on a peninsula in South Pond of Lake Cochituate was designated a Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1994 because contaminated ground water was detected at the facility, which is near the Natick Springvale public-supply wellfield. The interaction between South Pond and the underlying aquifer controls ground-water flow patterns near the pond and determines the source of water withdrawn from the wellfield.A map of the bathymetry and the thickness of fine-grained pond-bottom sediments was prepared on the basis of fathometer, ground-penetrating radar, and continuous seismic-reflection surveys. The geophysical data indicate that the bottom sediments are fine grained toward the middle of the pond but are coarse grained in shoreline areas. Natick Springvale wellfield, which consists of three active public-supply wells adjacent to South Pond, is 2,200 feet downgradient from the boundary of the Army facility. That part of South Pond between the Natick Springvale wellfield and the Army facility is 18 feet deep with at least 14 feet of fine-grained sediment beneath the pond-bottom. Water levels from the pond and underlying sediments indicate a downward vertical gradient and the potential for infiltration of pond water near the wellfield. Head differences between the pond and the wellfield ranged from 1.66 to 4.41 feet during this study. The velocity of downward flow from South Pond into the pond-bottom sediments, determined on the basis of temperature profiles measured over a diurnal cycle at two locations near the wellfield, was 0.5 and 1.0 feet per day. These downward velocities resulted in vertical hydraulic conductivities of 1.1 and 2.9 feet per day for the pond-bottom sediments.Naturally occurring stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen were used as tracers of pond water and ground water derived from recharge of precipitation, two potential sources of water to a well in a pond-aquifer setting. The isotopic composition of pond

  9. South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  10. This Pond Is Not for Ducks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The latest development in solar energy is a four-acre pond planned for Clark College in Vancouver (Washington). Filled with brine, it will serve both as collector and heat storage tank for the entire campus. (Author)

  11. Determining the Population Size of Pond Phytoplankton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Paul J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses methods for determining the population size of pond phytoplankton, including water sampling techniques, laboratory analysis of samples, and additional studies worthy of investigation in class or as individual projects. (CS)

  12. Sediment Pond Removal and Enhanced Designs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sediment Pond Removal Considerations; Scheduling, Baseflow diversion, Dewatering provisions, Sediment handling, Potential to discharge sediment, Down‐gradient sediment control(s), Erosion control(s), Stream reconstruction, Riparian vegetation.

  13. Effects of impervious area and BMP implementation and design on storm runoff and water quality in eight small watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aulenbach, Brent T.; Landers, Mark N.; Musser, Jonathan W.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of increases in effective impervious area (EIA) and the implementation of water quality protection designed detention pond best management practices (BMPs) on storm runoff and stormwater quality were assessed in Gwinnett County, Georgia, for the period 2001-2008. Trends among eight small watersheds were compared, using a time trend study design. Significant trends were detected in three storm hydrologic metrics and in five water quality constituents that were adjusted for variability in storm characteristics and climate. Trends in EIA ranged from 0.10 to 1.35, and changes in EIA treated by BMPs ranged from 0.19 to 1.32; both expressed in units of percentage of drainage area per year. Trend relations indicated that for every 1% increase in watershed EIA, about 2.6, 1.1, and 1.5% increases in EIA treated by BMPs would be required to counteract the effects of EIA added to the watersheds on peak streamflow, stormwater yield, and storm streamflow runoff, respectively. Relations between trends in EIA, BMP implementation, and water quality were counterintuitive. This may be the result of (1) changes in constituent inputs in the watersheds, especially downstream of areas treated by BMPs; (2) BMPs may have increased the duration of stormflow that results in downstream channel erosion; and/or (3) spurious relationships between increases in EIA, BMP implementation, and constituent inputs with development rates.

  14. Is psychopathy elevated among criminal offenders who are under preventive detention pursuant to Section 66 of the German Penal Code?

    PubMed

    Habermeyer, Elmar; Passow, Daniel; Vohs, Knut

    2010-01-01

    In Germany, preventive detention can be imposed if a repeat offender shows a proclivity to commit further significant criminal acts. The courts require expert opinion to provide information about personality traits relevant for this disposition. However, currently, consensus about this topic is lacking. On the basis of a standardized examination, the relevance of Hare's concept of "psychopathy" for expert opinion is discussed in the context of preventive detention.

  15. Potential Ecological Effects of Contaminants in the Exposed Par Pond Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-08-01

    Sediment and small mammal samples were collected from the exposed sediments of Par Pond in early 1995, shortly before the reservoir was refilled after a 4-year drawdown. Sampling was confined to elevations between 58 and 61 meters (190 and 200 feet) above mean sea level, which includes the sediments likely to be exposed if the Par Pond water level is permitted to fluctuate naturally. Both soil and small mammal samples were analyzed for a number of radionuclides and metals. Some of the soil samples were also analyzed for organic contaminants. The objective of the study was to determine if contaminant levels in the Par Pond sediments were high enough to cause deleterious ecological effects.

  16. Material Selection Considerations for Solar Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, S.; Vaidyanathan, T. K.; Marsh, H. E.; French, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Among the various candidate materials tested, stainless steel shows the best potential for applications as heat exchanger components in solar ponds. Even stainless steel may lead to pitting type of corrosion. Weight loss measurements are probably unsatisfactory for corrosion evaluation in solar pond situations. Also included are the results from the potentiodynamic anodic polarization analysis, corrosion rate calculation via corrosion behavior diagrams, and immersion weight loss measurements.

  17. Relationship between first-order decay coefficients in ponds, for plug flow, CSTR and dispersed flow regimes.

    PubMed

    von, Sperling M

    2002-01-01

    Adequate consideration of the hydraulic regime of a pond is essential in the analysis of BOD and coliform removal, and considerable divergence exists in the literature when reporting removal coefficients. This paper aims at integrating the existing approaches, by quantifying the relationship between the first-order removal coefficients K from the three main hydraulic regimes (CSTR, plug flow and dispersed flow) adopted in the design and performance evaluation of ponds. Based on theoretical considerations and statistical regression analyses, the relationship between the K values is investigated, quantified and modelled. Two tables are presented and two equations are proposed, which allow conversion of K values obtained for dispersed flow to (a) K for CSTR and (b) K for plug flow, based on the hydraulic detention time t and the dispersion number d. These coefficients, when applied in the CSTR or plug-flow equations, will give approximately the same prediction of the effluent concentration as that obtained when using the dispersed-flow model with its proper coefficient. With this approach designers can apply, and researchers can report, K values for the two idealised flow patterns (CSTR and plug flow).

  18. Flash flooding in small urban watersheds: Storm event hydrologic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Long; Smith, James A.; Baeck, Mary Lynn; Zhang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    We analyze flash flooding in small urban watersheds, with special focus on the roles of rainfall variability, antecedent soil moisture, and urban storm water management infrastructure in storm event hydrologic response. Our results are based on empirical analyses of high-resolution rainfall and discharge observations over Harry's Brook watershed in Princeton, New Jersey, during 2005-2006, as well as numerical experiments with the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model. We focus on two subwatersheds of Harry's Brook, a 1.1 km2 subwatershed which was developed prior to modern storm water management regulations, and a 0.5 km2 subwatershed with an extensive network of storm water detention ponds. The watershed developed prior to modern storm water regulations is an "end-member" in urban flood response, exhibiting a frequency of flood peaks (with unit discharge exceeding 1 m3 s-1 km-2) that is comparable to the "flashiest" watersheds in the conterminous U.S. Observational analyses show that variability in storm event water balance is strongly linked to peak rain rates at time intervals of less than 30 min and only weakly linked to antecedent soil moisture conditions. Peak discharge for both the 1.1 and 0.5 km2 subwatersheds are strongly correlated with rainfall rate averaged over 1-30 min. Hydrologic modeling analyses indicate that the sensitivity of storm event hydrologic response to spatial rainfall variability decreases with storm intensity. Temporal rainfall variability is relatively more important than spatial rainfall variability in representing urban flood response, especially for extreme storm events.

  19. Pits, pipes, ponds--and me.

    PubMed

    Mara, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    My life in low-cost sanitation and low-cost wastewater treatment and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture really has been 'pits, pipes and ponds' - 'pits' are low-cost sanitation technologies (LCST) such as VIP latrines and pour-flush toilets; 'pipes' are low-cost sewerage, principally condominial (simplified) sewerage; and 'ponds' are low-cost wastewater treatment systems, especially waste stabilization ponds, and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. 'Pits' were mainly working on World Bank LCST research projects, with fieldwork principally in Zimbabwe, 'pipes' were working on condominial sewerage projects in Brazil and disseminating this LCST to a wider global audience, and 'ponds' were waste stabilization ponds, with fieldwork mainly in Brazil, Colombia, Portugal and the United Kingdom, the development of aerated rock filters to polish facultative-pond effluents, and the human-health aspects of treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture, with fieldwork in Brazil and the UK, and the application of quantitative microbial risk analysis. The paper provides a professional perspective and lessons from historical developments and gives recommended future directions based on my career working on low-cost sanitation technologies and treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture.

  20. Impact of design and operation variables on the performance of vertical-flow constructed wetlands and intermittent sand filters treating pond effluent.

    PubMed

    Torrens, Antonina; Molle, Pascal; Boutin, Catherine; Salgot, Miquel

    2009-04-01

    With the aim of improving the quality of the effluent from a waste stabilization pond (WSP) different types of vertical-flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) and intermittent sand filters (ISFs) were tested at a pilot plant in Aurignac (France). The effectiveness of each design at upgrading the pond effluent was studied over a period of 2 years. Physicochemical parameters were monitored by taking composite samples over 24h and grab samples every week. The hydraulic behaviour of the filters was studied using (NaCl) tracer tests and monitoring the infiltration rate. This paper describes the influence on the performance of the beds of: (a) the characteristics of the medium (type of sand, depth, and presence of Phragmites); (b) feed modes; and (c) the presence of an algae clogging layer. The study demonstrates the viability of VFCWs and ISFs as means of upgrading effluent from WSPs. For hydraulic loads (HL) of up to 80cm/day, both technologies effectively retain algae, complete organic matter degradation, and nitrify the pond effluent. The presence of plants did not significantly affect the performance of the filters although it was important in terms of maintenance. The deeper filters presented better removals for all the parameter tested, due to higher hydraulic detention times (HDTs). The dosing regime and resting period duration all affected the hydraulic performance and purification efficiency of the filters.

  1. Administrative detention of drugs intended for human or animal use. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-05-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is implementing administrative detention authority with respect to drugs intended for human or animal use as authorized by amendments made to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA). FDA's administrative detention authority with respect to drugs allows FDA to better protect the integrity of the drug supply chain. Specifically, FDA is able to administratively detain drugs encountered during an inspection that an authorized FDA representative conducting an inspection has reason to believe are adulterated or misbranded. This authority is intended to protect the public by preventing distribution or subsequent use of drugs encountered during inspections that are believed to be adulterated or misbranded, until FDA has had time to consider what action it should take concerning the drugs, and to initiate legal action, if appropriate.

  2. Mental illness, violence risk, and race in juvenile detention: implications for disproportionate minority contact.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rani A; Falzer, Paul R; Chapman, John; Borum, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Disproportionate minority contact (DMC) is a pervasive problem throughout the juvenile justice system. This article explored whether mental illness may be an explanatory factor in DMC. Data such as measures of violence risk and symptoms of mental illness were taken from intake interviews with 482 detained youth in Connecticut. Results indicated that racial minorities in detention have significantly lower violence risk than Caucasians but are disproportionately represented among detention populations relative to their proportions in the general population. In addition, DMC in these data was not explained by mental illness, seriousness of charges, violence risk, age, or gender. We suggest that mandated efforts to reduce DMC will need to address more than improving behavior or reducing symptoms of mental illness among detained minority youth. Instead, efforts should be focused on reducing the racial disparity evident in decisions made within the juvenile justice system.

  3. Inside truths: 'truth' and mental illness in the Australian asylum seeker and detention debates.

    PubMed

    Maglen, Krista

    2007-10-01

    This article examines some of the key debates and interactions between the Australian government and medical profession in relation to the mental health consequences of the policy of mandatory detention of asylum seekers. It explores how, in a series of episodes between 2001 and 2005, each side claimed to represent accurately the 'true' nature of the detention system through asserting superior 'objectivity' and commitment to 'scientific truth' in their representations of the mental health of asylum seekers. Placing these debates within the particular political objectives of the Liberal Party during John Howard's term as Prime Minister, the article explores how science and medical advocacy have been characterized and made to signify larger conflicts within the Australian political arena. It shows how populist political ideas of 'elitism' have been used by the government to represent as 'elitist untruths' psychiatric research which has demonstrated a direct causal links between government border control policies and mental ill-health.

  4. Academic potential among African American adolescents in juvenile detention centers: Implications for reentry to school

    PubMed Central

    Toldson, Ivory A.; Woodson, Kamilah M.; Braithwaite, Ronald; Holliday, Rhonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The study explores Black adolescent detainees academic potential and motivation to return to school to inform best practices and policies for juvenile reentry to educational settings. Adolescent detainees (N = 1,576) who were recruited from one male and one female youth detention facility, responded to surveys that assessed post-detention educational plans, as well as social and emotional characteristics, and criminal history. Multivariate analysis techniques were used to compare factors across race and gender, and plot linear relationships between key indicators of academic potential with associate factors. Findings revealed that youth were more likely to evince academic potential when they had a healthy level of self-esteem, adequate future goal orientation, positive mood, family and community involvement, fewer traumatic events, and less delinquent activity. PMID:21654936

  5. Flood detention area modelling based on nationwide topographic data: ALS-DTMs vs. conventional DTMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesakoski, Jenni-Mari; Alho, Petteri; Hyyppä, Juha; Holopainen, Markus; Flener, Claude; Hyyppä, Hannu

    2014-05-01

    Topographic depressions have an important role in hydrology. These effects on hydrological processes are caused by changes in the water balance and runoff response of a watershed. Nevertheless, research has focused in detail neither on the effects of acquisition and processing methods nor on the effects of resolution of nationwide grid digital terrain models (DTMs) on topographic depressions. Recently, many countries have conducted nationwide ALS (Airborne laser scanning) surveys for DTM purposes. Thus, detailed comparison between nationwide ALS-DTMs with different grid sizes and DTMs that represent more conventional acquisition methods, such as photogrammetric methods, is needed for different study fields. In here, the objective is to delineate the difference of depression variables between nationwide DTMs with different acquisition methods, processing methods and grid sizes. Our depression detection is based on nationwide 25x25 m and 10x10 m DTMs and 2x2 m ALS-DTM produced by NLS of Finland. ALS-DTM2 was resampled to 10x10 and 25x25 m DTMs. Thus, it was possible to compare DTMs that represent the same grid size but different acquisition and processing methods. The variables considered are the mean depth of the depression, the number of its pixels, and its area and volume. Shallow and single-pixel depressions and the impact of mean filtering on ALS-DTM were also examined. Quantitative methods and error models were applied. According to our study, the depression variables were dependent on the scale, area and acquisition method. When the depths of depression pixels were compared with the most accurate DTM based on accurate VRNS-GNSS (Virtual Reference Stations, Global Navigation Satellite Systems) field survey data, the maximum errors created the largest differences between DTMs and hence represented the amount of the depth error. The mean filtering of ALS-DTM2 focuses on the small and shallow depressions, and is thus suitable for using in flood risk management

  6. Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination

  7. The Necessary Evil of Preventive Detention: A Plan for a More Moderate and Sustainable Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    witness can be adequately secured by deposition, and if further detention is not necessary to prevent a failure of justice .”7 As Law Professor Stephen...Terrorism Trials, Liberty and National Security Project (New York: Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law, 2005), 38, www.brennancenter.org...As will be detailed in Chapter III, the Administration transferred Padilla to the criminal justice system in 2005 presumably to avoid a show- down

  8. Preventive Detention in the War on Terror: A Plan for a More Moderate and Sustainable Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    with respect to the purist approach, using the criminal justice system – even with changes to existing statutes – is certainly less cumbersome than...were dropped), they conclude that the criminal justice system has worked considerably well and does not need to be changed for the extremely few...deposition, and if further detention is not necessary to prevent a failure of justice .”7 As Law Professor Stephen Schulhofer aptly points out, unless this

  9. Financial Management: Military Traffic Management Command Handling of Container Detention Charges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    DC 20301-1900. The identity of each writer and caller is fully protected. Acronyms MTMC Military Traffic Management Command Office of...cargo by commercial motor carriers. Background. This report discusses the Military Traffic Management Command ( MTMC ) Operations Directorate handling...of detention charges that motor carriers incurred. MTMC uses DoD-owned intermodal containers, as well as those that the commercial transportation

  10. Design comparison of experimental storm water detention systems treating concentrated road runoff.

    PubMed

    Nanbakhsh, Hassan; Kazemi-Yazdi, Sara; Scholz, Miklas

    2007-07-15

    The aim was to assess the treatment efficiencies of experimental storm water detention (extended storage) systems based on the Atlantis Water Management Limited detention cells receiving concentrated runoff that has been primarily treated by filtration with different inert aggregates. Randomly collected gully pot liquor was used in stead of road runoff. To test for a 'worst case scenario', the experimental system received higher volumes and pollutant concentrations in comparison to real detention systems under real (frequently longer but diluted) runoff events. Gravel (6 and 20 mm), sand (1.5 mm), Ecosoil (inert 2 mm aggregate provided by Atlantis Water Management Limited), block paving and turf were tested in terms of their influence on the water quality. Concentrations of five-day at 20 degrees C ATU biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in contrast to suspended solids (SS) were frequently reduced to below international secondary wastewater treatment standards. The denitrification process was not completed. This resulted in higher outflow than inflow nitrate-nitrogen concentrations. An analysis of variance indicated that some systems were similar in terms of most of their treatment performance variables including BOD and SS. It follows that there is no advantage in using additional aggregates with high adsorption capacities in the primary treatment stage.

  11. Spatial and temporal variability of ribotyping results at a small watershed in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, R Heath; Webster, Laura F; Kenny, David J; Stewart, Jill R; Scott, Geoffrey I

    2008-04-01

    The utility of library-based ribotyping methods for a very small study area was evaluated through comparison of local results to libraries with differing spatial and temporal scales. Ribotyping of Escherichia coli isolates was used to evaluate sources of fecal pollution at a coastal golf course in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Thirty-five E. coli isolates were obtained from water samples from a detention pond for testing against several local and regional libraries of known-source isolate patterns. A library of 92 E. coli ribotype patterns was created from wildlife feces obtained on the site. Additional libraries were available for comparison, including a library from Morgan Island, a small, geographically isolated area (including a monkey colony), and a library from ongoing statewide assessments. Seventeen (49%) of the unknown E. coli isolates matched isolates from raccoon and deer scat from the local library. Two isolates (6%) were matched with monkey sources from Morgan Island, and 13 (37%) were matched to raccoon, deer, and cows from the statewide assessment. Evaluation of repeated ribotyping analyses at the study area revealed evidence of temporal variability of potential sources in the local library. Only one of the isolates from the second year of fecal samples successfully matched with a fecal isolate from the previous year. The results from this study suggest that source identification results were variable both spatially and temporally, and that local, temporally specific libraries are most appropriate for library-based MST studies in small watersheds. Results also suggest that it will be difficult to employ adequate sample sizes to satisfactorily address unknown pattern variability.

  12. Nutrient recovery from swine waste and protein biomass production using duckweed ponds (Landoltia punctata): southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mohedano, R A; Velho, V F; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important countries in pork production worldwide, ranking third. This activity has an important role in the national economic scenario. However, the fast growth of this activity has caused major environmental impacts, especially in developing countries. The large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds found in pig manure has caused ecological imbalances, with eutrophication of major river basins in the producing regions. Moreover, much of the pig production in developing countries occurs on small farms, and therefore causes diffuse pollution. Therefore, duckweed pond have been successfully used in the swine waste polishing, generating further a biomass with high protein content. The present study evaluated the efficiency of two full scale duckweed ponds for the polishing of a small pig farm effluent, biomass yield and crude protein (CP) content. Duckweed pond series received the effluent from a biodigester-storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3)/day (chemical oxygen demand rate = 186 kg/ha day) produced by 300 animals. After 1 year a great improvement of effluent quality was observed, with removal of 96% of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and 89% of total phosphorus (TP), on average. Nitrogen removal rate is one of the highest ever found (4.4 g TKN/m(2) day). Also, the dissolved oxygen rose from 0.0 to 3.0 mg/L. The two ponds produced together over 13 tons of fresh biomass (90.5% moisture), with 35% of CP content, which represents a productivity of 24 tonsCP/ha year. Due to the high rate of nutrient removal, and also the high protein biomass production, duckweed ponds revealed, under the presented conditions, a great potential for the polishing and valorization of swine waste. Nevertheless, this technology should be better exploited to improve the sustainability of small pig farms in order to minimize the impacts of this activity on the environment.

  13. A case study of enteric virus removal and insights into the associated risk of water reuse for two wastewater treatment pond systems in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Symonds, E M; Verbyla, M E; Lukasik, J O; Kafle, R C; Breitbart, M; Mihelcic, J R

    2014-11-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (WTP) are one of the most widespread treatment technologies in the world; however, the mechanisms and extent of enteric virus removal in these systems are poorly understood. Two WTP systems in Bolivia, with similar overall hydraulic retention times but different first stages of treatment, were analyzed for enteric virus removal. One system consisted of a facultative pond followed by two maturation ponds (three-pond system) and the other consisted of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by two maturation (polishing) ponds (UASB-pond system). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription (RT-qPCR) was used to measure concentrations of norovirus, rotavirus, and pepper mild mottle virus, while cell culture methods were used to measure concentrations of culturable enteroviruses (EV). Limited virus removal was observed with RT-qPCR in either system; however, the three-pond system removed culturable EV with greater efficiency than the UASB-pond system. The majority of viruses were not associated with particles and only a small proportion was associated with particles larger than 180 μm; thus, it is unlikely that sedimentation is a major mechanism of virus removal. High concentrations of viruses were associated with particles between 0.45 and 180 μm in the UASB reactor effluent, but not in the facultative pond effluent. The association of viruses with this size class of particles may explain why only minimal virus removal was observed in the UASB-pond system. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of the treated effluent for reuse for restricted irrigation indicated that the three-pond system effluent requires an additional 1- to 2-log10 reduction of viruses to achieve the WHO health target of <10(-4) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost per person per year; however, the UASB-pond system effluent may require an additional 2.5- to 4.5-log10 reduction of viruses.

  14. Rapid Sand Filtration for Best Practical Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Stabilization Pond Effluent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatright, D. T.; Lawrence, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a rapid sand filtration sewage treatment system as an adjunct to a waste water stabilization pond is investigated. The study concludes that such units are within the technical and economic constraints of a small community and comply with the EPA criteria. (BT)

  15. Electrostatic dust transport on Eros: 3-D simulations of pond formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Anna L. H.; Colwell, Joshua E.; DeWolfe, Alexandria Ware

    2008-06-01

    NEAR-Shoemaker spacecraft images of the surface of the near-Earth Asteroid 433 Eros reveal that more than 200 craters on Eros are partially filled with smooth deposits, termed ponds [Veverka, J., and 32 colleagues, 2001a. Science 292, 484-488]. These ponds appear smooth even at a high resolution of 1.2 cm/pixel and spectral analysis suggests that they may be made up of particles ≪50 μm in size [Robinson, M.S., Thomas, P.C., Veverka, J., Murchie, S., Carcish, B., 2001. Nature 413, 396-400; Riner, M.A., Eckart, J.M., Gigilio, J.G., Robinson, M.S., 2006. Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXVII. Abstract 2291]. Coupled with the concentration of ponds at low latitudes, the possible small particle size suggests that these deposits might be related to electrostatic transport of dust near the local terminator [Robinson, M.S., Thomas, P.C., Veverka, J., Murchie, S., Carcish, B., 2001. Nature 413, 396-400]. The work presented here incorporates the precise lighting geometry within a crater at a specified latitude into two models for electrostatic transport of dust grains in order to explore dust deposition and pond formation via this mechanism, particularly as a function of latitude. We find that micrometer-sized dust particles are preferentially transported into craters at latitudes where solar illumination angles are often low. In addition we find that if particles are electrostatically lifted off the surface they are preferentially transported into topographic depressions independent of whether the particles undergo stable levitation. The primary limiting factor for our model is uncertainty concerning the dust launching mechanism. Despite that, and though it does not match the observed north-south asymmetry in pond distribution, our model demonstrates potential for good general agreement between future predictions of pond formation via electrostatic transport of dust and observations of pond locations on the surface of Eros.

  16. Impact of beaver ponds on river discharge and sediment deposition along the Chevral River, Ardennes, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Pontzeele, Jolien; De Visscher, Maarten; Billi, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    With the recovery of the European beaver (Castor fiber) and their capacity to engineer fluvial landscapes, questions arise as to how they influence river discharge and sediment transport. The Chevral river (Ardennes, Belgium) contains two beaver dam sequences which appeared in 2004 and count now about 30 dams. Flow discharges and sediment fluxes were measured at the in- and outflow of each dam sequence. Volumes of sediment deposited behind the dams were measured. Between 2004 and 2011, peak flows were topped off, and the magnitude of extreme events decreased. 1710 m³ of sediment were deposited behind the beaver dams, with an average sediment thickness of 25 cm. The thickness of the sediment layer is related to the area of the beaver ponds. Along the stream, beaver pond sediment thickness displayed a sinusoidal deposition pattern, in which ponds with thick sediment layers were preceded by a series of ponds with thinner sediment layers. A downstream textural coarsening in the dam sequences was also observed, probably due to dam failures subsequent to surges. Differences in sediment flux between the in- and outflow at the beaver pond sequence were related to the river hydrograph, with deposition taking place during the rising limbs and slight erosion during the falling limbs. The seven-year-old sequences have filtered 190 tons of sediment out of the Chevral river, which is of the same order of magnitude as the 374 tons measured in pond deposits, with the difference between the values corresponding to beaver excavations (60 tons), inflow from small tributaries, and runoff from the valley flanks. Hydrogeomorphic effects of C. fiber and C. canadensis activity are similar in magnitude. The detailed analysis of changes to hydrology in beaver pond sequences confirms the potential of beavers to contribute to river and wetland restoration and catchment management.

  17. A review of the salt-gradient solar pond technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-01-01

    The state of the salt-gradient solar pond technology is reviewed. Highlights of findings and experiences from existing ponds to data are presented, and the behavior, energy yield, operational features, and economics of solar ponds are examined. It is concluded that salt-gradient solar ponds represent a technically feasible, environmentally benign, and economically attractive energy producing alternative. In order to bring this emerging technology to maturity, however, much research and development effort remains to be undertaken. Specific R&D areas requiring the attention and action of technical workers and decision-makers are discussed, both from the perspectives of smaller, thermally-oriented ponds and larger, electricity generating ponds.

  18. Gradient zone-boundary control in salt-gradient solar ponds

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.

    1982-09-29

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizeable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  19. Heat extraction from a large solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, L.J.; Etter, D.E.

    1982-08-01

    The largest operational, salt-gradient solar pond in the United States, occupying 2000 m/sup 2/, was constructed during 1978 in Miamisburg, Ohio. The heat from this solar pond, nearly 1055 GJ/y (1000 million Btu/y) is used to heat an outdoor swimming pool in the summer and an adjacent recreation building during part of the winter. A new heat exchanger system has been installed externally to the pond and operated successfully to deliver 391 GJ (371 million Btu) of heat during May-June. Hot brine water is drawn through a diffuser by a self-priming pump fabricated from fiberglass reinforced plastic. The brine water passes through copper-10% nickel tubes of a tube-and-shell heat exchanger and is then returned to the bottom of the pond. Cooling water from the swimming pool circulates through the shell side of the heat exchanger. Several designs and flow velocities of the brine inlet and outlet diffusers into the pond have been tested in order to minimize the effect of turbulence upon the salt gradient zone.

  20. Sunlight, season, snowmelt, storm, and source affect E. coli populations in an artificially ponded stream.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Richard L; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna; Shively, Dawn A; Nevers, Meredith B; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N

    2008-02-15

    Reducing fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), in streams is important for many downstream areas. E. coli concentrations within streams may be reduced by intervening ponds or wetlands through a number of physical and biological means. A section of Dunes Creek, a small coastal stream of southern Lake Michigan, was impounded and studied for 30 months from pre-through post-construction of the experimental pond. E. coli reduction became more predictable and effective with pond age. E. coli followed the hydrograph and increased several-fold during both rainfall and snowmelt events. Seasonally, the pond was more effective at reducing E. coli during summer than winter. Late summer, non-solar reduction or inactivation of E. coli in the pond was estimated at 72% and solar inactivation at 26%. E. coli DNA fingerprinting demonstrated that the winter population was genetically more homogeneous than the summer population. Detection of FRNA coliphages suggests that there was fecal contamination during heavy rain events. An understanding of how environmental factors interact with E. coli populations is important for assessing anticipated contaminant loading and the reduction of indicator bacteria in downstream reaches.

  1. Sunlight, season, snowmelt, storm, and source affect E. coli populations in an artificially ponded stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.; Byappanahalli, M.N.

    2008-01-01

    Reducing fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), in streams is important for many downstream areas. E. coli concentrations within streams may be reduced by intervening ponds or wetlands through a number of physical and biological means. A section of Dunes Creek, a small coastal stream of southern Lake Michigan, was impounded and studied for 30??months from pre-through post-construction of the experimental pond. E. coli reduction became more predictable and effective with pond age. E. coli followed the hydrograph and increased several-fold during both rainfall and snowmelt events. Seasonally, the pond was more effective at reducing E. coli during summer than winter. Late summer, non-solar reduction or inactivation of E. coli in the pond was estimated at 72% and solar inactivation at 26%. E. coli DNA fingerprinting demonstrated that the winter population was genetically more homogeneous than the summer population. Detection of FRNA coliphages suggests that there was fecal contamination during heavy rain events. An understanding of how environmental factors interact with E. coli populations is important for assessing anticipated contaminant loading and the reduction of indicator bacteria in downstream reaches. ?? 2007.

  2. Event-based stormwater management pond runoff temperature model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Sattar, A. M. A.; Thompson, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Stormwater management wet ponds are generally very shallow and hence can significantly increase (about 5.4 °C on average in this study) runoff temperatures in summer months, which adversely affects receiving urban stream ecosystems. This study uses gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural networks (ANN) modeling techniques to advance our knowledge of the key factors governing thermal enrichment effects of stormwater ponds. The models developed in this study build upon and compliment the ANN model developed by Sabouri et al. (2013) that predicts the catchment event mean runoff temperature entering the pond as a function of event climatic and catchment characteristic parameters. The key factors that control pond outlet runoff temperature, include: (1) Upland Catchment Parameters (catchment drainage area and event mean runoff temperature inflow to the pond); (2) Climatic Parameters (rainfall depth, event mean air temperature, and pond initial water temperature); and (3) Pond Design Parameters (pond length-to-width ratio, pond surface area, pond average depth, and pond outlet depth). We used monitoring data for three summers from 2009 to 2011 in four stormwater management ponds, located in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada to develop the models. The prediction uncertainties of the developed ANN and GEP models for the case study sites are around 0.4% and 1.7% of the median value. Sensitivity analysis of the trained models indicates that the thermal enrichment of the pond outlet runoff is inversely proportional to pond length-to-width ratio, pond outlet depth, and directly proportional to event runoff volume, event mean pond inflow runoff temperature, and pond initial water temperature.

  3. The Transient Response of Cooling Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. Eric

    1982-10-01

    Cooling ponds are a form of closed cycle cooling used for steam-electric power plants. Because of their thermal inertia they provide an advantage over cooling towers in filtering fluctuations in intake temperature, which results in improved plant efficiency. By using linear systems theory, the transient behavior of various types of ponds is analyzed in response to periodic meteorological conditions (characterized by equilibrium temperature) and plant operational conditions (characterized by condenser temperature rise). Frequency response is expressed in terms of dimensionless ratios involving frequency of input forcing, characteristic hydraulic residence and surface response times, and appropriate mixing parameters. Results are also interpreted with respect to physical design variables, such as pond area, depth, degree of stratification, intake submergence, discharge entrance mixing, condenser flow rate, and temperature rise.

  4. Site-Specific Research Conducted in Support of the Salton Sea Solar Pond Project - FY 1982 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.; Marsh, H. E.; Roschke, E. J.; Wu, Y. C.

    1984-01-01

    The design and operation of a salt-gradient solar pond power plant at the Salton Sea presents problems not encountered at small research ponds that were built in the United States. The specific characteristics of the Salton Sea site and the desire to construct the pond using the local clay as a sealant represent major deviations from previous solar pond experience. The site-specific research in support of the plant design is described. The research activity included validation of the spectrophotometric light transmission measurement technique, a search for options for clarifying the turbid and colored water of the Salton Sea, development of water clarification specifications in terms common to industry practice, quantification of gas production from microbiological reactions in the ground, a determination of the combined effects of temperature and salinity on the permeation of the local clays, and a preliminary evaluation of material corrosion.

  5. Recovery of phosphorus from waste ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Crea, D. A.

    1985-01-08

    Process for recovery of elemental phosphorus from waste ponds by dredging the waste pond to obtain an aqueous phosphorus slurry, separating particles larger than 2 mm from the slurry, treating the remaining slurry in an initial hydrocyclone and removing an overflow of solids larger than 500 micrometers, treating the underflow from the initial hydrocyclones in smaller diameter hydrocyclones, removing a second overflow enriched in slimes and diminished in phosphorus, removing a second underflow enriched in phosphorus and diminished in slimes and heating it sufficiently to melt the phosphorus therein, treating the heated second underflow in a centrifugal separator, and separating and recovering a stream of coalesced phosphorus from a heavy fraction of impurities.

  6. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND SPILLWAY, LOOKING SOUTH - Whitman Estate, Lower Pond Spillway, Approx. .5 mile south of intersection of DE72 & Ebeneezer Church Road, Newark, New Castle County, DE

  7. 2. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND SPILLWAY WITH FOREBAY IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH - Whitman Estate, Lower Pond Spillway, Approx. .5 mile south of intersection of DE72 & Ebeneezer Church Road, Newark, New Castle County, DE

  8. Water quality, phytoplankton and zooplankton of Par Pond and Pond B. Volume 2. Phytoplankton. Final report, January 1984-June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Chimney, M.J.; Cody, W.R.; Starkel, W.M.

    1985-08-01

    This document reports on the Par Pond and Pond B phytoplankton community. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the biological communities and environmental conditions in Par Pond and Pond B; (2) assess the impact and significance of entrainment losses of plankton at the Par Pond pumphouse; (3) assess the impact of heated discharge on the biotic communities throughout the reservoir; and (4) help determine if Par Pond maintains an indigenous balanced biological community as defined in state and federal regulations. A total of 368 phytoplankton taxa, representing all the major taxonomic groups characteristic of North American freshwaters, were identified from Par Pond and Pond B during this study (73 Bacillariophyta, 166 Chlorophyta, 30 Chrysophyta, 5 Cryptophyta, 47 Cyanophyta, 18 Euglenophyta, 11 phytoflaggelates and 18 Pyrrophyta).

  9. Costs and risks of catfish split-pond systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Split ponds are a recently developed, pond-based aquaculture system that allows intensification of catfish aquaculture. Successful industry-wide adoption of newly developing technologies like split-pond systems will depend upon their productivity and cost efficiencies. Costs and production performan...

  10. One year's experience with an operating saturated solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, T.L.; Stojanoff, C.G.; Day, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    While the saturated non-convecting solar pond concept is not new, the borax pond at the Desert Research Institute (DRI) is the first application of the concept to an operating solar pond. As with any new application there have been experimentally identified problem areas. Four of these problems are discussed: 1) departure from saturation, 2) contamination, 3) bottom crystalization, and 4) covers.

  11. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  12. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  13. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  14. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  15. 33 CFR 117.598 - Eel Pond Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eel Pond Channel. 117.598 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.598 Eel Pond Channel. The following requirements apply to the draw of Eel Pond (Water Street) drawbridge at mile 0.0 at...

  16. Cibola High Levee Pond annual report 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Gordon A.; Carpenter, Jeanette; Marsh, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    Remaining work will be finished this coming summer and a final report describing CHLP and the ecology of these fish will be completed by the end of 2005. We offer our assistance to the Fish and Wildlife Service in the pond’s renovation and support for the creation of additional refuge ponds. Funding for this work ends September 2005.

  17. Plankton Management for Channel Catfish Nursery Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted a series of studies examining the fertilization practices used for channel catfish nursery ponds. The best fertilization protocol would be one that uses low-cost fertilizers, quickly establishes a desirable phytoplankton bloom, and produces the greatest number of large zooplankton. In...

  18. MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Urban Stormwater Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP being monitored, a wetland/retention pond, is in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed in the New York City Department of Envi...

  19. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  20. MONITORING OF A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE POND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Urban Watershed Management Branch has monitored stormwater drainage and best management practices (BMP) as part of its research program. One BMP currently being monitored, a retention pond with wetland plantings, is in the Richmond Creek (RC) watershed part of New Yor...

  1. Excavations in Hanford ponds, cribs, or ditches

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-20

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Unplanned Excavation/Drilling in Pond/Ditch/Crib. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  2. Substance abuse, conduct disorder and crime: assessment in a juvenile detention house in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Copur, Mazlum; Turkcan, Ahmet; Erdogmus, Meral

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of substance abuse in the juvenile detention house and to determine the relationship between crime and substance abuse and conduct disorder. Two hundred and thirty cases in the biggest juvenile detention house in Istanbul, Turkey were assessed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) criteria. Law files and data of crime were examined. A total of 80 out of 230 juvenile detainees (34.8%) were found to have substance abuse excluding nicotine and alcohol. The substances abused in preferential order were cannabis (72.5%), volatile substances (21.3% bally and 3.7% thinner; 25%) and sedative hypnotic drugs and biperidents (2.5%). The rate of conduct disorder was 46.3% in substance abusers and 25.3% in the others (odds ratio: 2.536). The rate of substance abuse was 48.5% in the juveniles who had committed multiple crimes and 14.1% in the others (odds ratio: 5.735). The study shows that conduct disorder was very high in juvenile detainees. Conduct disorder was higher in substance-abusing than in non-abusing juvenile detainees. Substance-abusing juvenile detainees were found to have a higher detention rate than non-abusing juvenile detainees. There was a close relation between conduct disorder and substance abuse and multiple crimes. In the light of these results, diagnosis and treatment for conduct disorder in juvenile detainees are of great importance.

  3. The Impact of Parental Detention on the Psychological Wellbeing of Palestinian Children

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Since 1967, the Palestinian Occupied Territories are marked by a political conflict between Palestinians and Israel. During this conflict, about one fifth of the Palestinian population has been detained; about one quarter of these are parents. Although we know that father’s incarceration might impact their children’s psychological wellbeing, little is known about the impact of father’s imprisonment on young children (under 11 years old), and when the incarceration is framed in contexts of political conflict. Therefore, this study aimed at gaining insight into the impact of parental detention on young children’s psychological wellbeing, and the impact of witnessing the detention process itself. Methods Based on the list of imprisoned Palestinian men with children living in the West Bank, a group of 79 (3- to 10-years old) children was randomly composed. Above, through schools and health centers, a comparison sample of 99 children who didn’t experience imprisonment of a family member was selected. Mothers of these children completed two cross-culturally validated questionnaires on their children’s psychological wellbeing, the UCLA-PTSD-Index and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results Results showed higher levels of PTSD and general mental health problems associated with father’s capturing. Above, when the children watched the arrest process of their fathers, scores still increased further. Younger children tended to show higher SDQ scores, and children living in villages reported higher posttraumatic stress scores compared to children living in urban areas or refugee camps. Little gender differences were found. Conclusion This study shows the important impact of parental detention on the psychological wellbeing for young children and urges for more psychological care and support for family members – in particular children – of detainees. PMID:26186687

  4. Linking the evolution of habitat choice to ecosystem functioning: direct and indirect effects of pond-reproducing fire salamanders on aquatic-terrestrial subsidies.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Timm; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Paetzold, Achim; Weitere, Markus

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in life history traits and in the behaviour of species can potentially alter ecosystem functioning. The reproduction of the central European fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), which usually deposits its larvae in first-order streams, in small pool and pond-like habitats, is an example of a recent local adaptation in this species. Here we aimed to quantify the direct and indirect effects of the predatory larvae on the aquatic food webs in the ponds and on the flux of matter between the ponds and adjacent terrestrial habitats. Our estimates are based on biomass data of the present pond fauna as well as on the analysis of stomach content data, growth rates and population dynamics of the salamander larvae in pond habitats. By their deposition of larvae in early spring, female fire salamanders import between 0.07 and 2.86 g dry mass m(-2) larval biomass into the ponds. Due to high mortality rates in the larval phase and the relatively small size at metamorphosis of the pond-adapted salamanders compared to stream-adapted ones, the biomass export of the metamorphosed salamanders clearly falls below the initial biomass import. Catastrophic events such as high water temperatures and low oxygen levels may even occasionally result in mass mortalities of salamander larvae and thus in a net 100 % import of the salamander biomass into the pond food webs. Indirect effects further accelerate this net import of matter into the aquatic habitat, e.g. the feeding of salamanders on aquatic insect larvae with the emergence of terrestrial adults-thus preventing export-and on terrestrial organisms that fall on the water surface (supporting import). This study demonstrates that the adaptation of salamanders to pond reproduction can alter food web linkages across ecosystem boundaries by enhancing the flux of materials and energy from terrestrial (i.e. forest) to the aquatic (i.e. pond) habitat.

  5. Vegetation establishment and evolution in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater in a portion of the Olezoa wetland complex, Yaounde, Cameroon, central Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Atekwana, E.A. . Dept. of Geology); Agendia, P.L. . Dept. of Plant Biology)

    1994-04-01

    A study of the spatial and temporal changes in the pattern and distribution of tropical wetland vegetation in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater discharge, was undertaken for a small wetland ecosystem in the Olezoa drainage basin in Yaounde, Cameroon. More than 25 years of nutrient loading has led to the eutrophication and subsequent establishment of wetland vegetation in these ponds. Estimated free water surface areas of the ponds in 1964, 1976, and 1986 and 1992 determined from digitized aerial photographs and field measurements suggests a decline of 70 to 100% in the pond surface areas due to invasion and colonization by plants. The rate of pond surface decline and vegetation development is correlated with the construction of sewage plants and the discharge of untreated sewage and wastewater into the ponds. The main wetland plants that are established in the ponds consist of aquatic species Nymphae lotus, Enhydra fluctuants, Pistia stratiotes, Commelina sp., Ipomea aquatica and terrestrial species Echinochloa sp., Thalia welwitschii, Polygonum senegalense, Leersia haxandra and Cyperus papyrus. The pattern of wetland plant succession that resulted within each pond is correlated to the timing, duration and magnitude of sewage and wastewater discharge into the wetland complex.

  6. Commentary: the role of mental health services in preadjudicated juvenile detention centers.

    PubMed

    Migdole, Scott; Robbins, Judith P

    2007-01-01

    The role of preadjudicated juvenile detention centers (JDCs) in treating children and adolescents with mental health needs has continued to receive national attention. Legal actions mandating improved health care services over the past decade, coupled with a national focus on detainees' mental health needs, have led to the increased presence of mental health professionals in JDCs. In this context, we must build on the current "call to action" and develop innovative blueprints for the provision of mental health services for detained youth. Although operationalizing this movement is complicated, we must be prepared to sustain its effects by developing effective communication and planning among correctional health care organizations, universities, municipalities, and other stakeholders.

  7. Detention of British citizens as hostages in the Gulf--health, psychological, and family consequences.

    PubMed Central

    Easton, J A; Turner, S W

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe the physical, psychological, and family consequences of the detention of British subjects as hostages in Kuwait or Iraq, or both, after the invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 and to investigate the relation between types of trauma experienced and these reactions. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire. SUBJECTS--381 respondents. RESULTS--Many health, social, and psychological sequelae were identified. Problems with present finance, accommodation, and work are important causes of distress. Many hostages coped well and gained self esteem. CONCLUSIONS--A minority of respondents require further support and treatment. Expatriates in risk areas should retain assets in their home country. PMID:1747642

  8. The Bag-Sampler: A Simple Device for Collecting Zooplankton in Shallow Vegetated Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Dagmar; Wohltmann, Andreas

    2005-12-01

    Zooplankton in temporary ponds is often collected with gear originally designed for lakes, and mostly unsuitable for sampling shallow habitats. We describe a new simple and inexpensive device for sampling zooplankton in very shallow, vegetated temporary ponds. We tested the sampling efficiency by comparing species composition and density of cyclopoid copepods, an important component of the zooplankton, by sampling with both the new bag sampler and a plastic beaker frequently employed for collections of zooplankton in small waterbodies. With the bag sampler we collected a larger number of species and higher densities of copepods due to its higher efficiency in vegetated areas and near the sediment. The beaker appeared to sample almost only the water surface. The samples collected with the bag sampler revealed a distinct distribution of copepod life cycle stages in a shallow pond, which differed between depths and microhabitats. Additional advantages of the bag sampler are its small size and weight, and the possibility of fast exchange of sample bags between sample locations, thus preventing accidental faunal exchange between sample locations. We conclude that the bag sampler is a device especially useful for sampling zooplankton of shallow ponds and wetlands rich in vegetation, for diversity studies as well as for quantitative sampling.

  9. Diversity and spatiotemporal distribution of larval odonate assemblages in temperate neotropical farm ponds.

    PubMed

    Pires, Mateus Marques; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Marcia Regina

    2014-01-01

    Farm ponds help maintain diversity in altered landscapes. However, studies on the features that drive this type of property in the Neotropics are still lacking, especially for the insect fauna. We analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of odonate larval assemblages in farm ponds. Odonates were sampled monthly at four farm ponds from March 2008 to February 2009 in a temperate montane region of southern Brazil. A small number of genera were frequent and accounted for most of the dominant fauna. The dominant genera composition differed among ponds. Local spatial drivers such as area, hydroperiod, and margin vegetation structure likely explain these results more than spatial predictors due to the small size of the study area. Circular analysis detected seasonal effect on assemblage abundance but not on richness. Seasonality in abundance was related to the life cycles of a few dominant genera. This result was explained by temperature and not rainfall due to the temperate climate of the region studied. The persistence of dominant genera and the sparse occurrence of many taxa over time probably led to a lack in a seasonal pattern in assemblage richness.

  10. Long-term warming amplifies shifts in the carbon cycle of experimental ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Hulatt, Chris J.; Woodward, Guy; Trimmer, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Lakes and ponds cover only about 4% of the Earth’s non-glaciated surface, yet they represent disproportionately large sources of methane and carbon dioxide. Indeed, very small ponds (for example, <0.001 km2) may account for approximately 40% of all CH4 emissions from inland waters. Understanding how greenhouse gas emissions from aquatic ecosystems will respond to global warming is therefore vital for forecasting biosphere-carbon cycle feedbacks. Here, we present findings on the long-term effects of warming on the fluxes of GHGs and rates of ecosystem metabolism in experimental ponds. We show that shifts in CH4 and CO2 fluxes, and rates of gross primary production and ecosystem respiration, observed in the first year became amplified over seven years of warming. The capacity to absorb CO2 was nearly halved after seven years of warmer conditions. The phenology of greenhouse gas fluxes was also altered, with CO2 drawdown and CH4 emissions peaking one month earlier in the warmed treatments. These findings show that warming can fundamentally alter the carbon balance of small ponds over a number of years, reducing their capacity to sequester CO2 and increasing emissions of CH4; such positive feedbacks could ultimately accelerate climate change.

  11. Prevention of sewage pollution by stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayana, J S

    1975-01-01

    Water is polluted when it constitutes a health hazard or when its usefulness is impaired. The major sources of water pollution are municipal, manufacturing, mining, steam, electric power, cooling and agricultural. Municipal or sewage pollution forms a greater part of the man's activity and it is the immediate need of even smaller communities of today to combat sewage pollution. It is needless to stress that if an economic balance of the many varied services which a stream or a body of water is called upon to render is balanced and taken into consideration one could think of ending up in a wise management programme. In order to eliminate the existing water pollutional levels of the natural water one has to think of preventive and treatment methods. Of the various conventional and non-conventional methods of sewage treatment known today, in India, where the economic problems are complex, the waste stabilization ponds have become popular over the last two decades to let Public Health Engineers use them with confidence as a simple and reliable means of treatment of sewage and certain industrial wastes, at a fraction of the cost of conventional waste treatment plants used hitherto. A waste stabilization pond makes use of natural purification processes involved in an ecosystem through the regulating of such processes. The term "waste stabilization pond" in its simplest form is applied to a body of water, artificial or natural, employed with the intention of retaining sewage or organic waste waters until the wastes are rendered stable and inoffensive for discharge into receiving waters or on land, through physical, chemical and biological processes commonly referred to as "self-purification" and involving the symbiotic action of algae and bacteria under the influence of sunlight and air. Organic matter contained in the waste is stabilized and converted in the pond into more stable matter in the form of algal cells which find their way into the effluent and hence the term

  12. Fate and Transport of 17β-Estradiol beneath Animal Waste Holding Ponds.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Lori A; Tyner, John S; Buchanan, John R; Hawkins, Shawn A; Lee, Jaehoon

    2015-05-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations typically store livestock waste in clay-lined ponds. Although these ponds are regulated to include a liner with a small hydraulic conductivity to limit leaching, previous studies have traced surface and groundwater contamination from such regulated animal waste ponds. This research examined the transport of 17β-estradiol (E2) and its primary metabolite, estrone (E1), through soil liners using field- and laboratory-based studies. Additionally, a potential engineering solution to limit hormone transport-applying biochar to new pond liners to act as a retardant-was studied. Soil cores 80 cm in length were collected beneath a mature dairy waste pond and analyzed for moisture content and hormone concentrations. Unsaturated conditions and E2 concentrations of 4 to 250 ng g were detected beneath the waste pond. In the laboratory portion of the study, hand-packed columns of sand or clay were subjected to infiltration by a 2.3-m head of dairy waste. A subset of the hand-packed sand columns was amended with powdered biochar to test its ability to retard E2 and E1. For 3 mo, column leachate was analyzed for hormone concentrations, and at the conclusion of the study E2 and E1 concentrations in the soil were measured. In the 44 d after sealing, the clay, sand, sand with a thin layer of biochar, and sand mixed with a biochar amendment leached a total of 0.54, 1.3, 0.09, and 0.45 μg of E2, respectively. The biochar amendments to the hand-packed columns considerably minimized E2 in the leachate.

  13. Human rights, dual loyalties, and clinical independence : challenges facing mental health professionals working in Australia's immigration detention network.

    PubMed

    Essex, Ryan

    2014-03-01

    Although Australia has comparatively few individuals seeking asylum, it has had a mandatory detention policy in place since 1992. This policy has been maintained by successive governments despite the overwhelmingly negative impact mandatory detention has on mental health. For mental health professionals working in this environment, a number of moral, ethical, and human rights issues are raised. These issues are discussed here, with a focus on dual loyalty conflicts and drawing on personal experience, the bioethics and human rights literature, and recent parliamentary inquiries. For those who continue to work in this environment, future directions are also discussed.

  14. Combining mariculture and seawater-based solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, P.; Ford, R.; Collando, F.; Morgan, J.; Frusti, E. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-05-01

    Solar ponds have been thoroughly studied as a means to produce electricity or heat, but there may be comparable potential to use solar ponds to produce optimized environments for the cultivation of some aquaculture crops. For this, conventional brine-based solar ponds could be used. This strategy would probably be most suitable at desert sites where concentrated brine was abundant, pond liners might not be needed, and the crop produced could be shipped to market. Generally, a heat exchanger would be required to transfer heat from the solar pond into the culture ponds. Culture ponds could therefore use either fresh or marine water. In contrast, this paper explores seawater-based solar ponds. These are solar ponds which use seawater in the bottom storage zone and fresh water in the upper convective zone. Because the required temperature elevations for mariculture are only about 10{degrees}C, seawater-based solar ponds are conceivable. Seawater-based ponds should be very inexpensive because, by the shore, salt costs would be negligible and a liner might be unnecessary.

  15. Modern to millennium-old greenhouse gases emitted from ponds and lakes of the Eastern Canadian Arctic (Bylot Island, Nunavut)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, F.; Laurion, I.; Prėskienis, V.; Fortier, D.; Xu, X.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ponds and lakes are widespread across the rapidly changing permafrost environments. Aquatic systems play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles, especially in greenhouse gas (GHG) exchanges between terrestrial systems and the atmosphere. The source, speciation and emission rate of carbon released from permafrost landscapes are strongly influenced by local conditions, hindering pan-Arctic generalizations. This study reports on GHG ages and emission rates from aquatic systems located on Bylot Island, in the continuous permafrost zone of the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Dissolved and ebullition gas samples were collected during the summer season from different types of water bodies located in a highly dynamic periglacial valley: polygonal ponds, collapsed ice-wedge trough ponds, and larger lakes. The results showed strikingly different ages and fluxes depending on aquatic system types. Polygonal ponds were net sinks of dissolved CO2, but variable sources of dissolved CH4. They presented the highest ebullition fluxes, 1 or 2 orders of magnitude higher than from other ponds and lakes. Trough ponds appeared as substantial GHG sources, especially when their edges were actively eroding. Both types of ponds produced modern to hundreds of years old (< 550 yr BP) GHG, even if trough ponds could contain much older carbon (> 2000 yr BP) derived from freshly eroded peat. Lakes had small dissolved and ebullition fluxes, however they released much older GHG, including millennium-old CH4 (up to 3500 yr BP) from lake central areas. Acetoclastic methanogenesis dominated at all study sites and there was minimal, if any, methane oxidation in gas emitted through ebullition. These findings provide new insights on GHG emissions by permafrost aquatic systems and their potential positive feedback effect on climate.

  16. Engagement in Play Activities as a Means for Youth in Detention to Acquire Life Skills.

    PubMed

    Shea, Chi-Kwan; Siu, Andrew M H

    2016-09-01

    This study describes how occupational therapists in a community-based programme, Occupational Therapy Training Program (OTTP), use play activities to facilitate the acquisition of life skills by youth in detention. This pilot study explored the extent of engagement of male and female inmates aged 14 to 18 years old in structured play activities on topics such as interpersonal relationships, self-awareness, cultural celebrations and the transition to community. Retrospective analysis of data collected from surveys using the Engagement in OTTP Activities Questionnaire (EOAQ), completed by youth participants at the end of each group session, was used to measure the extent of occupational engagement. Worksheets and artworks produced by OTTP participants during those group sessions were also analysed. The participants reported very high engagement in OTTP. Engagement scores for male participants were higher than those for female participants, and male and female participants had higher engagement scores for different activities. Over 90% of the worksheets and artworks were found to be complete and relevant to the topic of the session. Play activities could be an appropriate way for occupational therapists to encourage youth in detention to acquire life skills. Demographic information and the actual number of participants are unknown because of how the existing data were collected. Future studies examining the potential gender-related preferences for specific topics deserve further investigation as well as research comparing the youth's engagement in OTTP interventions using play activities to other group interventions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis Liquid Oxygen Pre-Valve Detent Roller Cracking Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleman, Elizabeth; Eddleman, David; Jacobs, Rebecca; Richard, James

    2008-01-01

    During routine inspections of the Space Shuttle s Main Propulsion System Liquid Oxygen (LO2) pre-valve, the mechanism provided to maintain the valve in the open position was found cracked. The mechanism is a Vespel roller held against the valve visor by a stack of Belleville springs. The roller has been found cracked 3 times. All three instances were in the same valve in the same location. There are 6 pre-valves on each orbiter, and only one has exhibited this problem. Every-flight inspections were instituted and the rollers were found to be cracked after only one flight. Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, and Kennedy Space Center worked together to determine a solution. There were several possible contributors to the failure: a misaligned visor, an out-of-specification edge with a sharp radius, an out-of-specification tolerance stack up of a Belleville spring stack that caused un-predicted loads on the Vespel SP-21 roller, and a dimple machined into the side of the roller to indicate LO2 compatibility that created a stress riser. The detent assembly was removed and replaced with parts that were on the low side of the tolerance stack up to eliminate the potential for high loads on the detent roller. After one flight, the roller was inspected and showed fewer signs of wear and no cracks.

  18. Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis Liquid Oxygen Prevalve Detent Roller Cracking Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleman, Elizabeth; Eddleman, David; Richard, James; Jacobs, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    During routine inspections of the Space Shuttle's Main Propulsion System (MPS) Liquid Oxygen (LO2) pre-valve, the mechanism provided to maintain the valve in the open position was found cracked. The mechanism is a Vespel roller held against the valve visor by a stack of Belleville springs. The roller has been found cracked 3 times. All three instances were in the same valve in the same location. There are 6 pre-valves on each orbiter, and only one has exhibited this problem. Every-flight inspections were instituted and the rollers were found to be cracked after only one flight. Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center and Kennedy Space Center worked together to determine a solution. There were several possible contributors to the failure: a mis-aligned visor, an out of specification edge with a sharp radius, an out of specification tolerance stack up of a Belleville spring stack that caused un-predicted loads on the Vespel SP-21 roller, and a dimple machined into the side of the roller to indicate LO2 compatibility that created a stress riser. The detent assembly was removed and replaced with parts that were on the low-side of the tolerance stack up to eliminate the potential for high loads on the detent roller. After one flight, the roller was inspected and showed fewer signs of wear and no cracks.

  19. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, primary productivity and physico-chemical parameters of Par Pond and Pond B. Interim report, December 1983-May 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Chimney, M.J.; Cody, W.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report summarizes phytoplankton, zooplankton, primary productivity and physico-chemical parameter data from Par Pond and Pond B during the first six months of a study initiated in December 1983 and scheduled to continue through June 1985. A total of 195 phytoplankton taxa from Par Pond and 105 taxa from pond B were recorded during this study. A total of 89 zooplankton taxa from Par Pond and 58 taxa from Pond B were identified during this study.

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatic Biology Fish Ponds, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-021

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-25

    The 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatice Biology Fish Ponds waste site was an area with six small rectangular ponds and one large circular pond used to conduct tests on fish using various mixtures of river and reactor effluent water. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification and applicable confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  1. Predicting waste stabilization pond performance using an ecological simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    New, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Waste stabilization ponds (lagoons) are often favored in small communities because of their low cost and ease of operation. Most models currently used to predict performance are empirical or fail to address the primary lagoon cell. Empirical methods for predicting lagoon performance have been found to be off as much as 248 percent when used on a system other than the one they were developed for. Also, the present models developed for the primary cell lack the ability to predict parameters other than biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nitrogen. Oxygen consumption is usually estimated from BOD utilization. LAGOON is a fortran program which models the biogeochemical processes characteristic of the primary cell of facultative lagoons. Model parameters can be measured from lagoons in the vicinity of a proposed lagoon or estimated from laboratory studies. The model was calibrated utilizing a subset of the Corinne Utah lagoon data then validated utilizing a subset of the Corinne Utah data.

  2. Magnetic properties of marine magnetotactic bacteria in a seasonally stratified coastal pond (Salt Pond, MA, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Egli, Ramon; Frankel, Richard B.; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2008-07-01

    Magnetic properties of suspended material in the water columns of freshwater and marine environments provide snapshots of magnetic biomineralization that have yet to be affected by the eventual time-integration and early diagenetic effects that occur after sediment deposition. Here, we report on the magnetism, geochemistry and geobiology of uncultured magnetite- and greigite-producing magnetotactic bacteria (MB) and magnetically responsive protists (MRP) in Salt Pond (Falmouth, MA, USA), a small coastal, marine basin (~5 m deep) that becomes chemically stratified during the summer months. At this time, strong inverse O2 and H2S concentration gradients form in the water column and a well-defined oxic-anoxic interface (OAI) is established at a water depth of about 3.5 m. At least four morphological types of MB, both magnetite and greigite producers, and several species of magnetically responsive protists are found associated with the OAI and the lower sulphidic hypolimnion. Magnetic properties of filtered water were determined through the water column across the OAI and were consistent with the occurrence of magnetite- and greigite-producing MB at different depths. Sharp peaks in anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) and single-domain (SD) values of ARM/SIRM occur within the OAI corresponding to high concentrations of MB and MRP with magnetically derived cell densities of 104-106 ml-1. Low-temperature (<300 K) remanence indicated that while only magnetite producers inhabit the OAI, both magnetite and greigite producers inhabit the sulphidic hypolimnion below the OAI. Magnetic measurements also show that the amount of Fe sequestered in magnetite magnetosomes within the OAI is no more than 3.3 per cent of the total available dissolved Fe(II) in the water column. However, below the OAI, magnetic minerals constitute a much larger fraction of the total dissolved Fe(II) ranging from 13.6 to 32.2 per cent depending

  3. Disappearing Arctic tundra ponds: Fine-scale analysis of surface hydrology in drained thaw lake basins over a 65 year period (1948-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, Christian G.; Lougheed, Vanessa L.

    2015-03-01

    Long-term fine-scale dynamics of surface hydrology in Arctic tundra ponds (less than 1 ha) are largely unknown; however, these small water bodies may contribute substantially to carbon fluxes, energy balance, and biodiversity in the Arctic system. Change in pond area and abundance across the upper Barrow Peninsula, Alaska, was assessed by comparing historic aerial imagery (1948) and modern submeter resolution satellite imagery (2002, 2008, and 2010). This was complemented by photogrammetric analysis of low-altitude kite-borne imagery in combination with field observations (2010-2013) of pond water and thaw depth transects in seven ponds of the International Biological Program historic research site. Over 2800 ponds in 22 drained thaw lake basins (DTLB) with different geological ages were analyzed. We observed a net decrease of 30.3% in area and 17.1% in number of ponds over the 62 year period. The inclusion of field observations of pond areas in 1972 from a historic research site confirms the linear downward trend in area. Pond area and number were dependent on the age of DTLB; however, changes through time were independent of DTLB age, with potential long-term implications for the hypothesized geomorphologic landscape succession of the thaw lake cycle. These losses were coincident with increases in air temperature, active layer, and density and cover of aquatic emergent plants in ponds. Increased evaporation due to warmer and longer summers, permafrost degradation, and transpiration from encroaching aquatic emergent macrophytes are likely the factors contributing to the decline in surface area and number of ponds.

  4. Waste Stabilization Ponds. Training Module 2.100.1.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package designed in the objective format for use by an instructor familiar with lagoon operation. Included are objectives, instructor guide, student handouts, and transparency masters. The module considers basic concepts of design, operation and maintenance, loading and detention time calculations, series…

  5. Simulated ground-water flow for a pond-dominated aquifer system near Great Sandy Bottom Pond, Pembroke, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, Carl S.; Lyford, Forest P.

    2005-01-01

    A ground-water flow simulation for a 66.4-square-mile area around Great Sandy Bottom (GSB) Pond (105 acres) near Pembroke, Massachusetts, was developed for use by local and State water managers to assess the yields for public water supply of local ponds and wells for average climatic and drought conditions and the effects of water withdrawals on nearby water levels and streamflows. Wetlands and ponds cover about 30 percent of the study area and the aquifer system is dominated by interactions between ground water and the ponds. The three largest surface-water bodies in the study area are Silver Lake (640 acres), Monponsett Pond (590 acres), and Oldham Pond (236 acres). The study area is drained by tributaries of the Taunton River to the southwest, the South and North Rivers to the northeast, and the Jones River to the southeast. In 2002, 10.8 million gallons per day of water was exported from ponds and 3.5 million gallons per day from wells was used locally for public supply. A transient ground-water-flow model with 69 monthly stress periods spanning the period from January 1998 through September 2003 was calibrated to stage at GSB Pond and nearby Silver Lake and streamflow and water levels collected from September 2002 through September 2003. The calibrated model was used to assess hydrologic responses to a variety of water-use and climatic conditions. Simulation of predevelopment (no pumping or export) average monthly (1949-2002) water-level conditions caused the GSB Pond level to increase by 6.3 feet from the results of a simulation using average 2002 pumping for all wells, withdrawals, and exports. Most of this decline can be attributed to pumping, withdrawals, and exports of water from sites away from GSB Pond. The effects of increasing the export rate from GSB Pond by 1.25 and 1.5 times the 2002 rate were a lowering of pond levels by a maximum of 1.6 and 2.8 feet, respectively. Simulated results for two different drought conditions, one mild drought similar to

  6. New approaches for Artemia pond culture.

    PubMed

    Van Hoa, Nguyen; Le Tran, Huu; Hong Van, Nguyen Thi; Sorgeloos, P; Van Stappen, G

    2013-01-01

    A project for intensive culture of Artemia in Vinhchau solar saltwork was funded by Soctrang Authority. The aim of this project is to increase the average cyst yield of 50kg.ha-1.crop, and to build up a stable culture technique with a better yield for local farmers. Multiple laboratory experiments were set up with inert food including fermented rice bran, tiger shrimp feed (PL15), as well as their combination with live algae (Chaetoceros). Results showed that, under laboratory conditions, fermented rice bran and tiger shrimp feed can be used as supplemental food sources. The shrimp feed alone or in combination with algae always gave better cyst production compared to the others, but should not account for more than 50% of the diet. In the field trials, aeration of Artemia ponds also increased cyst yields (from 195.8+/-44.2 to 207+/-46.1kg.ha-1.crop with 6 and 12 aeration a day, respectively) compared to ponds with no aeration (88.2+/-27.5kg.ha-1.crop), however the returns on investment (ROI=2.73-2.71 with aera tion vs. 2.24 without) are not significantly different. Utilization of fermented rice bran (20kg.ha-1.day) and shrimp feed (6kg.ha-1.day) as a supplementary feed during pond production in combination with greenwater supplies (10% of pond volume daily) resulted in higher yields (96.0+/-15.9 and 157.2+/-15.0kg.ha-1.crop, respectively) than traditional culture; Shrimp feed as a supplemental feed supported the cyst yield but their negative effect was at a high cost vs. traditional culture and use of fermented rice bran. Based on the cyst yield and ROI, fermented rice bran should be a promising item for poor farmers.

  7. Inlet Processes at Eel Pond, Falmouth, Massachusetts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    7 D -A147 548 INLET PROCESSES AT EEL POND FALMOUTH MRSS CHUSETi7 jV 1/2.COASTAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER YICKSBURG MS A E DEWRLL ET AL. OCT 84...42 c. Sediment Transport. ................... 42 d . Aerial Photograph: 21 November 1938. .......... 46 e. Aerial Photograph...Structural Changes to Inlet Hydraulics. ......... 59 c. Predicted Channel Stability .. .............. 69 d . Longshore Transport Estimates

  8. Holocene Closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands

    PubMed Central

    Myhrvold, Conor L.; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S. Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P.

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18′ 48.99″ N, 167 22′ 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water. PMID:24638020

  9. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Myhrvold, Conor L; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  10. Update: Cooling tower and spray pond technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bartz, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    The 9th Cooling Tower and Spray Pond Symposium, under the auspices of the International Association for Hydraulic Research, took place at the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Belgium, in September 1994. Technical topics discussed included cooling system design, performance, operation, environmental effects, modeling and components. Symposium proceedings will not be published. However, information of primary interest to staffs of power plants in the United States is summarized in this article.

  11. Beaver ponds increase methylmercury concentrations in Canadian shield streams along vegetation and pond-age gradients.

    PubMed

    Roy, Virginie; Amyot, Marc; Carignan, Richard

    2009-08-01

    Beaver impoundments flood forested areas and may be important production sites for methylmercury (MeHg) because of the resulting enhanced microbial activity and oxygen depletion. The influence of 17 beaver impoundments on streamwater chemistry (total mercury (THg), MeHg, nutrients, cations, and anions)] was investigated by sampling sites located along vegetation and pond-age gradients in southwestern Quebec (Canada). Recently inundated beaver ponds (< 10 years old) and those located in coniferous watersheds had the highest MeHg concentrations (range, 0.10-4.53 ng L(-1)) and greatest methylation efficiencies (% THg as MeHg; range, 10-74%). High heterotrophic activity likely occurred in the beaver ponds as suggested by depletions of dissolved oxygen, sulfate and nitrite-nitrate concentrations, and increases in nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen) in outlets compared to inlets. Acidic waters at coniferous sites may have stimulated more MeHg production than in mixed woodland regions. Lower methylation efficiencies in older ponds (> 20 years old) may be due to the degradation of less labile organic matter as ponds age. Beavers actively alter watersheds by building impoundments, and our findings indicate that this landscape disturbance may be a significant source of MeHg to downstream water bodies.

  12. Local and landscape determinants of amphibian communities in urban ponds.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Andrew J; Parris, Kirsten M

    2011-03-01

    Urbanization is currently responsible for widespread declines of amphibian populations globally through the loss, isolation, and degradation of habitat. However, it is not clear how urbanization affects amphibian communities at both local (pond) and landscape scales. We assessed the breeding distribution of frogs in ponds along an urban-rural gradient in Greater Melbourne, Australia, and examined community relationships with habitat quality and landscape context. We sampled frog larvae at 65 ponds on four separate occasions and collected data on local pond and landscape variables. Using Bayesian Poisson regression modeling we found that species richness decreased at ponds surrounded by high densities of human residents and at ponds with high water conductivity, whereas species richness increased substantially at ponds surrounded by a high proportion of green open space. Ordination of individual species presence-absence data by canonical correspondence analysis largely confirmed these findings. Ordination also highlighted the negative influences of pond shading and density of predatory fish, and the positive influence of aquatic vegetation, on community composition. Individual species' responses to urbanization varied. Urbanization had strong negative effects on species that were associated with well-vegetated, sunny, fish-free ponds. Our study highlights the importance of strategic management actions in urban landscapes to improve terrestrial habitat and connectivity around ponds and other wetlands, and local management actions to improve water quality, remove predatory fish, and plant aquatic vegetation at breeding sites.

  13. Reframing Notions of Identity, Learning, and Culture through the Use of Performing and Visual Arts within a Detention Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sean Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This study examines a multimodal arts-based inquiry that took place within a secure detention center. The inquiry was inclusive of design, rehearsal, and production activities that culminated into a final theatre production. The methods for this study included pulling from multiple disciplines to develop multiple perspectives towards the data as…

  14. Assessing the Sensitivity and Specificity of the MAYSI-2 for Detecting Trauma among Youth in Juvenile Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerig, Patricia K.; Moeddel, Melissa Arnzen; Becker, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the sensitivity and specificity of the most widely used mental health screening instrument in juvenile detention, the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument (MAYSI-2), for detecting trauma and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among detained youth. The MAYSI-2 scales measuring Substance Use,…

  15. Hydraulic conductivity of near-surface alluvium in the vicinity of Cattlemans Detention Basin, South Lake Tahoe, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Jena M.; Henkelman, Katherine K.; Caskey, Rachel M.

    2004-01-01

    Cattlemans detention basin, South Lake Tahoe, California is designed to capture and reduce urban runoff and pollutants originating from developed areas before entering Cold Creek, which is tributary to Trout Creek and to Lake Tahoe. The effectiveness of the basin in reducing sediment and nutrient loads currently is being assessed with a five-year study. Hydraulic conductivity of the alluvium near the detention basin is needed to estimate ground-water flow and subsurface nutrient transport. Hydraulic conductivity was estimated using slug tests in 27 monitoring wells that surround the detention basin. For each test, water was poured rapidly into a well, changes in water-level were monitored, and the observed changes were analyzed using the Bouwer and Rice method. Each well was tested one to four times. A total of 24 wells were tested more than once. Of the 24 wells, the differences among the tests were within 10 percent of the average. Estimated hydraulic conductivities of basin alluvium range from 0.5 to 70 feet per day with an average of 17.8 feet per day. This range is consistent with the sandy alluvial deposits observed in the area of Cattlemans detention basin.

  16. The Mental and Physical Health Difficulties of Children Held within a British Immigration Detention Center: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorek, Ann; Ehntholt, Kimberly; Nesbitt, Anne; Wey, Emmanuel; Githinji, Chipo; Rossor, Eve; Wickramasinghe, Rush

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to assess the mental and physical health of children held within a British immigration detention center. Method: A total of 24 detained children (aged 3 months to 17 years) were assessed with their parents or carer after being referred by a registered legal charity. Thirteen were seen by a pediatrician alone, 4…

  17. An end to psychiatric detention? Implications of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2014-03-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is a welcome articulation of the rights of the disabled. However, as its definition of disability appears to include mental illness, the UK appears to violate it by linking mental illness with detention. Clarity and, possibly, change are needed.

  18. An Examination of Teacher Efficacy on Student Achievement in Regional Juvenile Detention and Youth Development Centers in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Scott Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the self-efficacy of teachers who work in the juvenile detention and youth development centers in Kentucky and how their level of self-efficacy influences their students' efforts to complete high school. This study is important because it provides information that contributes to the improvement of education…

  19. Rapid surface-water volume estimations in beaver ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karran, Daniel J.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Johnston, Carol A.; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Beaver ponds are surface-water features that are transient through space and time. Such qualities complicate the inclusion of beaver ponds in local and regional water balances, and in hydrological models, as reliable estimates of surface-water storage are difficult to acquire without time- and labour-intensive topographic surveys. A simpler approach to overcome this challenge is needed, given the abundance of the beaver ponds in North America, Eurasia, and southern South America. We investigated whether simple morphometric characteristics derived from readily available aerial imagery or quickly measured field attributes of beaver ponds can be used to approximate surface-water storage among the range of environmental settings in which beaver ponds are found. Studied were a total of 40 beaver ponds from four different sites in North and South America. The simplified volume-area-depth (V-A-h) approach, originally developed for prairie potholes, was tested. With only two measurements of pond depth and corresponding surface area, this method estimated surface-water storage in beaver ponds within 5 % on average. Beaver pond morphometry was characterized by a median basin coefficient of 0.91, and dam length and pond surface area were strongly correlated with beaver pond storage capacity, regardless of geographic setting. These attributes provide a means for coarsely estimating surface-water storage capacity in beaver ponds. Overall, this research demonstrates that reliable estimates of surface-water storage in beaver ponds only requires simple measurements derived from aerial imagery and/or brief visits to the field. Future research efforts should be directed at incorporating these simple methods into both broader beaver-related tools and catchment-scale hydrological models.

  20. Dispersion of plutonium from contaminated pond sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.; Cleveland, J.M.; Carl, Gottschall W.

    1978-01-01

    Sediment-water distributions of plutonium as a function of pH and contact time are investigated in a holding pond at the Rocky Flats plant of the Department of Energy. Although plutonium has been shown to sorb from natural waters onto sediments, the results of this study indicate that under the proper conditions it can be redispersed at pH 9 and above. Concentrations greater than 900 pCi Pu/L result after 34 h contact at pH 11 or 12 and the distribution coefficient, defined as the ratio of concentration in the sediment to that in the liquid, decreases from 1.1 ?? 105 at pH 7 to 1.2 ?? 103 at pH 11. The plutonium is probably dispersed as discrete colloids or as hydrolytic species adsorbed onto colloidal sediment particles whose average size decreases with increasing pH above pH 9. About 5% of the total plutonium is dispersed at pH 12, and the dispersion seems to readsorb on the sediment with time. Consequently, migration of plutonium from the pond should be slow, and it would be difficult to remove this element completely from pond sediment by leaching with high pH solutions. ?? 1978 American Chemical Society.

  1. Impact of sludge layer geometry on the hydraulic performance of a waste stabilization pond.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Faissal R; Zhang, Jie; Cornejo, Pablo K; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R; Tejada-Martinez, Andres E

    2016-08-01

    Improving the hydraulic performance of waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) is an important management strategy to not only ensure protection of public health and the environment, but also to maximize the potential reuse of valuable resources found in the treated effluent. To reuse effluent from WSPs, a better understanding of the factors that impact the hydraulic performance of the system is needed. One major factor determining the hydraulic performance of a WSP is sludge accumulation, which alters the volume of the pond. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was applied to investigate the impact of sludge layer geometry on hydraulic performance of a facultative pond, typically used in many small communities throughout the developing world. Four waste stabilization pond cases with different sludge volumes and distributions were investigated. Results indicate that sludge distribution and volume have a significant impact on wastewater treatment efficiency and capacity. Although treatment capacity is reduced with accumulation of sludge, the latter may induce a baffling effect which causes the flow to behave closer to that of plug flow reactor and thus increase treatment efficiency. In addition to sludge accumulation and distribution, the impact of water surface level is also investigated through two additional cases. Findings show that an increase in water level while keeping a constant flow rate can result in a significant decrease in the hydraulic performance by reducing the sludge baffling effect, suggesting a careful monitoring of sludge accumulation and water surface level in WSP systems.

  2. Comparing the performances of circular ponds with different impellers by CFD simulation and microalgae culture experiments.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chen; Huang, Jianke; Ye, Chunyu; Cheng, Wenchao; Chen, Jianpei; Li, Yuanguang

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of circular ponds with three different impellers (hydrofoil, four-pitched-blade turbine, and grid plate). The reliability of the CFD model was validated by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Hydrodynamic analyses were conducted to evaluate the average velocity magnitude along the light direction (Uz), turbulence properties, average shear stress, pressure loss and the volume percentage of dead zone inside circular ponds. The simulation results showed that Uz value of hydrofoil was 58.9, 40.3, and 28.8% higher than those of grid plate with single arm, grid plate with double arms and four-pitched blade turbines in small-scale circular ponds, respectively. In addition, hydrofoil impeller with down-flow operation had outstanding mixing characteristics. Lastly, the results of Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation experiments indicated that the biomass concentration of hydrofoil impeller with down-flow operation was 65.2 and 88.8% higher than those of grid plate with double arms and four-pitched-blade turbine, respectively. Therefore, the optimal circular pond mixing system for microalgae cultivation involved a hydrofoil impeller with down-flow operation.

  3. Closing the Energy Budget: Advances in assessing heat fluxes into shallow lakes and ponds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, S. W.; Hausner, M. B.; Suarez, F. I.; Selker, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    While soil heat flux is traditionally directly measured in any land surface energy study, measuring heat flux into and out of lakes and ponds is complicated by water column mixing processes, differing radiation adsorption coefficients, turbidity variation and heat flux through the sediment-water interface. High resolution thermal profile, to assess heat storage changes in aquatic systems is both time consuming and challenging using traditional thermister or thermocouple strings or casts. Recent advances in Raman spectra distributed temperature sensing (DTS) offer the opportunity to measure, at high spatial and temporal resolution, the thermal storage changes occurring in lakes and ponds. Measurements of thermal storage using DTS are presented from two distinct environments; a strongly density stratified solar pond and a deep cavern system (Devils Hole in Death Valley National Park), demonstrating the effectiveness of high resolution temperature measurements. In the solar pond environment, closure of the energy budget using direct measurements of evaporation and net radiation was greatly improved by incorporating transient thermal measurements, and the development of a cooling boundary layer easily shown. At Devils Hole, variations in shading of the water surface produced small but measureable horizontal gradients in water column temperature for short periods of the day, which impact both pool evaporation and the metabolism and behavior of aquatic organisms

  4. Heavy metal contents in the sediments of astatic ponds: Influence of geomorphology, hydroperiod, water chemistry and vegetation.

    PubMed

    Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Chudzińska, Maria; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Celewicz-Gołdyn, Sofia

    2015-08-01

    The contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) were analysed in the bottom sediments of 30 small, astatic ponds located in the agricultural landscape of Western Poland. The samples were collected from 118 stations located in patches of four vegetation types. Relationships between the contents of particular elements and four groups of factors (geomorphology, hydroperiod, water quality and vegetation) were tested using Redundancy Analysis (RDA). The most important factors influencing the heavy metal contents were the maximum depth and area of the pond, its hydroperiod, water pH and conductivity values. In general, low quantities of heavy metals were recorded in the sediments of kettle-like ponds (small but located in deep depressions) and high in water bodies of the shore-bursting type (large but shallow). Moreover, quantities of particular elements were influenced by the structure of the vegetation covering the pond. Based on the results, we show which types of astatic ponds are most exposed to contamination and suggest some conservation practices that may reduce the influx of heavy metals.

  5. Environmental Problems Associated with Decommissioning of Chernobyl Power Plant Cooling Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, T. Q.; Oskolkov, B. Y.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gashchak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.; Jannik, G. T.; Farfan, E. B.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities associated with residual radioactive contamination is a fairly pressing issue. Significant problems may result from decommissioning of cooling ponds. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond is one of the largest self-contained bodies of water in the Chernobyl Region and Ukrainian Polesye with a water surface area of 22.9 km2. The major hydrological feature of the ChNPP Cooling Pond is that its water level is 6-7 m higher than the water level in the Pripyat River and water losses due to seepage and evaporation are replenished by pumping water from the Pripyat River. In 1986, the accident at the ChNPP #4 Reactor Unit significantly contaminated the ChNPP Cooling Pond. According to the 2001 data, the total radionuclide inventory in the ChNPP Cooling Pond bottom deposits was as follows: 16.28 ± 2.59 TBq for 137Cs; 2.4 ± 0.48 TBq for 90Sr, and 0.00518 ± 0.00148 TBq for 239+240Pu. Since ChNPP is being decommissioned, the ChNPP Cooling Pond of such a large size will no longer be needed and cost effective to maintain. However, shutdown of the water feed to the Pond would expose the contaminated bottom deposits and change the hydrological features of the area, destabilizing the radiological and environmental situation in the entire region in 2007 - 2008, in order to assess potential consequences of draining the ChNPP Cooling Pond, the authors conducted preliminary radio-ecological studies of its shoreline ecosystems. The radioactive contamination of the ChNPP Cooling Pond shoreline is fairly variable and ranges from 75 to 7,500 kBq/m2. Three areas with different contamination levels were selected to sample soils, vegetation, small mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptilians in order to measure their 137Cs and 90Sr content. Using the ERICA software, their dose exposures were estimated. For the 2008 conditions, the estimated dose rates were found to be as follows: amphibians - 11

  6. Truscott Brine Lake solar-pond system conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leboeuf, C. M.; May, E. K.

    1982-08-01

    Discussed is a conceptual design study for a system of electricity-producing salt-gradient solar ponds that will provide power to a chloride control project under construction near Truscott, Tex. The chloride control project comprises a 1200-ha (3000-acre) brine impoundment lake to which brine will be pumped from several salty sources in the Wichita River basin. The solar ponds are formed by natural evaporation of the briny water pumped to Truscott. Heat is extraced from the solar ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle generators. Ponds were sized to provide the pumping needs of the chloride control project and the maintenance requirements of the solar ponds. The system includes six solar pond modules for a total area of 63.1 ha, and produces 1290 kW of base load electricity. Although sized for continuous power production, alternative operating scenarios involving production of peak power for shorter durations were also examined.

  7. Windpowered irrigation system for small farm applications

    SciTech Connect

    England, B.

    1982-01-01

    The overall purpose of the project was to conserve water on a small-scale truck patch vegetable gardening operation. The main thrust centered on improving water usage in the already-existing windmill/storage tank/house/farm pond setup. Most of the funds were spent on a trickle (drip) irrigation system linked into the existing wetup. Other areas improved were the farm pond itself, backup pumping for windmill and farm pond, and greywater reclamation. In spite of problems which had to be restudied and corrected, the project was an overall success both in terms of results and budget.

  8. Prevalence and Persistence of Psychiatric Disorders in Youth After Detention: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Teplin, Linda A.; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Washburn, Jason J.; Dulcan, Mina K.

    2013-01-01

    Context Psychiatric disorders are prevalent among incarcerated juveniles. Most juveniles eventually return to their communities, where they become the responsibility of the community mental health system. Yet, no large-scale study has examined psychiatric disorders after youth leave detention. Objective To examine changes in prevalence and persistence of disorders during the 5 years after detention, focusing on sex and racial/ethnic differences. Design Prospective longitudinal study with up to 5 interviews (N = 1829). To ensure representation of key demographic subgroups, the randomly selected sample was stratified by sex, race/ethnicity (African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic), age, and legal status (juvenile or adult court). Setting The Northwestern Juvenile Project, sampling youth from the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, Chicago, Illinois. Participants Detained youth, 10 to 18 years at baseline interview. Main Outcome Measures At baseline, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3. At follow-ups, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV (Child and Young Adult versions) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version IV (substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder). Results Five years after baseline, more than 45% of males and nearly 30% of females had one or more psychiatric disorders with associated impairment. Substance use disorders were the most common disorders; males, however, had higher rates over time (5 years after baseline, adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.61; 95% CI, 1.96–3.47). Non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics also had higher rates of substance use disorders compared with African Americans (respectively, AOR, 1.96, 95% CI, 1.54–2.49; AOR, 1.59, 95% CI, 1.24–2.03). Females had higher rates of major depression over time (AOR, 1.59, 95% CI, 1.22–2.08). Conclusions Although prevalence rates of most psychiatric disorders declined over time, a substantial proportion of

  9. A survey of catfish pond water chemistry parameters for copper toxicity modelling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water samples were collected from 20 catfish ponds in 2015 to obtain data useful in predicting copper toxicity and chemical behavior. Ponds were located in major catfish producing areas of west Alabama, east Arkansas, and Mississippi. Pond types included traditional levee ponds, split-ponds, water...

  10. A gradient maintenance technique for seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Kleis, S.J.; Li, H.; Shi, J.

    1995-11-01

    Seawater solar ponds are being evaluated as a means of reducing heat losses from thermal refuge areas in outdoor mariculture ponds during cold weather. The thermal refuge areas are intended to provide a reliable means of protecting fish crops from lethal cold water temperatures in the winter months. A continuous filling technique is demonstrated for use in gradient zone maintenance of the seawater solar ponds. The technique allows indefinite operation of the refuge areas with a minimal amount of fresh water.

  11. A gradient maintenance technique for seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Kleis, S.J.; Li, H.; Shi, J.

    1997-02-01

    Seawater solar ponds are being evaluated as a means of reducing heat losses from thermal refuge areas in outdoor mariculture ponds during cold weather. The thermal refuge areas are intended to provide a reliable means of protecting fish crops from lethal cold water temperatures in the winter months. A continuous filling technique is demonstrated for use in gradient zone maintenance of the seawater solar ponds. The technique allows indefinite operation of the refuge areas with a minimal amount of fresh water.

  12. Using full-scale duckweed ponds as the finish stage for swine waste treatment with a focus on organic matter degradation.

    PubMed

    Mohedano, R A; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of swine has caused pronounced environmental impacts worldwide, especially on water resources. As an aggregate, smallholdings have an important role in South American pork production, contributing to the net diffusion of pollution. Thus, duckweed ponds have been successfully used for swine waste polishing, mainly for nutrient removal. Few studies have been carried out to assess organic matter degradation in duckweed ponds. Hence, the present study evaluated the efficiency of two full-scale duckweed ponds for organic matter reduction of swine waste on small pig farms. Duckweed ponds, in series, received the effluent after an anaerobic biodigester and storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3) day(-1). After 1 year of monitoring, an improvement in effluent quality was observed, with a reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD), respectively, of 94.8 and 96.7%, operating at a loading rate of approximately 27 kgBOD ha(-1) day(-1) and 131 kgCOD ha(-1) day(-1). Algae inhibition due to duckweed coverage was strongly observed in the pond effluent, where chlorophyll a and turbidity remained below 25 μg L(-1) and 10 NTU. Using the study conditions described herein, duckweed ponds were shown to be a suitable technology for swine waste treatment, contributing to the environmental sustainability of rural areas.

  13. Minimizing contamination hazards to waterbirds using agricultural drainage evaporation ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, David F.; Smith, Lynda A.; Drezner, Deborah S.; Shoemaker, J. David

    1991-11-01

    In much of the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, inadequate drainage of applied irrigation water and accumulating salts in the soil have necessitated the installation of subsurface tile drainage systems to preserve crop productivity. At present, these subsurface drainage waters are disposed of by means of evaporation ponds or discharges into the San Joaquin River. Unfortunately, most of these agricultural drainage waters contain high concentrations of salts and naturally occurring trace elements, such as selenium, and recent evidence indicates that substantial numbers of waterbirds are exposed to contamination by selenium in the evaporation ponds. In order to avoid, minimize, or mitigate the adverse impacts on wildlife using the ponds, alternative pond management methods must be identified and evaluated for implementation. A number of methods have the potential to be cost-effective in significantly reducing the contamination hazard to birds using agricultural evaporation ponds. Twenty general methods were evaluated in this study, and four methods are recommended for implementation: remove levee vegetation, remove windbreaks, deepen the ponds, and haze birds. A number of other methods are recommended for further consideration because they appear to have good prospects for reducing the contamination hazard: steepen interior levee slopes, apply herbicides and insecticides, place netting on pond shorelines, and provide freshwater habitat adjacent to evaporation ponds. It may be necessary to use a combination of methods to effectively control selenium contamination of aquatic birds because it is unlikely that a single affordable pond management method will be able to entirely eliminate the contamination hazard.

  14. 7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING WEST FROM POWERHOUSE ROOF. TRANSFORMER SHED IN FOREGROUND. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  15. A model of the refreezing of melt ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocco, D.; Feltham, D. L.; Schroeder, D.

    2012-12-01

    Melt ponds form on Arctic sea ice during the melting season and their presence affects the heat and mass balance of the ice cover. Towards the end of the melt season melt ponds cover up to 50% of the sea ice area decreasing the value of the surface albedo by up to 20%. The dramatic impact of melt ponds on the albedo feedback mechanism for sea ice melt has been demonstrated in previous studies. Here, we focus on the refreezing of melt ponds. As the ponds freeze from above, they gradually release latent heat that inhibits basal ice growth. The refreezing process can take up to three months. Within the ASBO (Arctic Synoptic Basin-wide Observations) project we have developed a model of refreezing melt ponds that uses mushy layer theory to describe the sea ice and takes account of the presence of salt in the refreezing melt pond. We use this model to investigate the rate at which melt ponds refreeze, releasing latent heat, and their impact on sea ice growth. Model results are compared with in situ data collected by Ice Mass Balance buoys in the Arctic. Furthermore we will give an estimate of the impact of the melt pond presence on sea ice growth in the Arctic basin.

  16. 7. PUMPING PLANT, SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, AND STILLING POND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PUMPING PLANT, SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, AND STILLING POND - Outlook Irrigation District, Pumping Plant & Woodstave Pipe, Hudson Road & Snipes Lateral Road vicinity, Outlook, Yakima County, WA

  17. Energy program of requirements for a new detention center -- Energy design criteria for prisons

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, P.C.; Stanton-Hoyle, D.; Krout, R.

    1995-08-01

    Correctional facilities are typically ``energy hogs.`` Prison facilities normally have the highest energy costs and are the most energy-intensive building type for local and state jurisdictions. The 24-hour operation and continuous, year-round use of these facilities means very high maintenance and operating costs. To minimize future utility costs, an integrated energy planning approach for a new detention facility is highly desirable at the earliest stages of programming. When energy-efficiency criteria are integrated early in a planning and design process, significant energy and operating cost savings can be achieved with little or no additional construction costs. A planning document in the form of an energy program of requirements (EPOR) can be incorporated into the solicitation of design proposals and can be very effective in ensuring energy-efficient design for a new facility.

  18. Involuntary detention and treatment of the mentally ill: China's 2012 Mental Health Law.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    The long-awaited Mental Health Law of China was passed on 26 October 2012 and took effect on 1 May 2013. Being the first national legislation on mental health, it establishes a basic legal framework to regulate mental health practice and recognizes the fundamental rights of persons with mental disorders. This article focuses on the system of involuntary detention and treatment of the mentally ill under the new law, which is expected to prevent the so-called "Being misidentified as mentally disordered" cases in China. A systematic examination of the new system demonstrates that the Mental Health Law of China implicitly holds two problematic assumptions and does not provide adequate protection of the fundamental rights of the involuntary patients. Administrative enactments and further national legislative efforts are needed to remedy these flaws in the new law.

  19. Performance of stormwater detention tanks for urban drainage systems in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Todeschini, Sara; Papiri, Sergio; Ciaponi, Carlo

    2012-06-30

    The performance of stormwater detention tanks with alternative design configurations (insertion in the storm sewer network; volume per impervious hectare) and operating conditions (continuous and intermittent emptying rules) have been evaluated according to an integrated approach. Various performance indices have been adopted to describe the mitigation of the pollution impact to the natural environment, the reduction of the management and maintenance charges for the urban drainage system, the preservation of the normal purification efficiency, and the limitation of the costs at the treatment plant. The US EPA Storm Water Management Model has been used to simulate the rainfall-runoff process and the pollutant dynamics on theoretical catchments and storm sewer networks for an individual event, as well as for a continuous run of events and inter event periods of one year recorded at the rain gauge of Cascina Scala (Pavia, northern Italy). Also the influence of the main characteristics of the urban catchment and the drainage system (area of the catchment and slope of the network) on the performance of alternative design and operating solutions has been examined. Stormwater detention tanks combined with flow regulators demonstrated good performance with respect to environmental pollution: satisfactory performance indicators can be obtained with fairly low flow rates of flow regulators (0.5-1 L/s per hectare of impervious area) and tank volumes of about 35-50 m(3) per impervious hectare. Continuous emptying guaranteed the lowest number and duration of overflows, while an intermittent operation minimised the volume sent for purification reducing the costs and the risks of impairment in the normal treatment efficiency of the plant. Overall, simulation outcomes revealed that the performance indexes are scarcely affected by the area of the catchment and the slope of the drainage network. The result of this study represents a key issue for the implementation of

  20. Tree-regeneration and mortality patterns and hydrologic change in a forested karst wetland--Sinking Pond, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, William J.; Evans, Jonathan P.; McCarthy, Sarah; Gain, W. Scott; Bryan, Bradley A.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence point to climate change as the driving factor suppressing tree regeneration since 1970 in Sinking Pond, a 35-hectare seasonally flooded karst depression located on Arnold Air Force Base near Manchester, Tennessee. Annual censuses of 162-193 seedling plots from 1997 through 2001 demonstrate that the critical stage for tree survival is the transition from seedling to sapling and that this transition is limited to shallow (less than 0.5 meters) ponding depths. Recruitment of saplings to the small adult class also was restricted to shallow areas. Analysis of the spatial and elevation distribution of tree-size classes in a representative 2.3-hectare area of Sinking Pond showed a general absence of overcup oak saplings and young adults in deep (ponding depth greater than 1 meter) and intermediate (ponding depth 0.5-1 meter) areas, even though overcup oak seedlings and mature trees are concentrated in these areas. Analysis of tree rings from 45 trees sampled in a 2.3-hectare spatial-analysis plot showed an even distribution of tree ages across ponding-depth classes from the 1800s through 1970, followed by complete suppression of recruitment in deep and intermediate areas after 1970. Trees younger than 30 years were spatially and vertically concentrated in a small area with shallow ponding depth, about 0.5 meter below the spillway elevation. Results of hydrologic modeling, based on rainfall and temperature records covering the period January 1854 through September 2002, show ponding durations after 1970 considerably longer than historical norms, across ponding-depth classes. This increase in ponding duration corresponds closely with similar increases documented in published analyses of streamflow and precipitation in the eastern United States and with the suppression of tree regeneration at ponding depths greater than 0.5 meter indicated by tree-ring analysis. Comparison of the simulated stage record for Sinking Pond with the ages and elevations

  1. Oxygen and nitrogen dyamics in split ponds vs. intensive and conventional catfish production ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Split Pond aquaculture system (SP) has captured the attention of catfish producers across the southern U.S. The SP represents a lower cost adaptation of Clemson University’s Partitioned Aquaculture System (PAS). The original PAS design relied on slowly rotating paddlewheels to move water throu...

  2. Oxygen and nitrogen dynamics in split ponds vs. conventional catfish production ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Split Pond aquaculture system (SP) has captured the attention of catfish producers across the southern U.S. The SP represents a lower cost adaptation of Clemson University’s Partitioned Aquaculture System (PAS). The original PAS design relied on slowly rotating paddlewheels to move water throu...

  3. Comparison of phytoplankton communities in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems with conventional ponds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a growing interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) in recent years by the southeastern United States of America farmed catfish industry. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to better manage fish waste byproducts (e.g., ammonia) and dissolv...

  4. Salt-Pond Box Model (SPOOM) and Its Application to the Napa-Sonoma Salt Ponds, San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lionberger, Megan L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Buchanan, Paul A.; Meyer, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A box model to simulate water volume and salinity of a salt pond has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to obtain water and salinity budgets. The model, SPOOM, uses the principle of conservation of mass to calculate daily pond volume and salinity and includes a salt crystallization and dissolution algorithm. Model inputs include precipitation, evaporation, infiltration, and water transfers. Salinity and water-surface-elevation data were collected monthly in the Napa-Sonoma Salt-Pond Complex from February 1999 through September 2001 and were used to calibrate and validate the model. The months when water transfers occurred were known but the magnitudes were unknown, so the magnitudes of water transfers were adjusted in the model to calibrate simulated pond volumes to measured pond volumes for three ponds. Modeled salinity was then compared with measured salinity, which remained a free parameter, in order to validate the model. Comparison showed good correlation between modeled and measured salinity. Deviations can be attributed to lack of water-transfer information. Water and salinity budgets obtained through modeling will be used to help interpret ecological data from the ponds. This model has been formulated to be applicable to the Napa-Sonoma salt ponds, but can be applied to other salt ponds.

  5. A framework model for the dimensioning and allocation of a detention basin system: The case of a flood-prone mountainous watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellu, Annalisa; Sanches Fernandes, Luís F.; Cortes, Rui M. V.; Pacheco, Fernando A. L.

    2016-02-01

    A straightforward approach in flood management is the attenuation of peak discharges through an appropriate detention system. In this study, a flexible framework model was developed to optimize the dimensioning and site selection of a flood mitigation system based on detention basins. The general workflow can be summarized by three separate but interrelated modules: (i) the hydrologic module, which back tracks the detention basin contributing area based on the application of engineering formulae to historical information on local river floods and associated hydrometric data; (ii) the geomorphologic module, implemented in a Geographic Information System, which indicates all the potential locations with adequate contributing area as required for the detention system, by analyzing the flow accumulation within the river basin; and (iii) the environmental module, which comprises the implementation of a multi-criteria decision analysis for the selection of best location(s) for the detention basin system, addressing three different objectives: to minimize diffuse pollution; to minimize point-source pollution; to optimize landscape integration (by minimizing the dam height). The framework model was applied to the flood-prone Vez River, which is the main tributary of the Lima River in Northwestern Portugal. Although the expectations as regards diffuse and point-source pollution are optimistic, results show that detention of the largest flood in this river could only be accomplished with one very large dam or a number of decentralized large dams. Decentralizing the detention system with multiple basins installed in various branches of the Vez River did not reduce the mean dam height, because the catchment is located in a region of craggy topography and high annual rainfall. An extensive reforestation of the basin headwaters would increase evapotranspiration reducing runoff. Eventually, this would expand the alternatives for flood mitigation, namely through the construction

  6. U.S. Army Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command Needs to Improve its Oversight of Labor Detention Charges at Military Ocean Terminal Sunny Point

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-16

    Detention Charges at Military Ocean Terminal Sunny Point Mission Our mission is to provide independent, relevant, and timely oversight of the...Charges at Military Ocean Terminal Sunny Point Visit us at www.dodig.mil March 16, 2016 Objective We determined whether the U.S. Army Military Surface...Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC) effectively planned and managed terminal operations to minimize the amount of labor detention charges

  7. First description of underwater acoustic diversity in three temperate ponds

    PubMed Central

    Rybak, Fanny; Depraetere, Marion; Gasc, Amandine; Le Viol, Isabelle; Pavoine, Sandrine; Sueur, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has produced an increased ecological interest in sonic environments, or soundscapes. However, despite this rise in interest and technological improvements that allow for long-term acoustic surveys in various environments, some habitats’ soundscapes remain to be explored. Ponds, and more generally freshwater habitats, are one of these acoustically unexplored environments. Here we undertook the first long term acoustic monitoring of three temperate ponds in France. By aural and visual inspection of a selection of recordings, we identified 48 different sound types, and according to the rarefaction curves we calculated, more sound types are likely present in one of the three ponds. The richness of sound types varied significantly across ponds. Surprisingly, there was no pond-to-pond daily consistency of sound type richness variation; each pond had its own daily patterns of activity. We also explored the possibility of using six acoustic diversity indices to conduct rapid biodiversity assessments in temperate ponds. We found that all indices were sensitive to the background noise as estimated through correlations with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, we determined that the AR index could be a good candidate to measure acoustic diversities using partial correlations with the SNR as a control variable. Yet, research is still required to automatically compute the SNR in order to apply this index on a large data set of recordings. The results showed that these three temperate ponds host a high level of acoustic diversity in which the soundscapes were variable not only between but also within the ponds. The sources producing this diversity of sounds and the drivers of difference in daily song type richness variation both require further investigation. Such research would yield insights into the biodiversity and ecology of temperate ponds. PMID:26587351

  8. Examining Water Quality Variations of Tidal Pond System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, T. F. M.; Cui, W.

    2014-12-01

    Brackish tidal shrimp ponds, traditionally referred to as gei wais, have been constructed along coastal areas in many parts of the world. The regular exchange of pond water with the surrounding coastal environment is important as it brings shrimp larvae and nutrients, etc. into and out of the pond. Such a water exchange can reduce the quality of the receiving waters; though there are opposing views recently because farming practices are becoming more sustainable while other sources of pollutions in the surroundings are increasing. This project monitors the water quality of a tidal shrimp pond and its receiving water at high temporal resolution. The pond is located within the wetland complex of Mai Po Nature Reserve in Hong Kong, China. Water quality parameters (i.e., dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, pH, water depth and chlorophyll) were recorded at 15-minute interval from December 2013 to March 2014 within the pond and also at its receiving water which is a water channel within a mangrove forest. Data reveals both daily and fortnightly fluctuations. Daily variations in mangrove correspond to both tidal flushing and insolation, whereas those within the pond correspond mainly to insolation. For example, dissolved oxygen in mangrove shows two peaks daily which correlate with tidal elevation, and that within the pond shows only one peak which correlates with sunlight. Dissolved oxygen within the pond also shows a fortnightly pattern that corresponds to the schedule of water exchange. Such high temporal resolution of monitoring reveals the two-way water quality influences between the pond and the mangrove. It sheds insights that can possibly lead to refinement of water exchange practice and water sampling schedule given the temporal variations of the water quality both inside and outside the pond. It thus enables us to take a step closer in adopting more sustainable farming practices despite increasing pollution in the surrounding areas.

  9. Experimental canopy removal enhances diversity of vernal pond amphibians.

    PubMed

    Skelly, David K; Bolden, Susan R; Freidenburg, L Kealoha

    2014-03-01

    Vernal ponds are often treated as protected environments receiving special regulation and management. Within the landscapes where they are found, forest vegetation frequently dominates surrounding uplands and can grow to overtop and shade pond basins. Two bodies of research offer differing views of the role of forest canopy for vernal pond systems. Studies of landscape conversion suggest that removing forest overstory within uplands can cause local extinctions of amphibians by altering terrestrial habitat or hindering movement. Studies of canopy above pond basins imply an opposite relationship; encroachment of overstory vegetation can be associated with local extinctions potentially via changes in light, thermal, and food resource environments. Unresolved uncertainties about the role of forest canopy reveal significant gaps in our understanding of wetland species distributions and dynamics. Any misunderstanding of canopy influences is simultaneously important to managers because current practices emphasize promoting or conserving vegetation growth particularly within buffers immediately adjacent to ponds. We evaluated this apparent contradiction by conducting a landscape-scale, long-term experiment using 14 natural vernal ponds. Tree felling at six manipulated ponds was limited in spatial scope but was nevertheless effective in increasing water temperature. Compared with eight control ponds, manipulated ponds maintained more amphibian species during five years post-manipulation. There was little evidence that any species was negatively influenced, and the reproductive effort of species for which we estimated egg inputs maintained pretreatment population densities in manipulated compared with control ponds. Overall, our experiment shows that a carefully circumscribed reduction of overhead forest canopy can enhance the capacity of vernal ponds to support wildlife diversity and suggests a scale dependence of canopy influences on amphibians. These findings have

  10. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  11. Box Model of a Series of Salt Ponds, as Applied to the Alviso Salt Pond Complex, South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Orlando, James L.; Ganju, Neil K.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the development and application of a box model to simulate water level, salinity, and temperature of the Alviso Salt Pond Complex in South San Francisco Bay. These ponds were purchased for restoration in 2003 and currently are managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to maintain existing wildlife habitat and prevent a build up of salt during the development of a long-term restoration plan. The model was developed for the purpose of aiding pond managers during the current interim management period to achieve these goals. A previously developed box model of a salt pond, SPOOM, which calculates daily pond volume and salinity, was reconfigured to simulate multiple connected ponds and a temperature subroutine was added. The updated model simulates rainfall, evaporation, water flowing between the ponds and the adjacent tidal slough network, and water flowing from one pond to the next by gravity and pumps. Theoretical and measured relations between discharge and corresponding differences in water level are used to simulate most flows between ponds and between ponds and sloughs. The principle of conservation of mass is used to calculate daily pond volume and salinity. The model configuration includes management actions specified in the Interim Stewardship Plan for the ponds. The temperature subroutine calculates hourly net heat transfer to or from a pond resulting in a rise or drop in pond temperature and daily average, minimum, and maximum pond temperatures are recorded. Simulated temperature was compared with hourly measured data from pond 3 of the Napa?Sonoma Salt Pond Complex and monthly measured data from pond A14 of the Alviso Salt-Pond Complex. Comparison showed good agreement of measured and simulated pond temperature on the daily and monthly time scales.

  12. 2101-M Pond hydrogeologic characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Bates, D.J.; Martin, W.J.

    1990-09-01

    This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory {sup (a)} at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report is the interpretation of the hydrogeologic environment at the 2101-M Pond, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretation were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the installation of four ground-water monitoring wells, in addition to data gathered from several previously existing wells. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a groundwater monitoring program initiated in 1988. The four new monitoring wells were installed around the 2101-M Pond between May 23 and August 27, 1988. Geologic sampling, aquifer testing, and initial ground-water sampling were performed during the installation of these wells. Laboratory analyses of the sediment samples for particle size, calcium carbonate content, and selected natural and contaminant constituents were performed. A full year of quarterly ground-water sampling and the first statistical analysis of background and downgradient data have also been performed. 112 refs., 49 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. Biological productivity in small impoundments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most ponds and small impoundments are built or used with a principal use in mind. That use may be recreational fishing, commercial aquaculture, waterfowl hunting, potable water storage, irrigation water supply, livestock watering, stormwater retention, landscaping, swimming, or others. In practice, ...

  14. Delayed feeding of channel catfish fry stocked in ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared production variables between channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery ponds fed according to industry standards, that is feeding immediately at stocking, to an alternative practice of delaying feeding for 6 wk after stocking in an effort to utilize natural pond productivity and red...

  15. Effects of acidification on algal assemblages in temporary ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Glackin, M.E.; Pratt, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Atmospheric deposition monitoring in Pennsylvania has characterized a steep gradient of acidic ion depositions across the north-central portion of the state. This study evaluated acidification effects on the composition of algal assemblages in temporary ponds in two forested areas exposed to atmospheric deposition that varied in degree of acidity. Artificial substrates were used to sample and compare the algal assemblages in the two areas. Colonized communities were also transplanted to lower pH ponds to observe changes in species composition. A laboratory microcosm experiment manipulating pH was conducted to reduce the variables that differed between the two areas. Fewer algal taxa were present in lower pH ponds, on colonized substrates after transplant to lower pH ponds, and in lower pH laboratory treatments. Species composition was altered in the lower pH conditions. Most taxa that were excluded from the lower pH ponds naturally also did not survive when experimentally introduced to those conditions. These results suggest that acidification of temporary ponds can alter the structure of algal communities. There is interest in a possible link between acid deposition and reports of worldwide declines in amphibian populations. Algae are an important food source for larval amphibians, such as the wood frog, which require temporary ponds to breed. Changes in algal species composition could potentially impact the temporary pond and forest ecosystem.

  16. Amphibian Oasis: Designing and Building a Schoolyard Pond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Heather; Johnson, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Building a pond in a schoolyard is a rewarding way to help boost local populations of amphibians, to increase the natural value of school grounds, and to serve as a locale for observing the life cycles of plants, invertebrates, and amphibians. This article outlines important considerations in designing and building a pond from siting through…

  17. Gauging the Health of New England's Lakes and Ponds

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England Lakes and Ponds Project provides a consistent and first time comprehensive assessment of the ecological and water quality condition of lakes and ponds across the New England region. The project is being conducted by EPA along with the New England Interstate Water...

  18. A model of the refreezing of melt ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocco, D.; Feltham, D. L.; Shroeder, D.

    2012-04-01

    Melt ponds form on Arctic sea ice during the melting season and their presence affects the heat and mass balance of the ice cover. Towards the end of the melt season melt ponds cover up to 50% of the sea ice area decreasing the value of the surface albedo by up to 20%. The dramatic impact of melt ponds on the albedo feedback mechanism for sea ice melt has been demonstrated in previous studies. Here, we focus on the refreezing of melt ponds. As the ponds freeze from above, they gradually release latent heat that inhibits basal ice growth. The refreezing process can take up to three months. Within the ASBO (Arctic Synoptic Basin-wide Observations) project we have developed a model of refreezing melt ponds that uses mushy layer theory to describe the sea ice and takes account of the presence of salt in the refreezing melt pond. We use this model to investigate the rate at which melt ponds refreeze, releasing latent heat, and their impact on sea ice growth. Model results are compared with in situ data collected by Ice Mass Balance buoys in the Arctic.

  19. Cannibalism in single-batch hybrid catfish production ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid catfish are more efficiently harvested by seining than are Channel Catfish. Due to that, and their faster growth, hybrids are typically produced in “single-batch” production systems, either in intensively-aerated commercial ponds or in split-pond systems. In either production system, hybrids...

  20. Surface Sediments in Precooler Ponds 2, 4, and 5: March 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.L.

    2001-01-29

    Pond 2, Pond 4, and Pond 5 are inactive reactor cooling impoundments built in 1961 on the R-Reactor Effluent System in the east-central portion of the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. These precooler ponds are part of the Par Pond cooling water system and are considered part of the Par Pond operable unit. The intent was not to characterize the ponds, but to identify the maximum levels of contamination that could be exposed if the ponds are drained to remove the danger of dam failure.

  1. Distribution patterns of macrobenthic species in relation to organic enrichment within aquaculture earthen ponds.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Susana; Barata, Marisa; Pereira, Fábio; Gaspar, Miguel B; Cancela da Fonseca, Luís; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro

    2006-12-01

    The relationship between organic enrichment and macrobenthic colonization patterns was investigated during an 8-month period in Diplodus sargus (white seabream) production ponds. A stratified sampling design was applied and each pond was divided into three zones: water entrance (WE); central (C); and automatic feeder zones (AF). Generally, the number of species and Shannon-Wiener diversity increased from the WE to the AF zone. Abundance did not present a clear trend. The recently developed marine biotic index (AMBI) was applied and showed to be sufficiently robust to discriminate, within a relatively small area, differences in macrobenthic communities due to organic enrichment. Nevertheless, caution is advised when applying this index or others based on ecological group's assignment, as the classification of a certain area may differ when allocating a certain species to an unsuitable group. This is particularly evident when common species are involved.

  2. Disposal of hypergolic propellants, phase 6 task 4. Disposal pond products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohenour, B. C.; Wiederhold, C. N.

    1977-01-01

    Waste monomethyl hydrazine scrubber liquor, consisting of aqueous solutions containing small amounts of CH4, Cl2, CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, and CHCl3 as well as large amounts of CH3OH is scheduled to be dumped in stabilization ponds along with nitrate and nitrite salt solutions obtained as waste liquors from the N2O4 scrubbers. The wastes are investigated as to the hazardous materials generated by such combinations of items as described as well as the finite lifetime of such materials in the stabilization ponds. The gas liquid chromatograph was used in the investigation. A series of experiments designed to convert nitrate and nitrite salts to the environmentally innocuous N2O and N2 using solar energy is reported. Results indicate that this solar conversion is feasible.

  3. Walden Pond, Massachusetts: Environmental Setting and Current Investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction Walden Pond, in Concord, Massachusetts, is famous among lakes because of its unique social history. Walden was the setting for American naturalist Henry David Thoreau's well-known essay 'Walden; or, Life in the Woods,' first published in 1854. Thoreau lived and wrote at Walden Pond from July 1845 to September 1847. In 'Walden,' Thoreau combined highly admired writing on Transcendental philosophy with pioneering observations of aquatic ecology and physical aspects of limnology, the study of lakes. Because Thoreau also defended so effectively the value of living close to nature in the Walden woods, the pond is considered by many to be the birthplace of the American conservation movement. Visitors come from all over the world to the pond, which has been designated a National Historic Landmark, and its fame has resulted in a major fund drive to preserve the surrounding woods. Walden Pond has no surfacewater inflow or outflow, and much of its ground-water contributing area likely is preserved within the Walden Pond Reservation area (fig. 1). Only 15 miles from Boston, the pond is unusually clear and pristine for an urban-area lake. However, point sources of nutrients near the pond, and a large annual visitor attendance, concentrated during the summer when the swimming beach (fig. 2) is open, may contribute a nutrient load sufficient to change the pond environment. The occurrence of nuisance algal species, a recent beach closing, and an awareness of water-quality problems suffered by other ponds in the region raise concerns about the risk of ecological change at Walden Pond. Despite the role of Walden Pond as a cultural and environmental icon, little is known about the pond's ecological features, such as its internal nutrient cycling or the structure of its food web, nor have consistent measurements been made to determine whether these features are changing or are stable. Production rates of aquatic plants in lakes and ponds naturally undergo a slow increase

  4. Salton Sea Project, Phase 1. [solar pond power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe plant. The Solar Pond concept would be an environmental benefit to the Salton Sea by reversing the increasing salinity trend. The greatest cost drivers are the lake dike construction and pond sealing. Problems to be resolved include method of brine production from Salton Sea water for the first unit (which requires evaporation pond area and time), the high turbidity and color content of the Salton Sea water (which requires pretreatment), and other questions related to pond permeability, bio-activity and soil/brine chemical reactions. All technical and environmental problems appear solvable and/or manageable if care is taken in mitigating impacts.

  5. Phytoremediation efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes in fly ash pond.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The present study was focused on field research to examine the phytoremediation potential of naturally grown Eichhornia crassipes in fly ash (FA) pond. Field results indicate the efficiency of E. crassipes for remediation of heavy metals from FA pond. The bioconcentration factor trend was Cr (3.75) > Cu (2.62) > Cd (1.05), and Cu (1.35) in root and stem, respectively. The survival and abundance growth of E. crassipes in the circumstance of heavy metal enriched FA pond is another highlight of the present research that reveals its toxitolerant characteristics. Thus, this lesson on phytoremediation proved that E. crassipes is a potential accumulator of Cu, Cr, and Cd from FA ponds and is a promising species for FA pond's remediation globally.

  6. Emissions from Produced Water Treatment Ponds, Uintah Basin, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S. N.; Tran, H.; O'Neil, T.; Anderson, R.

    2015-12-01

    An aqueous phase, known as "produced water," usually accompanies the hydrocarbon fluid phases that are extracted from Earth's crust during oil and natural gas extraction. Produced water contains dissolved and suspended organics and other contaminants and hence cannot be discharged directly into the hydrosphere. One common disposal method is to discharge produced water into open-pit evaporation ponds. Spent hydraulic fracturing fluids are also often discharged into the same ponds. It is obvious to anyone with a healthy olfactory system that such ponds emit volatile organics to the atmosphere, but very little work has been done to characterize such emissions. Because oil, gas, and water phases are often in contact in geologic formations, we can expect that more highly soluble compounds (e.g., salts, alcohols, carbonyls, carboxyls, BTEX, etc.) partition preferentially into produced water. However, as the water in the ponds age, many physical, chemical, and biological processes alter the composition of the water, and therefore the composition and strength of volatile organic emissions. For example, some ponds are aerated to hasten evaporation, which also promotes oxidation of organics dissolved in the water. Some ponds are treated with microbes to promote bio-oxidation. In other words, emissions from ponds are expected to be a complex function of the composition of the water as it first enters the pond, and also of the age of the water and of its treatment history. We have conducted many measurements of emissions from produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah, both by flux chamber and by evacuated canister sampling with inverse modeling. These measurements include fluxes of CO2, CH4, methanol, and many other volatile organic gases. We have also measured chemical compositions and microbial content of water in the ponds. Results of these measurements will be reported.

  7. Factors Influencing Fecal Contamination in Pond of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappett, P. S.; Escamilla, V.; Layton, A.; McKay, L. D.; Emch, M.; Mailloux, B. J.; Williams, D. E.; Huq, M. R.; Alam, M.; Farhana, L.; Ferguson, A. S.; Sayler, G. S.; Ahmed, K.; Serre, M. L.; Akita, Y.; Yunus, M.; van Geen, A.

    2010-12-01

    Occurrence of diarrheal disease in villages in rural Bangladesh remains relatively common, even though many households have switched to tubewell water for drinking and cooking. One factor contributing to this may be exposure to fecal contamination in ponds, which are often used for bathing and fishing. The objective of this study is to determine the dominant sources of fecal pollution in typical ponds and to explore the relationship between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were sampled and analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and for E. coli, Bacteroides and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation infrastructure were surveyed and compared to levels of pond fecal contamination. Molecular fecal source tracking using Bacteroides, determined that humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (p<0.01) and total latrines surveyed within 50-70 m (p<0.05). Unsanitary latrines with visible effluent within the pond drainage basin were also significantly correlated to fecal indicator concentrations (p<0.05). The vast majority of the surveyed ponds contained unsafe levels of fecal contamination primarily due to unsanitary latrines, and to lesser extent to sanitary latrines and cattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is from humans, use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural Bangladesh.

  8. Effects on water quality due to flood-water detention by Barker and Addicks Reservoirs, Houston, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liscum, Fred; Goss, R.L.; Paul, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The third approach was a comparison at each site of the mean, maximum, and minimum values computed for seven constituents that did not correlate with discharge. These constituents or properties of water were temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, total-coliform bacteria, fecal-conform bacteria, and fecal-streptococci bacteria. The only consistent water-quality changes observed were with the three bacteria groups, which were decreased by flood-water detention.

  9. Spatial Distribution of Small Water Body Types across Indiana Ecoregions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to their large numbers and biogeochemical activity, small water bodies (SWB), such as ponds and wetlands, can have substantial cumulative effects on hydrologic, biogeochemical, and biological processes; yet the spatial distributions of various SWB types are often unknown. Usi...

  10. Spatial Distribution of Small Water Body Types in Indiana Ecoregions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to their large numbers and biogeochemical activity, small water bodies (SWBs), such as ponds and wetlands, can have substantial cumulative effects on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes. Using updated National Wetland Inventory data, we describe the spatial distribution o...

  11. Health Disparities in Drug- and Alcohol-Use Disorders: A 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Youths After Detention

    PubMed Central

    Welty, Leah J.; Harrison, Anna J.; Abram, Karen M.; Olson, Nichole D.; Aaby, David A.; McCoy, Kathleen P.; Washburn, Jason J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine sex and racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of 9 substance-use disorders (SUDs)—alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogen or PCP, opiate, amphetamine, inhalant, sedative, and unspecified drug— in youths during the 12 years after detention. Methods. We used data from the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1829 youths randomly sampled from detention in Chicago, Illinois, starting in 1995 and reinterviewed up to 9 times in the community or correctional facilities through 2011. Independent interviewers assessed SUDs with Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children 2.3 (baseline) and Diagnostic Interview Schedule version IV (follow-ups). Results. By median age 28 years, 91.3% of males and 78.5% of females had ever had an SUD. At most follow-ups, males had greater odds of alcohol- and marijuana-use disorders. Drug-use disorders were most prevalent among non-Hispanic Whites, followed by Hispanics, then African Americans (e.g., compared with African Americans, non-Hispanic Whites had 32.1 times the odds of cocaine-use disorder [95% confidence interval = 13.8, 74.7]). Conclusions. After detention, SUDs differed markedly by sex, race/ethnicity, and substance abused, and, contrary to stereotypes, did not disproportionately affect African Americans. Services to treat substance abuse—during incarceration and after release—would reach many people in need, and address health disparities in a highly vulnerable population. PMID:26985602

  12. Fuel Pond Sludge - Lessons Learned from Initial De-sludging of Sellafield's Pile Fuel Storage Pond - 12066

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, Derek; Adamson, Kate

    2012-07-01

    The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) at Sellafield was built and commissioned between the late 1940's and early 1950's as a storage and cooling facility for irradiated fuel and isotopes from the two Windscale Pile reactors. The pond was linked via submerged water ducts to each reactor, where fuel and isotopes were discharged into skips for transfer along the duct to the pond. In the pond the fuel was cooled then de-canned underwater prior to export for reprocessing. The plant operated successfully until it was taken out of operation in 1962 when the First Magnox Fuel Storage Pond took over fuel storage and de-canning operations on the site. The pond was then used for storage of miscellaneous Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) and fuel from the UK's Nuclear Programme for which no defined disposal route was available. By the mid 1970's the import of waste ceased and the plant, with its inventory, was placed into a passive care and maintenance regime. By the mid 1990s, driven by the age of the facility and concern over the potential challenge to dispose of the various wastes and fuels being stored, the plant operator initiated a programme of work to remediate the facility. This programme is split into a number of key phases targeted at sustained reduction in the hazard associated with the pond, these include: - Pond Preparation: Before any remediation work could start the condition of the pond had to be transformed from a passive store to a plant capable of complex retrieval operations. This work included plant and equipment upgrades, removal of redundant structures and the provision of a effluent treatment plant for removing particulate and dissolved activity from the pond water. - Canned Fuel Retrieval: Removal of canned fuel, including oxide and carbide fuels, is the highest priority within the programme. Handling and export equipment required to remove the canned fuel from the pond has been provided and treatment routes developed utilising existing site facilities to

  13. Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics.

  14. Results of submerged sediment core sampling and analysis on Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake: July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Friday, G.P.

    1996-06-01

    Sediment cores from shallow and deep water locations in Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake were collected and analyzed in 1995 for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. This core analysis was conducted to develop a defensible characterization of contaminants found in the sediments of Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake. Mercury was the only nonradiological constituent with a nonestimated quantity that was detected above the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Region IV potential contaminants of concern screening criteria. It was detected at a depth of 0.3--0.6 meters (1.0--2.0 feet) at one location in L Lake. Cesium-137, promethium-146, plutonium-238, and zirconium-95 had significantly higher concentrations in Par Pond sediments than in sediments from the reference sites. Cobalt-60, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and strontium-90 had significantly higher concentrations in L-Lake sediments than sediments from the reference sites.

  15. Enhancing Nitrification at Low Temperature with Zeolite in a Mining Operations Retention Pond

    PubMed Central

    Miazga-Rodriguez, Misha; Han, Sukkyun; Yakiwchuk, Brian; Wei, Kai; English, Colleen; Bourn, Steven; Bohnert, Seth; Stein, Lisa Y.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up to 9 months of the year. The aluminosilicate mineral zeolite was tested as an additive to retention pond water to increase rates of ammonium removal at 4°C. Water samples were collected across the length of the retention pond monthly over a year. The structure of the microbial community (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya), as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, was more stable during cold months than during July–September, when there was a marked phytoplankton bloom. Of the ammonia-oxidizing community, only bacterial amoA genes were consistently detected. Zeolite (10 g) was added to retention pond water (100 mL) amended with 5 mM ammonium and incubated at 12°C to encourage development of a nitrifying biofilm. The biofilm community was composed of different amoA phylotypes from those identified in gene clone libraries of native water samples. Zeolite biofilm was added to fresh water samples collected at different times of the year, resulting in a significant increase in laboratory measurements of potential nitrification activity at 4°C. A significant positive correlation between the amount of zeolite biofilm and potential nitrification activity was observed; rates were unaffected in incubations containing 1–20 mM ammonium. Addition of zeolite to retention ponds in cold environments could effectively increase nitrification rates year-round by concentrating active nitrifying biomass. PMID:22866052

  16. Western Pond Turtle Head-starting and Reintroduction, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavens, Kate

    2006-11-01

    This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of October 2005-September 2006. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon zoos in 2005 and 2006 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. Twenty-six turtles were placed at the Woodland Park Zoo and 62 at the Oregon Zoo in fall 2005. These turtles joined two that were held back from release in summer 2005 due to their small size. All 90 juvenile turtles were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2006. Twenty-eight juvenile turtles were released at the Klickitat ponds, 22 at the Klickitat lake, 21 at the Skamania site, and 19 at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This brought the total number of head-start turtles released since 1991 to 944; 285 for the Klickitat ponds, 158 for the Klickitat lake, 227 for the Skamania pond complex, and 274 at Pierce NWR. In 2006, 20 females from the Klickitat population were equipped with transmitters and monitored for nesting activity. Fifteen nests were located and protected; these produced 55 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in September and transported to the Oregon and Woodland Park zoos for rearing in the head-start program. One wild hatchling captured in spring 2006 was placed in the head-start program to attain more growth in captivity. During the 2006 field season trapping effort, 414 western pond turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge, including 374 previously head-started turtles. These recaptures, together with confirmed nesting by head-start females and visual resightings, indicate the program is succeeding in boosting juvenile recruitment to increase the populations

  17. CO2 dynamics of tundra ponds in the low-Arctic, Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buell, Mary-Claire

    Extensive research has gone into measuring changes to the carbon storage capacity of Arctic terrestrial environments as well as large water bodies in order to determine a carbon budget for many regions across the Arctic. Inland Arctic waters such as small lakes and ponds are often excluded from these carbon budgets, however a handful of studies have demonstrated that they can often be significant sources of carbon to the atmosphere. This study investigated the CO2 cycling of tundra ponds in the Daring Lake area, Northwest Territories, Canada (64°52'N, 111°35'W), to determine the role ponds have in the local carbon cycle. Floating chambers, nondispersive infrared (NDIR) sensors and headspace samples were used to estimate carbon fluxes from four selected local ponds. Multiple environmental, chemical and meteorological parameters were also monitored for the duration of the study, which took place during the snow free season of 2013. Average CO2 emissions for the two-month growing season ranged from approximately -0.0035 g CO2-C m-2 d -1 to 0.12 g CO2-C m-2 d-1. The losses of CO2 from the water bodies in the Daring Lake area were approximately 2-7% of the CO2 uptake over vegetated terrestrial tundra during the same two-month period. Results from this study indicated that the production of CO2 in tundra ponds was positively influenced by both increases in air temperature, and the delivery of carbon from their catchments. The relationship found between temperature and carbon emissions suggests that warming Arctic temperatures have the potential to increase carbon emissions from ponds in the future. The findings in this study did not include ebullition gas emissions nor plant mediated transport, therefore these findings are likely underestimates of the total carbon emissions from water bodies in the Daring Lake area. This study emphasizes the need for more research on inland waters in order to improve our understanding of the total impact these waters may have on the

  18. Environmental selection of planktonic methanogens in permafrost thaw ponds.

    PubMed

    Crevecoeur, Sophie; Vincent, Warwick F; Lovejoy, Connie

    2016-08-09

    The warming and thermal erosion of ice-containing permafrost results in thaw ponds that are strong emitters of methane to the atmosphere. Here we examined methanogens and other Archaea, in two types of thaw ponds that are formed by the collapse of either permafrost peat mounds (palsas) or mineral soil mounds (lithalsas) in subarctic Quebec, Canada. Using high-throughput sequencing of a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA, we determined the taxonomic structure and diversity of archaeal communities in near-bottom water samples, and analyzed the mcrA gene transcripts from two sites. The ponds at all sites were well stratified, with hypoxic or anoxic bottom waters. Their archaeal communities were dominated by Euryarchaeota, specifically taxa in the methanogenic orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, indicating a potentially active community of planktonic methanogens. The order Methanomicrobiales accounted for most of the mcrA transcripts in the two ponds. The Archaeal communities differed significantly between the lithalsa and palsa ponds, with higher alpha diversity in the organic-rich palsa ponds, and pronounced differences in community structure. These results indicate the widespread occurrence of planktonic, methane-producing Archaea in thaw ponds, with environmental selection of taxa according to permafrost landscape type.

  19. Environmental selection of planktonic methanogens in permafrost thaw ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crevecoeur, Sophie; Vincent, Warwick F.; Lovejoy, Connie

    2016-08-01

    The warming and thermal erosion of ice-containing permafrost results in thaw ponds that are strong emitters of methane to the atmosphere. Here we examined methanogens and other Archaea, in two types of thaw ponds that are formed by the collapse of either permafrost peat mounds (palsas) or mineral soil mounds (lithalsas) in subarctic Quebec, Canada. Using high-throughput sequencing of a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA, we determined the taxonomic structure and diversity of archaeal communities in near-bottom water samples, and analyzed the mcrA gene transcripts from two sites. The ponds at all sites were well stratified, with hypoxic or anoxic bottom waters. Their archaeal communities were dominated by Euryarchaeota, specifically taxa in the methanogenic orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, indicating a potentially active community of planktonic methanogens. The order Methanomicrobiales accounted for most of the mcrA transcripts in the two ponds. The Archaeal communities differed significantly between the lithalsa and palsa ponds, with higher alpha diversity in the organic-rich palsa ponds, and pronounced differences in community structure. These results indicate the widespread occurrence of planktonic, methane-producing Archaea in thaw ponds, with environmental selection of taxa according to permafrost landscape type.

  20. CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y−1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

  1. Renewable energy for the aeration of wastewater ponds.

    PubMed

    Hobus, I; Hegemann, W

    2003-01-01

    The application of a decentralised renewable energy supply for the aeration of wastewater ponds, and the influence of an unsteady oxygen supply on the specific conversion rate and biocoenose was investigated. With the discontinuous aeration the specific conversion rate is increased as compared to facultative ponds. The estimation of the microorganisms consortia was done with in situ hybridisation techniques. A significant shift in the bacteria population with the chosen specific probes for anaerobic, sulphate reducing and nitrifying bacteria could not be detected. Wastewater ponds have sufficient buffer volume to compensate for the fluctuating energy supply. But the efficiency of the energy supply of a photovoltaic plant decreases in shallow lakes (d < 1.5 m) corresponding to a high oxygen production of algae. For the layout of the individual components: photovoltaic and wind power plant, energy management, aeration system and wastewater pond, a simulation model was developed and tested. The application of renewable energy for the aeration of wastewater ponds is a useful alternative for the redevelopment of overloaded ponds as well as the construction of new wastewater ponds, especially in areas with an inadequate central electricity grid and a high availability of wind and solar energy.

  2. Environmental selection of planktonic methanogens in permafrost thaw ponds

    PubMed Central

    Crevecoeur, Sophie; Vincent, Warwick F.; Lovejoy, Connie

    2016-01-01

    The warming and thermal erosion of ice-containing permafrost results in thaw ponds that are strong emitters of methane to the atmosphere. Here we examined methanogens and other Archaea, in two types of thaw ponds that are formed by the collapse of either permafrost peat mounds (palsas) or mineral soil mounds (lithalsas) in subarctic Quebec, Canada. Using high-throughput sequencing of a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA, we determined the taxonomic structure and diversity of archaeal communities in near-bottom water samples, and analyzed the mcrA gene transcripts from two sites. The ponds at all sites were well stratified, with hypoxic or anoxic bottom waters. Their archaeal communities were dominated by Euryarchaeota, specifically taxa in the methanogenic orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, indicating a potentially active community of planktonic methanogens. The order Methanomicrobiales accounted for most of the mcrA transcripts in the two ponds. The Archaeal communities differed significantly between the lithalsa and palsa ponds, with higher alpha diversity in the organic-rich palsa ponds, and pronounced differences in community structure. These results indicate the widespread occurrence of planktonic, methane-producing Archaea in thaw ponds, with environmental selection of taxa according to permafrost landscape type. PMID:27501855

  3. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 100-D Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    The 183-D Water Treatment Facility (WTF) discharges effluent to the 120-0-1 Ponds (100-D Ponds) located north of the 100-D Area perimeter fence. This report satisfies one of the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00B as agreed by the US Department of Energy, Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00B includes a requirement to assess impacts to groundwater from disposal of the 183-D WTF effluent to the 100-D Ponds. In addition, the 100-D Ponds are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 treatment, storage, and disposal facility covered by the 100-D Ponds Closure Plan (DOE-RL 1993a). There is evidence of groundwater contamination, primarily nitrate, tritium, and chromium, in the unconfined aquifer beneath the 100-D Area and 100 Areas in general. The contaminant plumes are area wide and are a result of past-practice reactor and disposal operations in the 100-D Area currently being investigated as part of the 100-DR-1 and 100-HR-3 Operable Units (DOE-RL 1992b, 1992a). Based on current effluent conditions, continued operation of the 100-D Ponds will not adversely affect the groundwater quality in the 100-D Area. Monitoring wells near the pond have slightly higher alkaline pH values than wells in the rest of the area. Concentrations of known contaminants in these wells are lower than ambient 100-D Area groundwater conditions and exhibit a localized dilution effect associated with discharges to the pond. Hydraulic impact to the local groundwater system from these discharges is minor. The groundwater monitoring well network for the 100-D Ponds is adequate.

  4. Development of Floating Wave Barriers for Cost Effective Protection of Irrigation and Catfish Pond Levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.; Alonso, C. V.

    2007-12-01

    Earth levees for catfish ponds and irrigation water storage experience significant embankment erosion due to wind generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods such as the use of old tires or riprap are not acceptable due to ecological and economic concerns. The goal of the present work is to define configurations and construction techniques for inexpensive floating breakwaters made of polyethylene irrigation tubing. Based on wave characteristics measured in an irrigation pond near Lonoke, Arkansas, a laboratory scale wave generating flume was designed, constructed, and used to test multiple wave barrier configurations for regular waves in deep and transitional water depths. Wave transmission characteristics were investigated for the following breakwater arrangements: (1) fully restrained, (2) vertically restrained with a single mooring line, (3) horizontally restrained with a rigid arm hinged at one end, and (4) horizontally restrained with piles at both sides of the breakwater. The test results show that cylindrical pipes can be used effectively as floating breakwaters and that wave transmission characteristics strongly depend on the draft of the breakwater and the mooring configuration. The use of multiple small cylinders instead of a single large one can reduce cost while maintaining the same level of wave attenuation. The wave characteristics measured in the field and the results of laboratory testing resulted in a final design that is to be tested at the prototype scale in an irrigation pond.

  5. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  7. Aerobic bacterial microbiota isolated from the cloaca of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Zięba, Przemysław; Dziedzic, Barbara Majer; Gnat, Sebastian; Wójcik, Mariusz; Dziedzic, Roman; Kostruba, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a comparative analysis of the aerobic cloacal bacteria of European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) living in their natural environment and juvenile turtles reared under controlled conditions in a breeding center. We included 130 turtles in the study. The aerobic bacteria isolated from the cloaca of the juvenile turtles were less diverse and more prevalent than the bacteria isolated from free-living adults. We isolated 17 bacterial species from juvenile captive turtles, among which the dominant species were Cellulomonas flavigena (77/96), Enterococcus faecalis (96/96), Escherichia coli (58/96), and Proteus mirabilis (41/96). From the adult, free-living turtles, we isolated 36 bacterial species, some of which are a potential threat to public health (e.g., Salmonella enterica serovars Newport, Daytona, and Braenderup; Listeria monocytogenes; Yersinia enterocolitica; Yersinia ruckeri; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Vibrio fluvialis; and Serratia marcescens), and pathogens that are etiologic agents of diseases of ectothermic animals (e.g., Aeromonas sobria, Aeromonas caviae, Hafnia alvei, Edwardsiella tarda, and Citrobacter braakii; the last two species were isolated from both groups of animals). The cloacal bacterial biota of the European pond turtle was characterized by numerous species of bacteria, and its composition varied with turtle age and environmental conditions. The small number of isolated bacteria that are potential human pathogens may indicate that the European pond turtle is of relatively minor importance as a threat to public health.

  8. Ponded Impact Melt Dynamics and its Effects on Pond Surface Morphology - Insights from King Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, J. W.; DiCarlo, N.; Enns, A. C.; Hawke, B. R.; Hiesinger, H.; Robinson, M. S.; Sato, H.; Speyerer, E.; van der Bogert, C.; Wagner, R.; Young, K. E.; LROC Science Team

    2011-12-01

    King crater is a 77-km diameter impact feature located at 5.0°N and 120.5°E on the lunar farside. Previous work delimited King crater with an asymmetric distribution of ejecta that includes a large impact melt pond (~385 square kilometer surface area), located in nearby Al-Tusi crater. The pond provides an opportunity to study the behavior of a large impact melt deposit. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NAC) [1] imaged King crater from a nominal 50 km altitude at pixel scales of 100 meters and up to 0.5 meters, respectively providing the means to create geologic maps for the region. Digital terrain/elevation models (DTMs) were derived [2] from both WAC and NAC images for the area, and supplemented the mapping effort. The high-resolution (50 cm/p) NAC images show fine details within the Al-Tusi melt pond that raise questions about melt pond dynamics and evolution. These include both positive- and negative-relief features, anomalous crater morphologies, and flow features that show variable degrees of melt viscosity. WAC DTM processing reveals a horizontal and relatively flat (at the 20 m contour interval) pond, demonstrating that an equipotential surface was achieved during initial melt accumulation. The NAC DTM shows kilometer-scale zones of topographic down-warping within the 20 m contour interval. The perimeters of these depressed areas show moderate to high spatial correlation with the occurrence of negative relief features (~10 to 100 m in length). Such sagging may have occurred as the result of contraction and/or compaction within the melt both during and following cooling, with the negative relief features resulting from consequent structural failure and separation of the thickening surface crust. The variability in the degree of contraction/compaction may be explained by the presence of underlying hummocky ejecta deposits (which probably also explains the positive relief features) emplaced by

  9. Evaluation of the Rulison drilling effluent pond as trout habitat

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-23

    The Rulison Site is located in Section 25, township 7 South, Range 95 West, Garfield County, Colorado. The site is approximately 19 kilometers (km) (12 miles [mi]) southwest of Rifle Colorado, and approximately 65 km (40 mi) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. Project Ruhson was an experiment conducted jointly by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and Austral Oil Company to test the feasibility of using a nuclear device to increase natural gas production in low permeability geological formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 meters (m) (8,426 feet [ft]) below the ground surface (DOE, 1994). The Rulison Drilling Effluent Pond (called `the pond`) is an engineered structure covering approximately 0.2 hectare (0.5 acre), which was excavated and used to store drilling fluids during drilling of the device emplacement well. The drilling fluids consisted of bentonitic drilling mud with additives such as diesel fuel and chrome lignosulfonate. Most of the drilling muds were removed from the pond when the site was decommissioned in 1976, and the pond was subsequently stocked with rainbow trout by the land owner and used as a fishing pond. In 1994 and 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted sampling of the pond to evaluate residual contamination from the drilling fluids. Based on the results of this sampling, the DOE conducted a voluntary cleanup action in order to reduce the levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons and chromium in pond sediments. The cleanup was conducted between August and mid-November of 1995. At the end of cleanup activities, the pond was lined with a clay geofabric and left dry. The geofabric was covered with sod to protect it. The pond has since been refilled by snowmelt and inflow from a spring. Prior to remediation, the pond apparently had sufficient water quality and food resources to support stocked rainbow trout. The purpose of this

  10. Chlamydia screening and positivity in juvenile detention centers, United States, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Newman, Daniel; Collins, Dayne; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 2.9 million new chlamydia infections occur in the United States each year. Among women, chlamydia can lead to serious adverse outcomes, including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Chlamydia prevalence is highest among females aged 15-19 years. Despite long-standing recommendations directed at young, sexually active females, screening remains sub-optimal. Juvenile detention centers (JDCs) are uniquely situated to screen and treat high-risk adolescents. From 2009-2011, performance measure data on chlamydia screening coverage (proportion of eligible females screened) and positivity (proportion of females tested who were positive) were available from 126 geographically-dispersed JDCs in the United States. These facilities reported screening 55.2% of females entering the facilities (149,923), with a facility-specific median of 66.4% (range: 0-100%). Almost half (44.4%) of facilities had screening coverage levels of 75-100%. This screening resulted in the detection of 12,305 chlamydial infections, for an overall positivity of 14.7% (facility-specific median = 14.9%, range: 0-36.9%). In linear regression analysis, chlamydia positivity was inversely associated with screening coverage: as coverage increased, positivity decreased. The burden of chlamydia in JDCs is substantial; facilities should continue to deliver recommended chlamydia screening and treatment to females and identify mechanisms to increase coverage.

  11. Benefits of Selected Physical Exercise Programs in Detention: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Claudia; di Cagno, Alessandra; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Giombini, Arrigo; Fagnani, Federica; Borrione, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco; Pigozzi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine which kind of physical activity could be useful to inmate populations to improve their health status and fitness levels. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effects of two different training protocols on subjects in a state of detention, tested pre- and post-experimental protocol.Seventy-five male subjects were enrolled in the studyand randomly allocated to three groups: the cardiovascular plus resistance training protocol group (CRT) (n = 25; mean age 30.9 ± 8.9 years),the high-intensity strength training protocol group (HIST) (n = 25; mean age 33.9 ± 6.8 years), and a control group (C) (n = 25; mean age 32.9 ± 8.9 years) receiving no treatment. All subjects underwent a clinical assessmentandfitness tests. MANOVA revealed significant multivariate effects on group (p < 0.01) and group-training interaction (p < 0.05). CRT protocol resulted the most effective protocol to reach the best outcome in fitness tests. Both CRT and HIST protocols produced significant gains in the functional capacity (cardio-respiratory capacity and cardiovascular disease risk decrease) of incarcerated males. The significant gains obtained in functional capacity reflect the great potential of supervised exercise interventions for improving the health status of incarcerated people. PMID:24185842

  12. An Analysis of Alternatives to New York City's Current Marijuana Arrest and Detention Policy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, the New York Police Department (NYPD) instituted a policy of arresting and detaining people for minor offenses that occur in public as part of their quality-of-life (hereafter QOL) policing initiative. The number of NYPD arrests for smoking marijuana in public view (MPV) increased from 3,000 in 1994 to over 50,000 in 2000, and have been about 30,000 in the mid 2000s. Most of these arrestees (84%) have been minority; blacks have been 2.7 more likely and Hispanics 1.8 times more likely to be detained than whites for an MPV arrest. Minorities have been most likely to receive more severe dispositions, even controlling for demographics and prior arrest histories. This paper examines the pros and cons of the current policy; this is compared with possible alternatives including the following: arrest and issue a desk appearance ticket (DAT); issue a non-criminal citation (violation); street warnings; and tolerate public marijuana smoking. The authors recommend that the NYPD change to issuing DATs on a routine basis. Drug policy reformers might wish to further pursue changing statutes regarding smoking marijuana in public view into a violation (noncriminal) or encourage the wider use of street warnings. Any of these policy changes would help reduce the disproportionate burden on minorities associated with the current arrest and detention policy. These policies could help maintain civic norms against smoking marijuana in public. PMID:18726007

  13. An Analysis of Alternatives to New York City's Current Marijuana Arrest and Detention Policy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bruce D; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise; Sifaneck, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, the New York Police Department (NYPD) instituted a policy of arresting and detaining people for minor offenses that occur in public as part of their quality-of-life (hereafter QOL) policing initiative. The number of NYPD arrests for smoking marijuana in public view (MPV) increased from 3,000 in 1994 to over 50,000 in 2000, and have been about 30,000 in the mid 2000s. Most of these arrestees (84%) have been minority; blacks have been 2.7 more likely and Hispanics 1.8 times more likely to be detained than whites for an MPV arrest. Minorities have been most likely to receive more severe dispositions, even controlling for demographics and prior arrest histories.This paper examines the pros and cons of the current policy; this is compared with possible alternatives including the following: arrest and issue a desk appearance ticket (DAT); issue a non-criminal citation (violation); street warnings; and tolerate public marijuana smoking. The authors recommend that the NYPD change to issuing DATs on a routine basis. Drug policy reformers might wish to further pursue changing statutes regarding smoking marijuana in public view into a violation (noncriminal) or encourage the wider use of street warnings. Any of these policy changes would help reduce the disproportionate burden on minorities associated with the current arrest and detention policy. These policies could help maintain civic norms against smoking marijuana in public.

  14. Effects of stormwater infiltration on quality of groundwater beneath retention and detention basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, D.; Charles, E.G.; Baehr, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Infiltration of storm water through detention and retention basins may increase the risk of groundwater contamination, especially in areas where the soil is sandy and the water table shallow, and contaminants may not have a chance to degrade or sorb onto soil particles before reaching the saturated zone. Groundwater from 16 monitoring wells installed in basins in southern New Jersey was compared to the quality of shallow groundwater from 30 wells in areas of new-urban land use. Basin groundwater contained much lower levels of dissolved oxygen, which affected concentrations of major ions. Patterns of volatile organic compound and pesticide occurrence in basin groundwater reflected the land use in the drainage areas served by the basins, and differed from patterns in background samples, exhibiting a greater occurrence of petroleum hydrocarbons and certain pesticides. Dilution effects and volatilization likely decrease the concentration and detection frequency of certain compounds commonly found in background groundwater. High recharge rates in storm water basins may cause loading factors to be substantial even when constituent concentrations in infiltrating storm water are relatively low.

  15. Geohydrology and limnology of Walden Pond, Concord, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.; Friesz, Paul J.

    2001-01-01

    The trophic ecology and ground-water contributing area of Walden Pond, in Concord and Lincoln, Mass., were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management from April 1997 to July 2000. Bathymetric investigation indicated that Walden Pond (24.88 hectares), a glacial kettle-hole lake with no surface inlet or outlet, has three deep areas. The maximum depth (30.5 meters) essentially was unchanged from measurements made by Henry David Thoreau in 1846. The groundwater contributing area (621,000 square meters) to Walden Pond was determined from water-table contours in areas of stratified glacial deposits and from land-surface contours in areas of bedrock highs. Walden Pond is a flow-through lake: Walden Pond gains water from the aquifer along its eastern perimeter and loses water to the aquifer along its western perimeter. Walden Pond contributing area also includes Goose Pond and its contributing area. A water budget calculated for Walden Pond, expressed as depth of water over the lake surface, indicated that 45 percent of the inflow to the lake was from precipitation (1.215 meters per year) and 55 percent from ground water (1.47 meters per year). The groundwater inflow estimate was based on the average of two different approaches including an isotope mass-balance approach. Evaporation accounted for 26 percent of the outflow from the lake (0.71 meters per year) whereas lake-water seepage to the groundwater system contributed 74 percent of the outflow (1.97 meters per year). The water-residence time of Walden Pond is approximately 5 years. Potential point sources of nutrients to ground water, the Concord municipal landfill and a trailer park, were determined to be outside the Walden Pond groundwater contributing area. A third source, the septic leach field for the Walden Pond State Reservation facilities, was within the groundwater contributing area. Nutrient budgets for the lake indicated that

  16. Vegetation effects on floating treatment wetland nutrient removal and harvesting strategies in urban stormwater ponds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Yu; Sample, David J; Bell, Cameron

    2014-11-15

    Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) consist of emergent macrophytes that are placed on a floating mat in a pond for water treatment and aesthetic purposes. FTWs may have unique advantages with respect to treating urban runoff within existing retention ponds for excess nutrients. However, research is lacking in providing guidance on performance of specific species for treating urban runoff, and on timing of harvest. Harvesting is needed to remove nutrients permanently from the retention pond. We investigated vegetation effects on FTWs on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal performance and storage in above-ground FTW macrophyte tissues. The study evaluated pickerelweed (PW, Pontederia cordata L.) and softstem bulrush (SB, Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani) over time in microcosms flushed with water obtained from a nearby urban retention pond in northern Virginia near Washington, DC. While the literature exhibits a wide range of experimental sizes, using the term mesocosm, we have chosen the term microcosm to reflect the small size of our vessel; and do not include effects of sediment. The experiment demonstrated PW outperformed SB for P and N removal. Based upon analysis of the accumulated nutrient removal over time, a harvest of the whole PW and SB plants in September or October is recommended. However, when harvesting only the aerial parts, we recommend harvesting above-ground PW tissues in July or August to maximize nutrient removal. This is because PW translocates most of its nutrients to below-ground storage organs in the fall, resulting in less nutrient mass in the above-ground tissue compared to the case in the summer (vegetative stage). Further research is suggested to investigate whether vegetation can be overly damaged from multiple harvests on an annual basis in temperate regions.

  17. Estimating survival and breeding probability for pond-breeding amphibians: a modified robust design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, L.L.; Kendall, W.L.; Church, D.R.; Wilbur, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Many studies of pond-breeding amphibians involve sampling individuals during migration to and from breeding habitats. Interpreting population processes and dynamics from these studies is difficult because (1) only a proportion of the population is observable each season, while an unknown proportion remains unobservable (e.g., non-breeding adults) and (2) not all observable animals are captured. Imperfect capture probability can be easily accommodated in capture?recapture models, but temporary transitions between observable and unobservable states, often referred to as temporary emigration, is known to cause problems in both open- and closed-population models. We develop a multistate mark?recapture (MSMR) model, using an open-robust design that permits one entry and one exit from the study area per season. Our method extends previous temporary emigration models (MSMR with an unobservable state) in two ways. First, we relax the assumption of demographic closure (no mortality) between consecutive (secondary) samples, allowing estimation of within-pond survival. Also, we add the flexibility to express survival probability of unobservable individuals (e.g., ?non-breeders?) as a function of the survival probability of observable animals while in the same, terrestrial habitat. This allows for potentially different annual survival probabilities for observable and unobservable animals. We apply our model to a relictual population of eastern tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum). Despite small sample sizes, demographic parameters were estimated with reasonable precision. We tested several a priori biological hypotheses and found evidence for seasonal differences in pond survival. Our methods could be applied to a variety of pond-breeding species and other taxa where individuals are captured entering or exiting a common area (e.g., spawning or roosting area, hibernacula).

  18. Changing the Rules on Fuel Export at Sellafield's First Fuel Storage Pond - 12065

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, Derek

    2012-07-01

    The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) was built in 1949/50 to receive, store and de-can fuel and isotopes from the Windscale Piles. Following closure of the Piles in 1957, plant operations were scaled down until fuel processing eventually ceased in 1962. The facility has held an inventory of metal fuel both from the Piles and from other programmes since that time. The pond is currently undergoing remediation and removal of the fuel is a key step in that process, unfortunately the fuel export infrastructure on the plant is no longer functional and due to the size and limited lifting capability, the plant is not compatible with today's large volume heavy export flasks. The baseline scheme for the plant is to package fuel into a small capacity flask and transfer it to another facility for treatment and repackaging into a flask compatible with other facilities on site. Due to programme priorities the repackaging facility is not available to do this work for several years causing a delay to the work. In an effort accelerate the programme the Metal Fuel Pilot Project (MFPP) was initiated to challenge the norms for fuel transfer and develop a new methodology for transferring the fuel. In developing a transfer scheme the team had to overcome challenges associated with unknown fuel condition, transfers outside of bulk containment, pyro-phoricity and oxidisation hazards as well as developing remote control and recovery systems for equipment not designed for this purpose. A combination of novel engineering and enhanced operational controls were developed which resulted in the successful export of the first fuel to leave the Pile Fuel Storage Pond in over 40 years. The learning from the pilot project is now being considered by the main project team to see how the new methodology can be applied to the full inventory of the pond. (author)

  19. New Pressure Results from the Expedition 336 CORKs at North Pond, Western Flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, K.; Villinger, H. W.; Davis, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    We report results from a nearly two-year record of pressure data from three CORK hydrogeological observatories in the ~8x15 km "North Pond" sedimented basin in ~7 Ma crust west of the mid-Atlantic Ridge at 23°N. The new data were recovered during operations with the ROV Jason from the German R/V Maria S. Merian in April of 2014. Two of the CORKs (in Holes U1382A and U1383C) had been installed during IODP Expedition 336 in fall of 2011, with an initial installment of 6-7 months data recovered in spring 2012, also by Jason from R/V Merian. The third hole, U1383B, was instrumented during the 2012 cruise with a "CORK-Lite" deployed by the ROV. All three installations monitor formation pressures in basement beneath the sediment pond. The new data confirm results of the first half-year of data, which suggested a slight formation overpressure (~10 kPa) relative to hydrostatic in the two full CORK installations. This was somewhat surprising given (a) the long history of downhole flow in DSDP Hole 395A that also penetrated basement beneath the sediment pond, and (b) prior observations at more thickly-sedimented eastern Pacific ridge flanks of formation underpressures in sites drilled into basement lows. The new results show a small phase lag and attenuation of formation tidal signals relative to seafloor tides that is the same in all three holes, which confirms that the CORKs are properly sealed at the seafloor. The phase lag and attenuation are also the same among three separate basement intervals in Hole U1383C, which suggests either that the entire drilled section is hydrogeologically well connected or that downhole packers between the intervals do not seal completely. We explore potential models to explain the slight observed overpressures. One possibility is that the geometry of the isolated sediment pond results in higher formation temperatures and less dense formation fluids immediately below the relatively impermeable sediment pond, such that surrounding cooler

  20. Treatment of oilfield produced water by waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Shpiner, R; Vathi, S; Stuckey, D C

    2007-01-01

    Produced water (PW) from oil wells can serve as an alternative water resource for agriculture if the main pollutants (hydrocarbons and heavy metals) can be removed to below irrigation standards. Waste stabilization ponds seem like a promising solution for PW treatment, especially in the Middle East where solar radiation is high and land is available. In this work, hydrocarbon removal from PW in a biological waste stabilization pond was examined at lab-scale followed by an intermittent slow sand filter. The system was run for 300 days and removed around 90% of the oil in the pond, and 95% after the sand filter. COD removal was about 80% in the pond effluent, and 85% after the filter. The system was tested under various operational modes and found to be stable to shock loads. Installation of oil booms and decantation of surface oil seem to be important in order to maintain good system performance over time.