Science.gov

Sample records for small high intensity

  1. Soil hydraulic characteristics of a small southwest Oregon watershed following high-intensity wildfires

    Treesearch

    David S. Parks; Terrance W. Cundy

    1989-01-01

    The Angel Fire of September, 1987 caused extensive damage to second growth forest in the south fork drainage of Cow Creek, 55 km northeast of Grant's Pass, Oregon, USA. The fire was characterized by a high-intensity burn over areas of steep topography. The areal distribution of soil hydraulic properties in a small, tributary watershed following high-intensity...

  2. High intensity focused ultrasound treatment of small renal masses: Clinical effectiveness and technological advances

    PubMed Central

    Nabi, G.; Goodman, C.; Melzer, A.

    2010-01-01

    The review summarises the technological advances in the application of high-intensity focused ultrasound for small renal masses presumed to be cancer including the systematic review of its clinical application. Current progress in the area of magnetic resonance image guided ultrasound ablation is also appraised. Specifically, organ tracking and real time monitoring of temperature changes during the treatment are discussed. Finally, areas of future research interest are outlined. PMID:21116349

  3. Improving fitness of elite handball players: small-sided games vs. high-intensity intermittent training.

    PubMed

    Iacono, Antonio Dello; Eliakim, Alon; Meckel, Yoav

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to compare the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) and small-sided games (SSGs) training on fitness variables of elite handball players. Eighteen highly trained players (mean age ± SD: 25.6 ± 0.5 years) were assigned to either HIIT or SSGs group training protocols twice per week for 8 weeks. The HIIT consisted of 12-24 × 15 seconds of high-intensity runs interspersed by 15 seconds of recovery. The SSGs training consisted of 3 against 3 small-sided handball games. Both training methods were matched for exercise duration and recovery at each training session. Before and after 8-week training, the following fitness variables were assessed-speed: 10- and 20-m sprint time, agility: handball agility specific test (HAST), upper arm strength: 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test, lower limb power: counter-movement jump tests with (CMJarm) and without (CMJ) arm movement, and aerobic fitness (yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 [YYIRTL1]). Significant improvement was found in the YYIRTL1 (23.3 and 26.3%, respectively), 10-m sprint (2.3 and 4.1%, respectively) and 20-m sprint (2.1 and 4%, respectively), HAST (1.1 and 2.2%, respectively), 1RM bench press (6.8 and 12.3%, respectively), CMJ (7.4 and 10.8%, respectively), and CMJarm (6.4 and 8.9%, respectively) following training in both groups (p ≤ 0.05 for all). There was a significantly greater improvement in 10- and 20-m sprint, HAST, 1RM, CMJ, and CMJarm following the SSGs training compared with the HIIT (p ≤ 0.05 for all). These results indicated that both HIIT and SSGs are effective training methods for fitness development among elite adult handball players. However, SSGs training may be considered as the preferred training regimen for improving handball-specific fitness variables during the in-season period.

  4. High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity

    PubMed Central

    Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2012-01-01

    Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N⋅ha−1) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m3 ha−1). Although energy inputs (30 GJ⋅ha−1) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg⋅ha−1 and 159 GJ⋅ha−1, respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO2e⋅Mg−1 of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N2O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals. PMID:22232684

  5. High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity.

    PubMed

    Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2012-01-24

    Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N · ha(-1)) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m(3) ha(-1)). Although energy inputs (30 GJ · ha(-1)) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg · ha(-1) and 159 GJ · ha(-1), respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO(2)e · Mg(-1) of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N(2)O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals.

  6. Laser-enhanced high-intensity focused ultrasound heating in an in vivo small animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2016-11-01

    The enhanced heating effect during the combination of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and low-optical-fluence laser illumination was investigated by using an in vivo murine animal model. The thighs of murine animals were synergistically irradiated by HIFU and pulsed nano-second laser light. The temperature increases in the target region were measured by a thermocouple under different HIFU pressures, which were 6.2, 7.9, and 9.8 MPa, in combination with 20 mJ/cm2 laser exposures at 532 nm wavelength. In comparison with conventional laser therapies, the laser fluence used here is at least one order of magnitude lower. The results showed that laser illumination could enhance temperature during HIFU applications. Additionally, cavitation activity was enhanced when laser and HIFU irradiation were concurrently used. Further, a theoretical simulation showed that the inertial cavitation threshold was indeed decreased when laser and HIFU irradiation were utilized concurrently.

  7. Repeated sprints, high-intensity interval training, small-sided games: theory and application to field sports.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, James J; Reed, Jacob P; Leiting, Keith; Chiang, Chieh-Ying; Stone, Michael H

    2014-03-01

    Due to the broad spectrum of physical characteristics necessary for success in field sports, numerous training modalities have been used develop physical preparedness. Sports like rugby, basketball, lacrosse, and others require athletes to be not only strong and powerful but also aerobically fit and able to recover from high-intensity intermittent exercise. This provides coaches and sport scientists with a complex range of variables to consider when developing training programs. This can often lead to confusion and the misuse of training modalities, particularly in the development of aerobic and anaerobic conditioning. This review outlines the benefits and general adaptations to 3 commonly used and effective conditioning methods: high-intensity interval training, repeated-sprint training, and small-sided games. The goals and outcomes of these training methods are discussed, and practical implementations strategies for coaches and sport scientists are provided.

  8. Enhancement of Small Molecule Delivery by Pulsed-High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (pHIFU): A Parameter Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yufeng; Wang, Yak-Nam; Farr, Navid; Zia, Jasmine; Chen, Hong; Ko, Bong Min; Khokhlova, Tatiana; Li, Tong; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic drug delivery is often ineffective within solid tumors, but increasing the drug dose would result in systemic toxicity. The use of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has the potential to enhance penetration of small molecules. However, operation parameters need to be optimized before the use of chemotherapeutic drug in vivo and translation to clinical trial. In this study, the effects of pulsed-HIFU (pHIFU) parameters (spatial-average pulse-average intensity, duty factor, and pulse repetition frequency) to the penetration as well as content of small molecules were evaluated in ex vivo porcine kidneys. Specific HIFU parameters resulted in over 40 times greater Evans blue content and 3.5 times the penetration depth compared to untreated samples. When selected parameters were applied to porcine kidneys in vivo, a 2.3-fold increase in concentration was obtained after a 2-minute pHIFU exposure. Altogether, pHIFU has shown to be an effective modality to enhance both the concentration and penetration depth of small molecules into tissue using the optimized HIFU parameters. Although, performed in normal tissue, this study has the promise of translation into tumor tissue. PMID:26803389

  9. High intensity solar cell radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W.; Spisz, E. W.

    1972-01-01

    Device can be employed under high intensity illumination conditions such as would occur in a close-solar-approach space mission or in monitoring high intensity lamps. Radiometer consists of silicon solar cells with thin semi-transparent coatings of aluminum deposited on the front surfaces to permit transmission of small percentage of light and reflect the remainder.

  10. High solar intensity radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Spisz, E. W.

    1972-01-01

    Silicon solar cells are used to measure visible radiant energy and radiation intensities to 20 solar constants. Future investigations are planned for up to 100 solar constants. Radiometer is small, rugged, accurate and inexpensive.

  11. Mercury exposure in a high fish eating Bolivian Amazonian population with intense small-scale gold-mining activities.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Flavia Laura; Cournil, Amandine; Gardon, Jacques

    2009-08-01

    Methylmercury exposure in Amazonian communities through fish consumption has been widely documented in Brazil. There is still a lack of data in other Amazonian countries, which is why we conducted this study in the Bolivian Amazon basin. Simple random sampling was used from a small village located in the lower Beni River, where there is intense gold mining and high fish consumption. All participants were interviewed and hair samples were taken to measure total mercury concentrations. The hair mercury geometric mean in the general population was 3.02 microg/g (CI: 2.69-3.37; range: 0.42-15.65). Age and gender were not directly associated with mercury levels. Fish consumption showed a positive relation and so did occupation, especially small-scale gold mining. Hair mercury levels were lower than those found in Brazilian studies, but still higher than in non-exposed populations. It is necessary to assess mercury exposure in the Amazonian regions where data is still lacking, using a standardized indicator.

  12. High intensity neutrino beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, A. K.

    2015-07-15

    High-intensity proton accelerator complex enabled long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments with a precisely controlled neutrino beam. The beam power so far achieved is a few hundred kW with enourmorous efforts of accelerator physicists and engineers. However, to fully understand the lepton mixing structure, MW-class accelerators are desired. We describe the current intensity-frontier high-energy proton accelerators, their plans to go beyond and technical challenges in the neutrino beamline facilities.

  13. KWS-2, the high intensity / wide Q-range small-angle neutron diffractometer for soft-matter and biology at FRM II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulescu, A.; Pipich, V.; Frielinghaus, H.; Appavou, M.-S.

    2012-03-01

    The KWS-2 small-angle neutron diffractometer operated by JCNS at FRM II is upgraded and optimized towards high intensity and wide Q-range studies of mesoscopic structures and structural changes due to rapid kinetics and becomes a dedicated SANS instrument to soft-matter and biology. The high intensity permits fast measurement of small or weak scattering samples and time resolved structural studies with a time resolution up to 100ms. The possibility to cover up to four decades in Q will soon enable structural investigation over a wide length scale, between several Å and lμm. The characteristics and performance of the instrument in the conventional pinhole mode is detailed presented and the new upgrades currently in progress and aiming for boosting the instrument performance towards higher intensity and wider Q-range are reported.

  14. High intensity hadron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-05-01

    This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics.

  15. High Intensity Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Xenon arc lamps developed during the Apollo program by Streamlight, Inc. are the basis for commercial flashlights and emergency handlights. These are some of the brightest portable lights made. They throw a light some 50 times brighter than automobile high beams and are primarily used by police and military. The light penetrates fog and smoke and returns less back-scatter light. They are operated on portable power packs as boat and auto batteries. An infrared model produces totally invisible light for covert surveillance.

  16. Systolic blood pressure response after high-intensity interval exercise is independently related to decreased small arterial elasticity in normotensive African American women.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stephen J; Goldsby, TaShauna U; Fisher, Gordon; Plaisance, Eric P; Gower, Barbara A; Glasser, Stephen P; Hunter, Gary R

    2016-05-01

    Aerobic exercise transiently lowers blood pressure. However, limited research has concurrently evaluated blood pressure and small arterial elasticity (SAE), an index of endothelial function, among African American (AA) and European American (EA) women the morning after (i.e., ≈22 h later) acute bouts of moderate-intensity continuous (MIC) and high-intensity interval (HII) exercise matched for total work. Because of greater gradients of shear stress, it was hypothesized that HII exercise would elicit a greater reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared to MIC exercise. After baseline, 22 AA and EA women initiated aerobic exercise training 3 times/week. Beginning at week 8, three follow-up assessments were conducted over the next 8 weeks at random to measure resting blood pressure and SAE. In total all participants completed 16 weeks of training. Follow-up evaluations were made: (i) in the trained state (TS; 8-16 weeks of aerobic training); (ii) ≈22 h after an acute bout of MIC exercise; and (iii) ≈22 h after an acute bout of HII exercise. Among AAs, the acute bout of HII exercise incited a significant increase in SBP (mm Hg) (TS, 121 ± 14 versus HII, 128 ± 14; p = 0.01) whereas responses (TS, 116 ± 12 versus HII, 113 ± 9; p = 0.34) did not differ in EAs. After adjusting for race, changes in SAE were associated (partial r = -0.533; p = 0.01) with changes in SBP following HII exercise. These data demonstrate an acute, unaccustomed bout of HII exercise produces physiological perturbations resulting in a significant increase in SBP that are independently associated with decreased SAE among AA women, but not EA women.

  17. High intensity portable fluorescent light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, F. B.

    1972-01-01

    Eight high intensity portable fluorescent lights were produced. Three prototype lights were also produced, two of which were subsequently updated to the physical and operational configuration of the qualification and flight units. Positioning of lamp apertures and reflectors in these lights is such that the light is concentrated and intensified in a specific pattern rather than widely diffused. Indium amalgam control of mercury vapor pressure in the lamp gives high output at lamp ambient temperatures up to 105 C. A small amount of amalgam applied to each electrode stem helps to obtain fast warm-up. Shrinking a Teflon sleeve on the tube and potting metal caps on each end of the lamp minimizes dispersion of mercury vapor and glass particles in the event of accidental lamp breakage. Operation at 20 kHz allows the lamps to consume more power than at low frequency, thus increasing their light output and raising their efficiency. When used to expose color photographic film, light from the lamps produces results approximately equal to sunlight.

  18. On-Demand Drug Release from Dual-Targeting Small Nanoparticles Triggered by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Enhanced Glioblastoma-Targeting Therapy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zimiao; Jin, Kai; Pang, Qiang; Shen, Shun; Yan, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Ting; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Yu, Lei; Pang, Zhiqing; Jiang, Xinguo

    2017-09-20

    Glioblastoma is one of the most challenging and intractable tumors with the difficult treatment and poor prognosis. Unsatisfactory traditional systemic chemotherapies for glioblastoma are mainly attributed to the insufficient and nonspecific drug delivery into the brain tumors as well as the incomplete drug release at the tumor sites. Inspired by the facts that angiopep-2 peptide is an acknowledged dual-targeting moiety for brain tumor-targeting delivery and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an ideal trigger for drug release with an ultrahigh energy and millimeter-sized focus ability, in the present study, a novel HIFU-responsive angiopep-2-modified small poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) hybrid nanoparticle (NP) drug delivery system holding doxorubicin/perfluorooctyl bromide (ANP-D/P) was designed to increase the intratumoral drug accumulation, further trigger on-demand drug release at the glioblastoma sites, and enhance glioblastoma therapy. It was shown that the ANP-D/P was stable and had a small size of 41 nm. The angiopep-2 modification endowed the ANP-D/P with improved blood-brain barrier transportation and specific accumulation in glioblastoma tissues by 17 folds and 13.4 folds compared with unmodified NPs, respectively. Under HIFU irradiation, the ANP-D/P could release 47% of the drug within 2 min and induce the apoptosis of most tumor cells. HIFU-triggered instantaneous drug release at the glioblastoma sites eventually enabled the ANP-D/P to achieve the strongest antiglioblastoma efficacy with the longest median survival time (56 days) of glioblastoma-bearing mice and the minimum vestiges of tumor cells in the pathological slices among all groups. In conclusion, the HIFU-responsive ANP-D/P in this study provided a new way for glioblastoma therapy with a great potential for clinical applications.

  19. Portable, high intensity isotopic neutron source provides increased experimental accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, W. C.; Stewart, D. C.; Wahlgren, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Small portable, high intensity isotopic neutron source combines twelve curium-americium beryllium sources. This high intensity of neutrons, with a flux which slowly decreases at a known rate, provides for increased experimental accuracy.

  20. High-intensity training and cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and non-small-cell lung cancer undergoing lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Francesco; Meoli, Ilernando; Cobuccio, Raffaele; Curcio, Carlo; Amore, Dario; Casazza, Dino; Tracey, Maura; Rocco, Gaetano

    2013-10-01

    Peak VO2, as measure of physical performance is central to a correct preoperative evaluation in patients with both non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) because it is closely related both to operability criteria and the rate of postoperative complications. Strategies to improve peak VO2, as a preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation programme (PRP), should be considered favourably in these patients. In order to clarify the role of pulmonary rehabilitation, we have evaluated the effects of 3-week preoperative high-intensity training on physical performance and respiratory function in a group of patients with both NSCLC and COPD who underwent lobectomy. We studied 40 patients with both NSCLC and COPD, age < 75 years, TNM stages I-II, who underwent lobectomy. Patients were randomly divided into two groups (R and S): Group R underwent an intensive preoperative PRP, while Group S underwent only lobectomy. We evaluated peak VO2 in all patients at Time 0 (T0), after PRP/before surgery in Group R/S (T1) and 60 days after surgery, respectively, in both groups (T2). There was no difference between groups in peak VO2 at T0, while a significant difference was observed both at T1 and T2. In Group R, peak VO2 improves significantly from T0 to T1: 14.9 ± 2.3-17.8 ± 2.1 ml/kg/min ± standard deviation (SD), P < 0.001 (64.5 ± 16.5-76.1 ± 14.9% predicted ± SD, P < 0.05) and deteriorates from T1 to T2: 17.8 ± 2.1-15.1 ± 2.4, P < 0.001 (76.1 ± 14.9-64.6 ± 15.5, P < 0.05), reverting to a similar value to that at T0, while in Group S peak VO2 did not change from T0 to T1 and significantly deteriorates from T1 to T2: 14.5 ± 1.2-11.4 ± 1.2 ml/kg/min ± SD, P < 0.00001 (60.6 ± 8.4-47.4 ± 6.9% predicted ± SD, P < 0.00001). PRP was a valid preoperative strategy to improve physical performance in patients with both NSCLC and COPD and this advantage was also maintained after surgery.

  1. High-intensity training in football.

    PubMed

    Iaia, F Marcello; Rampinini, Ermanno; Bangsbo, Jens

    2009-09-01

    This article reviews the major physiological and performance effects of aerobic high-intensity and speed-endurance training in football, and provides insight on implementation of individual game-related physical training. Analysis and physiological measurements have revealed that modern football is highly energetically demanding, and the ability to perform repeated high-intensity work is of importance for the players. Furthermore, the most successful teams perform more high-intensity activities during a game when in possession of the ball. Hence, footballers need a high fitness level to cope with the physical demands of the game. Studies on football players have shown that 8 to 12 wk of aerobic high-intensity running training (> 85% HR(max)) leads to VO2(max) enhancement (5% to 11%), increased running economy (3% to 7%), and lower blood lactate accumulation during submaximal exercise, as well as improvements in the yo-yo intermittent recovery (YYIR) test performance (13%). Similar adaptations are observed when performing aerobic high-intensity training with small-sided games. Speed-endurance training has a positive effect on football-specific endurance, as shown by the marked improvements in the YYIR test (22% to 28%) and the ability to perform repeated sprints (approximately 2%). In conclusion, both aerobic and speed-endurance training can be used during the season to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. The type and amount of training should be game related and specific to the technical, tactical, and physical demands imposed on each player.

  2. Harmonic generation at high intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, K.J.; Krause, J.L.; Kulander, K.C.

    1993-06-01

    Atomic electrons subject to intense laser fields can absorb many photons, leading either to multiphoton ionization or the emission of a single, energetic photon which can be a high multiple of the laser frequency. The latter process, high-order harmonic generation, has been observed experimentally using a range of laser wavelengths and intensities over the past several years. Harmonic generation spectra have a generic form: a steep decline for the low order harmonics, followed by a plateau extending to high harmonic order, and finally an abrupt cutoff beyond which no harmonics are discernible. During the plateau the harmonic production is a very weak function of the process order. Harmonic generation is a promising source of coherent, tunable radiation in the XUV to soft X-ray range which could have a variety of scientific and possibly technological applications. Its conversion from an interesting multiphoton phenomenon to a useful laboratory radiation source requires a complete understanding of both its microscopic and macroscopic aspects. We present some recent results on the response of single atoms at intensities relevant to the short pulse experiments. The calculations employ time-dependent methods, which we briefly review in the next section. Following that we discuss the behavior of the harmonics as a function of laser intensity. Two features are notable: the slow scaling of the harmonic intensities with laser intensity, and the rapid variation in the phase of the individual harmonics with respect to harmonic order. We then give a simple empirical formula that predicts the extent of the plateau for a given ionization potential, wavelength and intensity.

  3. High Intensity Polarized Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Redwine, Robert P.

    2012-07-31

    The goal of the project was to investigate the possibility of building a very high intensity polarized electron gun for the Electron-Ion Collider. This development is crucial for the eRHIC project. The gun implements a large area cathode, ring-shaped laser beam and active cathode cooling. A polarized electron gun chamber with a large area cathode and active cathode cooling has been built and tested. A preparation chamber for cathode activation has been built and initial tests have been performed. Major parts for a load-lock chamber, where cathodes are loaded into the vacuum system, have been manufactured.

  4. The dynamics of small molecules in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posthumus, J. H.

    2004-05-01

    In the past decade, the understanding of the dynamics of small molecules in intense laser fields has advanced enormously. At the same time, the technology of ultra-short pulsed lasers has equally progressed to such an extent that femtosecond lasers are now widely available. This review is written from an experimentalist's point of view and begins by discussing the value of this research and defining the meaning of the word 'intense'. It continues with describing the Ti : sapphire laser, including topics such as pulse compression, chirped pulse amplification, optical parametric amplification, laser-pulse diagnostics and the absolute phase. Further aspects include focusing, the focal volume effect and space charge. The discussion of physics begins with the Keldysh parameter and the three regimes of ionization, i.e. multi-photon, tunnelling and over-the-barrier. Direct-double ionization (non-sequential ionization), high-harmonic generation, above-threshold ionization and attosecond pulses are briefly mentioned. Subsequently, a theoretical calculation, which solves the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, is compared with an experimental result. The dynamics of H_{2}^{ + } in an intense laser field is interpreted in terms of bond-softening, vibrational trapping (bond-hardening), below-threshold dissociation and laser-induced alignment of the molecular axis. The final section discusses the modified Franck-Condon principle, enhanced ionization at critical distances and Coulomb explosion of diatomic and triatomic molecules.

  5. High intensity laser interactions with atomic clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Ditmire, T

    2000-08-07

    The development of ultrashort pulse table top lasers with peak pulse powers in excess of 1 TW has permitted an access to studies of matter subject to unprecedented light intensities. Such interactions have accessed exotic regimes of multiphoton atomic and high energy-density plasma physics. Very recently, the nature of the interactions between these very high intensity laser pulses and atomic clusters of a few hundred to a few thousand atoms has come under study. Such studies have found some rather unexpected results, including the striking finding that these interactions appear to be more energetic than interactions with either single atoms or solid density plasmas. Recent experiments have shown that the explosion of such clusters upon intense irradiation can expel ions from the cluster with energies from a few keV to nearly 1 MeV. This phenomenon has recently been exploited to produce DD fusion neutrons in a gas of exploding deuterium clusters. Under this project, we have undertaken a general study of the intense femtosecond laser cluster interaction. Our goal is to understand the macroscopic and microscopic coupling between the laser and the clusters with the aim of optimizing high flux fusion neutron production from the exploding deuterium clusters or the x-ray yield in the hot plasmas that are produced in this interaction. In particular, we are studying the physics governing the cluster explosions. The interplay between a traditional Coulomb explosion description of the cluster disassembly and a plasma-like hydrodynamic explosion is not entirely understood, particularly for small to medium sized clusters (<1000 atoms) and clusters composed of low-Z atoms. We are focusing on experimental studies of the ion and electron energies resulting from such explosions through various experimental techniques. We are also examining how an intense laser pulse propagates through a dense medium containing these clusters.

  6. High intensity protons in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Montag, C.; Ahrens, L.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Drees, K. A.; Fischer, W.; Huang, H.; Minty, M.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Thieberger, P.; Yip, K.

    2012-01-05

    During the 2012 summer shutdown a pair of electron lenses will be installed in RHIC, allowing the beam-beam parameter to be increased by roughly 50 percent. To realize the corresponding luminosity increase bunch intensities have to be increased by 50 percent, to 2.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch. We list the various RHIC subsystems that are most affected by this increase, and propose beam studies to ensure their readiness. The proton luminosity in RHIC is presently limited by the beam-beam effect. To overcome this limitation, electron lenses will be installed in IR10. With the help of these devices, the headon beam-beam kick experienced during proton-proton collisions will be partially compensated, allowing for a larger beam-beam tuneshift at these collision points, and therefore increasing the luminosity. This will be accomplished by increasing the proton bunch intensity from the presently achieved 1.65 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch in 109 bunches per beam to 2.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 11}, thus roughly doubling the luminosity. In a further upgrade we aim for bunch intensities up to 3 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch. With RHIC originally being designed for a bunch intensity of 1 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch in 56 bunches, this six-fold increase in the total beam intensity by far exceeds the design parameters of the machine, and therefore potentially of its subsystems. In this note, we present a list of major subsystems that are of potential concern regarding this intensity upgrade, show their demonstrated performance at present intensities, and propose measures and beam experiments to study their readiness for the projected future intensities.

  7. Stress intensity and crack displacement for small edge cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orange, Thomas W.

    1988-01-01

    The weight function method was used to derive stress intensity factors and crack mouth displacement coefficients for small edge cracks (less than 20 percent of the specimen width) in common fracture specimen configurations. Contact stresses due to point application of loads were found to be small but significant for three-point bending and insignificant for four-point bending. The results are compared with available equations and numerical solutions from the literature and with unpublished boundary collocation results.

  8. The use of high-intensity ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puskar, A.

    Features of the application of high-intensity ultrasonics are related to intensity measurements of ultrasonic oscillation and high-intensity ultrasonic effects on the resonance system. High-intensity ultrasonics applications in various technologies are considered, taking into account filtration and catalysis, drying, aerosol and hydrosol coagulation, emulsification and dispersion, metal-powder production, ultrasonic liquid degassing, cavitation, ultrasonic cleaning, metallizing and soldering, welding in an ultrasonic field, and ultrasonics in material machining. Other topics considered are related to ultrasonics in the crystallization of metals and alloys, ultrasonics in heat and chemical-heat treatment, safety and hygiene of working with ultrasonic devices, the effect of high-intensity ultrasonics on solids, the properties of materials after prior action of high-intensity ultrasound, the fatigue of materials during high-frequency stressing, and ultrasonic oscillation and material deformation characteristics. The technological exploitation of ultrasound during material forming is also discussed.

  9. High Intensity Radiation Laboratory Reverberation Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This photo depicts the interior of the large Reverberation Chamber located in the High Intensity, Radiation Facility (HIRL). These chambers are used to test susceptibility of aircraft avionics systems responses to high intensity radiated fields. These resources include a Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic Cell (GTEM), which provides a uniform field of up to 1000V/m from 10 kHz to 18 Ghz.

  10. Small-scale Intensity Mapping: Extended Lyα, Hα, and Continuum Emission as a Probe of Halo Star Formation in High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Dijkstra, Mark; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Trenti, Michele; Momose, Rieko; Ouchi, Masami

    2017-05-01

    Lyα halos are observed ubiquitously around star-forming galaxies at high redshift, but their origin is still a matter of debate. We demonstrate that the emission from faint unresolved satellite sources, {M}{UV}≳ -17, clustered around the central galaxies may play a major role in generating spatially extended Lyα, continuum (UV + VIS), and Hα halos. We apply the analytic formalism developed in Mas-Ribas & Dijkstra to model the halos around Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs) at z = 3.1, for several different satellite clustering prescriptions. In general, our UV and Lyα surface brightness profiles match the observations well at 20≲ r≲ 40 physical kpc from the centers of LAEs. We discuss how our profiles depend on various model assumptions and how these can be tested and constrained with future Hα observations by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Our analysis shows how spatially extended halos constrain (i) the presence of otherwise undetectable satellite sources, (ii) the integrated, volumetric production rates of Lyα and LyC photons, and (iii) their population-averaged escape fractions. These quantities are all directly relevant for understanding galaxy formation and evolution and, for high enough redshifts, cosmic reionization.

  11. High Intensity Polarized Electron Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelker, M.; Adderley, P.; Brittian, J.; Clark, J.; Grames, J.; Hansknecht, J.; McCarter, J.; Stutzman, M. L.; Suleiman, R.; Surles-Law, K.

    2008-02-01

    During the 1990s, at numerous facilities world wide, extensive R&D devoted to constructing reliable GaAs photoguns helped ensure successful accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics programs using spin polarized electron beams. Today, polarized electron source technology is considered mature, with most GaAs photoguns meeting accelerator and experiment beam specifications in a relatively trouble-free manner. Proposals for new collider facilities however, require electron beams with parameters beyond today's state-of-the-art and serve to renew interest in conducting polarized electron source R&D. And at CEBAF/Jefferson Lab, there is an immediate pressing need to prepare for new experiments that require considerably more beam current than before. One experiment in particular—Q-weak, a parity violation experiment that will look for physics beyond the Standard Model—requires 180 uA average current at polarization >80% for a duration of one year, with run-averaged helicity correlated current asymmetry less than 0.1 ppm. Neighboring halls will continue taking beam during Q-weak, pushing the total average beam current from the gun beyond 300 uA. This workshop contribution describes R&D at Jefferson Lab, dedicated toward extending the operating current of polarized electron sources to meet the requirements of high current experiments at CEBAF and to better appreciate the technological challenges of new accelerators, particularly high average current machines like eRHIC that require at least 25 mA at high polarization.

  12. High Intensity Polarized Electron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Poelker, M.; Adderley, P.; Brittian, J.; Clark, J.; Grames, J.; Hansknecht, J.; McCarter, J.; Stutzman, M. L.; Suleiman, R.; Surles-Law, K.

    2008-02-06

    During the 1990s, at numerous facilities world wide, extensive R and D devoted to constructing reliable GaAs photoguns helped ensure successful accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics programs using spin polarized electron beams. Today, polarized electron source technology is considered mature, with most GaAs photoguns meeting accelerator and experiment beam specifications in a relatively trouble-free manner. Proposals for new collider facilities however, require electron beams with parameters beyond today's state-of-the-art and serve to renew interest in conducting polarized electron source R and D. And at CEBAF/Jefferson Lab, there is an immediate pressing need to prepare for new experiments that require considerably more beam current than before. One experiment in particular - Q-weak, a parity violation experiment that will look for physics beyond the Standard Model--requires 180 uA average current at polarization >80% for a duration of one year, with run-averaged helicity correlated current asymmetry less than 0.1 ppm. Neighboring halls will continue taking beam during Q-weak, pushing the total average beam current from the gun beyond 300 uA. This workshop contribution describes R and D at Jefferson Lab, dedicated toward extending the operating current of polarized electron sources to meet the requirements of high current experiments at CEBAF and to better appreciate the technological challenges of new accelerators, particularly high average current machines like eRHIC that require at least 25 mA at high polarization.

  13. High-Intensity Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-12-27

    Analysis is presented for an eight-cavity proton cyclotron accelerator that could have advantages as compared with other accelerators because of its potentially high acceleration gradient. The high gradient is possible since protons orbit in a sequence of TE111 rotating mode cavities of equally diminishing frequencies with path lengths during acceleration that greatly exceed the cavity lengths. As the cavities operate at sequential harmonics of a basic repetition frequency, phase synchronism can be maintained over a relatively wide injection phase window without undue beam emittance growth. It is shown that use of radial vanes can allow cavity designs with significantly smaller radii, as compared with simple cylindrical cavities. Preliminary beam transport studies show that acceptable extraction and focusing of a proton beam after cyclic motion in this accelerator should be possible. Progress is also reported on design and tests of a four-cavity electron counterpart accelerator for experiments to study effects on beam quality arising from variations injection phase window width. This device is powered by four 500-MW pulsed amplifiers at 1500, 1800, 2100, and 2400 MHz that provide phase synchronous outputs, since they are driven from a with harmonics derived from a phase-locked 300 MHz source.

  14. High Intensity Polarized Electron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Poelker, Benard; Adderley, Philip; Brittian, Joshua; Clark, J.; Grames, Joseph; Hansknecht, John; McCarter, James; Stutzman, Marcy; Suleiman, Riad; Surles-law, Kenneth

    2008-02-01

    During the 1990s, at numerous facilities world wide, extensive R&D devoted to constructing reliable GaAs photoguns helped ensure successful accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics programs using spin polarized electron beams. Today, polarized electron source technology is considered mature, with most GaAs photoguns meeting accelerator and experiment beam specifications in a relatively trouble-free manner. Proposals for new collider facilities however, require electron beams with parameters beyond today's state-of-the-art and serve to renew interest in conducting polarized electron source R&D. And at CEBAF/Jefferson Lab, there is an immediate pressing need to prepare for new experiments that require considerably more beam current than before. One experiment in particular?Q-weak, a parity violation experiment that will look for physics beyond the Standard Model?requires 180 uA average current at polarization >80% for a duration of one year, with run-averaged helicity correlate

  15. High-intensity source of extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paresce, E.; Kumar, S.; Bowyer, S.

    1972-01-01

    High intensity ultraviolet radiation source was developed which is suitable for emission below 500 A. Source, useful for 100 to 1000 A range, is simple and inexpensive to construct, easy to operate, and very stable. Because of sufficiently intense output spectrum, source can be used with monochromator at wavelengths as low as 160 A.

  16. Hazards from High Intensity Lamps and Arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, D. H.

    1970-01-01

    The principal occupational health problem generally associated with high intensity arc lamps results from exposure of the eye and skin to ultraviolet radiation. Occasionally, the chorioretinal burns are of concern. The eye is generally more susceptible than the skin to injury from high intensity optical radiation sources whether ultraviolet, visible or infrared. Recent developments in technology have shown that some high intensity optical radiation sources which have output parameters greatly different from those encountered in the natural environment present a serious chorioretinal burn hazard.

  17. Hazards from High Intensity Lamps and Arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, D. H.

    1970-01-01

    The principal occupational health problem generally associated with high intensity arc lamps results from exposure of the eye and skin to ultraviolet radiation. Occasionally, the chorioretinal burns are of concern. The eye is generally more susceptible than the skin to injury from high intensity optical radiation sources whether ultraviolet, visible or infrared. Recent developments in technology have shown that some high intensity optical radiation sources which have output parameters greatly different from those encountered in the natural environment present a serious chorioretinal burn hazard.

  18. THE HIGH INTENSITY SOLAR ENVIRONMENT TEST SYSTEM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-15

    TODD SCHNEIDER LOOKS UP FROM WORK AT THE DOOR OF T HE HIGH INTENSITY SOLAR ENVIRONMENT TEST SYSTEM IN BUILDING 4605. SCHNEIDER IS A PHYSICIST IN THE MATERIALS AND PROCESSES DEPARTMENT AT MSFC AND IS PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR FOR HISET.

  19. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter

    SciTech Connect

    2004-01-01

    Modular high-intensity plasma melter promises improved performance, reduced energy use, and lower emissions. The glass industry has used the same basic equipment for melting glass for the past 100 years.

  20. DESIGNS FOR SMALL HIGH SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NIMNICHT, GLENDON P.; PARTRIDGE, ARTHUR R.

    BY MULTIPLE-CLASS TEACHING AND FLEXIBLE SCHEDULING, SMALL HIGH SCHOOLS CAN OFFER EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS COMPARABLE TO THOSE OFFERED BY LARGE HIGH SCHOOLS. WITH ATTENTION TO FACILITY DESIGN, NOT ONLY CAN SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, FOREIGN LANGUAGE, ART, BUSINESS, INDUSTRIAL ARTS, HOMEMAKING, ENGLISH, AND SOCIAL STUDIES BE OFFERED TO TWO OR MORE GROUPS OF…

  1. Training for intense exercise performance: high-intensity or high-volume training?

    PubMed

    Laursen, P B

    2010-10-01

    Performance in intense exercise events, such as Olympic rowing, swimming, kayak, track running and track cycling events, involves energy contribution from aerobic and anaerobic sources. As aerobic energy supply dominates the total energy requirements after ∼75s of near maximal effort, and has the greatest potential for improvement with training, the majority of training for these events is generally aimed at increasing aerobic metabolic capacity. A short-term period (six to eight sessions over 2-4 weeks) of high-intensity interval training (consisting of repeated exercise bouts performed close to or well above the maximal oxygen uptake intensity, interspersed with low-intensity exercise or complete rest) can elicit increases in intense exercise performance of 2-4% in well-trained athletes. The influence of high-volume training is less discussed, but its importance should not be downplayed, as high-volume training also induces important metabolic adaptations. While the metabolic adaptations that occur with high-volume training and high-intensity training show considerable overlap, the molecular events that signal for these adaptations may be different. A polarized approach to training, whereby ∼75% of total training volume is performed at low intensities, and 10-15% is performed at very high intensities, has been suggested as an optimal training intensity distribution for elite athletes who perform intense exercise events.

  2. Advanced modeling of high intensity accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, R.D.; Habib, S.; Wangler, T.P.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goals of this project were three-fold: (1) to develop a new capability, based on high performance (parallel) computers, to perform large scale simulations of high intensity accelerators; (2) to apply this capability to modeling high intensity accelerators under design at LANL; and (3) to use this new capability to improve the understanding of the physics of intense charge particle beams, especially in regard to the issue of beam halo formation. All of these goals were met. In particular, the authors introduced split-operator methods as a powerful and efficient means to simulate intense beams in the presence of rapidly varying accelerating and focusing fields. They then applied these methods to develop scaleable, parallel beam dynamics codes for modeling intense beams in linacs, and in the process they implemented a new three-dimensional space charge algorithm. They also used the codes to study a number of beam dynamics issues related to the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, and in the process performed the largest simulations to date for any accelerator design project. Finally, they used the new modeling capability to provide direction and validation to beam physics studies, helping to identify beam mismatch as a major source of halo formation in high intensity accelerators. This LDRD project ultimately benefited not only LANL but also the US accelerator community since, by promoting expertise in high performance computing and advancing the state-of-the-art in accelerator simulation, its accomplishments helped lead to approval of a new DOE Grand Challenge in Computational Accelerator Physics.

  3. Definitive reirradiation for locoregionally recurrent non-small cell lung cancer with proton beam therapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy: predictors of high-grade toxicity and survival outcomes.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Sarah; Ciura, Katherine; Wei, Caimiao; Rineer, Justin; Liao, Zhongxing; Chang, Joe Y; Palmer, Matthew B; Cox, James D; Komaki, Ritsuko; Gomez, Daniel R

    2014-11-15

    Intrathoracic recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after initial treatment remains a dominant cause of death. We report our experience using proton beam therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy for reirradiation in such cases, focusing on patterns of failure, criteria for patient selection, and predictors of toxicity. A total of 102 patients underwent reirradiation for intrathoracic recurrent NSCLC at a single institution. All doses were recalculated to an equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2). All patients had received radiation therapy for NSCLC (median initial dose of 70 EQD2 Gy), with median interval to reirradiation of 17 months and median reirradiation dose of 60.48 EQD2 Gy. Median follow-up time was 6.5 months (range, 0-72 months). Ninety-nine patients (97%) completed reirradiation. Median local failure-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival times were 11.43 months (range, 8.6-22.66 months), 11.43 months (range, 6.83-23.84 months), and 14.71 (range, 10.34-20.56 months), respectively. Toxicity was acceptable, with rates of grade ≥3 esophageal toxicity of 7% and grade ≥3 pulmonary toxicity of 10%. Of the patients who developed local failure after reirradiation, 88% had failure in either the original or the reirradiation field. Poor local control was associated with T4 disease, squamous histology, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score >1. Concurrent chemotherapy improved DMFS, but T4 disease was associated with poor DMFS. Higher T status, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥1, squamous histology, and larger reirradiation target volumes led to worse overall survival; receipt of concurrent chemotherapy and higher EQD2 were associated with improved OS. Intensity modulated radiation therapy and proton beam therapy are options for treating recurrent non-small cell lung cancer. However, rates of locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis are high, and

  4. Definitive Reirradiation for Locoregionally Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer With Proton Beam Therapy or Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Predictors of High-Grade Toxicity and Survival Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    McAvoy, Sarah; Ciura, Katherine; Wei, Caimiao; Rineer, Justin; Liao, Zhongxing; Chang, Joe Y.; Palmer, Matthew B.; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Gomez, Daniel R.

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Intrathoracic recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after initial treatment remains a dominant cause of death. We report our experience using proton beam therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy for reirradiation in such cases, focusing on patterns of failure, criteria for patient selection, and predictors of toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 102 patients underwent reirradiation for intrathoracic recurrent NSCLC at a single institution. All doses were recalculated to an equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2). All patients had received radiation therapy for NSCLC (median initial dose of 70 EQD2 Gy), with median interval to reirradiation of 17 months and median reirradiation dose of 60.48 EQD2 Gy. Median follow-up time was 6.5 months (range, 0-72 months). Results: Ninety-nine patients (97%) completed reirradiation. Median local failure-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival times were 11.43 months (range, 8.6-22.66 months), 11.43 months (range, 6.83-23.84 months), and 14.71 (range, 10.34-20.56 months), respectively. Toxicity was acceptable, with rates of grade ≥3 esophageal toxicity of 7% and grade ≥3 pulmonary toxicity of 10%. Of the patients who developed local failure after reirradiation, 88% had failure in either the original or the reirradiation field. Poor local control was associated with T4 disease, squamous histology, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score >1. Concurrent chemotherapy improved DMFS, but T4 disease was associated with poor DMFS. Higher T status, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥1, squamous histology, and larger reirradiation target volumes led to worse overall survival; receipt of concurrent chemotherapy and higher EQD2 were associated with improved OS. Conclusions: Intensity modulated radiation therapy and proton beam therapy are options for treating recurrent non-small cell lung cancer. However, rates of

  5. Predictors of High-grade Esophagitis After Definitive Three-dimensional Conformal Therapy, Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy, or Proton Beam Therapy for Non-small cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Daniel R.; Tucker, Susan L.; Martel, Mary K.; Mohan, Radhe; Balter, Peter A.; Lopez Guerra, Jose Luis; Liu Hongmei; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Liao Zhongxing

    2012-11-15

    Introduction: We analyzed the ability of various patient- and treatment-related factors to predict radiation-induced esophagitis (RE) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), or proton beam therapy (PBT). Methods and Materials: Patients were treated for NSCLC with 3D-CRT, IMRT, or PBT at MD Anderson from 2000 to 2008 and had full dose-volume histogram (DVH) data available. The endpoint was severe (grade {>=}3) RE. The Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model was used to analyze RE as a function of the fractional esophageal DVH, with clinical variables included as dose-modifying factors. Results: Overall, 652 patients were included: 405 patients were treated with 3D-CRT, 139 with IMRT, and 108 with PBT; corresponding rates of grade {>=}3 RE were 8%, 28%, and 6%, respectively, with a median time to onset of 42 days (range, 11-93 days). A fit of the fractional DVH LKB model demonstrated that the fractional effective dose was significantly different (P=.046) than 1 (fractional mean dose) indicating that high doses to small volumes are more predictive than mean esophageal dose. The model fit was better for 3D-CRT and PBT than for IMRT. Including receipt of concurrent chemotherapy as a dose-modifying factor significantly improved the LKB model (P=.005), and the model was further improved by including a variable representing treatment with >30 fractions. Examining individual types of chemotherapy agents revealed a trend toward receipt of concurrent taxanes and increased risk of RE (P=.105). Conclusions: Fractional dose (dose rate) and number of fractions (total dose) distinctly affect the risk of severe RE, estimated using the LKB model, and concurrent chemotherapy improves the model fit. This risk of severe RE is underestimated by this model in patients receiving IMRT.

  6. Rapidly pulsed, high intensity, incoherent light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A rapid pulsing, high intensity, incoherent light is produced by selectively energizing a plurality of discharge lamps with a triggering circuit. Each lamp is connected to a capacitor, and a power supply is electrically connected to all but one of the capacitors. This last named capacitor is electrically connected to a discharge lamp which is connected to the triggering circuit.

  7. The NASA High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Reuben A.

    1997-01-01

    High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) are the result of a multitude of intentional and nonintentional electromagnetic sources that currently exists in the world. Many of today's digital systems are susceptible to electronic upset if subjected to certain electromagnetic environments (EME). Modern aerospace designers and manufacturers increasingly rely on sophisticated digital electronic systems to provide critical flight control in both military, commercial, and general aviation aircraft. In an effort to understand and emulate the undesired environment that high energy RF provides modern electronics, the Electromagnetics Research Branch (ERB) of the Flight Electronics and Technology Division (FETD) conducts research on RF and microwave measurement methods related to the understanding of HIRF. In the High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory, the effects of high energy radiating electromagnetic fields on avionics and electronic systems are tested and studied.

  8. Radiation reaction in high-intensity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Keita

    2015-10-01

    Since the development of a radiating electron model by Dirac in 1938 [P. A. M. Dirac, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 167, 148 (1938)], many authors have tried to reformulate this model of the so-called "radiation reaction". Recently, this effect has become important in ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. In our recent research, we found a way of stabilizing the radiation reaction by quantum electrodynamics (QED) vacuum fluctuation [K Seto et al., Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2014, 043A01 (2014); K. Seto, Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2015, 023A01 (2015)]. On the other hand, the modification of the radiated field by highly intense incoming laser fields should be taken into account when the laser intensity is higher than 10^{22} W/cm2, which could be achieved by next-generation ultra-short-pulse 10 PW lasers, like the ones under construction for the ELI-NP facility. In this paper, I propose a running charge-mass method for the description of the QED-based synchrotron radiation by high-intensity external fields with stabilization by the QED vacuum fluctuation as an extension from the model by Dirac.

  9. Going Small: Progress & Challenges of Philadelphia's Small High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Tracey; Reumann-Moore, Rebecca; Evans, Shani Adia; Haxton, Clarisse; Maluk, Holly; Neild, Ruth Curran

    2009-01-01

    Between 2003 and 2007, and without significant outside funding, the School District of Philadelphia created 25 new small high schools. This study, begun by Research for Action in 2006, follows the start-up and early implementation of these small high schools in Philadelphia. The study found that parents and students are interested in small high…

  10. Computed Tomography–Guided Interstitial High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy in Combination With Regional Positive Lymph Node Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in Locally Advanced Peripheral Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Phase 1 Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Li; Zhang, Jian-wen; Lin, Sheng; Luo, Hui-Qun; Wen, Qing-Lian; He, Li-Jia; Shang, Chang-Ling; Ren, Pei-Rong; Yang, Hong-Ru; Pang, Hao-Wen; Yang, Bo; He, Huai-Lin; Chen, Yue; Wu, Jing-Bo

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the technical safety, adverse events, and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in combination with regional positive lymph node intensity modulated radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced peripheral non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Twenty-six patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC were enrolled in a prospective, officially approved phase 1 trial. Primary tumors were treated with HDR brachytherapy. A single 30-Gy dose was delivered to the 90% isodose line of the gross lung tumor volume. A total dose of at least 70 Gy was administered to the 95% isodose line of the planning target volume of malignant lymph nodes using 6-MV X-rays. The patients received concurrent or sequential chemotherapy. We assessed treatment efficacy, adverse events, and radiation toxicity. Results: The median follow-up time was 28 months (range, 7-44 months). There were 3 cases of mild pneumothorax but no cases of hemothorax, dyspnea, or pyothorax after the procedure. Grade 3 or 4 acute hematologic toxicity was observed in 5 patients. During follow-up, mild fibrosis around the puncture point was observed on the CT scans of 2 patients, but both patients were asymptomatic. The overall response rates (complete and partial) for the primary mass and positive lymph nodes were 100% and 92.3%, respectively. The 1-year and 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 90.9% and 67%, respectively, with a median OS of 22.5 months. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that HDR brachytherapy is safe and feasible for peripheral locally advanced NSCLC, justifying a phase 2 clinical trial.

  11. Positron microanalysis with high intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Donohue, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the more common applications for a high intensity slow positron facility will be microanalysis of solid materials. In the first section of this paper some examples are given of procedures that can be developed. Since most of the attendees of this workshop are experts in positron spectroscopy, comprehensive descriptions will be omitted. With the exception of positron emission microscopy, most of the procedures will be based on those already in common use with broad beams. The utility of the methods have all been demonstrated, but material scientists use very few of them because positron microbeams are not generally available. A high intensity positron facility will make microbeams easier to obtain and partially alleviate this situation. All microanalysis techniques listed below will have a common requirement, which is the ability to locate the microscopic detail or area of interest and to focus the positron beam exclusively on it. The last section of this paper is a suggestion of how a high intensity positron facility might be designed so as to have this capability built in. The method will involve locating the specimen by scanning it with the microbeam of positrons and inducing a secondary electron image that will immediately reveal whether or not the positron beam is striking the proper portion of the specimen. This scanning positron microscope' will be a somewhat prosaic analog of the conventional SEM. It will, however, be an indispensable utility that will enhance the practicality of positron microanalysis techniques. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Small Scale High Speed Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Adam P. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd J. (Inventor); Lehman, Matthew K. (Inventor); Mehra, Amitav (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A small scale, high speed turbomachine is described, as well as a process for manufacturing the turbomachine. The turbomachine is manufactured by diffusion bonding stacked sheets of metal foil, each of which has been pre-formed to correspond to a cross section of the turbomachine structure. The turbomachines include rotating elements as well as static structures. Using this process, turbomachines may be manufactured with rotating elements that have outer diameters of less than four inches in size, and/or blading heights of less than 0.1 inches. The rotating elements of the turbomachines are capable of rotating at speeds in excess of 150 feet per second. In addition, cooling features may be added internally to blading to facilitate cooling in high temperature operations.

  13. Thomson scattering in high-intensity chirped laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Holkundkar, Amol R.; Harvey, Chris Marklund, Mattias

    2015-10-15

    We consider the Thomson scattering of an electron in an ultra-intense laser pulse. It is well known that at high laser intensities, the frequency and brilliance of the emitted radiation will be greatly reduced due to the electron losing energy before it reaches the peak field. In this work, we investigate the use of a small frequency chirp in the laser pulse in order to mitigate this effect of radiation reaction. It is found that the introduction of a negative chirp means the electron enters a high frequency region of the field while it still has a large proportion of its original energy. This results in a significant enhancement of the frequency and intensity of the emitted radiation as compared to the case without chirping.

  14. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, XianLu Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-15

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H− ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H− ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H− ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H− beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  15. Sound-intensity-dependent compensation for the small interaural time difference cue for sound source localization.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Eri; Yamada, Rei; Kuba, Hiroshi; Hioki, Hiroyuki; Furuta, Takahiro; Kaneko, Takeshi; Ohmori, Harunori

    2008-07-09

    Interaural time difference (ITD) is a major cue for sound source localization. However, animals with small heads experience small ITDs, making ITD detection difficult, particularly for low-frequency sound. Here, we describe a sound-intensity-dependent mechanism for compensating for the small ITD cues in the coincidence detector neurons in the nucleus laminaris (NL) of the chicken aged from 3 to 29 d after hatching. The hypothesized compensation mechanisms were confirmed by simulation. In vivo single-unit recordings revealed an improved contrast of ITD tuning in low-best-frequency (<1 kHz) NL neurons by suppressing the firing activity at the worst ITD, whereas the firing rate was increased with increasing sound intensity at the best ITD. In contrast, level-dependent suppression was so weak in the middle- and high-best-frequency (> or =1 kHz) NL neurons that loud sounds led to increases in firing rate at both the best and the worst ITDs. The suppression of firing activity at the worst ITD in the low-best-frequency neurons required the activation of the superior olivary nucleus (SON) and was eliminated by electrolytic lesions of the SON. The frequency-dependent suppression reflected the dense projection from the SON to the low-frequency region of NL. Thus, the small ITD cues available in low-frequency sounds were partly compensated for by a sound-intensity-dependent inhibition from the SON.

  16. High intensity, pulsed thermal neutron source

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1973-12-11

    This invention relates to a high intensity, pulsed thermal neutron source comprising a neutron-producing source which emits pulses of fast neutrons, a moderator block adjacent to the last neutron source, a reflector block which encases the fast neutron source and the moderator block and has a thermal neutron exit port extending therethrough from the moderator block, and a neutron energy- dependent decoupling reflector liner covering the interior surfaces of the thermal neutron exit port and surrounding all surfaces of the moderator block except the surface viewed by the thermal neutron exit port. (Official Gazette)

  17. Plating Processes Utilizing High Intensity Acoustic Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C. (Inventor); Denofrio, Charles (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system and a method for selective plating processes are disclosed which use directed beams of high intensity acoustic waves to create non-linear effects that alter and improve the plating process. The directed beams are focused on the surface of an object, which in one embodiment is immersed in a plating solution, and in another embodiment is suspended above a plating solution. The plating processes provide precise control of the thickness of the layers of the plating, while at the same time, in at least some incidents, eliminates the need for masking.

  18. HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, T.E.; Broholm, C.; Fultz, B.

    1998-12-31

    A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,{omega}). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating.

  19. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOEpatents

    Lapatovich, Walter P.; Keeffe, William M.; Liebermann, Richard W.; Maya, Jakob

    1987-01-01

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO.sub.2, with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube.

  20. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOEpatents

    Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

    1987-06-09

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

  1. High-intensity laser-atom interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachain, Charles J.

    2014-11-01

    Following a historical introduction on the nature of light and its interaction with matter, a survey is given of the development of lasers capable of delivering short pulses of very intense radiation. The peak intensities of these laser pulses are so high that the corresponding laser fields can compete with, or even dominate, the Coulomb field in governing the dynamics of atomic systems. As a result, new phenomena, known as multiphoton processes, can occur. An outline is given of the basic properties found in the study of three important multiphoton processes. Firstly, the multiphoton ionization of atoms and the phenomenon of “above-threshold ionization”. Secondly, the emission by atoms of high-order harmonics of the frequency of the driving laser and their use to generate laser pulses having durations in the attosecond range. Thirdly, laser-assisted electron-atom collisions. A review is then given of the main non-perturbative methods which have been used to perform theoretical studies of multiphoton processes.

  2. High-power, high-intensity laser propagation and interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sprangle, Phillip; Hafizi, Bahman

    2014-05-15

    This paper presents overviews of a number of processes and applications associated with high-power, high-intensity lasers, and their interactions. These processes and applications include: free electron lasers, backward Raman amplification, atmospheric propagation of laser pulses, laser driven acceleration, atmospheric lasing, and remote detection of radioactivity. The interrelated physical mechanisms in the various processes are discussed.

  3. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  4. Light-intensity and high-intensity interval training improve cardiometabolic health in rats.

    PubMed

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Connolly, Kylie J; Fenning, Andrew S

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors but evaluation of different intensities of physical activity and the mechanisms behind their health effects still need to be fully established. This study examined the effects of sedentary behaviour, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on biometric indices, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats. Rats (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (CTL; no exercise), sedentary (SED; no exercise and housed in small cages to reduce activity), light-intensity trained (LIT; four 30-min exercise bouts/day at 8 m/min separated by 2-h rest period, 5 days/week), and high-intensity interval trained (HIIT, four 2.5-min work bouts/day at 50 m/min separated by 3-min rest periods, 5 days/week). After 12 weeks of intervention, SED had greater visceral fat accumulation (p < 0.01) and slower cardiac conduction (p = 0.04) compared with the CTL group. LIT and HIIT demonstrated beneficial changes in body weight, visceral and epididymal fat weight, glucose regulation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and mesenteric vessel contractile response compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT had significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and cardiac conduction compared with the CTL and SED groups whilst HIIT had significant improvements in systolic blood pressure and endothelium-independent vasodilation to aorta and mesenteric artery compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT and HIIT induce health benefits by improving traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. LIT improves cardiac health while HIIT promotes improvements in vascular health.

  5. Applications of High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Rajendran; Mishra, Shekhar

    2010-06-01

    Superconducting radiofrequency linac development at Fermilab / S. D. Holmes -- Rare muon decay experiments / Y. Kuno -- Rare kaon decays / D. Bryman -- Muon collider / R. B. Palmer -- Neutrino factories / S. Geer -- ADS and its potential / J.-P. Revol -- ADS history in the USA / R. L. Sheffield and E. J. Pitcher -- Accelerator driven transmutation of waste: high power accelerator for the European ADS demonstrator / J. L. Biarrotte and T. Junquera -- Myrrha, technology development for the realisation of ADS in EU: current status & prospects for realisation / R. Fernandez ... [et al.] -- High intensity proton beam production with cyclotrons / J. Grillenberger and M. Seidel -- FFAG for high intensity proton accelerator / Y. Mori -- Kaon yields for 2 to 8 GeV proton beams / K. K. Gudima, N. V. Mokhov and S. I. Striganov -- Pion yield studies for proton driver beams of 2-8 GeV kinetic energy for stopped muon and low-energy muon decay experiments / S. I. Striganov -- J-Parc accelerator status and future plans / H. Kobayashi -- Simulation and verification of DPA in materials / N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov -- Performance and operational experience of the CNGS facility / E. Gschwendtner -- Particle physics enabled with super-conducting RF technology - summary of working group 1 / D. Jaffe and R. Tschirhart -- Proton beam requirements for a neutrino factory and muon collider / M. S. Zisman -- Proton bunching options / R. B. Palmer -- CW SRF H linac as a proton driver for muon colliders and neutrino factories / M. Popovic, C. M. Ankenbrandt and R. P. Johnson -- Rapid cycling synchrotron option for Project X / W. Chou -- Linac-based proton driver for a neutrino factory / R. Garoby ... [et al.] -- Pion production for neutrino factories and muon colliders / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Proton bunch compression strategies / V. Lebedev -- Accelerator test facility for muon collider and neutrino factory R&D / V. Shiltsev -- The superconducting RF linac for muon

  6. High Intensity Organic Light-emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiangfei

    This thesis is dedicated to the fabrication, modeling, and characterization to achieve high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) for illumination applications. Compared to conventional lighting sources, OLEDs enabled the direct conversion of electrical energy into light emission and have intrigued the world's lighting designers with the long-lasting, highly efficient illumination. We begin with a brief overview of organic technology, from basic organic semiconductor physics, to its application in optoelectronics, i.e. light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, photodetectors and thin-film transistors. Due to the importance of phosphorescent materials, we will focus on the photophysics of metal complexes that is central to high efficiency OLED technology, followed by a transient study to examine the radiative decay dynamics in a series of phosphorescent platinum binuclear complexes. The major theme of this thesis is the design and optimization of a novel architecture where individual red, green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are vertically stacked and electrically interconnected by the compound charge generation layers. We modeled carrier generation from the metal-oxide/doped organic interface based on a thermally assisted tunneling mechanism. The model provides insights to the optimization of a stacked OLED from both electrical and optical point of view. To realize the high intensity white lighting source, the efficient removal of heat is of a particular concern, especially in large-area devices. A fundamental transfer matrix analysis is introduced to predict the thermal properties in the devices. The analysis employs Laplace transforms to determine the response of the system to the combined effects of conduction, convection, and radiation. This perspective of constructing transmission matrices greatly facilitates the calculation of transient coupled heat transfer in a general multi-layer composite. It converts differential equations to algebraic forms, and

  7. BEAM LOSS MECHANISMS IN HIGH INTENSITY LINACS

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    In the present operation of the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, 60-Hz, 825-us H beam pulses are accelerated to 910 MeV, and then compressed to less than a microsecond in the storage ring, to deliver 1 MW of beam power to the spallation target. The beam loss in the superconducting portion of the linac is higher than expected, and it has shown a surprising counter-intuitive correlation with quadrupole magnetic fields, with a loss minimum occurring when the quadrupoles are set to approximately half their design values. This behavior can now be explained by a recent set of experiments that show the beam loss is primarily due to intra-beam stripping. Beam halo is another important beam loss contributor, and collimation in the 2.5 MeV Medium Energy Beam Transport has proven to be an effective mitigation strategy. In this presentation, we will summarize these and other beam loss mechanisms that are important for high intensity linacs.

  8. High-Intensity Sweeteners and Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Swithers, Susan E.; Martin, Ashley A.; Davidson, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence points to a link between a variety of negative health outcomes (e.g. metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) and the consumption of both calorically sweetened beverages and beverages sweetened with high-intensity, non-caloric sweeteners. Research on the possibility that non-nutritive sweeteners promote food intake, body weight gain, and metabolic disorders has been hindered by the lack of a physiologically-relevant model that describes the mechanistic basis for these outcomes. We have suggested that based on Pavlovian conditioning principles, consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners could result in sweet tastes no longer serving as consistent predictors of nutritive postingestive consequences. This dissociation between the sweet taste cues and the caloric consequences could lead to a decrease in the ability of sweet tastes to evoke physiological responses that serve to regulate energy balance. Using a rodent model, we have found that intake of foods or fluids containing non-nutritive sweeteners was accompanied by increased food intake, body weight gain, accumulation of body fat, and weaker caloric compensation, compared to consumption of foods and fluids containing glucose. Our research also provided evidence consistent with the hypothesis that these effects of consuming saccharin may be associated with a decrement in the ability of sweet taste to evoke thermic responses, and perhaps other physiological, cephalic phase, reflexes that are thought to help maintain energy balance. PMID:20060008

  9. High-intensity sweeteners and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E; Martin, Ashley A; Davidson, Terry L

    2010-04-26

    Recent epidemiological evidence points to a link between a variety of negative health outcomes (e.g. metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) and the consumption of both calorically sweetened beverages and beverages sweetened with high-intensity, non-caloric sweeteners. Research on the possibility that non-nutritive sweeteners promote food intake, body weight gain, and metabolic disorders has been hindered by the lack of a physiologically-relevant model that describes the mechanistic basis for these outcomes. We have suggested that based on Pavlovian conditioning principles, consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners could result in sweet tastes no longer serving as consistent predictors of nutritive postingestive consequences. This dissociation between the sweet taste cues and the caloric consequences could lead to a decrease in the ability of sweet tastes to evoke physiological responses that serve to regulate energy balance. Using a rodent model, we have found that intake of foods or fluids containing non-nutritive sweeteners was accompanied by increased food intake, body weight gain, accumulation of body fat, and weaker caloric compensation, compared to consumption of foods and fluids containing glucose. Our research also provided evidence consistent with the hypothesis that these effects of consuming saccharin may be associated with a decrement in the ability of sweet taste to evoke thermic responses, and perhaps other physiological, cephalic phase, reflexes that are thought to help maintain energy balance.

  10. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    DOE PAGES

    Edgecock, T. R.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; ...

    2013-02-20

    The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fréjus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of μ+ and μ– beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case ismore » a 100 kt magnetized iron neutrino detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fréjus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the physics reach of each facility, in particular for the measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, and estimated the cost of construction. These have demonstrated that the best facility to build is the Neutrino Factory. Furthermore, if a powerful proton driver is constructed for another purpose or if the MEMPHYS detector is built for astroparticle physics, the Super Beam also becomes very attractive.« less

  11. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects.

    SciTech Connect

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-02-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic calculations, the

  12. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Edgecock, T. R.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densam, C.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Wildner, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Hansen, C.; Benedetto, E.; Jensen, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Martini, M.; Osborne, J.; Prior, G.; Stora, T.; Melo Mendonca, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Waaijer, C.; Cupial, P.; Chance, A.; Longhin, A.; Payet, J.; Zito, M.; Baussan, E.; Bobeth, C.; Bouquerel, E.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Lepers, B.; Osswald, F.; Poussot, P.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wurtz, J.; Zeter, V.; Bielski, J.; Kozien, M.; Lacny, L.; Skoczen, B.; Szybinski, B.; Ustrycka, A.; Wroblewski, A.; Marie-Jeanne, M.; Balint, P.; Fourel, C.; Giraud, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Mitrofanov, S.; Loiselet, M.; Keutgen, Th.; Delbar, Th.; Debray, F.; Trophine, C.; Veys, S.; Daversin, C.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A. C.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; De Angelis, G.; Prete, G.; Collazuol, G.; Laveder, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Signorini, C.; Vardaci, E.; Di Nitto, A.; Brondi, A.; La Rana, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Moro, R.; Palladino, V.; Gelli, N.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hirsh, T. Y.; Schaumann, M.; Stahl, A.; Wehner, J.; Bross, A.; Kopp, J.; Neuffer, D.; Wands, R.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, P.; Agarwalla, S. K.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Donini, A.; Ghosh, T.; Gomez Cadenas, J. J.; Hernandez, P.; Martin-Albo, J.; Mena, O.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Agostino, L.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Marafini, M.; Patzak, T.; Tonazzo, A.; Duchesneau, D.; Mosca, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Akhmedov, E.; Blennow, M.; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Fernandez Martinez, E.; Maltoni, M.; Menendez, J.; Giunti, C.; Gonzalez Garcia, M. C.; Salvado, J.; Coloma, P.; Huber, P.; Li, T.; Lopez Pavon, J.; Orme, C.; Pascoli, S.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.; Ohlsson, T.; Zhang, H.; Scotto-Lavina, L.; Terranova, F.; Bonesini, M.; Tortora, L.; Alekou, A.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Kurup, A.; Jenner, L. J.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Beard, K.; Bogacz, A.; Berg, J. S.; Stratakis, D.; Witte, H.; Snopok, P.; Bliss, N.; Cordwell, M.; Moss, A.; Pattalwar, S.; Apollonio, M.

    2013-02-20

    The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fréjus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of μ+ and μ beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt magnetized iron neutrino detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fréjus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the physics reach of each facility, in particular for the measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, and estimated the cost of construction. These have demonstrated that the best facility to build is the Neutrino Factory. Furthermore, if a powerful proton driver is constructed for another purpose or if the MEMPHYS detector is built for astroparticle physics, the Super Beam also becomes very attractive.

  13. High intensity ultrasound effects on meat brining.

    PubMed

    Cárcel, J A; Benedito, J; Bon, J; Mulet, A

    2007-08-01

    Pork loin (longissimus dorsi) samples of two different geometries, cylinders and slabs, were immersed in saturated NaCl brine for 45min under different conditions: without brine agitation (STAT), with brine agitation (AG) and with ultrasound application (US) at eight levels of ultrasonic intensity. Moisture content change and NaCl gain were considered in order to evaluate the difference in the brining treatments. No significant differences were found in moisture and NaCl content of samples treated under STAT conditions and AG conditions, while the influence of ultrasound on the mass transfer process during meat brining depended on the intensity applied. There was an ultrasonic intensity threshold above which the influence of ultrasound appeared. At the highest level of intensity studied, the water content of samples was significantly higher than the initial water content of meat. As regards NaCl transfer, once above the intensity threshold, the increase in the NaCl content was proportional to the applied ultrasonic intensity. Not statistically significant differences were found for sample geometry.

  14. Proton shock acceleration using a high contrast high intensity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Maxence; Roedel, Christian; Kim, Jongjin; Aurand, Bastian; Curry, Chandra; Goede, Sebastian; Propp, Adrienne; Goyon, Clement; Pak, Art; Kerr, Shaun; Ramakrishna, Bhuvanesh; Ruby, John; William, Jackson; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2015-11-01

    Laser-driven proton acceleration is a field of intense research due to the interesting characteristics of this novel particle source including high brightness, high maximum energy, high laminarity, and short duration. Although the ion beam characteristics are promising for many future applications, such as in the medical field or hybrid accelerators, the ion beam generated using TNSA, the acceleration mechanism commonly achieved, still need to be significantly improved. Several new alternative mechanisms have been proposed such as collisionless shock acceleration (CSA) in order to produce a mono-energetic ion beam favorable for those applications. We report the first results of an experiment performed with the TITAN laser system (JLF, LLNL) dedicated to the study of CSA using a high intensity (5x1019W/cm2) high contrast ps laser pulse focused on 55 μm thick CH and CD targets. We show that the proton spectrum generated during the interaction exhibits high-energy mono-energetic features along the laser axis, characteristic of a shock mechanism.

  15. Computer modeling of high intensity solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, J. L.; Lundstrom, M. S.; Schwartz, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to provide general analytic support to Sandia National Laboratories' effort to develop high efficiency, high concentration solar cells. This report covers work performed between November 5, 1984, and December 31, 1985, and includes reprints of three papers presented at the 18th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists' Conference. In the first paper, the factors that presently prevent achieving the predicted theoretical efficiencies (in excess of 30% at concentration) are examined. It is demonstrated, by two-dimensional computer simulations, that these efficiencies might be obtained by improved light trapping techniques and by fabrication of low resistance heteroface contacts. The second paper examines the Rose-Weaver lifetime and surface recombination velocity measurement technique. It is shown that the very small uncertainties in the measured quantities lead to large uncertainties in the computed lifetime and surface recombination velocity. This leads to radically different interpretations of how the recombination is distributed throughout the device, and therefore limits the usefulness of the measurement technique. Design options and constraints of GaAs concentrator cells are examined in the third paper. The effectiveness of various design options is assessed. It is shown that although such design options are of little use in increasing the efficiency of heteroface cells, they can improve the efficiency of shallow junction cells so that it is comparable to that of heteroface cells, In addition, documentation describing the use of both the one- and two-dimensional silicon codes, SCAP1D and SCAP2D, as well as the one-dimensional AlGaAs solar cell simulation code is included.

  16. HIGH INTENSITY BEAM OPERATION OF THE BROOKHAVEN AGS

    SciTech Connect

    ROSER,T.

    1999-06-28

    For the last few years the Brookhaven AGS has operated at record proton intensities. This high beam intensity allowed for the simultaneous operation of several high precision rare kaon decay experiments. The record beam intensities were achieved after the AGS Booster was commissioned and a transition jump system, a powerful transverse damper, and an rf upgrade in the AGS were completed. The intensity is presently limited by space charge effects at both Booster and AGS injection and transverse instabilities in the AGS.

  17. Performances of BNL high-intensity synchrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-03-01

    The AGS proton synchrotron was completed in 1960 with initial intensity in the 10 to the 10th power proton per pulse (ppp) range. Over the years, through many upgrades and improvements, the AGS now reached an intensity record of 6.3 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp, the highest world intensity record for a proton synchrotron on a single pulse basis. At the same time, the Booster reached 2.2 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp surpassing the design goal of 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp due to the introduction of second harmonic cavity during injection. The intensity limitation caused by space charge tune spread and its relationship to injection energy at 50 MeV, 200 MeV, and 1,500 MeV will be presented as well as many critical accelerator manipulations. BNL currently participates in the design of an accumulator ring for the SNS project at Oak Ridge. The status on the issues of halo formation, beam losses and collimation are also presented.

  18. Stretching Effects: High-intensity & Moderate-duration vs. Low-intensity & Long-duration.

    PubMed

    Freitas, S R; Vaz, J R; Bruno, P M; Andrade, R; Mil-Homens, P

    2016-03-01

    This study examined whether a high-intensity, moderate-duration bout of stretching would produce the same acute effects as a low-intensity, long-duration bout of stretching. 17 volunteers performed 2 knee-flexor stretching protocols: a high-intensity stretch (i. e., 100% of maximum tolerable passive torque) with a moderate duration (243.5 ± 69.5-s); and a low-intensity stretch (50% of tolerable passive torque) with a long duration (900-s). Passive torque at a given sub-maximal angle, peak passive torque, maximal range of motion (ROM), and muscle activity were assessed before and after each stretching protocol (at intervals of 1, 30 and 60 min). The maximal ROM and tolerable passive torque increased for all time points following the high-intensity stretching (p<0.05), but not after the low-intensity protocol (p>0.05). 1 min post-stretching, the passive torque decreased in both protocols, but to a greater extent in the low-intensity protocol. 30 min post-test, torque returned to baseline for the low-intensity protocol and had increased above the baseline for the high-intensity stretches. The following can be concluded: 1) High-intensity stretching increases the maximal ROM and peak passive torque compared to low-intensity stretching; 2) low-intensity, long-duration stretching is the best way to acutely decrease passive torque; and 3) high-intensity, moderate-duration stretching increases passive torque above the baseline 30 min after stretching.

  19. An investigation of small goes flares with intense hard x-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, L.; Harra-Murnion, L. K.; Culhane, J. L.; Schwartz, A.

    1997-01-01

    Most solar flare observations show that intense hard X-ray bursts come from large flares that have a large GOES classification (large peak 1 - 8 A˚ flux). This correlation, known as the ``Big Flare Syndrome'', suggests that more intense flares tend to have harder spectra. We have observed 7 flares that are exceptions to this. These flares have small GOES classifications ranging from B1.4 to C5.5 and peak hard X-ray count rates similar to those often observed from M class flares. This paper examines the cause of this anomoly using the Yohkoh Soft X-Ray Telescope, Hard X-Ray Telescope, and Bragg Crystal Spectrometer. Two hypotheses are proposed for the exceptions: (1) flares with multiple magnetic loops and common footpoints, producing multiple hard X-ray emission regions and low density thermal plasma distributed over a large volume, and (2) high densities in the magnetic loops restricting the propagation of the non-thermal electrons in the loop after magnetic reconnection has occurred and suppressing chromospheric evaporation. Two of the flares support the first hypothesis. The other flares either have data missing or are too small to be properly analysed by the Yohkoh instruments.

  20. Small-scale fuel variation alters fire intensity and shrub abundance in a pine savanna.

    PubMed

    Thaxton, Jarrod M; Platt, William J

    2006-05-01

    Small-scale variation in fire intensity and effects may be an important source of environmental heterogeneity in frequently burned plant communities. We hypothesized that variation in fire intensity resulting from local differences in fuel loads produces heterogeneity in pine savanna ground cover by altering shrub abundance. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulated prefire fuel loads to mimic naturally occurring fuel-load heterogeneity associated with branch falls, needle fall near large pines, and animal disturbances in a frequently burned longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) savanna in Louisiana, USA. We applied one of four fuel treatments (unaltered control, fine-fuel removal, fine-fuel addition, wood addition) to each of 540 (1-m2) quadrats prior to growing-season prescribed fires in each of two years (1999 and 2001). In both years fuel addition increased (and fuel removal decreased) fuel consumption and maximum fire temperatures relative to unaltered controls. Fuel addition, particularly wood, increased damage to shrubs, increased shrub mortality, and decreased resprout density relative to controls. We propose that local variation in fire intensity may contribute to maintenance of high species diversity in pine savannas by reducing shrub abundance and creating openings in an otherwise continuous ground cover.

  1. Challenges of PIC Simulations at High Laser Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedtke, Scott V.; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Toncian, Toma; Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel

    2015-11-01

    New lasers with very high intensity pulses (I >1022 W/cm2) are being commissioned to explore new regimes of laser-matter interactions. These lasers require accurate particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, which may require new computational approaches to efficiently produce physically accurate results. We examine the constraints on PIC simulations at high field intensity imposed by both the particle pusher and field solver. As proposed by Arefiev, et al. (Physics of Plasmas 22, 013103 (2015)), we implement adaptive sub-cycling in the Boris pusher of the EPOCH code and demonstrate its effectiveness in efficiently reducing errors from the pusher. It is well know that the use of a finite-difference scheme also modifies the electromagnetic wave dispersion relation. We examine the effect of the resulting discrepancy in the phase velocity on electron acceleration, and demonstrate that relatively small errors in the phase velocity lead to substantial changes in the electron energy gain from the laser pulse. We discuss the corresponding conditions for the field solver. These results are relevant to direct laser acceleration and underdense ionization experiments. This work was supported by NNSA cooperative agreement DE-NA0002008, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's PULSE program (12-63-PULSE-FP014) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-14-1-0045).

  2. Light shield and cooling apparatus. [high intensity ultraviolet lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, T. G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A light shield and cooling apparatus was developed for a high intensity ultraviolet lamp including water and high pressure air for cooling and additional apparatus for shielding the light and suppressing the high pressure air noise.

  3. Is high-intensity exercise better than moderate-intensity exercise for weight loss?

    PubMed

    De Feo, P

    2013-11-01

    This viewpoint debates the state-of-the-art research focusing on the optimal intensity of the exercise programs for inducing a sustained weight or fat-mass loss in overweight/obese people. In our demanding society, the most attractive messages in the popular press are those promising the best results in a short time. This might explain the emphasis given by media to those scientific articles that report the efficacy on weight loss of exercise programs by their shorter duration and higher intensity. However, in the literature on overweight or obese people, there is little conclusive evidence for more favorable effects with high-intensity training than with continuous moderate-intensity exercise on body weight or fat mass loss. Since both exercise protocols have been demonstrated as useful to reduce body weight, the decision on the intensity of exercise prescription should be individualized and based on outcomes different from fat or weight loss. In this regard, there are pro and contra arguments for the prescription of high-intensity aerobic exercise in obese people. Among the pro arguments, is the demonstration that, in several studies, high-intensity training appears to induce superior improvements in aerobic fitness. Among the contra arguments to prescribe high-intensity exercise is the demonstration that prescribing a higher-intensity exercise decreases adherence and results in the completion of less exercise. Thus, a successful exercise program should be proposed at a moderate intensity and a low perceived effort because obese subjects who have low self-efficacy, poor mood status, and are not familiar with high-intensity workouts could easily drop out. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rain simulation studies for high-intensity acoustic nose cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. M.; Cho, Y. I.; Shakkottai, P.; Back, L. H.

    1988-01-01

    Unarmed plastic projectiles can be equipped with small axisymmetric cavities for the generation of intense tones that are useful in training maneuvers. Attention is presently given to the simulation of rainfall in an airstream and the effect of rain droplet impingement on the nose of projectiles, and especially to any penetration or accumulation of water at the base of the cavity that might increase the fundamental cavity frequency and/or reduce the intensity of sound production during rain conditions.

  5. Remarks About Fields Of High Intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, Edward

    1986-12-05

    At high field strength any known material will break down by the production of electrons and ions. At a higher field strength, massive production of pairs will occur. This phenomenon is discussed when heavy ions of Υ ≈ 100 collide.

  6. Engineering Food Ingredients with High-Intensity Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Jochen; Kristbergsson, Kristberg; Kjartansson, Gunnar Thor

    The use of ultrasound in the food industry has increased in the last decades. Ultrasound has been used both to analyze food structure and composition at low ultrasonic intensities and high frequencies and to modify ingredients at high ultrasonic intensities and low frequencies. Application of the latter is referred to as high-intensity (power) ultrasonication and is generally carried out at frequencies of =0.1 MHz and ultrasonic intensities of 10-100 W cm-2. In the food industry, power ultrasonication has proved to be a highly effective food processing and preservation technology, and use of high-intensity ultrasound with or without heat may be used, for example, to denature enzymes, aid in the extraction of valuable compounds from plants and seeds, tenderize meat, and homogenize or disperse two-phase systems such as emulsions or suspensions (Mason et al., 1996).

  7. A compact high intensity cooler (CHIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, T. J.; Niggemann, R. E.; Parekh, M. B.

    1983-07-01

    A unique heat exchanger has been developed with potential applications for cooling high power density electronics and perhaps high energy laser mirrors. The device was designed to absorb heat fluxes of approximately 50 w/sq cm (158,000 Btu/hr sq ft), with a low thermal resistance, a high surface temperature uniformity, and very low hydraulic pumping power. A stack of thin copper orifice plates and spacers was bonded together and arranged to provide liquid jet impingement heat transfer on successive plates. This configuration resulted in effective heat transfer coefficients, based on the prime surface, of about 85,000 w/sq m deg C (15,000 Btu/hr sq ft deg F) and 1.8 watts (0.002 hp) hydraulic power with liquid Freon 11 as coolant.

  8. High intensity copper atom beam - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, A. J.; Santavicca, D.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a nozzle which gas-dynamically accelerates neutral copper atoms at controlled energy levels and flux rates suitable for the investigation of inelastic copper atom collision processes is reported. Preliminary test data demonstrate that vapor-deposited rhenium nozzles do not degrade in the presence of copper vapor at high temperatures. Operation with high purity helium gas at nozzle stagnation temperatures in the range 2650-2700 K and total stagnation pressures from 1/4 to 2 atm with continuous copper atom flux rates of approximately 10 to the 18th power per second has been maintained, for a total time of 8-1/2 h to date.

  9. Benefits of High-Intensity Intensive Care Unit Physician Staffing under the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Logani, Sachin; Green, Adam; Gasperino, James

    2011-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act signed into law by President Obama, with its value-based purchasing program, is designed to link payment to quality processes and outcomes. Treatment of critically ill patients represents nearly 1% of the gross domestic product and 25% of a typical hospital budget. Data suggest that high-intensity staffing patterns in the intensive care unit (ICU) are associated with cost savings and improved outcomes. We evaluate the literature investigating the cost-effectiveness and clinical outcomes of high-intensity ICU physician staffing as recommended by The Leapfrog Group (a consortium of companies that purchase health care for their employees) and identify ways to overcome barriers to nationwide implementation of these standards. Hospitals that have implemented the Leapfrog initiative have demonstrated reductions in mortality and length of stay and increased cost savings. High-intensity staffing models appear to be an immediate cost-effective way for hospitals to meet the challenges of health care reform. PMID:22110908

  10. High intensity positron program at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Howell, R.H.; Stoeffl, W.

    1998-09-23

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of the world's highest current beam of keV positrons. The potential for establishing a national center for materials analysis using positron annihilation techniques around this capability is being actively pursued. The high LLNL beam current will enable investigations in several new areas. We are developing a positron microprobe that will produce a pulsed, focused positron beam for 3-dimensional scans of defect size and concentration with submicron resolution. Below we summarize the important design features of this microprobe. Several experimental end stations will be available that can utilize the high current beam with a time distribution determined by the electron linac pulse structure, quasi-continuous, or bunched at 20 MHz, and can operate in an electrostatic or (and) magnetostatic environment. Some of the planned early experiments are: two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation of thin films and buried interfaces, positron diffraction holography, positron induced desorption, and positron induced Auger spectra.

  11. High-intensity sources for light ions

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.

    1995-10-01

    The use of the multicusp plasma generator as a source of light ions is described. By employing radio-frequency induction discharge, the performance of the multicusp source is greatly improved, both in lifetime and in high brightness H{sup +} and H{sup {minus}} beam production. A new technique for generating multiply-charged ions in this type of ion source is also presented.

  12. High intensity anthropogenic sound damages fish ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Robert D.; Fewtrell, Jane; Popper, Arthur N.

    2003-01-01

    Marine petroleum exploration involves the repetitive use of high-energy noise sources, air-guns, that produce a short, sharp, low-frequency sound. Despite reports of behavioral responses of fishes and marine mammals to such noise, it is not known whether exposure to air-guns has the potential to damage the ears of aquatic vertebrates. It is shown here that the ears of fish exposed to an operating air-gun sustained extensive damage to their sensory epithelia that was apparent as ablated hair cells. The damage was regionally severe, with no evidence of repair or replacement of damaged sensory cells up to 58 days after air-gun exposure.

  13. Intensive Scheduling: A Hybrid Model for the Junior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGorry, Eugene; McGorry, Susan Y.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses Intensive Scheduling as an approach to learning. Describes how educators in the Pocono Mountain School District in Pennsylvania searched for a more effective way to schedule classes. Describes how the junior high administration and teachers piloted a hybrid modified intensive schedule. Presents student opinions about the hybrid model,…

  14. Light-intensity modulator withstands high heat fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maples, H. G.; Strass, H. K.

    1966-01-01

    Mechanism modulates and controls the intensity of luminous radiation in light beams associated with high-intensity heat flux. This modulator incorporates two fluid-cooled, externally grooved, contracting metal cylinders which when rotated about their longitudinal axes present a circular aperture of varying size depending on the degree of rotation.

  15. Stress intensity factor for small edge crack in interfacial singularity region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Kazuhiro; Kawakita, Masato; Noriko, Tsutsumi

    2017-05-01

    Fracture of the bonded dissimilar materials generally initiates near the interface, or just from the interface edge due to the edge stress singularity. In this study, the stress intensity factor of an edge crack close to the interface between the dissimilar materials is considered. The small edge crack is strongly dominated by the singular stress field near the interface edge. The analysis of stress intensity factor of small edge crack near the interface in bi-material and butt joint plates is carried out by changing the length and the location of the crack and the region dominated by the interface edge is examined. It is found that the dimensionless stress intensity factor of small crack, normalized by the singular stress at the crack tip point in the bonded plate without the crack, is equal to 1.12, independent of the material combination and adhesive thickness, when the relative crack length with respect to the crack location is less than 0.01. Therefore, the stress intensity factor of the small edge crack can be simply evaluated not only in the bi-material plate but also in the butt joint plate.

  16. Small mammal communities of streamside management zones in intensively managed pine forests of Arkansas

    Treesearch

    Darren A. Miller; Ronald E. Thill; M. Anthony Melchiors; T. Bently Wigley; Philip A. Tappe

    2004-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs), composed primarily of hardwoods in the southeastern United States, provide habitat diversity within intensively managed pine (Pinus spp.) plantations. However, effects of SMZ width and adjacent plantation structure on riparian wildlife communities are poorly understood. Therefore, during 1990-1995, we examined small mammal...

  17. Characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound transducers using acoustic streaming.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Prasanna; Myers, Matthew R; Robinson, Ronald A; Maruvada, Subha H; Sliwa, Jack; Banerjee, Rupak K

    2008-03-01

    A new approach for characterizing high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducers is presented. The technique is based upon the acoustic streaming field generated by absorption of the HIFU beam in a liquid medium. The streaming field is quantified using digital particle image velocimetry, and a numerical algorithm is employed to compute the acoustic intensity field giving rise to the observed streaming field. The method as presented here is applicable to moderate intensity regimes, above the intensities which may be damaging to conventional hydrophones, but below the levels where nonlinear propagation effects are appreciable. Intensity fields and acoustic powers predicted using the streaming method were found to agree within 10% with measurements obtained using hydrophones and radiation force balances. Besides acoustic intensity fields, the streaming technique may be used to determine other important HIFU parameters, such as beam tilt angle or absorption of the propagation medium.

  18. Repeated high-intensity exercise in professional rugby union.

    PubMed

    Austin, Damien; Gabbett, Tim; Jenkins, David

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the frequency, duration, and nature of repeated high-intensity exercise in Super 14 rugby union. Time-motion analysis was used during seven competition matches over the 2008 and 2009 Super 14 seasons; five players from each of four positional groups (front row forwards, back row forwards, inside backs, and outside backs) were assessed (20 players in total). A repeated high-intensity exercise bout was considered to involve three or more sprints, and/or tackles and/or scrum/ruck/maul activities within 21 s during the same passage of play. The range of repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each group in a match was as follows: 11-18 for front row forwards, 11-21 for back row forwards, 13-18 for inside backs, and 2-11 for outside backs. The durations of the most intense repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each position ranged from 53 s to 165 s and the minimum recovery periods between repeated high-intensity exercise bouts ranged from 25 s for the back row forwards to 64 s for the front row forwards. The present results show that repeated high-intensity exercise bouts vary in duration and activities relative to position but all players in a game will average at least 10 changes in activity in the most demanding bouts and complete at least one tackle and two sprints. The most intense periods of activity are likely to last as long as 120 s and as little as 25 s recovery may separate consecutive repeated high-intensity exercise bouts. The present findings can be used by coaches to prepare their players for the most demanding passages of play likely to be experienced in elite rugby union.

  19. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Johnson, Rolland P.; Stockli, Martin P; Welton, Robert F; Dudnikova, Galina

    2010-01-01

    Spallation neutron source user facilities require reliable, intense beams of protons. The technique of H- charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron can provide the needed beam currents, but may be limited by the ion sources that have currents and reliability that do not meet future requirements and emittances that are too large for efficient acceleration. In this project we are developing an H- source which will synthesize the most important developments in the field of negative ion sources to provide high current, small emittance, good lifetime, high reliability, and power efficiency. We describe planned modifications to the present external antenna source at SNS that involve: 1) replacing the present 2 MHz plasma-forming solenoid antenna with a 60 MHz saddle-type antenna and 2) replacing the permanent multicusp magnet with a weaker electromagnet, in order to increase the plasma density near the outlet aperture. The SNS test stand will then be used to verify simulations of this approach that indicate significant improvements in H- output current and efficiency, where lower RF power will allow higher duty factor, longer source lifetime, and/or better reliability.

  20. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1993-02-01

    The QUEGS facility at MURR has produced a number of new results and demonstrated the range of potential applications of high resolution, high intensity Moessbauer scattering. This work has been carried out by both MU and Purdue researchers and includes published results on Na, W, pentadecane, polydimethylsiloxane and other systems, manuscripts submitted on alkali halides (Phys. Rev. B) and accurate Moessbauer lineshape measurements (Phys. Rev. C), and manuscripts in preparation on glycerol, NiAl and Moessbauer spectra obtained by modulating a scattering crystal. Recently, new collaborations have been initiated which will substantially enhance our efforts. These are with W. Steiner (Vienna), G. Coddens (Saclay), and R. D. Taylor (Los Alamos). Steiner is experienced with Fe-57 Moessbauer scattering, while Coddens specializes in quasielastic neutron scattering; both of these areas naturally complement our work. R. D. Taylor has pioneered Moessbauer spectroscopy from the time of its discovery and has already made important contributions to our study of lattice dynamics and superconductivity for lead alloyed with small quantities of tin. At the same time, a significant instrument upgrade is underway, funded in part by the DOE-URIP program.

  1. High intensity electron cyclotron resonance proton source for low energy high intensity proton accelerator.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, P; Chakravarthy, D P

    2009-12-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton source at 50 keV, 50 mA has been designed, developed, and commissioned for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA). Plasma characterization of this source has been performed. ECR plasma was generated with 400-1100 W of microwave power at 2.45 GHz, with hydrogen as working gas. Microwave was fed in the plasma chamber through quartz window. Plasma density and temperature was studied under various operating conditions, such as microwave power and gas pressure. Langmuir probe was used for plasma characterization using current voltage variation. The typical hydrogen plasma density and electron temperature measured were 7x10(11) cm(-3) and 6 eV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 42 mA was extracted, with three-electrode extraction geometry, at 40 keV of beam energy. The extracted ion current was studied as a function of microwave power and gas pressure. Depending on source pressure and discharge power, more than 30% total gas efficiency was achieved. The optimization of the source is under progress to meet the requirement of long time operation. The source will be used as an injector for continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole, a part of 20 MeV LEHIPA. The required rms normalized emittance of this source is less than 0.2 pi mm mrad. The simulated value of normalized emittance is well within this limit and will be measured shortly. This paper presents the study of plasma parameters, first beam results, and the status of ECR proton source.

  2. High intensity electron cyclotron resonance proton source for low energy high intensity proton accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, P.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2009-12-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton source at 50 keV, 50 mA has been designed, developed, and commissioned for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA). Plasma characterization of this source has been performed. ECR plasma was generated with 400-1100 W of microwave power at 2.45 GHz, with hydrogen as working gas. Microwave was fed in the plasma chamber through quartz window. Plasma density and temperature was studied under various operating conditions, such as microwave power and gas pressure. Langmuir probe was used for plasma characterization using current voltage variation. The typical hydrogen plasma density and electron temperature measured were 7x10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and 6 eV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 42 mA was extracted, with three-electrode extraction geometry, at 40 keV of beam energy. The extracted ion current was studied as a function of microwave power and gas pressure. Depending on source pressure and discharge power, more than 30% total gas efficiency was achieved. The optimization of the source is under progress to meet the requirement of long time operation. The source will be used as an injector for continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole, a part of 20 MeV LEHIPA. The required rms normalized emittance of this source is less than 0.2 {pi} mm mrad. The simulated value of normalized emittance is well within this limit and will be measured shortly. This paper presents the study of plasma parameters, first beam results, and the status of ECR proton source.

  3. Space Station Live: High-Intensity Exercise in Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Lori Meggs talks with SPRINT Principal Investigator Lori Ploutz-Snyder to learn more about this high-intensity exercise research taking place aboard the International Sp...

  4. Physiological responses at the lactate-minimum-intensity with and without prior high-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Padulo, Johnny; Silva, Adelino Ramos Sanchez da; Müller, Paulo de Tarso Guerrero; Miyagi, Willian Eiji; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the physiological responses during exercise-to-exhaustion at the lactate-minimum-intensity with and without prior high-intensity exercise. Eleven recreationally trained males performed a graded exercise test, a lactate minimum test and two constant-load tests at lactate-minimum-intensity until exhaustion, which were applied with or without prior hyperlactatemia induction (i.e., 30-s Wingate test). The physiological responses were significantly different (P < 0.05) between constant-load tests for pulmonary ventilation ([Formula: see text]), blood-lactate-concentration ([La(-)]), pH, bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3]) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide during the initial minutes. The comparisons within constant-load tests showed steady state behaviour for oxygen uptake and the respiratory exchange ratio, but heart rate and rating of perceived exertion increased significantly during both exercise conditions, while the [Formula: see text] increased only during constant-load effort. During effort performed after high-intensity exercise: [Formula: see text], [La(-)], pH and [HCO3] differed at the start of exercise compared to another condition but were similar at the end (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the constant-load exercises performed at lactate-minimum-intensity with or without prior high-intensity exercise did not lead to the steady state of all analysed parameters; however, variables such as [La(-)], pH and [HCO3] - altered at the beginning of effort performed after high-intensity exercise - were reestablished after approximately 30 min of exercise.

  5. High Intensity Tactical Power Sources for the 1990 Army.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    conceptual or physical study which may become feasible as high intensity power sources . These considerations include present state of the art of...requirements, energy and power output capabilities, and fixed costs. From these tables, it may be seen that a variety of electrical power sources would be...required to satisfy diverse requirements, but an attempt is made to categorize possible high intensity power sources into their areas of optimum

  6. Using a Hexagonal Mirror for Varying Light Intensity in the Measurement of Small-Angle Variation

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Lin, Jiun-You; Chang, Chia-Ou

    2016-01-01

    Precision positioning and control are critical to industrial-use processing machines. In order to have components fabricated with excellent precision, the measurement of small-angle variations must be as accurate as possible. To achieve this goal, this study provides a new and simple optical mechanism by varying light intensity. A He-Ne laser beam was passed through an attenuator and into a beam splitter. The reflected light was used as an intensity reference for calibrating the measurement. The transmitted light as a test light entered the optical mechanism hexagonal mirror, the optical mechanism of which was created by us, and then it entered the power detector after four consecutive reflections inside the mirror. When the hexagonal mirror was rotated by a small angle, the laser beam was parallel shifted. Once the laser beam was shifted, the hitting area on the detector was changed; it might be partially outside the sensing zone and would cause the variation of detection intensity. This variation of light intensity can be employed to measure small-angle variations. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this method. The resolution and sensitivity are 3 × 10−40 and 4 mW/° in the angular range of 0.6°, respectively, and 9.3 × 10−50 and 13 mW/° in the angular range of 0.25°. PMID:27537893

  7. Estimation of the squared modulus of the mutual intensity from high-light-level intensity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Timothy J.

    1995-06-01

    The problem of estimating the squared modulus of the mutual intensity (or the complex coherence factor) from high-light-level intensity measurements is addressed for the situation in which the fluctuations of the complex-valued amplitude are governed by circular-Gaussian statistics and the light level is high enough that all nonclassical fluctuations of the measurements can be ignored. A lower bound on the variance of any unbiased estimator is presented, and this bound is compared with the variance of Ebstein's polynomial estimators [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1450 (1991)] along with the variance of the maximum-likelihood estimator.

  8. High-intensity versus low-intensity physical activity or exercise in people with hip or knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Regnaux, Jean-Philippe; Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Trinquart, Ludovic; Nguyen, Christelle; Boutron, Isabelle; Brosseau, Lucie; Ravaud, Philippe

    2015-10-29

    an exercise program. We are uncertain as to whether high intensity increases the number of adverse effects (Peto odds ratio 1.72, 95% CI 0.51 to 5.81; - 2% absolute risk reduction; very low level of evidence). None of the included studies reported serious adverse events. We found very low-quality to low-quality evidence for no important clinical benefit of high-intensity compared to low-intensity exercise programs in improving pain and physical function in the short term. There was insufficient evidence to determine the effect of different types of intensity of exercise programs.We are uncertain as to whether higher-intensity exercise programs may induce more harmful effects than those of lower intensity; this must be evaluated by further studies. Withdrawals due to adverse events were poorly monitored and not reported systematically in each group. We downgraded the evidence to low or very low because of the risk of bias, inconsistency, and imprecision.The small number of studies comparing high- and low-intensity exercise programs in osteoarthritis underscores the need for more studies investigating the dose-response relationship in exercise programs. In particular, further studies are needed to establish the minimal intensity of exercise programs needed for clinical effect and the highest intensity patients can tolerate. Larger studies should comply with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist and systematically report harms data to evaluate the potential impact of highest intensities of exercise programs in people with joint damage.

  9. High-intensity aerobic interval exercise in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Philippe; Gayda, Mathieu; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise training is strongly recommended in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to improve symptoms and quality of life. Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous exercise (MICE) is the best established training modality in HF patients. For about a decade, however, another training modality, high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (HIIE), has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation. Originally used by athletes, HIIE consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods. The rationale for its use is to increase exercise time spent in high-intensity zones, thereby increasing the training stimulus. Several studies have demonstrated that HIIE is more effective than MICE, notably for improving exercise capacity in patients with HF. The aim of the present review is to describe the general principles of HIIE prescription, the acute physiological effects, the longer-term training effects, and finally the future perspectives of HIIE in patients with HF.

  10. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P < 0.001), with HIT reaching higher BDNF levels than CON (P = 0.035) (experiment 2). These results suggest that shorter bouts of high intensity exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health.

  11. Ultra-High Intensity Proton Accelerators and their Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W. T.

    1997-12-31

    The science and technology of proton accelerators have progressed considerably in the past three decades. Three to four orders of magnitude increase in both peak intensity and average flux have made it possible to construct high intensity proton accelerators for modern applications, such as: spallation neutron sources, kaon factory, accelerator production of tritium, energy amplifier and muon collider drivers. The accelerator design focus switched over from intensity for synchrotrons, to brightness for colliders to halos for spallation sources. An overview of this tremendous progress in both accelerator science and technology is presented, with special emphasis on the new challenges of accelerator physics issues such as: H(-) injection, halo formation and reduction of losses.

  12. Drivers of Intensity and Prevalence of Flea Parasitism on Small Mammals in East African Savanna Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Young, Hillary S; Dirzo, Rodolfo; McCauley, Douglas J; Agwanda, Bernard; Cattaneo, Lia; Dittmar, Katharina; Eckerlin, Ralph P; Fleischer, Robert C; Helgen, Lauren E; Hintz, Ashley; Montinieri, John; Zhao, Serena; Helgen, Kristofer M

    2015-06-01

    The relative importance of environmental factors and host factors in explaining variation in prevalence and intensity of flea parasitism in small mammal communities is poorly established. We examined these relationships in an East African savanna landscape, considering multiple host levels: across individuals within a local population, across populations within species, and across species within a landscape. We sampled fleas from 2,672 small mammals of 27 species. This included a total of 8,283 fleas, with 5 genera and 12 species identified. Across individual hosts within a site, both rodent body mass and season affected total intensity of flea infestation, although the explanatory power of these factors was generally modest (<10%). Across host populations in the landscape, we found consistently positive effects of host density and negative effects of vegetation cover on the intensity of flea infestation. Other factors explored (host diversity, annual rainfall, anthropogenic disturbance, and soil properties) tended to have lower and less consistent explanatory power. Across host species in the landscape, we found that host body mass was strongly positively correlated with both prevalence and intensity of flea parasitism, while average robustness of a host species to disturbance was not correlated with flea parasitism. Cumulatively, these results provide insight into the intricate roles of both host and environmental factors in explaining complex patterns of flea parasitism across landscape mosaics.

  13. Review of High-intensity Interval Training in Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shigenori; Mizoguchi, Tatsuya; Saeki, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    For the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is required. This involves optimal medical therapy, education on nutrition and exercise therapy, and smoking cessation. Of these, efficient exercise therapy is a key factor. A highly effective training protocol is therefore warranted, which requires a high rate of compliance. Although moderate-intensity continuous training has been the main training regimen recommended in cardiac rehabilitation guidelines, high-intensity interval training has been reported to be more effective in the clinical and experimental setting from the standpoint of peak oxygen uptake and central and peripheral adaptations. In this review, we illustrate the scientific evidence for high-intensity interval training. We then verify this evidence and discuss its significance and the remaining issues.

  14. High-Power, High-Intensity Laser Propagation and Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-10

    for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data...paccel NqzE  / . The accelerating gradient accelE is proportional to IN p~ , where   /ÊcI  is the intensity, and can be ~ 10 3 times ...Lpgp g ph zzzz z z     , (9) where  z g zdzt  )’(v/’ is the time measured in the frame of the pulse with group velocity )(v zg and L

  15. Glassy carbon as an absolute intensity calibration standard for small-angle scattering.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F.; Ilavsky, J.; Long, G.; Allen, A.; Quintana, J.; Jemian, P.; NIST

    2010-05-01

    Absolute calibration of small-angle scattering (SAS) intensity data (measured in terms of the differential scattering cross section per unit sample volume per unit solid angle) is essential for many important aspects of quantitative SAS analysis, such as obtaining the number density, volume fraction, and specific surface area of the scatterers. It also enables scattering data from different instruments (light, X-ray, or neutron scattering) to be combined, and it can even be useful to detect the existence of artifacts in the experimental data. Different primary or secondary calibration methods are available. In the latter case, absolute intensity calibration requires a stable artifact with the necessary scattering profile. Glassy carbon has sometimes been selected as this intensity calibration standard. Here we review the spatial homogeneity and temporal stability of one type of commercially available glassy carbon that is being used as an intensity calibration standard at a number of SAS facilities. We demonstrate that glassy carbon is sufficiently homogeneous and stable during routine use to be relied upon as a suitable standard for absolute intensity calibration of SAS data.

  16. High resolution beamforming for small aperture arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Chris; Null, Tom; Wagstaff, Ronald A.

    2003-04-01

    Achieving fine resolution bearing estimates for multiple sources using acoustic arrays with small apertures, in number of wavelengths, is a difficult challenge. It requires both large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gains and very narrow beam responses. High resolution beamforming for small aperture arrays is accomplished by exploiting acoustical fluctuations. Acoustical fluctuations in the atmosphere are caused by wind turbulence along the propagation path, air turbulence at the sensor, source/receiver motion, unsteady source level, and fine scale temperature variations. Similar environmental and source dependent phenomena cause fluctuations in other propagation media, e.g., undersea, optics, infrared. Amplitude fluctuations are exploited to deconvolve the beam response functions from the beamformed data of small arrays to achieve high spatial resolution, i.e., fine bearing resolution, and substantial SNR gain. Results are presented for a six microphone low-frequency array with an aperture of less than three wavelengths. [Work supported by U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center.

  17. High Intensity Interval Training for Maximizing Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Trine; Aamot, Inger-Lise; Haykowsky, Mark; Rognmo, Øivind

    2017-04-03

    Regular physical activity and exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consisted of low- to moderate ET intensity. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that higher exercise intensities may be superior to moderate intensity for maximizing health outcomes. The primary objective of this review is to discuss how aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as compared to moderate continuous training may maximize outcomes, and to provide practical advices for successful clinical and home-based HIIT.

  18. Acoustic intensity near a high-powered military jet aircraft.

    PubMed

    Stout, Trevor A; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Wall, Alan T; James, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    The spatial variation in vector acoustic intensity has been calculated between 100 and 3000 Hz near a high-performance military aircraft. With one engine of a tethered F-22A Raptor operating at military power, a tetrahedral intensity probe was moved to 27 locations in the geometric near and mid-fields to obtain the frequency-dependent intensity vector field. The angles of the maximum intensity region rotate from aft to sideline with increasing frequency, becoming less directional above 800 Hz. Between 100 and 400 Hz, which are principal radiation frequencies, the ray-traced dominant source region rapidly contracts and moves upstream, approaching nearly constant behavior by 1000 Hz.

  19. Beam diagnostics at high-intensity storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M.

    1993-11-01

    Beam diagnostics at high-intensity facilities feature their own special set of problems and characteristics. Issues peculiar to high-intensity storage rings include beam loss, beam halos, extraction efficiency, beam in the gap, clearing electrodes, and beam-profile measurement. The Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) is a nice example of a high-intensity storage ring. The author discusses in some detail three diagnostic systems currently in use at the PSR: the beam-loss-monitor system, the electron-clearing system, and the beam-in-the-gap monitor. Much of the discussion is inspired by the problems that were encountered and the useful things learned while commissioning and developing the PSR. Another inspiration is the work on the next-generation neutron-spallation source, also known as the National Center for Neutron Research (NCNR).

  20. Beam diagnostics at high-intensity storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M. )

    1994-10-10

    Beam diagnostics at high-intensity facilities feature their own special set of problems and characteristics, issues peculiar to high-intensity storage rings include beam loss, beam halos, extraction efficiency, beam in the gap, clearing electrodes, and beam-profile measurement. The Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) is a nice example of a high-intensity storage ring. I will discuss in some detail three diagnostic systems currently in use at the PSR: the beam-loss-monitor system, the electron-clearing system, and the beam-in-the-gap monitor. Much of our discussion is inspired by the problems we have encountered and the useful things we have learned while commissioning and developing the PSR. Another inspiration is our work on the next-generation neutron-spallation source, also known as the National Center for Neutron Research (NCNR).

  1. Response of graphene to femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Adam; Cormode, Daniel; Reynolds, Collin; Newhouse-Illige, Ty; LeRoy, Brian J.; Sandhu, Arvinder S.

    2011-08-01

    We study the response of graphene to high-intensity, 50-femtosecond laser pulse excitation. We establish that graphene has a high ({approx}3 x 10{sup 12} Wcm{sup -2}) single-shot damage threshold. Above this threshold, a single laser pulse cleanly ablates graphene, leaving microscopically defined edges. Below this threshold, we observe laser-induced defect formation leading to degradation of the lattice over multiple exposures. We identify the lattice modification processes through in-situ Raman microscopy. The effective lifetime of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene under femtosecond near-infrared irradiation and its dependence on laser intensity is determined. These results also define the limits of non-linear applications of graphene in femtosecond high-intensity regime.

  2. Analysis of high intensity activity in Premier League soccer.

    PubMed

    Di Salvo, V; Gregson, W; Atkinson, G; Tordoff, P; Drust, B

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to provide a detailed analysis of the high intensity running activity completed by elite soccer players during match-play. A further aim of the study was to evaluate the importance of high intensity running activity to overall team success. Observations on individual match performance measures were undertaken on 563 outfield players (median of 8 games per player; range=1-57) competing in the English Premier League from 2003/2004 to 2005/2006 using a computerised tracking system (Prozone, Leeds, England). High intensity activities selected for analysis included total high intensity running distance (THIR), total sprint distance (TSD) and the number and type of sprints undertaken. Total high intensity running distance in possession and without possession of the ball was also analysed. The THIR was dependant upon playing position with wide midfield (1,049+/-106 m) and central defenders (681+/-128 m) completing the highest and lowest distance respectively (p<0.001). High intensity activity was also related to team success with teams finishing in the bottom five (919+/-128 m) and middle ten (917+/-143 m) league positions completing significantly more THIR compared with teams in the top five (885+/-113 m) (p=0.003). The THIR and TSD also significantly declined during the 2nd half with the greatest decrements observed in wide midfield and attacking players (p<0.05). Both positional differences in high intensity activity and the observed change in activity throughout the game were also influenced by team success (p<0.05). The results of the present study indicate that high intensity activity in elite soccer match-play is influenced by both playing position and previous activity in the game. These activity patterns are also dependant upon success of the team. This may indicate that overall technical and tactical effectiveness of the team rather than high levels of physical performance per se are more important in determining success

  3. On the high intensity aspects of AGS Booster proton operation

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Ahrens, L.A.; Bleser, E.J.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Roser, T.; Shoji, Y.; van Asselt, W.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-06-01

    Observations of high intensity effects on the proton performance of the AGS Booster are presented, including present operational limits and correction methods. The transverse emittances, optimum tune working points, damping of coherent transverse oscillations and correction of stopband resonances through third-order are discussed in addition to the observed tune spread due to space charge forces. The initial longitudinal phase space distribution, capture and acceleration parameters and measurements are also given. Operational tools and strategies relevant to the high intensity setup are mentioned.

  4. On the high intensity aspects of AGS Booster proton operation

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Ahrens, L.A.; Bleser, E.J.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Roser, T.; Shoji, Y.; van Asselt, W.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of high intensity effects on the proton performance of the AGS Booster are presented, including present operational limits and correction methods. The transverse emittances, optimum tune working points, damping of coherent transverse oscillations and correction of stopband resonances through third-order are discussed in addition to the observed tune spread due to space charge forces. The initial longitudinal phase space distribution, capture and acceleration parameters and measurements are also given. Operational tools and strategies relevant to the high intensity setup are mentioned.

  5. High-intensity subpicosecond vacuum ultraviolet laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubodera, Shoichi; Kaku, Masanori; Taniguchi, Yuta; Katto, Masahito; Yokotani, Atsushi; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Mima, Kunioki

    2008-02-01

    We have been developing an ultrashort-pulse high-intensity vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser. Ultrashort VUV pulses at 126 nm have been produced in rare-gases by nonlinear wavelength conversion of an infrared Ti:sapphire laser at 882 nm. This pulse will be amplified inside an Ar II* amplifier excited by optical-field-induced ionization electrons. The amplification characteristics of the Ar II* amplifier has been improved by plasma channeling induced by a high-intensity plasma-initiating laser.

  6. Axion-like-particle search with high-intensity lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döbrich, Babette; Gies, Holger

    2010-10-01

    We study ALP -photon-conversion within strong inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields as provided by contemporary high-intensity laser systems. We observe that probe photons traversing the focal spot of a superposition of Gaussian beams of a single high-intensity laser at fundamental and frequency-doubled mode can experience a frequency shift due to their intermittent propagation as axion-like-particles. This process is strongly peaked for resonant masses on the order of the involved laser frequencies. Purely laser-based experiments in optical setups are sensitive to ALPs in the eV mass range and can thus complement ALP searches at dipole magnets.

  7. Effects of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound on the Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vykhodtseva, Natalia; McDannold, Nathan; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2007-05-01

    Bio-effects in the brain resulting from short focused ultrasound (FUS) pulses (1-10 ms, PRF=0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Hz, frequency=1.63 MHz) at high acoustic power (up to 700W) were examined. Fifty-seven locations were targeted through a craniotomy in the brains of 11 rabbits. Temperature rise was measured with MRI-based thermometry. The animals were sacrificed 4 h or 48 h after sonications for histological evaluations. A range of effects was observed: (1) Vascular changes (vasoconstriction/occlusion). (2) Homogenization of tissue. (3) Concentric circular lesions; (4) Hemorrhagic lesions similar to what was described earlier as inertial cavitation effects. Overall, the type of damage correlated with the acoustical power, with substantial overlapping among categories. Vascular changes were found at ˜140-180W, the thresholds for homogenized tissue and hemorrhagic lesions were approximately 200W and 350W, respectively. Some of these effects might be exploited for new therapies. Vascular occlusion might also be exploited for therapy; the lesions with homogenized tissue may suggest a new mechanism for non-thermal tissue ablation; small ones for ophthalmology and for functional neurosurgery (if produced in nerve tracts). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but with the acoustic intensities used, non-linear absorption, strong radiation forces and microbubble activity were likely to have been present. MRI-based temperature changes suggest that thermal effects were probably not responsible for these lesions, as the average focal temperature (approximately 47°C) was slightly below the threshold for thermal damage. The overlap between types of tissue effects for a given acoustic intensity indicates that a method to guide such cavitation-based therapies is needed. MRI was promising in some ways — we can detect where the effects were happening and whether or not cavitation occurred. While the artifacts in temperature mappings will make temperature measurements problematic

  8. Computational Simulations of High Intensity X-Ray Matter Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    London, R A; Rionta, R; Tatchyn, R; Roessler, S

    2001-08-02

    Free electron lasers have the promise of producing extremely high-intensity short pulses of coherent, monochromatic radiation in the 1-10 keV energy range. For example, the Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford is being designed to produce an output intensity of 2 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} in a 230 fs pulse. These sources will open the door to many novel research studies. However, the intense x-ray pulses may damage the optical components necessary for studying and controlling the output. At the full output intensity, the dose to optical components at normal incidence ranges from 1-10 eV/atom for low-Z materials (Z < 14) at photon energies of 1 keV. It is important to have an understanding of the effects of such high doses in order to specify the composition, placement, and orientation of optical components, such as mirrors and monochromators. Doses of 10 eV/atom are certainly unacceptable since they will lead to ablation of the surface of the optical components. However, it is not precisely known what the damage thresholds are for the materials being considered for optical components for x-ray free electron lasers. In this paper, we present analytic estimates and computational simulations of the effects of high-intensity x-ray pulses on materials. We outline guidelines for the maximum dose to various materials and discuss implications for the design of optical components.

  9. [Treatment of uterine fibroids using high-intensity ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Pessarrodona, Antoni; Isern, Jordi; Rodríguez, Jordi; Vallejo, Elena; Cassado, Jordi

    2013-07-01

    High-intensity ultrasound surgery is being actively introduced as an alternative treatment to conventional surgery for uterine fibroids. Numerous studies have shown that high-intensity ultrasound surgery is a safe and effective treatment, with fewer side effects than fibroidectomy and hysterectomy, and is cost-effective. It is now possible to offer this alternative therapy to patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids. We describe the technical basis of ultrasound surgery, the pretherapy selection of patients, the limiting factors and the risks of high-intensity ultrasound therapy. We describe our unit's clinical experience with 319 patients treated in an outpatient regimen, which resulted in a high rate of success (81%) and an acceptable rate of mild complications, as well as a virtually immediate return to daily activities. We comment on the follow-up of pregnancies that occurred after treatment with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with no side effects attributable to the therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    She, W H; Cheung, T T; Jenkins, C R; Irwin, M G

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound has been developed for therapeutic use in addition to its diagnostic ability. The use of focused ultrasound energy can offer a non-invasive method for tissue ablation, and can therefore be used to treat various solid tumours. High-intensity focused ultrasound is being increasingly used in the treatment of both primary and metastatic tumours as these can be precisely located for ablation. It has been shown to be particularly useful in the treatment of uterine fibroids, and various solid tumours including those of the pancreas and liver. High-intensity focused ultrasound is a valid treatment option for liver tumours in patients with significant medical co-morbidity who are at high risk for surgery or who have relatively poor liver function that may preclude hepatectomy. It has also been used as a form of bridging therapy while patients awaiting cadaveric donor liver transplantation. In this article, we outline the principles of high-intensity focused ultrasound and its clinical applications, including the management protocol development in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in Hong Kong by performing a search on MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE, and PubMed. The search of these databases ranged from the date of their establishment until December 2015. The search terms used were: high-intensity focused ultrasound, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, liver tumour, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreas, renal cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, breast cancer, fibroids, bone tumour, atrial fibrillation, glaucoma, Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and neuropathic pain.

  11. High intensity performance and upgrades at the Brookhaven AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, T.

    1998-12-01

    The high intensity proton beam of the AGS is used both for the slow-extracted-beam (SEB) area with many target station to produce secondary beams and the fast-extracted-beam (FEB) line used for the production of muons for the g-2 experiment and for high intensity target testing for the spallation neutron sources and muon production targets for the muon collider. The same FEB line will also be used for the transfer of beam to RHIC. The proton beam intensity in the AGS has increased steadily over the 35 year existence of the AGS, but the most dramatic increase occurred over the last couple of years with the addition of the new AGS Booster. All modifications associated with this are discussed.

  12. Short-pulse, high-intensity lasers at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.J.; Roberts, J.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Fulton, R.D.; Kyrala, G.A.; Schappert, G.T.

    1994-03-01

    Advances in ultrafast lasers and optical amplifiers have spurred the development of terawatt-class laser systems capable of delivering focal spot intensities approaching 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. At these extremely high intensities, the optical field strength is more than twenty times larger than the Bohr electric field, permitting investigations of the optical properties of matter in a previously unexplored regime. The authors describe two laser systems for high intensity laser interaction experiments: The first is a terawatt system based on amplification of femtosecond pulses in XeCl which yields 250 mJ in 275 fs and routinely produces intensifies on target in excess of 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. The second system is based on chirped pulse amplification of 100-fs pulses in Ti:sapphire.

  13. Plasma-based polarization modulator for high-intensity lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Manipulation of laser pulses at high intensities is an important yet challenging issue. New types of plasma-based optical devices are promising alternatives to achieve this goal. Here we propose to modulate the polarization state of intense lasers based on oblique reflection from solid-plasma surfaces. A new analytical description is presented considering the plasma as an uniaxial medium that causes birefringence effect. Particle-in-cell simulation results numerically demonstrate that such a scheme can provide a tunable polarization control of the laser pulses even in the relativistic regime. The results are thus relevant for the design of compact, easy to use, and versatile polarization modulators for high-intensity laser pulses.

  14. Self-trapping of intensities changing under SHG and SWG for high intensive femtosecond laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Kharitonov, Dmitry M.; Fedotov, Mikhail V.

    2017-05-01

    SHG and SFG (SWG) and THG are used widely in many practical applications such as a substance diagnostics, and imaging of various physical, chemical and biological processes as well as for laser radiation frequency conversion. One of very interesting phenomena under the frequency conversion takes place if a basic wave incident intensity is enough high: a synchronic mode of the laser pulse intensities changing along a propagation coordinate appears under certain conditions. First of all, we investigate this phenomenon using the frame-work of long pulse duration approximation and plane wave approximation without applying the basic wave energy non-depletion approximation. Applying an original approach we derive the solution of Schr¨odinger equations describing the THG via a SHG process and summary frequency wave generation (SFG) process for femtosecond pulses. Among many modes of the frequency conversion process under consideration we found out analytically the mode corresponding to synchronous intensities changing for the interacting waves. We derive conditions of such mode realization in dependence of the problem parameters. After that we verify our analytical consideration using a computer simulation of the problem on the base of the corresponding Schr¨odinger equations. Computer simulation shown also a new phenomenon at three-wave interaction: interacting wave intensities changing with two (or more) oscillation periods.

  15. High Energy K(alpha) Radiography Using High-intensity, Short-pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H; Izumi, N; Key, M H; King, J A; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Patel, P K; Price, D F; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Snavely, R A; Tabak, M; Town, R J; Wickersham, J E; Stoeckl, C; Storm, M; Theobald, W; Chambers, D M; Eagelton, R; Goldsack, T; Clarke, R J; Heathcote, R; Giraldez, E; Nikroo, A; Steinman, D A; Stephens, R B; Zhang, B B

    2005-11-16

    We have performed experiments using Callisto, the Vulcan 100 TW and the Vulcan Petawatt high intensity lasers to understand the characteristics of high energy, K{alpha} x-ray sources and to implement workable radiography solutions at 20-100 keV. Our measurements show that the K{alpha} size from a simple foil target is larger than 60 {micro}m, far larger than the experiment resolution requirement. The total K{alpha} yield is independent of target thicknesses verifying that refluxing plays a major role in photon generation. Smaller radiating volumes emit brighter K{alpha} radiation. 1-D radiography experiments using small-edge-on foils resolved 10 {micro}m features with high contrast. We tested a variety of small volume 2-D point sources such as cones, wires, and embedded wires, measuring photon yields and comparing our measurements with predictions from hybrid-PIC LSP simulations. In addition to high-energy, high-resolution backlighters, future experiments will also need imaging detectors and diagnostic tools that are workable in the 20-100 keV energy range. An initial look at some of these detector issues is also presented.

  16. Tolerable Beam Loss at High-Intensity Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Oleg E. Krivosheev, Nikolai V. Mokhov

    2000-08-28

    Tolerable beam losses are estimated for high-intensity ring accelerators with proton energy of 3 to 16 GeV. Dependence on beam energy, lattice and magnet geometry is studied via full Monte Carlo MARS14 simulations in lattice elements, shielding, tunnel and surrounding dirt with realistic geometry, materials and magnetic fields.

  17. The classical theory of dispersion of high-intensity light

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, S.A.

    1995-08-01

    The dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of an optical medium on the optical wave frequency in the classical theory of dispersion of high-intensity light is shown to have the same form as in the quantum theory if a structural unit of substance in the Lorentz model is considered as two parametrically coupled nonlinear oscillators rather than one oscillator. 13 refs.

  18. Risking Intensity: Reading and Writing Poetry with High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Judith Rowe

    Aimed at junior and senior high school teachers and artists in residence, this book urges teachers and students to read and write poetry "as though their lives depended upon it," and to breathe life into classroom writing traditions that are not hands-on or intense. Each chapter is set in the classroom. Poems by students and teacher illustrate…

  19. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOEpatents

    Liska, D.J.; Schamaun, R.G.; Clark, D.C.; Potter, R.C.; Frank, J.A.

    1980-03-11

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  20. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOEpatents

    Liska, Donald J.; Schamaun, Roger G.; Clark, Donald C.; Potter, R. Christopher; Frank, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  1. High-intensity and resistance training and elite young athletes.

    PubMed

    Ratel, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Although in the past resistance and high-intensity exercise training among young children was the subject of numerous controversies, it is now well-documented that this training mode is a safe and effective means of developing maximal strength, maximal power output and athletic performance in youth, provided that exercises are performed with appropriate supervision and precautions. Muscular strength and power output values measured from vertical jump and Wingate anaerobic tests are higher in elite than in non-elite young athletes and normal children, and the specific training effects on maximal power output normalised for body size are clearly more distinct before puberty. At present, there is no scientific evidence to support the view that high-intensity and/or resistance training might hinder growth and maturation in young children. Pre-pubertal growth is not adversely affected by sport at a competitive level and anthropometric factors are of importance for choice of sport in children. However, coaches, teachers and parents should be aware that unsupervised high-intensity and resistance training programmes involving maximal loads or too frequently repeated resistance exercises increase the risk of injury. Resistance training alone is an effective additional means of developing athletic performance throughout planned youth sports training programmes. Strategies for enhancing the effectiveness and safety of youth resistance and high-intensity exercise training are discussed in this chapter.

  2. Reuse Recycler: High Intensity Proton Stacking at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P.

    2016-07-17

    After a successful career as an antiproton storage and cooling ring, Recycler has been converted to a high intensity proton stacker for the Main Injector. We discuss the commissioning and operation of the Recycler in this new role, and the progress towards the 700 kW design goal.

  3. Critical design issues of high intensity proton linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1994-08-01

    Medium-energy proton linear accelerators are being studied as drivers for spallation applications requiring large amounts of beam powder. Important design factors for such high-intensity linacs are reviewed, and issues and concerns specific to this unprecedented power regime are discussed.

  4. Nonlinear behavior in high-intensity discharge lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Bernd; Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2016-06-01

    The light flicker problem of high intensity discharge lamps is studied numerically and experimentally. It is shown that in some respects the systems behave very similar to the forced Duffing oscillator with a softening spring. In particular, the jump phenomenon and hysteresis are observed in the simulations and in the experiments.

  5. The Worker Three Months after High Intensity Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeau, Richard P.

    A study of the long-range effects of high-intensity training (HIT) was conducted in 13 different programs in eight companies in Baltimore. A total of 99 HIT trainees were interviewed three months after completing the training. After three months the trainees were examined for higher salaries and higher skill levels. HIT appeared to have a positive…

  6. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  7. Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke, acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian Heart Foundation clinical guidelines. This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before commencing a HIIT program.

  8. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  9. Potential Causes of Elevated REE following High-Intensity Exercise.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Moellering, Douglas R; Carter, Stephen J; Gower, Barbara A; Bamman, Marcas M; Hornbuckle, Lyndsey M; Plaisance, Eric P; Fisher, Gordon

    2017-07-21

    Resting energy expenditure (REE) increases following intense exercise; however, little is known concerning mechanisms. Determine effects of a single bout of moderate-intensity continuous aerobic exercise (MIC), or high intensity interval exercise (HII) on REE under energy balance conditions. Thirty-three untrained premenopausal women were evaluated at baseline, after 8-16 weeks of training, 22 hours following either MIC (50% peak VO2) or HII (84% peak VO2). Participants were in a room calorimeter during and following the exercise challenge. Food intake was adjusted to obtain energy balance across 23 hours. REE was measured after 22 hours following all conditions. Twenty-three hour urine norepinephrine concentration and serum creatine kinase activity (CrKact) were obtained. Muscle biopsies were obtained in a subset of 15 participants to examine muscle mitochondrial state 2, 3, and 4 fat oxidation. REE was increased 22 hours following MIC (64±119 kcal) and HII (103±137 kcal). Markers of muscle damage (CrKact) increased following HII (9.6±25.5 units/liter) and MIC (22.2±22.8 units/liter) while sympathetic tone (urine norepinephrine) increased following HII (1.1±10.6 ng/mg). Uncoupled phosphorylation (states 2 and 4) fat oxidation were related to REE (respectively r=0.65 and r=0.55); however, neither state 2 or 4 fat oxidation increased following MIC or HII. REE was not increased following 8 weeks of aerobic training when exercise was restrained for 60 hours. Under energy balance conditions REE increased 22 hours following both moderate intensity and high intensity exercise. Exercise-induced muscle damage/repair and increased sympathetic tone may contribute to increased REE whereas uncoupled phosphorylation does not. These results suggest that moderate to high intensity exercise may be valuable for increasing energy expenditure for at least 22 hours following the exercise.

  10. Optimization of Isocenter Location for Intensity Modulated Stereotactic Treatment of Small Intracranial Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Salter, Bill J. Fuss, Martin; Sarkar, Vikren; Wang, Brian; Rassiah-Szegedi, Prema; Papanikolaou, Niko; Hollingshaus, Scott; Shrieve, Dennis C.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To quantify the impact of isocenter location on treatment plan quality for intensity-modulated stereotactic treatment of small intracranial lesions. Methods and Materials: For 18 patients previously treated by stereotactic-intensity modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), a retrospective virtual planning study was conducted wherein the impact of isocenter location on plan quality was measured. Treatment indications studied included six arteriovenous malformations, six acoustic neuromas, and six intracranial metastases, ranging in volume from 0.71 to 3.21 cm{sup 3} (mean = 2.26 cm{sup 3}), 1.08 to 2.84 cm{sup 3} (mean = 1.73 cm{sup 3}), and 0.19 to 2.30 cm{sup 3} (mean = 0.79 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Variation of isocenter location causes the geometric grid of pencil beams into which the target is segmented for intensity-modulated treatment to be altered. The impact of this pencil-beam-grid redefinition on achievable conformity index was quantified for three collimators (Varian Millennium 120; BrainLab MM3; Nomos binary Mimic) and three treatment planning systems (TPS; Varian Eclipse v6.5; BrainLab BrainScan v5.31; Best-Nomos Corvus v6.2), resulting in the evaluation of 3,446 treatment plans. Results: For all patients, collimator, and TPS combinations studied, a significant variation in plan quality was observed as a function of isocenter and pencil-beam-grid relocation. Optimization of isocenter location resulted in treatment plan conformity variations as large as 109% (min = 15%, mean = 51%, max = 109%). Conclusion: Optimization of isocenter location for IMRT/IMRS treatment of small intracranial lesions in which pencil-beam dimensions are comparable to target dimensions, can result in significant improvements in treatment plan quality.

  11. Optimization of isocenter location for intensity modulated stereotactic treatment of small intracranial targets.

    PubMed

    Salter, Bill J; Fuss, Martin; Sarkar, Vikren; Wang, Brian; Rassiah-Szegedi, Prema; Papanikolaou, Niko; Hollingshaus, Scott; Shrieve, Dennis C

    2009-02-01

    To quantify the impact of isocenter location on treatment plan quality for intensity-modulated stereotactic treatment of small intracranial lesions. For 18 patients previously treated by stereotactic-intensity modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), a retrospective virtual planning study was conducted wherein the impact of isocenter location on plan quality was measured. Treatment indications studied included six arteriovenous malformations, six acoustic neuromas, and six intracranial metastases, ranging in volume from 0.71 to 3.21 cm(3) (mean = 2.26 cm(3)), 1.08 to 2.84 cm(3) (mean = 1.73 cm(3)), and 0.19 to 2.30 cm(3) (mean = 0.79 cm(3)), respectively. Variation of isocenter location causes the geometric grid of pencil beams into which the target is segmented for intensity-modulated treatment to be altered. The impact of this pencil-beam-grid redefinition on achievable conformity index was quantified for three collimators (Varian Millennium 120; BrainLab MM3; Nomos binary Mimic) and three treatment planning systems (TPS; Varian Eclipse v6.5; BrainLab BrainScan v5.31; Best-Nomos Corvus v6.2), resulting in the evaluation of 3,446 treatment plans. For all patients, collimator, and TPS combinations studied, a significant variation in plan quality was observed as a function of isocenter and pencil-beam-grid relocation. Optimization of isocenter location resulted in treatment plan conformity variations as large as 109% (min = 15%, mean = 51%, max = 109%). Optimization of isocenter location for IMRT/IMRS treatment of small intracranial lesions in which pencil-beam dimensions are comparable to target dimensions, can result in significant improvements in treatment plan quality.

  12. The Relationship Between Intensity Indicators in Small-Sided Soccer Games

    PubMed Central

    David, Casamichana; Julen, Castellano

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between different kinds of intensity indicators in small-sided soccer games. This descriptive correlational study included 14 semi-professional male soccer players (21.3 ± 2.3 years, 174 ± 4.0 cm, 73.4 ± 5.1 kg) from the same team. The players were monitored by means of heart rate monitors and GPS devices during 27 small-sided games of nine different formats, yielding a total of 217 recordings. After each game the Borg scale was used to give a rate of perceived exertion (RPE). The internal load indicators were the mean heart rate relative to the individual maximum (%HRmean) and the RPE, while those for the external load were the player load, total distance covered, distance covered in two intensity ranges (>18 km·h-1 and >21 km·h-1), and frequency of effort (in the same two intensity ranges). There was a significant moderate correlation (r=0.506) between the two internal load measurements (%HRmean and RPE). Although there were significant correlations of different degrees between various external load measurements, only the player load was significantly correlated with the internal load indicators (r=0.331 with %HRmean and r=0.218 with RPE). During training programes of this kind, it is necessary to consider a range of intensity indicators so as to obtain complementary information. This will enable coaches to more accurately assess the load imposed on players and therefore optimize the training process. PMID:26240655

  13. High intensity proton operation at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator complex

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, L.A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Onillon, E.; Reece, R.K.; Roser, T.; Soukas, A.

    1994-08-01

    With the completion of the AGS rf upgrade, and the implementation of a transition {open_quotes}jump{close_quotes}, all of accelerator systems were in place in 1994 to allow acceleration of the proton intensity available from the AGS Booster injector to AGS extraction energy and delivery to the high energy users. Beam commissioning results with these new systems are presented. Progress in identifying and overcoming other obstacles to higher intensity are given. These include a careful exploration of the stopband strengths present on the AGS injection magnetic porch, and implementation of the AGS single bunch transverse dampers throughout the acceleration cycle.

  14. High-intensity laser heating in liquids: Multiphoton absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Longtin, J.P.; Tien, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    At high laser intensities, otherwise transparent liquids can absorb strongly by the mechanism of multiphoton absorption, resulting in absorption and heating several orders of magnitude greater than classical, low-intensity mechanisms. The use of multiphoton absorption provides a new mechanism for strong, controlled energy deposition in liquids without bulk plasma formation, shock waves, liquid ejection, etc., which is of interest for many laser-liquid applications, including laser desorption of liquid films, laser particle removal, and laser water removal from microdevices. This work develops a microscopically based model of the heating during multiphoton absorption in liquids. The dependence on pulse duration, intensity, wavelength, repetition rate, and liquid properties is discussed. Pure water exposed to 266 nm laser radiation is investigated, and a novel heating mechanism for water is proposed that uses multiple-wavelength laser pulses.

  15. Small high cooling power space cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. V.; Raab, J.; Durand, D.; Tward, E.

    2014-01-01

    The small High Efficiency pulse tube Cooler (HEC) cooler, that has been produced and flown on a number of space infrared instruments, was originally designed to provide cooling of 10 W @ 95 K. It achieved its goal with >50% margin when limited by the 180 W output ac power of its flight electronics. It has also been produced in 2 stage configurations, typically for simultaneously cooling of focal planes to temperatures as low as 35 K and optics at higher temperatures. The need for even higher cooling power in such a low mass cryocooler is motivated by the advent of large focal plane arrays. With the current availability at NGAS of much larger power cryocooler flight electronics, reliable long term operation in space with much larger cooling powers is now possible with the flight proven 4 kg HEC mechanical cooler. Even though the single stage cooler design can be re-qualified for those larger input powers without design change, we redesigned both the linear and coaxial version passive pulse tube cold heads to re-optimize them for high power cooling at temperatures above 130 K while rejecting heat to 300 K. Small changes to the regenerator packing, the re-optimization of the tuned inertance and no change to the compressor resulted in the increased performance at 150 K. The cooler operating at 290 W input power achieves 35 W@ 150 K corresponding to a specific cooling power at 150 K of 8.25 W/W and a very high specific power of 72.5 W/Kg. At these powers the cooler still maintains large stroke, thermal and current margins. In this paper we will present the measured data and the changes to this flight proven cooler that were made to achieve this increased performance.

  16. Small high cooling power space cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T. V.; Raab, J.; Durand, D.; Tward, E.

    2014-01-29

    The small High Efficiency pulse tube Cooler (HEC) cooler, that has been produced and flown on a number of space infrared instruments, was originally designed to provide cooling of 10 W @ 95 K. It achieved its goal with >50% margin when limited by the 180 W output ac power of its flight electronics. It has also been produced in 2 stage configurations, typically for simultaneously cooling of focal planes to temperatures as low as 35 K and optics at higher temperatures. The need for even higher cooling power in such a low mass cryocooler is motivated by the advent of large focal plane arrays. With the current availability at NGAS of much larger power cryocooler flight electronics, reliable long term operation in space with much larger cooling powers is now possible with the flight proven 4 kg HEC mechanical cooler. Even though the single stage cooler design can be re-qualified for those larger input powers without design change, we redesigned both the linear and coaxial version passive pulse tube cold heads to re-optimize them for high power cooling at temperatures above 130 K while rejecting heat to 300 K. Small changes to the regenerator packing, the re-optimization of the tuned inertance and no change to the compressor resulted in the increased performance at 150 K. The cooler operating at 290 W input power achieves 35 W@ 150 K corresponding to a specific cooling power at 150 K of 8.25 W/W and a very high specific power of 72.5 W/Kg. At these powers the cooler still maintains large stroke, thermal and current margins. In this paper we will present the measured data and the changes to this flight proven cooler that were made to achieve this increased performance.

  17. High intensity 30 femtosecond laser pulse interaction with thin foils

    SciTech Connect

    Giulietti, A.; Barbini, A.; Gizzi, L. A.; Chessa, P.; Giulietti, D.; Teychenne, D.

    1998-02-20

    An experimental investigation on the interaction of 30 femtosecond laser pulses with 0.1 and 1.0 {mu}m thick plastic foils has been performed at intensities from 5x10{sup 16} to 5x10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. The interaction physics was found to be definitely different whether the nanosecond low intensity prepulses led to an early plasma formation or not. In the first case high reflectivity and very low transmittivity were observed, together with second and three-half harmonic generation. In absence of precursor plasma, with increasing intensity, reflectivity dropped to low values, while transmittivity increased up to an almost complete transparency. No harmonic generation was observed in this latter condition, while ultra-fast ionisation was inferred by the blue-shift of the transmitted pulse. Finally, intense hard X-ray emission was detected at the maximum laser intensity level. Current theories or numerical simulations cannot explain the observed transparency. A new model of magnetically induced optical transparency (MIOT) is briefly introduced.

  18. Beyond Rassias: Intensive Language Programs at Large and Small Institutions. Intensive and Super German at Earlham College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurasek, Richard

    Two approaches to college second language instruction are described. One, an on-campus option, gives students a classroom opportunity that is similar to the intensive/immersion program, which is a ten-week intensive language course followed by a ten-week program in Mexico, France, or Germany. The on-campus option, called "Super," is a…

  19. Small, high-pressure liquid oxygen turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csomor, A.; Sutton, R.

    1977-01-01

    A small, high-pressure, liquid oxygen turbopump was designed, fabricated, and tested. The pump was of a single-stage, centrifugal type; power to the pump was supplied by a single-stage, partial emission, axial-impulse turbine. Design conditions included an operating speed of 70,000 rpm, pump discharge pressure of 2977 N/sq cm (4318 psia), and a pump flowrate of 16.4 kg/s (36.21 lb/sec). The turbine was propelled by LO2/LH2 combustion products at 1041 K (1874 R) inlet temperature, and at a design pressure ratio of 1.424. The approaches used in the detail analysis and design of the turbopump are described, and fabrication methods are discussed. Data obtained from gas generator tests, turbine performance calibration, and turbopump testing are presented.

  20. Small, high-pressure, liquid oxygen turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csomor, A.

    1978-01-01

    A small, high-pressure, LOX turbopump was designed, fabricated, and tested. The pump was of a single-stage, centrifugal type; power to the pump was supplied by a single-stage, partial-admission, axial-impulse turbine. Design conditions included an operating speed of 7330 rad/sec (70,000 rpm) pump discharge pressure of 2977 N/sq cm (4318 psia), and a pump flowrate of 16.4 kg/s (36.21 lb/sec). The turbine was propelled by LOX/LH2 combustion products at 1041 K (1874 R) inlet temperature, and at a design pressure ratio of 1.424. Test data obtained with the turbopump are presented and mechanical performance is discussed.

  1. Radiation control in the intensive care unit for high intensity iridium-192 brain implants

    SciTech Connect

    Sewchand, W.; Drzymala, R.E.; Amin, P.P.; Salcman, M.; Salazar, O.M.

    1987-04-01

    A bedside lead cubicle was designed to minimize the radiation exposure of intensive care unit staff during routine interstitial brain irradiation by removable, high intensity iridium-192. The cubicle shields the patient without restricting intensive care routines. The design specifications were confirmed by exposure measurements around the shield with an implanted anthropomorphic phantom simulating the patient situation. The cubicle reduces the exposure rate around an implant patient by as much as 90%, with the exposure level not exceeding 0.1 mR/hour/mg of radium-equivalent /sup 192/Ir. Evaluation of data accumulated for the past 3 years has shown that the exposure levels of individual attending nurses are 0.12 to 0.36 mR/mg of radium-equivalent /sup 192/Ir per 12-hour shift. The corresponding range for entire nursing teams varies between 0.18 and 0.26. A radiation control index (exposure per mg of radium-equivalent /sup 192/Ir per nurse-hour) is thus defined for individual nurses and nursing teams; this index is a significant guide to the planning of nurse rotations for brain implant patients with various /sup 192/Ir loads. The bedside shield reduces exposure from /sup 192/Ir implants by a factor of about 20, as expected, and the exposure from the lower energy radioisotope iodine-125 is barely detectable.

  2. Ultra High Performance, Highly Reliable, Numeric Intensive Processors and Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    to design high-performance DSP/IP systems using either off-the-shelf components or application specific integrated circuitry [ ASIC ]. -9 - HSDAL . ARO...are the chirp-z transform ( CZT ) [13] and (Rader’s) Prime Factor Transform (PFT) [11]. The RNS/ CZT is being studied by a group a MITRE [14] and is given...PFT RNS/CRNS/QRNS implementation has dynamic range requirements on the order of NQ2 (vs NQ4 for the CZT and much higher for the FFT). Therefore, the

  3. High-intensity sound in air saturated fibrous bulk porous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, H. L., II

    1982-01-01

    The interaction high-intensity sound with bulk porous materials in porous materials including Kevlar 29 is reported. The nonlinear behavior of the materials was described by dc flow resistivity tests. Then acoustic propagation and reflection were measured and small signal broadband measurements of phase speed and attenuation were carried out. High-intensity tests were made with 1, 2, and 3 kHz tone bursts to measure harmonic generation and extra attenuation of the fundamental. Small signal standing wave tests measured impedence between 0.1 and 3.5 kHz. High level tests with single cycle tone bursts at 1 to 4 kHz show that impedance increases with intensity. A theoretical analysis is presented for high-porosity, rigid-frame, isothermal materials. One dimensional equations of motion are derived and solved by perturbation. The experiments show that there is excess attenuation of the fundamental component and in some cases a close approach to saturation. A separate theoretical model, developed to explain the excess attenuation, yields predictions that are in good agreement with the measurements. Impedance and attenuation at high intensities are modeled.

  4. High-intensity sound in air saturated fibrous bulk porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, H. L., II

    1982-09-01

    The interaction high-intensity sound with bulk porous materials in porous materials including Kevlar 29 is reported. The nonlinear behavior of the materials was described by dc flow resistivity tests. Then acoustic propagation and reflection were measured and small signal broadband measurements of phase speed and attenuation were carried out. High-intensity tests were made with 1, 2, and 3 kHz tone bursts to measure harmonic generation and extra attenuation of the fundamental. Small signal standing wave tests measured impedence between 0.1 and 3.5 kHz. High level tests with single cycle tone bursts at 1 to 4 kHz show that impedance increases with intensity. A theoretical analysis is presented for high-porosity, rigid-frame, isothermal materials. One dimensional equations of motion are derived and solved by perturbation. The experiments show that there is excess attenuation of the fundamental component and in some cases a close approach to saturation. A separate theoretical model, developed to explain the excess attenuation, yields predictions that are in good agreement with the measurements. Impedance and attenuation at high intensities are modeled.

  5. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Chiping Chen

    2006-10-26

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Goup at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; Development of elliptic beam theory; (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX).

  6. Generation of Ultra-high Intensity Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    N.J. Fisch; V.M. Malkin

    2003-06-10

    Mainly due to the method of chirped pulse amplification, laser intensities have grown remarkably during recent years. However, the attaining of very much higher powers is limited by the material properties of gratings. These limitations might be overcome through the use of plasma, which is an ideal medium for processing very high power and very high total energy. A plasma can be irradiated by a long pump laser pulse, carrying significant energy, which is then quickly depleted in the plasma by a short counterpropagating pulse. This counterpropagating wave effect has already been employed in Raman amplifiers using gases or plasmas at low laser power. Of particular interest here are the new effects which enter in high power regimes. These new effects can be employed so that one high-energy optical system can be used like a flashlamp in what amounts to pumping the plasma, and a second low-power optical system can be used to extract quickly the energy from the plasma and focus it precisely. The combined system can be very compact. Thus, focused intensities more than 10{sup 25} W/cm{sup 2} can be contemplated using existing optical elements. These intensities are several orders of magnitude higher than what is currently available through chirped pump amplifiers.

  7. High intensity proton linac activities at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Rusnak, B.; Chan, K.C.; Campbell, B.

    1998-09-01

    High-current proton linear accelerators offer an attractive alternative for generating the intense neutron fluxes needed for transmutations technologies, tritium production and neutron science. To achieve the fluxes required for tritium production, a 100-mA, 1700-MeV cw proton accelerator is being designed that uses superconducting cavities for the high-energy portion of the linac, from 211 to 1,700 MeV. The development work supporting the linac design effort is focused on three areas: superconducting cavity performance for medium-beta cavities at 700 MHz, high power rf coupler development, and cryomodule design. An overview of the progress in these three areas is presented.

  8. Heat transparent high intensity high efficiency solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar cell design is described. A surface of each solar cell has a plurality of grooves. Each groove has a vertical face and a slanted face that is covered by a reflecting metal. Light rays are reflected from the slanted face through the vertical face where they traverse a photovoltaic junction. As the light rays travel to the slanted face of an adjacent groove, they again traverse the junction. The underside of the reflecting coating directs the light rays toward the opposite surface of solar cell as they traverse the junction again. When the light rays travel through the solar cell and reach the saw toothed grooves on the under side, the process of reflection and repeatedly traversing the junction again takes place. The light rays ultimately emerge from the solar cell. These solar cells are particularly useful at very high levels of insolation because the infrared or heat radiation passes through the cells without being appreciably absorbed to heat the cell.

  9. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland Paul; Dudnikov, Vadim

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  10. High-intensity re-warm-ups enhance soccer performance.

    PubMed

    Zois, J; Bishop, D; Fairweather, I; Ball, K; Aughey, R J

    2013-09-01

    The effects of high-intensity, short-duration, re-warm-ups on team-sport-related performance were investigated. In a randomised, cross-over study, participants performed 2×26-min periods of an intermittent activity protocol (IAP) on a non-motorized treadmill, interspersed by 15-min of passive recovery (CON); 3-min small-sided game (SSG); or a 5RM leg-press. Measures included counter-movement jump, repeated-sprint, the Loughborough soccer passing test (LSPT), blood lactate concentration, heart-rate, and perceptual measures. Data were analyzed using effect size (90% confidence intervals), and percentage change; determining magnitudes of effects. A 5RM re-warm-up improved flight-time to contraction-time ratio when compared to SSG (9.8%, ES; 0.5±0.3) and CON (ES: 9.4%, 0.7±0.5) re-warm-ups, remaining higher following the second IAP (8.8%, ES; 0.5±0.3 and 10.2%, ES; 0.6±0.6, respectively). Relative-maximum rate-of-force development was greater in the 5RM condition following the second IAP compared to SSG (29.3%, ES; 0.7±0.5) and CON (16.2%, ES; 0.6±0.6). Repeated-sprint ability during the second IAP improved in the 5RM re-warm-up; peak velocity, mean velocity, and acceleration were 4, 3, and 18% greater, respectively. Within groups, the SSG re-warm-up improved LSPT performance post-intervention; 6.4% (ES: 0.6±0.8) and following the second IAP 6.2% (ES: 0.6±0.6), compared to pre-intervention. A 5RM leg-press re-warm-up improved physical performance, while a SSG re-warm-up enhanced skill execution following standardized intermittent exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Multiwavelength Anomalous Diffraction at High X-Ray Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Sang-Kil; Chapman, Henry N.; Santra, Robin

    2011-11-01

    The multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method is used to determine phase information in x-ray crystallography by employing anomalous scattering from heavy atoms. X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) show promise for revealing the structure of single molecules or nanocrystals, but the phase problem remains largely unsolved. Because of the ultrabrightness of x-ray FEL, samples experience severe electronic radiation damage, especially to heavy atoms, which hinders direct implementation of MAD with x-ray FELs. Here, we propose a generalized version of MAD phasing at high x-ray intensity. We demonstrate the existence of a Karle-Hendrickson-type equation in the high-intensity regime and calculate relevant coefficients with detailed electronic damage dynamics of heavy atoms. The present method offers a potential for ab initio structural determination in femtosecond x-ray nanocrystallography.

  12. Multiwavelength anomalous diffraction at high x-ray intensity.

    PubMed

    Son, Sang-Kil; Chapman, Henry N; Santra, Robin

    2011-11-18

    The multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method is used to determine phase information in x-ray crystallography by employing anomalous scattering from heavy atoms. X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) show promise for revealing the structure of single molecules or nanocrystals, but the phase problem remains largely unsolved. Because of the ultrabrightness of x-ray FEL, samples experience severe electronic radiation damage, especially to heavy atoms, which hinders direct implementation of MAD with x-ray FELs. Here, we propose a generalized version of MAD phasing at high x-ray intensity. We demonstrate the existence of a Karle-Hendrickson-type equation in the high-intensity regime and calculate relevant coefficients with detailed electronic damage dynamics of heavy atoms. The present method offers a potential for ab initio structural determination in femtosecond x-ray nanocrystallography.

  13. Chrome tannage using high-intensity ultrasonic field.

    PubMed

    Mäntysalo, E; Marjoniemi, M; Kilpeläinen, M

    1997-04-01

    The process time in chrome tannage in leather making, using an elastic compression cycle followed by irradiation by high-intensity ultrasound, is quite short lasting only a few minutes, compared with a process time of several hours in modern chrome tannage. After ultrasonic irradiation, samples were basified in 17 h in chrome liquor at a pH of 4.0 and the shrinkage temperature was measured. The determination of the efficiency for the chrome liquor penetrating into the hides can be based on the steepness of the shrinkage temperature-processing time curve. An approximate value of 20 degrees C min(-1) can be evaluated for the initial slope of the curve when elastic compression and high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation is used, and a processing time of 2 min is required in chrome liquor (plus 17 h basification and 24 h storage time) to obtain leather stable to boiling. Usually, hides are kept in chrome liquor for 2 h.

  14. Fermilab main injector: High intensity operation and beam loss control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Bruce C.; Adamson, Philip; Capista, David; Chou, Weiren; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton K.; Seiya, Kiyomi; Wu, Guan Hong; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2013-07-01

    From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Transmission was very high except for beam lost at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the improvements required to achieve high intensity, the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

  15. Transportable high sensitivity small sample radiometric calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, J.R.; Biddle, R.S.; Cordova, B.S.; Sampson, T.E.; Dye, H.R.; McDow, J.G.

    1998-12-31

    A new small-sample, high-sensitivity transportable radiometric calorimeter, which can be operated in different modes, contains an electrical calibration method, and can be used to develop secondary standards, will be described in this presentation. The data taken from preliminary tests will be presented to indicate the precision and accuracy of the instrument. The calorimeter and temperature-controlled bath, at present, require only a 30-in. by 20-in. tabletop area. The calorimeter is operated from a laptop computer system using unique measurement module capable of monitoring all necessary calorimeter signals. The calorimeter can be operated in the normal calorimeter equilibration mode, as a comparison instrument, using twin chambers and an external electrical calibration method. The sample chamber is 0.75 in (1.9 cm) in diameter by 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) long. This size will accommodate most {sup 238}Pu heat standards manufactured in the past. The power range runs from 0.001 W to <20 W. The high end is only limited by sample size.

  16. Low-intensity resistance training after high-intensity resistance training can prevent the increase of central arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, T; Masuhara, M; Ikuta, K

    2013-05-01

    Although high-intensity resistance training increases arterial stiffness, low-intensity resistance training reduces arterial stiffness. The present study investigates the effect of low-intensity resistance training before and after high-intensity resistance training on arterial stiffness. 30 young healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a group that performed low-intensity resistance training before high-intensity resistance training (BLRT, n=10), a group that performed low-intensity resistance training after high-intensity resistance training (ALRT, n=10) and a sedentary control group (n=10). The BLRT and ALRT groups performed resistance training at 80% and 50% of one repetition maximum twice each week for 10 wk. Arterial stiffness was measured using carotid-femoral and femoral-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV). One-repetition maximum strength in the both ALRT and BLRT significantly increased after the intervention (P<0.05 to P<0.01). Both carotid-femoral PWV and femoral-ankle PWV after combined training in the ALRT group did not change from before training. In contrast, carotid-femoral PWV after combined training in the BLRT group increased from before training (P <0.05). Femoral-ankle PWV after combined training in the both BLRT and ALRT groups did not change from before training. These results suggest that although arterial stiffness is increased by low-intensity resistance training before high-intensity resistance training, performing low-intensity resistance training thereafter can prevent the increase of arterial stiffness.

  17. Enhancement of vasorelaxation in hypertension following high-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ai-Lun; Lo, Chia-Wen; Lee, Jen-Ting; Su, Chia-Ting

    2011-04-30

    Exercise can ameliorate vascular dysfunction in hypertension, but its underlying mechanism has not been explored thoroughly. We aimed to investigate whether the high-intensity exercise could enhance vasorelaxation mediated by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in hypertension. Sixteen-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomly divided into non-exercise sedentary (SHR) and high-intensity exercise (SHR+Ex) groups conducted by treadmill running at a speed of 30 m/ min until exhaustion. Age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were used as the normotensive control group. Immediately after exercise, the agonist-induced vasorelaxation of aortas was evaluated in organ baths with or without endothelial denudation. Selective inhibitors were used to examine the roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) in the vasorelaxation. By adding superoxide dismutase (SOD), a superoxide scavenger, the role of superoxide production in the vasorelaxation was also clarified. We found that, the high-intensity exercise significantly (P < 0.05) induced higher vasorelaxant responses to insulin and IGF-1 in the SHR+Ex group than that in the SHR group; after endothelial denudation and pre-treatment of the PI3K inhibitor, NOS inhibitor, or SOD, vasorelaxant responses to insulin and IGF-1 became similar among three groups; the protein expression of insulin receptor, IGF-1 receptor, and endothelial NOS (eNOS) was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the SHR+Ex group compared with the SHR group;] the relaxation to sodium nitroprusside, a NO donor, was not different among three groups. Our findings suggested that the high-intensity exercise ameliorated the insulin- and IGF-1-mediated vasorelaxation through the endothelium-dependent pathway, which was associated with the reduced level of superoxide production.

  18. Spallation neutron source and other high intensity froton sources

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou

    2003-02-06

    This lecture is an introduction to the design of a spallation neutron source and other high intensity proton sources. It discusses two different approaches: linac-based and synchrotron-based. The requirements and design concepts of each approach are presented. The advantages and disadvantages are compared. A brief review of existing machines and those under construction and proposed is also given. An R&D program is included in an appendix.

  19. High intensity muon storage rings for neutrino production: Lattice design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, C>

    1998-05-01

    Five energies, 250, 100, 50, 20, and 10 GeV, have been explored in the design of a muon storage ring for neutrino-beam production. The ring design incorporates exceptionally long straight sections with large beta functions in order to produce an intense, parallel neutrino beam via muon decay. To emphasize compactness and reduce the number of muon decays in the arcs, high-field superconducting dipoles are used in the arc design.

  20. Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy with High Energy Photon and Hadron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelfke, U.

    2004-07-01

    This short contribution will briefly describe the basic concepts of intensity modulated radiation therapy with high energy photons (IMRT) and charged particle beams (IMPT). Dose delivery and optimization strategies like the `Inverse Planning' approach will be explained for both radiation modalities and their potential advantages are demonstrated for characteristic clinical examples. Finally, future development like image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and adaptive radiation therapy, based on functional imaging methods, will be introduced.

  1. Alpine Skiing as Winter-Time High-Intensity Training.

    PubMed

    Stöggl, Thomas Leonhard; Schwarzl, Christoph; Müller, Edith E; Nagasaki, Masaru; Stöggl, Julia; Schönfelder, Martin; Niebauer, Josef

    2017-09-01

    To counteract the winter activity deficit, we set out to analyze cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses of two high-intensity training (HIT) protocols during alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS), and indoor cycling (IC) and the effects of sex, age, and fitness level in this comparison. Nineteen healthy subjects (two age and fitness groups, both sexes) performed AS, XCS, and IC with measurements of oxygen uptake (V˙O2), energy expenditure (EE), HR, lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion, determined during 4 min of continuous HIT (HITc: 90% HRmax for XCS and IC or short turn skiing during AS) or 10-min intermittent HIT [HITint: 5 × 1 min high intensity (>90% HRmax or short turn skiing), 1 min active recovery]. During all three exercise modes and irrespective of HIT protocols, sex, age, and fitness, participants were able to reach exercise intensities >90% HRmax and >84% V˙O2max. In all exercise modes 10-min of HITint with a 10-min postexercise O2 consumption phase resulted in greater mean EE per minute compared to 4-min HITc with 10 min postexercise O2 consumption. When applying the same HIT loading and recovery pattern to all three exercise modes, EE during approximately 1:15 h of AS was equivalent to about 1:00 h of either XCS or IC. Across all exercise modes and HIT protocols, high cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses were achieved regardless of age, sex, or fitness. EE during AS can be maximized by choosing the skiing mode "short turn skiing" in combination with an HITint to prolong the duration of continuous high-intensity loading during each descent. Therefore, all exercise modes and both HIT protocols are applicable and feasible in a broad spectrum of healthy subjects.

  2. Silicone rubber curing by high intensity infrared radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tung-Way; Tsai, Jen-Hui; Cherng, Chung-Pin; Chen, Jan-Ku

    1994-08-01

    A high-intensity (12 kW) and compact (80 cm) infrared heating oven for fast curing (12 seconds) of tube-like silicone rubber curing studies is reported. Quality inspection by DSC and DMA and results from pilot-scale curing oven all suggest that infrared heating provides a better way of vulcanization regarding to curing time, quality, cost, and spacing over conventional hot air heating.

  3. Silicone rubber curing by high intensity infrared radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, T.; Tsai, J.; Cherng, C.; Chen, J.

    1994-08-10

    A high-intensity (12 kW) and compact (80 cm) infrared heating oven for fast curing (12 seconds) of tube-like silicone rubber curing studies is reported. Quality inspection by DSC and DMA and results from pilot-scale curing oven all suggest that infrared heating provides a better way of vulcanization regarding to curing time, quality, cost, and spacing over conventional hot air heating. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  4. PULSED POWER APPLICATIONS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON RINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG, S.Y.; SANDBERG, J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Pulsed power technology has been applied in particle accelerators and storage rings for over four decades. It is most commonly used in injection, extraction, beam manipulation, source, and focusing systems. These systems belong to the class of repetitive pulsed power. In this presentation, we review and discuss the history, present status, and future challenge of pulsed power applications in high intensity proton accelerators and storage rings.

  5. Evaluation of the most intense high-intensity running period in English FA premier league soccer matches.

    PubMed

    Di Mascio, Michele; Bradley, Paul S

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the most intense period of high-intensity running during elite soccer matches. Elite players (n = 100) were analyzed using a multicamera computerized tracking system. High-intensity running (speed >19.8 km·h) in 5-min periods were quantified during matches. High-intensity running was performed for approximately 3% of total time, but this doubled (F[1,99] = 9.179, p < 0.001, d > 1.2) during the most intense period (8.4 ± 2.7 vs. 16.4 ± 4.6 seconds). Recovery time between high-intensity efforts was approximately 30 seconds during the most intense period (33.3 ± 19.7 seconds). The work:rest ratio between high-intensity bouts increased (F[1,99] = 2.018, p < 0.001, d > 0.6) from 1:12 for the match average to 1:2 during the most intense period. The distance of each discrete high-intensity running bout increased (F[1,99] = 1.958, p < 0.001, d > 0.6) approximately 13% during the most intense period compared with that of the match average (6.7 ± 1.8 vs. 5.8 ± 0.6 m). Central defenders were running at high-intensity for less (F[4,95] = 4.907, p < 0.05, d > 0.6) time than full-backs, wide midfielders, and attackers (12.9 ± 2.4 vs. 17.9 ± 3.4, 18.3 ± 5.5, and 16.9 ± 3.8 seconds). Central defenders had a greater recovery time (F[4,95] = 3.083, p < 0.05, d > 0.6) between high-intensity efforts than wide midfielders. No differences were evident between playing positions for maximum running speed and average distances of high-intensity running. These results show that high-intensity running, work:rest ratios, and average high-intensity distances change markedly during the most intense period of matches and are highly dependent on positional role. Therefore, conditioning drills and performance tests should closely mimic distances, work:rest ratios, and recovery times of those found during the most intense period of matches.

  6. High intensity laser beam propagation through a relativistic warm magnetoplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, S.; Jafari Milani, M. R.; Jafari, M. J.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, nonlinear aspects of a circularly polarized high intensity Gaussian laser beam propagating in a relativistic warm magnetized plasma are studied, taking into account the relativistic ponderomotive force. The differential equation governing the dimensionless beam width parameter is achieved and numerically solved by introducing the dielectric permittivity of such plasma and using the paraxial ray approximation. The effects of entrance laser intensity and its polarization state, external magnetic field, and electron temperature on the laser spot size evolution are studied. It is found that for both right and left-handed polarization states increasing initial laser intensity deteriorates the self-focusing mechanism while rising electron temperature improves it. It is also observed that enhancing magnetic field leads to faster and stronger self-focusing in the case of right-handed polarization and an attenuation in the self-focusing process in the case of left-handed one. In addition, the spatial distribution of normalized modified electron density as well as laser intensity profiles as a function of plasma length and beam radius is plotted and discussed for three self-focusing, self-trapping, and defocusing regimes.

  7. NIST Standard Reference Material 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew J; Zhang, Fan; Kline, R Joseph; Guthrie, William F; Ilavsky, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The certification of a new standard reference material for small-angle scattering [NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)], based on glassy carbon, is presented. Creation of this SRM relies on the intrinsic primary calibration capabilities of the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering technique. This article describes how the intensity calibration has been achieved and validated in the certified Q range, Q = 0.008-0.25 Å(-1), together with the purpose, use and availability of the SRM. The intensity calibration afforded by this robust and stable SRM should be applicable universally to all SAXS instruments that employ a transmission measurement geometry, working with a wide range of X-ray energies or wavelengths. The validation of the SRM SAXS intensity calibration using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is discussed, together with the prospects for including SANS in a future renewal certification.

  8. Transport of intense beams of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, M.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Spadtke, P.; Tinschert, K.

    2005-10-01

    The new generation of ion sources delivers beams with intensities of several mA. This requires a careful design of the analysing system and the low-energy beam transport (LEBT) from the source to the subsequent systems. At INFN-LNS, high intensity proton sources (TRIPS [L. Celona, G. Ciavola, S. Gammino et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5) 1423 (2004)], PM-TRIPS [G. Ciavola, L. Celona, S. Gammino et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5) 1453 (2004)]) as well as ECR ion sources for the production of highly charged high-intensity heavy ion beams are developed (SERSE [S. Gammino, G. Ciavola, L. Celona et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(11) 4090 (2001), and references therein], GyroSERSE [S. Gammino et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5) 1637 (2004)], MS-ECRIS [G. Ciavola et al ., (2005), 11th Int. Conf. on Ion Sources, Caen, (in press)]). In this paper, we present ion-optical design studies of various LEBT systems for ion-sources devoted to the production of intense beams. Calculations were performed using the computer codes GIOS [H. Wollnik, J. Brezina and M. Berz, NIM A 258 (1987)], GICO [M. Berz, H.C. Hoffmann, and H. Wollnik, NIM A 258 (1987)], and TRANSPORT [K.L. Brown, F. Rothacker and D.C. Carey, SLAC-R-95-462, Fermilab-Pub-95/069, UC-414 (1995)]. Simulations take into account the expected phase space growth of the beam emittance due to space-charge effects and image aberrations introduced by the magnetic elements.

  9. Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Sang-Kil; Geffert, Otfried; Santra, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Compton scattering is the nonresonant inelastic scattering of an x-ray photon by an electron and has been used to probe the electron momentum distribution in gas-phase and condensed-matter samples. In the low x-ray intensity regime, Compton scattering from atoms dominantly comes from bound electrons in neutral atoms, neglecting contributions from bound electrons in ions and free (ionized) electrons. In contrast, in the high x-ray intensity regime, the sample experiences severe ionization via x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics. Thus, it becomes necessary to take into account all the contributions to the Compton scattering signal when atoms are exposed to high-intensity x-ray pulses provided by x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). In this paper, we investigate the Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity, using an extension of the integrated x-ray atomic physics toolkit, xatom. As the x-ray fluence increases, there is a significant contribution from ionized electrons to the Compton spectra, which gives rise to strong deviations from the Compton spectra of neutral atoms. The present study provides not only understanding of the fundamental XFEL–matter interaction but also crucial information for single-particle imaging experiments, where Compton scattering is no longer negligible. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. B. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Sang-Kil Son was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. B as an Emerging Leader.

  10. Muscle fatigue during high-intensity exercise in children.

    PubMed

    Ratel, Sébastien; Duché, Pascale; Williams, Craig A

    2006-01-01

    Children are able to resist fatigue better than adults during one or several repeated high-intensity exercise bouts. This finding has been reported by measuring mechanical force or power output profiles during sustained isometric maximal contractions or repeated bouts of high-intensity dynamic exercises. The ability of children to better maintain performance during repeated high-intensity exercise bouts could be related to their lower level of fatigue during exercise and/or faster recovery following exercise. This may be explained by muscle characteristics of children, which are quantitatively and qualitatively different to those of adults. Children have less muscle mass than adults and hence, generate lower absolute power during high-intensity exercise. Some researchers also showed that children were equipped better for oxidative than glycolytic pathways during exercise, which would lead to a lower accumulation of muscle by-products. Furthermore, some reports indicated that the lower ability of children to activate their type II muscle fibres would also explain their greater resistance to fatigue during sustained maximal contractions. The lower accumulation of muscle by-products observed in children may be suggestive of a reduced metabolic signal, which induces lower ratings of perceived exertion. Factors such as faster phosphocreatine resynthesis, greater oxidative capacity, better acid-base regulation, faster readjustment of initial cardiorespiratory parameters and higher removal of metabolic by-products in children could also explain their faster recovery following high-intensity exercise.From a clinical point of view, muscle fatigue profiles are different between healthy children and children with muscle and metabolic diseases. Studies of dystrophic muscles in children indicated contradictory findings of changes in contractile properties and the muscle fatigability. Some have found that the muscle of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) fatigued less

  11. Survey of proposed high intensity accelerators and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schriber, S.O.

    1994-09-01

    Many interesting applications are being considered for high intensity accelerators. Implications of the technology developments that are enhancing these opportunities, or making them possible, will be covered in context of the applications. Applications include those for research (in areas such as material science, biological sciences, nuclear and high energy physics), accelerator-driven transmutation technologies, defense, and medicine. Specific examples will be used to demonstrate the impact that technology development can have and how transfer of this technology to industry can have an impact in the consumer and commercial arenas. Technology Development in rf power, controls, beam optics, rf structures, magnets, injectors, and beam halos will be considered.

  12. High-intensity positron microprobe at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Golge, Serkan; Vlahovic, Branislav; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-06-19

    We present a conceptual design for a novel continuous wave electron-linac based high-intensity slow-positron production source with a projected intensity on the order of 1010 e+/s. Reaching this intensity in our design relies on the transport of positrons (T+ below 600 keV) from the electron-positron pair production converter target to a low-radiation and low-temperature area for moderation in a high-efficiency cryogenic rare gas moderator, solid Ne. The performance of the integrated beamline has been verified through computational studies. The computational results include Monte Carlo calculations of the optimized electron/positron beam energies, converter target thickness, synchronized raster system, transport of the beam from the converter target to the moderator, extraction of the beam from the channel, and moderation efficiency calculations. For the extraction of positrons from the magnetic channel a magnetic field terminator plug prototype has been built and experimental data on the effectiveness of this prototype are presented. The dissipation of the heat away from the converter target and radiation protection measures are also discussed.

  13. High-intensity positron microprobe at Jefferson Lab

    DOE PAGES

    Golge, Serkan; Vlahovic, Branislav; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-06-19

    We present a conceptual design for a novel continuous wave electron-linac based high-intensity slow-positron production source with a projected intensity on the order of 1010 e+/s. Reaching this intensity in our design relies on the transport of positrons (T+ below 600 keV) from the electron-positron pair production converter target to a low-radiation and low-temperature area for moderation in a high-efficiency cryogenic rare gas moderator, solid Ne. The performance of the integrated beamline has been verified through computational studies. The computational results include Monte Carlo calculations of the optimized electron/positron beam energies, converter target thickness, synchronized raster system, transport of themore » beam from the converter target to the moderator, extraction of the beam from the channel, and moderation efficiency calculations. For the extraction of positrons from the magnetic channel a magnetic field terminator plug prototype has been built and experimental data on the effectiveness of this prototype are presented. The dissipation of the heat away from the converter target and radiation protection measures are also discussed.« less

  14. Resonant Auger Effect at High X-Ray Intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Rohringer, N; Santra, R

    2008-03-27

    The resonant Auger effect of atomic neon exposed to high-intensity x-ray radiation in resonance with the 1s {yields} 3p transition is discussed. High intensity here means that the x-ray peak intensity is sufficient ({approx} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) to induce Rabi oscillations between the neon ground state and the 1s{sup -1}3p ({sup 1}P) state within the relaxation lifetime of the inner-shell vacancy. For the numerical analysis presented, an effective two-level model, including a description of the resonant Auger decay process, is employed. Both coherent and chaotic x-ray pulses are treated. The latter are used to simulate radiation from x-ray free-electron lasers based on the principle of self-amplified spontaneous emission. Observing x-ray-driven atomic population dynamics in the time domain is challenging for chaotic pulse ensembles. A more practical option for experiments using x-ray free-electron lasers is to measure the line profiles in the kinetic energy distribution of the resonant Auger electron. This provides information on both atomic population dynamics and x-ray pulse properties.

  15. High-intensity laser-induced electron acceleration in vacuum.

    PubMed

    Wang, J X; Ho, Y K; Feng, L; Kong, Q; Wang, P X; Yuan, Z S; Scheid, W

    1999-12-01

    In this paper, an approximate pulsed-laser-beam solution of Maxwell's equation in vacuum is derived. Then with the numerical simulation method, electron acceleration induced by high-intensity [Q(0)=eE(0)/(m(e)omega c)=3] lasers is discussed in connection with the recent experiment of Malka et al. It is found that the maximum energy gain and the relationship between the final energy and the scattering angle can be well reproduced, but the polarization effect of electron-laser interactions is not very prominent. These results show that the ponderomotive potential model is still applicable, which means that the stimulated Compton scattering is the main fundamental mechanism responsible for the electron acceleration at this laser intensity.

  16. The Effects of Man-Marking on Work Intensity in Small-Sided Soccer Games

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Jake K.; Tsui, Man-Chung; Smith, Andrew W.; Carling, Christopher; Chan, Gar-Sun; Wong, Del P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating defensive rules: with and without man-marking (MM and NMM) on exercise intensity in 3 vs. 3 small- sided games (SSGs). Twelve adolescent soccer players (age: 16.2 ± 0.7 years; body mass: 55.7 ± 6.4 kg; body height: 1.70 ± 0.07 m) participated in this repeated measures study. Each participant performed in four different SSGs formats: 3 vs. 3 MM with and without goals and 3 vs. 3 NMM with and without goals. Each SSG lasted 3 x 4 minutes interspersed with 4 minutes passive recovery. The percentage heart rate reserve (%HRreserve) was recorded continuously during SSG and session-rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) after the SSG. MANOVA showed that defensive rule had significant effects on intensity (F = 5.37, p < 0.01). Specifically, MM during SSG induced significantly higher %HRreserve compared to NMM (Goal: 80.5 vs. 75.7%; No goal: 80.5 vs. 76.1%; p < 0.05, effect size = 0.91-1.06), irrespective of the presence or absence of goals. However, only MM with the presence of goals induced significant higher session-RPE compared to NMM (7.1 vs. 6. 0; p < 0.05, effect size = 1.36), whereas no difference in session-RPE was observed between MM and NMM (7.4 vs. 6.9; p > 0.05, effect size = 0.63) when no goals were used. Higher intra-class reliability and lower coefficient of variation values were also reported in MM as compared to NMM. This study in youth soccer players shows there is ~4.5% increase in heart rate response by using the man-marking in 3 vs. 3 SSG thus the intensity of SSG can be significantly increased when using man-marking tactics. Key pointsIntensity level of exercise during games can be raised if man-marking rule is adopted.No significant differences in perceived exertion were found in no goal SSG with and without man-marking.Adding goals in 3 vs. 3 SSG can lower perceived exertion without leading to large variations in intensity level. PMID:24149127

  17. Short-pulse high intensity laser thin foil interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audebert, Patrick

    2003-10-01

    The technology of ultrashort pulse laser generation has progressed to the point that optical pulses larger than 10 J, 300 fs duration or shorter are routinely produced. Such pulses can be focused to intensities exceeding 10^18 W/cm^2. With high contrast pulses, these focused intensities can be used to heat solid matter to high temperatures with minimal hydrodynamic expansion, producing an extremely high energy-density state of matter for a short period of time. This high density, high temperature plasma can be studied by x-ray spectroscopy. We have performed experiments on thin foils of different elements under well controlled conditions at the 100 Terawatt laser at LULI to study the characteristics X-ray emission of laser heated solids. To suppress the ASE effect, the laser was frequency doubled. S-polarized light with a peak intensity of 10^19W/cm^2 was used to minimize resonance absorption. To decrease the effect of longitudinal temperature gradients very thin (800 μ) aluminum foil targets were used. We have also studied the effect of radial gradient by limiting the measured x-ray emission zone using 50μ or 100μ pinhole on target. The spectra, in the range 7-8Å, were recorded using a conical crystal spectrometer coupled to a 800 fs resolution streak camera. A Fourier Domain Interferometry (FDI) of the back of the foil was also performed providing a measurement of the hydrodynamic expansion as function of time for each shot. To simulate the experiment, we used the 1D hydrodynamic code FILM with a given set of plasma parameter (ρ, Te) as initial conditions. The X-ray emission was calculated by post processing hydrodynamic results with a collisional-radiative model which uses super-configuration average atomic data. The simulation reproduces the main features of the experimental time resolved spectrum.

  18. The development of a high intensity dance performance fitness test.

    PubMed

    Redding, Emma; Weller, Peter; Ehrenberg, Shantel; Irvine, Sarah; Quin, Edel; Rafferty, Sonia; Wyon, Matthew; Cox, Carol

    2009-01-01

    While there is currently a validated dance-specific exercise method of measuring aerobic fitness, no such test has been developed to measure high intensity capabilities in dance. The purpose of this study was to initiate an intermittent high intensity dance-specific fitness test. The test was designed to be able to observe changes in heart rate (HR), thereby allowing for a measurement of physical fitness at high intensities. Sixteen professional dancers (4 males and 12 females) volunteered to take part in this study. The fitness test protocol consists of movements that are representative of contemporary dance, and contains exercise and rest periods that mimic the intermittent nature of dance. The participants performed four trials. The physiological variables measured were HR (b.min(-1)) for each one minute bout of the four minute test for all trials, oxygen uptake (VO(2)) throughout the test, and end blood lactate (BLa mmol.L) for each trial. In addition, five of the participants undertook a maximal oxygen uptake treadmill test, and the scores obtained were compared with those from the dance test. Results show HR consistency across each one minute bout of the test and across each of the four trials of testing for all participants, indicating that the test is reliable. There was good reliability between bouts of each trial (typical error as % of CV = 1.5), intraclass "r" = 0.8, and good reliability between the four trials (typical error as % of CV = 2.1), intraclass "r" = 0.82. There were no significant differences between the maximal VO(2) and BLa scores established in the treadmill and dance tests, demonstrating validity. Thus, the results of this study indicate that the high intensity dance-specific test is a reliable and valid means of assessing and monitoring the cardiovascular fitness of dancers. The test allows dancers to be assessed within an environment that they are accustomed to (the studio), using a mode of exercise that is relevant (dance), and it is

  19. Free-field propagation of high intensity noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welz, Joseph P.; Mcdaniel, Oliver H.

    1990-01-01

    Observed spectral data from supersonic jet aircraft are known to contain much more high frequency energy than can be explained by linear acoustic propagation theory. It is believed that the high frequency energy is an effect of nonlinear distortion due to the extremely high acoustic levels generated by the jet engines. The objective, to measure acoustic waveform distortion for spherically diverging high intensity noise, was reached by using an electropneumatic acoustic source capable of generating sound pressure levels in the range of 140 to 160 decibels (re 20 micro Pa). The noise spectrum was shaped to represent the spectra generated by jet engines. Two microphones were used to capture the acoustic pressure waveform at different points along the propagation path in order to provide a direct measure of the waveform distortion as well as spectral distortion. A secondary objective was to determine that the observed distortion is an acoustic effect. To do this an existing computer prediction code that deals with nonlinear acoustic propagation was used on data representative of the measured data. The results clearly demonstrate that high intensity jet noise does shift the energy in the spectrum to the higher frequencies along the propagation path. In addition, the data from the computer model are in good agreement with the measurements, thus demonstrating that the waveform distortion can be accounted for with nonlinear acoustic theory.

  20. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was

  1. Clinical evaluation of a small-volume infusion system in surgical intensive care patients.

    PubMed

    Illsley, S S; Swenson, E; Russo, J

    1984-05-01

    This study evaluated flow-rate accuracy, safety, and dependability of an infusion system manufactured by the 3M Company. The Small Volume Infusion (SVI) system is portable and consists of a mechanically powered infuser, calibrated flow-regulating set, and syringe. Intravenous fluids and drugs were administered to six surgical intensive care patients. Forty-one trials were carried out at infusion rates of 1, 10, or 30 ml/h. Flow rate varied less than or equal to 10 percent from the intended infusion rate in the majority of trials. One patient experienced pain at the injection site and one malfunction occurred. The SVI system is a safe, dependable alternative method for the administration of intravenous fluids and drugs. The device may prove to be particularly useful for the administration of drugs not requiring changes in flow rate during infusion or in situations where fluid restriction is desirable.

  2. Magnified Sediment Export of Small Mountainous Rivers in Taiwan: Chain Reactions from Increased Rainfall Intensity under Global Warming.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Yu; Huang, Jr-Chuan; Lee, Jun-Yi; Jien, Shih-Hao; Zehetner, Franz; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2015-01-01

    Fluvial sediment export from small mountainous rivers in Oceania has global biogeochemical significance affecting the turnover rate and export of terrestrial carbon, which might be speeding up at the recognized conditions of increased rainfall intensity. In this study, the historical runoff and sediment export from 16 major rivers in Taiwan are investigated and separated into an early stage (1970-1989) and a recent stage (1990-2010) to illustrate the changes of both runoff and sediment export. The mean daily sediment export from Taiwan Island in the recent stage significantly increased by >80% with subtle increase in daily runoff, indicating more sediment being delivered to the ocean per unit of runoff in the recent stage. The medians of the runoff depth and sediment yield extremes (99.0-99.9 percentiles) among the 16 rivers increased by 6.5%-37% and 62%-94%, respectively, reflecting the disproportionately magnified response of sediment export to the increased runoff. Taiwan is facing increasing event rainfall intensity which has resulted in chain reactions on magnified runoff and sediment export responses. As the globe is warming, rainfall extremes, which are proved to be temperature-dependent, very likely intensify runoff and trigger more sediment associated hazards. Such impacts might occur globally because significant increases of high-intensity precipitation have been observed not only in Taiwan but over most land areas of the globe.

  3. Magnified Sediment Export of Small Mountainous Rivers in Taiwan: Chain Reactions from Increased Rainfall Intensity under Global Warming

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tsung-Yu; Huang, Jr-Chuan; Lee, Jun-Yi; Jien, Shih-Hao; Zehetner, Franz; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2015-01-01

    Fluvial sediment export from small mountainous rivers in Oceania has global biogeochemical significance affecting the turnover rate and export of terrestrial carbon, which might be speeding up at the recognized conditions of increased rainfall intensity. In this study, the historical runoff and sediment export from 16 major rivers in Taiwan are investigated and separated into an early stage (1970–1989) and a recent stage (1990–2010) to illustrate the changes of both runoff and sediment export. The mean daily sediment export from Taiwan Island in the recent stage significantly increased by >80% with subtle increase in daily runoff, indicating more sediment being delivered to the ocean per unit of runoff in the recent stage. The medians of the runoff depth and sediment yield extremes (99.0–99.9 percentiles) among the 16 rivers increased by 6.5%-37% and 62%-94%, respectively, reflecting the disproportionately magnified response of sediment export to the increased runoff. Taiwan is facing increasing event rainfall intensity which has resulted in chain reactions on magnified runoff and sediment export responses. As the globe is warming, rainfall extremes, which are proved to be temperature-dependent, very likely intensify runoff and trigger more sediment associated hazards. Such impacts might occur globally because significant increases of high-intensity precipitation have been observed not only in Taiwan but over most land areas of the globe. PMID:26372356

  4. Sympathetic and sensory innervation of small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells in rat superior cervical ganglion.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Fumiya; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Kusakabe, Tatsumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2015-02-01

    The sympathetic ganglion contains small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells derived from the neural crest. We morphologically characterize SIF cells and focus on their relationship with ganglionic cells, preganglionic nerve fibers and sensory nerve endings. SIF cells stained intensely for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), with a few cells also being immunoreactive for dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH). Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)-immunoreactive puncta were distributed around some clusters of SIF cells, whereas some SIF cells closely abutted DBH-immunoreactive ganglionic cells. SIF cells contained bassoon-immunoreactive products beneath the cell membrane at the attachments and on opposite sites to the ganglionic cells. Ganglion neurons and SIF cells were immunoreactive to dopamine D2 receptors. Immunohistochemistry for P2X3 revealed ramified nerve endings with P2X3 immunoreactivity around SIF cells. Triple-labeling for P2X3, TH and VAChT allowed the classification of SIF cells into three types based on their innervation: (1) with only VAChT-immunoreactive puncta, (2) with only P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings, (3) with both P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings and VAChT-immunoreactive puncta. The results of retrograde tracing with fast blue dye indicated that most of these nerve endings originated from the petrosal ganglion. Thus, SIF cells in the superior cervical ganglion are innervated by preganglionic fibers and glossopharyngeal sensory nerve endings and can be classified into three types. SIF cells might modulate sympathetic activity in the superior cervical ganglion.

  5. Effects of intensity and duration in aerobic high-intensity interval training in highly trained junior cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Sandbakk, Silvana B; Ettema, Gertjan; Welde, Boye

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training is more effective than shorter intervals at a higher intensity in highly trained endurance athletes. The sample comprised of 12 male and 9 female, national-level, junior cross-country skiers (age, 17.5 ± 0.4 years, maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max): 67.4 ± 7.7 ml min kg), who performed 8-week baseline and 8-week intervention training periods on dry land. During the intervention period, a short-interval group (SIG, n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with short duration intervals (2- to 4-minute bouts, total duration of 15-20 minutes), a long-interval group (LIG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with long duration intervals (5- to 10-minute bouts, total duration of 40-45 minutes). The interval sessions were performed with the athletes' maximal sustainable intensity. A control group (CG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with low-intensity endurance training at 65-74% of maximal heart rate. Before and after the intervention period, the skiers were tested for time-trial performance on 12-km roller-ski skating and 7-km hill run. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold (V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT) were measured during treadmill running. After the intervention training period, the LIG-improved 12-km roller ski, 7-km hill run, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT by 6.8 ± 4.0%, 4.8 ± 2.6%, 3.7 ± 1.6%, and 5.8 ± 3.3%, respectively, from pre- to posttesting, and improved both performance tests and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT when compared with the SIG and the CG (all p < 0.05). The SIG improved V[Combining Dot Above]O2max by 3.5 ± 3.2% from pre- to posttesting (p < 0.05), whereas the CG remained unchanged. As hypothesized, a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training improved endurance performance and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold more than shorter intervals at a higher

  6. Nitrate contamination of water resources in a small catchment with intensive livestock facilities in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, N.

    2003-04-01

    The study area is a small catchment developed along a stream, Hwabong-chun, running toward north, with a length of about 4 km. Because of gentle slopes of the area, land is utilized for various agricultural activities in different scales including paddy fields, grape vineyards, and intensive livestock facilities of swine, cow and poultry. In this area, groundwater is the main source of domestic and agricultural water-supply, and appears to be under severe risk of contamination from various potential sources. Therefore, this study was initiated to identify the extent and sources of groundwater contamination by nitrate. A total of 49 groundwater and surface-water samples were collected in February and April 2002, and concentrations of dissolved constituents and nitrogen-isotope ratio of nitrate were analyzed. Little change of concentrations of dissolved ions in samples of Feb. and Apr. implies that spring discharge of groundwater might not occur yet. About 77% of groundwater samples have NO3-N concentrations of greater than 3 mg/L, indicating their origins from anthropogenic sources at surface. About 37% of samples detected NO3-N levels higher than 10 mg/L, Korean Drinking Water Guidelines. Although groundwater is being used for domestic uses during the winter season, nitrate levels show no significant changes between February and April. This implies that the sources would be large enough to continuously discharge nitrate into the groundwater system. Correlation matrix shows Na, Ca, Cl, NO3-N, SO4 moving together in the groundwater system. Results of Principal Component Analysis(PCA) indicate these constituents are the most dominant factor controlling groundwater quality in the area. Seepages from a swine farm and a poultry farm were analyzed and show significantly elevated concentrations of K, Na, Ca, Cl, NH4, PO4, SO4. Considering low mobility of K and PO4 and transformation of NH4 to NO3 in the shallow subsurface environments, those water-quality controlling

  7. High School Small Animal Laboratory--Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Alan

    1974-01-01

    An Ohio vocational school Small Animal Care program prepares students for entry level employment as veterinary assistants, pet shop salesmen, kennel workers, animal groomers, Humane Society workers, laboratory animal assistants, and riding stable assistants. (EA)

  8. High School Small Animal Laboratory--Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Alan

    1974-01-01

    An Ohio vocational school Small Animal Care program prepares students for entry level employment as veterinary assistants, pet shop salesmen, kennel workers, animal groomers, Humane Society workers, laboratory animal assistants, and riding stable assistants. (EA)

  9. HIGH INTENSITY PERFORMANCE AND UPGRADES AT THE BROOKHAVEN AGS

    SciTech Connect

    ROSER,T.

    1998-05-04

    Fig. 1 shows the present layout of the AGS-RHIC accelerator complex. The high intensity proton beam of the AGS is used both for the slow-extracted-beam (SEB) area with many target station to produce secondary beams and the fast-extracted-beam (FEB) line used for the production of muons for the g-2 experiment and for high intensity target testing for the spallation neutron sources and muon production targets for the muon collider. The same FEB line will also be used for the transfer of beam to RHIC. The proton beam intensity in the AGS has increased steadily over the 35 year existence of the AGS, but the most dramatic increase occurred over the last couple of years with the addition of the new AGS Booster[1]. In Fig. 2 the history of the AGS intensity improvements is shown and the major upgrades are indicated. The AGS Booster has one quarter the circumference of the AGS and therefore allows four Booster beam pulses to be stacked in the AGS at an injection energy of 1.5--1.9 GeV. At this increased energy, space charge forces are much reduced and this in turn allows for the dramatic increase in the AGS beam intensity. The 200 MeV LINAC is being used both for the injection into the Booster as well as an isotope production facility. A recent upgrade of the LINAC rf system made it possible to operated at an average H{sup {minus}} current of 150 {micro}A and a maximum of 12 x 10{sup 13} H{sup {minus}} per 500 {micro}s LINAC pulse for the isotope production target. Typical beam currents during the 500 {micro}s pulse are about 80 mA at the source, 60 mA after the 750 keV RFQ, 38 mA after the first LINAC tank (10 MeV), and 37 mA at end of the LINAC at 200 MeV. The normalized beam emittance is about 2 {pi} mm mrad for 95% of the beam and the beam energy spread is about {+-}1.2 MeV. A magnetic fast chopper installed at 750 keV allows the shaping of the beam injected into the Booster to avoid excessive beam loss.

  10. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light sources (although the MV exhibits poor color rendering) and HPS produces a yellow-orange color light. A fourth lamp, low-pressure sodium (LPS), is not a HID lamp by definition, but it is used in similar applications and thus is often grouped with HID lamps. With the notable exception of MV which is comparatively inefficient and in decline in the US from both a sales and installed stock point of view; HPS, LPS and MH all have efficacies over 100 lumens per watt. The figure below presents the efficacy trends over time for commercially available HID lamps and LPS, starting with MV and LPS in 1930's followed by the development of HPS and MH in the 1960's. In HID lamps, light is generated by creating an electric arc between two electrodes in an arc tube. The particles in the arc are partially ionized, making them electrically conductive, and a light-emitting 'plasma' is created. This arc occurs within the arc tube, which for most HID lamps is enclosed within an evacuated outer bulb that thermally isolates and protects the hot arc tube from the surroundings. Unlike a fluorescent lamp that produces visible light through down-converting UV light with phosphors, the arc itself is the light source in an HID lamp, emitting visible radiation that is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma. Thus, the mixture of elements included in the arc tube is one critical factor determining the quality of the light emitted from the lamp, including its correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Similar to fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain stable operating conditions, and

  11. High Intensity 2-Photon Photoassociation Spectroscopy of Strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, S. B.; Martinez, Y. N.; Mickelson, P. G.; Killian, T. C.

    2007-06-01

    We perform high intensity, 2-photon photoassociation spectroscopy near the 461 nm ^1S0-^1P1 transition of strontium to determine the binding energy of the least bound level in the ground state atomic potential. Previous work by our group has constrained the value of the s-wave scattering length in both ^86Sr and ^88Sr. This work provides a more precise value of the s-wave scattering lengths using the newly-determined binding energy, thus informing efforts to attain quantum degeneracy in strontium.

  12. High intensity positron beam and angular correlation experiments at Livermore

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R.H.; Rosenberg, I.J.; Meyer, P.; Fluss, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    A positron beam apparatus that produces a variable energy positron beam with sufficient intensity to perform new positron experiments in an ultrahigh vacuum environment has been installed at the Lawrence Livermore 100 MeV electron linac. We have installed two large area position sensitive gamma-ray detectors to measure angular correlations in two dimensions and a separate highly collimated detector to measure positronium energy distributions by time-of-flight velocity determination. Data from measurements on single crystals of Cu will be described.

  13. High-intensity tone generation by aeroacoustic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out on the production of high-intensity tones by axisymmetric ring cavities. Maximum sound production occurs during an acoustic resonance at Strouhal numbers, which depend only on the local flow velocity independent of cavity location. Values of sound pressure of about 115 dB at 1-m distance can be generated by axisymmetric ring cavities on projectiles moving at a relatively low flight speed equal to 70 m/s. Frequencies in the audible range up to several kilohertz can be generated aeroacoustically. A simple analytical model has been developed to explain the experimental observations.

  14. Beam instrumentation for future high intense hadron accelerators at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, M.; Hu, M.; Tassotto, G.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Scarpine, V.; Shin, S.; Zagel, J.; /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    High intensity hadron beams of up to 2 MW beam power are a key element of new proposed experimental facilities at Fermilab. Project X, which includes a SCRF 8 GeV H{sup -} linac, will be the centerpiece of future HEP activities in the neutrino sector. After a short overview of this, and other proposed projects, we present the current status of the beam instrumentation activities at Fermilab with a few examples. With upgrades and improvements they can meet the requirements of the new beam facilities, however design and development of new instruments is needed, as shown by the prototype and conceptual examples in the last section.

  15. Lead paint removal with high-intensity light pulses.

    PubMed

    Grapperhaus, Michael J; Schaefer, Raymond B

    2006-12-15

    This paper presents the results of an initial investigation into using high-intensity incoherent light pulses to strip paint. Measurements of light pulse characteristics, the reflectivity of different paints and initial experiments on the threshold for paint removal, and paint removal are presented, along with an approximate model consistent with experimental results. Paint removal tests include lead paint, the reduction of lead levels to below levels required for lead abatement, as well as air and light emissions measurements that are within regulatory guidelines.

  16. Fast damping in mismatched high intensity beam transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variale, V.

    2001-08-01

    A very fast damping of beam envelope oscillation amplitudes was recently observed in simulations of high intensity beam transport, through periodic FODO cells, in mismatched conditions [V. Variale, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 112A, 1571-1582 (1999) and T. Clauser et al., in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, 1999 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1999), p. 1779]. A Landau damping mechanism was proposed at the origin of observed effect. In this paper, to further investigate the source of this fast damping, extensive simulations have been carried out. The results presented here support the interpretation of the mechanism at the origin of the fast damping as a Landau damping effect.

  17. ELECTRON COUD DYNAMICS IN HIGH-INTENSITY RINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    WANG, L.; WEI, J.

    2005-05-16

    Electron cloud due to beam-induced multipacting is one of the main concerns for the high intensity. Electrons generated and accumulated inside the beam pipe form an ''electron cloud'' that interacts with the circulating charged particle beam. With sizeable amount of electrons, this interaction can cause beam instability, beam loss and emittance growth. At the same time, the vacuum pressure will rise due to electron desorption. This talk intends to provide an overview of the mechanism and dynamics of the typical electron multipacting in various magnetic fields and mitigation measures with different beams.

  18. Nanoplasma Formation by High Intensity Hard X-rays

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, T.; Jurek, Z.; Fukuzawa, H.; Motomura, K.; Nagaya, K.; Wada, S.; Johnsson, P.; Siano, M.; Mondal, S.; Ito, Y.; Kimura, M.; Sakai, T.; Matsunami, K.; Hayashita, H.; Kajikawa, J.; Liu, X.-J.; Robert, E.; Miron, C.; Feifel, R.; Marangos, J. P.; Tono, K.; Inubushi, Y.; Yabashi, M.; Son, S.-K.; Ziaja, B.; Yao, M.; Santra, R.; Ueda, K.

    2015-01-01

    Using electron spectroscopy, we have investigated nanoplasma formation from noble gas clusters exposed to high-intensity hard-x-ray pulses at ~5 keV. Our experiment was carried out at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron LAser (SACLA) facility in Japan. Dedicated theoretical simulations were performed with the molecular dynamics tool XMDYN. We found that in this unprecedented wavelength regime nanoplasma formation is a highly indirect process. In the argon clusters investigated, nanoplasma is mainly formed through secondary electron cascading initiated by slow Auger electrons. Energy is distributed within the sample entirely through Auger processes and secondary electron cascading following photoabsorption, as in the hard x-ray regime there is no direct energy transfer from the field to the plasma. This plasma formation mechanism is specific to the hard-x-ray regime and may, thus, also be important for XFEL-based molecular imaging studies. In xenon clusters, photo- and Auger electrons contribute more significantly to the nanoplasma formation. Good agreement between experiment and simulations validates our modelling approach. This has wide-ranging implications for our ability to quantitatively predict the behavior of complex molecular systems irradiated by high-intensity hard x-rays. PMID:26077863

  19. CW high intensity non-scaling FFAG proton drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, C.; Berz, M.; Makino, K.; Snopok, P.; /IIT, Chicago

    2011-04-01

    Accelerators are playing increasingly important roles in basic science, technology, and medicine including nuclear power, industrial irradiation, material science, and neutrino production. Proton and light-ion accelerators in particular have many research, energy and medical applications, providing one of the most effective treatments for many types of cancer. Ultra high-intensity and high-energy (GeV) proton drivers are a critical technology for accelerator-driven sub-critical reactors (ADS) and many HEP programs (Muon Collider). These high-intensity GeV-range proton drivers are particularly challenging, encountering duty cycle and space-charge limits in the synchrotron and machine size concerns in the weaker-focusing cyclotrons; a 10-20 MW proton driver is not presently considered technically achievable with conventional re-circulating accelerators. One, as-yet, unexplored re-circulating accelerator, the Fixed-field Alternating Gradient, or FFAG, is an attractive alternative to the cyclotron. Its strong focusing optics are expected to mitigate space charge effects, and a recent innovation in design has coupled stable tunes with isochronous orbits, making the FFAG capable of fixed-frequency, CW acceleration, as in the classical cyclotron. This paper reports on these new advances in FFAG accelerator technology and references advanced modeling tools for fixed-field accelerators developed for and unique to the code COSY INFINITY.

  20. Transcranial Clot Lysis Using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölscher, Thilo; Zadicario, Eyal; Fisher, David J.; Bradley, William G.

    2010-03-01

    Stroke is the third common cause of death worldwide. The majority of strokes are caused by sudden vessel occlusion, due to a blood clot. Vessel recanalization is the primary goal of all acute stroke treatment strategies. Initial data using ultrasound in combination with a therapeutic agent for clot lysis in stroke are promising. However, sound absorption and defocusing of the ultrasound beam occur during transskull insonation, limiting the efficiency of this approach to high extent. Using a transskull High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) head system we were able to lyse blood clots within seconds and in absence of further lytic agents. We could show that any correction for the distortion might be negligible to focus the ultrasound beam after transskull insonation. The use of transskull HIFU for immediate clot lysis in the human brain without the need of further drugs and disregarding individual skull bone characteristics could become a successful strategy in early stroke treatment. Using magnetic resonance tomography for neuronavigation MRI Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound has the potential to open new avenues for therapeutic applications in the brain including Stroke, Intracranial Hemorrhages, Braintumors, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Thalamic Pain, BBB opening, and local drug delivery. First results in transcranial clot lysis will be presented in this paper.

  1. High Intensity X-Ray Coupling to Meteorite Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remo, J. L.; Furnish, M. D.; Hammerling, P.

    2001-06-01

    The responses of iron-nickel and stony meteorite samples to high-intensity X-ray pulses (70 - 215 GW/cm^2) pulses generated by exploding wire array hohlraums from the Sandia Z machine are reported. Induced shock waves created particle velocities of 25 - 75 m/s after rarefaction overtake, as measured by VISAR. From these values both momentum and energy coupling coefficients were obtained. These results are compared to recent high-powered-pulsed ( 1 GW/cm2 for 20 ns) 1054 nm laser induced shock pressures and momentum transfer, and energy coupling to iron-rich and stony meteorite targets (J. L. Remo et al, Laser and Particle Beams, 17, 25-44, 1999). These comparisons provide data on the scaling of shock induced effects on inhomogeneous materials in general and meteoritic materials in particular. The combination of both of these experiments extends the regime of high intensity pulsed energy deposition on non-homogeneous materials from the GW/cm^2 to 100's of GW/cm^2, providing valuable empirical insights into the shock critical equations of state and coupling responses. Application to astrophysical and geophysical modeling will be discussed.

  2. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Tumor Therapy System and Its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fucheng; He, Ye; Li, Rui

    2007-05-01

    At the end of last century, a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) tumor therapy system was successfully developed and manufactured in China, which has been already applied to clinical therapy. This article aims to discuss the HIFU therapy system and its application. Detailed research includes the following: power amplifiers for high-power ultrasound, ultrasound transducers with large apertures, accurate 3-D mechanical drives, a software control system (both high-voltage control and low-voltage control), and the B-mode ultrasonic diagnostic equipment used for treatment monitoring. Research on the dosage of ultrasound required for tumour therapy in multiple human cases has made it possible to relate a dosage formula, presented in this paper, to other significant parameters such as the volume of thermal tumor solidification, the acoustic intensity (I), and the ultrasound emission time (tn). Moreover, the HIFU therapy system can be applied to the clinical treatment of both benign and malignant tumors in the pelvic and abdominal cavity, such as uterine fibroids, liver cancer and pancreatic carcinoma.

  3. Disease-Control Rates Following Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Small Primary Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Garden, Adam S.; Morrison, William H.; Wong, Pei-Fong; Tung, Sam S.; Rosenthal, David I.; Dong, Lei; Mason, Brian; Perkins, George H.; Ang, K. Kian

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to achieve favorable disease-control rates while minimizing parotid gland doses in patients treated for small primary tumors of the oropharynx. Methods We retrospectively identified all patients who received IMRT as treatment for a small (< 4 cm) primary tumor of the oropharynx from October 2000 through June 2002. Tumor characteristics, IMRT parameters, and patient outcomes were assessed. Results Fifty-one patients met the criteria for our study. All patients had treatment to gross disease with margin (CTV1), and all but 1 had treatment to the bilateral necks. The most common treatment schedule (39 patients) was a once-daily fractionation of prescribed doses of 63 - 66 Gy to the CTV1 and 54 Gy to subclinical sites, delivered in 30 fractions. Twenty-one patients (40%) had gastrostomy tubes placed during therapy; in 4 patients, the tube remained in place for more than 6 months following completion of IMRT. The median follow-up was 45 months. The 2-year actuarial local-regional control, recurrence-free, and overall survival rates were 94%, 88%, and 94%, respectively. Conclusions These preliminary data suggest that treatment with IMRT results in favorable local-regional control of small primary oropharynx tumors. IMRT did not appear to have a more favorable acute toxicity profile in this group with respect to the use of a feeding tube; however, the mean dose of radiation delivered to the parotid gland by IMRT was decreased, as 95% of patients had a mean dose of < 30 Gy to at least one gland. PMID:17141972

  4. Disease-control rates following intensity-modulated radiation therapy for small primary oropharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Garden, Adam S. . E-mail: agarden@mdanderson.org; Morrison, William H.; Wong, P.-F.; Tung, Sam S.; Rosenthal, David I.; Dong Lei; Mason, Brian M.S.; Perkins, George H.; Ang, K. Kian

    2007-02-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to achieve favorable disease-control rates while minimizing parotid gland doses in patients treated for small primary tumors of the oropharynx. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified all patients who received IMRT as treatment for a small (<4 cm) primary tumor of the oropharynx between October 2000 and June 2002. Tumor characteristics, IMRT parameters, and patient outcomes were assessed. Results: Fifty-one patients met the criteria for our study. All patients had treatment to gross disease with margin (CTV1), and all but 1 had treatment to the bilateral necks. The most common treatment schedule (39 patients) was a once-daily fractionation of prescribed doses of 63-66 Gy to the CTV1 and 54 Gy to subclinical sites, delivered in 30 fractions. Twenty-one patients (40%) had gastrostomy tubes placed during therapy; in 4 patients, the tube remained in place for more than 6 months after completion of IMRT. The median follow-up was 45 months. The 2-year actuarial locoregional control, recurrence-free, and overall survival rates were 94%, 88%, and 94%, respectively. Conclusions: These preliminary data suggest that treatment with IMRT results in favorable locoregional control of small primary oropharynx tumors. IMRT did not appear to have a more favorable acute toxicity profile in this group with respect to the use of a feeding tube; however, the mean dose of radiation delivered to the parotid gland by IMRT was decreased, because 95% of patients had a mean dose of <30 Gy to at least one gland.

  5. Diet composition and the performance of high-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L; Leiper, J B; Ball, D; Lambert, C P; Gleeson, M

    1997-06-01

    The crucial role of muscle glycogen as a fuel during prolonged exercise is well established, and the effects of acute changes in dietary carbohydrate intake on muscle glycogen content and on endurance capacity are equally well known. More recently, it has been recognized that diet can also affect the performance of high-intensity exercise of short (2-7 min) duration. If the muscle glycogen content is lowered by prolonged (1-1.5 h) exhausting cycle exercise, and is subsequently kept low for 3-4 days by consumption of a diet deficient in carbohydrate (< 5% of total energy intake), there is a dramatic (approximately 10-30%) reduction in exercise capacity during cycling sustainable for about 5 min. The same effect is observed if exercise is preceded by 3-4 days on a carbohydrate-restricted diet or by a 24 h total fast without prior depletion of the muscle glycogen. Consumption of a diet high in carbohydrate (70% of total energy intake from carbohydrate) for 3-4 days before exercise improves exercise capacity during high-intensity exercise, although this effect is less consistent. The blood lactate concentration is always lower at the point of fatigue after a diet low in carbohydrate and higher after a diet high in carbohydrate than after a normal diet. Even when the duration of the exercise task is kept constant, the blood lactate concentration is higher after exercise on a diet high in carbohydrate than on a diet low in carbohydrate. Consumption of a low-carbohydrate isoenergetic diet is achieved by an increased intake of protein and fat. A high-protein diet, particularly when combined with a low carbohydrate intake, results in metabolic acidosis, which ensues within 24 h and persists for at least 4 days. This appears to be the result of an increase in the circulating concentrations of strong organic acids, particularly free fatty acids and 3-hydroxybutyrate, together with an increase in the total plasma protein concentration. This acidosis, rather than any decrease

  6. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise.

    PubMed

    Thum, Jacob S; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor; Astorino, Todd A

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05) and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05) in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus.

  7. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Thum, Jacob S.; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05) and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05) in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus. Trial Registration: NCT:02981667. PMID:28076352

  8. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S.; Sommer, Toby J.; Zimmerman, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sweeteners in tobacco products may influence use initiation and reinforcement, with special appeal to adolescents. Recent analytical studies of smokeless tobacco products (snuff, snus, dissolvables) detected flavorants identical to those added to confectionary products such as hard candy and chewing gum. However, these studies did not determine the levels of sweeteners. The objective of the present study was to quantify added sweeteners in smokeless tobacco products, a dissolvable product, electronic cigarette liquids and to compare with sweetener levels in confectionary products. Methods: Sweetener content of US-sourced smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarette liquid, and confectionary product samples was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Results: All smokeless products contained synthetic high intensity sweeteners, with snus and dissolvables exceeding levels in confectionary products (as much as 25-fold). All snus samples contained sucralose and most also aspartame, but no saccharin. In contrast, all moist snuff samples contained saccharin. The dissolvable sample contained sucralose and sorbitol. Ethyl maltol was the most common sweet-associated component in electronic cigarette liquids. Discussion: Sweetener content was dependent on product category, with saccharin in moist snuff, an older category, sucralose added at high levels to more recently introduced products (snus, dissolvable) and ethyl maltol in electronic cigarette liquid. The very high sweetener concentrations may be necessary for the consumer to tolerate the otherwise aversive flavors of tobacco ingredients. Regulation of sweetener levels in smokeless tobacco products may be an effective measure to modify product attractiveness, initiation and use patterns. Implications: Dissolvables, snus and electronic cigarettes have been promoted as risk-mitigation products due to their relatively low content of nitrosamines and other tobacco

  9. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S; Sommer, Toby J; Zimmerman, Julie B; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2016-11-01

    Sweeteners in tobacco products may influence use initiation and reinforcement, with special appeal to adolescents. Recent analytical studies of smokeless tobacco products (snuff, snus, dissolvables) detected flavorants identical to those added to confectionary products such as hard candy and chewing gum. However, these studies did not determine the levels of sweeteners. The objective of the present study was to quantify added sweeteners in smokeless tobacco products, a dissolvable product, electronic cigarette liquids and to compare with sweetener levels in confectionary products. Sweetener content of US-sourced smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarette liquid, and confectionary product samples was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). All smokeless products contained synthetic high intensity sweeteners, with snus and dissolvables exceeding levels in confectionary products (as much as 25-fold). All snus samples contained sucralose and most also aspartame, but no saccharin. In contrast, all moist snuff samples contained saccharin. The dissolvable sample contained sucralose and sorbitol. Ethyl maltol was the most common sweet-associated component in electronic cigarette liquids. Sweetener content was dependent on product category, with saccharin in moist snuff, an older category, sucralose added at high levels to more recently introduced products (snus, dissolvable) and ethyl maltol in electronic cigarette liquid. The very high sweetener concentrations may be necessary for the consumer to tolerate the otherwise aversive flavors of tobacco ingredients. Regulation of sweetener levels in smokeless tobacco products may be an effective measure to modify product attractiveness, initiation and use patterns. Dissolvables, snus and electronic cigarettes have been promoted as risk-mitigation products due to their relatively low content of nitrosamines and other tobacco toxicants. This study is the first to quantify high

  10. Multifunctional pulse generator for high-intensity focused ultrasound system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamano, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can achieve high spatial resolution for the treatment of diseases. A major technical challenge in implementing a HIFU therapeutic system is to generate high-voltage high-current signals for effectively exciting a multichannel HIFU transducer at high efficiencies. In this paper, we present the development of a multifunctional multichannel generator/driver. The generator can produce a long burst as well as an extremely high-voltage short pulse of pseudosinusoidal waves (trigger HIFU) and second-harmonic superimposed waves for HIFU transmission. The transmission timing, waveform, and frequency can be controlled using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) via a universal serial bus (USB) microcontroller. The hardware is implemented in a compact printed circuit board. The test results of trigger HIFU reveal that the power consumption and the temperature rise of metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors were reduced by 19.9% and 38.2 °C, respectively, from the previous design. The highly flexible performance of the novel generator/driver is demonstrated in the generation of second-harmonic superimposed waves, which is useful for cavitation-enhanced HIFU treatment, although the previous design exhibited difficulty in generating it.

  11. Free-field propagation of high intensity noise. [supersonic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdaniel, O. H.; Roth, S. D.; Welz, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Research on high intensity (finite amplitude) acoustic waves shows that nonlinear distortion effects generally result in a shift of energy to higher frequencies. The higher intensities associated with supersonic jets would therefore indicate that high frequency enhancement of the spectrum should occur, resulting in the differences observed between subsonic and supersonic jets. A 10,000 acoustic watt source installed in an anechoic chamber generates sound levels such that acoustic shocks are readily observable. Dual frequency excitation of the source produces a strong parametric effect with a difference frequency comparable in level to the primary frequency. The test set up and recording equipment being used to determine the finite amplitude noise representative of an actual supersonic jet are described as well as the development of a computer program based on Burger's equation. The spectra of 1/2 octave band, 1 kHz sine wave, and dual frequency input and output are presented in graphs along with waveforms at Z = .025, 0.1, and 1.0.

  12. Formation of a high intensity low energy positron string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Syresin, E. M.; Itahashi, T.; Dubinov, A. E.

    2004-05-01

    The possibility of a high intensity low energy positron beam production is discussed. The proposed Positron String Trap (PST) is based on the principles and technology of the Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) developed in JINR during the last decade. A linear version of ESIS has been used successfully for the production of intense highly charged ion beams of various elements. Now the Tubular Electron String Ion Source (TESIS) concept is under study and this opens really new promising possibilities in physics and technology. In this report, we discuss the application of the tubular-type trap for the storage of positrons cooled to the cryogenic temperatures of 0.05 meV. It is intended that the positron flux at the energy of 1-5 eV, produced by the external source, is injected into the Tubular Positron Trap which has a similar construction as the TESIS. Then the low energy positrons are captured in the PST Penning trap and are cooled down because of their synchrotron radiation in the strong (5-10 T) applied magnetic field. It is expected that the proposed PST should permit storing and cooling to cryogenic temperature of up to 5×109 positrons. The accumulated cooled positrons can be used further for various physics applications, for example, antihydrogen production.

  13. Endurance capacity and high-intensity exercise performance responses to a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Jesse; Sharman, Matthew J; Avery, Neva G; Love, Dawn M; Gómez, Ana L; Scheett, Timothy P; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2003-12-01

    The effects of adaptation to a high-fat diet on endurance performance are equivocal, and there is little data regarding the effects on high-intensity exercise performance. This study examined the effects of a high-fat/moderate protein diet on submaximal, maximal, and supramaximal performance. Twenty non-highly trained men were assigned to either a high-fat/moderate protein (HFMP; 61% fat diet) (n = 12) or a control (C; 25% fat) group (n = 8). A maximal oxygen consumption test, two 30-s Wingate anaerobic tests, and a 45-min timed ride were performed before and after 6 weeks of diet and training. Body mass decreased significantly (-2.2 kg; p < or = .05) in HFMP subjects. Maximal oxygen consumption significantly decreased in the HFMP group (3.5 +/- 0.14 to 3.27 +/- 0.09 L x min(-1)) but was unaffected when corrected for body mass. Perceived exertion was significantly higher during this test in the HFMP group. Main time effects indicated that peak and mean power decreased significantly during bout 1 of the Wingate sprints in the HFMP (-10 and -20%, respectively) group but not the C (-8 and -16%, respectively) group. Only peak power was lower during bout 1 in the HFMP group when corrected for body mass. Despite significantly reduced RER values in the HFMP group during the 45-min cycling bout, work output was significantly decreased (-18%). Adaptation to a 6-week HFMP diet in non-highly trained men resulted in increased fat oxidation during exercise and small decrements in peak power output and endurance performance. These deleterious effects on exercise performance may be accounted for in part by a reduction in body mass and/or increased ratings of perceived exertion.

  14. Efficacy of high intensity atorvastatin versus moderate intensity atorvastatin for acute coronary syndrome patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Xu, Yueqiao; Hao, Hengjian; Yin, Chunlin; Xu, Ji; Li, Jing; Wang, Yanling; Xu, Dong

    2016-11-01

    To investigate whether more benefits can be achieved through high intensity atorvastatin compared with moderate intensity atorvastatin in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This was a randomized controlled trail. Total 591 ACS patients with DM who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention were enrolled, 297 in high intensity atorvastatin group (40mg/day) and 294 in moderate intensity atorvastatin group (20mg/day). The primary end point was one-year incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, including cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, unplanned revascularization). Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to analyze the association between clinical endpoints and atorvastatin treatment. At the end of one-year, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was lower in high intensity group than in moderate group (1.6±0.6 vs 1.8±0.6, p=0.041). MACE in high intensity group decreased 44.5% than moderate group (8.4% vs. 14.6%, p=0.018). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for MACE in patients with atorvastatin 40mg/d was lower compared to patients with atorvastatin 20mg/d (HR [95% CI] 0.61 [0.36 to 0.91], p=0.026). The rates of adverse events were no significantly different between the two groups. For ACS patients with DM, high intensity atorvastatin induced better long-term outcomes compared with moderate intensity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is under high mortality but has few effective treatment modalities. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is becoming an emerging approach of noninvasively ablating solid tumor in clinics. A variety of solid tumors have been tried on thousands of patients in the last fifteen years with great success. The principle, mechanism, and clinical outcome of HIFU were introduced first. All 3022 clinical cases of HIFU treatment for the advanced pancreatic cancer alone or in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy in 241 published papers were reviewed and summarized for its efficacy, pain relief, clinical benefit rate, survival, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) score, changes in tumor size, occurrence of echogenicity, serum level, diagnostic assessment of outcome, and associated complications. Immune response induced by HIFU ablation may become an effective way of cancer treatment. Comments for a better outcome and current challenges of HIFU technology are also covered. PMID:25053938

  16. Ultra-High Intensity Magnetic Field Generation in Dense Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2014-01-08

    The main objective of this grant proposal was to explore the efficient generation of intense currents. Whereas the efficient generation of electric current in low-­energy-­density plasma has occupied the attention of the magnetic fusion community for several decades, scant attention has been paid to carrying over to high-­energy-­density plasma the ideas for steady-­state current drive developed for low-­energy-­density plasma, or, for that matter, to inventing new methodologies for generating electric current in high-­energy-­density plasma. What we proposed to do was to identify new mechanisms to accomplish current generation, and to assess the operation, physics, and engineering basis of new forms of current drive in regimes appropriate for new fusion concepts.

  17. Chemical modification of chitosan under high-intensity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Cravotto, Giancarlo; Tagliapietra, Silvia; Robaldo, Bruna; Trotta, Michele

    2005-01-01

    Chitosan (CTS), a biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic polymer, dissolves in water only if pH is lowered under 6.5, when a substantial fraction of the amino groups is protonated. Its range of application has been much extended by partially depolymerising it or converting it to water-soluble derivatives. Working under high-intensity ultrasound at 17.8-18.5 kHz, using either a simple horn or a cup horn, we achieved a controlled depolymerization of CTS, also prepared in high yields several derivatives that can be useful intermediates for further chemical modification, as well as several water-soluble derivatives that lend themselves to a host of industrial applications. Compared to conventional methods, all these reactions went to completion in considerably shorter times at lower temperatures.

  18. Increased collection efficiency of LIFI high intensity electrodeless light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafidi, Abdeslam; DeVincentis, Marc; Duelli, Markus; Gilliard, Richard

    2008-02-01

    Recently, RF driven electrodeless high intensity light sources have been implemented successfully in the projection display systems for HDTV and videowall applications. This paper presents advances made in the RF waveguide and electric field concentrator structures with the purpose of reducing effective arc size and increasing light collection. In addition, new optical designs are described that further improve system efficiency. The results of this work demonstrate that projection system light throughput is increased relative to previous implementations and performance is optimized for home theater and other front projector applications that maintain multi-year lifetime without re-lamping, complete spectral range, fast start times and high levels of dynamic contrast due to dimming flexibility in the light source system.

  19. Digital control of high-intensity acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slusser, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A high intensity acoustic test system is reported that consists of a reverberation room measuring 18 feet wide by 21 feet long by 26 feet high, with an internal volume of 10,900 cubic feet. The room is rectangular in shape. Acoustic energy is supplied through two 50-Hz cutoff exponential horns about 12 feet long. Each of the two horns has two transducers rated at 4000 acoustic watts each. A gaseous nitrogen supply is used to supply the energy. The equalized electrical signal is corrected by a circuit designed to compensate for the transducer nonlinearity, then fed into one channel of a phase linear power amplifier, then into the transducer. The amplifiers have been modified to increase their reliability. The acoustic energy in the room is monitored by six B and K 1/2-inch condenser microphones. The electrical signal from each microphone is fed into a six channel real time averager to give a spatial average of the signals.

  20. Rural Renaissance. Revitalizing Small High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Edmund A.

    Written in 1961, this document presents the rationales and applications of what were and still are, in most instances, considered innovative practices. Subjects discussed are building designs, teaching machines, educational television, flexible scheduling, multiple classes and small-group techniques, teacher assistants, shared services, and…

  1. A threefold dose intensity treatment with ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide for patients with small cell lung cancer: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Leyvraz, Serge; Pampallona, Sandro; Martinelli, Giovanni; Ploner, Ferdinand; Perey, Lucien; Aversa, Savina; Peters, Solange; Brunsvig, Paal; Montes, Ana; Lange, Andrzej; Yilmaz, Ugur; Rosti, Giovanni

    2008-04-16

    The dose intensity of chemotherapy can be increased to the highest possible level by early administration of multiple and sequential high-dose cycles supported by transfusion with peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs). A randomized trial was performed to test the impact of such dose intensification on the long-term survival of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Patients who had limited or extensive SCLC with no more than two metastatic sites were randomly assigned to high-dose (High, n = 69) or standard-dose (Std, n = 71) chemotherapy with ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE). High-ICE cycles were supported by transfusion with PBPCs that were collected after two cycles of treatment with epidoxorubicin at 150 mg/m(2), paclitaxel at 175 mg/m(2), and filgrastim. The primary outcome was 3-year survival. Comparisons between response rates and toxic effects within subgroups (limited or extensive disease, liver metastases or no liver metastases, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, normal or abnormal lactate dehydrogenase levels) were also performed. Median relative dose intensity in the High-ICE arm was 293% (range = 174%-392%) of that in the Std-ICE arm. The 3-year survival rates were 18% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 10% to 29%) and 19% (95% CI = 11% to 30%) in the High-ICE and Std-ICE arms, respectively. No differences were observed between the High-ICE and Std-ICE arms in overall response (n = 54 [78%, 95% CI = 67% to 87%] and n = 48 [68%, 95% CI = 55% to 78%], respectively) or complete response (n = 27 [39%, 95% CI = 28% to 52%] and n = 24 [34%, 95% CI = 23% to 46%], respectively). Subgroup analyses showed no benefit for any outcome from High-ICE treatment. Hematologic toxicity was substantial in the Std-ICE arm (grade > or = 3 neutropenia, n = 49 [70%]; anemia, n = 17 [25%]; thrombopenia, n = 17 [25%]), and three patients (4%) died from toxicity. High-ICE treatment was predictably associated with severe

  2. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 μm) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  3. Outcomes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following high-intensity resistance training.

    PubMed

    Huynh, A; Leong, K; Jones, N; Crump, N; Russell, D; Anderson, M; Steinfort, D; Johnson, D F

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HIRT) programmes are increasingly popular amongst personal trainers and those attending gymnasiums. We report the experience of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) at two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. To compare the clinical outcomes of ER with other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients presenting with a serum creatine kinase (CK) of greater than 25 000 units/L from 1 September 2013 to 31 August 2014 at two tertiary referral hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Records were examined to identify care measures implemented during hospital stay, clinical outcomes during admission and on subsequent follow up. Thirty four cases of rhabdomyolysis with a CK of greater than 25 000 units/L (normal range: 20-180 units/L) were identified during the 12-month study period. Twelve of the 34 cases (35%) had ER with 10 of 12 related to HIRT. No acute kidney injury, intensive care admission or death were seen among those with ER. All cases were managed conservatively, with 11 admitted and 9 receiving intravenous fluids only. In contrast, patients with rhabdomyolysis from other causes experienced significantly higher rates of intensive care admission (64%, P = 0.0002), acute kidney injury (82%, P = 0.0001) and death (27%, P = 0.069). ER resulting from HIRT appears to have a benign course compared with rhabdomyolysis of other aetiologies in patients with a serum CK greater than 25 000 units/L. Conservative management of ER appears to be adequate, although this requires confirmation in future prospective studies. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  4. Design Aspects of Focal Beams From High-Intensity Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Douglas N.; Kruse, Dustin E.; Qin, Shengping; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2011-01-01

    As the applications of ultrasonic thermal therapies expand, the design of the high-intensity array must address both the energy delivery of the main beam and the character and relevance of off-target beam energy. We simulate the acoustic field performance of a selected set of circular arrays organized by array format, including flat versus curved arrays, periodic versus random arrays, and center void diameter variations. Performance metrics are based on the −3-dB focal main lobe (FML) positioning range, axial grating lobe (AGL) temperatures, and side lobe levels. Using finite-element analysis, we evaluate the relative heating of the FML and the AGLs. All arrays have a maximum diameter of 100λ, with element count ranging from 64 to 1024 and continuous wave frequency of 1.5 MHz. First, we show that a 50% spherical annulus produces focus beam side lobes which decay as a function of lateral distance at nearly 87% of the exponential rate of a full aperture. Second, for the arrays studied, the efficiency of power delivery over the −3-dB focus positioning range for spherical arrays is at least 2-fold greater than for flat arrays; the 256-element case shows a 5-fold advantage for the spherical array. Third, AGL heating can be significant as the focal target is moved to its distal half-intensity depth from the natural focus. Increasing the element count of a randomized array to 256 elements decreases the AGL-to-FML heating ratio to 0.12 at the distal half-intensity depth. Further increases in element count yield modest improvements. A 49% improvement in the AGL-to-peak heating ratio is predicted by using the Sumanaweera spiral element pattern with randomization. PMID:21859578

  5. Guide to NYC Small High Schools, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Visions for Public Schools, 2005

    2005-01-01

    New Visions for Public Schools has put together "The New York City Guide to Small High Schools" to describe new opportunities in the public high school system: over 200 small secondary schools created over the last five years. These small schools are part of the Department of Education's efforts to create more choices for thousands of…

  6. High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Postprandial Triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Burns, Stephen F; Miyashita, Masashi; Stensel, David J

    2015-07-01

    This review examined if high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) reduces postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) levels. Fifteen studies were identified, in which the effect of interval exercise conducted at an intensity of >65% of maximal oxygen uptake was evaluated on postprandial TAG levels. Analysis was divided between studies that included supramaximal exercise and those that included submaximal interval exercise. Ten studies examined the effect of a single session of low-volume HIIE including supramaximal sprints on postprandial TAG. Seven of these studies noted reductions in the postprandial total TAG area under the curve the morning after exercise of between ~10 and 21% compared with rest, but three investigations found no significant difference in TAG levels. Variations in the HIIE protocol used, inter-individual variation or insufficient time post-exercise for an increase in lipoprotein lipase activity are proposed reasons for the divergent results among studies. Five studies examined the effect of high-volume submaximal interval exercise on postprandial TAG. Four of these studies were characterised by high exercise energy expenditure and effectively attenuated total postprandial TAG levels by ~15-30%, but one study with a lower energy expenditure found no effect on TAG. The evidence suggests that supramaximal HIIE can induce large reductions in postprandial TAG levels but findings are inconsistent. Submaximal interval exercise offers no TAG metabolic or time advantage over continuous aerobic exercise but could be appealing in nature to some individuals. Future research should examine if submaximal interval exercise can reduce TAG levels in line with more realistic and achievable exercise durations of 30 min per day.

  7. Semicircular Canal Pressure Changes During High-intensity Acoustic Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Anne K; Banakis Hartl, Renee M; Greene, Nathaniel T; Benichoux, Victor; Mattingly, Jameson K; Cass, Stephen P; Tollin, Daniel J

    2017-08-01

    Acoustic stimulation generates measurable sound pressure levels in the semicircular canals. High-intensity acoustic stimuli can cause hearing loss and balance disruptions. To examine the propagation of acoustic stimuli to the vestibular end-organs, we simultaneously measured fluid pressure in the cochlea and semicircular canals during both air- and bone-conducted sound presentation. Five full-cephalic human cadaveric heads were prepared bilaterally with a mastoidectomy and extended facial recess. Vestibular pressures were measured within the superior, lateral, and posterior semicircular canals, and referenced to intracochlear pressure within the scala vestibuli with fiber-optic pressure probes. Pressures were measured concurrently with laser Doppler vibrometry measurements of stapes velocity during stimulation with both air- and bone-conduction. Stimuli were pure tones between 100 Hz and 14 kHz presented with custom closed-field loudspeakers for air-conducted sounds and via commercially available bone-anchored device for bone-conducted sounds. Pressures recorded in the superior, lateral, and posterior semicircular canals in response to sound stimulation were equal to or greater in magnitude than those recorded in the scala vestibuli (up to 20 dB higher). The pressure magnitudes varied across canals in a frequency-dependent manner. High sound pressure levels were recorded in the semicircular canals with sound stimulation, suggesting that similar acoustical energy is transmitted to the semicircular canals and the cochlea. Since these intralabyrinthine pressures exceed intracochlear pressure levels, our results suggest that the vestibular end-organs may also be at risk for injury during exposure to high-intensity acoustic stimuli known to cause trauma in the auditory system.

  8. NASA's New High Intensity Solar Environment Test Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Across the world, new spaceflight missions are being designed and executed that will place spacecraft and instruments into challenging environments throughout the solar system. To aid in the successful completion of these new missions, NASA has developed a new flexible space environment test platform. The High Intensity Solar Environment Test (HISET) capability located at NASA fs Marshall Space Flight Center provides scientists and engineers with the means to test spacecraft materials and systems in a wide range of solar wind and solar photon environments. Featuring a solar simulator capable of delivering approximately 1 MW/m2 of broad spectrum radiation at maximum power, HISET provides a means to test systems or components that could explore the solar corona. The solar simulator consists of three high-power Xenon arc lamps that can be operated independently over a range of power to meet test requirements; i.e., the lamp power can be greatly reduced to simulate the solar intensity at several AU. Integral to the HISET capability are charged particle sources that can provide a solar wind (electron and proton) environment. Used individually or in combination, the charged particle sources can provide fluxes ranging from a few nA/cm2 to 100s of nA/cm2 over an energy range of 50 eV to 100 keV for electrons and 100 eV to 30 keV for protons. Anchored by a high vacuum facility equipped with a liquid nitrogen cold shroud for radiative cooling scenarios, HISET is able to accommodate samples as large as 1 meter in diameter. In this poster, details of the HISET capability will be presented, including the wide ]ranging configurability of the system.

  9. Proceedings of the third ICFA mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, T.

    1997-11-01

    The third mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on May 7-9, 1997 and had about 30 participants. The workshop focussed on rf and longitudinal dynamics issues relevant to intense and/or bright hadron synchrotrons. A plenary session was followed by four sessions on particular topics. This document contains copies of the viewgraphs used as well as summaries written by the session chairs.

  10. HIGH INTENSITY EFFECTS IN THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Jeffrey A; Cousineau, Sarah M; Danilov, Viatcheslav; Plum, Michael A; Shishlo, Andrei P

    2008-01-01

    Currently operating at 0.5 MW beam power on target, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is already the world's most powerful pulsed neutron source. However, we are only one third of the way to full power. As we ramp toward full power, the control of the beam and beam loss in the ring will be critical. In addition to practical considerations, such as choice of operating point, painting scheme, RF bunching, and beam scattering, it may be necessary to understand and mitigate collective effects due to space charge, impedances, and electron clouds. At each stage of the power ramp-up, we use all available resources to understand and to minimize beam losses. From the standpoint of beam dynamics, the losses observed so far under normal operating conditions have not involved collective phenomena. We are now entering the intensity regime in which this may change. In dedicated high intensity beam studies, we have already observed resistive wall, extraction kicker impedance-driven, and electron cloud activities. The analysis and simulation of this data are important ongoing activities at SNS. This paper discusses the status of this work, as well as other considerations necessary to the successful full power operation of SNS.

  11. High power targets for production of intense radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, W. L.; Drake, D. M.; Wilson, M. T.; Walker, J. J.; Lenz, J. W.

    1999-04-26

    Issues are discussed in producing intense Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) using the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) approach, based on the use of thick targets employed at existing facilities. Some new physics studies may possibly be addressed by improving the performance of these existing targets through improvements in release and effusion properties to optimize the RIB yields. It is, however, acknowledged that many desired physics objectives using RIB can be met only by employing production beams of energetic light ions or protons with currents up to 100 {mu}A. Development of targets that use such intense production beams needs to address the requirement to control operational temperatures derived from internal production beam interactions with the target materials. In addition, issues arise for target materials in terms of their thermal characteristics, such as thermal conductivity and thermo-mechanical properties. A target concept is described for an in-beam test of a prototype target for actual thermal behavior under RIB production conditions. For such a test, a high-power test facility is needed; fortunately, the prototypical production beam currents required exist at the TRIUMF accelerator facility. An experimental proposal has been approved for such a test.

  12. Blood coagulation using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phuc V.; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2014-03-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) technology provides a feasible method of achieving thermal coagulation during surgical procedures. One of the potential clinical benefits of HIFU can induce immediate hemostasis without suturing. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a HIFU system for blood coagulation on severe vascular injury. ngHIFU treatment was implemented immediately after bleeding in artery. The ultrasound probe was made of piezoelectric material, generating a central frequency of 2.0 MHz as well as an ellipsoidal focal spot of 2 mm in lateral dimension and 10 mm in axial dimension. Acoustic coagulation was employed on a perfused chicken artery model in vitro. A surgical incision (1 to 2 mm long) was made with a scapel on the arterial wall, and heparinized autologous blood was made to leak out from the incision with a syringe pump. A total of 5 femoral artery incisions was treated with the HIFU beam. The intensity of 4500 W/cm2 at the focus was applied for all treatments. Complete hemostasis was achieved in all treatments, along with the treatment times of 25 to 50 seconds. The estimated intraoperative blood loss was from 2 to 5 mL. The proposed HIFU system may provide an effective method for immediate blood coagulation for arteries and veins in clinical applications.

  13. Intense high-quality medical proton beams via laser fields.

    PubMed

    Galow, Benjamin J; Harman, Zoltán; Keitel, Christoph H

    2010-12-06

    Simulations based on the coupled relativistic equations of motion show that protons stemming from laser-plasma processes can be efficiently post-accelerated employing single and crossed pulsed laser beams focused to spot radii on the order of the laser wavelength. We demonstrate that the crossed beams produce quasi-monoenergetic accelerated protons with kinetic energies exceeding 200 MeV, small energy spreads of about 1% and high densities as required for hadron cancer therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first scheme allowing for this important application based on an all-optical set-up.

  14. High Intensity, Pulsed, D-D Neutron Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D. L.; Vainionpaa, J. H.; Jones, G.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Harris, J. L.; Fuller, M. J.; Cremer, J. T.; Ludewigt, B. A.; Kwan, J. W.; Reijonen, J.; Leung, K.-N.; Gough, R. A.

    2009-03-10

    Single ion-beam RF-plasma neutron generators are presented as a laboratory source of intense neutrons. The continuous and pulsed operations of such a neutron generator using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction are reported. The neutron beam can be pulsed by switching the RF plasma and/or a gate electrode. These generators are actively vacuum pumped so that a continuous supply of deuterium gas is present for the production of ions and neutrons. This contributes to the generator's long life. These single-beam generators are capable of producing up to 10{sup 10} n/s. Previously, Adelphi and LBNL have demonstrated these generators' applications in fast neutron radiography, Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Together with an inexpensive compact moderator, these high-output neutron generators extend useful applications to home laboratory operations.

  15. High Intensity, Pulsed, D-D Neutron Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D. L.; Vainionpaa, J. H.; Jones, G.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Harris, J. L.; Fuller, M. J.; Cremer, J. T.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Kwan, J. W.; Reijonen, J.; Leung, K.-N.; Gough, R. A.

    2008-08-01

    Single ion-beam RF-plasma neutron generators are presented as a laboratory source of intense neutrons. The continuous and pulsed operations of such a neutron generator using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction are reported. The neutron beam can be pulsed by switching the RF plasma and/or a gate electrode. These generators are actively vacuum pumped so that a continuous supply of deuterium gas is present for the production of ions and neutrons. This contributes to the generator's long life. These single-beam generators are capable of producing up to 1E10 n/s. Previously, Adelphi and LBNL have demonstrated these generators' applications in fast neutron radiography, Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Together with an inexpensive compact moderator, these high-output neutron generators extend useful applications to home laboratory operations.

  16. Optimal conditions for tissue perforation using high intensity focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kihara, Taizo; Ogawa, Kouji; Tanabe, Ryoko; Yosizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro; Kakimoto, Takashi; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Chiba, Toshio

    2012-10-01

    To perforate tissue lying deep part in body, a large size transducer was assembled by combining four spherical-shaped transducers, and the optimal conditions for tissue perforation have studied using ventricle muscle of chicken as a target. The ex vivo experiments showed that ventricle muscle was successfully perforated both when it was exposed to High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) directly and when it was exposed to HIFU through atrial muscle layer. Moreover, it was shown that calculated acoustic power distributions are well similar to the perforation patterns, and that the acoustic energy distributes very complexly near the focus. Lastly, perforation on the living rabbit bladder wall was demonstrated as a preliminary in vivo experiment.

  17. High-energy ionization by relativistically intense laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiński, J. Z.; Cajiao Vélez, F.; Krajewska, K.

    2017-07-01

    High-energy ionization by relativistically intense, 30~\\text{fs} laser pulses is investigated within the relativistic strong-field approximation. It is shown that the momentum distribution of photoelectrons is focused around a spiral, the analytical form of which is derived from the saddle-point analysis of probability amplitudes. The geometry of this spiral allows one to clearly interpret the exact numerical results of the ionization probability distributions and to identify the photoelectron momentum domains in which the interference- and the interference-free patterns are observed. It is also demonstrated that attosecond single-electron wave packets can be created in this process. Thus, it opens new research opportunities for the four-dimensional electron diffraction experiments, which can be conducted in large-scale laser facilities such as ELI or XCELS.

  18. High-intensity therapeutic ultrasound: metrological requirements versus clinical usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry, J.-F.

    2012-10-01

    High-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) is an appealing non-invasive, non-ionizing therapeutic modality with a wide range of tissue interactions ranging from transient permeabilization of cell membranes to thermal ablation. The ability to guide and monitor the treatment with an associated ultrasonic or magnetic resonance imaging device has resulted in a dramatic rise in the clinical use of therapeutic ultrasound in the past two decades. Nevertheless, the range of clinical applications and the number of patients treated has grown at a much higher pace than the definition of standards. In this paper the metrological requirements of the therapeutic beams are reviewed and are compared with the current clinical use of image-guided HITU mostly based on a practical approach. Liver therapy, a particularly challenging clinical application, is discussed to highlight the differences between some complex clinical situations and the experimental conditions of the metrological characterization of ultrasonic transducers.

  19. Comparison of Two High Intensity Acoustic Test Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launay, A.; Tadao Sakita, M.; Kim, Youngkey K.

    2004-08-01

    In two different countries, at the same period of time, the institutes in charge of the development of space activities have decided to extend their satellite integration and test center, and to implement a reverberant acoustic chamber. In Brazil the INPE laboratory (LIT : Laboratorio de Integracao e Testes) and in South Korea the KARI laboratory (SITC : Satellite Integration and Test Center) started their projects in July 2000 for the RATF (Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility) and in May 2001 for the HIAC (High Intensity Acoustic Chamber) respectively, writing the technical specifications. The kick-off meetings took place in December 2000 and in February 2002 and the opening ceremonies in December 19, 2002 in Brazil and in August 22, 2003 in Korea. This paper compares the two projects in terms of design choices, manufacturing processes, equipment installed and technical final characteristics.

  20. Digital control of high-intensity acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slusser, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    To eliminate previous system instabilities and control high-intensity acoustic tests, a digital control vibration test system is modified by a software change. Three systems for the control of acoustic testing are compared: a hybrid digital/analog system, a digital vibration system, and the same digital vibration system modified by a software change to allow acoustic testing. It is shown that the hybrid system and the modified vibration system exhibit almost equal performance, although the hybrid system performs testing twice as fast. The development of a specialized acoustic test control system is justified since it costs far less than the general-purpose vibration control system. However, the latter is much easier to set up for a test, which is important in preventing overtesting of valuable spacecraft components.

  1. Technology insight: High-intensity focused ultrasound for urologic cancers.

    PubMed

    Chaussy, Christian; Thüroff, Stefan; Rebillard, Xavier; Gelet, Albert

    2005-04-01

    The growing interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) technology is mainly due to its many potential applications as a minimally invasive therapy. It has been introduced to urologic oncology as a treatment for prostate and kidney cancers. While its application in the kidney is still at the clinical feasibility phase, HIFU technology is currently used in daily practice in Europe for the treatment of prostate cancer. Literature describing the results of HIFU for prostate cancer is mainly based on several series of patients from clinical development teams. The latest published results suggest that HIFU treatment is a valuable option for well-differentiated and moderately-differentiated tumors, as well as for local recurrence after external-beam radiation therapy.

  2. High Intensity, Pulsed, D-D Neutron Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. L.; Vainionpaa, J. H.; Jones, G.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Harris, J. L.; Fuller, M. J.; Cremer, J. T.; Ludewigt, B. A.; Kwan, J. W.; Reijonen, J.; Leung, K.-N.; Gough, R. A.

    2009-03-01

    Single ion-beam RF-plasma neutron generators are presented as a laboratory source of intense neutrons. The continuous and pulsed operations of such a neutron generator using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction are reported. The neutron beam can be pulsed by switching the RF plasma and/or a gate electrode. These generators are actively vacuum pumped so that a continuous supply of deuterium gas is present for the production of ions and neutrons. This contributes to the generator's long life. These single-beam generators are capable of producing up to 1010 n/s. Previously, Adelphi and LBNL have demonstrated these generators' applications in fast neutron radiography, Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Together with an inexpensive compact moderator, these high-output neutron generators extend useful applications to home laboratory operations.

  3. New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract Improves High-Intensity Intermittent Running.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Ian Craig; Vine, Sarah Anne; Blacker, Sam David; Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus

    2015-10-01

    We examined the effect of New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract on high-intensity intermittent running and postrunning lactate responses. Thirteen active males (age: 25 ± 4 yrs, height: 1.82 ± 0.07 m, body mass: 81 ± 14 kg, VO2max: 56 ± 4 ml·kg-1·min-1, vVO2max: 17.6 ± 0.8 km·h-1) performed a treadmill running protocol to exhaustion, which consisted of stages with 6 × 19 s of sprints with 15 s of low-intensity running between sprints. Interstage rest time was 1 min and stages were repeated with increasing sprint speeds. Subjects consumed capsuled NZBC extract (300 mg·day-1 CurraNZ; containing 105 mg anthocyanin) or placebo for 7 days (double-blind, randomized, crossover design, wash-out at least 14 days). Blood lactate was collected for 30 min postexhaustion. NZBC increased total running distance by 10.6% (NZBC: 4282 ± 833 m, placebo: 3871 ± 622 m, p = .02), with the distance during sprints increased by 10.8% (p = .02). Heart rate, oxygen uptake, lactate and rating of perceived exertion were not different between conditions for the first 4 stages completed by all subjects. At exhaustion, blood lactate tended to be higher for NZBC (NZBC: 6.01 ± 1.07 mmol·L-1, placebo: 5.22 ± 1.52 mmol·L-1, p = .07). There was a trend for larger changes in lactate following 15 min (NZBC: -2.89 ± 0.51 mmol·L-1, placebo: -2.46 ± 0.39 mmol·L-1, p = .07) of passive recovery. New Zealand blackcurrant extract (CurraNZ) may enhance performance in sports characterized by high-intensity intermittent exercise as greater distances were covered with repeated sprints, there was higher lactate at exhaustion, and larger changes in lactate during early recovery after repeated sprints to exhaustion.

  4. Frequency conversion of high-intensity, femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P S

    1997-06-01

    Almost since the invention of the laser, frequency conversion of optical pulses via non- linear processes has been an area of active interest. However, third harmonic generation using ~(~1 (THG) in solids is an area that has not received much attention because of ma- terial damage limits. Recently, the short, high-intensity pulses possible with chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems allow the use of intensities on the order of 1 TW/cm2 in thin solids without damage. As a light source to examine single-crystal THG in solids and other high field inter- actions, the design and construction of a Ti:sapphire-based CPA laser system capable of ultimately producing peak powers of 100 TW is presented. Of special interest is a novel, all-reflective pulse stretcher design which can stretch a pulse temporally by a factor of 20,000. The stretcher design can also compensate for the added material dispersion due to propagation through the amplifier chain and produce transform-limited 45 fs pulses upon compression. A series of laser-pumped amplifiers brings the peak power up to the terawatt level at 10 Hz, and the design calls for additional amplifiers to bring the power level to the 100 TW level for single shot operation. The theory for frequency conversion of these short pulses is presented, focusing on conversion to the third harmonic in single crystals of BBO, KD*P, and d-LAP (deuterated I-arginine phosphate). Conversion efficiencies of up to 6% are obtained with 500 fs pulses at 1053 nm in a 3 mm thick BBO crystal at 200 GW/cm 2. Contributions to this process by unphasematched, cascaded second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are shown to be very significant. The angular relationship between the two orders is used to measure the tensor elements of C = xt3)/4 with Crs = -1.8 x 1O-23 m2/V2 and .15Cri + .54Crs = 4.0 x 1O-23 m2/V2. Conversion efficiency in d-LAP is about 20% that in BBO and conversion efficiency in KD*P is 1% that of BBO. It is calculated

  5. High precision measurement of intensity peak shifts in tunable cascaded microring intensity sensors.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Prashanth R; Selvaraja, Shankar K; Varma, Manoj M

    2016-07-15

    We demonstrate a method to precisely track intensity peak shifts in tunable cascaded double-microring based refractive index sensors. Without modifications, width of the intensity peak of a tunable cascaded microring device limits the precision of peak-shift measurements and thereby the limit of detection of the sensor. We overcome this limitation by using dual harmonic lock-in detection for precisely determining the position of the intensity maximum. Using this modification, we have demonstrated a reduction in the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the intensity peak by a factor of over 1300. We show that such a reduction in FWHM of the peak curve can significantly improve the detection limit of a tunable cascaded microring-based sensor.

  6. Fluid Flow Characterization of High Turbulent Intensity Compressible Flow Using Particle Image Velocimetry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    TURBULENT INTENSITY COMPRESSIBLE FLOW USING PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY A high turbulent intensity combustion chamber has been designed in order...INTENSITY COMPRESSIBLE FLOW USING PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY Report Title A high turbulent intensity combustion chamber has been designed in order to...USING PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY MARCO EFRAIN QUIROZ-REGALADO Department of Mechanical Engineering APPROVED: Ahsan R. Choudhuri

  7. Operation of the Proto-MPEX High Intensity Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughman, J. B. O.; Goulding, R. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Bigelow, T. S.; Campbell, I. H.; Diem, S. J.; Martin, E. H.; Pesavento, P. V.; Rapp, J.; Ray, H. B.; Shaw, G. C.; Showers, M. A.; Luo, G.-N.

    2015-11-01

    The Prototype Materials Plasma Experiment (Proto-MPEX) is a linear high-intensity rf plasma source that combines a high-density helicon plasma generator with electron and ion heating sections. It is being used to study the physics of heating over-dense plasmas in a linear configuration. The helicon plasma is produced by coupling 13.56 MHz rf power at levels up to 100 kW. Microwaves at 28 GHz (~ 150 kW) are coupled to the electrons in the over-dense helicon plasma via Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW). Ion cyclotron heating (~ 30 kW) will be via a magnetic beach approach. Plasma diagnostics include Thomson Scattering and a retarding field energy analyzer near the target, while a microwave interferometer and double-Langmuir probes are used to determine plasma parameters elsewhere in the system. Filterscopes are being used to measure D-alpha emission and He line ratios at multiple locations, and IR cameras image the target plates to determine heat deposition. High plasma densities in the helicon region have been produced in He (>3x1019/m3) and D (>1.5x1019/m3) , and operation with on-axis magnetic field strength >1 T has been demonstrated. Details of the experimental results and future plans for studying plasma surface/RF antenna interactions will be presented. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  8. Modeling scale-dependent runoff generation in a small semi-arid watershed accounting for rainfall intensity and water depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhans, Christoph; Govers, Gerard; Diels, Jan; Stone, Jeffry J.; Nearing, Mark A.

    2014-07-01

    Observed scale effects of runoff on hillslopes and small watersheds derive from complex interactions of time-varying rainfall rates with runoff, infiltration and macro- and microtopographic structures. A little studied aspect of scale effects is the concept of water depth-dependent infiltration. For semi-arid rangeland it has been demonstrated that mounds underneath shrubs have a high infiltrability and lower lying compacted or stony inter-shrub areas have a lower infiltrability. It is hypothesized that runoff accumulation further downslope leads to increased water depth, inundating high infiltrability areas, which increases the area-averaged infiltration rate. A model was developed that combines the concepts of water depth-dependent infiltration, partial contributing area under variable rainfall intensity, and the Green-Ampt theory for point-scale infiltration. The model was applied to rainfall simulation data and natural rainfall-runoff data from a small sub-watershed (0.4 ha) of the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in the semi-arid US Southwest. Its performance to reproduce observed hydrographs was compared to that of a conventional Green-Ampt model assuming complete inundation sheet flow, with runon infiltration, which is infiltration of runoff onto pervious downstream areas. Parameters were derived from rainfall simulations and from watershed-scale calibration directly from the rainfall-runoff events. The performance of the water depth-dependent model was better than that of the conventional model on the scale of a rainfall simulator plot, but on the scale of a small watershed the performance of both model types was similar. We believe that the proposed model contributes to a less scale-dependent way of modeling runoff and erosion on the hillslope-scale.

  9. Silicon solar cells as a high-solar-intensity radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spisz, E. W.; Robson, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    The characteristics of a conventional, 1- by 2-cm, N/P, gridded silicon solar cell when used as a radiometer have been determined for solar intensity levels to 2800 mW/sq cm (20 solar constants). The short-circuit current was proportional to the radiant intensity for levels only to 700 mW/sq cm (5 solar constants). For intensity levels greater than 700 mW/sq cm, it was necessary to operate the cell in a photoconductive mode in order to obtain a linear relation between the measured current and the radiant intensity. When the solar cell was biased with a reverse voltage of -1 V, the measured current and radiant intensity were linearly related over the complete intensity range from 100 to 2800 mW/sq cm.

  10. Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Pollom, Erqi L; Qian, Yushen; Durkee, Ben Y; von Eyben, Rie; Maxim, Peter G; Shultz, David B; Gensheimer, Michael; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W

    2016-11-01

    Alternative treatment regimens are needed for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who cannot receive definitive treatment with concurrent chemoradiotherapy, surgery, or stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). We report survival, patterns of failure and toxicity outcomes for patients with NSCLC who were not eligible for surgical resection, concurrent chemoradiotherapy, or SABR and underwent hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to evaluate the progression-free and overall survival. Competing risk analysis was used to evaluate in-field, locoregional, and distant failure. A total of 42 patients treated to 52.5 to 60 Gy in 15 fractions were included. Most of the patients had metastatic or recurrent disease (64%) and a relatively large, centrally located tumor burden (74%). The median follow-up period was 13 months (interquartile range, 6-18 months). All patients received the total prescribed dose. The median survival was 15.1 months. The overall and progression-free survival rates at 1 year were 63% and 22.5%, respectively. The pattern of failure was predominantly distant, with only 2% of patients experiencing isolated in-field recurrence. The cumulative incidence of in-field failure at 6 and 12 months was 2.5% (95% confidence interval, 0.4%-15.6%) and 16.1% (95% confidence interval, 7.5%-34.7%), respectively. The risk of esophageal toxicity was associated with the esophageal mean dose, maximal point dose, and dose to the 5 cm(3) volume. The risk of pneumonitis was associated with the lung mean dose and volume receiving 18 Gy. Hypofractionated IMRT without concurrent chemotherapy provides favorable rates of local control and survival for well-selected patients with NSCLC who cannot tolerate standard definitive therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gigagauss magnetic field generation from high intensity laser solid interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, T; Moran, M; Hammer, J; Hatchett, S; Hunt, A; Key, M H; Langdon, A B; Lasinski, B F; Pennington, D; Perry, M D; Sefcik, J A; Snavely, R; Trebes, J; Wilks, S C

    1998-10-15

    Intense laser (>1021 W/cm2 ) sources using pulse compression techniques in the sub-picosecond time frame have been used to create dynamic electric field strenghs in excess of 100 Megavolts/micron with associated magnetic field strengths in the Gigagauss regime. We have begun a series of experiments using the Petawatt Laser system at LLNL to determine the potential of these sources for a variety of applications. Hot electron spectra from laser-target interactions in Au have been measured with energies up to 100 MeV. Hot x-ray production has been measured using filtered thermoluminescent dosimeters and threshold nuclear activation ({gamma},n) from giant resonance interactions. High resolution radiographs through a {rho}r > 165 gm/cm² have been obtained. Dose levels in the x-ray band from 2-8 MeV have been measured at the level of several Rads at one meter from the target for a single pulse. The physics of these sources and the scaling relationships and laser technology required to provide high magnetic fields will be discussed. Results of preliminary magnetic field calculations will be presented along with potential applications of this technology and estimates of the fundamental scaling limits for future development.

  12. LCROSS: A High Return, Small Satellite Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    Early in 2006, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) held a competition for NASA Centers to propose innovative ideas for a secondary payload mission to launch with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to the Moon. The successful proposal could cost no more than $80 million dollars (less was preferred), would have to be ready to launch with the LRO in 31 months, could weigh no more than 1000 kg (fuelled), and would be designated a risk-tolerant "Class D" mission. In effect, NASA was offering a fixed-price contract to the winning NASA team to stay within a cost and schedule cap by accepting an unusually elevated risk position. To address this Announcement of Opportunity to develop a cost-and-schedule-capped secondary payload mission to fly with LRO, NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in Moffett Field, CA, USA embarked on a brainstorming effort termed "Blue Ice" in which a small team was asked to explore a number of mission scenarios that might have a good chance for success and still fit within the stated programmatic constraints. From this work, ARC developed and submitted six of the nineteen mission proposals received by ESMD from throughout the Agency, one of which was LCROSS - a collaborative effort between ARC and its industrial partner, Northrop-Grumman (NG) in Redondo Beach, CA, USA.

  13. High-intensity knee extensor training restores skeletal muscle function in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Brønstad, Eivind; Rognmo, Oivind; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Dedichen, Hans Henrich; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar; Håberg, Asta K; Bjørk Ingul, Charlotte; Wisløff, Ulrik; Steinshamn, Sigurd

    2012-11-01

    Improving reduced skeletal muscle function is important for optimising exercise tolerance and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. By applying high-intensity training to a small muscle group, we hypothesised a normalisation of muscle function. Seven patients with COPD performed 6 weeks (3 days·week(-1)) of high-intensity interval aerobic knee extensor exercise training. Five age-matched healthy individuals served as a reference group. Muscle oxygen uptake and mitochondrial respiration of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured before and after the 6-week training programme. Initial peak work and maximal mitochondrial respiration were reduced in COPD patients and improved significantly after the training programme. Peak power and maximal mitochondrial respiration in vastus lateralis muscle increased to the level of the control subjects and were mainly mediated via improved complex I respiration. Furthermore, when normalised to citrate synthase activity, no difference in maximal respiration was found either after the intervention or compared to controls, suggesting normal functioning mitochondrial complexes. The present study shows that high-intensity training of a restricted muscle group is highly effective in restoring skeletal muscle function in COPD patients.

  14. Enjoyment of high-intensity interval training in an overweight/obese cohort: a short report

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Exercise enjoyment has been shown to be important for adherence. Minimal data exist on enjoyment of intense exercise, especially in clinical populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate enjoyment levels of overweight and obese subjects undergoing 3 weeks of high-intensity interval training. Forty-two generally healthy overweight and obese men and women (body mass index = 30·8 ± 4·8 kg × m−2) volunteered for this study. Exercise enjoyment was quantified using the Exercise Enjoyment Scale before and after each of nine total interval training sessions, over a three-week period. Heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at the end of each interval and training session. There were no significant differences in enjoyment between training groups (P > 0·05). Exercise enjoyment improved significantly over the three-week training phase (P < 0·05). Enjoyment levels were relatively high to begin training: mean ± SD: 4·2 ± 1·0 out of a 7 point scale. Heart rate and RPE were significantly reduced (P < 0·05) from pre- (day 1) to post-training (day 9). High-intensity interval training may be an enjoyable form of exercise for overweight and obese men and women. Enjoyment levels may continue to increase following initial introduction to this type of training. Due to the small time demand and high enjoyment, interval training may be an effective exercise approach in a sedentary population. PMID:26096021

  15. Small, high-pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csomor, A.; Sutton, R.

    1977-01-01

    A high pressure, liquid hydrogen turbopump was designed, fabricated, and tested to a maximum speed of 9739 rad/s and a maximum pump discharge pressure of 2861 N/sq. cm. The approaches used in the analysis and design of the turbopump are described, and fabrication methods are discussed. Data obtained from gas generator tests, turbine performance calibration, and turbopump testing are presented.

  16. Using high intensity ultrasound as a tool to change the functional properties of interesterified soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yubin; Wagh, Ashwini; Martini, Silvana

    2011-10-12

    High intensity ultrasound (HIU) was used to change the crystallization behavior, generate small crystals, and improve the texture of a low saturated shortening (interesterified soybean oil). Samples were crystallized at different temperatures (26, 28, 30, and 32 °C) without and with the application of HIU. Different acoustic power levels (110, 72, 61, 54, and 44 W) were used. Results show that higher acoustic powers had a greater effect on crystal size reduction, induced crystallization, and generated harder, more elastic and viscous materials. These effects were more significant when HIU was applied in the presence of crystals and when the sample was crystallized at 32 °C.

  17. Beam experiments towards high-intensity beams in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Montag C.; Ahrens, L.; Brennan, J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Mernick, K.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Smith, K.; Than, R.; Thieberger, P.; Yip, K.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2012-05-20

    Proton bunch intensities in RHIC are planned to be increased from 2 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} to 3 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch to increase the luminosity, together with head-on beam-beam compensation using electron lenses. To study the feasibility of the intensity increase, beam experiments are being performed. Recent experimental results are presented.

  18. Compliance with High-Intensity Radiated Fields Regulations - Emitter's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, Joseph; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Nguyen, Lee

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) uses high-power transmitters on its large antennas to communicate with spacecraft of NASA and its partner agencies. The prime reflectors of the DSN antennas are parabolic, at 34m and 70m in diameter. The DSN transmitters radiate Continuous Wave (CW) signals at 20 kW - 500 kW at X-band and S-band frequencies. The combination of antenna reflector size and high frequency results in a very narrow beam with extensive oscillating near-field pattern. Another unique feature of the DSN antennas is that they (and the radiated beam) move mostly at very slow sidereal rate, essentially identical in magnitude and at the opposite direction of Earth rotation.The DSN is in the process of revamping its documentation to provide analysis of the High Intensity Radiation Fields (HIRF) environment resulting from radio frequency radiation from DSN antennas for comparison to FAA regulations regarding certification of HIRF protection as outlined in the FAA regulations on HIRF protection for aircraft electrical and electronic systems (Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) [section sign][section sign] 23.1308, 25.1317, 27.1317, and 29.1317).This paper presents work done at JPL, in consultation with the FAA. The work includes analysis of the radiated field structure created by the unique DSN emitters (combination of transmitters and antennas) and comparing it to the fields defined in the environments in the FAA regulations. The paper identifies areas that required special attention, including the implications of the very narrow beam of the DSN emitters and the sidereal rate motion. The paper derives the maximum emitter power allowed without mitigation and the mitigation zones, where required.Finally, the paper presents summary of the results of the analyses of the DSN emitters and the resulting DSN process documentation.

  19. Compliance with High-Intensity Radiated Fields Regulations - Emitter's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, Joseph; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Nguyen, Lee

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) uses high-power transmitters on its large antennas to communicate with spacecraft of NASA and its partner agencies. The prime reflectors of the DSN antennas are parabolic, at 34m and 70m in diameter. The DSN transmitters radiate Continuous Wave (CW) signals at 20 kW - 500 kW at X-band and S-band frequencies. The combination of antenna reflector size and high frequency results in a very narrow beam with extensive oscillating near-field pattern. Another unique feature of the DSN antennas is that they (and the radiated beam) move mostly at very slow sidereal rate, essentially identical in magnitude and at the opposite direction of Earth rotation.The DSN is in the process of revamping its documentation to provide analysis of the High Intensity Radiation Fields (HIRF) environment resulting from radio frequency radiation from DSN antennas for comparison to FAA regulations regarding certification of HIRF protection as outlined in the FAA regulations on HIRF protection for aircraft electrical and electronic systems (Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) [section sign][section sign] 23.1308, 25.1317, 27.1317, and 29.1317).This paper presents work done at JPL, in consultation with the FAA. The work includes analysis of the radiated field structure created by the unique DSN emitters (combination of transmitters and antennas) and comparing it to the fields defined in the environments in the FAA regulations. The paper identifies areas that required special attention, including the implications of the very narrow beam of the DSN emitters and the sidereal rate motion. The paper derives the maximum emitter power allowed without mitigation and the mitigation zones, where required.Finally, the paper presents summary of the results of the analyses of the DSN emitters and the resulting DSN process documentation.

  20. NIST Standard Reference Material 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Kline, R. Joseph; Guthrie, William F.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The certification of a new standard reference material for small-angle scattering [NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)], based on glassy carbon, is presented. Creation of this SRM relies on the intrinsic primary calibration capabilities of the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering technique. This article describes how the intensity calibration has been achieved and validated in the certified Q range, Q = 0.008–0.25 Å−1, together with the purpose, use and availability of the SRM. The intensity calibration afforded by this robust and stable SRM should be applicable universally to all SAXS instruments that employ a transmission measurement geometry, working with a wide range of X-ray energies or wavelengths. The validation of the SRM SAXS intensity calibration using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is discussed, together with the prospects for including SANS in a future renewal certification. PMID:28381972

  1. Measurement of the small-signal gain and saturation intensity of a XeF discharge laser

    SciTech Connect

    Parvin, Parviz; Zaeferani, Mohammad, S.; Sadigh, Rassoul; Mirabbaszadeh, Kavoos

    1997-02-01

    An optical oscillator-amplifier series driven by a Blumlein discharge has been fabricated and optimized for measuring the small-signal gain and saturation intensity of a XeF(B{r_arrow}X) laser at 352 nm. Pressure dependence of the gain and the saturation property of the laser have been investigated. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  2. NIST Standard Reference Material 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Allen, Andrew J.; Zhang, Fan; Kline, R. Joseph; ...

    2017-03-07

    The certification of a new standard reference material for small-angle scattering [NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)], based on glassy carbon, is presented. Creation of this SRM relies on the intrinsic primary calibration capabilities of the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering technique. This article describes how the intensity calibration has been achieved and validated in the certified Q range, Q = 0.008–0.25 Å–1, together with the purpose, use and availability of the SRM. The intensity calibration afforded by this robust and stable SRM should be applicable universally to all SAXS instruments that employmore » a transmission measurement geometry, working with a wide range of X-ray energies or wavelengths. As a result, the validation of the SRM SAXS intensity calibration using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is discussed, together with the prospects for including SANS in a future renewal certification.« less

  3. Small, high pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csomor, A.; Warren, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    A high pressure, low capacity, liquid hydrogen turbopump was designed, fabricated, and tested. The design configuration of the turbopump is summarized and the results of the analytical and test efforts are presented. Approaches used to pin point the cause of poor suction performance with the original design are described and performance data are included with an axial inlet design which results in excellent suction capability.

  4. Dissipative structures of diffuse molecular gas. III. Small-scale intermittency of intense velocity-shears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hily-Blant, P.; Falgarone, E.; Pety, J.

    2008-04-01

    Aims: We further characterize the structures tentatively identified on thermal and chemical grounds as the sites of dissipation of turbulence in molecular clouds (Papers I and II). Methods: Our study is based on two-point statistics of line centroid velocities (CV), computed from three large 12CO maps of two fields. We build the probability density functions (PDF) of the CO line centroid velocity increments (CVI) over lags varying by an order of magnitude. Structure functions of the line CV are computed up to the 6th order. We compare these statistical properties in two translucent parsec-scale fields embedded in different large-scale environments, one far from virial balance and the other virialized. We also address their scale dependence in the former, more turbulent, field. Results: The statistical properties of the line CV bear the three signatures of intermittency in a turbulent velocity field: (1) the non-Gaussian tails in the CVI PDF grow as the lag decreases, (2) the departure from Kolmogorov scaling of the high-order structure functions is more pronounced in the more turbulent field, (3) the positions contributing to the CVI PDF tails delineate narrow filamentary structures (thickness ~0.02 pc), uncorrelated to dense gas structures and spatially coherent with thicker ones (~0.18 pc) observed on larger scales. We show that the largest CVI trace sharp variations of the extreme CO linewings and that they actually capture properties of the underlying velocity field, uncontaminated by density fluctuations. The confrontation with theoretical predictions leads us to identify these small-scale filamentary structures with extrema of velocity-shears. We estimate that viscous dissipation at the 0.02 pc-scale in these structures is up to 10 times higher than average, consistent with their being associated with gas warmer than the bulk. Last, their average direction is parallel (or close) to that of the local magnetic field projection. Conclusions: Turbulence in these

  5. High-Intensity Sound in Air Saturated, Fibrous Bulk Porous Materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, Herbert Louis, II

    1982-03-01

    An investigation of the interaction of high-intensity sound with bulk porous materials is reported. The work is mainly experimental but some theoretical results are obtained. Previous studies of high-intensity sound in porous materials have been limited to porous sheets. Most tests in the present study were done on Kevlar('(REGTM)) 29, a fibrous plastic material, for the porosity range between 0.985 and 0.809. The nonlinear behavior of the materials was first described by dc flow resistivity tests. Then acoustic propagation and reflection were measured. Small signal (100 dB re 20 (mu)Pa spectrum level), broad band (frequency range from 0.1 to 10 kHz) measurements of phase speed and attenuation were carried out. High-intensity tests (120 to 172 dB) were made with 1, 2, and 3 kHz tone bursts to measure harmonic generation and extra attenuation of the fundamental. Small signal (100 dB), standing wave tests were used to measure impedance between 0.1 and 3.5 kHz. High levels tests (120 to 165 dB) with single cycle tone bursts at 1 to 4 kHz show that impedance increases with intensity. A theoretical analysis is presented for high-porosity, rigid-frame, isothermal materials (the isothermal assumption is justified by a separate analysis of heat transfer effects). One-dimensional equations of motion are derived and solved by perturbation. The measured data is not, however, well explained by the perturbation results. The experiments show that there is excess attenuation of the fundamental component and in some cases a close approach to saturation. A separate theoretical model is developed to explain the excess attenuation. This model yields predictions that are in good agreement with the measurements. Impedance and attenuation at high intensities are modeled by substituting the nonlinear flow resistivity relation into the linear impedance expressions. The model is useful in predicting the effects of a porous material on sinusoidal signals.

  6. A review of adolescent high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Logan, Greig R M; Harris, Nigel; Duncan, Scott; Schofield, Grant

    2014-08-01

    Despite the promising evidence supporting positive effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the metabolic profile in adults, there is limited research targeting adolescents. Given the rising burden of chronic disease, it is essential to implement strategies to improve the cardiometabolic health in adolescence, as this is a key stage in the development of healthy lifestyle behaviours. This narrative review summarises evidence of the relative efficacy of HIIT regarding the metabolic health of adolescents. Methodological inconsistencies confound our ability to draw conclusions; however, there is meaningful evidence supporting HIIT as a potentially efficacious exercise modality for use in the adolescent cohort. Future research must examine the effects of various HIIT protocols to determine the optimum strategy to deliver cardiometabolic health benefits. Researchers should explicitly show between-group differences for HIIT intervention and steady-state exercise or control groups, as the magnitude of difference between HIIT and other exercise modalities is of key interest to public health. There is scope for research to examine the palatability of HIIT as an exercise modality for adolescents through investigating perceived enjoyment during and after HIIT, and consequent long-term exercise adherence.

  7. High intensity focused ultrasound in clinical tumor ablation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), which was developed in the 1940s as a viable thermal tissue ablation approach, have increased its popularity. In clinics, HIFU has been applied to treat a variety of solid malignant tumors in a well-defined volume, including the pancreas, liver, prostate, breast, uterine fibroids, and soft-tissue sarcomas. In comparison to conventional tumor/cancer treatment modalities, such as open surgery, radio- and chemo-therapy, HIFU has the advantages of non-invasion, non-ionization, and fewer complications after treatment. Over 100 000 cases have been treated throughout the world with great success. The fundamental principles of HIFU ablation are coagulative thermal necrosis due to the absorption of ultrasound energy during transmission in tissue and the induced cavitation damage. This paper reviews the clinical outcomes of HIFU ablation for applicable cancers, and then summarizes the recommendations for a satisfactory HIFU treatment according to clinical experience. In addition, the current challenges in HIFU for engineers and physicians are also included. More recent horizons have broadened the application of HIFU in tumor treatment, such as HIFU-mediated drug delivery, vessel occlusion, and soft tissue erosion (“histotripsy”). In summary, HIFU is likely to play a significant role in the future oncology practice. PMID:21603311

  8. Spectroscopic imaging of metal halide high-intensity discharge lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvallet, Geoffrey A.

    The body of this work consists of three main research projects. An optical- and near-ultraviolet-wavelength absorption study sought to determine absolute densities of ground and excited level Sc atoms, ground level Sc + ions, and ground level Na atoms in a commercial 250 W metal halide high intensity discharge lamp during operation. These measurements also allowed the determination of the arc temperature and absolute electron density as functions of radius. Through infrared emission spectroscopy, relative densities of sodium and scandium were determined as functions of radius. Using the absolute densities gained from the optical experiment, these relative densities were calibrated. In addition, direct observation of the infrared emission allowed us to characterize the infrared power losses of the lamp. When considered as a fraction of the overall power consumption, the near-infrared spectral power losses were not substantial enough to warrant thorough investigation of their reduction in these lamps. The third project was an attempt to develop a portable x-ray diagnostic experiment. Two-dimensional spatial maps of the lamps were analyzed to determine absolute elemental mercury densities and the arc temperature as a function of radius. Two methods were used to improve the calibration of the density measurements and to correct for the spread in x-ray energy: known solutions of mercury in nitric acid, and an arc lamp which was uniformly heated to evaporate the mercury content. Although many complexities arose in this experiment, its goal was successfully completed.

  9. High-intensity photoionization of H sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, S.W.; Szoeke, A.

    1991-05-01

    A tunable, high-intensity picosecond dye laser system has been employed with electron energy analysis to investigate the dynamics of (3+1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of H{sub 2} via different vibrational levels of its B{sub 1}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +} and C{sup 1}{Pi}{sub u} electronic states. We observe production of molecular ions in various vibrational levels, with a shift to increased population of lower vibrational states of H{sub 2}{sup +} consistent with the a.c. Stark shift of the correspondingly lower vibrational levels of the C state into resonance with the three- photon energy of the laser. Clear evidence of direct dissociation of H{sub 2} followed by single-photon ionization of the excited H atom is observed as well. Above threshold ionization of these two processes occurs readily. We also find that dissociative ionization is an increasingly important ionization pathway as the wavelength is increased. Finally, we see evidence of a new ionization pathway, which we assign to photoionization into a transient bound state created by the avoided crossing of the first repulsive electronic state of H{sub 2}{sup +}, {vert bar}2p{sigma}{sub u}, n{r angle}, with the single-photon-dressed ground state of H{sub 2}{sup +}, {vert bar}1s{sigma}{sub g},n + 1{r angle}. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Respiration Based Steering for High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Liver Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Andrew B.; Ghanouni, Pejman; Santos, Juan M.; Dumoulin, Charles; Medan, Yoav; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Respiratory motion makes hepatic ablation using high intensity focused ultrasound challenging. Previous HIFU liver treatment had required apnea induced during general anesthesia. We describe and test a system that allows treatment of the liver in the presence of breathing motion. Materials Mapping a signal from an external respiratory bellow to treatment locations within the liver allows the ultrasound transducer to be steered in real time to the target location. Using a moving phantom, three metrics were used to compare static, steered, and unsteered sonications: the area of sonications once a temperature rise of 15°C was achieved, the energy deposition required to reach that temperature, and the average rate of temperature rise during the first 10 seconds of sonication. Steered HIFU in vivo ablations of the porcine liver were also performed and compared to breath-hold ablations. Results For the last phantom metric, all groups were found to be statistically significantly different (p≤0.003). However, in the other two metrics, the static and unsteered sonications were not statistically different (p>0.9999). Steered in vivo HIFU ablations were not statistically significantly different from ablations during breath-holding. Conclusions A system for performing HIFU steering during ablation of the liver with breathing motion is presented and shown to achieve results equivalent to ablation performed with breath-holding. PMID:23460510

  11. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy after High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Failure

    PubMed Central

    Telis, Leon; Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Background. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in men. As new focal therapies become more popular in treatment of prostate cancer, failure cases requiring salvage therapy with either surgical or other techniques are being reported. Objective. To report the options in treatment of prostate cancer after recurrence or failure of the primary treatment modality. Methods. We report a salvage robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) for prostate cancer recurrence following high intensity focused ultrasound treatment (HIFU) in the United States. Results. A 67-year-old man who underwent HIFU treatment for prostate adenocarcinoma 2 years prior was presented with a rising prostate specific antigen of 6.1 ng/mL to our clinic. A biopsy proven recurrent disease in the area of previous treatment documented the failure of treatment. The patient elected to undergo a salvage RALP. The operation time was 159 minutes. The patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 1 with no complications. The catheter was removed on post-op day 10. The patient reserved sexual function and urinary continence. The PSA levels on 6 months' follow-up are undetectable. Conclusions. Salvage RALP is an effective and safe treatment choice for recurrent prostate adenocarcinoma following failed HIFU treatment if operated by an experienced surgeon. PMID:28243479

  12. High intensity ultrasound modified ovalbumin: Structure, interface and gelation properties.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenfei; Wang, Yuntao; Zhang, Chunlan; Wan, Jiawei; Shah, Bakht Ramin; Pei, Yaqiong; Zhou, Bin; Li, Jin; Li, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Influence of high intensity ultrasound (HIUS) on the structure and properties of ovalbumin (OVA) were investigated. It was found that the subunits and secondary structure of OVA did not change significantly with HIUS treatment from the electrophoretic patterns and circular dichroism (CD) spectrum. The amount of free sulfhydryl groups increased and intrinsic fluorescence spectra analysis indicated changes in the tertiary structure and partial unfold of OVA after sonication increased. Compared with the untreated OVA, HIUS treatment increased the emulsifying activity and foaming ability, and decreased interface tension (oil-water and air-water interface), which due to the increased surface hydrophobicity and decreased the surface net charge in OVA, while the emulsifying and foaming stability had no remarkable differences. The increased particle size may be attributed to formation of protein aggregates. Moreover, the gelation temperatures of HIUS-treated samples were higher than the untreated OVA according to the temperature sweep model rheology, and this effect was consistent with the increased in surface hydrophobicity for ultrasound treated OVA. These changes in functional properties of OVA would promote its application in food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, D P; Friedman, A; Vay, J L; Haber, I

    2004-12-09

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse ''slice'' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand. Additional information can be found on the web page http://hif.lbl.gov/theory/WARP{_}summary.html.

  14. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, David P.; Friedman, Alex; Vay, Jean-Luc; Haber, Irving

    2005-03-15

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse 'slice' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand. Additional information can be found on the web page http://hif.lbl.gov/theory/WARP{sub s}ummary.html.

  15. Repeated high-intensity exercise in a professional rugby league.

    PubMed

    Austin, Damien J; Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David J

    2011-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to identify and describe the frequency and duration of repeated high-intensity exercise (RHIE) bouts in Australian professional rugby league (National Rugby League) and whether these occurred at critical times during a game. Time motion analysis was used during 5 competition matches; 1 player from 3 positional groups (hit-up forward, adjustable, and outside back) was analyzed in each match. The ranges of RHIE bouts for the 3 positional groups were hit-up forwards 9-17, adjustables 2-8, and outside backs 3-7. Hit-up forwards were involved in a significantly greater number of RHIE bouts (p < 0.05) and had the shortest average recovery (376 ± 205 seconds) between RHIE bouts. The single overall maximum durations of RHIE bouts for the hit-up forwards, the adjustables, and the outside backs were 64, 64, and 49 seconds. For all groups, 70% of the total RHIE bouts occurred within 5 minutes prior of a try being scored. The present data show that the nature of RHIE bouts was specific to playing position and occurred frequently at critical times during the game. These results can be used to develop training programs that mimic the 'worst case scenarios' that elite rugby league players are likely to encounter.

  16. A methodology for assessing high intensity RF effects in aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Kunz, K.S.; Molau, N.E.; Pennock, S.T.; Poggio, A.J.; Sharpe, R.M.

    1993-07-01

    Optical components have an inherent immunity to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) associated with High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF). The optical technology embodied in Fly-by-Light (FBL) might therefore minimize the effects of HIRF on digitally controlled systems while providing lifetime immunity to signal EMI. This is one of the primary motivations for developing FBL systems for aircraft. FBL has the potential to greatly simplify EMI certification by enabling technically acceptable laboratory tests of subsystems, as opposed to expensive full airplane tests. In this paper the authors describe a methodology for assessing EMI effects on FBL aircraft that reduces or potentially eliminates the need for full airplane tests. This methodology is based on comparing the applied EMI stress--the level of interference signal that arrives at a unit under test--versus the EMI strength of the unit--the interference level it can withstand without upset. This approach allows one to use computer models and/or low power coupling measurement and similarity (to other previously tested aircraft) to determine the stress applied to installed subsystems, and to use benchtop cable injection tests and/or mode stirred chamber radiated tests to determine the strength of the subsystem.

  17. Particle Simulation Schemes for High Intensity Charged Particle Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wei-Li; Startsev, Edward; Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2003-10-01

    Numerical schemes for the electromagnetic particle simulations of high intensity charged particle beams have been developed. The purpose of devising these schemes is to avoid the numerical difficulties associated with the direct calculation of the time derivatives of the vector potential, partial A / partial t, in the Darwin model, for which the transverse induction current in Ampere's law is neglected. The first scheme requires the calculations of higher order velocity moments of the distribution function to obtain the time derivatives for both the scalar potential Φ and A, similar to the method used for shear-Alfven waves.[1] The second uses the canonical momentum P = p + q A/c in the equations of motion as a means to eliminate the troublesome time derivatives.[2] The use of these schemes for physics problems in heavy ion fusion systems will be reported. [1] W. W. Lee, J. L. V. Lewandowski, T. S. Hahm, and Z. Lin, Phys. Plasmas 8, 4435 (2001). [2] W. W. Lee, E. Startsev, H. Qin and R. C. Davidson, Proceedings of 2001 Particle Accelerator Conference 1906 (2001).

  18. Ablation of tissue volumes using high intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, A L; ter Haar, G R

    1996-01-01

    Successful application of high intensity focused ultrasound to cancer treatment requires complete ablation of tissue volumes. In order to destroy an entire tumour it is necessary to place a contiguous array of touching lesions throughout it. In a study of how best to achieve this, exposures were selected to give single lesions that were thermal in origin, while avoiding effects due to tissue water boiling and acoustic cavitation. Arrays were formed in excised bovine liver. Under some exposure conditions, lesions were found to merge in front of the focal point, and failed to cover the desired volume. Using fine wire manganin-constantan thermocouples, temperature studies revealed a substantial rise in the temperature of surrounding untreated tissue. Cooling curves showed that it was necessary to allow surrounding tissue to cool for up to 2 min before ambient temperature was reached. By allowing the tissue to cool between exposures it was possible to form arrays of overlapping lesions thus successfully ablating the complete target region.

  19. High Frequency Noise Generation in Small Axial Flow Fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinlan, D. A.; Bent, P. H.

    1998-11-01

    This paper presents results from an investigation of the broadband sources of acoustic noise in small axial flow fans. Observations drawn from flow visualization experiments and fluid dynamic measurements indicate that secondary flows are primary contributors to the broadband noise generated by small axial flow fans. More specifically, flow unsteadiness associated with tip gap flows is identified as a primary source of high frequency noise. As air is forced through the tip gap (i.e. the space between the rotating blade tip and the stationary housing), the flow rolls up forming vortices at the blade tip. These vortices convect into the blade passage and become the dominant source of unsteadiness in the blade passage and at the fan exit plane. The data presented indicates that this turbulence is the dominant source of noise above 1.5 kHz for the fan tested. The likely radiation mechanisms are trailing edge scattering, and radiation from free turbulence and/or boundary layers. Three types of experiments were performed as part of the study. First, flow visualization tests were run in an attempt to obtain a subjective evaluation of the flowfield. Then, stationary and rotating hot-wires were used to provide mean velocity and turbulence intensity data for non-radial flow components. Using the results from the flow visualization and hot-wire tests, possible noise generation mechanisms were postulated. Fan modifications were then made to test the viability of the proposed noise contributors. The addition of flanges to the blade tip and of fabric near the blade trailing edges provided up to a 9 dB decrease in sound power above 1 kHz. These results will need to be coupled to an analogous study of low frequency noise generation (i.e. below 1 kHz) for a significant reduction in perceived noise level to be achieved.

  20. Carbohydrate-electrolyte ingestion during intermittent high-intensity running.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, C W; Tsintzas, K; Boobis, L; Williams, C

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage or a noncarbohydrate placebo on muscle glycogen utilization during 90 min of intermittent high-intensity running. Six trained games players (age 24.6 +/- 2.2 yr; height 179.6 +/- 1.9 cm; body mass 74.5 +/- 2.0 kg; VO2max 56.3 +/- 1.3 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1); mean +/- SEM) performed two exercise trials, 7 d apart. The subjects were university soccer, hockey, or rugby players. On each occasion, they completed six 15-min periods of intermittent running, consisting of maximal sprinting, interspersed with less intense periods of running and walking. During each trial, subjects consumed either a 6.9% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHO-E: the CHO trial) or a noncarbohydrate placebo (the CON trial) immediately before exercise (5 mL x kg(-1) BM) and after every 15 min of exercise thereafter (2 mL x kg(-1) BM). Drinks were administered in a double-blind, counter-balanced order, and the total volume of fluid consumed during each trial was 1114 +/- 30 mL. Needle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after 90 min of exercise. Venous blood samples were collected from an antecubital vein at rest and every 30 min during exercise. Muscle glycogen utilization in mixed muscle samples was lower (P < 0.05) during CHO [192.5 +/- 26.3 mmol glucosyl units (kg x DM(-1))] than CON [245.3 +/- 22.9 mmol glucosyl units (kg x DM(-1))]. Single fiber analysis on the biopsy samples of the subjects during the CON trial showed a greater glycogen utilization in the Type II fibers compared with Type I fibers during this type of exercise [Type I: 182.2 +/- 34.5 vs Type II: 287.4 +/- 41.2 mmol glucosyl units (kg x DM(-1)); P < 0.05). After 30 min of exercise, blood lactate was significantly greater (P < 0.05) and serum insulin concentration lower (P < 0.05) in CON. In summary, when trained games players ingested a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage, muscle glycogen

  1. Femtosecond dynamics of energetic electrons in high intensity laser-matter interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompili, R.; Anania, M. P.; Bisesto, F.; Botton, M.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Curcio, A.; Ferrario, M.; Galletti, M.; Henis, Z.; Petrarca, M.; Schleifer, E.; Zigler, A.

    2016-10-01

    Highly energetic electrons are generated at the early phases of the interaction of short-pulse high-intensity lasers with solid targets. These escaping particles are identified as the essential core of picosecond-scale phenomena such as laser-based acceleration, surface manipulation, generation of intense magnetic fields and electromagnetic pulses. Increasing the number of the escaping electrons facilitate the late time processes in all cases. Up to now only indirect evidences of these important forerunners have been recorded, thus no detailed study of the governing mechanisms was possible. Here we report, for the first time, direct time-dependent measurements of energetic electrons ejected from solid targets by the interaction with a short-pulse high-intensity laser. We measured electron bunches up to 7 nanocoulombs charge, picosecond duration and 12 megaelectronvolts energy. Our ’snapshots’ capture their evolution with an unprecedented temporal resolution, demonstrat- ing a significant boost in charge and energy of escaping electrons when increasing the geometrical target curvature. These results pave the way toward significant improvement in laser acceleration of ions using shaped targets allowing the future development of small scale laser-ion accelerators.

  2. Femtosecond dynamics of energetic electrons in high intensity laser-matter interactions

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, R.; Anania, M. P.; Bisesto, F.; Botton, M.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Curcio, A.; Ferrario, M.; Galletti, M.; Henis, Z.; Petrarca, M.; Schleifer, E.; Zigler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highly energetic electrons are generated at the early phases of the interaction of short-pulse high-intensity lasers with solid targets. These escaping particles are identified as the essential core of picosecond-scale phenomena such as laser-based acceleration, surface manipulation, generation of intense magnetic fields and electromagnetic pulses. Increasing the number of the escaping electrons facilitate the late time processes in all cases. Up to now only indirect evidences of these important forerunners have been recorded, thus no detailed study of the governing mechanisms was possible. Here we report, for the first time, direct time-dependent measurements of energetic electrons ejected from solid targets by the interaction with a short-pulse high-intensity laser. We measured electron bunches up to 7 nanocoulombs charge, picosecond duration and 12 megaelectronvolts energy. Our ’snapshots’ capture their evolution with an unprecedented temporal resolution, demonstrat- ing a significant boost in charge and energy of escaping electrons when increasing the geometrical target curvature. These results pave the way toward significant improvement in laser acceleration of ions using shaped targets allowing the future development of small scale laser-ion accelerators. PMID:27713541

  3. High intensity ultrasound transducer used in gene transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Kyle P.; Keilman, George W.; Noble, Misty L.; Brayman, Andrew A.; Miao, Carol H.

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes a novel therapeutic high intensity non-focused ultrasound (HIU) transducer designed with uniform pressure distribution to aid in accelerated gene transfer in large animal liver tissues in vivo. The underlying HIU transducer was used to initiate homogeneous cavitation throughout the tissue while delivering up to 2.7 MPa at 1.1 MHz across its radiating surface. The HIU transducer was built into a 6 cm diameter x 1.3 cm tall housing ergonomically designed to avoid collateral damage to the surrounding anatomy during dynamic motion. The ultrasound (US) radiation was applied in a 'paintbrush-like' manner to the surface of the liver. The layers and geometry of the transducer were carefully selected to maximize the active diameter (5.74 cm), maximize the electrical to acoustic conversion efficiency (85%) to achieve 2.7 MPa of peak negative pressure, maximize the frequency operating band at the fundamental resonance to within a power transfer delta of 1 dB, and reduce the pressure delta to within 2 dB across the radiating surface. For maximum peak voltage into the transducer, a high performance piezoceramic was chosen and a DC bias circuit was built integral to the system. An apodized two element annular pattern was made from a single piezoceramic element, resulting in significant pressure uniformity enhancement. In addition to using apodization for pressure uniformity, a proprietary multi-layered structure was used to improve efficiency while sustaining an operating band from 900 kHz to 1.3 MHz. The resultant operating band allowed for dithering techniques using frequency modulation. The underlying HIU transducer for use in large animals enhances gene expression up to 6300-fold.

  4. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  5. Combustion properties of micronized coal for high intensity combustion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.; Knight, B.; Vranos, A.; Hollick, H.; Wicks, K.

    1989-04-19

    Results are presented of an investigation of combustion related properties of micronized coal feeds (all particles less than 40 microns), mixing characteristics of centrifugally driven burner devices, and aerodynamic characteristics of micronized coal particles related to centrifugal mixing for high intensity combustion applications. Combustion related properties investigated are the evolution of fuel bound nitrogen and coal associated mineral matter during the initial stages of combustion. Parent and beneficiated micronized coal samples, as well as narrow size cut samples from a wide range of coal ranks, were investigated using a multireactor approach. The multireactor approach allowed the experimental separation of different aspects of the fuel nitrogen evolution process, enabling a comprehensive understanding of FBN to be formulated and empirical rate constants to be developed. A specially designed on-line gas analysis system allowed nitrogen balance to be achieved. A combined nitrogen and ash tracer technique allowed the quantitative determination of tar yields during rapid devolatilization. Empirical kinetic rates are developed for the evolution of FBN with tar at low temperatures and the appearance of HCN from tar and char species at high temperatures. A specially designed phase separation system, coupled to separate aerosol and char segregation trains, allowed the possible formation of ash aerosol by rapid devolatilization to be monitored. Compensated thermocouple, hot wire anemometry, and digital imaging techniques are employed to characterize the mixing properties of a centrifugally driven combustor. Analytical and experimental investigations of the fidelity of micronized coal particles to gas stream trajectories in the strong centrifugal fields are performed. Both spherical and nonspherical particle morphologies are considered analytically. 14 refs., 141 figs., 34 tabs.

  6. Tools and techniques for estimating high intensity RF effects

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharias, R.; Pennock, S.; Poggio, A.; Ray, S.

    1991-07-01

    With the ever-increasing dependence of modern aircraft on sophisticated avionics and electronic controls, the need to assure aircraft survivatality when exposed to high Intensity RF (HIRF) signals has become of great Interest. Advisory regulation is currently being proposed which would require testing and/or analysis to assure RF hardness of installed flight critical and flight essential equipment. While full-aircraft, full-threat testing may be the most thorough manner to assure survivability, it is not generally practical in loins of cost. Various combinations of limited full-aircraft testing, box-level testing, modeling, and analysis are also being considered as methods to achieve compliance. Modeling, analysis, and low power measurements may hold the key to making full-system survivability estimates at reasonable cost. In this paper we will describe some of the tools and techniques we use for estimating and measuring coupling and component disturbance. A finite difference time domain modeling code, TSAR, used to predict coupling will be described. This code has the capability to quickly generate a mesh model to represent the test object. Some recent applications as well as the advantages and limitations of using such a code will be described. We will also describe some of the facilities and techniques we have developed for making low power coupling measurements and for making direct injection test measurements of device disturbance. Some scaling laws for coupling and device effects will be presented. A method to extrapolate these low-power test results to high-power full-system effects will be presented.

  7. Small mammal distributions relative to corridor edges within intensively managed southern pine plantations.

    Treesearch

    Nicole L. Constantine; Tyler A. Campbell; William M. Baughman; Timothy B. Harrington; Brian R. Chapman; Karl V. Miller

    2005-01-01

    We characterized small mammal communities in three loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina during June 1998-Aug. 2000 to investigate influence of corridor edges on small mammal distribution. We live-trapped small mammals in three regenerating stands following clearcutting. Harvested stands were bisected by...

  8. Short-term high-intensity interval training improves phosphocreatine recovery kinetics following moderate-intensity exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Sean C; Slade, Jill M; Meyer, Ronald A

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that high-intensity training improves biochemical markers of oxidative potential in skeletal muscle within a 2-week period. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of short-term high-intensity interval training on the time constant () of phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery following moderate-intensity exercise, an in vivo measure of functional oxidative capacity. Seven healthy active subjects (age, 21 +/- 4 years; body mass, 69 +/- 11 kg) performed 6 sessions of 4-6 maximal-effort 30 s cycling intervals within a 2-week period, and 7 subjects (age, 24 +/- 5 years; body mass, 80 +/- 15 kg) served as controls. Prior to and following training, phosphorous-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS; GE 3T Excite System) was used to measure relative changes in high-energy phosphates and intracellular pH of the quadriceps muscles during gated dynamic leg-extension exercise (3 cycles of 90 s exercise and 5 min of rest). A monoexponential model was used to estimate the of PCr recovery. The of PCr recovery after leg-extension exercise was reduced by 14% with high-intensity interval training (pretraining, 43 +/- 14 s vs. post-training, 37 +/- 15 s; p < 0.05) with no change in the control group (44 +/- 12 s vs. 43 +/- 12 s, respectively; p > 0.05). These findings demonstrate that short-term high-intensity interval training is an effective means of increasing functional oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle.

  9. Whole Abdominopelvic Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor After Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Hayes-Jordan, Andrea; Subbiah, Vivek; Bilton, Stephen D.; Chang, Eric L.; Grosshans, David R.; McAleer, Mary F.; Sulman, Eric P.; Woo, Shiao Y.; Anderson, Peter; Green, Holly L.; Mahajan, Anita

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSCRT) is an uncommon pediatric tumor with a poor prognosis. Aggressive multimodality therapy is the current treatment approach; however. treatment toxicity is of concern. We report our results with whole abdominopelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (WAP-IMRT) as a component of multimodality therapy for DSCRT at a single institution. Materials/Methods: Medical records of all patients with DSCRT who received WAP-IMRT as part of definitive treatment at MD Anderson (2006-2010) were identified and reviewed. Results: Eight patients with DSRCT received WAP-IMRT with a median follow-up of 15.2 months. All patients received multiple courses of chemotherapy followed by surgical debulking of intra-abdominal disease; seven also had intraoperative hyperthermic cisplatin. WAP-IMRT was delivered to a total dose of 30 Gy postoperatively; four patients received a simultaneous boost (6-10 Gy) to sites of gross residual disease. Seven patients received concurrent chemotherapy during WAP-IMRT. No Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 4 nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea occurred during RT. Red-cell transfusions were given to two patients to maintain hemoglobin levels >10 g/dL. Grade 4 cytopenia requiring growth factor support occurred in only one patient; no other significant cytopenias were noted. WAP-IMRT resulted in 25% lower radiation doses to the lumbosacral vertebral bodies and pelvic bones than conventional RT plans. The median time to local or distant failure after WAP-IMRT was 8.73 months in seven patients. One patient who had completed RT 20 months before the last follow-up remains alive without evidence of disease. Five patients (63%) experienced treatment failure in the abdomen. Distant failure occurred in three patients (37.5%). Conclusions: WAP-IMRT with concurrent radiosensitizing chemotherapy was well tolerated after aggressive surgery for DSCRT. Enhanced bone sparing with IMRT probably accounts for the low hematologic

  10. High intensity production of high and medium charge state uraniumand other heavy ion beams with VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Daniela; Galloway, Michelle L.; Loew, Timothy J.; Lyneis, Claude M.; Rodriguez, Ingrid Castro; Todd, Damon S.

    2007-11-15

    The next generation, superconducting ECR ion source VENUS(Versatile ECR ion source for NUclear Science) started operation with 28GHzmicrowave heating in 2004. Since then it has produced world recordion beam intensities. For example, 2850 e mu A of O6+, 200 e mu A of U33+or U34+, and in respect to high charge state ions, 1 e mu A of Ar18+, 270e mu A of Ar16+, 28 e mu A of Xe35+ and 4.9 e mu A of U47+ have beenproduced. A brief overview of the latest developments leading to theserecord intensities is given and the production of high intensity uraniumbeams is discussed in more detail.

  11. High-intensity cycle interval training improves cycling and running performance in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B; Ferguson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Effective cycle training for triathlon is a challenge for coaches. We compared the effects of two variants of cycle high-intensity interval training (HIT) on triathlon-specific cycling and running. Fourteen moderately-trained male triathletes ([Formula: see text]O2peak 58.7 ± 8.1 mL kg(-1) min(-1); mean ± SD) completed on separate occasions a maximal incremental test ([Formula: see text]O2peak and maximal aerobic power), 16 × 20 s cycle sprints and a 1-h triathlon-specific cycle followed immediately by a 5 km run time trial. Participants were then pair-matched and assigned randomly to either a long high-intensity interval training (LONG) (6-8 × 5 min efforts) or short high-intensity interval training (SHORT) (9-11 × 10, 20 and 40 s efforts) HIT cycle training intervention. Six training sessions were completed over 3 weeks before participants repeated the baseline testing. Both groups had an ∼7% increase in [Formula: see text]O2peak (SHORT 7.3%, ±4.6%; mean, ±90% confidence limits; LONG 7.5%, ±1.7%). There was a moderate improvement in mean power for both the SHORT (10.3%, ±4.4%) and LONG (10.7%, ±6.8%) groups during the last eight 20-s sprints. There was a small to moderate decrease in heart rate, blood lactate and perceived exertion in both groups during the 1-h triathlon-specific cycling but only the LONG group had a substantial decrease in the subsequent 5-km run time (64, ±59 s). Moderately-trained triathletes should use both short and long high-intensity intervals to improve cycling physiology and performance. Longer 5-min intervals on the bike are more likely to benefit 5 km running performance.

  12. Glass Strengthening via High-Intensity Plasma-Arc Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Harper, David C; Duty, Chad E; Patel, P

    2010-01-01

    The use of a high-intensity plasma-arc lamp was used to irradiate the surface of soda-lime silicate glass tiles to determine if an increase in strength could be achieved. The lamp had a power density of 3500 W/cm2, a processing area of 1 cm x 10 cm, irradiated near-infrared heating at a wavelength between 0.2 1.4 m, and was controlled to unidirectionally sweep across 50-mm-square tiles at a constant speed of 8 mm/s. Ring-on-ring (RoR) equibiaxial flexure and 4 pt uni-directional flexure testings of entire tiles were used to measure and compare failure stress distributions of treated and untreated glass. Even with non-optimized processing conditions, RoR failure stress increased by approximately 25% and the 4 pt bend failure stress increased by approximately 65%. Strengthening was due to a fire-polishing-like mechanism. The arc-lamp heat-treatment caused the location of the strength-limiting flaws in the 4-pt-bend tiles to change; namely, failure initiation occurred on the gage section surface for the treated glass whereas it occurred at a gage section edge for the untreated. Arc-lamp heat-treatment is attractive not only because it provides strengthening, but because it can (non-contact) process large amounts of glass quickly and inexpensively, and is a process that either a glass manufacturer or end-user can readily employ.

  13. Development of a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Hydrophone System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Mark E.; Gessert, James

    2009-04-01

    The growing clinical use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) has driven a need for reliable, reproducible measurements of HIFU acoustic fields. We have previously presented data on a reflective scatterer approach, incorporating several novel features for improved bandwidth, reliability, and reproducibility [Proc. 2005 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 1739-1742]. We now report on several design improvements which have increase the signal to noise ratio of the system, and potentially reduced the cost of implementation. For the scattering element, we now use an artificial sapphire material to provide a more uniform radiating surface. The receiver is a segmented, truncated spherical structure with a 10 cm radius; the scattering element is positioned at the center of the sphere. The receiver is made from 25 micron thick, biaxially stretched PVDF, with a Pt-Au electrode on the front surface. In the new design, a specialized backing material provides the stiffness required to maintain structural stability, while at the same time providing both electrical shielding and ultrasonic absorption. Compared with the previous version, the new receiver design has improved the noise performance by 8-12 dB; the new scattering sphere has reduced the scattering loss by another 14 dB, producing an effective sensitivity of -298 dB re 1 microVolt/Pa. The design trade-off still involves receiver sensitivity with effective spot size, and signal distortion from the scatter structure. However, the reduced cost and improved repeatability of the new scatter approach makes the overall design more robust for routine waveform measurements of HIFU systems.

  14. A Method of Estimating Pressure and Intensity Distributions of Multielement Phased Array High Intensity Focused Ultrasonic Field at Full Power Using a Needle Hydrophone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Yu; Guofeng, Shen; Jingfeng, Bai; Yazhu, Chen

    2011-09-01

    The pressure and intensity distribution of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields at full power are critical for predicting heating patterns and ensuring safety of the therapy. With the limitations of maximum pressure at the hydrophone and damage from cavitation or thermal effects, it is hard to measure pressure and intensity directly when HIFU is at full power. HIFU-phased arrays are usually composed of large numbers of small elements and the sound power radiated from some of them at full power is measureable using a hydrophone, we grouped them based on the limitation of maximum permissible pressure at the hydrophone and the characteristics of the element arrangement in the array. Then sound field measurement of the group was carried out at full power level. Using the acoustic coherence principle, the pressure and intensity distribution of the array at full power level can be calculated from corresponding values from the groups. With this method, computer simulations and sound field measurement of a 65-element concentric distributed phased array was carried out. The simulation results demonstrate theoretically the feasibility of this method. Measurements on the 65-element phased array also verify the effectiveness of this method for estimating the pressure and intensity distribution of phased array at full power level using a needle hydrophone.

  15. Aerobic Fitness for Young Athletes: Combining Game-based and High-intensity Interval Training.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C B; Kinugasa, T; Gill, N; Kilding, A E

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the effect of game-based training (GT) vs. a mix of game-based training and high-intensity interval training (MT) on physical performance characteristics. 26 young athletes (13.9±0.3 years) were assigned to either GT (n=13) or MT (n=13) for 6 weeks. Game-based training consisted of 2×8-11 min 3 vs. 3 'bucketball' SSGs separated by 3 min of passive rest twice per week, while MT consisted of one SSGs session and one high-intensity session of 15 s runs at 90-95% of the speed reached at the end of the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (VIFT) interspersed with 15 s passive recovery. Peak oxygen uptake (V˙ O2peak), VIFT, jump height, and speed were assessed pre- and post-training. Following training, V˙ O2peak (5.5±3.3%; ES=large) improved after MT, whereas VIFT improved after MT (6.6±3.2%; ES, large) and GT (4.2±5.5%, ES=small). 5-m sprint improved after GT (ES=small), while 20 m sprint and jump height were unchanged. In conclusion, while MT and GT were both effective at increasing performance parameters, greater effects were seen following MT. Therefore, MT should be considered as the preferred training method for improving aerobic power in young athletes.

  16. Optimization of intensity-modulated very high energy (50-250 MeV) electron therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeboah, C.; Sandison, G. A.; Moskvin, V.

    2002-04-01

    This work evaluates the potential of very high energy (50-250 MeV) electron beams for dose conformation and identifies those variables that influence optimized dose distributions for this modality. Intensity-modulated plans for a prostate cancer model were optimized as a function of the importance factors, beam energy and number of energy bins, number of beams, and the beam orientations. A trial-and-error-derived constellation of importance factors for target and sensitive structures to achieve good conformal dose distributions was 500, 50, 10 and 1 for the target, rectum, bladder and normal tissues respectively. Electron energies greater than 100 MeV were found to be desirable for intensity-modulated very high energy electron therapy (VHEET) of prostate cancer. Plans generated for lower energy beams had relatively poor conformal dose distributions about the target region and delivered high doses to sensitive structures. Fixed angle beam treatments utilizing a large number of fields in the range 9-21 provided acceptable plans. Using more than 21 beams at fixed gantry angles had an insignificant effect on target coverage, but resulted in an increased dose to sensitive structures and an increased normal tissue integral dose. Minor improvements in VHEET plans utilizing a `small' number (=<9) of beams may be achieved if, in addition to intensity modulation, energy modulation is implemented using a small number (=<3) of beam energies separated by 50 to 100 MeV. Rotation therapy provided better target dose homogeneity but unfortunately resulted in increased rectal dose, bladder dose and normal tissue integral dose relative to the 21-field fixed angle treatment plan. Modulation of the beam energy for rotation therapy had no beneficial consequences on the optimized dose distributions. Lastly, selection of beam orientations influenced the optimized treatment plan even when a large number of beams (approximately 15) were employed.

  17. Can Trained Runners Effectively Attenuate Impact Acceleration During Repeated High-Intensity Running Bouts?

    PubMed

    Clansey, Adam C; Lake, Mark J; Wallace, Eric S; Feehally, Tom; Hanlon, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged high-intensity running on impact accelerations in trained runners. Thirteen male distance runners completed two 20-minute treadmill runs at speeds corresponding to 95% of onset of blood lactate accumulation. Leg and head accelerations were collected for 20 s every fourth minute. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scores were recorded during the third and last minute of each run. RPE responses increased (P < .001) from the start (11.8 ± 0.9, moderate intensity) of the first run to the end (17.7 ± 1.5, very hard) of the second run. Runners maintained their leg impact acceleration, impact attenuation, stride length, and stride frequency characteristics with prolonged run duration. However, a small (0.11-0.14g) but significant increase (P < .001) in head impact accelerations were observed at the end of both first and second runs. It was concluded that trained runners are able to control leg impact accelerations during sustained high-intensity running. Alongside the substantial increases in perceived exertion levels, running mechanics and frequency domain impact attenuation levels remained constant. This suggests that the present trained runners are able to cope from a mechanical perspective despite an increased physiological demand.

  18. An ex vivo feasibility experimental study on targeted cell surgery by high intensity focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi Biao; Wu, Junru; Fang, Liao Qiong; Wang, Hua; Li, Fa Qi; Tian, Yun Bo; Gong, Xiao Bo; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Lian; Feng, Ruo

    2012-10-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has become a new noninvasive surgical modality in medicine. A portion of tissue seated inside a patient's body may experience coagulative necrosis after a few seconds of insonification by high intensity focused ultrasound (US) generated by an extracorporeal focusing US transducer. The region of tissue affected by coagulative necrosis (CN) usually has an ellipsoidal shape when the thermal effect due to US absorption plays the dominant role. Its long and short axes are parallel and perpendicular to the US propagation direction respectively. It was shown by ex vivo experiments that the dimension of the short and long axes of the tissue which experiences CN can be as small as 50 μm and 250 μm respectively after one second exposure of US pulse (the spatial and pulse average acoustic power is on the order of tens of Watts and the local acoustic spatial and temporal pulse averaged intensity is on the order of 3 × 104 W/cm2) generated by a 1.6 MHz HIFU transducer of 12 cm diameter and 11 cm geometric focal length (f-number = 0.92). The numbers of cells which suffered CN were estimated to be on the order of 40. This result suggests that HIFU is able to interact with tens of cells at/near its focal zone while keeping the neighboring cells minimally affected, and thus the targeted cell surgery may be achievable.

  19. Development of a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Hydrophone System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Mark E.; Gessert, James; Moore, Wayne

    2006-05-01

    Concomitant with the growing clinical use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU), there has been a need for reliable, economical and reproducible measurements of HIFU acoustic fields. A number of approaches have been proposed and investigated, most notably by Kaczkowski et al [Proc. 2003 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 982-985]. We are developing a similar reflective scatterer approach, incorporating several novel features which improve the hydrophone's bandwidth, reliability, and reproducibility. For the scattering element, we have used a fused silica optical fiber with a polyamide protective coating. The receiver is designed as a segmented, truncated spherical structure with a 10cm radius; the scattering element is positioned at the center of the sphere. The receiver is made from 25 micron thick, biaxially stretched PVDF, with a Pt-Au electrode on the front surface. Each segment has its own high impedance, wideband preamplifier, and the signals from multiple segments are summed coherently. As an additional feature, the system is designed to pulse the PVDF elements so that the pulse-echo response can be used to align the fiber at the center. Initial tests of the system have demonstrated a receiver array sensitivity of -279 dB re 1 microVolt/Pa (before preamplification), with a scattering loss at the fiber of approximately 39dB, producing an effective sensitivity of -318 dB re 1 micro Volt/Pa. The addition of the closely coupled wideband preamplifiers boosts the signal to a range which is sufficient for the measurement of HIFU transducers. The effective bandwidth of the system exceeds 15MHz, through careful design and the use of PVDF as a sensor material. In order to test the system, a HIFU transducer in the 4.0MHz frequency range was tested at low output settings using a conventional PVDF membrane hydrophone. The prototype system was then used to characterize the same HIFU transducer at full power. The results showed good correlation between waveforms and cross

  20. Distribution of temperature elevation caused by moving high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungsoon; Jung, Jihee; Kim, Moojoon; Ha, Kanglyeol; Lee, Eunghwa; Lee, Ilkwon

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic thermal treatment for dermatology has been developed using a small high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer. The transducer moves horizontally at a constant while it emits focused ultrasound because the treatment needs a high-temperature area in skin tissue over a wide range of depths. In this paper, a tissue-mimicking phantom made of carrageenan and a thermochromic film were adopted to examine the temperature distribution in the phantom noninvasively when the focused ultrasound was irradiated from the moving transducer. The dependence of the high-temperature area on the irradiated acoustic energy and on the movement interval of the HIFU was analyzed experimentally. The results will be useful in ensuring safety and estimating the remedial value of the treatment.

  1. High-Intensity Training and Salivary Immunoglobulin A Responses in Professional Top-Level Soccer Players: Effect of Training Intensity.

    PubMed

    Owen, Adam L; Wong, Del P; Dunlop, Gordon; Groussard, Carole; Kebsi, Wiem; Dellal, Alexandre; Morgans, Ryland; Zouhal, Hassane

    2016-09-01

    Owen, AL, Wong, DP, Dunlop, G, Groussard, C, Kebsi, W, Dellal, A, Morgans, R, and Zouhal, H. High-intensity training and salivary immunoglobulin A responses in professional top-level soccer players: Effect of training intensity. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2460-2469, 2016-This study aimed (a) to test the hypothesis that salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) would vary with training intensity sessions (low-intensity [LI] vs. high-intensity sessions [HI]) during a traditional training program divided into 4 training periods and (b) to identify key variables (e.g., GPS data, rating of perceived exertion [RPE], and training duration), which could affect s-IgA. Saliva samples of 10 elite professional soccer players were collected (a) before the investigation started to establish the baseline level and (b) before and after each 4 training sessions (LI vs. HI). Training intensity was monitored as internal (through heart rate responses and RPE) and external (through GPS) loads. High-intensity sessions were associated with higher external load (GPS) and with higher RPE. Baseline and pretraining s-IgA did not differ between the 4 training sessions both for HI and LI. Post-training s-IgA were not different (in absolute value and in percentage of change) between HI and LI sessions at the first 3 periods. However, at the fourth period, s-IgA concentration for HI session was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) than the LI session. The percentage change between s-IgA post-training and s-IgA baseline concentrations differ significantly (p ≤ 0.05) between HI and LI training sessions. Significant correlations between s-IgA and training intensity were also noted. High-intensity soccer training sessions might cause a significant decrease in s-IgA values during the postexercise window as compared with LI sessions. This study encourages coaches to monitor s-IgA in routine, particularly during HI training periods, to take precautions to avoid upper respiratory tract infection in highly trained

  2. Co-ingestion of Nutritional Ergogenic Aids and High-Intensity Exercise Performance.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Alireza; Earnest, Conrad P; Lowery, Ryan P; Wilson, Jacob M; Willems, Mark E T

    2016-10-01

    Many sports involve repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise. High-intensity exercise is compromised, however, by the early onset of exercise-induced fatigue. Metabolic by-products, ion dysbalance and amount of phosphocreatine are considered the main peripheral causes of fatigue during high-intensity exercise. Intake of nutritional ergogenic aids is commonplace to enhance performance of high-intensity exercise by offsetting the potential mechanisms of fatigue. Creatine, probably one of the best known nutritional aids to enhance performance of high-intensity exercise, has convincingly substantiated its ergogenic potential. Although multi-ingredient supplements are now common, the justification for effectiveness is mostly based on observations with single intake of those ingredients. In this narrative review, the main focus is on the evidence of the effect of co-ingestion of ergogenic aids on performance of high intensity exercise for which the single intake has shown beneficial effects on high-intensity performance.

  3. High power target approaches for intense radioactive ion beam facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, W.L. ||; Hodges, T.A.; Hsu, H.; Fikani, M.M.

    1997-02-01

    Development of conceptual approaches for targets to produce intense radioactive ion beams is needed in anticipation of activity for a next-generation, intense ISOL-type radioactive beams facility, strongly recommended in the NSAC 1995 Long Range Plan for Nuclear Science. The production of isotopes in vapor form for subsequent mass separation and acceleration will depend on the ability to control target temperature profiles within the target resulting from interactions of the intense production beams with the target material. A number of earlier studies have identified promising approaches which need, however, to be carefully analyzed for specific target systems. A survey will be made of these earlier concepts employing various cooling techniques, including imposition of thermal barriers between the target materials and cooling systems. Some results of preliminary analyses are summarized. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Effects of high versus low-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density in young males.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuku, S; Shimokata, H; Ikegami, Y; Yabe, K; Wasnich, R D

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity and low-intensity resistance training upon bone mineral density (BMD) by comparing the BMD of young male powerlifters (n = 5), recreational trainees (n = 5), and controls (n = 5). Lumbar spine (L2-L4), proximal femur, and whole body BMDs were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The high-intensity group showed a significantly greater BMD when the whole body and trochanter regions were measured than the low-intensity and control group. The BMD of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and Ward's triangle was greater in the high-intensity group compared with the control group. There was no significant BMD difference between the low-intensity and control group except at the trochanter region. These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training is effective for increasing BMD, but low-intensity resistance training is not.

  5. Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Regis Anne; Miles, Karen Hawley

    2008-01-01

    Education Resource Strategies (ERS) works with school and district leaders to help them more strategically use resources--people, time, and money--to improve student performance. They have found that many school districts begin creating small high schools without a clear sense of how much they will spend or how to ensure that small schools…

  6. Small mammal communities of high elevation central Appalachian wetlands

    Treesearch

    Karen E. Francl; Steven B. Castleberry; W. Mark Ford

    2004-01-01

    We surveyed small mammal assemblages at 20 high-elevation wetlands in West Virginia and Maryland and examined relationships among mammal capture rates, richness and evenness and landscape features at multiple spatial scales. In 24,693 trap nights we captured 1451 individuals of 12 species. Small mammal species richness increased with wetland size and was negatively...

  7. Effects of nonlinear ultrasound propagation on high intensity brain therapy.

    PubMed

    Pinton, Gianmarco; Aubry, Jean-Francois; Fink, Mathias; Tanter, Mickael

    2011-03-01

    As an ultrasound wave propagates nonlinearly, energy is transferred to higher frequencies where it is more strongly attenuated. Compared to soft tissue, the skull has strongly heterogeneous material parameters. The authors characterize with experiments and establish a numerical method that can describe the effects of the skull on the nonlinear components of ultrasonic wave propagation for application to high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy in the brain. The impact of nonlinear acoustic propagation on heat deposition and thermal dose delivery is quantified and compared to linear assumptions by coupling an acoustic simulation with a heating model for brain tissue. A degassed dessicated human skull was placed in a water tank and insonified at 1 MPa with 7 mm transducer from a custom array designed for HIFU treatment. Two dimensional scans were performed preceding and following propagation through the skull with a calibrated hydrophone. Data from the scan preceding the skull were used as an input to a three dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation that calculates the effects of diffraction, density, attenuation with linear dependence on frequency via relaxation mechanisms, and second order nonlinearity. A measured representation of the skull was used to determine the skull's acoustic properties. The validated acoustic model was used to determine the loss due to nonlinear propagation and then coupled to a finite difference simulation of the bioheat equation for two focal configurations at 3 and 7.5 cm from the skull surface. Prior to propagation through the skull, the second harmonic component was 19 dB lower than the fundamental, and the third harmonic component was 37 dB lower. Following the skull, the second harmonic component was 35 dB lower and the third harmonic was 55 dB lower. The simulation is in agreement with the measurements to within 0.5 dB across the considered frequency range and shows good agreement across the two

  8. Investigation of the Frohlich hypothesis with high intensity terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weightman, Peter

    2014-03-01

    This article provides an update to recent reviews of the Frohlich hypothesis that biological organisation is facilitated by the creation of coherent excited states driven by a flow of free energy provided by metabolic processes and mediated by molecular motions in the terahertz range. Sources of intense terahertz radiation have the potential to test this hypothesis since if it is true the growth and development of sensitive systems such as stem cells should be influenced by irradiation with intense terahertz radiation. A brief survey of recent work shows that it is not yet possible to make an assessment of the validity of the Frohlich hypothesis. Under some conditions a variety of cell types respond to irradiation with intense THz radiation in ways that involve changes in the activity of their DNA. In other experiments very intense and prolonged THz radiation has no measureable effect on the behavior of very sensitive systems such as stem cells. The wide variation in experimental conditions makes it impossible to draw any conclusions as to characteristics of THz radiation that will induce a response in living cells. It is possible that in environments suitable for their maintenance and growth cells are capable of compensating for any effects caused by exposure to THz radiation up to some currently unknown level of THz peak power.

  9. Experimental and numerical study of high intensity argon cluster beams

    SciTech Connect

    Korobeishchikov, N. G.; Kalyada, V. V.; Shmakov, A. A.; Zarvin, A. E.; Skovorodko, P. A.

    2014-12-09

    Experimental and numerical investigations of expansion of argon with homogeneous condensation in supersonic conical nozzle and in free jet behind it were carried out. Optimal parameters (stagnation pressure, nozzle-skimmer distance) for the formation of cluster beam with maximum intensity were determined. Two available models for nonequilibrium nucleation were tested. The numerical results are in satisfactory agreement with the measured data.

  10. Experimental Research at the Intensity Frontier in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Marshak, Marvin L.

    2014-06-30

    This Final Report describes DOE-supported Intensity Frontier research by the University of Minnesota during the interval April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. Primary activities included the MINOS, NOvA and LBNE Experiments and Heavy Quark studies at BES III.

  11. Overview of novel photovoltaic conversion techniques at high intensity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes several photovoltaic devices currently under development that can operate under light intensities considerably higher than can silicon solar cells. The technologies discussed include GaAs heteroface solar cells, multi-color systems, thermophotovoltaics, and laser energy conversion. Array costs for the GaAs and multi-color elements are estimated.

  12. High sensitivity dual microring sensor based on intensity detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, H.; Citrin, D. S.; Zhou, Z.

    2010-12-01

    By employing the enhanced phase transfer of single microring resonator, the enhanced intensity sensing is obtained based on the dual microring resonator with coupled mode theory. The two times higher sensitivity than the conventional microring sensor is demonstrated based on the FDTD simulation.

  13. Overview of novel photovoltaic conversion techniques at high intensity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes several photovoltaic devices currently under development that can operate under light intensities considerably higher than can silicon solar cells. The technologies discussed include GaAs heteroface solar cells, multi-color systems, thermophotovoltaics, and laser energy conversion. Array costs for the GaAs and multi-color elements are estimated.

  14. Systematic Studies for the Development of High-Intensity Abs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barion, L.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Lenisa, P.; Statera, M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the dissociator cooling temperature has been tested in order to explain the unexpected RHIC atomic beam intensity. Studies on trumpet nozzle geometry, compared to standard sonic nozzle have been performed, both with simulation methods and test bench measurements on molecular beams, obtaining promising results.

  15. Interleukin-6 and associated cytokine responses to an acute bout of high-intensity interval exercise: the effect of exercise intensity and volume.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Tom; Thomas, Andrew W; Webb, Richard; Hughes, Michael G

    2016-08-01

    Acute increases in interleukin (IL)-6 following prolonged exercise are associated with the induction of a transient anti-inflammatory state (e.g., increases in IL-10) that is partly responsible for the health benefits of regular exercise. The purposes of this study were to investigate the IL-6-related inflammatory response to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and to determine the impact of exercise intensity and volume on this response. Ten participants (5 males and 5 females) completed 3 exercise bouts of contrasting intensity and volume (LOW, MOD, and HIGH). The HIGH protocol was based upon standard HIIE protocols, while the MOD and LOW protocols were designed to enable a comparison of exercise intensity and volume with a fixed duration. Inflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured in plasma (IL-6, IL-10) and also determined the level of gene expression (IL-6, IL-10, and IL-4R) in peripheral blood. The plasma IL-6 response to exercise (reported as fold changes) was significantly greater in HIGH (2.70 ± 1.51) than LOW (1.40 ± 0.32) (P = 0.04) and was also positively correlated to the mean exercise oxygen uptake (r = 0.54, P < 0.01). However, there was no change in anti-inflammatory IL-10 or IL-4R responses in plasma or at the level of gene expression. HIIE caused a significant increase in IL-6 and was greater than that seen in low-intensity exercise of the same duration. The increases in IL-6 were relatively small in magnitude, and appear to have been insufficient to induce the acute systemic anti-inflammatory effects, which are evident following longer duration exercise.

  16. [An updated overview of the high intensity lipid lowering therapy in high cardiovascular risk patients].

    PubMed

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Pintó, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Statins are highly effective drugs to decrease the plasma concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins and prevent cardiovascular disease. The clinical practice guidelines recommend the use of high-intensity statins to lower LDL-cholesterol by at least 50% in patients with CVD and those at high cardiovascular risk. The recommendations for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia by the ACC/AHA have led to a paradigm shift in cardiovascular prevention. These recommendations have abandoned the therapeutic goals of LDL-cholesterol, and recommend the treatment with statins of high or moderate intensity in four high cardiovascular risk groups. These recommendations are different from the European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention, in which their objectives are still towards LDL-cholesterol. This paper reviews this controversy from different angles and from the perspective of the Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. Intervention studies with high intensity statins in primary prevention, in patients with acute coronary syndrome, and with stable ischaemic heart disease are also described. Likewise, treatment with statins of high intensity is addressed in terms of their effectiveness in cardiovascular prevention and in terms of their safety, with particular attention to muscle effects, as well as taking into account the pharmacological characteristics of the different statins and the increased safety of those with less potential for interactions. Finally, new agents are described for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia, with special emphasis on anti-PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies, a new therapeutic group for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia that will offer a huge progress in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Methodological Considerations When Quantifying High-Intensity Efforts in Team Sport Using Global Positioning System Technology.

    PubMed

    Varley, Matthew C; Jaspers, Arne; Helsen, Werner F; Malone, James J

    2017-01-04

    Purpose Sprints and accelerations are popular performance indicators in applied sport. The methods used to define these efforts using athlete tracking technology could affect the number of efforts reported. The study aimed to determine the influence of different techniques and settings for detecting high-intensity efforts using Global Positioning System (GPS) data. Methods Velocity and acceleration data of a professional soccer match was recorded via 10-Hz GPS. Velocity data was filtered using either a median or exponential filter. Acceleration data was derived from velocity data over a 0.2 s time interval (with and without an exponential filter applied) and a 0.3 s time interval. High-speed running (≥4.17 m.s(-1)), sprint (≥7.00 m.(s-1)) and acceleration (≥2.78 m.s(-2)) efforts were then identified using minimum effort durations (0.1 to 0.9 s) to assess differences in the total number of efforts reported. Results Different velocity filtering methods resulted in small to moderate differences (Effect Size; 0.28 - 1.09) in the number of high-speed running and sprint efforts detected when minimum duration was <0.5 s and small to very large differences (ES; -5.69 - 0.26) in the number of accelerations when minimum duration was <0.7 s. There was an exponential decline in the number of all efforts as minimum duration increased, regardless of filtering method, with the largest declines in acceleration efforts. Conclusions Filtering techniques and minimum durations substantially affect the number of high-speed running, sprint and acceleration efforts detected with GPS. Changes to how high-intensity efforts are defined affect reported data. Therefore, consistency in data processing is advised.

  18. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-03-06

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated.

  19. Effects and sustainability of a 13-day high-intensity shock microcycle in soccer.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Patrick; Güldner, Matthias; Mester, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The preseason in soccer is a short period of 6-8 weeks where conditional abilities, technical and tactical elements need to be trained. Therefore, time is lacking to perform long term preparation periods for different abilities, especially endurance training. There is evidence that the implementation of high-intensity shock microcycles in preseason training could be one way to improve physical performance in a short period of time. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects and the sustainability of a high-intensity shock microcycle on soccer specific performance. Over 2 weeks, 12 male soccer players (26.1 ± 4.5 years) performed 12 high-intensity training (HIT) sessions in addition to their usual training. Before (pre), 6 days (6d) and 25 days (25d) after training, subjects performed Counter Movement Jump (CMJ), Repeated-Sprint Ability (RSA) test and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 (YYIR2). Mean sprint time (RSAMean) (cohen's d = -1.15), percentage decrement score (RSAIndex) (cohen's d = -1.99) and YYIR2 (cohen's d = +1.92) improved significantly from pre to 6d. 25d after, values showed a significant reduction for YYIR2 (cohen's d = -0.81) and small to moderate but not significant increase for RSAMean (cohen's d = +0.37) and RSAIndex (cohen's d = +0.7) compared to 6d values. Small but no significant increases were found for CMJ (cohen's d = +0.33) and no significant and substantial changes were found for RSABest (cohen's d = -0.07) from pre to 6d. For competitive soccer players, block periodization of HIT offers a promising way to largely improve RSA and YYIR2 in a short period of time. Despite moderate to large decreases in RSAIndex and YYIR2 performance in the 19 day period without HIT, values still remained significantly higher 25d after the last HIT session compared to pre-values. However, it might be necessary to include isolated high-intensity sessions after a HIT training block in order to maintain the higher level of

  20. Effects and Sustainability of a 13-Day High-Intensity Shock Microcycle in Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Patrick; Güldner, Matthias; Mester, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The preseason in soccer is a short period of 6-8 weeks where conditional abilities, technical and tactical elements need to be trained. Therefore, time is lacking to perform long term preparation periods for different abilities, especially endurance training. There is evidence that the implementation of high-intensity shock microcycles in preseason training could be one way to improve physical performance in a short period of time. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects and the sustainability of a high-intensity shock microcycle on soccer specific performance. Over 2 weeks, 12 male soccer players (26.1 ± 4.5 years) performed 12 high-intensity training (HIT) sessions in addition to their usual training. Before (pre), 6 days (6d) and 25 days (25d) after training, subjects performed Counter Movement Jump (CMJ), Repeated-Sprint Ability (RSA) test and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 (YYIR2). Mean sprint time (RSAMean) (cohen’s d = -1.15), percentage decrement score (RSAIndex) (cohen’s d = -1.99) and YYIR2 (cohen’s d = +1.92) improved significantly from pre to 6d. 25d after, values showed a significant reduction for YYIR2 (cohen’s d = -0.81) and small to moderate but not significant increase for RSAMean (cohen’s d = +0.37) and RSAIndex (cohen’s d = +0.7) compared to 6d values. Small but no significant increases were found for CMJ (cohen’s d = +0.33) and no significant and substantial changes were found for RSABest (cohen’s d = -0.07) from pre to 6d. For competitive soccer players, block periodization of HIT offers a promising way to largely improve RSA and YYIR2 in a short period of time. Despite moderate to large decreases in RSAIndex and YYIR2 performance in the 19 day period without HIT, values still remained significantly higher 25d after the last HIT session compared to pre-values. However, it might be necessary to include isolated high-intensity sessions after a HIT training block in order to maintain the

  1. Radiative properties of ceramic metal-halide high intensity discharge lamps containing additives in argon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe; Zissis, Georges

    2016-07-01

    The lighting represents a consumption of about 19% of the world electricity production. We are thus searching new effective and environment-friendlier light sources. The ceramic metal-halide high intensity lamps (C-MHL) are one of the options for illuminating very high area. The new C-MHL lamps contain additives species that reduce mercury inside and lead to a richer spectrum in specific spectral intervals, a better colour temperature or colour rendering index. This work is particularly focused on the power radiated by these lamps, estimated using the net emission coefficient, and depending on several additives (calcium, sodium, tungsten, dysprosium, and thallium or strontium iodides). The results show the strong influence of the additives on the power radiated despite of their small quantity in the mixtures and the increase of visible radiation portion in presence of dysprosium.

  2. The TEA CO2-Lasers with High Output Emission Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Yu. N.; Losev, V. F.; Puchikin, А. V.; Jun, Yao

    2014-03-01

    TEA CO2-lasers generating short pulse radiation and operating in a pulse-periodic mode with the repetition rate up to 10 Hz have been developed. It is shown that the addition of nitrogen up to 8% in the mixture of molecular gases СО2:H2 = 500:50 at a total pressure of P = 0.6 bar enhances the peak emission power maintaining the temporary pulse shape. An output beam intensity of 12.3 MW/cm2 was obtained for the 30 ns pulse at a laser efficiency of 2.8%. In a compact TEA СО2-laser with an active medium volume of 6 cm3, a beam with an output intensity of 24 MW/cm2 at pulse duration of 70 ns was obtained.

  3. Understanding laser-solid interactions at ultra-high intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, C. D.; Gray, R. J.; Carroll, D. C.; MacLellan, D. A.; Powell, H.; Scott, G. G.; Ridgers, C. P.; Brady, C. S.; Neely, D.; Green, J. S.; Booth, N.; McKenna, P.

    2012-10-01

    The interaction of matter with lasers is a subject which has progressed rapidly over the last two decades as higher intensity lasers have opened the door to nonlinear and then relativistic interactions such that applications in ion acceleration and x-ray backlighting sources have become a clear possibility. Until recently, lasers capable of reaching the highest intensities (˜10^21 Wcm-2) have been glass-based systems with a low shot rate making detailed studies prohibitively time consuming. The development of petawatt-class Ti:Sapphire lasers such as Astra Gemini at STFC - Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, has made the systematic studies required to understand such interaction physics feasible. One such experiment on the Astra Gemini laser will be presented. The photon and particle diagnostics used will be explained and their results presented.

  4. 25 CFR 39.145 - Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... small high school adjustment? 39.145 Section 39.145 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Adjustment § 39.145 Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment? A school that meets the criteria in § 39.140 can receive both a small school adjustment and a small...

  5. 25 CFR 39.145 - Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... small high school adjustment? 39.145 Section 39.145 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Adjustment § 39.145 Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment? A school that meets the criteria in § 39.140 can receive both a small school adjustment and a small...

  6. 25 CFR 39.145 - Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... small high school adjustment? 39.145 Section 39.145 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Adjustment § 39.145 Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment? A school that meets the criteria in § 39.140 can receive both a small school adjustment and a small...

  7. 25 CFR 39.145 - Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... small high school adjustment? 39.145 Section 39.145 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Adjustment § 39.145 Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment? A school that meets the criteria in § 39.140 can receive both a small school adjustment and a small...

  8. 25 CFR 39.145 - Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... small high school adjustment? 39.145 Section 39.145 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Adjustment § 39.145 Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment? A school that meets the criteria in § 39.140 can receive both a small school adjustment and a small...

  9. Enjoyment of high-intensity interval training in an overweight/obese cohort: a short report.

    PubMed

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E

    2017-01-01

    Exercise enjoyment has been shown to be important for adherence. Minimal data exist on enjoyment of intense exercise, especially in clinical populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate enjoyment levels of overweight and obese subjects undergoing 3 weeks of high-intensity interval training. Forty-two generally healthy overweight and obese men and women (body mass index = 30·8 ± 4·8 kg × m(-2) ) volunteered for this study. Exercise enjoyment was quantified using the Exercise Enjoyment Scale before and after each of nine total interval training sessions, over a three-week period. Heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at the end of each interval and training session. There were no significant differences in enjoyment between training groups (P > 0·05). Exercise enjoyment improved significantly over the three-week training phase (P < 0·05). Enjoyment levels were relatively high to begin training: mean ± SD: 4·2 ± 1·0 out of a 7 point scale. Heart rate and RPE were significantly reduced (P < 0·05) from pre- (day 1) to post-training (day 9). High-intensity interval training may be an enjoyable form of exercise for overweight and obese men and women. Enjoyment levels may continue to increase following initial introduction to this type of training. Due to the small time demand and high enjoyment, interval training may be an effective exercise approach in a sedentary population.

  10. Versatile microscope-coupled high-intensity pulsed light source for high-speed cine photomicrography of microactuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehl, Peter; Engemann, Stephan; Rembe, Christian; Hofer, Eberhard P.

    1997-05-01

    A compact high-intensity pulsed light source has been developed in order to match a microdynamic test facility for high-speed motion analysis of micromechanical components. The test stand encompasses a universal microscope Zeiss Axioplan, the new light source and an electronic ultra high- speed multiple framing camera Hadland Imacon 468. The light source consists of a narrow cylindrical Xe-filled discharge tube, thus providing a locally stable emission. Since the small-size flashlamp easily fits into a standard microscope lamphousing, it allows to maintain the advantages of Koehler illumination as well as switching to other types of lamphousings. The flash tube is operated via an artificial asymmetric transmission line and delivers a square light pulse with a flash duration of 110 microsecond(s) FWHM and a peak intensity of 50 Med. The light source illuminates the object uniformly within the interesting time window; image shuttering is provided in the camera by gated micro-channel- plate intensifiers. To test the efficiency of the total system for various standard visualization methods (transmitted light, reflected light and differential interference contrast), microscopic still images have been taken at magnification up to 500X and with exposure times down to 10 ns. In addition, two microscopic darkfield methods which provide a high contrast but a low light intensity of the image, have been selected to test their applicability down to an exposure time of 100 ns. Two examples for real-time cinematography of high-speed phenomena in microactuators are shown: the bouncing behavior of an electro-magnetic microrelay and the bubble/jet formation of a thermal ink jet printhead.

  11. Carbohydrate mouth rinse improves morning high-intensity exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Neil D; Hammond, Scott; Kornilios, Evangelos; Mundy, Peter D

    2017-09-01

    Oral carbohydrate (CHO) rinsing has been demonstrated to provide beneficial effects on exercise performance of durations of up to one hour. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of CHO mouth rinsing on morning high-intensity exercise performance. Following institutional ethical approval and familiarisation, 12 healthy males (mean ± SD age: 23 ± 3 years, height: 175.5 ± 7.4 cm, body mass: 75.4 ± 7.5 kg) participated in this study. Countermovement jump (CMJ) height, isometric mid-thigh pull peak force, 10 m sprint time and bench press and back squat repetitions to failure were assessed following CHO and placebo (PLA) rinsing or a control condition (CON). All testing took place at 07:30 following an 11 hour overnight fast. Performance of CMJ height (CHO: 39 ± 7 cm; PLA: 38 ± 7 cm; CON: 36 ± 6 cm; P = .003, [Formula: see text] = 0.40), 10 m sprint time (CHO: 1.78 ± 0.07 s; PLA: 1.81 ± 0.07 s; CON: 1.85 ± 0.05 s; P = .001, [Formula: see text] = 0.47), the number of bench press (CHO: 25 ± 3; PLA: 24 ± 4; CON: 22 ± 4; P < .001, [Formula: see text] = 0.55) and squat (CHO: 31 ± 4; PLA: 29 ± 5; CON: 26 ± 6; P < .001, [Formula: see text] = 0.70) repetitions and mean felt arousal (CHO: 5 ± 1; PLA: 4 ± 0; CON: 4 ± 0; P = .009, [Formula: see text] = 0.25) improved following CHO rinsing. However, isometric mid-thigh pull peak force was unchanged (CHO: 2262 ± 288 N; PLA: 2236 ± 354 N; CON: 2212 ± 321 N; P = .368, [Formula: see text] = 0.08). These results suggest that oral CHO rinsing solution significantly improved the morning performance of CMJ height, 10 m sprint times, bench press and squat repetitions to failure and felt arousal, although peak force during an isometric mid-thigh pull, rating of perceived exertion and heart rate were unaffected.

  12. Comparable effects of moderate intensity exercise on changes in anorectic gut hormone levels and energy intake to high intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shin-ya; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Katsura, Yoshihiro; Usui, Tatsuya; Fujimoto, Shigeo

    2009-12-01

    There is growing interest in the effects of exercise on plasma gut hormone levels and subsequent energy intake (EI) but the effects of mode and exercise intensity on anorectic hormone profiles on subsequent EI remain to be elucidated. We aimed to investigate whether circulating peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 or GCG as listed in the HUGO Database) levels depend on exercise intensity, which could affect subsequent EI. Ten young male subjects (mean+/-s.d., age: 23.4+/-4.3 years, body mass index: 22.5+/-1.0 kg/m(2), and maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)): 45.9+/-8.5 ml/kg per min) received a standardized breakfast, which was followed by constant cycling exercise at 75% VO(2 max) (high intensity session), 50% VO(2 max) (moderate intensity session), or rest (resting session) for 30 min. At lunch, a test meal was presented, and EI was calculated. Blood samples were obtained during three sessions for measurements of glucose, insulin, PYY(3-36), and GLP-1, which includes GLP-1 (7-36) amide and GLP-1 (9-36) amide. Increases in blood PYY(3-36) levels were dependent on the exercise intensity (effect of session: P<0.001 by two-way ANOVA), whereas those in GLP-1 levels were similar between two different exercise sessions. Of note, increase in area under the curve values for GLP-1 levels was negatively correlated with decrease in the EI in each exercise session (high: P<0.001, moderate: P=0.002). The present findings raise the possibility that each gut hormone exhibits its specific blood kinetics in response to two different intensities of exercise stimuli and might play differential roles in regulation of EI after exercise.

  13. Production of high intensity electron bunches for the SLAC Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    James, M.B.

    1987-08-01

    This thesis describes the design and performance of a high intensity electron injecfor for the SLAC Linear Collider. Motivation for the collider and the specifications for the injector are discussed. An analytic theory of the bunching and capture of electrons by rf fields is discussed in the limit of low space charge and small signal. The design and performance of SLAC's main injector are described to illustrate a successful application of this theory. The bunching and capture of electrons by rf fields are then discussed in the limit of high space charge and large signal, and a description of the design of the collider injector follows. In the limit of high space charge forces and large rf signals, the beam dynamics are considerably more complex and numerical simulations are required to predict particle motion. A computer code which models the longitudinal dynamics of electrons in the presence of space charge and rf fields is described. The results of the simulations, the resulting collider injector design and the various components which make up the collider injector are described. These include the gun, subharmonic bunchers, traveling-wave buncher and velocity-of-light accelerator section. Finally, the performance of the injector is described including the beam intensity, bunch length, transverse emittance and energy spectrum. While the final operating conditions differ somewaht from the design, the performance of the collider injector is in good agreement with the numerical simulations and meets all of the collider specifications. 28 refs.

  14. Development of a cryogenic hydrogen microjet for high-intensity, high-repetition rate experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J. B.; Göde, S.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2016-08-19

    The advent of high-intensity, high-repetition-rate lasers has led to the need for replenishing targets of interest for high energy density sciences. We describe the design and characterization of a cryogenic microjet source, which can deliver a continuous stream of liquid hydrogen with a diameter of a few microns. The jet has been imaged at 1 μm resolution by shadowgraphy with a short pulse laser. In conclusion, the pointing stability has been measured at well below a mrad, for a stable free-standing filament of solid-density hydrogen.

  15. Development of a cryogenic hydrogen microjet for high-intensity, high-repetition rate experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. B.; Göde, S.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    The advent of high-intensity, high-repetition-rate lasers has led to the need for replenishing targets of interest for high energy density sciences. We describe the design and characterization of a cryogenic microjet source, which can deliver a continuous stream of liquid hydrogen with a diameter of a few microns. The jet has been imaged at 1 μm resolution by shadowgraphy with a short pulse laser. The pointing stability has been measured at well below a mrad, for a stable free-standing filament of solid-density hydrogen.

  16. Commissioning the new high power rf system for the AGS with high intensity beam

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, J.M.; Ciardullo, D.J.; Deng, D.P; Hayes, T.; Onillon, E.; Otis, A.; Sanders, R.T.; Zaltsman, A.

    1994-08-01

    A new high power rf system has been installed in the AGS in order to raise the beam loading limit to beyond 6 {times} 10{sup 13} protons per pulse. The old system was limited to 2.2 {times} 10{sup l3} ppp by: available real power, multi-loop instability, and transient beam loading during batch filling from the Booster. The key components of the new system are: new power amplifiers in the tunnel using the Thomson-CSF TH573 300kW tetrode, rf feedback around the power stage, and reduction of the 10 cavities` R/Q by 1.8 by additional gap capacitors. Commissioning of the new rf system with high intensity beam is described. The intensity goal for the 1994 running period is 4 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp. To date, 3.7 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp has been achieved.

  17. The Seismically Slow Feature in the Asthenosphere Beneath Southern New England is Small and Intense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skryzalin, P. A.; Menke, W. H.; Harper, T. B.; Levin, V. L.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies of the seismically slow feature (a.k.a. "divot") in the mantle beneath southern New England have relied upon low-resolution surface wave tomography to determine its shape. Using higher-resolution teleseismic P and S wave travel times, we find that it is much smaller, much sharper-edged and much stronger than has previously been inferred. The feature causes a clear, spatially coherent "late" anomaly, of up to 1 s for P waves and 3 s for S waves. Located in the asthenosphere, it is centered at a depth of ~200 km beneath central New Hampshire (43.62N, 72.02W). When modeled as Gaussian in shape, it measures about 150 km horizontally and 190 km vertically and has a minimum compressional wave speed 0.43 km/s below the AK135 global model. These parameters have been estimated by comparing the observed travel time anomalies with those determined by 3D ray tracing through hypothetical models, and especially by matching parallax and maximum delay. S and P wave travel time anomalies scale across the Quebec-New England region with an average ratio of 3.51 +/- 0.74 (95% confidence). The lack of anomalously high ratios for ray paths crossing the center of the feature argues against the presence of melt. No "fading" of the feature's travel time anomaly is detected for earthquakes with shallow rays, suggesting it is not due to seismic anisotropy with a sub-vertical slow axis. The strength of the shear wave anomaly is comparable to that of the much larger slow anomaly beneath Southern California (up to 9%), which suggests that, like Southern California, it has a thermal origin. Previous authors have argued for a connection between it and the Great Meteor hotspot, which crossed New Hampshire at 109 Ma. Our improved model places it exactly on the hotspot track. However it is far too small, sharp-edged, and strong to be a relic thermal anomaly from hot material emplaced at 109 Ma. We propose it represents a modern asthenospheric "hot zone", whose location has been

  18. Application of the speed-duration relationship to normalize the intensity of high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wilson, John; Birch, Karen M; Kemi, Ole J

    2013-01-01

    The tolerable duration of continuous high-intensity exercise is determined by the hyperbolic Speed-tolerable duration (S-tLIM) relationship. However, application of the S-tLIM relationship to normalize the intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has yet to be considered, with this the aim of present study. Subjects completed a ramp-incremental test, and series of 4 constant-speed tests to determine the S-tLIM relationship. A sub-group of subjects (n = 8) then repeated 4 min bouts of exercise at the speeds predicted to induce intolerance at 4 min (WR4), 6 min (WR6) and 8 min (WR8), interspersed with bouts of 4 min recovery, to the point of exercise intolerance (fixed WR HIIT) on different days, with the aim of establishing the work rate that could be sustained for 960 s (i.e. 4×4 min). A sub-group of subjects (n = 6) also completed 4 bouts of exercise interspersed with 4 min recovery, with each bout continued to the point of exercise intolerance (maximal HIIT) to determine the appropriate protocol for maximizing the amount of high-intensity work that can be completed during 4×4 min HIIT. For fixed WR HIIT tLIM of HIIT sessions was 399±81 s for WR4, 892±181 s for WR6 and 1517±346 s for WR8, with total exercise durations all significantly different from each other (P<0.050). For maximal HIIT, there was no difference in tLIM of each of the 4 bouts (Bout 1: 229±27 s; Bout 2: 262±37 s; Bout 3: 235±49 s; Bout 4: 235±53 s; P>0.050). However, there was significantly less high-intensity work completed during bouts 2 (153.5±40. 9 m), 3 (136.9±38.9 m), and 4 (136.7±39.3 m), compared with bout 1 (264.9±58.7 m; P>0.050). These data establish that WR6 provides the appropriate work rate to normalize the intensity of HIIT between subjects. Maximal HIIT provides a protocol which allows the relative contribution of the work rate profile to physiological adaptations to be considered during alternative intensity-matched HIIT protocols.

  19. Beam dynamics of mixed high intensity highly charged ion Beams in the Q/A selector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. H.; Yuan, Y. J.; Yin, X. J.; Qian, C.; Sun, L. T.; Du, H.; Li, Z. S.; Qiao, J.; Wang, K. D.; Zhao, H. W.; Xia, J. W.

    2017-06-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators for their advantages in producing high quality intense beams of highly charged ions. However, it exists challenges in the design of the Q/A selection systems for mixed high intensity ion beams to reach sufficient Q/A resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, as the emittance of beam from ECR ion sources is coupled, the matching of phase space to post accelerator, for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities, should be carefully studied. In this paper, the simulation and experimental results of the Q/A selection system at the LECR4 platform are shown. The formation of hollow cross section heavy ion beam at the end of the Q/A selector is revealed. A reasonable interpretation has been proposed, a modified design of the Q/A selection system has been committed for HIRFL-SSC linac injector. The features of the new design including beam simulations and experiment results are also presented.

  20. The effect of progressive high-intensity inspiratory muscle training and fixed high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Kim, Nan-Soo

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-one stroke patients were assigned to one of three groups: progressive load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 8), fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 6), and controls (n = 7). [Methods] The progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training participants undertook an exercise program for 20 minutes, three times weekly, for 6 weeks. After each session, diaphragm thickness was measured using ultrasonography. The diaphragm asymmetry ratio and diaphragm thickening ratio were standardized using a formula. [Results] After intervention, the diaphragm asymmetry ratio significantly differed among the three groups, and the diaphragm asymmetry ratio significantly increased in the control group. A significant increase was identified in the diaphragm thickening ratio within the progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training groups. [Conclusion] Progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training decreased the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients; this effect, in turn, increased the diaphragm thickening ratio in stroke patients. The two interventions examined here should be selectively applied to individuals in the clinical field.

  1. Third harmonic generation with ultra-high intensity laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Rax, J.M.; Fisch, N.J.

    1992-04-01

    When an intense, plane-polarized, laser pulse interacts with a plasma, the relativistic nonlinearities induce a third harmonic polarization. A phase-locked growth of a third harmonic wave can take place, but the differences between the nonlinear dispersion of the pump and driven waves leads to a rapid unlocking, resulting in a saturation. What becomes third harmonic amplitude oscillations are identified here, and the nonlinear phase velocity and the renormalized electron mass due to plasmon screening are calculated. A simple phase-matching scheme, based on a resonant density modulation, is then proposed and analyzed.

  2. Intensity Mapping of Molecular Gas at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey; Keating, Garrett; Marrone, Dan; DeBoer, David; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Ming-Tang; Jiang, Homin; Koch, Patrick; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Lin, K. Y.; Srinivasan, Ranjani; Darling, Jeremy

    2015-08-01

    The origin and evolution of structure in the Universe is one of the major challenges of observational astronomy. How and when did the first stars and galaxies form? How does baryonic structure trace the underlying dark matter? A multi-wavelength, multi-tool approach is necessary to provide the complete story or the evolution of structure in the Universe. Intensity mapping, which relies on the ability to detect many objects at once through their integrated emission rather than direct detection of individual objects, is a critical part of this mosaic. Intensity mapping provides a window on lower luminosity objects that cannot be detected individually but that collectively drive important processes. In particular, our understanding of the molecular gas component of massive galaxies is being revolutionized by ALMA and EVLA but the population of smaller, star-forming galaxies, which provide the bulk of star formation cannot be individually probed by these instruments.In this talk, I will summarize two intensity mapping experiments to detect molecular gas through the carbon monoxide (CO) rotational transition. We are currently completing sensitive observations with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovic Array (SZA) telescope at a wavelength of 1 cm that are sensitive to emission at redshifts 2.3 to 3.3. The SZA experiments sets strong limits on models for the CO emission and demonstrates the ability to reject foregrounds and telescope systematics in very deep integrations. I also describe the development of an intensity mapping capability for the Y.T. Lee Array, a 13-element interferometer located on Mauna Loa. In its first phase, this project focuses on detection of CO at redshifts 2.3 - 3.3 with detection via power spectrum and cross-correlation with other surveys. The project includes a major technical upgrade, a new digital correlator and IF electronics component to be deployed in 2015/2016. The Y.T. Lee Array observations will be more sensitive and extend to larger angular scales

  3. Third harmonic generation with ultra-high intensity laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Rax, J.M.; Fisch, N.J.

    1992-04-01

    When an intense, plane-polarized, laser pulse interacts with a plasma, the relativistic nonlinearities induce a third harmonic polarization. A phase-locked growth of a third harmonic wave can take place, but the differences between the nonlinear dispersion of the pump and driven waves leads to a rapid unlocking, resulting in a saturation. What becomes third harmonic amplitude oscillations are identified here, and the nonlinear phase velocity and the renormalized electron mass due to plasmon screening are calculated. A simple phase-matching scheme, based on a resonant density modulation, is then proposed and analyzed.

  4. High-intensity warm-ups: effects during subsequent intermittent exercise.

    PubMed

    Zois, James; Bishop, David; Aughey, Rob

    2015-05-01

    High-intensity, short-duration warm-up techniques improve acute physical performance, but sparse research has examined their consequence when followed by intermittent activity, which is pertinent to team sports. The authors compared a 5-repetitionmaximum (5RM) leg-press, a small-sided game (SSG), and a current team-sport warm-up in 10 semiprofessional soccer players after 2 intermittent-activity protocols consisting of 15 repetitions of a 60-s circuit that included sprinting, slalom, walking, jogging, decelerations, changes of direction, backward running, and striding activities. There was a large improvement in countermovement-jump height in the 5RM after the 1st intermittent-activity protocol (mean, ±90% CL 6.0, ±4.0%, P=.03) and a small improvement after the 2nd (4.6, ±4.0%, P=.04) compared with team sport. Reactive agility was moderately faster via 5RM after the 1st intermittent-activity protocol (3.1, ±2.6%: P=.04) and the 2nd (5.7, ±2.7%, P=.001) than via SSG. There was a small improvement in reactive agility after the 1st intermittent-activity protocol in the 5RM, compared with team sport (3.3, ±2.9%, P=.04). There was a small improvement in mean 20-m-sprint times after both intermittent-activity protocols in the 5RM, compared with SSG (4.2, ±2.0%, P=.01, and 4.3, ±2.0%, P=.01) and, after the 1st intermittent-activity protocol only, compared with team sport (4.2, ±2.1%, P=0.02). Small increases in blood lactate concentration were observed (46.7, ±18.6%, P=.01) in the 5RM compared with the SSG after the 2nd intermittent-activity protocol. Improved performances after the 5RM warm-up should encourage practitioners to reduce activity time and include high-intensity tasks in team-sport warmups aimed at inducing a potentiating effect.

  5. Intensity dependence in high-level facial expression adaptation aftereffect.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang Wook; Yoon, K Lira

    2017-06-14

    Perception of a facial expression can be altered or biased by a prolonged viewing of other facial expressions, known as the facial expression adaptation aftereffect (FEAA). Recent studies using antiexpressions have demonstrated a monotonic relation between the magnitude of the FEAA and adaptor extremity, suggesting that facial expressions are opponent coded and represented continuously from one expression to its antiexpression. However, it is unclear whether the opponent-coding scheme can account for the FEAA between two facial expressions. In the current study, we demonstrated that the magnitude of the FEAA between two facial expressions increased monotonically as a function of the intensity of adapting facial expressions, consistent with the predictions based on the opponent-coding model. Further, the monotonic increase in the FEAA occurred even when the intensity of an adapting face was too weak for its expression to be recognized. These results together suggest that multiple facial expressions are encoded and represented by balanced activity of neural populations tuned to different facial expressions.

  6. The ADRIA project for high intensity radioactive beams production

    SciTech Connect

    Bisoffi, G.; Cavenago, M.; Dainelli, A.; Facco, A.; Fortuna, G.; Lombardi, A.; Moisio, M.F.; Pisent, A.; Spolaore, P.; Tiveron, B. ); Ruggiero, A.G. ); Tecchio, L. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin )

    1992-01-01

    A proposal of an accelerator complex (ADRIA) for the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) is described in this report. The main components of the complex are a Heavy Ion Injection system and two rings, a Booster and a Decelerator, both with a maximum rigidity of 22.25 Tm, connected by a Transfer Line where exotic proposal has two main goals consisting in the isotopes are produced and selected. The proposal has two main goals consisting in the acceleration of stable ion species up to kinetic energies of the order of few GeV/u, at a repetition rate of 10 Hz with intensities of about 10[sup 12] ions per second, for fixed target experiments in nuclear physics and for the production of fully stripped radioactive beams, using particle fragmentation method for nuclear spectroscopy experiments. Fragments are accumulated in the Decelerator, with intensities 10[sup 8] [divided by] 10[sup 9] ions/s, cooled and delivered at the production energies or decelerated down to energies of few MeV/u, in proximity of the Coulomb barrier.

  7. The ADRIA project for high intensity radioactive beams production

    SciTech Connect

    Bisoffi, G.; Cavenago, M.; Dainelli, A.; Facco, A.; Fortuna, G.; Lombardi, A.; Moisio, M.F.; Pisent, A.; Spolaore, P.; Tiveron, B.; Ruggiero, A.G.; Tecchio, L. |

    1992-12-31

    A proposal of an accelerator complex (ADRIA) for the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) is described in this report. The main components of the complex are a Heavy Ion Injection system and two rings, a Booster and a Decelerator, both with a maximum rigidity of 22.25 Tm, connected by a Transfer Line where exotic proposal has two main goals consisting in the isotopes are produced and selected. The proposal has two main goals consisting in the acceleration of stable ion species up to kinetic energies of the order of few GeV/u, at a repetition rate of 10 Hz with intensities of about 10{sup 12} ions per second, for fixed target experiments in nuclear physics and for the production of fully stripped radioactive beams, using particle fragmentation method for nuclear spectroscopy experiments. Fragments are accumulated in the Decelerator, with intensities 10{sup 8} {divided_by} 10{sup 9} ions/s, cooled and delivered at the production energies or decelerated down to energies of few MeV/u, in proximity of the Coulomb barrier.

  8. ARRONAX, a high-energy and high-intensity cyclotron for nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Ferid; Ferrer, Ludovic; Guertin, Arnaud; Carlier, Thomas; Michel, Nathalie; Barbet, Jacques; Chatal, Jean-François

    2008-07-01

    This study was aimed at establishing a list of radionuclides of interest for nuclear medicine that can be produced in a high-intensity and high-energy cyclotron. We have considered both therapeutic and positron emission tomography radionuclides that can be produced using a high-energy and a high-intensity cyclotron such as ARRONAX, which will be operating in Nantes (France) by the end of 2008. Novel radionuclides or radionuclides of current limited availability have been selected according to the following criteria: emission of positrons, low-energy beta or alpha particles, stable or short half-life daughters, half-life between 3 h and 10 days or generator-produced, favourable dosimetry, production from stable isotopes with reasonable cross sections. Three radionuclides appear well suited to targeted radionuclide therapy using beta ((67)Cu, (47)Sc) or alpha ((211)At) particles. Positron emitters allowing dosimetry studies prior to radionuclide therapy ((64)Cu, (124)I, (44)Sc), or that can be generator-produced ((82)Rb, (68)Ga) or providing the opportunity of a new imaging modality ((44)Sc) are considered to have a great interest at short term whereas (86)Y, (52)Fe, (55)Co, (76)Br or (89)Zr are considered to have a potential interest at middle term. Several radionuclides not currently used in routine nuclear medicine or not available in sufficient amount for clinical research have been selected for future production. High-energy, high-intensity cyclotrons are necessary to produce some of the selected radionuclides and make possible future clinical developments in nuclear medicine. Associated with appropriate carriers, these radionuclides will respond to a maximum of unmet clinical needs.

  9. Nakagami imaging for detecting thermal lesions induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound in tissue.

    PubMed

    Rangraz, Parisa; Behnam, Hamid; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound induces focalized tissue coagulation by increasing the tissue temperature in a tight focal region. Several methods have been proposed to monitor high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions. Currently, ultrasound imaging techniques that are clinically used for monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment are standard pulse-echo B-mode ultrasound imaging, ultrasound temperature estimation, and elastography-based methods. On the contrary, the efficacy of two-dimensional Nakagami parametric imaging based on the distribution of the ultrasound backscattered signals to quantify properties of soft tissue has recently been evaluated. In this study, ultrasound radio frequency echo signals from ex vivo tissue samples were acquired before and after high-intensity focused ultrasound exposures and then their Nakagami parameter and scaling parameter of Nakagami distribution were estimated. These parameters were used to detect high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions. Also, the effects of changing the acoustic power of the high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer on the Nakagami parameters were studied. The results obtained suggest that the Nakagami distribution's scaling and Nakagami parameters can effectively be used to detect high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions in tissue ex vivo. These parameters can also be used to understand the degree of change in tissue caused by high-intensity focused ultrasound exposures, which could be interpreted as a measure of degree of variability in scatterer concentration in various parts of the high-intensity focused ultrasound lesion.

  10. Small cryptopredators contribute to high predation rates on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goatley, Christopher H. R.; González-Cabello, Alonso; Bellwood, David R.

    2017-03-01

    Small fishes suffer high mortality rates on coral reefs, primarily due to predation. Although studies have identified the predators of early post-settlement fishes, the predators of small cryptobenthic fishes remain largely unknown. We therefore used a series of mesocosm experiments with natural habitat and cryptobenthic fish communities to identify the impacts of a range of small potential predators, including several invertebrates, on prey fish populations. While there was high variability in predation rates, many members of the cryptobenthic fish community act as facultative cryptopredators, being prey when small and piscivores when larger. Surprisingly, we also found that smashing mantis shrimps may be important fish predators. Our results highlight the diversity of the predatory community on coral reefs and identify previously unknown trophic links in these complex ecosystems.

  11. Appearance of Density Cavitations in the Laser Wake in Simulations of High Intensity Laser-Plasma Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.-L.

    2009-01-22

    Nonlinear interactions of high intensity, ultrashort laser pulses with underdense plasmas produce many interesting features that may appear in computer simulations. One of these features commonly observed in Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations is the spontaneous appearance of long-lived density cavitations in the plasma wake region behind the laser pulse. To study these cavitations, several small 2D PIC simulations are run in which plasma density, density ramps, total simulation time, laser pulsewidth, laser intensity, and laser polarization parameters have been varied. Based on the simulation results, some possible aspects of an experiment designed to directly detect these structures are discussed.

  12. High temperature, high intensity solar array. [for Venus Radar Mapper mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. S.; Brooks, G. R.; Pinkerton, R.

    1985-01-01

    The solar array for the Venus Radar Mapper mission will operate in the high temperature, high intensity conditions of a low Venus orbit environment. To fulfill the performance requirements in this environment at minimum cost and mass while maximizing power density and packing factor on the panel surface, several features were introduced into the design. These features included the use of optical surface reflectors (OSR's) to reduce the operating temperature; new adhesives for conductive bonding of OSR's to avoid electrostatic discharges; custom-designed large area cells and novel shunt diode circuit and panel power harness configurations.

  13. High temperature, high intensity solar array. [for Venus Radar Mapper mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. S.; Brooks, G. R.; Pinkerton, R.

    1985-01-01

    The solar array for the Venus Radar Mapper mission will operate in the high temperature, high intensity conditions of a low Venus orbit environment. To fulfill the performance requirements in this environment at minimum cost and mass while maximizing power density and packing factor on the panel surface, several features were introduced into the design. These features included the use of optical surface reflectors (OSR's) to reduce the operating temperature; new adhesives for conductive bonding of OSR's to avoid electrostatic discharges; custom-designed large area cells and novel shunt diode circuit and panel power harness configurations.

  14. Elevating the Conversation: Building Professional Community in Small High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallucci, Chrysan; Wallach, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    This report includes observations from the first year of a three-year study of seven small high schools (that exist in converted comprehensive high schools) in Washington State. It discusses the unique characteristics of professional communities that are emerging and examines how these communities are changing teachers expectations for their…

  15. Nonlinear Fourier transformation spectroscopy of small molecules with intense attosecond pulse train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okino, T.; Furukawa, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Nabekawa, Y.; Yamanouchi, K.; Midorikawa, K.

    2014-06-01

    We have developed an attosecond nonlinear molecular spectroscopic method called nonlinear Fourier transformation spectroscopy (NFTS) that uses an intense attosecond pulse train (APT) to induce multiphoton ionization processes. In the NFTS method, in addition to characterization of the temporal profile of attosecond pulses, the nonlinear molecular responses are encoded in the interferometric autocorrelation traces depending on the molecular species, their fragment ions and their kinetic energy distributions. The principle and applicability of the NFTS method are described in this paper along with the numerical simulations. The method is applied to diatomic molecules (N2 , D2 and O2) and polyatomic molecules (CO2, CH4 and SF6). Our results highlight the fact that nonlinear spectroscopic information of molecules in the short wavelength region can be obtained through the irradiation of intense APT by taking advantage of the broad spectral bandwidth of attosecond pulses. The development of the nonlinear spectroscopic method in attoseconds is expected to pave the way to investigate the ultrafast intramolecular electron motion such as ultrafast charge migration and electron correlation.

  16. Amplification properties of vacuum ultraviolet Ar2* produced by infrared high-intensity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaku, Masanori; Harano, Shinya; Matsumoto, Ryota; Katto, Masahito; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2011-07-01

    We report optical amplification of Ar2* at 126nm, pumped by optical-field-induced ionization (OFI) created by an infrared high-intensity laser. A gain--length product of 0.84 was obtained by using multipass amplification with a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) cavity. The gain--length product was increased up to 4.3 through the use of single-pass amplification with a VUV reflector and a hollow 5.0cm-long fiber. Similar small signal gain coefficients of 0.84 and 0.86cm-1 were obtained in two different experiments, in which OFI Ar plasma gain media were produced in free space filled with Ar and inside an Ar-filled hollow fiber.

  17. Vacuum ultraviolet argon excimer laser at 126 nm excited by a high intensity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaku, Masanori; Harano, Shinya; Katto, Masahito; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2010-09-01

    We have observed the optical amplification of the Ar2* excimer at 126 nm pumped by optical-field-induced ionization (OFI) caused by an infrared high-intensity laser. We have evaluated similar small signal gain coefficients of approximately 1.0 cm-1 in two different experiments, where OFI Ar plasmas as gain media were produced in free space filled with Ar and inside an Ar-filled hollow fiber. This indicates that the function of a hollow fiber was to guide the infrared excitation laser and VUV Ar2* emissions, and not to regulate the OFI plasma. Despite the gain coefficient value at 126 nm, the laser oscillation has not been observed. This was limited by the optical quality of available state-of-the-art vacuum ultraviolet optics.

  18. Myocardial adaptation to short-term high-intensity exercise in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Neilan, Tomas G; Ton-Nu, Thanh-Thao; Jassal, Davinder S; Popovic, Zoran B; Douglas, Pamela S; Halpern, Elkan F; Marshall, Jane E; Thomas, James D; Picard, Michael H; Yoerger, Danita M; Wood, Malissa J

    2006-10-01

    We aimed to clarify the myocardial adaptation to short-term high-intensity exercise among trained athletes. We screened 17 participants in the 2004 World Indoor Rowing Championships before and after a 2000-m sprint. Echocardiography included standard measurements and tissue Doppler-derived strain (epsilon), strain rate, and 2-dimensionally derived speckle-tracking imaging for left ventricular (LV) torsion. LV volumes and ejection fraction were unchanged after exercise. There was a reduction in early and an increase in late diastolic filling velocities and a decrease in the flow propagation velocity. Annular systolic velocities, slope of the systolic acceleration, septal and lateral epsilon, and speckle tracking-derived torsion were increased. The increased LV torsion was a result of increased basal and apical rotation. Right ventricular apical epsilon decreased. In conclusion, maximal intensity short-duration exercise was associated with attenuation of LV diastolic function, augmentation of LV systolic function, and a reduction in apical right ventricular contractility.

  19. HIGH INTENSITY LOW-ENERGY POSITRON SOURCE AT JEFFERSON

    SciTech Connect

    Serkan Golge, Bogdan Wojtsekhowski, Branislav Vlahovic

    2012-07-01

    We present a novel concept of a low-energy e{sup +} source with projected intensity on the order of 10{sup 10} slow e{sup +}/s. The key components of this concept are a continuous wave e{sup -} beam, a rotating positron-production target, a synchronized raster/anti-raster, a transport channel, and extraction of e{sup +} into a field-free area through a magnetic plug for moderation in a cryogenic solid. Components were designed in the framework of GEANT4-based (G4beamline) Monte Carlo simulation and TOSCA magnetic field calculation codes. Experimental data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the magnetic plug is presented.

  20. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang -Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sébastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; Nass, Karol; Shoeman, Robert L.; Timneanu, Nicusor; Santra, Robin; Schlichting, Ilme; Chapman, Henry N.

    2015-09-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.

  1. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    DOE PAGES

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang -Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; ...

    2015-09-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting schememore » is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.« less

  2. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang-Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sébastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; Nass, Karol; Shoeman, Robert L.; Timneanu, Nicusor; Santra, Robin; Schlichting, Ilme; Chapman, Henry N.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential ‘bleaching’ of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. A pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed. PMID:26594370

  3. Neurovascular saturation thresholds under high intensity auditory stimulation during wake.

    PubMed

    Schei, J L; Van Nortwick, A S; Meighan, P C; Rector, D M

    2012-12-27

    Coupling between neural activity and hemodynamic responses is important in understanding brain function, interpreting brain-imaging signals, and assessing pathological conditions. Tissue state is a major factor in neurovascular coupling and may alter the relationship between neural and hemodynamic activity. However, most neurovascular-coupling studies are performed under anesthetized or sedated states which may have severe consequences on coupling mechanisms. Our previous studies showed that following prolonged periods of sleep deprivation, evoked hemodynamic responses were muted despite consistent electrical responses, suggesting that sustained neural activity may decrease vascular compliance and limit blood perfusion. To investigate potential perfusion limitations during natural waking conditions, we simultaneously measured evoked response potentials (ERPs) and evoked hemodynamic responses using optical-imaging techniques to increase intensity auditory stimulation. The relationship between evoked hemodynamic responses and integrated ERPs followed a sigmoid relationship where the hemodynamic response approached saturation at lower stimulus intensities than the ERP. If limits in blood perfusion are caused by stretching of the vessel wall, then these results suggest there may be decreased vascular compliance due to sustained neural activity during wake, which could limit vascular responsiveness and local blood perfusion. Conditions that stress cerebral vasculature, such as sleep deprivation and some pathologies (e.g., epilepsy), may further decrease vascular compliance, limit metabolic delivery, and cause tissue trauma. While ERPs and evoked hemodynamic responses provide an indication of the correlated neural activity and metabolic demand, the relationship between these two responses is complex and the different measurement techniques are not directly correlated. Future studies are required to verify these findings and further explore neurovascular coupling during

  4. Preliminary ex vivo feasibility study on targeted cell surgery by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi Biao; Wu, Junru; Fang, Liao Qiong; Wang, Hua; Li, Fa Qi; Tian, Yun Bo; Gong, Xiao Bo; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Lian; Feng, Ruo

    2011-04-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has become a new noninvasive surgical modality in medicine. A portion of tissue seated inside a patient's body may experience coagulative necrosis after a few seconds of insonification by high intensity focused ultrasound (US) generated by an extracorporeal focusing US transducer. The region of tissue affected by coagulative necrosis (CN) usually has an ellipsoidal shape when the thermal effect due to US absorption plays the dominant role. Its long and short axes are parallel and perpendicular to the US propagation direction respectively. It was shown by numerical computations using a nonlinear Gaussian beams model to describe the sound field in a focal zone and ex vivo experiments that the dimension of the short and long axes of the tissue which experiences CN can be as small as 50μm and 250μm respectively after one second exposure of US pulse (the spatial and pulse average acoustic power is on the order of tens of Watts and the local acoustic spatial and temporal pulse averaged intensity is on the order of 3×10(4)W/cm(2)) generated by a 1.6MHz HIFU transducer of 12cm diameter and 11cm geometric focal length (f-number=0.92). The concept of thermal dose of cumulative equivalent minutes was used to describe the possible tissue coagulative necrosis generated by HIFU. The numbers of cells which suffered CN were estimated to be on the order of 40. This result suggests that HIFU is able to interact with tens of cells at/near its focal zone while keeping the neighboring cells minimally affected, and thus the targeted cell surgery may be achievable.

  5. Changeability of soil erosion variables in small field plots from different rainfall durations with constant intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katebikord, Azadeh; Khaledi Darvishan, Abdulvahed; Alavi, Seyed Jalil

    2017-05-01

    Rainfall duration is among the most effective characteristics of erosivity factor on runoff, splash and soil loss, especially when a rainfall duration is selected for laboratory or field plot studies. Selecting the appropriate rainfall duration particularly in laboratory studies (because of higher relative changes in lower durations), may lead to decrease the errors in the studied treatments. The rainfall duration must be well considered before any experiments exploring the effect of rainfall as one of the main factors. Therefore, the present study was conducted in field plots with area of 1 m2 located in an 18% slope, loamy-clay, under rainfall simulation with the intensity of 40 mm h-1. Total and net splashes, sediment concentration, soil loss, sheet erosion and sediment delivery ratio were measured and evaluated in 6 levels of rainfall duration (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min), with 3 replications. The results showed that, although the runoff volume increased with increasing rainfall duration generally, there was insufficient capacity for runoff to transport the considerable amounts of the splashed and eroded soil to the plot outlet. The translocation of soil surface particles and sheet erosion were therefore increased due to more duration of rainfall and runoff, while a significant portion of the eroded soil, even after 30 min rainfall duration was not transported to the plot outlet. Based on the results, the sensitivity and efficiency of Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and Generalized Additive Model (GAM) in the evaluation of the differences between hydrological responses in various rainfall durations were different. According to the results, there was a change in the average ratio of sediment delivery in studied treatments from 0.41 to 13.03% for 5 and 30 min respectively. The results clearly showed that the duration corresponding to the intensity is the best choice to adopt soil erosion studies at plot and experimental conditions.

  6. Experimental and theoretical study of high-intensity, high-efficiency sirens

    SciTech Connect

    Pla, F.G.

    1987-01-01

    High-intensity, high-efficiency sound sources are needed for acoustic agglomeration of particle-laden aerosols in power plant flues and for combustion enhancement. The theory of the linear model is reviewed and shown to be in strong disagreement with experimental results. The experimental evaluation of sirens is then discussed. It is shown that high sound-pressure levels strongly effect the evaluation of the performance of high-intensity sound sources. The mechanical design of an experimental and a full-size siren is presented. Tunable inlet chambers are included to minimize the acoustic power radiated backward in the siren. The experimental results show that tunable inlets are most effective at low-pressure ratios and low frequencies. The main acoustic losses are due to the sound radiated backward into the siren chamber, the acoustic boundary-layer, the clearance between rotor and stator, and the finite-amplitude character of the acoustic wave. A theoretical study of the sound-generation mechanisms in sirens is then presented. The various sound attenuation mechanisms are reviewed and a low frequency numerical solution for the frequency response is given.

  7. Target Surface Area Effects on Hot Electron Dynamics from High Intensity Laser-Plasma Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-19

    field Abstract Reduced surface area targets were studied using an ultra- high intensity femtosecond laser in order to determine the effect of electron...New J. Phys. 18 (2016) 063020 doi:10.1088/1367-2630/18/6/063020 PAPER Target surface area effects on hot electron dynamics from high intensity laser...the higher intensity interaction, asymmetric electron current around the hexagonal loop (b)was attributed to field induced current along parallel wire

  8. Blood flow regulation and oxygen uptake during high-intensity forearm exercise.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, S K; Berg, O K; Helgerud, J; Wang, E

    2017-04-01

    The vascular strain is very high during heavy handgrip exercise, but the intensity and kinetics to reach peak blood flow, and peak oxygen uptake, are uncertain. We included 9 young (25 ± 2 yr) healthy males to evaluate blood flow and oxygen uptake responses during continuous dynamic handgrip exercise with increasing intensity. Blood flow was measured using Doppler-ultrasound, and venous blood was drawn from a deep forearm vein to determine arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO2diff) during 6-min bouts of 60, 80, and 100% of maximal work rate (WRmax), respectively. Blood flow and oxygen uptake increased (P < 0.05) from 60%WRmax [557 ± 177(SD) ml/min; 56.0 ± 21.6 ml/min] to 80%WRmax (679 ± 190 ml/min; 70.6 ± 24.8 ml/min), but no change was seen from 80%WRmax to 100%WRmax Blood velocity (49.5 ± 11.5 to 58.1 ± 11.6 cm/s) and brachial diameter (0.49 ± 0.05 to 0.50 ± 0.06 cm) showed concomitant increases (P < 0.05) with blood flow from 60% to 80%WRmax, whereas no differences were observed in a-vO2diff Shear rate also increased (P < 0.05) from 60% (822 ± 196 s(-1)) to 80% (951 ± 234 s(-1)) of WRmax The mean response time (MRT) was slower (P < 0.05) for blood flow (60%WRmax 50 ± 22 s; 80%WRmax 51 ± 20 s; 100%WRmax 51 ± 23 s) than a-vO2diff (60%WRmax 29 ± 9 s; 80%WRmax 29 ± 5 s; 100%WRmax 20 ± 5 s), but not different from oxygen uptake (60%WRmax 44 ± 25 s; 80%WRmax 43 ± 14 s; 100%WRmax 41 ± 32 s). No differences were observed in MRT for blood flow or oxygen uptake with increased exercise intensity. In conclusion, when approaching maximal intensity, oxygen uptake appeared to reach a critical level at ~80% of WRmax and be regulated by blood flow. This implies that high, but not maximal, exercise intensity may be an optimal stimulus for shear stress-induced small muscle mass training adaptations.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study evaluated blood flow regulation and oxygen uptake during small muscle mass forearm exercise with high to maximal intensity. Despite

  9. High-intensity exercise causes greater irisin response compared with low-intensity exercise under similar energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yoshifumi; Ando, Daisuke; Goto, Kazushige; Kiuchi, Masataka; Yamakita, Mitsuya; Koyama, Katsuhiro

    2014-06-01

    Irisin is mainly released from skeletal muscle (myocytes) and promotes thermogenesis by browning of the white adipose tissue. Although exercise has been shown to increase irisin concentration in blood and myocytes via up-regulation peroxisome proliferator receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression, the influence of exercise intensity on irisin secretion remains unclear. Therefore, we determined circulating irisin responses following a single bout of running at different intensities. Six sedentary males underwent treadmill running under two different conditions: a low-intensity (40% of VO2max) exercise trial (LIE) or a high-intensity (80% of VO2max) exercise trial (HIE). The exercises in LIE and HIE were lasted for 20 and 40 min, respectively. All subjects underwent the two trials on separate days, and a randomized cross-over design was used. Blood samples were collected before (Pre) and immediately after exercise, at 3, 6, and 19 h after exercise. Energy consumption during exercise did not significantly differ between the two trials. HIE significantly increased blood lactate and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels (P < 0.05). Compared with pre-exercise levels, the irisin concentrations were elevated at 6 h (18% increase) and 19 h (23% increase) after HIE, but significantly decreased after LIE. The relative irisin concentrations (compared with pre-exercise levels) were significantly greater in HIE than in LIE immediately after exercise, and at 6 and 19 h after exercise (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that irisin secretion after acute running exercise is affected by exercise intensity, independent of energy consumption.

  10. Highly Parallel Translation of DNA Sequences into Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Weisinger, Rebecca M.; Wrenn, S. Jarrett; Harbury, Pehr B.

    2012-01-01

    A large body of in vitro evolution work establishes the utility of biopolymer libraries comprising 1010 to 1015 distinct molecules for the discovery of nanomolar-affinity ligands to proteins.[1], [2], [3], [4], [5] Small-molecule libraries of comparable complexity will likely provide nanomolar-affinity small-molecule ligands.[6], [7] Unlike biopolymers, small molecules can offer the advantages of cell permeability, low immunogenicity, metabolic stability, rapid diffusion and inexpensive mass production. It is thought that such desirable in vivo behavior is correlated with the physical properties of small molecules, specifically a limited number of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, a defined range of hydrophobicity, and most importantly, molecular weights less than 500 Daltons.[8] Creating a collection of 1010 to 1015 small molecules that meet these criteria requires the use of hundreds to thousands of diversity elements per step in a combinatorial synthesis of three to five steps. With this goal in mind, we have reported a set of mesofluidic devices that enable DNA-programmed combinatorial chemistry in a highly parallel 384-well plate format. Here, we demonstrate that these devices can translate DNA genes encoding 384 diversity elements per coding position into corresponding small-molecule gene products. This robust and efficient procedure yields small molecule-DNA conjugates suitable for in vitro evolution experiments. PMID:22479303

  11. A plasma generator utilizing the high intensity ASTROMAG magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, James D.; Post, R. S.; Lane, B. G.; Tarrh, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The magnet configuration for the proposed particle astrophysics magnet facility (ASTROMAG) on the space station includes a cusp magnetic field with an intensity of a few tesla. With these large magnets (or others) located in the outer ionosphere, many quite interesting and unique plasma physics experiments become possible. First there are studies utilizing the magnet alone to examine the supersonic, sub-Alfvenic interaction with the ambient medium; the scale length for the magnet perturbation is approx. 20 m. The magnetic field geometry when combined with the Earth's and their relative motion will give rise to a host of plasma phenomena: ring nulls, x-points, ion-acoustic and lower-hybrid shocks, electron heating (possible shuttle glow without a surface) launching of Alfvenwaves, etc. Second, active experiments are possible for a controlled study of fundamental plasma phenomena. A controlled variable species plasma can be made by using an RF ion source; use of two soft iron rings placed about the line cusp would give an adequate resonance zone (ECH or ICH) and a confining volume suitable for gas efficiency. The emanating plasma can be used to study free expansion of plasma along and across field lines (polar wind), plasma flows around the space platform, turbulent mixing in the wake region, long wavelength spectrum of convecting modes, plasma-dust interactions, etc.

  12. High intensity conditioning to improve flotation of gold fine particles

    SciTech Connect

    Valderrama, L.; Perez, C.; Rubio, J.

    1995-12-31

    This work describes the effect of the degree of energy transferred to the pulp, during the conditioning stage, on gold flotation fines recovery, grade and kinetics, with three types of frother (Dowfroth 250, pine oil and MIBC) and amyl xanthate as collector. Best results show an increase in 24% recovery and 50% in concentrate grade, depending on the intensity of conditioning and type of frother (better with Dowfroth 250). For low or intermediate energies (0.5--1.5 kWh/m3 pulp), the fine particles adhere to larger ones, increasing the recovery due to a mixture of carrier (pyrite, in this case) and autogeneous carrier flotation and at higher shear (2--3 kWh/m3 pulp), gold fine particles aggregate themselves. These phenomena are demonstrated by measurements of flotation rate, true flotation (flotation by actual particle-bubble adhesion), and by the amount of entrained particles. Alternatives for this type of pulp conditioning and mechanisms involved are discussed.

  13. Relative Match Intensities at High Altitude in Highly-Trained Young Soccer Players (ISA3600)

    PubMed Central

    Buchheit, Martin; Hammond, Kristal; Bourdon, Pitre C.; Simpson, Ben M.; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.; Schmidt, Walter F.; Gore, Christopher J.; Aughey, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    To compare relative match intensities of sea-level versus high-altitude native soccer players during a 2-week camp at 3600 m, data from 7 sea-level (Australian U17 National team, AUS) and 6 high-altitude (a Bolivian U18 team, BOL) native soccer players were analysed. Two matches were played at sea-level and three at 3600 m on Days 1, 6 and 13. The Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (vYo-YoIR1) was performed at sea-level, and on Days 3 and 10. Match activity profiles were measured via 10-Hz GPS. Distance covered >14.4 km.h-1 (D>14.4 km·h-1) and >80% of vYo-YoIR1 (D>80%vYo-YoIR1) were examined. Upon arrival at altitude, there was a greater decrement in vYo-YoIR1 (Cohen’s d +1.0, 90%CL ± 0.8) and D>14.4 km·h-1 (+0.5 ± 0.8) in AUS. D>14.4 km.h-1 was similarly reduced relative to vYo-YoIR1 in both groups, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained similarly unchanged (-0.1 ± 0.8). Throughout the altitude sojourn, vYo-YoIR1 and D>14.4 km·h-1 increased in parallel in AUS, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained stable in AUS (+6.0%/match, 90%CL ± 6.7); conversely D>80%vYo-YoIR1 decreased largely in BOL (-12.2%/match ± 6.2). In sea-level natives competing at high-altitude, changes in match running performance likely follow those in high-intensity running performance. Bolivian data confirm that increases in ‘fitness’ do not necessarily translate into greater match running performance, but rather in reduced relative exercise intensity. Key points When playing at high-altitude, players may alter their activities during matches in relation to their transient maximal physical capacities, possibly to maintain a ‘tolerable’ relative exercise intensity. While there is no doubt that running performance per se in not the main determinant of match outcomes (Carling, 2013), fitness levels influence relative match intensity (Buchheit et al., 2012, Mendez-Villanueva et al., 2013), which in-turn may impact on decision making and skill performance (Rampinini et al., 2008). In the context of

  14. Moderate intensity, but not high intensity, treadmill exercise training alters power output properties in myocardium from aged rats.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eunhee; Diffee, Gary M

    2012-11-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive decline in cardiac function, but endurance exercise training has been shown to retard a number of deleterious effects of aging. However, underlying mechanisms by which exercise training improves age-related decrements in myocardial contractile function are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on power output properties in permeablized (skinned) myocytes of old rats. Thirty-month-old rats were divided into sedentary control (C) and groups undergoing 11 weeks of treadmill exercise training at moderate intensity (MI) and at high intensity (HI). Peak power output normalized to maximal force was significantly increased in MI but not in HI compared to C with significant increases in atrial myosin light chain 1 in ventricle. These results suggest that MI exercise training is beneficial as a significant increase was seen in the ability of the myocardium to do work, but this effect was not seen with HI training.

  15. High-velocity stars from decay of small stellar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseleva, L. G.; Colin, J.; Dauphole, B.; Eggleton, P.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper we present numerical results on the decay of small stellar systems under different initial conditions (multiplicity 3<=N<=10, and various mass spectra, initial velocities and initial configurations). The numerical treatment uses the CHAIN1 code (Mikkola & Aarseth). Particular attention is paid to the distribution of high-velocity escapers: we define these as stars with velocity above 30 km s^-1. These numerical experiments confirm that small N-body systems are dynamically unstable and produce cascades of escapers in the process of their decay. It is shown that the fraction of stars that escape from small dense stellar systems with an escape velocity greater than 30 km s^-1 is ~1 per cent for all systems treated here. This relatively small fraction must be considered in relation to the rate of star formation in the Galaxy in small groups: this could explain some moderately high-velocity stars observed in the Galactic disc and possibly some young stars with relatively high metallicity in the thick disc.

  16. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF... Equipment General § 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in... reduce the capability of the airplane or the ability of the flightcrew to respond to an adverse...

  17. Correlation Analysis Between Modic Change of Cervical Vertebrae and Intramedullary High Signal Intensity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Fan, Jin; Sun, Peng; Zhou, Wei; Li, Qingqing; Yu, Lipeng; Yin, Guoyong

    2017-04-07

    Clinical studies have shown that endplate Modic change in the cervical spine and intramedullary high signal intensity often occurs simultaneously. We aimed to investigate whether there is a correlation between Modic change and intramedullary high signal intensity, and to explore the possible risk factors. In total, 133 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University between May 2009 and March 2013 were enrolled in the study. Preoperative cervical magnetic resonance imaging and radiographs in hyperextension and hyperflexion were analyzed. With regard to magnetic resonance imaging, all patients were classified into groups according to Modic change types and intramedullary high signal intensity; the ratio of spinal cord compression reflected the degree of spinal stenosis. For plain radiographs, total range of motion (ROM) and segmental ROM of the cervical vertebrae were measured. Modic change of the cervical vertebral endplate and intramedullary high signal intensity demonstrated a significantly positive correlation. In patients with Modic change and intramedullary high signal intensity, the segmental angle of motion of the cervical vertebrae in hyperextension, cervical segmental ROM, and ratio of spinal cord compression were significantly higher than in patients without Modic change and intramedullary high signal intensity. The occurrence of Modic change and intramedullary high signal intensity are related to cervical instability and spinal canal stenosis. Severe disc protrusion may cause an increase of ROM in cervical hyperextension. Such patients are more prone to Modic change of the cervical vertebral endplate and intramedullary high signal intensity.

  18. Effect of Short-Term, High-Intensity Exercise on Anaerobic Threshold in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.

    This study investigated the effects of a six-week, high-intensity cycling program on anaerobic threshold (AT) in ten women. Subjects trained four days a week using high-intensity interval-type cycle exercises. Workouts included six 4-minute intervals cycling at 85 percent maximal oxygen uptake (VO sub 2 max), separated by 3-minute intervals of…

  19. Do Changes in Tympanic Temperature Predict Changes in Affective Valence During High-Intensity Exercise?

    PubMed

    Legrand, Fabien D; Joly, Philippe M; Bertucci, William M

    2015-01-01

    Increased core (brain or body) temperature that accompanies exercise has been posited to play an influential role in affective responses to exercise. However, findings in support of this hypothesis have been equivocal, and most of the performed studies have been done in relation to anxiety. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of tympanic temperature on basic affect (i.e., pleasure-displeasure) in the course of a high-intensity exercise session. One hundred seventy students performed a 10-min cycling exercise at an intensity of 80% to 85% of maximal heart rate. Heart rate, tympanic temperature, and self-reported pleasure (using the Feeling Scale [FS]) were measured twice during exercise at the end of the first minute (Min 1:00) and beginning of the last minute (Min 9:00). Small increases in tympanic temperature were noted from Min 1:00 to Min 9:00 (mean change value = +0.2°C). Meanwhile, the FS scores changed in the opposite direction (mean change value = - 0.2 units). However, changes in temperature only poorly predicted changes in pleasure-displeasure (R(2) = .05 for the linear regression, R(2) = .08 for the curvilinear regression). Slight elevated tympanic temperature occurred during the 10-min cycling exercise, but it had a negligible effect on changes in pleasure ratings. The possibility that tympanic temperature is not a valid indicator of core temperature during exercise is discussed.

  20. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Jin, Q. Y.; Sha, S.; Zhang, J. J.; Li, Z. M.; Liu, W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  1. High-time resolution and size-segregated elemental composition in high-intensity pyrotechnic exposures.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Javier; Yubero, Eduardo; Nicolás, Jose F; Lucarelli, Franco; Nava, Silvia; Chiari, Massimo; Calzolai, Giulia

    2012-11-30

    Typical of festivals in Eastern Spain, mascletàs are high-intensity pyrotechnic events where thousands of firecrackers are burnt in an intense, rapid episode that generates short-lived heavy aerosol clouds. High temporal resolution and size distribution characterisation of aerosol components were performed to evaluate the effects of the brief (<30 min) and acute exposure on the spectators present. Very high concentrations of firework specific elements, especially in the fine fraction, were reached during mascletàs, with values of about 500 μg/m(3) for K and 300 μg/m(3) for Cl. Sr, Al, Mg, Ba, Cu, Co, Zn, and Pb concentration increase factors of more than 100 (1000 for Sr and Ba) were observed in the fine fraction with respect to background levels. Crustal origin elements, like Ca, Fe, Si, Ti, also showed an important concentration rise (~10 times above background levels) but this is due to dust resuspension by pyrotechnic explosions. The crustal components are mainly in the coarse mode (>90% elemental mass), between 2 and 3 μm. Most firework related metals are concentrated in the submicrometric region (>80%) with a trimodal size distribution. This may be interesting to epidemiologists given the toxic effects that such fine, metal-rich particles can have on human health.

  2. Probing the positron moderation process using high-intensity, highly polarized slow-positron beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van House, J.; Zitzewitz, P. W.

    1984-01-01

    A highly polarized (P = 0.48 + or - 0.02) intense (500,000/sec) beam of 'slow' (Delta E = about 2 eV) positrons (e+) is generated, and it is shown that it is possible to achieve polarization as high as P = 0.69 + or - 0.04 with reduced intensity. The measured polarization of the slow e+ emitted by five different positron moderators showed no dependence on the moderator atomic number (Z). It is concluded that only source positrons with final kinetic energy below 17 keV contribute to the slow-e+ beam, in disagreement with recent yield functions derived from low-energy measurements. Measurements of polarization and yield with absorbers of different Z between the source and moderator show the effects of the energy and angular distributions of the source positrons on P. The depolarization of fast e+ transmitted through high-Z absorbers has been measured. Applications of polarized slow-e+ beams are discussed.

  3. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  4. JOLT: A Highly Directive, Very Intensive, Impulse-Like Radiator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    to suppress corona. In addition, multiple sheets of Mylar are installed to prevent surface flashover along the Sylgard 184 between the connections...Hz, a criterion to insure the inhibition of surface flashover in a high pressure atmosphere has been developed. The switch is composed of copper... surface flashover along the high pressure gas/insulating solid interface has been successfully demonstrated under pulse repetition rates of 600 Hz

  5. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    DOEpatents

    Parkin, Don M.; Dudey, Norman D.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then "boil off" or evaporate a neutron.

  6. Applicability of a high-resolution small semiconductor gamma camera to small animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Kiyono, Yasushi; Kuge, Yuji; Katada, Yumiko; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Magata, Yasuhiro; Saji, Hideo

    2007-09-01

    Recently, small semiconductor gamma cameras (SSGCs) with high resolution and sensitivity, which are much more convenient to use as compared with SPECT and PET, have been developed for mapping the sentinel lymph node. The high resolution and sensitivity of the SSGCs may make them useful for small animal imaging. Therefore, we assessed the applicability of the SSGC to small animal imaging using a rat model of focal cerebral ischaemia. The right middle cerebral artery (MCA) of anaesthetized rats was occluded intraluminally with a nylon monofilament. Twenty-four hours after the occlusion, 99mTc-HMPAO (3.7 MBq) was injected and a static acquisition (5 min) was performed using the SSGC. Regions of interest (ROIs) were set on each hemisphere of the horizontal brain images. After the acquisition, the brains were removed and the radioactivity in each hemisphere was measured using an NaI scintillation counter. Reduced CBF in the right MCA territory was clearly visualized with the SSGC in vivo. The radioactivity in the ROIs determined by the SSGC was significantly correlated with that determined by the ex vivo counting method (P<0.001, R2=0.74). Furthermore, in both of the in-vivo imaging and ex-vivo counting methods, the right to left count ratio (R/L ratio) was significantly lower in the MCA-occluded rats than that in normal rats (MCA-occluded rats: 0.77+/-0.08, normal rats: 1.01+/-0.07, P<0.005). The SSGC clearly visualized and quantitatively detected the reduced CBF in MCA-occluded rats. Furthermore, these high resolution and sensitivity of SSGC can avoid the disadvantage of small animal imaging with PET and SPECT, such as a large mass injected tracer and the exposure of investigators to radiation. Thus, the high resolution and sensitivity of the SSGC make it useful for small animal imaging.

  7. Changes of colour and carotenoids contents during high intensity pulsed electric field treatment in orange juices.

    PubMed

    Cortés, C; Esteve, M J; Rodrigo, D; Torregrosa, F; Frígola, A

    2006-11-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC) was the method chosen to evaluate the effects of high intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF), with different electric field intensities (25, 30, 35 and 40 kV/cm) and different treatment times (30-340 micros), on orange juice cis/trans carotenoid contents. In parallel, a conventional heat treatment (90 degrees C, 20 s) was applied to the orange juice in order to compare the effect on the carotenoid contents. HIPEF processing of orange juice is an alternative to the thermal treatment of pasteurization, provided that it is kept refrigerated, because, when the most extreme conditions of this kind of treatment are applied, the decrease in the concentration of carotenoids with vitamin A activity is very small, and also most of the carotenoids identified have a slightly increased concentration after application of the most intense treatments, although always less than in untreated fresh juice. In any case, pasteurization treatment causes a greater decrease in the concentration of most of the carotenoids identified and the carotenoids with vitamin A activity. The total carotenoid concentration decreased by 12.6% in pasteurized orange juice with respect to untreated fresh orange juice, as opposed to decreases of 9.6%, 6.3% or 7.8% when fields of 25, 30 or 40 kV/cm were applied. Orange juice treated with HIPEF shows a greater tendency towards the colour yellow and a lesser tendency towards red with respect to untreated orange juice, while the luminance of the juice remains practically invariable. This tendency is less than in pasteurized orange juice.

  8. High-power, photofission-inducing bremsstrahlung source for intense pulsed active detection of fissile material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zier, J. C.; Mosher, D.; Allen, R. J.; Commisso, R. J.; Cooperstein, G.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Jackson, S. L.; Murphy, D. P.; Ottinger, P. F.; Richardson, A. S.; Schumer, J. W.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Weber, B. V.

    2014-06-01

    Intense pulsed active detection (IPAD) is a promising technique for detecting fissile material to prevent the proliferation of special nuclear materials. With IPAD, fissions are induced in a brief, intense radiation burst and the resulting gamma ray or neutron signals are acquired during a short period of elevated signal-to-noise ratio. The 8 MV, 200 kA Mercury pulsed-power generator at the Naval Research Laboratory coupled to a high-power vacuum diode produces an intense 30 ns bremsstrahlung beam to study this approach. The work presented here reports on Mercury experiments designed to maximize the photofission yield in a depleted-uranium (DU) object in the bremsstrahlung far field by varying the anode-cathode (AK) diode gap spacing and by adding an inner-diameter-reducing insert in the outer conductor wall. An extensive suite of diagnostics was fielded to measure the bremsstrahlung beam and DU fission yield as functions of diode geometry. Delayed fission neutrons from the DU proved to be a valuable diagnostic for measuring bremsstrahlung photons above 5 MeV. The measurements are in broad agreement with particle-in-cell and Monte Carlo simulations of electron dynamics and radiation transport. These show that with increasing AK gap, electron losses to the insert and outer conductor wall increase and that the electron angles impacting the bremsstrahlung converter approach normal incidence. The diode conditions for maximum fission yield occur when the gap is large enough to produce electron angles close to normal, yet small enough to limit electron losses.

  9. Revisiting the effect of posture on high-intensity constant-load cycling performance in men and women.

    PubMed

    Egaña, Mikel; Smith, Stephanie; Green, Simon

    2007-03-01

    It was recently observed that inclining the body from a supine to upright position improved the performance of high-intensity, constant-load cycling to a larger extent in men than women (Egaña et al. in Eur J Appl Physiol 96:1-9, 2006), although this gender-related effect was based on a small number of men (n = 5) and women (n = 5). To explore this effect further, we studied the effect of body tilt on cycling performance in a larger and different group of men (n = 8) and women (n = 18). Peak power, peak VO2 and the ventilatory threshold (VT) were determined during an upright maximal graded cycle test, and a high-intensity test (80% peak power) was performed to failure in both the upright and supine positions. Performance was significantly longer in the upright compared with supine position in men (17.4 +/- 7.7 vs. 7.6 +/- 3.4 min) and women (14.1 +/- 6.0 vs. 6.0 +/- 3.7 min). The magnitude of this postural effect was not significantly different between men and women; whereas it was significantly correlated with the relative intensity of exercise expressed as a function of VT (r = -0.39). These data demonstrate that the postural effect on high-intensity cycling performance is not influenced by gender; but that it is related to the intensity of exercise relative to the ventilatory threshold.

  10. Mission Matters: The Cost of Small High Schools Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiefel, Leanna; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Iatarola, Patrice; Chellman, Colin C.

    2009-01-01

    With the financial support of several large foundations and the federal government, creating small schools has become a prominent high school reform strategy in many large American cities. While some research supports this strategy, little research assesses the relative costs of these smaller schools. We use data on over 200 New York City high…

  11. Knowledge of Physics Topics Emphasized in Small Missouri High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Ronald; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1999-01-01

    An American Institute of Physics survey was modified to determine major physics topics emphasized in small Missouri high schools and teachers' perceived adequacy to teach them. Data tables show the emphasis that 103 Missouri teachers placed on 38 physics topics, compared to national counterparts, as well as teachers' perceptions of their knowledge…

  12. Driver assist behaviors for high-speed small UGVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Brian

    2011-05-01

    Currently deployed small UGVs operate at speeds up to around 6 mph and have proven their usefulness in explosives ordnance disposal (EOD) missions. As part of the TARDEC-funded Stingray Project, iRobot is investigating techniques to increase the speed of small UGVs so they can be useful in a wider range of missions, such as high-speed reconnaissance and infantry assault missions. We have developed a prototype Stingray PackBot, using wheels rather than tracks, that is capable of traveling at speeds up to 18 mph. A key issue when traveling at such speeds is how to maintain stability during sharp turns and over rough terrain. We are developing driver assist behaviors that will provide dynamic stability control for high-speed small UGVs using techniques such as dynamic weight shifting to limit oversteer and understeer. These driver assist behaviors will enable operators to use future high-speed small UGVs in high optempo infantry missions and keep warfighters out of harm's way.

  13. Towards very high resolution RPC-PET for small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, P.; Blanco, A.; Crespo, P.; Fátima Ferreira Marques, M.; Ferreira Marques, R.; Gordo, P. M.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Korcyl, G.; Lopes, L.; Michel, J.; Palka, M.; Traxler, M.; Fonte, P.

    2014-10-01

    We present imaging results of needle-like and planar 22Na sources obtained with a prototype of a high-acceptance small-animal positron emission tomograph based on resistive plate chambers (RPC-PET). The maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) reconstruction of the acquired data yielded an excellent and stable resolution of 0.4 mm FWHM.

  14. High energy density propulsion systems and small engine dynamometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study investigates all possible methods of powering small unmanned vehicles, provides reasoning for the propulsion system down select, and covers in detail the design and production of a dynamometer to confirm theoretical energy density calculations for small engines. Initial energy density calculations are based upon manufacturer data, pressure vessel theory, and ideal thermodynamic cycle efficiencies. Engine tests are conducted with a braking type dynamometer for constant load energy density tests, and show true energy densities in excess of 1400 WH/lb of fuel. Findings and Conclusions. Theory predicts lithium polymer, the present unmanned system energy storage device of choice, to have much lower energy densities than other conversion energy sources. Small engines designed for efficiency, instead of maximum power, would provide the most advantageous method for powering small unmanned vehicles because these engines have widely variable power output, loss of mass during flight, and generate rotational power directly. Theoretical predictions for the energy density of small engines has been verified through testing. Tested values up to 1400 WH/lb can be seen under proper operating conditions. The implementation of such a high energy density system will require a significant amount of follow-on design work to enable the engines to tolerate the higher temperatures of lean operation. Suggestions are proposed to enable a reliable, small-engine propulsion system in future work. Performance calculations show that a mature system is capable of month long flight times, and unrefueled circumnavigation of the globe.

  15. (Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses: quasielastic scattering studies on glycerol; gamma-ray scattering from alkali halides; lattice dynamics in metals; Moessbauer neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction, and macroscopic studies of high {Tc} superconductors containing tungsten; NiAl scattering studies; and atomic interference factors and nuclear Casimir effect.

  16. High-intensity exercise training induces morphological and biochemical changes in skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Toti, L; Bartalucci, A; Ferrucci, M; Fulceri, F; Lazzeri, G; Lenzi, P; Soldani, P; Gobbi, P; La Torre, A; Gesi, M

    2013-12-01

    IN THE PRESENT STUDY WE INVESTIGATED THE EFFECT OF TWO DIFFERENT EXERCISE PROTOCOLS ON FIBRE COMPOSITION AND METABOLISM OF TWO SPECIFIC MUSCLES OF MICE: the quadriceps and the gastrocnemius. Mice were run daily on a motorized treadmill, at a velocity corresponding to 60% or 90% of the maximal running velocity. Blood lactate and body weight were measured during exercise training. We found that at the end of training the body weight significantly increased in high-intensity exercise mice compared to the control group (P=0.0268), whereas it decreased in low-intensity exercise mice compared to controls (P=0.30). In contrast, the food intake was greater in both trained mice compared to controls (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 for low-intensity and high-intensity exercise mice, respectively). These effects were accompanied by a progressive reduction in blood lactate levels at the end of training in both the exercised mice compared with controls (P=0.03 and P < 0.0001 for low-intensity and high-intensity exercise mice, respectively); in particular, blood lactate levels after high-intensity exercise were significantly lower than those measured in low-intensity exercise mice (P=0.0044). Immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that high-intensity exercise training produced a significant increase in the expression of mitochondrial enzymes contained within gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles. These changes were associated with an increase in the amount of slow fibres in both these muscles of high-intensity exercise mice, as revealed by the counts of slow fibres stained with specific antibodies (P < 0.0001 for the gastrocnemius; P=0.0002 for the quadriceps). Our results demonstrate that high-intensity exercise, in addition to metabolic changes consisting of a decrease in blood lactate and body weight, induces an increase in the mitochondrial enzymes and slow fibres in different skeletal muscles of mice, which indicates an exercise-induced increase in the aerobic metabolism.

  17. Small-crack effects in high-strength aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.; Wu, X. R.; Venneri, S. L.; Li, C. G.

    1994-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Chinese Aeronautical Establishment participated in a Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics Cooperative Program. The program objectives were to identify and characterize crack initiation and growth of small cracks (10 microns to 2 mm long) in commonly used US and PRC aluminum alloys, to improve fracture mechanics analyses of surface- and corner-crack configurations, and to develop improved life-prediction methods. Fatigue and small-crack tests were performed on single-edgenotch tension (SENT) specimens and large-crack tests were conducted on center-crack tension specimens for constant-amplitude (stress ratios of -1, 0, and 0.5) and Mini-TWIST spectrum loading. The plastic replica method was used to monitor the initiation and growth of small fatigue cracks at the semicircular notch. Crack growth results from each laboratory on 7075-T6 bare and LC9cs clad aluminum alloys agreed well and showed that fatigue life was mostly crack propagation from a material defect (inclusion particles or void) or from the cladding layer. Finite-element and weight-function methods were used to determine stress intensity factors for surface and corner cracks in the SENT specimens. Equations were then developed and used in a crack growth and crack-closure model to correlate small- and large-crack data and to make life predictions for various load histories. The cooperative program produced useful experimental data and efficient analysis methods for improving life predictions. The results should ultimately improve aircraft structural reliability and safety.

  18. High-Intensity High-order Harmonics Generated from Low-Density Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, T.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Ganeev, R. A.; Haessler, S.; Salieres, P.

    2009-07-25

    We study the generation of high-order harmonics from lowly ionized plasma, using the 10 TW, 10 Hz laser of the Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS). We perform detailed studies on the enhancement of a single order of the high-order harmonic spectrum generated in plasma using the fundamental and second harmonic of the ALLS beam line. We observe quasi-monochromatic harmonics for various targets, including Mn, Cr, Sn, and In. We identify most of the ionic/neutral transitions responsible for the enhancement, which all have strong oscillator strengths. We demonstrate intensity enhancements of the 13th, 17th, 29th, and 33rd harmonics from these targets using the 800 nm pump laser and varying its chirp. We also characterized the attosecond nature of such plasma harmonics, measuring attosecond pulse trains with 360 as duration for chromium plasma, using the technique of 'Reconstruction of Attosecond Beating by Interference of Two-photon Transitions'(RABBIT). These results show that plasma harmonics are intense source of ultrashort coherent soft x-rays.

  19. Changes in Rowing Technique Over a Routine One Hour Low Intensity High Volume Training Session

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Hugh A.M.; Bull, Anthony M.J.; McGregor, Alison H.

    2008-01-01

    High volume low intensity training sessions such as one hour rowing ergometer sessions are frequently used to improve the fitness of elite rowers. Early work has suggested that technique may decline over this time period. This study sought to test the hypothesis that “elite rowers can maintain technique over a one hour rowing ergometer session”. An electromagnetic device, in conjunction with a load cell, was used to assess rowing technique in terms of force generation and spinal kinematics in six male elite sweep oarsmen (two competed internationally and the remainder at a club senior level). All subjects performed one hour of rowing on a Concept II indoor rowing ergometer using a stroke rate of 18-20 strokes per minute and a heart rate ranging between 130-150 beats per minute, following a brief 5 minute warm- up. Recordings of rowing technique and force were made every 10 minutes. The elite group of rowers were able to sustain their rowing technique and force parameters over the hour session. Subtle changes in certain parameters were observed including a fall in force output of approximately 10N after the first seven minutes of rowing, and a change in leg compression of three degrees at the end of the one hour rowing piece which corresponded with a small increase in anterior rotation of the pelvis. However, it is unclear if such changes reflect a “warm-up” effect or if they are indicative of early signs of fatigue. These findings suggest that low intensity high volume ergometer rowing sessions do not have a detrimental effect on the technique of a group of experienced and highly trained rowers. Key pointsElite rowers do not demonstrate changes in rowing kinematics over and hour rowing piece.Rowers require an adequate warm-up to establish their technique. PMID:24149955

  20. An improved permanent magnet quadrupole design with larger good field region for high intensity proton linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Jose V.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-11-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), being developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) will produce a 20 MeV, 30 mA, continuous wave (CW) proton beam. At these low velocities, space-charge forces dominate, and could lead to larger beam sizes and beam halos. Hence in the design of the focusing lattice of the LEHIPA drift tube linac (DTL) using permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs), a larger good field region is preferred. Here we study, using the two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulation codes PANDIRA and RADIA, four different types of cylindrical PMQ designs: 16-segment trapezoidal Halbach configuration, bullet-nosed geometry and 8- and 16-segment rectangular geometries. The trapezoidal Halbach geometry is used in a variety of accelerators since it provides very high field gradients in small bores, while the bullet-nosed geometry, which is a combination of the trapezoidal and rectangular designs, is used in some DTLs. This study shows that a larger good field region is possible in the 16-segment rectangular design as compared to the Halbach and bullet-nosed designs, making it more attractive for high-intensity proton linacs. An improvement in good-field region by ˜16% over the Halbach design is obtained in the optimized 16-segment rectangular design, although the field gradient is lower by ˜20%. Tolerance studies show that the rectangular segment PMQ design is substantially less sensitive to the easy axis orientation errors and hence will be a better choice for DTLs.

  1. High-resolution observations and modeling of turbulence sources, structures, and intensities in the upper mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritts, David C.; Wang, Ling; Baumgarten, Gerd; Miller, Amber D.; Geller, Marvin A.; Jones, Glenn; Limon, Michele; Chapman, Daniel; Didier, Joy; Kjellstrand, Carl B.; Araujo, Derek; Hillbrand, Seth; Korotkov, Andrei; Tucker, Gregory; Vinokurov, Jerry

    2017-09-01

    New capabilities for imaging small-scale instabilities and turbulence and for modeling gravity wave (GW), instability, and turbulence dynamics at high Reynolds numbers are employed to identify the major instabilities and quantify turbulence intensities near the summer mesopause. High-resolution imaging of polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) reveal a range of instability dynamics and turbulence sources that have their roots in multi-scale GW dynamics at larger spatial scales. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of these dynamics exhibit a range of instability types that closely resemble instabilities and turbulence seen in PMC imaging and by ground-based and in-situ instruments at all times and altitudes. The DNS also exhibit the development of ;sheet-and-layer; (S&L) structures in the horizontal wind and thermal stability fields that resemble observed flows near the mesopause and at lower altitudes. Both observations and modeling suggest major roles for GW breaking, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities (KHI), and intrusions in turbulence generation and energy dissipation. Of these, larger-scale GW breaking and KHI play the major roles in energetic flows leading to strong turbulence. GW propagation and breaking can span several S&L features and induce KHI ranging from GW to turbulence scales. Intrusions make comparable contributions to turbulence generation as instabilities become weaker and more intermittent. Turbulence intensities are highly variable in the vertical and typically span 3 or more decades. DNS results that closely resemble observed flows suggest a range of mechanical energy dissipation rates of ε 10-3-10 W kg-1 that is consistent with the range of in-situ measurements at 80-90 km in summer.

  2. MO-AB-210-03: Workshop [Advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.

    2015-06-15

    The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound. HIFU is a therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves as carriers of energy. HIFU is used to focus a beam of ultrasound energy into a small volume at specific target locations within the body. The focused beam causes localized high temperatures and produces a well-defined regions of necrosis. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery. At the workshop, attendees will see configurations, applications, and hands-on demonstrations with on-site instructors at separate stations. The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. At the workshop, an array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be provided for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations of the techniques. Target audience: Medical physicists and other medical professionals in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology with interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound and in diagnostic ultrasound QC. Learning Objectives: Learn ultrasound physics and safety for HIFU applications through live demonstrations Get an overview of the state-of-the art in HIFU technologies and equipment Gain familiarity with common elements of a quality control program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging Identify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools List of supporting vendors for HIFU and diagnostic ultrasound QC hands-on workshop: Philips Healthcare Alpinion Medical Systems Verasonics, Inc Zonare Medical Systems, Inc Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS), Inc. GAMMEX, Inc., Cablon Medical BV Steffen Sammet: NIH/NCI grant 5R25CA132822, NIH/NINDS grant 5R25NS

  3. Device for providing high-intensity ion or electron beam

    DOEpatents

    McClanahan, Edwin D.; Moss, Ronald W.

    1977-01-01

    A thin film of a low-thermionic-work-function material is maintained on the cathode of a device for producing a high-current, low-pressure gas discharge by means of sputter deposition from an auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode includes a surface with a low-work-function material, such as thorium, uranium, plutonium or one of the rare earth elements, facing the cathode but at a disposition and electrical potential so as to extract ions from the gas discharge and sputter the low-work-function material onto the cathode. By continuously replenishing the cathode film, high thermionic emissions and ion plasmas can be realized and maintained over extended operating periods.

  4. High-intensive femtosecond singular pulses in Kerr dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Khasanov, Oleg; Smirnova, Tatyana; Fedotova, Olga; Rusetsky, Grigory; Romanov, Oleg

    2012-04-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a high-power femtosecond singular pulse in Kerr media are analyzed numerically upon optically induced ionization. We examine the plasma inertia impact to stable propagation of optical vortices. Multifoci behavior of vortices in medium are revealed. Next we numerically demonstrate that inertial character of plasma formation provides a quasi-soliton regime of vortex propagation resistant to symmetry-breaking perturbation.

  5. Cathode Plasma Formation in High Intensity Electron Beam Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Mark; Kiefer, Mark; Oliver, Bryan; Bennett, Nichelle; Droemer, Darryl; Bernshtam, V.; Doron, R.; Maron, Yitzhak

    2013-10-01

    This talk will detail the experimental results and conclusions obtained for cathode plasma formation on the Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) diode fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (4-7.5 MeV) at Sandia National Laboratories. The SMP diode utilizes a hollowed metal cathode to produce high power (TW), focused electron beams (<3 mm diameter) which are used for flash x-ray radiography applications. Optical diagnostics include high speed (<10 ns) framing cameras, optical streak cameras, and spectroscopy. The cathode plasma in this high electric (MV/cm) and magnetic (>10 Tesla) field environment forms well-defined striations. These striations have been examined for a number of different cathode sizes, vacuum gap spacings, and diode voltages. Optical streak images have been taken to determine the time evolution of the plasma, and optical spectroscopy has been employed to determine its constituents as well as their densities and temperatures inferred from detailed time-dependent, collisional-radiative (CR) and radiation transport modelings. Comments will be made as to the overall effect of the cathode plasma in regards to the diode impedance and electron beam focusing. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. High-intensity pulsed beam source with tunable operation mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashilevskiy, A. V.; Kanaev, G. G.; Ezhov, V. V.; Shamanin, V. I.

    2017-05-01

    The report presents the design of an electron and an ion pulsed accelerator. The powerful high-voltage pulse generator of the accelerator and the vacuum bushing insulator is able to change the polarity of the output voltage. The low-inductance matching transformer provides an increase in the DFL output impedance by 4 times. The generator based on a high voltage pulse transformer and a pseudo spark switch is applied for DFL charging. The high-impedance magnetically insulated focusing diode with Br magnetic field and the “passive” anode was used to realize the ion beam generation mode. The plasma is formed on the surface of the anode caused by an electrical breakdown at the voltage edge pulse; as a result, the carbon ion and proton beam is generated. This beam has the following parameters: the current density is about 400 A/cm2 (in focus): the applied voltage is up to 450 kV. The accelerator is designed for the research on the interaction of the charged particle pulsed beams with materials and for the development of technological processes of a material modification.

  7. High Energy X-Ray Source Generation by Short Pulse High Intensity Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H-S; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Phillips, T W; Goldsack, T; Clark, E; Eagleton, R; Edwards, R

    2003-09-02

    We are studying the feasibility of utilizing K{alpha} x-ray sources in the range of 20 to 100 keV as a backlighters for imaging various stages of implosions and high areal density planar samples driven by the NIF laser facility. The hard x-ray K{alpha} sources are created by relativistic electron plasma interactions in the target material after a radiation by short pulse high intensity lasers. In order to understand K{alpha} source characteristics such as production efficiency and brightness as a function of laser parameters, we have performed experiments using the 10 J, 100 fs JanUSP laser. We utilized single-photon counting spectroscopy and x-ray imaging diagnostics to characterize the K{alpha} source. We find that the K{alpha} conversion efficiency from the laser energy at 22 keV is {approx} 3 x 10{sup -4}.

  8. CT and Ultrasound Guided Stereotactic High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Bradford J.; Frenkel, V.; Viswanathan, A.; Dromi, S.; Oh, K.; Kam, A.; Li, K. C. P.; Yanof, J.; Bauer, C.; Kruecker, J.; Seip, R.

    2006-05-08

    To demonstrate the feasibility of CT and B-mode Ultrasound (US) targeted HIFU, a prototype coaxial focused ultrasound transducer was registered and integrated to a CT scanner. CT and diagnostic ultrasound were used for HIFU targeting and monitoring, with the goals of both thermal ablation and non-thermal enhanced drug delivery. A 1 megahertz coaxial ultrasound transducer was custom fabricated and attached to a passive position-sensing arm and an active six degree-of-freedom robotic arm via a CT stereotactic frame. The outer therapeutic transducer with a 10 cm fixed focal zone was coaxially mounted to an inner diagnostic US transducer (2-4 megahertz, Philips Medical Systems). This coaxial US transducer was connected to a modified commercial focused ultrasound generator (Focus Surgery, Indianapolis, IN) with a maximum total acoustic power of 100 watts. This pre-clinical paradigm was tested for ability to heat tissue in phantoms with monitoring and navigation from CT and live US. The feasibility of navigation via image fusion of CT with other modalities such as PET and MRI was demonstrated. Heated water phantoms were tested for correlation between CT numbers and temperature (for ablation monitoring). The prototype transducer and integrated CT/US imaging system enabled simultaneous multimodality imaging and therapy. Pre-clinical phantom models validated the treatment paradigm and demonstrated integrated multimodality guidance and treatment monitoring. Temperature changes during phantom cooling corresponded to CT number changes. Contrast enhanced or non-enhanced CT numbers may potentially be used to monitor thermal ablation with HIFU. Integrated CT, diagnostic US, and therapeutic focused ultrasound bridges a gap between diagnosis and therapy. Preliminary results show that the multimodality system may represent a relatively inexpensive, accessible, and simple method of both targeting and monitoring HIFU effects. Small animal pre-clinical models may be translated to large

  9. High-order harmonics from bow wave caustics driven by a high-intensity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Pirozhkov, A.S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.; and others

    2012-07-11

    We propose a new mechanism of high-order harmonic generation during an interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with underdense plasma. A tightly focused laser pulse creates a cavity in plasma pushing electrons aside and exciting the wake wave and the bow wave. At the joint of the cavity wall and the bow wave boundary, an annular spike of electron density is formed. This spike surrounds the cavity and moves together with the laser pulse. Collective motion of electrons in the spike driven by the laser field generates high-order harmonics. A strong localization of the electron spike, its robustness to oscillations imposed by the laser field and, consequently, its ability to produce high-order harmonics is explained by catastrophe theory. The proposed mechanism explains the experimental observations of high-order harmonics with the 9 TW J-KAREN laser (JAEA, Japan) and the 120 TW Astra Gemini laser (CLF RAL, UK) [A. S. Pirozhkov, et al., arXiv:1004.4514 (2010); A. S. Pirozhkov et al, AIP Proceedings, this volume]. The theory is corroborated by high-resolution two-and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  10. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A.; Sakamoto, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N. H.; Hashim, I. H.; Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2014-08-01

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 108 muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion.

  11. Negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with persistent high intensity low back pain.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sin Ki; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette; Urquhart, Donna M

    2016-08-12

    While previous cross-sectional studies have found that negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with pain intensity, the relationship between back beliefs and persistent low back pain is not well understood. This cohort study aimed to examine the role of back beliefs in persistent low back pain in community-based individuals. A hundred and ninety-two participants from a previous musculoskeletal health study were invited to take part in a two-year follow-up study. Beliefs about back pain were assessed by the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) at baseline and low back pain intensity was measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Of the 150 respondents (78.1%), 16 (10.7%) reported persistent high intensity low back pain, 12 (8.0%) developed high intensity low back pain, in 16 (10.7%) their high intensity low back pain resolved and 106 (70.7%) experienced no high intensity low back pain. While participants were generally positive about low back pain (BBQ mean (SD) = 30.2 (6.4)), those with persistent high intensity pain reported greater negativity (BBQ mean (SD) = 22.6 (4.9)). Negative beliefs about back pain were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain after adjusting for confounders (M (SE) = 23.5 (1.6) vs. >30.1 (1.7), p < .001). This study found negative back beliefs were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain over 2 years in community-based individuals. While further longitudinal studies are required, these findings suggest that targeting beliefs in programs designed to treat and prevent persistent high intensity low back pain may be important.

  12. Medical Isotope Production using High Intensity Accelerator Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yasuki

    We proposed aprototype facility for the generation of radioisotopes with accelerator neutrons by deuterons. The neutrons are producedbynatC(d,n) with 40MeV 2 mA deuteron beams, and about 8.1 TBq/week of 99Mois produced by irradiating an enriched 100Mo sample with the neutrons.High-quality 99mTc can be separatedfrom an irradiated 100MoO3 sample by thermo-chromatographic separation.In this contribution we present the system to produce medical radioisotopes, such as 99Mo, 90Y, and 67Cu, and experimental studies on 99Mo and 67Cu produced by using accelerator neutrons.

  13. Constant Light Output Ballasting For High Intensity Discharge Lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkin, Adrian

    1988-02-01

    Since the commercial introduction some twenty years ago of HMI* (Hydragyrum-mercury, Medium, Iodide) type lamps, as a source intended primarily for floodlighting applications, their attraction as a cinematographic light source has been apparent due to their largely desirable characteristics. Use in this field has been restricted due to the absolute requirement for an alternating current supply - with a sine wave supply frame rates are limited to a sub-multiple of the supply frequency with the supply frequency phase locked to the camera frame rate. This has effectively barred metal halide HID lighting from use in high speed photography. The general characteristics of metal halide HID lamps are presented alongside a sample of other light sources. An electronic ballast which has been proven to 12000 Watts in the motion picture industry is then described which overcomes the limitations of the conventional magnetic ballast - the square wave output of the electronic ballast theoretically allows the use of any camera frame rate/shutter angle combination. Finally the suitability of luminaires for high speed photography is discussed.

  14. Tools and techniques for estimating high intensity RF effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zacharias, Richard L.; Pennock, Steve T.; Poggio, Andrew J.; Ray, Scott L.

    1992-01-01

    Tools and techniques for estimating and measuring coupling and component disturbance for avionics and electronic controls are described. A finite-difference-time-domain (FD-TD) modeling code, TSAR, used to predict coupling is described. This code can quickly generate a mesh model to represent the test object. Some recent applications as well as the advantages and limitations of using such a code are described. Facilities and techniques for making low-power coupling measurements and for making direct injection test measurements of device disturbance are also described. Some scaling laws for coupling and device effects are presented. A method for extrapolating these low-power test results to high-power full-system effects are presented.

  15. Preoperative high-intensity training in frail old patients undergoing pulmonary resection for NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Rosario; Meoli, Ilernando; Cennamo, Antonio; Perrotta, Fabio; Saverio Cerqua, Francesco; Montesano, Raffaele; Curcio, Carlo; Lassandro, Francesco; Stefanelli, Francesco; Grella, Edoardo; Tafuri, Domenico; Mazzarella, Gennaro; Bianco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic surgery remains the better therapeutic option for non-small cell lung cancer patients that are diagnosed in early stage disease. Preoperative lung function assessment includes respiratory function tests (RFT) and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Vo2 peak, FEV1 and DLCO as well as recognition of performance status, presence of co-morbidities, frailty indexes, and age predict the potential impact of surgical resection on patient health status and survival risk. In this study we have retrospectively assessed the benefit of a high-intensity preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP) in 14 patients with underlying lung function impairment prior to surgery. Amongst these, three patients candidate to surgical resection exhibited severe functional impairment associated with high score of frailty according CHS and SOF index, resulting in a substantial mortality risk. Our observations indicate that PRP appear to reduce the mortality and morbidity risk in frail patients with concurrent lung function impairment undergoing thoracic surgery. PRP produced improvement of VO2 peak degree and pulmonary function resulting in reduced postoperative complications in high-risk patients from our cases. Our results indicate that a preoperative training program may improve postoperative clinical outcomes in fraillung cancer patients with impaired lung function prior to surgical resection.

  16. Preoperative high-intensity training in frail old patients undergoing pulmonary resection for NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Cennamo, Antonio; Perrotta, Fabio; Saverio Cerqua, Francesco; Montesano, Raffaele; Curcio, Carlo; Lassandro, Francesco; Stefanelli, Francesco; Grella, Edoardo; Tafuri, Domenico; Mazzarella, Gennaro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Thoracic surgery remains the better therapeutic option for non-small cell lung cancer patients that are diagnosed in early stage disease. Preoperative lung function assessment includes respiratory function tests (RFT) and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Vo2 peak, FEV1 and DLCO as well as recognition of performance status, presence of co-morbidities, frailty indexes, and age predict the potential impact of surgical resection on patient health status and survival risk. In this study we have retrospectively assessed the benefit of a high-intensity preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP) in 14 patients with underlying lung function impairment prior to surgery. Amongst these, three patients candidate to surgical resection exhibited severe functional impairment associated with high score of frailty according CHS and SOF index, resulting in a substantial mortality risk. Our observations indicate that PRP appear to reduce the mortality and morbidity risk in frail patients with concurrent lung function impairment undergoing thoracic surgery. PRP produced improvement of VO2 peak degree and pulmonary function resulting in reduced postoperative complications in high-risk patients from our cases. Our results indicate that a preoperative training program may improve postoperative clinical outcomes in fraillung cancer patients with impaired lung function prior to surgical resection.

  17. Impact of High-intensity Intermittent and Moderate-intensity Continuous Exercise on Autonomic Modulation in Young Men.

    PubMed

    Cabral-Santos, C; Giacon, T R; Campos, E Z; Gerosa-Neto, J; Rodrigues, B; Vanderlei, L C M; Lira, F S

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) recovery after two iso-volume (5 km) exercises performed at different intensities. 14 subjects volunteered (25.17±5.08 years; 74.7±6.28 kg; 175±0.05 cm; 59.56±5.15 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and after determination of peak oxygen uptake (VO2Peak) and the speed associated with VO2Peak (sVO2Peak), the subjects completed 2 random experimental trials: high-intensity exercise (HIE - 1:1 at 100% sVO2Peak), and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MIE - 70% sVO2Peak). HRV and RR intervals were monitored before, during and after the exercise sessions together with, the HRV analysis in the frequency domains (high-frequency - HF: 0.15 to 0.4 Hz and low-frequency - LF: 0.04 to 0.15 Hz components) and the ratio between them (LF/HF). Statistical analysis comparisons between moments and between HIE and MIE were performed using a mixed model. Both exercise sessions modified LFlog, HFlog, and LF/HF (F=16.54, F=19.32 and F=5.17, p<0.05, respectively). A group effect was also found for LFlog (F=23.91, p<0.05), and HFlog (F=57.55, p< 0.05). LF/HF returned to resting value 15 min after MIE exercise and 20 min after HIE exercise. This means that the heavy domain (aerobic and anaerobic threshold) induces dissimilar autonomic modification in physically active subjects. Both HIE and MIE modify HRV, and generally HIE delays parasympathetic autonomic modulation recovery after iso-volume exercise.

  18. Improvement of high-voltage staircase drive circuit waveform for high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamano, Satoshi; Jimbo, Hayato; Azuma, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Shin; Fujiwara, Keisuke; Itani, Kazunori; Umemura, Shin-Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Recently, in the treatment of diseases such as cancer, noninvasive or low-invasive modality, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), has been put into practice as an alternative to open surgery. HIFU induces thermal ablation of the target tissue to be treated. To improve the efficiency of HIFU, we have proposed a “triggered-HIFU” technique, which uses the combination of a short-duration, high-voltage transmission and a long-duration, medium-voltage transmission. In this method, the transmission device must endure high peak voltage for the former and the high time-average power for the latter. The triggered-HIFU sequence requires electronic scanning of the HIFU focus to maximize its thermal efficiency. Therefore, the transmission device must drive an array transducer with the number of elements on the order of a hundred or more, which requires that each part of the device that drives each element must be compact. The purpose of this work is to propose and construct such a transmission device by improving the staircase drive circuit, which we previously proposed. The main point of improvement is that both N and P MOSFETs are provided for each staircase voltage level instead of only one of them. Compared with the previous ultrasonic transmission circuit, high-voltage spikes were significantly reduced, the power consumption was decreased by 26.7%, and the transmission circuit temperature rise was decreased by 14.5 °C in the triggered-HIFU heating mode.

  19. High-field small animal magnetic resonance oncology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Ackerstaff, Ellen; LeKaye, H. Carl; Zakian, Kristen; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High-field MRI can provide information about tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1H, 31P, chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging and hyperpolarized 13C MRS as well as diffusion-weighted, blood oxygen level dependent contrast imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. These methods have been proven effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies.

  20. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gonterman, J. Ronald; Weinstein, Michael A.

    2006-10-27

    frits. Exploratory melts of non-glassy materials, such as wollastonite, zirconium silicate, and alumino-silicate melts were successfully done indicating that plasma melting has potential application beyond glass. Experimental results were generated that show the high quality of plasma-melted fiberglass compositions, such as E-glass, can result in good fiberizing performance. Fiberizing performance and tensile strength data were achieved during the project to support this conclusion. High seed counts are a feature of the current lab scale melter and must be dealt with via other means, since fining work was outside the scope of this project.

  1. High-intensity interval versus moderate-intensity continuous training: Superior metabolic benefits in diet-induced obesity mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ningning; Liu, Yang; Ma, Yanan; Wen, Deliang

    2017-08-23

    Exercise is beneficial in obesity, however, the debate about the value of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been long lasting. Therefore, here we have compared the possible beneficial effects of two different exercise training regimes in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Following 7wk. on high fat diet (HFD), ten-week-old male ICR mice (n=30) were assigned to HIIT, distance-matched MICT or remained sedentary for the next 8 constitutive weeks while maintaining the dietary treatments. Age-matched sedentary mice with standard diet were used as a control (n=10). Exercise was performed on a motorized treadmill for 5days a week. Both modes of exercise ameliorated adiposity and related metabolic dysfunction induced by HFD and sedentary lifestyle, while mice following HIIT exhibited significantly lower body weight, percentage of fat mass and smaller adipocyte size. HIIT was more favorable in preventing liver lipid accumulation by restoring mRNA levels of genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis (SREBP1, ACC1, FAS) and β-oxidation (PPARα, CPT1a, HAD). In addition, HIIT was more efficient in mitigating adipose tissue inflammation and insulin insensitivity, partly dependent on abrogating phosphorylation of JNK/IRS1 (Ser307) pathway. Moreover, only HIIT led to pronounced beige adipocyte recruitment in inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue. We conclude that HIIT contribute a more favorable regulation of metabolic dysfunctions in DIO mice compared with MICT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Diffraction Gratings for High-Intensity Laser Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J

    2008-01-23

    The scattering of light into wavelength-dependent discrete directions (orders) by a device exhibiting a periodic modulation of a physical attribute on a spatial scale similar to the wavelength of light has been the subject of study for over 200 years. Such a device is called a diffraction grating. Practical applications of diffraction gratings, mainly for spectroscopy, have been around for over 100 years. The importance of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy for the measurement of myriad properties of matter can hardly be overestimated. Since the advent of coherent light sources (lasers) in the 1960's, applications of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy have further exploded. Lasers have opened a vast application space for gratings, and apace, gratings have enabled entirely new classes of laser systems. Excellent reviews of the history, fundamental properties, applications and manufacturing techniques of diffraction gratings up to the time of their publication can be found in the books by Hutley (1) and more recently Loewen and Popov (2). The limited scope of this chapter can hardly do justice to such a comprehensive subject, so the focus here will be narrowly limited to characteristics required for gratings suitable for high-power laser applications, and methods to fabricate them. A particular area of emphasis will be on maximally-efficient large-aperture gratings for short-pulse laser generation.

  3. Novel use of noninvasive high-intensity focused ultrasonography for intercostal nerve neurolysis in a swine model.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Amitabh; Loh, Jeffrey; Gutta, Narendra B; Ezell, Paula C; Monette, Sébastien; Erinjeri, Joseph P; Maybody, Majid; Solomon, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a noninvasive thermal ablation technique. High-intensity focused ultrasound has been used in small-animal models to lesion neural tissue selectively. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of HIFU in a large-animal model for ablation of nerves similar in size to human nerves. Twelve acute magnetic resonance-guided HIFU ablation lesions were created in intercostal nerves in a swine model. In a second pig, as a control, 4 radiofrequency ablation and 4 alcohol lesions were performed on intercostal nerves under ultrasound guidance. Preprocedural and postprocedural magnetic resonance imaging was then performed to evaluate radiologically the lesion size created by HIFU. Animals were euthanized 1 hour postprocedure, and necropsy was performed to collect tissue samples for histopathologic analysis. On gross and histological examination of the intercostal nerve, acute HIFU nerve lesions showed evidence of well-demarcated, acute, focally extensive thermal necrosis. Four intercostal nerves ablated with HIFU were sent for histopathologic analysis, with 2 of 4 lesions showing pathologic damage to the intercostal nerve. Similar results were shown with radiofrequency ablation technique, whereas the intercostal nerves appeared histologically intact with alcohol ablation. High-intensity focused ultrasound may be used as a noninvasive neurolytic technique in swine. High-intensity focused ultrasound may have potential as a neuroablation technique for patients with chronic and cancer pain.

  4. POWTEX - A new High-Intensity Powder and Texture Diffractometer at FRM II, Garching Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, J. M.; Brückel, T.; Dronskowski, R.; Hansen, B. T.; Houben, A.; Klein, H.; Leiss, B.; Vollbrecht, A.; Sowa, H.

    2009-05-01

    also designated. Furthermore an uniaxial stress frame for in situ stress investigations is planned to conduct simultaneous measurements of stress, elastic or plastic deformation and texture. Other sample environments for geoscientific application will be HP/HT furnaces and pressure cells for powder diffraction investigations. Furthermore the diffractometer will be built in combination with a high-pressure multi anvil up to 25 GPa and 2500 K built by the University of Bayreuth at the same beam line. The detector concept allows single shot texture measurements and therefore the measurement of larger geological sample series as necessary for the investigations of complete geological structures. This concept is complementary to the geoscience neutron texture diffractometer in Dubna, Russia and the stress diffractometer STRESS-SPEC located also at the Garching research reactor. For powder diffraction the diffractometer will be complementary to the existing high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI at the FRM-II. It will offer the possibility of short, high-intensity parametric powder diffraction measurements in dependency of temperature, electrical, magnetic and stress fields due to the higher flux at the sample. The optimization to high-intensities and therefore short measuring times will also allow time-resolved measurements of kinetic reactions even of small sample volumes.

  5. Effects of caffeine, sodium bicarbonate, and their combined ingestion on high-intensity cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Kilding, Andrew E; Overton, Claire; Gleave, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    To determine the effects of ingesting caffeine (CAFF) and sodium bicarbonate (SB), taken individually and simultaneously, on 3-km cycling time-trial (TT) performance. Ten well-trained cyclists, age 24.2 ± 5.4 yr, participated in this acute-treatment, double-blind, crossover study that involved four 3-km cycling TTs performed on separate days. Before each TT, participants ingested either 3 mg/kg body mass (BM) of CAFF, 0.3 g · kg⁻¹ · BM⁻¹ of SB, a combination of the two (CAFF+SB), or a placebo (PLAC). They completed each 3-km TT on a laboratory-based cycle ergometer, during which physiological, perceptual, and performance measurements were determined. For statistical analysis, the minimal worthwhile difference was considered ~1% based on previous research. Pretrial pH and HCO₃ were higher in SB and CAFF+SB than in the CAFF and PLAC trials. Differences across treatments for perceived exertion and gastric discomfort were mostly unclear. Compared with PLAC, mean power output during the 3-km TT was higher in CAFF, SB, and CAFF+SB trials (2.4%, 2.6%, 2.7% respectively), resulting in faster performance times (-0.9, -1.2, -1.2% respectively). Effect sizes for all trials were small (0.21-0.24). When ingested individually, both CAFF and SB enhance high-intensity cycling TT performance in trained cyclists. However, the ergogenic effect of these 2 popular supplements was not additive, bringing into question the efficacy of coingesting the 2 supplements before short-duration high-intensity exercise. In this study there were no negative effects of combining CAFF and SB, 2 relatively inexpensive and safe supplements.

  6. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V.; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T.; Porcari, John P.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05) increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18%) and PPO (+17, +24 and +14%) for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5%) & mean (+4, +7 and +6%) power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05) than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05) across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key points Steady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained students Mild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state training HIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval training Enjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program PMID:26664271

  7. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each... equipment HIRF test level 1 or 2, as described in appendix E to this part. (c) Each electrical and...

  8. Is moderate intensity exercise training combined with high intensity interval training more effective at improving cardiorespiratory fitness than moderate intensity exercise training alone?

    PubMed

    Roxburgh, Brendon H; Nolan, Paul B; Weatherwax, Ryan M; Dalleck, Lance C

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET) alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs) at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery), CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R)) and a sedentary control group (n = 7). Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control) in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control) in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). It was 'unclear' if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains 'unclear' whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart. Key PointsBoth continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET) alone and CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (CMIET + HIIT) elicit 'possibly beneficial' clinically meaningful improvements in cardiorespiratory

  9. A 3 Ghz photoelectron gun for high beam intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, R.; Braun, H.; Dehler, M.

    1995-12-31

    The CLIC Test Facility (CTF) for new accelerator structures of the proposed Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is to be equipped with a new RF gun containing a laser driven photocathode. The new 3 GHz gun with photocathode shall produce a bunch train of 48 electron bunches of 25 nC charge each with a bunch length of 8 - 15 ps fwhm. The new RF gun consists of 2{1/2} cells and accelerates the beam to an energy of 7 MeV with a peak field gradient Ez = 100 MV/m. The strong space charge forces at low beam energy caused by the high charge density of the electron bunches must be contained by radial and longitudinal RF focusing in the RF gun. Radial RF focusing is applied by a conical backplane around the photocathode in the first cell where the electrons have a low energy. Longitudinal RF focusing is obtained by varying the length of each of the three cells of the gun. The total electric charge of the bunch train exceeds 1{mu}C and causes strong beam loading to the RF structures so that the stored energy is reduced to half of the unloaded RF energy. The RF gun under construction is being optimized by MAFIA beam simulations for an injector assembly comprising a second accelerating RF structure of 4 cells and an intermediate solenoid magnet correcting the beam divergence of the 2{1/2} cell gun. The scheme with two accelerating RF sections will provide a linear energy increase along the bunch suitable for further compression of the bunch length in a magnetic chicane.

  10. Remote Sensing Tertiary Education Meets High Intensity Interval Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, K. E.; White, B.

    2015-04-01

    Enduring a traditional lecture is the tertiary education equivalent of a long, slow, jog. There are certainly some educational benefits if the student is able to maintain concentration, but they are just as likely to get caught napping and fall off the back end of the treadmill. Alternatively, a pre-choreographed interactive workshop style class requires students to continually engage with the materials. Appropriately timed breaks or intervals allow students to recover briefly before being increasingly challenged throughout the class. Using an introductory remote sensing class at Charles Darwin University, this case study presents a transition from the traditional stand and deliver style lecture to an active student-led learning experience. The class is taught at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, with both on-campus as well as online distance learning students. Based on the concept that active engagement in learning materials promotes 'stickiness' of subject matter, the remote sensing class was re-designed to encourage an active style of learning. Critically, class content was reviewed to identify the key learning outcomes for the students. This resulted in a necessary sacrifice of topic range for depth of understanding. Graduates of the class reported high levels of enthusiasm for the materials, and the style in which the class was taught. This paper details a number of techniques that were used to engage students in active and problem based learning throughout the semester. It suggests a number of freely available tools that academics in remote sensing and related fields can readily incorporate into their teaching portfolios. Moreover, it shows how simple it can be to provide a far more enjoyable and effective learning experience for students than the one dimensional lecture.

  11. The high intensity solar cell: Key to low cost photovoltaic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sater, B. L.; Goradia, C.

    1975-01-01

    The design considerations and performance characteristics of the 'high intensity' (HI) solar cell are presented. A high intensity solar system was analyzed to determine its cost effectiveness and to assess the benefits of further improving HI cell efficiency. It is shown that residential sized systems can be produced at less than $1000/kW peak electric power. Due to their superior high intensity performance characteristics compared to the conventional and VMJ cells, HI cells and light concentrators may be the key to low cost photovoltaic power.

  12. Can high-intensity exercise be more pleasant?: attentional dissociation using music and video.

    PubMed

    Jones, Leighton; Karageorghis, Costas I; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon

    2014-10-01

    Theories suggest that external stimuli (e.g., auditory and visual) may be rendered ineffective in modulating attention when exercise intensity is high. We examined the effects of music and parkland video footage on psychological measures during and after stationary cycling at two intensities: 10% of maximal capacity below ventilatory threshold and 5% above. Participants (N = 34) were exposed to four conditions at each intensity: music only, video only, music and video, and control. Analyses revealed main effects of condition and exercise intensity for affective valence and perceived activation (p < .001), state attention (p < .05), and exercise enjoyment (p < .001). The music-only and music-and-video conditions led to the highest valence and enjoyment scores during and after exercise regardless of intensity. Findings indicate that attentional manipulations can exert a salient influence on affect and enjoyment even at intensities slightly above ventilatory threshold.

  13. High-intensity activity profiles of elite soccer players at different performance levels.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul S; Di Mascio, Michele; Peart, Dan; Olsen, Peter; Sheldon, Bill

    2010-09-01

    The aims of the study were to (a) determine the high-intensity activity patterns of soccer players at different performance levels and playing positions, (b) investigate temporary and end game fatigue in elite domestic and international soccer matches, and (c) quantify acceleration and maximal running speed profiles of elite soccer players. Elite domestic (n = 100) and international (n = 10) soccer players were analyzed using a multicamera computerized tracking system. No differences were found for high-intensity running distance (2,520 +/- 678 vs. 2,745 +/- 332 m), mean recovery time (67 +/- 15 vs. 71 +/- 26 seconds), or maximal running speed (7.76 +/- 0.31 vs. 7.66 +/- 0.34 mxs-1). The distance covered in high-intensity running irrespective of playing level was 18% lower (p < 0.05) in the last than in the first 15-minute period of the game (391 +/- 117 vs. 478 +/- 141 m). The decline in high-intensity running immediately after the most intense 5-minute period was similar between international (222 +/- 33 vs. 109 +/- 37 m or 51% decline) and elite domestic (243 +/- 81 vs. 114 +/- 51 m or 53% decline) players. Wide midfielders, central midfielders, fullbacks, and attackers covered a greater (p < 0.01) distance in high-intensity running than central defenders (3,243 +/- 625, 2,949 +/- 435, 2,806 +/- 408, 2,618 +/- 745 vs. 2,034 +/- 284 m). Results demonstrate that high-intensity running is reduced during various periods of elite soccer matches, and high-intensity activity profiles and fatigue patterns are similar between international and elite domestic players but vary markedly between playing positions. These data provide valuable information to the fitness coach regarding the high-intensity active profile of elite soccer players that could be used to develop soccer-specific training drills.

  14. Generation of high-order harmonics in a high-intensity laser radiation field

    SciTech Connect

    Platonenko, Viktor T; Strelkov, V V

    1998-07-31

    An analysis is made of the generation of high-order harmonics by atoms and ions in high-intensity laser beams. A brief description is given of the main experimental relationships governing such generation, of methods for numerical solution of the Schrodinger equation for an atom in a strong field, and of some approximate models which make it possible to understand the mechanism of the effect (in particular, the 'semiclassical' model). A detailed discussion is made of an analytic quantum-mechanical theory of high-order harmonic generation in a one-electron system with the Coulomb, delta-like, and other potentials. Expressions are provided for the complex amplitudes of harmonics generated by monochromatic and bichromatic excitation. The results of simulation of high-order harmonic generation in an extended medium are given. This simulation takes into account the phases of the harmonics and their dependences on the amplitude of the fundamental-frequency field. The phase-matching problem and ways of solving it, the problem of the spectrum and duration of a pulse of a single harmonic and of the feasibility of controlling them, the problem of the total harmonic field, and other topics are considered. (review)

  15. Improved highly accurate localized motion imaging for monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Azuma, Takashi; Sugiyama, Ryusuke; Kanazawa, Kengo; Seki, Mika; Sasaki, Akira; Takeuchi, Hideki; Fujiwara, Keisuke; Itani, Kazunori; Tamano, Satoshi; Takagi, Shu; Sakuma, Ichiro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-07-01

    Visualizing an area subjected to high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is necessary for controlling the amount of HIFU exposure. One of the promising monitoring methods is localized motion imaging (LMI), which estimates coagulation length by detecting the change in stiffness. In this study, we improved the accuracy of our previous LMI by dynamic cross-correlation window (DCCW) and maximum vibration amount (MVA) methods. The DCCW method was used to increase the accuracy of estimating vibration amplitude, and the MVA method was employed to increase signal-noise ratio of the decrease ratio at the coagulated area. The qualitative comparison of results indicated that the two proposed methods could suppress the effect of noise. Regarding the results of the quantitative comparison, coagulation length was estimated with higher accuracy by the improved LMI method, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) was reduced from 2.51 to 1.69 mm.

  16. Research activities on high-intensity laser and high field physics at APRI-GIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Tae Moon

    2015-05-01

    The performance of a 0.1-Hz-repetition-rate, 30-fs, 1.5-PW Ti:sapphire laser which is using for research on high field physics in APRI-GIST is presented. The charged particles (electrons and protons) are accelerated and an efficient x-ray generation is demonstrated using the PW laser. Protons are accelerated up to 80 MeV when an ultra-thin polymer target is irradiated by a circularly-polarized PW laser pulse. Electrons are accelerated to multi-GeV level with a help of injector and accelerator scheme. In the relativistic harmonic generation experiment, the harmonic order is dramatically extended, by optimizing the intensity of pre-pulse level, up to 164th that corresponds to 4.9 nm in wavelength and the experimental results can be explained by the oscillatory flying mirror model. The upgrade of the PW laser to the multi-PW level is under way.

  17. High resolution studies of atoms and small molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bushaw, B.A.; Tonkyn, R.G.; Miller, R.J.

    1992-10-01

    High resolution, continuous wave lasers have been utilized successfully in studies of small molecules. Examples of two-photon excitation schemes and of multiple resonance excitation sequences will be discussed within the framework of the spectroscopy and dynamics of selected Rydberg states of nitric oxide. Initial results on the circular dichroism of angular distributions in photoelectron spectra of individual hyperfine states of cesium will also be discussed, but no data given.

  18. Highly conserved small subunit residues influence rubisco large subunit catalysis.

    PubMed

    Genkov, Todor; Spreitzer, Robert J

    2009-10-30

    The chloroplast enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of photosynthetic CO(2) fixation. With a deeper understanding of its structure-function relationships and competitive inhibition by O(2), it may be possible to engineer an increase in agricultural productivity and renewable energy. The chloroplast-encoded large subunits form the active site, but the nuclear-encoded small subunits can also influence catalytic efficiency and CO(2)/O(2) specificity. To further define the role of the small subunit in Rubisco function, the 10 most conserved residues in all small subunits were substituted with alanine by transformation of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant that lacks the small subunit gene family. All the mutant strains were able to grow photosynthetically, indicating that none of the residues is essential for function. Three of the substitutions have little or no effect (S16A, P19A, and E92A), one primarily affects holoenzyme stability (L18A), and the remainder affect catalysis with or without some level of associated structural instability (Y32A, E43A, W73A, L78A, P79A, and F81A). Y32A and E43A cause decreases in CO(2)/O(2) specificity. Based on the x-ray crystal structure of Chlamydomonas Rubisco, all but one (Glu-92) of the conserved residues are in contact with large subunits and cluster near the amino- or carboxyl-terminal ends of large subunit alpha-helix 8, which is a structural element of the alpha/beta-barrel active site. Small subunit residues Glu-43 and Trp-73 identify a possible structural connection between active site alpha-helix 8 and the highly variable small subunit loop between beta-strands A and B, which can also influence Rubisco CO(2)/O(2) specificity.

  19. Small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells and sympathetic nerves in the adult rabbit portal vein and during perinatal development.

    PubMed

    Crowe, R; Burnstock, G

    1982-01-01

    The ontogenesis of small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells and the adrenergic nerve plexus is described in stretch preparations of the rabbit portal vein. On the 25 to 26th days of gestation there was a predominance of SIF cells (8 to 30 microns in diameter), but a few nerve fibres in bundles were also present. Each portal vein preparation contained 6 to 9 groups of cells. The distribution and number of SIF cells and nerve bundles remained constant until the 31st day of gestation at which stage the number of SIF cells had decreased, while the density of the nerve plexus had increased approximately 4-fold. The adult portal vein exhibited a dense adrenergic plexus, but SIF cells were absent from nine out of ten preparations.

  20. Meeting standards of high-quality intensive care unit palliative care: clinical performance and predictors.

    PubMed

    Penrod, Joan D; Pronovost, Peter J; Livote, Elayne E; Puntillo, Kathleen A; Walker, Amy S; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Mercado, Alice F; Swoboda, Sandra M; Ilaoa, Debra; Thompson, David A; Nelson, Judith E

    2012-04-01

    High-quality care for intensive care unit patients and families includes palliative care. To promote performance improvement, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's National Quality Measures Clearinghouse identified nine evidence-based processes of intensive care unit palliative care (Care and Communication Bundle) that are measured through review of medical record documentation. We conducted this study to examine how frequently the Care and Communication Bundle processes were performed in diverse intensive care units and to understand patient factors that are associated with such performance. Prospective, multisite, observational study of performance of key intensive care unit palliative care processes. A surgical intensive care unit and a medical intensive care unit in two different large academic health centers and a medical-surgical intensive care unit in a medium-sized community hospital. Consecutive adult patients with length of intensive care unit stay ≥5 days. None. Between November 2007 and December 2009, we measured performance by specified day after intensive care unit admission on nine care process measures: Identify medical decision-maker, advance directive and resuscitation preference, distribute family information leaflet, assess and manage pain, offer social work and spiritual support, and conduct interdisciplinary family meeting. Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine predictors of performance of five care processes. We enrolled 518 (94.9%) patients and 336 (83.6%) family members. Performances on pain assessment and management measures were high. In contrast, interdisciplinary family meetings were documented for <20% of patients by intensive care unit day 5. Performance on other measures ranged from 8% to 43%, with substantial variation across and within sites. Chronic comorbidity burden and site were the most consistent predictors of care process performance. Across three intensive care units in this study, performance

  1. Bad and worse: neural systems underlying reappraisal of high- and low-intensity negative emotions

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D.; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most effective strategies for regulating emotional responses is cognitive reappraisal. While prior work has made great strides in characterizing reappraisal’s neural mechanisms and behavioral outcomes, the key issue of how regulation varies as a function of emotional intensity remains unaddressed. We compared the behavioral and neural correlates of reappraisal of high- and low-intensity emotional responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that successful reappraisal of both high- and low-intensity emotions depends upon recruitment of dorsomedial (dmPFC) as well as left dorsolateral (dlPFC) and ventrolateral (vlPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, reappraisal of high-intensity emotions more strongly activated left dlPFC, and in addition, activated right lateral and dorsomedial PFC regions not recruited by low-intensity reappraisal. No brain regions were more strongly recruited during reappraisal of low when compared with high-intensity emotions. Taken together, these results suggest that reappraisal of high-intensity emotion requires greater cognitive resources as evidenced by quantitative and qualitative differences in prefrontal recruitment. These data have implications for understanding how and when specific PFC systems are needed to regulate different types of emotional responses. PMID:24603024

  2. Bad and worse: neural systems underlying reappraisal of high- and low-intensity negative emotions.

    PubMed

    Silvers, Jennifer A; Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2015-02-01

    One of the most effective strategies for regulating emotional responses is cognitive reappraisal. While prior work has made great strides in characterizing reappraisal's neural mechanisms and behavioral outcomes, the key issue of how regulation varies as a function of emotional intensity remains unaddressed. We compared the behavioral and neural correlates of reappraisal of high- and low-intensity emotional responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that successful reappraisal of both high- and low-intensity emotions depends upon recruitment of dorsomedial (dmPFC) as well as left dorsolateral (dlPFC) and ventrolateral (vlPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, reappraisal of high-intensity emotions more strongly activated left dlPFC, and in addition, activated right lateral and dorsomedial PFC regions not recruited by low-intensity reappraisal. No brain regions were more strongly recruited during reappraisal of low when compared with high-intensity emotions. Taken together, these results suggest that reappraisal of high-intensity emotion requires greater cognitive resources as evidenced by quantitative and qualitative differences in prefrontal recruitment. These data have implications for understanding how and when specific PFC systems are needed to regulate different types of emotional responses.

  3. Dosimetric evaluation of compensator intensity modulation-based stereotactic body radiotherapy for Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Y; Nakayama, H; Itonaga, T; Shiraishi, S; Okubo, M; Mikami, R; Sugahara, S; Tokuuye, K

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the dosimetry of compensator intensity modulation-based stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) [non-coplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy (ncIMRT)], its use was compared with that of three-dimensional conformation-based SBRT, for patients with Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). 21 consecutive patients with Stage I NSCLC were treated with ncIMRT or SBRT at Tokyo Medical University. To compare the two techniques, ncIMRT and SBRT plans for each patient were generated, where the planning target volume (PTV) coverages were adjusted to be equivalent to each other. The prescribed dose was set as 75 Gy in 30 fractions. PTV coverage, conformity index, conformation number (CN) and homogeneity index (HI) were used to compare the two strategies. There was no statistically significant difference between PTV coverage for the 100%, 95% and 90% dose levels in the SBRT plan and those in the ncIMRT plan. The CN values were 0.53 ± 0.13 in the SBRT plan and 0.72 ± 0.10 in the ncIMRT plan. These values were significantly better than those of the SBRT plan (p < 0.001). The HI in the ncIMRT plan was 1.04 ± 0.03%, which was also significantly better than that of SBRT. The ncIMRT plan provided superior conformity and reduced the doses to the lung for patients with Stage I NSCLC. The delivery technique with compensator intensity modulation-based SBRT was evaluated. Concerning target motion, this is thought to be more robust and safer than SBRT for early-stage NSCLC.

  4. Vitamin C supplementation does not alter high-intensity endurance training-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in rat epitrochlearis muscle.

    PubMed

    Yada, Koichi; Matoba, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether vitamin C supplementation prevents high-intensity intermittent endurance training-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscle. Male Wistar-strain rats were assigned to one of five groups: a control group, training group, small dose vitamin C supplemented training group, middle dose vitamin C supplemented training group, and large dose vitamin C supplemented training group. The rats of the trained groups were subjected to intense intermittent swimming training. The vitamin C supplemented groups were administrated vitamin C for the pretraining and training periods. High-intensity intermittent swimming training without vitamin C supplementation significantly increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α protein content and citrate synthase activity in the epitrochlearis muscle. The vitamin C supplementation did not alter the training-induced increase of these regardless of the dose of vitamin C supplementation. The results demonstrate that vitamin C supplementation does not prevent high-intensity intermittent training-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscle.

  5. High-density operation of the Proto-MPEX High Intensity Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughman, J. B. O.; Goulding, R. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Bigelow, T. S.; Campbell, I. H.; Caneses, J.; Diem, S. J.; Martin, E. H.; Parish, C. M.; Rapp, J.; Ray, H. B.; Shaw, G. C.; Showers, M. A.; Donovan, D.; Piotrowicz, P. A.; Martin, D. C.

    2016-10-01

    The Prototype Materials Plasma Experiment (Proto-MPEX) is a linear high-intensity RF plasma source that combines a high-density helicon plasma generator with ion and electron heating sections. It is being used to study the physics of heating over-dense plasmas in a linear configuration with the goal of delivering a plasma heat flux of 10 MW/m2 at a target. The helicon plasma is produced by coupling 13.56 MHz RF power at levels of >100 kW. A 30 kW ion cyclotron antenna has recently been installed, and microwaves at 28 GHz ( 150 kW) are coupled to the electrons in the over-dense helicon plasma via Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW). High plasma densities near the target have been produced in D ( 5 x1019/m3) , and electron temperatures range from 3 to >10 eV, depending on the source parameters. IR camera images of the target plate indicate plasma heat depositions >10 MW/m2 for some operating conditions. Details of the experimental results of the operational domain with respect to Te and ne as well as results from initial plasma material interaction tests will be presented. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  6. High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in the Prevention/Management of Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Syed R; Macaluso, Andrea; Pearson, Stephen J

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superior extent to MICT. Since then, many studies have attempted to explore the potential clinical utility of HIIT, relative to MICT, with respect to treating numerous cardiovascular conditions, such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and hypertension. Despite this, however, the efficacy of HIIT in reversing the specific symptoms and risk factors of these cardiovascular pathologies is not well understood. HIIT is often perceived as very strenuous, which could render it unsafe for those at risk of or afflicted with CVD, but these issues are also yet to be reviewed. Furthermore, the optimal HIIT protocol for each of the CVD cohorts has not been established. Thus, the purpose of this review article is to (1) evaluate the efficacy of HIIT relative to MICT in the prevention and management of cardiovascular conditions, and (2) explore any potential safety issues surrounding the suitability and/or tolerability of HIIT for patients with CVD, and the potential optimal prescriptive variables of HIIT for application in the clinical environment.

  7. High-Intensity Interval Training as an Efficacious Alternative to Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training for Adults with Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Mary E.; Bourne, Jessica E.; Beauchamp, Mark R.; Robinson, Emily; Little, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) leads to improvements in various markers of cardiometabolic health but adherence to HIIT following a supervised laboratory intervention has yet to be tested. We compared self-report and objective measures of physical activity after one month of independent exercise in individuals with prediabetes who were randomized to HIIT (n = 15) or traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, n = 17). Method. After completing 10 sessions of supervised training participants were asked to perform HIIT or MICT three times per week for four weeks. Results. Individuals in HIIT (89 ± 11%) adhered to their prescribed protocol to a greater extent than individuals in MICT (71 ± 31%) as determined by training logs completed over one-month follow-up (P = 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.75). Minutes spent in vigorous physical activity per week measured by accelerometer were higher in HIIT (24 ± 18) as compared to MICT (11 ± 10) at one-month follow-up (P = 0.049, Cohen's d = 0.92). Cardiorespiratory fitness and systolic blood pressure assessed at one-month follow-up were equally improved (P's < 0.05). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that individuals with prediabetes can adhere to HIIT over the short-term and do so at a level that is greater than MICT. PMID:25918728

  8. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Marquis-Gravel, Guillaume; Hayami, Douglas; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Élise; Gayda, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effects of a long-term intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and Mediterranean diet (MedD) counseling on glycemic control parameters, insulin resistance and β-cell function in obese subjects. The glycemic control parameters (fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin), insulin resistance, and β-cell function of 72 obese subjects (54 women; mean age = 53 ± 9 years) were assessed at baseline and upon completion of a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention program conducted at the cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation center of the Montreal Heart Institute, from 2009 to 2012. The program included 2-3 weekly supervised exercise training sessions (HIIT and resistance exercise), combined to MedD counseling. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (mmol/L) (before: 5.5 ± 0.9; after: 5.2 ± 0.6; P < 0.0001), fasting insulin (pmol/L) (before: 98 ± 57; after: 82 ± 43; P = 0.003), and insulin resistance, as assessed by the HOMA-IR score (before: 3.6 ± 2.5; after: 2.8 ± 1.6; P = 0.0008) significantly improved, but not HbA1c (%) (before: 5.72 ± 0.55; after: 5.69 ± 0.39; P = 0.448), nor β-cell function (HOMA-β, %) (before: 149 ± 78; after: 144 ± 75; P = 0.58). Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects.

  9. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Marquis-Gravel, Guillaume; Hayami, Douglas; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Élise; Gayda, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the effects of a long-term intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and Mediterranean diet (MedD) counseling on glycemic control parameters, insulin resistance and β-cell function in obese subjects. Methods The glycemic control parameters (fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin), insulin resistance, and β-cell function of 72 obese subjects (54 women; mean age = 53 ± 9 years) were assessed at baseline and upon completion of a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention program conducted at the cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation center of the Montreal Heart Institute, from 2009 to 2012. The program included 2–3 weekly supervised exercise training sessions (HIIT and resistance exercise), combined to MedD counseling. Results Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (mmol/L) (before: 5.5 ± 0.9; after: 5.2 ± 0.6; P < 0.0001), fasting insulin (pmol/L) (before: 98 ± 57; after: 82 ± 43; P = 0.003), and insulin resistance, as assessed by the HOMA-IR score (before: 3.6 ± 2.5; after: 2.8 ± 1.6; P = 0.0008) significantly improved, but not HbA1c (%) (before: 5.72 ± 0.55; after: 5.69 ± 0.39; P = 0.448), nor β-cell function (HOMA-β, %) (before: 149 ± 78; after: 144 ± 75; P = 0.58). Conclusion Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects. PMID:26844086

  10. Phase-shift nano-emulsions induced cavitation and ablation during high intensity focused ultrasound exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yangzi; Yin, Hui; Chang, Nan; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-03-01

    Phase-shift Nano-emulsions (PSNEs) with a small initial diameter in nanoscale have the potential to leak out of the blood vessels and to accumulate at target point of tissue. At desired location, PSNEs can undergo acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) process, change into gas bubbles and enhance focused ultrasound efficiency. The aim of this work was to provide spatial and temporal information on PSNE induced cavitation and ablation effects during pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposure. The PSNEs were composed of perfluorohaxane (PFH) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), and then uniformly distributed in a transparent polyacrylamide phantom. The Sonoluminescence (SL) method was employed to visualize the cavitation distribution and formation process of PSNEs induced cavitation. For the phantom which was used for ablation observation, heat sensitive BSA was added. When the temperature generated by ultrasound exposure was high enough to denature BSA, the transparent phantom would turn out white lesions. The shape of the lesion and the formation process were compared with those of cavitation. Each of the pulse contained 12 cycles for a duration of 10 µs. And the duty cycle changed from 1:10 to 1:40. The total "on" time of HIFU was 2s. PSNE can evidently accelerate cavitation emitting bright SL in pre-focal region. The cavitation was generated layer by layer towards the transducer. The formed bubble wall can block acoustic waves transmitting to the distal end. And the lesion appeared to be separated into two parts. One in pre-focal region stemmed from one point and grew quickly toward the transducer. The other in focal region was formed by merging some small white dots, and grew much slower. The influence of duty cycle has also been examined. The lower duty cycle with longer pulse-off time would generate more intense cavitation, however, smaller lesion. Bubble cloud gradually developed within phantom would greatly influence the cavitation and ablation

  11. 25 CFR 39.144 - What is the small high school adjustment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the small high school adjustment? 39.144 Section... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Small School Adjustment § 39.144 What is the small high school adjustment? (a) The small high school adjustment is a WSU adjustment given to a small high...

  12. 25 CFR 39.144 - What is the small high school adjustment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the small high school adjustment? 39.144 Section... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Small School Adjustment § 39.144 What is the small high school adjustment? (a) The small high school adjustment is a WSU adjustment given to a small high...

  13. 25 CFR 39.144 - What is the small high school adjustment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is the small high school adjustment? 39.144 Section... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Small School Adjustment § 39.144 What is the small high school adjustment? (a) The small high school adjustment is a WSU adjustment given to a small high...

  14. The scavenging of high altitude aerosol by small ice crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew Bell, D.; Saunders, Clive P. R.

    There have been several global models developed for the theoretical investigation of the removal of high altitude aerosol from the atmosphere, following concern about the injection of particulate material by nuclear explosions and volcanic events. These models lack a knowledge of the scavenging efficiencies of the small ice crystals associated with cirus clouds and storm ice anvils. These are the only hydrometers that could remove the injected particles. In the past there have been a number of practical studies into the scavenging efficiencies of large ice crystaks and snowflakes. A comparison of the extrapolated results of these findings and the theoretical models of Martin et al. (1980, Pure appl. Phys.188, 1109-1129, J. atmos. Sci.37, 1628-1638) for the small crystal situation has been made. It was found that in general the extrapolated results gave efficiencies that were significantly higher than the predicted value. This difference was found to be enhanced as the crystal diameter decreased. Experiments used small ice plates grown at ˜-18.5°C in a cloud chamber, which were then permitted to fall through a dense aerosol cloud, to provide the first direct measurements of the scavenging efficiencies of this small crystals under cloud conditions. Initial results are presented for mono-disperse NaCl aerosol particles of size 4-6 μm.

  15. Small UAV-Acquired, High-resolution, Georeferenced Still Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Hruska

    2005-09-01

    Currently, small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are primarily used for capturing and down-linking real-time video. To date, their role as a low-cost airborne platform for capturing high-resolution, georeferenced still imagery has not been fully utilized. On-going work within the Unmanned Vehicle Systems Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is attempting to exploit this small UAV-acquired, still imagery potential. Initially, a UAV-based still imagery work flow model was developed that includes initial UAV mission planning, sensor selection, UAV/sensor integration, and imagery collection, processing, and analysis. Components to support each stage of the work flow are also being developed. Critical to use of acquired still imagery is the ability to detect changes between images of the same area over time. To enhance the analysts’ change detection ability, a UAV-specific, GIS-based change detection system called SADI or System for Analyzing Differences in Imagery is under development. This paper will discuss the associated challenges and approaches to collecting still imagery with small UAVs. Additionally, specific components of the developed work flow system will be described and graphically illustrated using varied examples of small UAV-acquired still imagery.

  16. Endurance capacity and neuromuscular fatigue following high- vs moderate-intensity endurance training: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, T J; Collett, J; Howells, K; Morris, M G

    2017-02-16

    High-intensity exercise induces significant central and peripheral fatigue; however, the effect of endurance training on these mechanisms of fatigue is poorly understood. We compared the effect of cycling endurance training of disparate intensities on high-intensity exercise endurance capacity and the associated limiting central and peripheral fatigue mechanisms. Twenty adults were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of either high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 6-8×5 minutes at halfway between lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake [50%Δ]) or volume-matched moderate-intensity continuous training (CONT, ~60-80 minutes at 90% lactate threshold). Two time to exhaustion (TTE) trials at 50%Δ were completed pre- and post-training to assess endurance capacity; the two post-training trials were completed at the pretraining 50%Δ (same absolute intensity) and the "new" post-training 50%Δ (same relative intensity). Pre- and post-exercise responses to femoral nerve and motor cortex stimulation were examined to determine peripheral and central fatigue, respectively. HIIT resulted in greater increases in TTE at the same absolute and relative intensities as pre-training (148% and 43%, respectively) compared with CONT (38% and -4%, respectively) (P≤.019). Compared with pre-training, HIIT increased the level of potentiated quadriceps twitch reduction (-34% vs -43%, respectively, P=.023) and attenuated the level of voluntary activation reduction (-7% vs -3%, respectively, P=.047) following the TTE trial at the same relative intensity. There were no other training effects on neuromuscular fatigue development. This suggests that central fatigue resistance contributes to enhanced high-intensity exercise endurance capacity after HIIT by allowing greater performance to be extruded from the muscle.

  17. Effect of low-intensity extremely high frequency radiation on reproductive function in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Subbotina, T I; Tereshkina, O V; Khadartsev, A A; Yashin, A A

    2006-08-01

    The exposure to low-intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation during spermatogenesis was accompanied by pathological changes, which resulted in degeneration and polymorphism of spermatozoa. The number of newborn rats increased in the progeny of irradiated animals.

  18. High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise: Effect on Young People's Cardiometabolic Health and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon B; Dring, Karah J; Nevill, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    With only a quarter of young people currently meeting physical activity guidelines, two key areas of concern are the effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health and cognition. Despite the fact that physical activity in young people is typically high intensity and intermittent in nature, much of the literature examines traditional endurance-type exercise. This review provides an update on the effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on young people's cardiometabolic health and cognition. High-intensity intermittent exercise has acute beneficial effects on endothelial function and postprandial lipemia and chronic positive effects on weight management. In addition, there is emerging evidence regarding chronic benefits on the blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, emerging evidence suggests beneficial acute and chronic effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on cognition. However, further research is required in both cardiometabolic health and cognition, particularly regarding the impact of school-based interventions in adolescents.

  19. Improved high-intensity microwave discharge lamp for atomic resonance absorption and fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, A; Skinner, G B; Wood, D R

    1978-09-01

    An unusually good combination of high intensity and narrow line has been achieved in a microwave discharge lamp by placing the optical window in the center of the microwave cavity. Construction details and performance characteristics are described.

  20. Focal construct geometry for high intensity energy dispersive x-ray diffraction based on x-ray capillary optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Jiang, Bowen; Zhu, Yu

    2016-03-01

    We presented a focal construct geometry (FCG) method for high intensity energy dispersive X-ray diffraction by utilizing a home-made ellipsoidal single-bounce capillary (ESBC) and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL). The ESBC was employed to focus the X-rays from a conventional laboratory source into a small focal spot and to produce an annular X-ray beam in the far-field. Additionally, diffracted polychromatic X-rays were confocally collected by the PPXRL attached to a stationary energy-resolved detector. Our FCG method based on ESBC and PPXRL had achieved relatively high intensity diffraction peaks and effectively narrowed the diffraction peak width which was helpful in improving the potential d-spacing resolution for material phase analysis.

  1. Focal construct geometry for high intensity energy dispersive x-ray diffraction based on x-ray capillary optics.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Jiang, Bowen; Zhu, Yu

    2016-03-14

    We presented a focal construct geometry (FCG) method for high intensity energy dispersive X-ray diffraction by utilizing a home-made ellipsoidal single-bounce capillary (ESBC) and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL). The ESBC was employed to focus the X-rays from a conventional laboratory source into a small focal spot and to produce an annular X-ray beam in the far-field. Additionally, diffracted polychromatic X-rays were confocally collected by the PPXRL attached to a stationary energy-resolved detector. Our FCG method based on ESBC and PPXRL had achieved relatively high intensity diffraction peaks and effectively narrowed the diffraction peak width which was helpful in improving the potential d-spacing resolution for material phase analysis.

  2. Porous carbon with small mesoporesas an ultra-high capacity adsorption medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Biaofeng; Zhou, Haitao; Chen, De; Yang, Jianhong

    2017-10-01

    Resins (732-type), abundant and inexpensive resources were used to prepare porous carbon with small mesopores (CSM) by carbonization and post-chemical-activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH). The N2 adsorption measurements revealed that CSM had high surface areas (1776.5 m2 g-1), large pore volumes (1.10 cm3 g-1), and nearly optimal narrow small mesopore sizes ranging from 2 to 7 nm. CSM was used as adsorbent to investigate the adsorption behavior for Rhodamine B (RhB). Due to the optimal pore size distributions (PSD), intensive-stacking interaction, S-doped, and electrostatic attraction, the CSM exhibited an ultra-high-capacity of 1590 mg g-1 for RhB in aqueous solutions.

  3. Altered Sagittal- and Frontal-Plane Kinematics Following High-Intensity Stepping Training Versus Conventional Interventions in Subacute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Mahtani, Gordhan B; Kinnaird, Catherine R; Connolly, Mark; Holleran, Carey L; Hennessy, Patrick W; Woodward, Jane; Brazg, Gabrielle; Roth, Elliot J; Hornby, T George

    2016-09-15

    Common locomotor deficits observed in people poststroke include decreased speeds and abnormal kinematics, characterized by altered symmetry, reduced sagittal-plane joint excursions, and use of compensatory frontal-plane behaviors during the swing phase of gait. Conventional interventions utilized to mitigate these deficits often incorporate low-intensity, impairment-based or functional exercises focused on normalizing kinematics, although the efficacy of these strategies is unclear. Conversely, higher-intensity training protocols that provide only stepping practice and do not focus on kinematics have demonstrated gains in walking function, although minimal attention toward gait quality may be concerning and has not been assessed. The present study evaluated changes in spatiotemporal and joint kinematics following experimental, high-intensity stepping training compared with conventional interventions. Kinematic data were combined from a randomized controlled trial comparing experimental and conventional training and from a pilot experimental training study. Individuals with gait deficits 1 to 6 months poststroke received up to 40 sessions of either high-intensity stepping training in variable contexts or conventional lower-intensity interventions. Analyses focused on kinematic changes during graded treadmill testing before and following training. Significant improvements in speed, symmetry, and selected sagittal-plane kinematics favored experimental training over conventional training, although increases in compensatory strategies also were observed. Changes in many kinematic patterns were correlated with speed changes, and increased compensatory behaviors were associated with both stride length gains and baseline impairments. Limitations include a small sample size and use of multiple statistical comparisons. Improved speeds and selected kinematics were observed following high-intensity training, although such training also resulted in increased use of compensatory

  4. NASA's Small Explorer spacecraft - Flight proven, high performance, reliable, and still small

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watzin, James G.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Small Explorer (SMEX) project has developed a series of highly capable small satellites that are being used to support astrophysics and space physics investigations. These satellites, while both small and economical, give up nothing in performance and versatility to the larger satellites developed over the past 15 years within the Explorer program. Innovative engineering and new technology advances have increased the potential scientific return of the SMEX spacecraft to a level comparable to larger carriers. The design has struck a balance between mission risk and cost that has allowed for the development of an extremely capable spacecraft. The first SMEX mission, Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), has been in orbit since July 1992 and is continuing to perform well. It has proven the merits of this design approach. This paper describes the fundamental strategies and technologies used in developing the design. It outlines the key elements of the system architecture and describes the capabilities and merits of the major subsystems. Major design trade-offs are highlighted. Emphasis is placed on the innovative attitude control system which was developed for the SAMPEX mission. The paper also describes the unique SMEX approach to mission operations.

  5. High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT) versus TENS and NSAIDs in low back pain: clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zati, Allesandro; Fortuna, Damiano; Valent, A.; Filippi, M. V.; Bilotta, Teresa W.

    2004-09-01

    Low back pain, caused by lumbar disc herniation, is prevalently treated with a conservative approach. In this study we valued the efficacy of High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT), compared with accepted therapies such as TENS and NSAIDs. Laser therapy obtained similar results in the short term, but better clinical effect over time than TENS and NSAIDs. In conclusion high intensity laser therapy appears to be a interesting new treatment, worthy of further research.

  6. Associations of Low- and High-Intensity Light Activity with Cardiometabolic Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Howard, Bethany; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Sethi, Parneet; Carson, Valerie; Ridgers, Nicola D; Salmon, J O; Healy, Genevieve N; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2015-10-01

    Light-intensity physical activity (LIPA) accounts for much of adults' waking hours (≈40%) and substantially contributes to overall daily energy expenditure. Encompassing activity behaviors of low intensity (standing with little movement) to those of higher intensity (slow walking), LIPA is ubiquitous, yet little is known about how associations with health may vary depending on its intensity. We examined the associations of objectively assessed LIPA (categorized as either low LIPA [LLPA] or high LIPA [HLPA]) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers. Cardiometabolic biomarkers were measured in 4614 US adults (47 ± 17 yr) who participated in the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles. Multiple linear regression analyses examined the associations of three accelerometer-derived physical activity (SD increment per day) intensity categories (LLPA, 100-761 counts per minute; HLPA, 762-1951 counts per minute; moderate-intensity physical activity [MPA], 1952-5724 counts per minute; vigorous-intensity physical activity [VPA], ≥5725 counts per minute) with cardiometabolic biomarkers, adjusting for potential sociodemographic, behavioral, and medical confounders. All intensities of physical activity were beneficially associated with waist circumference, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, fasting insulin, β-cell function, and insulin sensitivity (P < 0.05); only some activity intensities showed significant associations with systolic blood pressure (LLPA), body mass index, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose, and 2-h plasma glucose (HLPA, MPA, and VPA). Generally, effect size increased with intensity of physical activity. Overall, further adjustment for waist circumference attenuated associations with MPA and VPA to a greater extent than associations with LLPA and HLPA. The cross-sectional findings provide novel evidence for the potential benefits of increasing both LLPA and HLPA. They further

  7. Small molecule semiconductors for high-efficiency organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuze; Li, Yongfang; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2012-06-07

    Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) are a promising cost-effective alternative to silicon-based solar cells, and possess light-weight, low-cost, and flexibility advantages. Significant progress has been achieved in the development of novel photovoltaic materials and device structures in the last decade. Nowadays small molecular semiconductors for OPVs have attracted considerable attention, due to their advantages over their polymer counterparts, including well-defined molecular structure, definite molecular weight, and high purity without batch to batch variations. The highest power conversion efficiencies of OPVs based on small molecular donor/fullerene acceptors or polymeric donor/fullerene acceptors are up to 6.7% and 8.3%, respectively, and meanwhile nonfullerene acceptors have also exhibited some promising results. In this review we summarize the developments in small molecular donors, acceptors (fullerene derivatives and nonfullerene molecules), and donor-acceptor dyad systems for high-performance multilayer, bulk heterojunction, and single-component OPVs. We focus on correlations of molecular chemical structures with properties, such as absorption, energy levels, charge mobilities, and photovoltaic performances. This structure-property relationship analysis may guide rational structural design and evaluation of photovoltaic materials (253 references).

  8. Analysis of repeated high-intensity running performance in professional soccer.

    PubMed

    Carling, Christopher; Le Gall, Franck; Dupont, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to characterize repeated high-intensity movement activity profiles of a professional soccer team in official match-play; and (2) to inform and verify the construct validity of tests commonly used to determine repeated-sprint ability in soccer by investigating the relationship between the results from a test of repeated-sprint ability and repeated high-intensity performance in competition. High-intensity running performance (movement at velocities >19.8 km · h(-1) for a minimum of 1 s duration) was measured in 20 players using computerized time-motion analysis. Performance in 80 French League 1 matches was analysed. In addition, 12 of the 20 players performed a repeated-sprint test on a non-motorized treadmill consisting of six consecutive 6 s sprints separated by 20 s passive recovery intervals. In all players, most consecutive high-intensity actions in competition were performed after recovery durations ≥61 s, recovery activity separating these efforts was generally active in nature with the major part of this spent walking, and players performed 1.1 ± 1.1 repeated high-intensity bouts (a minimum of three consecutive high-intensity bouts with a mean recovery time ≤20 s separating efforts) per game. Players reporting lowest performance decrements in the repeated-sprint ability test performed more high-intensity actions interspersed by short recovery times (≤20 s, P < 0.01 and ≤30 s, P < 0.05) compared with those with higher decrements. Across positional roles, central-midfielders performed more high-intensity actions separated by short recovery times (≤20 s) and spent a larger proportion of time running at higher intensities during recovery periods, while fullbacks performed the most repeated high-intensity bouts (statistical differences across positional roles from P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). These findings have implications for repeated high-intensity testing and physical conditioning regimens.

  9. A neutron detector to monitor the intensity of transmitted neutrons for small-angle neutron scattering instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lurgio, Patrick M.; Klann, Raymond T.; Fink, Charles L.; McGregor, Douglas S.; Thiyagarajan, Pappannan; Naday, Istvan

    2003-06-01

    A semiconductor-based neutron detector was developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for use as a neutron beam monitor for small-angle neutron scattering instruments. The detector is constructed using a coating of 10B on a gallium-arsenide semiconductor detector and is mounted directly within a cylindrical (2.2 cm dia. and 4.4 cm long) enriched 10B 4C beam stop in the time-of-flight Small Angle Neutron Diffractometer (SAND) instrument at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) facility at ANL. The neutron beam viewed by the SAND is from a pulsed spallation source moderated by a solid methane moderator that produces useful neutrons in the wavelength range of 0.5-14 Å. The SAND instrument uses all detected neutrons in the above wavelength range sorted by time-of-flight into 68 constant Δ T/ T=0.05 channels. This new detector continuously monitors the transmitted neutron beam through the sample during scattering measurements and takes data concurrently with the other detectors in the instrument. The 10B coating on the GaAs detector allows the detection of the cold neutron spectrum with reasonable efficiency. This paper describes the details of the detector fabrication, the beam stop monitor design, and includes a discussion of results from preliminary tests using the detector during several run cycles at the IPNS.

  10. A comparative assessment of intensive and extensive wastewater treatment technologies for removing emerging contaminants in small communities.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Albaigés, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem pollution due to the lack of or inefficient wastewater treatment coverage in small communities is still a matter of great concern, even in developed countries. This study assesses the seasonal performance of 4 different full-scale wastewater technologies that have been used in small communities (<2000 population equivalent) for more than 10 years in terms of emerging contaminant (EC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and NH4-N removal efficiency. The studied technologies, which were selected due to their widespread use, included two intensive treatment systems (an extended aeration system (AS) and a rotating biological contactor (RBC)) and two extensive treatment systems (a constructed wetland (CW) and a waste stabilization pond (WSP)), all located in north-eastern Spain. The studied compounds belonged to the groups of pharmaceuticals, sunscreen compounds, fragrances, antiseptics, flame retardants, surfactants, pesticides and plasticizers. The 25 ECs occurred in wastewater at concentrations ranging from undetectable to 80 μg L(-1). The average removal efficiency was 42% for the CW, 62% for the AS, 63% for the RBC and 82% for the WSP. All the technologies except the WSP system showed seasonal variability in the removal of ECs. The ecotoxicological assessment study revealed that, whilst all the technologies were capable of decreasing the aquatic risk, only the WSP yielded no risk in both seasons.

  11. Bound small polarons in high-T sub c superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Szymczak, H.; Genzel, L.; Wittlin, A. )

    1990-06-01

    The thermal and acoustic anomalies in high-T{sub c} superconductors are interpreted in terms of contributions arising from the tunneling motion of bound small polarons. The small polarons arise in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} oxides due to the localization of the holes on one of the four O{sup 2{minus}} ions surrounding the Cu(2) site in the CuO{sub 2} plane. The optical absorption band located at 0.4 eV is explained as a light-induced transfer of holes between the equivalent O{sup 2{minus}} sites. It is argued that the strong hole-lattice interaction is responsible for the enhanced oscillator strength of optical phonons in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}.

  12. Structure of the Universe at Small and High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshkevich, A.; Turchaninov, V.

    1998-12-01

    The approximate theoretical description of the formation and evolution of the structure of the universe proposed by Demianski and Doroshkevich (1998) is compared with observed and simulated matter distribution at small and high redshifts. It is found that for the CDM-like power spectrum and suitable parameters of the cosmological model the effective matter compression reaches at small redshifts the observed scales Rwall ~20 - 25h^{-1}Mpc with the typical mean separation of wall-like elements DSLSS 50 - 70h^{-1}Mpc. We show that the same theoretical model explains well both the redshift, temperature and NHI distributions of absorption lines observed in the spectra of quasars at redshifts 2 <= z <= 3.5. The models with 0.3 <= Omega_m <= 0.5 give better description of the observed structure parameters.

  13. Symptom experiences of family members of intensive care unit patients at high risk for dying.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Jennifer L; Dracup, Kathleen A; White, Douglas B; Fontaine, Dorothy K; Puntillo, Kathleen A

    2010-04-01

    To describe the symptom experiences of family members of patients at high risk for dying in the intensive care unit and to assess risk factors associated with higher symptom burden. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Three intensive care units at a large academic medical center. A sample of 74 family members of 74 intensive care unit patients who had a grave prognosis and were judged to be at high risk for dying. Patients at high risk for dying were identified as having Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores >20, an intensive care unit length of stay >72 hrs, and being mechanically ventilated. None. We assessed the degree of symptom burden approximately 4 days after the patient's admission to the intensive care unit in the following domains: traumatic stress, anxiety, and depression. Overall, the prevalence of symptoms was high, with more than half (57%) of family members having moderate to severe levels of traumatic stress, 80% having borderline symptoms of anxiety, and 70% having borderline symptoms of depression. More than 80% of family members had other physical and emotional symptoms, such as fatigue, sadness, and fear, and these were experienced at the moderate to severe levels of distress. Factors independently associated with greater severity of symptoms included younger age, female gender, and non-white race of the family member. The only patient factor significantly associated with symptom severity was younger age. Despite their symptom experience, the majority of the family members were coping at moderate to high levels and functioning at high levels during the intensive care unit experience. We document a high prevalence of psychological and physical symptoms among family members during an intensive care unit admission. These data complement existing data on long-term symptom burden and highlight the need to improve family centered care in intensive care units.

  14. High-energy shockwaves and extracorporeal high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Madersbacher, Stephan; Marberger, Michael

    2003-10-01

    We review the physical interactions of focused ultrasound with tissue, describe technical features of current high-energy shockwave (HESW) and extracorporeal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) devices, and summarize the experimental and human data available to date. Tissue destruction by extracorporeal HIFU is not new: the first clinical attempts were made almost half a century ago for ablating brain tissue. Despite recent progress in the knowledge of the interactions between HIFU and tissue and significant device modifications, this technique is still in its infancy. The most promising targets for this kind of therapy in the field of urology are the kidney, bladder, and testis. The largest clinical experience with HIFU therapy currently available is for benign prostatic enlargement and prostate cancer using transrectal HIFU devices, which are not the topic of this summary. In parallel with HIFU, HESW therapy has been tested in numerous experimental and preclinical settings. This technique is currently not in routine clinical use. Theoretically, in parallel with HIFU, any organ accessible to conventional diagnostic ultrasound examination is a potential target for this kind of therapy.

  15. High Intensity e-beam Diode Development for Flash X-ray Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Bryan

    2007-11-01

    A variety of electron beam diodes are being used and developed for the purpose of creating high-brightness, flash x-ray radiography sources. In these diodes, high energy (multi MeV), high current (multi kA), small spot (multi mm) electron beams are generated and stopped in high atomic number anode-targets (typically Ta or W). Beam stopping in the target creates copious amounts of bremsstrahlung radiation. In addition, beam heating of the target liberates material, either in the form of low density (˜10^12-10^14 cm-3) ion emission or higher density (> 10^15 cm-3) plasma. In all cases, beam/target collective effects dominate the diode and beam characteristics, affecting the radiation properties (dose and spot-size). Recent experiments at Sandia National Laboratories have demonstrated diodes capable of producing > 350 rad@m with 1.7mm FWHM x-ray source distributions. A review of our present theoretical understanding of the diode (s) operation and our experimental and simulation methods to investigate them will be presented. Emphasis will be given to e- beam sources used on state-of-the-art Inductive Voltage Adder (IVA) pulsed-power accelerators. In particular, the physics of magnetically pinched diodes (e.g. the rod-pinch [1,2]), gas-cell focusing diodes [3] and the magnetically immersed [4] diode will be discussed. Various proposed methods to optimize the x-ray intensity and the direction of future diode research will be discussed. [1] G. Cooperstein, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 4618 (2001).[2] B.V. Oliver et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 3976 (2004)[3] B.V. Oliver, et al., IEEE Trans. on Plasma Science 33, 704 (2005).[4] M.G. Mazarakis, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 832 (1997)

  16. Beating the Odds: High Performing, Small High-Schools in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural School and Community Trust, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Southern Rural High School Study Initiative seeks to identify high performing rural high schools in the South, engage education leaders in the region in analyzing the challenges faced by these schools and consider the public policies that might serve to transfer the lessons and strategies used by these schools to other small rural high schools…

  17. Non-periodic multi-slit masking for a single counter rotating 2-disc chopper and channeling guides for high resolution and high intensity neutron TOF spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartkowiak, M.; Hofmann, T.; Stüßer, N.

    2017-02-01

    Energy resolution is an important design goal for time-of-flight instruments and neutron spectroscopy. For high-resolution applications, it is required that the burst times of choppers be short, going down to the μs-range. To produce short pulses while maintaining high neutron flux, we propose beam masks with more than two slits on a counter-rotating 2-disc chopper, behind specially adapted focusing multi-channel guides. A novel non-regular arrangement of the slits ensures that the beam opens only once per chopper cycle, when the masks are congruently aligned. Additionally, beam splitting and intensity focusing by guides before and after the chopper position provide high intensities even for small samples. Phase-space analysis and Monte Carlo simulations on examples of four-slit masks with adapted guide geometries show the potential of the proposed setup.

  18. Study in Parkinson disease of exercise (SPARX): translating high-intensity exercise from animals to humans.

    PubMed

    Moore, Charity G; Schenkman, Margaret; Kohrt, Wendy M; Delitto, Anthony; Hall, Deborah A; Corcos, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    A burgeoning literature suggests that exercise has a therapeutic benefit in persons with Parkinson disease (PD) and in animal models of PD, especially when animals exercise at high intensity. If exercise is to be prescribed as "first-line" or "add-on" therapy in patients with PD, we must demonstrate its efficacy and dose-response effects through testing phases similar to those used in the testing of pharmacologic agents. The SPARX Trial is a multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blinded, Phase II study that we designed to test the feasibility of using high-intensity exercise to modify symptoms of PD and to simultaneously test the nonfutility of achieving a prespecified change in patients' motor scores on the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The trial began in May 2102 and is in the process of screening, enrolling, and randomly assigning 126 patients with early-stage PD to 1 of 3 groups: usual care (wait-listed controls), moderate-intensity exercise (4 days/week at 60%-65% maximal heart rate [HRmax]), or high-intensity exercise (4 days/week at 80%-85% HRmax). At 6-month follow-up, the trial is randomly reassigning usual care participants to a moderate-intensity or high-intensity exercise group for the remaining 6 months. The goals of the Phase II trial are to determine if participants can exercise at moderate and high intensities; to determine if either exercise yields benefits consistent with meaningful clinical change (nonfutility); and to document safety and attrition. The advantage of using a non-futility approach allows us to efficiently determine if moderate- or high-intensity exercise warrants further large-scale investigation in PD.

  19. Study in Parkinson Disease of Exercise (SPARX): Translating high-intensity exercise from animals to humans

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Charity G.; Schenkman, Margaret; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Delitto, Anthony; Hall, Deborah A.; Corcos, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A burgeoning literature suggests that exercise has a therapeutic benefit in persons with Parkinson disease (PD) and in animal models of PD, especially when animals exercise at high intensity. If exercise is to be prescribed as “first-line” or “add-on” therapy in patients with PD, we must demonstrate its efficacy and dose-response effects through testing phases similar to those used in the testing of pharmacologic agents. The SPARX Trial is a multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blinded, Phase II study that we designed to test the feasibility of using high-intensity exercise to modify symptoms of PD and to simultaneously test the nonfutility of achieving a prespecified change in patients’ motor scores on the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The trial began in May 2102 and is in the process of screening, enrolling, and randomly assigning 126 patients with early-stage PD to 1 of 3 groups: usual care (wait-listed controls), moderate-intensity exercise (4 days/week at 60%–65% maximal heart rate [HRmax]), or high-intensity exercise (4 days/week at 80%–85% HRmax). At 6-month follow-up, the trial is randomly reassigning usual care participants to a moderate-intensity or high-intensity exercise group for the remaining 6 months. The goals of the Phase II trial are to determine if participants can exercise at moderate and high intensities; to determine if either exercise yields benefits consistent with meaningful clinical change (nonfutility); and to document safety and attrition. The advantage of using a non-futility approach allows us to efficiently determine if moderate- or high-intensity exercise warrants further large-scale investigation in PD. PMID:23770108

  20. Localised hyperthermia in rodent models using an MRI-compatible high-intensity focused ultrasound system

    PubMed Central

    Bing, Chenchen; Nofiele, Joris; Staruch, Robert; Ladouceur-Wodzak, Michelle; Chatzinoff, Yonatan; Ranjan, Ashish; Chopra, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Localised hyperthermia in rodent studies is challenging due to the small target size. This study describes the development and characterisation of an MRI-compatible high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) system to perform localised mild hyperthermia treatments in rodent models. Material and methods The hyperthermia platform consisted of an MRI-compatible small animal HIFU system, focused transducers with sector-vortex lenses, a custom-made receive coil, and means to maintain systemic temperatures of rodents. The system was integrated into a 3T MR imager. Control software was developed to acquire images, process temperature maps, and adjust output power using a proportional-integral-derivative feedback control algorithm. Hyperthermia exposures were performed in tissue-mimicking phantoms and in a rodent model (n = 9). During heating, an ROI was assigned in the heated region for temperature control and the target temperature was 42 °C; 30 min mild hyperthermia treatment followed by a 10-min cooling procedure was performed on each animal. Results 3D-printed sector-vortex lenses were successful at creating annular focal regions which enables customisation of the heating volume. Localised mild hyperthermia performed in rats produced a mean ROI temperature of 42.1 ± 0.3 °C. The T10 and T90 percentiles were 43.2 ± 0.4 °C and 41.0 ± 0.3 °C, respectively. For a 30-min treatment, the mean time duration between 41–45 °C was 31.1 min within the ROI. Conclusions The MRI-compatible HIFU system was successfully adapted to perform localised mild hyperthermia treatment in rodent models. A target temperature of 42 °C was well-maintained in a rat thigh model for 30 min. PMID:26540488