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Sample records for small magnetic fields

  1. The Use of Small Coolers in a Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Witte, Holger

    2007-07-25

    Small 4 K coolers are used to cool superconducting magnets.These coolers are usually used with high temperature suerconductor (HTS)leads. In most cases, magnet is shielded with iron or active shieldcoils. Thus the field at the cooler is low. There are instances when thecooler must be in a magnetic field. Gifford McMahon (GM) coolers or pulsetube coolers are commercially available to cool the magnets. This paperwill discuss how the two types of coolers are affected by the straymagnetic field. Strategies for using coolers on magnets that generatestray magnetic fields are discussed.

  2. Formation and evolution of small-scale solar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. A.

    2008-06-01

    In this thesis I investigate the formation and evolution of small-scale magnetic fields on the surface of the Sun. I observe the magnetic field in quiet sun regions in an effort to further understand the baseline magnetic field that exists throughout the photosphere at all phases of the solar cycle. An automated feature tracking algorithm that I helped develop allows me to systematically analyze datasets containing over 10 5 evolving magnetic features. In 1.2"-resolution Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) magnetograms, I find that 30% of features identified by our algorithm originate without other detectable flux within 2.2 Mm. These features having an apparent unipolar origin account for 94% of the flux newly detected by the algorithm. I infer from their ensemble average that these features are actually previously existing flux, coalesced by surface flows into concentrations large and strong enough to detect. Flux coalescence is at least as important as bipolar ephemeral region emergence for introducing detectable flux into the photosphere, underscoring the importance of small-scale fields to the overall photospheric flux budget. Using 0.3"-resolution magnetograms from the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on the recently-launched Hinode spacecraft, I confirm that apparent unipolar emergence seen with MDI is indeed flux coalescence. I then demonstrate that apparent unipolar emergence seen in NFI magnetograms also corresponds to coalescence of previously existing weak field. The uncoalesced flux, detectable only in the ensemble average of hundreds of these events, accounts for 30-50% of the total flux within 3 Mm of the detected features. Finally, I study small-scale fields around intermediate-scale supergranular network concentrations. This is motivated by simulations and observations showing suppression of flux production by background magnetic fields at small and large scales. Within 12 Mm of the network concentrations, I find no evidence that the concentrations

  3. High-field small animal magnetic resonance oncology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Ackerstaff, Ellen; LeKaye, H. Carl; Zakian, Kristen; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High-field MRI can provide information about tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1H, 31P, chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging and hyperpolarized 13C MRS as well as diffusion-weighted, blood oxygen level dependent contrast imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. These methods have been proven effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies.

  4. Single-Plane Magnetically Focused Elongated Small Field Proton Beams.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Grant A; Slater, James M; Wroe, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    We previously performed Monte Carlo simulations of magnetically focused proton beams shaped by a single quadrapole magnet and thereby created narrow elongated beams with superior dose delivery characteristics (compared to collimated beams) suitable for targets of similar geometry. The present study seeks to experimentally validate these simulations using a focusing magnet consisting of 24 segments of samarium cobalt permanent magnetic material adhered into a hollow cylinder. Proton beams with properties relevant to clinical radiosurgery applications were delivered through the magnet to a water tank containing a diode detector or radiochromic film. Dose profiles were analyzed and compared with analogous Monte Carlo simulations. The focused beams produced elongated beam spots with high elliptical symmetry, indicative of magnet quality. Experimental data showed good agreement with simulations, affirming the utility of Monte Carlo simulations as a tool to model the inherent complexity of a magnetic focusing system. Compared to target-matched unfocused simulations, focused beams showed larger peak to entrance ratios (26% to 38%) and focused simulations showed a two-fold increase in beam delivery efficiency. These advantages can be attributed to the magnetic acceleration of protons in the transverse plane that tends to counteract the particle outscatter that leads to degradation of peak to entrance performance in small field proton beams. Our results have important clinical implications and suggest rare earth focusing magnet assemblies are feasible and could reduce skin dose and beam number while delivering enhanced dose to narrow elongated targets (eg, in and around the spinal cord) in less time compared to collimated beams. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. High Field Small Animal Magnetic Resonance Oncology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Ackerstaff, Ellen; LeKaye, H. Carl; Zakian, Kristen; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High field MRI can provide information about tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1H, 31P, Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) imaging, and hyperpolarized 13C MR spectroscopy as well as diffusion-weighted, Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. These methods have been proven effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies. PMID:24374985

  6. Magnetic fields around AGNs at large and small scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyul'bashev, S. A.

    2002-06-01

    The dipole structure of the magnetic field on distances ge 1 kpc from an active galactic nucleus is discussed. Two different models of the magnetic field around a supermassive black hole on the scale of the accretion disk are tested. The first model suggests a superstrong field of the order of 1010 Gauss (Kardashev \\cite{Kardashev95}), the other one proposed by Field & Rodgers (\\cite{Field93}) predicts much lower values ( ~ 104 Gauss).

  7. Solar Magnetic Carpet II: Coronal Interactions of Small-Scale Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, K. A.; Mackay, D. H.; van Ballegooijen, A. A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper is the second in a series of studies working towards constructing a realistic, evolving, non-potential coronal model for the solar magnetic carpet. In the present study, the interaction of two magnetic elements is considered. Our objectives are to study magnetic energy build-up, storage and dissipation as a result of emergence, cancellation, and flyby of these magnetic elements. In the future these interactions will be the basic building blocks of more complicated simulations involving hundreds of elements. Each interaction is simulated in the presence of an overlying uniform magnetic field, which lies at various orientations with respect to the evolving magnetic elements. For these three small-scale interactions, the free energy stored in the field at the end of the simulation ranges from 0.2 - 2.1×1026 ergs, whilst the total energy dissipated ranges from 1.3 - 6.3×1026 ergs. For all cases, a stronger overlying field results in higher energy storage and dissipation. For the cancellation and emergence simulations, motion perpendicular to the overlying field results in the highest values. For the flyby simulations, motion parallel to the overlying field gives the highest values. In all cases, the free energy built up is sufficient to explain small-scale phenomena such as X-ray bright points or nanoflares. In addition, if scaled for the correct number of magnetic elements for the volume considered, the energy continually dissipated provides a significant fraction of the quiet Sun coronal heating budget.

  8. A simple, small and low cost permanent magnet design to produce homogeneous magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Manz, B; Benecke, M; Volke, F

    2008-05-01

    A new portable, pocket-size NMR probe based on a novel permanent magnet arrangement is presented. It is based on a Halbach-type magnet design which mimics the field of a spherical dipole by using cylindrical bar and ring magnets. The magnet system is made up of only three individual magnets, and most field calculations and optimisations can be performed analytically. A prototype system has been built using a set of small, off the shelf commercially available permanent magnets. Proton linewidths of 50 ppm FWHM could be achieved at a field strength of 1T. Calculations show that with custom-sized permanent magnets, linewidths of less than 1 ppm can be achieved over sample volumes of up to 1 mm3, which would in theory enable chemical shift resolved proton spectroscopy on mass-limited samples. But even with the achieved linewidth of 50 ppm, this can be a useful portable sensor for small amounts of liquid samples with restricted molecular mobility, like gels, polymers or high viscosity liquids.

  9. Small animal electric and magnetic field exposure systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.C.; Dietrich, F.M.

    1993-10-01

    Laboratory evaluation of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) and cancer in animals requires exposure of relatively large numbers of animals, usually rats or mice, to 60-Hz fields under very well controlled conditions for periods of up to two years. This report describes two exposure systems, the first of which is based on modifications of an existing electric field exposure system to include magnetic field exposure capability. In this system, each module houses 576--768 mice, which can be exposed to electric field levels of up to 100 kV/m and magnetic field levels of up to 10 Gauss. When a module was operated at 10 Gauss, measured levels of noise and vibration fell substantially below the detection threshold for humans. Moreover, temperature rise in the coils did not exceed 12{degrees}C at the 10 Gauss level. Specifications and test results for the second system, which provides magnetic field exposure capability only, are similar, except that each module houses 624--780 mice. After installation of the second system at the West Los Angeles Veterans Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, additional results were obtained. This report provides a complete description of the engineering design, specifications, and test results for the completed systems.

  10. Rotatable Small Permanent Magnet Array for Ultra-Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Instrumentation: A Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Vegh, Viktor; Reutens, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Object We studied the feasibility of generating the variable magnetic fields required for ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry with dynamically adjustable permanent magnets. Our motivation was to substitute traditional electromagnets by distributed permanent magnets, increasing system portability. Materials and Methods The finite element method (COMSOL®) was employed for the numerical study of a small permanent magnet array to calculate achievable magnetic field strength, homogeneity, switching time and magnetic forces. A manually operated prototype was simulated and constructed to validate the numerical approach and to verify the generated magnetic field. Results A concentric small permanent magnet array can be used to generate strong sample pre-polarisation and variable measurement fields for ultra-low field relaxometry via simple prescribed magnet rotations. Using the array, it is possible to achieve a pre-polarisation field strength above 100 mT and variable measurement fields ranging from 20–50 μT with 200 ppm absolute field homogeneity within a field-of-view of 5 x 5 x 5 cubic centimetres. Conclusions A dynamic small permanent magnet array can generate multiple highly homogeneous magnetic fields required in ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) instruments. This design can significantly reduce the volume and energy requirements of traditional systems based on electromagnets, improving portability considerably. PMID:27271886

  11. Rotatable Small Permanent Magnet Array for Ultra-Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Instrumentation: A Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Michael W; Giorni, Andrea; Vegh, Viktor; Pellicer-Guridi, Ruben; Reutens, David C

    2016-01-01

    We studied the feasibility of generating the variable magnetic fields required for ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry with dynamically adjustable permanent magnets. Our motivation was to substitute traditional electromagnets by distributed permanent magnets, increasing system portability. The finite element method (COMSOL®) was employed for the numerical study of a small permanent magnet array to calculate achievable magnetic field strength, homogeneity, switching time and magnetic forces. A manually operated prototype was simulated and constructed to validate the numerical approach and to verify the generated magnetic field. A concentric small permanent magnet array can be used to generate strong sample pre-polarisation and variable measurement fields for ultra-low field relaxometry via simple prescribed magnet rotations. Using the array, it is possible to achieve a pre-polarisation field strength above 100 mT and variable measurement fields ranging from 20-50 μT with 200 ppm absolute field homogeneity within a field-of-view of 5 x 5 x 5 cubic centimetres. A dynamic small permanent magnet array can generate multiple highly homogeneous magnetic fields required in ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) instruments. This design can significantly reduce the volume and energy requirements of traditional systems based on electromagnets, improving portability considerably.

  12. The response of small SQUID pickup loops to magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtley, John R.; Paulius, Lisa; Rosenberg, Aaron J.; Palmstrom, Johanna C.; Schiessl, Daniel; Jermain, Colin L.; Gibbons, Jonathan; Holland, Connor M.; Fung, Y.-K.-K.; Huber, Martin E.; Ketchen, Mark B.; Ralph, Daniel C.; Gibson, Gerald W., Jr.; Moler, Kathryn A.

    2016-12-01

    In the past, magnetic images acquired using scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy have been interpreted using simple models for the sensor point spread function. However, more complicated modeling is needed when the characteristic dimensions of the field sensitive areas in these sensors become comparable to the London penetration depth. In this paper we calculate the response of SQUIDs with deep sub-micron pickup loops to different sources of magnetic fields by solving coupled London’s and Maxwell’s equations using the full sensor geometry. Tests of these calculations using various field sources are in reasonable agreement with experiments. These calculations allow us to more accurately interpret sub-micron spatial resolution data obtained using scanning SQUID microscopy.

  13. Generation of large-scale magnetic fields by small-scale dynamo in shear flows

    DOE PAGES

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-10-20

    We propose a new mechanism for a turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of a large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the "shear-current" effect. Furthermore, given the inevitable existence of nonhelical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic naturemore » of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help explain the generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects.« less

  14. Generation of large-scale magnetic fields by small-scale dynamo in shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-10-20

    We propose a new mechanism for a turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of a large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the "shear-current" effect. Furthermore, given the inevitable existence of nonhelical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic nature of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help explain the generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects.

  15. IS THE SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELD CORRELATED WITH THE DYNAMO CYCLE?

    SciTech Connect

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Brandenburg, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The small-scale magnetic field is ubiquitous at the solar surface—even at high latitudes. From observations we know that this field is uncorrelated (or perhaps even weakly anticorrelated) with the global sunspot cycle. Our aim is to explore the origin, and particularly the cycle dependence, of such a phenomenon using three-dimensional dynamo simulations. We adopt a simple model of a turbulent dynamo in a shearing box driven by helically forced turbulence. Depending on the dynamo parameters, large-scale (global) and small-scale (local) dynamos can be excited independently in this model. Based on simulations in different parameter regimes, we find that, when only the large-scale dynamo is operating in the system, the small-scale magnetic field generated through shredding and tangling of the large-scale magnetic field is positively correlated with the global magnetic cycle. However, when both dynamos are operating, the small-scale field is produced from both the small-scale dynamo and the tangling of the large-scale field. In this situation, when the large-scale field is weaker than the equipartition value of the turbulence, the small-scale field is almost uncorrelated with the large-scale magnetic cycle. On the other hand, when the large-scale field is stronger than the equipartition value, we observe an anticorrelation between the small-scale field and the large-scale magnetic cycle. This anticorrelation can be interpreted as a suppression of the small-scale dynamo. Based on our studies we conclude that the observed small-scale magnetic field in the Sun is generated by the combined mechanisms of a small-scale dynamo and tangling of the large-scale field.

  16. Small-size controlled vacuum spark-gap in an external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Asyunin, V. I. Davydov, S. G.; Dolgov, A. N. Pshenichnyi, A. A.; Yakubov, R. Kh.

    2015-02-15

    It is demonstrated that the operation of a small-size controlled spark-gap can be controlled by applying a uniform external magnetic field. It is shown that the magnetic field of such a simple configuration efficiently suppresses the effect of localization of the discharge current after multiple actuations of the spark-gap.

  17. Foucault imaging and small-angle electron diffraction in controlled external magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Kotani, Atsuhiro; Harada, Ken; Ishii, Yui; Mori, Shigeo

    2016-12-01

    We report a method for acquiring Foucault images and small-angle electron diffraction patterns in external magnetic fields using a conventional transmission electron microscope without any modification. In the electron optical system that we have constructed, external magnetic fields parallel to the optical axis can be controlled using the objective lens pole piece under weak excitation conditions in the Foucault mode and the diffraction mode. We observe two ferromagnetic perovskite-type manganese oxides, La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and Nd0.5Sr0.5MnO3, in order to visualize magnetic domains and their magnetic responses to external magnetic fields. In rhombohedral-structured LSMO, pinning of magnetic domain walls at crystallographic twin boundaries was found to have a strong influence on the generation of new magnetic domains in external applied magnetic fields.

  18. Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburjania, G.

    2009-04-01

    EGU2009-233 Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale turbulence in the ionosphere by G. Aburjania Contact: George Aburjania, g.aburjania@gmail.com,aburj@mymail.ge

  19. Small-scale primordial magnetic fields and anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jedamzik, Karsten; Abel, Tom E-mail: tabel@slac.stanford.edu

    2013-10-01

    It is shown that small-scale magnetic fields present before recombination induce baryonic density inhomogeneities of appreciable magnitude. The presence of such inhomogeneities changes the ionization history of the Universe, which in turn decreases the angular scale of the Doppler peaks and increases Silk damping by photon diffusion. This unique signature could be used to (dis)prove the existence of primordial magnetic fields of strength as small as B ≅ 10{sup −11} Gauss by cosmic microwave background observations.

  20. On the energy losses of hot worked Nd-Fe-B magnets and ferrites in a small alternating magnetic field perpendicular to a bias field

    SciTech Connect

    Staa, F. von; Hempel, K.A.; Artz, H.

    1995-11-01

    Torsion pendulum magnetometer measurements on ferrites and on neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets are presented. The damping of the oscillation of the pendulum leads to information on the magnetic energy losses of the magnets in a small alternating magnetic field applied perpendicular to a bias field. The origin of the energy absorption is explained by the magnetization reversal of single-domain particles. It is shown experimentally that the energy absorption mechanism requires the ferromagnetic order of the sample, and that the magnetic field strength of maximal energy absorption coincides with the effective anisotropy field strength.

  1. Modeling the Sun’s Small-scale Global Photospheric Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, K. A.; Mackay, D. H.

    2016-10-01

    We present a new model for the Sun’s global photospheric magnetic field during a deep minimum of activity, in which no active regions emerge. The emergence and subsequent evolution of small-scale magnetic features across the full solar surface is simulated, subject to the influence of a global supergranular flow pattern. Visually, the resulting simulated magnetograms reproduce the typical structure and scale observed in quiet Sun magnetograms. Quantitatively, the simulation quickly reaches a steady state, resulting in a mean field and flux distribution that are in good agreement with those determined from observations. A potential coronal magnetic field is extrapolated from the simulated full Sun magnetograms to consider the implications of such a quiet photospheric magnetic field on the corona and inner heliosphere. The bulk of the coronal magnetic field closes very low down, in short connections between small-scale features in the simulated magnetic network. Just 0.1% of the photospheric magnetic flux is found to be open at 2.5 R ⊙, around 10-100 times less than that determined for typical Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager synoptic map observations. If such conditions were to exist on the Sun, this would lead to a significantly weaker interplanetary magnetic field than is currently observed, and hence a much higher cosmic ray flux at Earth.

  2. Small-scale gradients of charged particles in the heliospheric magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Fan; Giacalone, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Using numerical simulations of charged-particles propagating in the heliospheric magnetic field, we study small-scale gradients, or 'dropouts,' in the intensity of solar energetic particles seen at 1 AU. We use two turbulence models, the foot-point random motion model and the two-component model, to generate fluctuating magnetic fields similar to spacecraft observations at 1 AU. The turbulence models include a Kolmogorov-like magnetic field power spectrum containing a broad range of spatial scales from those that lead to large-scale field-line random walk to small scales leading to resonant pitch-angle scattering of energetic particles. We release energetic protons (20 keV-10 MeV) from a spatially compact and instantaneous source. The trajectories of energetic charged particles in turbulent magnetic fields are numerically integrated. Spacecraft observations are mimicked by collecting particles in small windows when they pass the windows at a distance of 1 AU. We show that small-scale gradients in the intensity of energetic particles and velocity dispersions observed by spacecraft can be reproduced using the foot-point random motion model. However, no dropouts are seen in simulations using the two-component magnetic turbulence model. We also show that particle scattering in the solar wind magnetic field needs to be infrequent for intensity dropouts to form.

  3. 3D magnetic field configuration of small-scale reconnection events in the solar plasma atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, T.

    2015-10-01

    The outer solar atmosphere, i.e., the corona and the chromosphere, is replete with small energy-release events, which are accompanied by transient brightening and jet-like ejections. These events are considered to be magnetic reconnection events in the solar plasma, and their dynamics have been studied using recent advanced observations from the Hinode spacecraft and other observatories in space and on the ground. These events occur at different locations in the solar atmosphere and vary in their morphology and amount of the released energy. The magnetic field configurations of these reconnection events are inferred based on observations of magnetic fields at the photospheric level. Observations suggest that these magnetic configurations can be classified into two groups. In the first group, two anti-parallel magnetic fields reconnect to each other, yielding a 2D emerging flux configuration. In the second group, helical or twisted magnetic flux tubes are parallel or at a relative angle to each other. Reconnection can occur only between anti-parallel components of the magnetic flux tubes and may be referred to as component reconnection. The latter configuration type may be more important for the larger class of small-scale reconnection events. The two types of magnetic configurations can be compared to counter-helicity and co-helicity configurations, respectively, in laboratory plasma collision experiments.

  4. 3D magnetic field configuration of small-scale reconnection events in the solar plasma atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, T.

    2015-10-15

    The outer solar atmosphere, i.e., the corona and the chromosphere, is replete with small energy-release events, which are accompanied by transient brightening and jet-like ejections. These events are considered to be magnetic reconnection events in the solar plasma, and their dynamics have been studied using recent advanced observations from the Hinode spacecraft and other observatories in space and on the ground. These events occur at different locations in the solar atmosphere and vary in their morphology and amount of the released energy. The magnetic field configurations of these reconnection events are inferred based on observations of magnetic fields at the photospheric level. Observations suggest that these magnetic configurations can be classified into two groups. In the first group, two anti-parallel magnetic fields reconnect to each other, yielding a 2D emerging flux configuration. In the second group, helical or twisted magnetic flux tubes are parallel or at a relative angle to each other. Reconnection can occur only between anti-parallel components of the magnetic flux tubes and may be referred to as component reconnection. The latter configuration type may be more important for the larger class of small-scale reconnection events. The two types of magnetic configurations can be compared to counter-helicity and co-helicity configurations, respectively, in laboratory plasma collision experiments.

  5. Magnetic-field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering on random anisotropy ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michels, Andreas; Weissmüller, Jörg

    2008-06-01

    We report on the recently developed technique of magnetic-field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), with attention to bulk ferromagnets exhibiting random magnetic anisotropy. In these materials, the various magnetic anisotropy fields (magnetocrystalline, magnetoelastic, and/or magnetostatic in origin) perturb the perfectly parallel spin alignment of the idealized ferromagnetic state. By varying the applied magnetic field, one can control one of the ordering terms which competes with the above-mentioned perturbing fields. Experiments which explore the ensuing reaction of the magnetization will therefore provide information not only on the field-dependent spin structure but, importantly, on the underlying magnetic interaction terms. This strategy, which underlies conventional studies of hysteresis loops in magnetometry, is here combined with magnetic SANS. While magnetometry generally records only a single scalar quantity, the integral magnetization, SANS provides access to a vastly richer data set, the Fourier spectrum of the response of the spin system as a function of the magnitude and orientation of the wave vector. The required data-analysis procedures have recently been established, and experiments on a number of magnetic materials, mostly nanocrystalline or nanocomposite metals, have been reported. Here, we summarize the theory of magnetic-field-dependent SANS along with the underlying description of random anisotropy magnets by micromagnetic theory. We review experiments which have explored the magnetic interaction parameters, the value of the exchange-stiffness constant as well as the Fourier components of the magnetic anisotropy field and of the magnetostatic stray field. A model-independent approach, based on the experimental autocorrelation function of the spin misalignment, provides access to the characteristic length of the spin misalignment. The field dependence of this quantity is in quantitative agreement with the predictions of

  6. Structure of small-scale magnetic fields in the kinematic dynamo theory.

    PubMed

    Schekochihin, Alexander; Cowley, Steven; Maron, Jason; Malyshkin, Leonid

    2002-01-01

    A weak fluctuating magnetic field embedded into a a turbulent conducting medium grows exponentially while its characteristic scale decays. In the interstellar medium and protogalactic plasmas, the magnetic Prandtl number is very large, so a broad spectrum of growing magnetic fluctuations is excited at small (subviscous) scales. The condition for the onset of nonlinear back reaction depends on the structure of the field lines. We study the statistical correlations that are set up in the field pattern and show that the magnetic-field lines possess a folding structure, where most of the scale decrease is due to the field variation across itself (rapid transverse direction reversals), while the scale of the field variation along itself stays approximately constant. Specifically, we find that, though both the magnetic energy and the mean-square curvature of the field lines grow exponentially, the field strength and the field-line curvature are anticorrelated, i.e., the curved field is relatively weak, while the growing field is relatively flat. The detailed analysis of the statistics of the curvature shows that it possesses a stationary limiting distribution with the bulk located at the values of curvature comparable to the characteristic wave number of the velocity field and a power tail extending to large values of curvature where it is eventually cut off by the resistive regularization. The regions of large curvature, therefore, occupy only a small fraction of the total volume of the system. Our theoretical results are corroborated by direct numerical simulations. The implication of the folding effect is that the advent of the Lorentz back reaction occurs when the magnetic energy approaches that of the smallest turbulent eddies. Our results also directly apply to the problem of statistical geometry of the material lines in a random flow.

  7. Experimental Setup for Magnetic-Field Tests of Small-Size Light Sensors at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickle, Cameron

    2013-10-01

    In preparation for the Electron Ion Collider, small-size sensors, such as Silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) and Multi-Channel Plate (MCP) photo-multipliers are being considered for use in a Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov Light (DIRC) detector. Since DIRC will be operated in the strong field of a magnetic spectrometer, the gain of the sensors must be evaluated in high magnetic fields. A dedicated test facility, which makes use of a solenoid magnet with magnetic fields of up to 4.7 T, is being developed at Jefferson Labs. This paper describes the configuration and operation of an entirely non-magnetic dark box that will house the sensors during the tests and allows the sensors to be rotated about two axes relative to the field. This paper also describes the development of a ROOT-based analysis method to extract the gain of SiPMs from raw Analog-to-Digital-Converter (ADC) spectra as a function of the intensity of the magnetic field and the sensor's relative to angle to the field. The dark box and analysis method was tested with Hamamatsu mulitpixel SiPMs and our results are consistent with previous measurements of the same sensors. The methodology developed in this work will be routinely used for the upcoming high-B field tests.

  8. MMS Multipoint Electric Field Observations of Small-Scale Magnetic Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Katherine A.; Ergun, Robert E.; Wilder, Frederick; Burch, James; Torbert, Roy; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Russell, Christopher; Strangeway, Robert; Magnus, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale magnetic holes (MHs), local depletions in magnetic field strength, have been observed multiple times in the Earths magnetosphere in the bursty bulk flow (BBF) braking region. This particular subset of MHs has observed scale sizes perpendicular to the background magnetic field (B) less than the ambient ion Larmor radius (p(sib i)). Previous observations by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) indicate that this subset of MHs can be supported by a current driven by the E x B drift of electrons. Ions do not participate in the E x B drift due to the small-scale size of the electric field. While in the BBF braking region, during its commissioning phase, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft observed a small-scale MH. The electric field observations taken during this event suggest the presence of electron currents perpendicular to the magnetic field. These observations also suggest that these currents can evolve to smaller spatial scales.

  9. Stable oscillation in spin torque oscillator excited by a small in-plane magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Tsunegi, Sumito; Kubota, Hitoshi; Ito, Takahiro; Utsumi, Yasuhiro

    2015-08-07

    Theoretical conditions to excite self-oscillation in a spin torque oscillator consisting of a perpendicularly magnetized free layer and an in-plane magnetized pinned layer are investigated by analytically solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The analytical relation between the current and oscillation frequency is derived. It is found that a large amplitude oscillation can be excited by applying a small field pointing to the direction anti-parallel to the magnetization of the pinned layer. The validity of the analytical results is confirmed by comparing with numerical simulation, showing good agreement especially in a low current region.

  10. Proposed design of SAMUS (small angle muon spectrometer) toroid and its magnetic field calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, R.

    1988-06-09

    Presently the D/null/ detector has three big toroidal magnets; one Central Toroid (CF) and two End Wall Toroids (EF). The EF toroids have central openings 72'' x 72''. Originally, this opening was meant for possible future end-plug calorimeters. Instead we are now designing Small Angle Muon Spectrometer (SAMUS) for the opening. The major component will be built at Serpukhov. The design of the toroid magnets and its magnetic field calculations is being done by exchanging information between Serpukhov and Fermilab. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Generation of large-scale magnetic fields by small-scale dynamo in shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    A novel large-scale dynamo mechanism, the magnetic shear-current effect, is discussed and explored. The effect relies on the interaction of magnetic fluctuations with a mean shear flow, meaning the saturated state of the small-scale dynamo can drive a large-scale dynamo - in some sense the inverse of dynamo quenching. The dynamo is nonhelical, with the mean-field alpha coefficient zero, and is caused by the interaction between an off-diagonal component of the turbulent resistivity and stretching of the large-scale field by shear flow. In this talk, a variety of computational and analytic studies of this mechanism are discussed, which have been carried out both in regimes where magnetic fluctuations arise self-consistently through the small-scale dynamo and at lower Reynolds numbers. In addition, an heuristic description of the effect is presented, which illustrates the fundamental role played by the pressure response of the fluid and helps explain why the magnetic effect is stronger than its kinematic cousin. As well as being interesting for its applications to general high Reynolds number astrophysical turbulence, where strong small-scale magnetic fluctuations are expected to be prevalent, the magnetic shear-current effect is a likely candidate for large-scale dynamo in the unstratified regions of ionized accretion disks. Supported by the Sherman Fairchild Foundation and DOE (DE-AC02-09-CH11466).

  12. The magnetic shear-current effect: generation of large-scale magnetic fields by the small-scale dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2016-04-01

    > A novel large-scale dynamo mechanism, the magnetic shear-current effect, is discussed and explored. The effect relies on the interaction of magnetic fluctuations with a mean shear flow, meaning the saturated state of the small-scale dynamo can drive a large-scale dynamo - in some sense the inverse of dynamo quenching. The dynamo is non-helical, with the mean field coefficient zero, and is caused by the interaction between an off-diagonal component of the turbulent resistivity and the stretching of the large-scale field by shear flow. Following up on previous numerical and analytic work, this paper presents further details of the numerical evidence for the effect, as well as an heuristic description of how magnetic fluctuations can interact with shear flow to produce the required electromotive force. The pressure response of the fluid is fundamental to this mechanism, which helps explain why the magnetic effect is stronger than its kinematic cousin, and the basic idea is related to the well-known lack of turbulent resistivity quenching by magnetic fluctuations. As well as being interesting for its applications to general high Reynolds number astrophysical turbulence, where strong small-scale magnetic fluctuations are expected to be prevalent, the magnetic shear-current effect is a likely candidate for large-scale dynamo in the unstratified regions of ionized accretion disks. Evidence for this is discussed, as well as future research directions and the challenges involved with understanding details of the effect in astrophysically relevant regimes.

  13. Solar Coronal Loops Associated with Small-scale Mixed Polarity Surface Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitta, L. P.; Peter, H.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; van Noort, M.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Schmidt, W.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Knölker, M.

    2017-03-01

    How and where are coronal loops rooted in the solar lower atmosphere? The details of the magnetic environment and its evolution at the footpoints of coronal loops are crucial to understanding the processes of mass and energy supply to the solar corona. To address the above question, we use high-resolution line-of-sight magnetic field data from the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment instrument on the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory and coronal observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory of an emerging active region. We find that the coronal loops are often rooted at the locations with minor small-scale but persistent opposite-polarity magnetic elements very close to the larger dominant polarity. These opposite-polarity small-scale elements continually interact with the dominant polarity underlying the coronal loop through flux cancellation. At these locations we detect small inverse Y-shaped jets in chromospheric Ca ii H images obtained from the Sunrise Filter Imager during the flux cancellation. Our results indicate that magnetic flux cancellation and reconnection at the base of coronal loops due to mixed polarity fields might be a crucial feature for the supply of mass and energy into the corona.

  14. Three-dimensional magnetic nanoparticle imaging using small field gradient and multiple pickup coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasayama, Teruyoshi; Tsujita, Yuya; Morishita, Manabu; Muta, Masahiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Enpuku, Keiji

    2017-04-01

    We propose a magnetic particle imaging (MPI) method based on third harmonic signal detection using a small field gradient and multiple pickup coils. First, we developed a system using two pickup coils and performed three-dimensional detection of two magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) samples, which were spaced 15 mm apart. In the experiments, an excitation field strength of 1.6 mT was used at an operating frequency of 3 kHz. A DC gradient field with a typical value of 0.2 T/m was also used to produce the so-called field-free line. A third harmonic signal generated by the MNP samples was detected using the two pickup coils, and the samples were then mechanically scanned to obtain field maps. The field maps were subsequently analyzed using the nonnegative least squares method to obtain three-dimensional position information for the MNP samples. The results show that the positions of the two MNP samples were estimated with good accuracy, despite the small field gradient used. Further improvement in MPI performance will be achieved by increasing the number of pickup coils used.

  15. On the magnetic fields of Be/X-ray pulsars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhsanov, N. R.; Mereghetti, S.

    2015-12-01

    We explore the possibility of explaining the properties of the Be/X-ray pulsars observed in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) within the magnetic levitation accretion scenario. This implies that their X-ray emission is powered by a wind-fed accretion on to a neutron star (NS) which captures matter from a magnetized stellar wind. The NS in this case is accreting matter from a non-Keplerian magnetically levitating disc which is surrounding its magnetosphere. This allows us to explain the observed periods of the pulsars in terms of spin equilibrium without the need of invoking dipole magnetic fields outside the usual range ˜1011-1013 G inferred from cyclotron features of Galactic high-mass X-ray binaries. We find that the equilibrium period of a NS, under certain conditions, depends strongly on the magnetization of the stellar wind of its massive companion and, correspondingly, on the magnetic field of the massive companion itself. This may help to explain why similar NSs in binaries with similar properties rotate with different periods yielding a large scatter of periods of the accretion-powered pulsar observed in SMC and our galaxy.

  16. Depression of the magnetic field in an active small-scale flux rope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Binbin; Li, Wenya; Wang, Chi; Dai, Lei; Burch, Jim; Ergun, Robert; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Pollock, Craig; Russell, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    We report an active small-scale magnetic flux rope (˜9.8di) at the trailing edge of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) waves on September 27 2016 by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, which is probably generated by multiple x-line reconnections. The magnetic field inside this flux rope is significantly depressed, resulting into a non-force-free structure. The currents of this flux rope are filamentary but structured, and the current filaments at the edges induce an opposing field that causes observed |B| depressions in the central flux rope. In addition, intense lower hybrid drift waves (LHDW) are found the magnetospheric edge of the flux rope, whose wave potential reaches to ˜20% of the electron temperature, thus these waves could effectively scatter electrons by the wave electric field corresponding to a local density dip. We suggest LHDW may be stabilized by the electron resonance broadening.

  17. WE-G-BRD-05: Inline Magnetic Fields Enhance Tumor Dose for Small Lung Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Oborn, B; Ge, Y; Hardcastle, N; Metcalfe, P; Keall, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To report on significant dose enhancement effects caused by magnetic fields aligned parallel to 6MV photon beam radiotherapy of small lung tumors. Findings are applicable to future inline MRI-guided radiotherapy systems. Methods: 9 clinical lung plans were recalculated using Monte Carlo methods and external inline (parallel to the beam direction) magnetic fields of 0.5 T, 1.0 T and 3 T were included. Three plans were 6MV 3D-CRT and six were 6MV IMRT. The GTV’s ranged from 0.8 cc to 73 cc, while the PTV ranged from 1 cc to 180 cc. Results: The inline magnetic field has a moderate impact in lung dose distributions by reducing the lateral scatter of secondary electrons and causing a small local dose increase. Superposition of multiple small beams acts to superimpose the small dose increases and can lead to significant dose enhancements, especially when the GTV is low density. Two plans with very small, low mean density GTV’s (<1 cc, ρ(mean)<0.35g/cc) showed uniform increases of 16% and 23% at 1 T throughout the PTV. Three plans with moderate mean density PTV’s (3–13 cc, ρ(mean)=0.58–0.67 g/cc) showed 6% mean dose enhancement at 1 T in the PTV, however not uniform throughout the GTV/PTV. Replanning would benefit these cases. The remaining 5 plans had large dense GTV’s (∼ 1 g/cc) and so only a minimal (<2%) enhancement was seen. In general the mean dose enhancement at 0.5 T was 60% less than 1 T, while 5–50% higher at 3 T. Conclusions: A paradigm shift in the efficacy of small lung tumor radiotherapy is predicted with future inline MRI-linac systems. This will be achieved by carefully taking advantage of the reduction of lateral electronic disequilibrium withing lung tissue that is induced naturally inside strong inline magnetic fields.

  18. SU-D-304-02: Magnetically Focused Proton Irradiation of Small Field Targets

    SciTech Connect

    McAuley, GA; Slater, JM; Slater, JD; Wroe, AJ

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the use of magnetic focusing for small field proton irradiations. It is hypothesized that magnetic focusing will provide significant dose distribution benefits over standard collimated beams for fields less than 10 mm diameter. Methods: Magnets consisting of 24 segments of radiation hard samarium-cobalt adhered into hollow cylinders were designed and manufactured. Two focusing magnets were placed on a positioning track on our Gantry 1 treatment table. Proton beams with energies of 127 and 157 MeV, 15 and 30 mm modulation, and 8 mm initial diameters were delivered to a water tank using single-stage scattering. Depth dose distributions were measured using a PTW PR60020 diode detector and transverse profiles were measured with Gafchromic EBT3 film. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed - both for comparison with experimental data and to further explore the potential of magnetic focusing in silica. For example, beam spot areas (based on the 90% dose contour) were matched at Bragg depth between simulated 100 MeV collimated beams and simulated beams focused by two 400 T/m gradient magnets. Results: Preliminary experimental results show 23% higher peak to entrance dose ratios and flatter spread out Bragg peak plateaus for 8 mm focused beams compared with uncollimated beams. Monte Carlo simulations showed 21% larger peak to entrance ratios and a ∼9 fold more efficient dose to target delivery compared to spot-sized matched collimated beams. Our latest results will be presented. Conclusion: Our results suggest that rare earth focusing magnet assemblies could reduce skin dose and beam number while delivering dose to nominally spherical radiosurgery targets over a much shorter time compared to unfocused beams. Immediate clinical applications include those associated with proton radiosurgery and functional radiosurgery of the brain and spine, however expanded treatment sites can be also envisaged.

  19. Closing the superconducting gap in small Pb nanoislands with high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolf-Pissarczyk, Steffen; Burgess, Jacob A. J.; Yan, Shichao; Loth, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Superconducting properties change in confined geometries. Here we study the effects of strong confinement in nanosized Pb islands on Si(111) 7 ×7 . Small hexagonal islands with diameters less than 50 nm and a uniform height of seven atomic layers are formed by depositing Pb at low temperature and annealing at 300 K. We measure the tunneling spectra of individual Pb nanoislands using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope operated at 0.6 K and follow the narrowing of the superconducting gap as a function of magnetic field. We find the critical magnetic field, at which the superconducting gap vanishes, reaches several Tesla, which represents a greater than 50-fold enhancement compared to the bulk value. By independently measuring the size of the superconducting gap, and the critical magnetic field that quenches superconductivity for a range of nanoislands, we can correlate these two fundamental parameters and estimate the maximal achievable critical field for 7 ML Pb nanoislands to be 7 T.

  20. Measurements on magnetized GdBCO pellets subjected to small transverse ac magnetic fields at very low frequency: Evidence for a slowdown of the magnetization decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagnard, Jean-Francois; Kirsch, Sébastien; Morita, Mitsuru; Teshima, Hidekazu; Vanderheyden, Benoit; Vanderbemden, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Due to their ability to trap large magnetic inductions, superconducting bulk materials can be used as powerful permanent magnets. The permanent magnetization of such materials, however, can be significantly affected by the application of several cycles of a transverse variable magnetic field. In this work, we study, at T = 77 K, the long term influence of transverse ac magnetic fields of small amplitudes (i.e. much smaller than the full penetration field) on the axial magnetization of a bulk single grain superconducting GdBCO pellet over a wide range of low frequencies (1 mHz-20 Hz). Thermocouples are placed against the pellet surface to probe possible self-heating of the material during the experiments. A high sensitivity cryogenic Hall probe is placed close to the surface to record the local magnetic induction normal to the surface. The results show first that, for a given number of applied triangular transverse cycles, higher values of dBapp/dt induce smaller magnetization decays. An important feature of practical interest is that, after a very large number of cycles which cause the loss of a substantial amount of magnetization (depending on the amplitude and the frequency of the field), the rate of the magnetization decay goes back to its initial value, corresponding to the relaxation of the superconducting currents due to flux creep only. In the amplitude and frequency range investigated, the thermocouples measurements and a 2D magneto-thermal modelling show no evidence of sufficient self-heating to affect the magnetization so that the effect of the transverse magnetic field cycles on the trapped magnetic moment is only attributed to a redistribution of superconducting currents in the volume of the sample and not to a thermal effect.

  1. Field computation for a neutrino detector magnet: the effect of small gaps in large bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.

    1996-11-01

    The presence of small features such as thin gaps in a large magnetic object presents difficulties for numerical computation. The proposed MINOS neutrino detector displays just such a difficulty, small ({approx}1 mm) but unavoidable gaps in the large ({approx}8 m) iron of the magnets. This paper describes the process of obtaining adequate precision while modeling those gaps.

  2. Magnetic material in mean-field dynamos driven by small scale helical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesecke, A.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.

    2014-07-01

    We perform kinematic simulations of dynamo action driven by a helical small scale flow of a conducting fluid in order to deduce mean-field properties of the combined induction action of small scale eddies. We examine two different flow patterns in the style of the G O Roberts flow but with a mean vertical component and with internal fixtures that are modelled by regions with vanishing flow. These fixtures represent either rods that lie in the center of individual eddies, or internal dividing walls that provide a separation of the eddies from each other. The fixtures can be made of magnetic material with a relative permeability larger than one which can alter the dynamo behavior. The investigations are motivated by the widely unknown induction effects of the forced helical flow that is used in the core of liquid sodium cooled fast reactors, and from the key role of soft iron impellers in the von-Kármán-sodium dynamo. For both examined flow configurations the consideration of magnetic material within the fluid flow causes a reduction of the critical magnetic Reynolds number of up to 25%. The development of the growth-rate in the limit of the largest achievable permeabilities suggests no further significant reduction for even larger values of the permeability. In order to study the dynamo behavior of systems that consist of tens of thousands of helical cells we resort to the mean-field dynamo theory (Krause and Rädler 1980 Mean-field Magnetohydrodynamics and Dynamo Theory (Oxford: Pergamon)) in which the action of the small scale flow is parameterized in terms of an α- and β-effect. We compute the relevant elements of the α- and the β-tensor using the so called testfield method. We find a reasonable agreement between the fully resolved models and the corresponding mean-field models for wall or rod materials in the considered range 1\\leqslant {{\\mu }_{r}}\\leqslant 20. Our results may be used for the development of global large scale models with recirculation

  3. Fabrication of thin films for a small alternating gradient field magnetometer for biomedical magnetic sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, N. J.; McNerny, K. L.; Sokalski, V.; Diaz-Michelena, M.; Laughlin, D. E.; McHenry, M. E.

    2011-04-01

    Thin film alternating gradient field magnetometers (AGFM) have potential for measuring magnetic moments of minerals in extraterrestrial soil samples. AGFM sensors offer increased spatial resolution required to detect magnetic nanoparticles for biosensing applications. We have fabricated a patterned thin film with the properties necessary for use in a small AGFM system. Hexagonal-close-packed CoCrPt thin films of 20 and 500 nm were sputtered (nominal composition of Co66Cr15Pt19), showing a high magnetic moment and large out-of-plane anisotropy. The films showed a Δθ50 of better than 3° for the (002) CoCrPt peak for all films, which improves with thickness. The texture is partly due to the NiW and Ru underlayers. The films showed an out-of-plane easy axis, indicating a strong uniaxial anisotropy that exceeds the shape demagnetization energy. This is due to the addition of Cr, which decreases the magnetic moment of the films; magnetoelastic coupling and film stresses may also aid in achieving a perpendicular anisotropy. The first-order uniaxial anisotropy constants were calculated as a function of temperature, ranging from 3.7 × 106 ergs/cm3 at room temperature to 6.8 × 105 ergs/cm3 at 500 °C, and the T dependence agrees with Akulov's theory for uniaxial materials. The thickest film was etched with a checkerboard pattern to decrease the demagnetization effects, which are seen more influentially in the thicker films. This opened up the hysteresis loop, and decreased the amount of field necessary to overcome the thin film geometry.

  4. Photospheric magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.

    1972-01-01

    Knowledge on the nature of magnetic fields on the solar surface is reviewed. At least a large part of the magnetic flux in the solar surface is confined to small bundles of lines of force within which the field strength is of the order of 500 gauss. Magnetic fields are closely associated with all types of solar activity. Magnetic flux appears at the surface at the clearly defined birth or regeneration of activity of an active region. As the region ages, the magnetic flux migrates to form large-scale patterns and the polar fields. Some manifestations of the large-scale distribution are discussed.

  5. Small plastic piston-cylinder cell for pulsed magnetic field studies at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglio, William A.; Graf, David E.; Tozer, Stanley W.

    2013-06-01

    A plastic piston-cylinder cell based on a thick wall test-tube has been designed for pulsed magnetic field studies. The small 12.7 mm diameter and overall height of 19.3 mm allow the cell to freely rotate in a cryostat with a diameter of 21.5 mm. Electrical leads, coax cable or microstrip transmission lines can be introduced into the pressure chamber for a variety of measurements such as electrical transport, de Haas-van Alphen, Shubnikov-de Haas and Hall effect. A fiber optic has been introduced for the purpose of calibrating the pressure via a ruby manometer. The fiber optic opens up additional experimental techniques such as photoluminescence, photoconductivity and, with use of a special fiber with a Bragg grating, magnetostriction and thermal expansion. Maximum pressures of 0.35 GPa at room temperature have been obtained.

  6. Dogs are sensitive to small variations of the Earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Hart, Vlastimil; Nováková, Petra; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Begall, Sabine; Hanzal, Vladimír; Ježek, Miloš; Kušta, Tomáš; Němcová, Veronika; Adámková, Jana; Benediktová, Kateřina; Červený, Jaroslav; Burda, Hynek

    2013-12-27

    Several mammalian species spontaneously align their body axis with respect to the Earth's magnetic field (MF) lines in diverse behavioral contexts. Magnetic alignment is a suitable paradigm to scan for the occurrence of magnetosensitivity across animal taxa with the heuristic potential to contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of magnetoreception and identify further functions of magnetosensation apart from navigation. With this in mind we searched for signs of magnetic alignment in dogs. We measured the direction of the body axis in 70 dogs of 37 breeds during defecation (1,893 observations) and urination (5,582 observations) over a two-year period. After complete sampling, we sorted the data according to the geomagnetic conditions prevailing during the respective sampling periods. Relative declination and intensity changes of the MF during the respective dog walks were calculated from daily magnetograms. Directional preferences of dogs under different MF conditions were analyzed and tested by means of circular statistics. Dogs preferred to excrete with the body being aligned along the North-South axis under calm MF conditions. This directional behavior was abolished under unstable MF. The best predictor of the behavioral switch was the rate of change in declination, i.e., polar orientation of the MF. It is for the first time that (a) magnetic sensitivity was proved in dogs, (b) a measurable, predictable behavioral reaction upon natural MF fluctuations could be unambiguously proven in a mammal, and (c) high sensitivity to small changes in polarity, rather than in intensity, of MF was identified as biologically meaningful. Our findings open new horizons in magnetoreception research. Since the MF is calm in only about 20% of the daylight period, our findings might provide an explanation why many magnetoreception experiments were hardly replicable and why directional values of records in diverse observations are frequently compromised by scatter.

  7. Dogs are sensitive to small variations of the Earth’s magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Several mammalian species spontaneously align their body axis with respect to the Earth’s magnetic field (MF) lines in diverse behavioral contexts. Magnetic alignment is a suitable paradigm to scan for the occurrence of magnetosensitivity across animal taxa with the heuristic potential to contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of magnetoreception and identify further functions of magnetosensation apart from navigation. With this in mind we searched for signs of magnetic alignment in dogs. We measured the direction of the body axis in 70 dogs of 37 breeds during defecation (1,893 observations) and urination (5,582 observations) over a two-year period. After complete sampling, we sorted the data according to the geomagnetic conditions prevailing during the respective sampling periods. Relative declination and intensity changes of the MF during the respective dog walks were calculated from daily magnetograms. Directional preferences of dogs under different MF conditions were analyzed and tested by means of circular statistics. Results Dogs preferred to excrete with the body being aligned along the North–South axis under calm MF conditions. This directional behavior was abolished under unstable MF. The best predictor of the behavioral switch was the rate of change in declination, i.e., polar orientation of the MF. Conclusions It is for the first time that (a) magnetic sensitivity was proved in dogs, (b) a measurable, predictable behavioral reaction upon natural MF fluctuations could be unambiguously proven in a mammal, and (c) high sensitivity to small changes in polarity, rather than in intensity, of MF was identified as biologically meaningful. Our findings open new horizons in magnetoreception research. Since the MF is calm in only about 20% of the daylight period, our findings might provide an explanation why many magnetoreception experiments were hardly replicable and why directional values of records in diverse observations are

  8. Measurement of the magnetic field of small magnets with a smartphone: a very economical laboratory practice for introductory physics courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arribas, Enrique; Escobar, Isabel; Suarez, Carmen P.; Najera, Alberto; Beléndez, Augusto

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we propose an inexpensive laboratory practice for an introductory physics course laboratory for any grade of science and engineering study. This practice was very well received by our students, where a smartphone (iOS, Android, or Windows) is used together with mini magnets (similar to those used on refrigerator doors), a 20 cm long school rule, a paper, and a free application (app) that needs to be downloaded and installed that measures magnetic fields using the smartphone’s magnetic field sensor or magnetometer. The apps we have used are: Magnetometer (iOS), Magnetometer Metal Detector, and Physics Toolbox Magnetometer (Android). Nothing else is needed. Cost of this practice: free. The main purpose of the practice is that students determine the dependence of the component x of the magnetic field produced by different magnets (including ring magnets and sphere magnets). We obtained that the dependency of the magnetic field with the distance is of the form x-3, in total agreement with the theoretical analysis. The secondary objective is to apply the technique of least squares fit to obtain this exponent and the magnetic moment of the magnets, with the corresponding absolute error.

  9. Relationships between Fluid Vorticity, Kinetic Helicity, and Magnetic Field on Small-scales (Quiet-Network) on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeetha, C. R.; Rajaguru, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    We derive horizontal fluid motions on the solar surface over large areas covering the quiet-Sun magnetic network from local correlation tracking of convective granules imaged in continuum intensity and Doppler velocity by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. From these we calculate the horizontal divergence, the vertical component of vorticity, and the kinetic helicity of fluid motions. We study the correlations between fluid divergence and vorticity, and between vorticity (kinetic helicity) and the magnetic field. We find that the vorticity (kinetic helicity) around small-scale fields exhibits a hemispherical pattern (in sign) similar to that followed by the magnetic helicity of large-scale active regions (containing sunspots). We identify this pattern to be a result of the Coriolis force acting on supergranular-scale flows (both the outflows and inflows), consistent with earlier studies using local helioseismology. Furthermore, we show that the magnetic fields cause transfer of vorticity from supergranular inflow regions to outflow regions, and that they tend to suppress the vortical motions around them when magnetic flux densities exceed about 300 G (from HMI). We also show that such an action of the magnetic fields leads to marked changes in the correlations between fluid divergence and vorticity. These results are speculated to be of importance to local dynamo action (if present) and to the dynamical evolution of magnetic helicity at the small-scale.

  10. Small-scale electrodynamics of the cusp with northward interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basinska, Ewa M.; Burke, William J.; Maynard, Nelson C.; Hughes, W. J.; Winningham, J. D.; Hanson, W. B.

    1992-01-01

    Possible low-altitude field signatures of merging occurring at high latitudes during a period of strong northward directed interplanetary magnetic field are reported. Large electric and magnetic field spikes detected at the poleward edge of the magnetosheathlike particle precipitation are interpreted as field signatures of the low-altitude footprint of such merging line locations. A train of phase-shifted, almost linearly polarized electric and magnetic field fluctuations was detected just equatorward of the large electromagnetic spike. It is argued that these may be due to either ion cyclotron waves excited by penetrating magnetosheath ions or transient oscillations in the frame of convecting plasma, brought about by the sudden change in the flow at the magnetospheric end of the field line.

  11. Magnetic field-dependent shape anisotropy in small patterned films studied using rotating magnetoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaolong; Zhou, Hengan; Rao, Jinwei; Zhao, Xiaobing; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Fengzhen; Xue, Desheng

    2015-01-01

    Based on the electric rotating magnetoresistance method, the shape anisotropy of a Co microstrip has been systematically investigated. We find that the shape anisotropy is dependent not only on the shape itself, but also on the magnetization distribution controlled by an applied magnetic field. Together with micro-magnetic simulations, we present a visualized picture of how non-uniform magnetization affects the values and polarities of the anisotropy constants and . From the perspective of potential appliantions, our results are useful in designing and understanding the performance of micro- and nano-scale patterned ferromagnetic units and the related device properties. PMID:26563520

  12. Increasing 14N NQR signal by 1H-14N level crossing with small magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Kent R; Sauer, Karen L; Buess, Michael L; Klug, Christopher A; Miller, Joel B

    2005-11-01

    NQR detection of materials, such as TNT, is hindered by the low signal-to-noise ratio at low NQR frequencies. Sweeping small (0-26 mT) magnetic fields to shift the (1)H NMR frequency relative to the (14)N NQR frequencies can provide a significant increase of the (14)N NQR signal-to-noise ratio. Three effects of (1)H-(14)N level crossing are demonstrated in diglycine hydrochloride and TNT. These effects are (1) transferring (1)H polarization to one or more of the (14)N transitions, including the use of an adiabatic flip of the (1)H polarization during the field sweep, (2) shortening the effective (14)N T(1) by the interaction of (1)H with the (14)N transitions, (3) "level transfer" effect where the third (14)N (spin 1) energy level or other (14)N sites with different NQR frequency are used as a reservoir of polarization which is transferred to the measured (14)N transition by the (1)H. The (14)N NQR signal-to-noise ratio can be increased by a factor of 2.5 for one (14)N site in diglycine hydrochloride (and 2.2 in TNT), even though the maximum (1)H frequency used in this work, 111 6 kHz, is only 30% larger than the measured (14)N frequencies (834 kHz for diglycine hydrochloride and 843 kHz for TNT).

  13. Large and small-scale magnetic fields in star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reissl, Stefan; Bertrang, Gesa; Wolf, Sebastian; Banerjee, Robi; Das, Himadri Sekhar; Seifried, Daniel; Körtgen, Bastian

    2013-07-01

    We present numerical and observational studies aimed at analyzing the potential of multi-wavelength high-spatial resolution continuum polarization measurements for constraining the multi-scale structure of magnetic fields in the interior and environment of molecular clouds. Numerical simulations: We developed an extended, adaptive grid version of the 3D Monte-Carlo radiation transfer code MC3D (Wolf et al., 1999, 2003) for multi-wavelength polarization simulations. On the basis of theoretical dust grain models, polarization due to dichroic extinction and reemission as well as scattering is considered. Multi-scale magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of the interstellar medium (ISM) provide the complex distributions of the density, temperature, and magnetic field in star-forming regions. This type of sophisticated synthetic polarization modeling will allow us to prepare and properly analyze existing and future observations of the three-dimensional magnetic field structure in the ISM. Various kinds of dust grain properties and advanced MHD scenarios are considered to cover the broad variety of observable ISM characteristics. Observations: Bok globules represent an ideal environment to study the influence of magnetic fields on the process of low-mass star formation. The magnetic field strength and structure in the dense inner regions of the globules can be determined by observing the polarized reemission radiation of aligned dust grains in the sub-mm wavelength range. The magnetic field in the outer, less dense parts of the globules can be traced by observing polarized radiation of background stars in the optical or near-IR. We present polarimetric observations of two Bok globules, CB68 and B335, carried out in the near-IR (ISAAC/VLT) and in the optical (IFOSC/IGO). Together with archival sub-mm data (SCUBA/JCMT), we trace the magnetic fields in these objects from 10^3 AU scales up to 10^5-10^6 scales for the first time.

  14. Detection of Vibrations in Metallic Structures Using Small Passive Magnetic Fields.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    strained solid. The resulting changes in magnetic field out- side the body can be detected by a sensing coil. iv) Barkhausen effect Ferromagnetic...field outside the solid which can be converted to voltage or audio signals ( Barkhausen , see e.g. [2 ]). Thus vibration induced strains could initiate

  15. Dipolar structures in magnetite ferrofluids studied with small-angle neutron scattering with and without applied magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Klokkenburg, M.; Erne, B. H.; Petukhov, A. V.; Philipse, A. P.; Wiedenmann, A.

    2007-05-15

    Field-induced structure formation in a ferrofluid with well-defined magnetite nanoparticles with a permanent magnetic dipole moment was studied with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) as a function of the magnetic interactions. The interactions were tuned by adjusting the size of the well-defined, single-magnetic-domain magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) particles and by applying an external magnetic field. For decreasing particle dipole moments, the data show a progressive distortion of the hexagonal symmetry, resulting from the formation of magnetic sheets. The SANS data show qualitative agreement with recent cryogenic transmission electron microscopy results obtained in 2D [Klokkenburg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 185702 (2006)] on the same ferrofluids.

  16. EXPLAINING THE COEXISTENCE OF LARGE-SCALE AND SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELDS IN FULLY CONVECTIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Rakesh K.; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Wolk, Scott J.; Christensen, Ulrich R.; Gastine, Thomas; Morin, Julien; Reiners, Ansgar

    2015-11-10

    Despite the lack of a shear-rich tachocline region, low-mass fully convective (FC) stars are capable of generating strong magnetic fields, indicating that a dynamo mechanism fundamentally different from the solar dynamo is at work in these objects. We present a self-consistent three-dimensional model of magnetic field generation in low-mass FC stars. The model utilizes the anelastic magnetohydrodynamic equations to simulate compressible convection in a rotating sphere. A distributed dynamo working in the model spontaneously produces a dipole-dominated surface magnetic field of the observed strength. The interaction of this field with the turbulent convection in outer layers shreds it, producing small-scale fields that carry most of the magnetic flux. The Zeeman–Doppler-Imaging technique applied to synthetic spectropolarimetric data based on our model recovers most of the large-scale field. Our model simultaneously reproduces the morphology and magnitude of the large-scale field as well as the magnitude of the small-scale field observed on low-mass FC stars.

  17. The correspondence between small-scale coronal structures and the evolving solar magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, D. F.; Moses, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Solar coronal bright points, first identified in soft X-rays as X-ray Bright Points (XBPs), are compact, short-lived and associated with small bipolar magnetic flux. Coordinated data obtained during recent X-ray sounding rocket flights on August 15 and December 11, 1987 are used to determine the correspondence of XBPs with time-series, ground-based observations of evolving bipolar magnetic structures, He-I dark points, and the network. The results are consistent with the view that coronal bright points are more likely to be associated with the annihilation of preexisting flux than with emerging flux.

  18. Magnetic Field-Tuned Superconductor-Insulator Transition in One-Dimensional Arrays of Small Josephson Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Watson; Chen, C. D.

    2003-03-01

    We have studied experimentally the magnetic field induced superconductor-insulator quantum phase transition in one-dimensional arrays of small Josephson junctions. It is found that the critical magnetic field that separates the two phases corresponds to the onset of Coulomb blockade of Cooper pairs tunneling in the current-voltage characteristics. The resistance data are analyzed in the context of the superfluid-insulator transition in one dimension. Combining results from Haviland et. al.,2 we construct an experimental phase diagram using Josepshon coupling-to-charging energy ratio(EJ/ECP) and dissipation strength.

  19. Collisions in Space: Observations of Disturbances in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field Caused by Destructive Collisions of Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, H. R.; Russell, C. T.; Delzanno, G. L.; Jia, Y. D.

    2011-10-01

    Collisions between small interplanetary bodies can produce clouds of dust particles, which rapidly become charged in the solar wind plasma. A wide range of particle sizes will be produced and the smallest nanoscale particles can be accelerated to solar wind speed in minutes. Our multi-fluid MHD simulation with charged dust as one fluid shows a three-dimensional disturbance in the magnetic field with compression and draping in the flow direction and bending in the direction perpendicular to both the flow and unperturbed magnetic field, producing a current sheet orthogonal to the flow. The Lorentz force of this current balances the transverse momentum of the gyrating dust particles and the solar gravity force balances the magnetic pressure gradient force. Thus the magnetic gradient force is proportional to the mass of the picked up dust and allows us to weigh the dust cloud. The magnetic field behavior in the simulation results qualitatively resembles the phenomenon called an interplanetary field enhancement (IFE), which is featured by a cuspshaped magnetic field enhancement lasting from several minutes to hours, with a sharp discontinuity in at least one component of the magnetic field. The association between IFE appearance and dust production was first inferred from PVO data in the 1980s, but the IFE formation process has been unclear until now. In this paper, we will gather the statistics of IFEs and use the magnetic compression to weigh the mass of the dust cloud. We will also estimate the volume over which individual events may be sensed. Using this volume together with the IFE occurrence rate we can calculate the inferred collision rate. We find for the IFE with mass about 107 kg, this rate approximately agrees with the estimated rate of collision of interplanetary bodies which can produce dust within the same mass range.

  20. Temperature measurements in small holes drilled in superconducting bulk during pulsed field magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, H.; Naito, T.; Furuta, D.; Kakehata, K.

    2010-11-01

    The time dependence of the temperatures T(z, t) has been measured along the thickness direction z in several drilled holes in a superconducting bulk during pulsed field magnetization (PFM) and the heat generation and heat transfer in the bulk have been discussed. In the previous paper [H. Fujishiro, S. Kawaguchi, K. Kakehata, A. Fujiwara, T. Tateiwa, T. Oka, Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 (2006) S540], we calculated the T(z, t) profiles in the bulk by solving a three-dimensional heat-diffusion equation to reproduce the measured T(t) on the bulk surface; the heat generation took place adiabatically and the calculated T(z, t) was isothermal along the z direction. In this study, the measured T(z, t) at the top surface was higher than that at the bottom surface just after the pulse field application at t < 0.5 s, and then became isothermal with increasing time. These results suggest that the magnetic flux intrudes inhomogeneously into the bulk from the edge of the top surface and the periphery at the early stage. The inhomogeneous magnetic flux intrusion and the flux trap during PFM change depending on the strength of the pulsed field and the pulse number in the successive pulse field application.

  1. Scanning tunneling microscope design with a confocal small field permanent magnet.

    SciTech Connect

    Messina, P.; Pearson, J.; Vasserman, I.; Sasaki, S.; Moog, E.; Fradin, F.

    2008-09-01

    The field of ultra-sensitive measurements with scanning probes requires the design and construction of novel instruments. For example, the combination of radio frequency detection and scanning probe can be exploited to measure thermal properties and mechanical resonances at a very low scale. Very recent results by Komeda and Manassen (2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 92 212506) on the detection of spin noise with the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) have further expanded previous results reported by one of the authors of this manuscript (Messina et al 2007 J. Appl. Phys. 101 053916). In a previous publication, one of the authors used a new STM instrument (Messina et al J. Appl. Phys. 2007 101 053916 and Mannini et al 2007 Inorg. Chim. Acta 360 3837-42) to obtain the detection of electron spin noise (ESN) from individual paramagnetic adsorbates. The magnetic field homogeneity at the STM tip-sample region was limited. Furthermore, vacuum operation of the STM microscope was limited by the heat dissipation at the electromagnet and the radio frequency (RF) recovery electronics. We report here on a new STM head that incorporates a specially designed permanent magnet and in-built RF amplification system. The magnet provides both a better field homogeneity and freedom to operate the instrument in vacuum. The STM microscope is vacuum compatible, and vertical stability has been improved over the previous design (Messina et al 2007 J. Appl. Phys. 101 053916), despite the presence of a heat dissipative RF amplifier in the close vicinity of the STM tip.

  2. The correspondence between small-scale coronal structures and the evolving solar magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, D. F.; Moses, J. Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Solar coronal bright points, first identified in soft X-rays as X-ray Bright Points (XBPs), are compact, short lived and associated with small bipolar magnetic flux. Contradictory studies have suggested that XBPs are either a primary signature of the emerging flux spectrum of the quiet Sun, or that they are representative of the disappearance of pre-existing flux. Results are presented using coordinated data obtained during recent X-ray sounding rocket flights on 15 August and 11 December 1987 to determine the correspondence of XBPs with time-series, ground based observations of evolving bipolar magnetic structures, He-I dark points, and the network. The results are consistent with the view that coronal bright points are more likely to be associated with the annihilation of pre-existing flux than with emerging flux.

  3. Small-Scale-Field Dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Gruzinov, A.; Cowley, S.; Sudan, R. ||

    1996-11-01

    Generation of magnetic field energy, without mean field generation, is studied. Isotropic mirror-symmetric turbulence of a conducting fluid amplifies the energy of small-scale magnetic perturbations if the magnetic Reynolds number is high, and the dimensionality of space {ital d} satisfies 2.103{lt}{ital d}{lt}8.765. The result does not depend on the model of turbulence, incompressibility, and isotropy being the only requirements. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. Dose enhancement in radiotherapy of small lung tumors using inline magnetic fields: A Monte Carlo based planning study.

    PubMed

    Oborn, B M; Ge, Y; Hardcastle, N; Metcalfe, P E; Keall, P J

    2016-01-01

    To report on significant dose enhancement effects caused by magnetic fields aligned parallel to 6 MV photon beam radiotherapy of small lung tumors. Findings are applicable to future inline MRI-guided radiotherapy systems. A total of eight clinical lung tumor cases were recalculated using Monte Carlo methods, and external magnetic fields of 0.5, 1.0, and 3 T were included to observe the impact on dose to the planning target volume (PTV) and gross tumor volume (GTV). Three plans were 6 MV 3D-CRT plans while 6 were 6 MV IMRT. The GTV's ranged from 0.8 to 16 cm(3), while the PTV's ranged from 1 to 59 cm(3). In addition, the dose changes in a 30 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom were investigated for small beams. The central 20 cm of this phantom contained either water or lung density insert. For single beams, an inline magnetic field of 1 T has a small impact in lung dose distributions by reducing the lateral scatter of secondary electrons, resulting in a small dose increase along the beam. Superposition of multiple small beams leads to significant dose enhancements. Clinically, this process occurs in the lung tissue typically surrounding the GTV, resulting in increases to the D98% (PTV). Two isolated tumors with very small PTVs (3 and 6 cm(3)) showed increases in D98% of 23% and 22%. Larger PTVs of 13, 26, and 59 cm(3) had increases of 9%, 6%, and 4%, describing a natural fall-off in enhancement with increasing PTV size. However, three PTVs bounded to the lung wall showed no significant increase, due to lack of dose enhancement in the denser PTV volume. In general, at 0.5 T, the GTV mean dose enhancement is around 60% lower than that at 1 T, while at 3 T, it is 5%-60% higher than 1 T. Monte Carlo methods have described significant and predictable dose enhancement effects in small lung tumor plans for 6 MV radiotherapy when an external inline magnetic field is included. Results of this study indicate that future clinical inline MRI-guided radiotherapy systems will

  5. Dose enhancement in radiotherapy of small lung tumors using inline magnetic fields: A Monte Carlo based planning study

    SciTech Connect

    Oborn, B. M.; Ge, Y.; Hardcastle, N.; Metcalfe, P. E.; Keall, P. J.

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To report on significant dose enhancement effects caused by magnetic fields aligned parallel to 6 MV photon beam radiotherapy of small lung tumors. Findings are applicable to future inline MRI-guided radiotherapy systems. Methods: A total of eight clinical lung tumor cases were recalculated using Monte Carlo methods, and external magnetic fields of 0.5, 1.0, and 3 T were included to observe the impact on dose to the planning target volume (PTV) and gross tumor volume (GTV). Three plans were 6 MV 3D-CRT plans while 6 were 6 MV IMRT. The GTV’s ranged from 0.8 to 16 cm{sup 3}, while the PTV’s ranged from 1 to 59 cm{sup 3}. In addition, the dose changes in a 30 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom were investigated for small beams. The central 20 cm of this phantom contained either water or lung density insert. Results: For single beams, an inline magnetic field of 1 T has a small impact in lung dose distributions by reducing the lateral scatter of secondary electrons, resulting in a small dose increase along the beam. Superposition of multiple small beams leads to significant dose enhancements. Clinically, this process occurs in the lung tissue typically surrounding the GTV, resulting in increases to the D{sub 98%} (PTV). Two isolated tumors with very small PTVs (3 and 6 cm{sup 3}) showed increases in D{sub 98%} of 23% and 22%. Larger PTVs of 13, 26, and 59 cm{sup 3} had increases of 9%, 6%, and 4%, describing a natural fall-off in enhancement with increasing PTV size. However, three PTVs bounded to the lung wall showed no significant increase, due to lack of dose enhancement in the denser PTV volume. In general, at 0.5 T, the GTV mean dose enhancement is around 60% lower than that at 1 T, while at 3 T, it is 5%–60% higher than 1 T. Conclusions: Monte Carlo methods have described significant and predictable dose enhancement effects in small lung tumor plans for 6 MV radiotherapy when an external inline magnetic field is included. Results of this study

  6. A dual RF resonator system for high-field functional magnetic resonance imaging of small animals.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, R; Bodgdanov, G; King, J; Allard, A; Ferris, C F

    2004-01-30

    A new apparatus has been developed that integrates an animal restrainer arrangement for small animals with an actively tunable/detunable dual radio-frequency (RF) coil system for in vivo anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging of small animals at 4.7 T. The radio-frequency coil features an eight-element microstrip line configuration that, in conjunction with a segmented outer copper shield, forms a transversal electromagnetic (TEM) resonator structure. Matching and active tuning/detuning is achieved through fixed/variable capacitors and a PIN diode for each resonator element. These components along with radio-frequency chokes (RFCs) and blocking capacitors are placed on two printed circuit boards (PCBs) whose copper coated ground planes form the front and back of the volume coil and are therefore an integral part of the resonator structure. The magnetic resonance signal response is received with a dome-shaped single-loop surface coil that can be height-adjustable with respect to the animal's head. The conscious animal is immobilized through a mechanical arrangement that consists of a Plexiglas body tube and a head restrainer. This restrainer has a cylindrical holder with a mouthpiece and position screws to receive and restrain the head of the animal. The apparatus is intended to perform anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging in conscious animals such as mice, rats, hamsters, and marmosets. Cranial images acquired from fully conscious rats in a 4.7 T Bruker 40 cm bore animal scanner underscore the feasibility of this approach and bode well to extend this system to the imaging of other animals.

  7. Small-scale features in the Earth's magnetic field observed by Magsat.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, J.C.; Schmitz, D.R.; Muth, L.

    1984-01-01

    A spherical harmonic expansion to degree and order 29 is derived using a selected magnetically quiet sample of Magsat data. Global maps representing the contribution due to terms of the expansion above n = 13 at 400 km altitude are compared with previously published residual anomaly maps and shown to be similar, even in polar regions. An expansion with such a high degree and order displays all but the sharpest features seen by the satellite and gives a more consistent picture of the high-order field structure at a constant altitude than do component maps derived independently. -Authors

  8. Large-Scale Velocity Fields and Small-Scale Magnetic Fields During the Maximum of Solar Cycle 22

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    Peak Observatory) of the formation of a filament during an observing run from 28 Aug. to 1 Sep. 1991; the development of a new conceptual model for...NETWORK AS RELATED TO 11 YEAR VARIATION IN THE TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE . . . . . . . . . ................ 15 3.3 AN OBSERVATIONAL- CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF...emission sources and the magnetic field than is considered within the scope of this study. 15 3.3 AN OBSERVATIONAL- CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF THE FORMATION OF

  9. Radiation from particles moving in small-scale magnetic fields created in solid-density laser-plasma laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Brett D.; Medvedev, Mikhail V.

    2015-11-01

    Plasmas created by high-intensity lasers are often subject to the formation of kinetic-streaming instabilities, such as the Weibel instability, which lead to the spontaneous generation of high-amplitude, tangled magnetic fields. These fields typically exist on small spatial scales, i.e., "sub-Larmor scales." Radiation from charged particles moving through small-scale electromagnetic (EM) turbulence has spectral characteristics distinct from both synchrotron and cyclotron radiation, and it carries valuable information on the statistical properties of the EM field structure and evolution. Consequently, this radiation from laser-produced plasmas may offer insight into the underlying electromagnetic turbulence. Here, we investigate the prospects for, and demonstrate the feasibility of, such direct radiative diagnostics for mildly relativistic, solid-density laser plasmas produced in lab experiments.

  10. Radiation from particles moving in small-scale magnetic fields created in solid-density laser-plasma laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, Brett D. Medvedev, Mikhail V.

    2015-11-15

    Plasmas created by high-intensity lasers are often subject to the formation of kinetic-streaming instabilities, such as the Weibel instability, which lead to the spontaneous generation of high-amplitude, tangled magnetic fields. These fields typically exist on small spatial scales, i.e., “sub-Larmor scales.” Radiation from charged particles moving through small-scale electromagnetic (EM) turbulence has spectral characteristics distinct from both synchrotron and cyclotron radiation, and it carries valuable information on the statistical properties of the EM field structure and evolution. Consequently, this radiation from laser-produced plasmas may offer insight into the underlying electromagnetic turbulence. Here, we investigate the prospects for, and demonstrate the feasibility of, such direct radiative diagnostics for mildly relativistic, solid-density laser plasmas produced in lab experiments.

  11. MAGNETIC FIELD PROPERTIES IN HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION FROM LARGE TO SMALL SCALES: A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS FROM POLARIZATION DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Patrick M.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2010-09-20

    Polarization data from high-mass star formation regions (W51 e2/e8, Orion BN/KL) are used to derive statistical properties of the plane of sky projected magnetic field. Structure function and auto-correlation function are calculated for observations with various resolutions from the BIMA and SMA interferometers, covering a range in physical scales from {approx}70 mpc to {approx}2.1 mpc. Results for the magnetic field turbulent dispersion, its turbulent-to-mean field strength ratio, and the large-scale polarization angle correlation length are presented as a function of the physical scale at the star formation sites. Power-law scaling relations emerge for some of these physical quantities. The turbulent-to-mean field strength ratio is found to be close to constant over the sampled observing range, with a hint of a decrease toward smaller scales, indicating that the role of the magnetic field and turbulence is evolving with the physical scale. A statistical method is proposed to separate large- and small-scale correlations from an initial ensemble of polarization segments. This also leads to a definition of a turbulent polarization angle correlation length.

  12. A comparison of small-scale magnetic fluctuations in the Region 1 and 2 field-aligned current systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Bryant, M. S.; Ridley, C. G.; Shen, Y.; Yang, L.; Clausen, L. B. N.; McWilliams, K. A.; Murphy, K. R.; Mann, I. R.; Ozeke, L. G.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.; Waters, C. L.

    2017-03-01

    By determining the location and size of the Region 1 (R1) and Region 2 (R2) large-scale field-aligned currents (FACs) from Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment data, we are able to study the small-scale magnetic fluctuations observed by the Swarm satellites embedded within the large-scale FACs. A statistical comparison of R1 and R2 high-frequency fluctuations is presented in terms of different solar wind conditions and geomagnetic activities. We find that (1) the amplitude of high-frequency fluctuations in both R1 and R2 increases as the large-scale R1 and R2 FACs intensify; (2) high-frequency fluctuations in R1 peak near dayside dawn and dusk, while those in R2 peak around noon; (3) the location of the largest high-frequency fluctuations in R1 shifts in local time in response to IMF By, indicating a connection between the R1 fluctuation and the driving solar wind most likely explained by magnetic reconnection; and (4) high-frequency fluctuations in R2 are enhanced in a small region near local noon and respond clearly to nightside drivers, as characterized by the auroral electrojet index. Our analysis shows that the intensity of R1 and R2 high-frequency magnetic fluctuations is directly connected to the intensity of FACs, which implies that the magnetic fluctuations are closely related to the magnetospheric processes that drive them.

  13. Magnetic fields from inflation?

    SciTech Connect

    Demozzi, Vittoria; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Rubinstein, Hector E-mail: viatcheslav.mukhanov@physik.uni-muenchen.de

    2009-08-01

    We consider the possibility of generation of the primordial magnetic field on inflation and show that the effect of the back reaction of this field can be very important. Assuming that the back reaction does not spoil inflation we find a rather strong restriction on the amplitude of the primordial field which could be generated on inflation. Namely, this amplitude recalculated to the present epoch cannot exceed 10{sup −32}G in Mpc scales. This field seems to be too small to be amplified to the observable values by a possible dynamo mechanism.

  14. Magnetic field sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    Earlier papers1-3 in this journal have described experiments on measuring the magnetic fields of current-carrying wires and permanent magnets using magnetic field probes of various kinds. This paper explains how to use an iPad and the free app MagnetMeter-3D Vector Magnetometer and Accelerometer4 (compass HD) to measure the magnetic fields.

  15. The magnetic shear-current effect: Generation of large-scale magnetic fields by the small-scale dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2016-03-14

    A novel large-scale dynamo mechanism, the magnetic shear-current effect, is discussed and explored. Here, the effect relies on the interaction of magnetic fluctuations with a mean shear flow, meaning the saturated state of the small-scale dynamo can drive a large-scale dynamo – in some sense the inverse of dynamo quenching. The dynamo is non-helical, with the mean field${\\it\\alpha}$coefficient zero, and is caused by the interaction between an off-diagonal component of the turbulent resistivity and the stretching of the large-scale field by shear flow. Following up on previous numerical and analytic work, this paper presents further details of the numerical evidence for the effect, as well as an heuristic description of how magnetic fluctuations can interact with shear flow to produce the required electromotive force. The pressure response of the fluid is fundamental to this mechanism, which helps explain why the magnetic effect is stronger than its kinematic cousin, and the basic idea is related to the well-known lack of turbulent resistivity quenching by magnetic fluctuations. As well as being interesting for its applications to general high Reynolds number astrophysical turbulence, where strong small-scale magnetic fluctuations are expected to be prevalent, the magnetic shear-current effect is a likely candidate for large-scale dynamo in the unstratified regions of ionized accretion disks. Evidence for this is discussed, as well as future research directions and the challenges involved with understanding details of the effect in astrophysically relevant regimes.

  16. Evolution of twisted magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, E.G.; Boozer, A.H.

    1985-02-01

    The magnetic field of the solar corona evolves quasistatically in response to slowly changing photospheric boundary conditions. The magnetic topology is preserved by the low resistivity of the solar atmosphere. We show that a magnetic flux coordinate system simplifies the problem of calculating field evolution with invariant topology. As an example, we calculate the equilibrium of a thin magnetic flux tube with small twist per unit length.

  17. Hybrid magnet devices for molecule manipulation and small scale high gradient-field applications

    DOEpatents

    Humphries, David E [El Cerrito, CA; Hong, Seok-Cheol [Seoul, KR; Cozzarelli, legal representative, Linda A.; Pollard, Martin J [El Cerrito, CA; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R [Berkeley, CA

    2009-01-06

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are hybrid magnetic tweezers able to exert approximately 1 nN of force to 4.5 .mu.m magnetic bead. The maximum force was experimentally measured to be .about.900 pN which is in good agreement with theoretical estimations and other measurements. In addition, a new analysis scheme that permits fast real-time position measurement in typical geometry of magnetic tweezers has been developed and described in detail.

  18. The magnetic shear-current effect: Generation of large-scale magnetic fields by the small-scale dynamo

    DOE PAGES

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2016-03-14

    A novel large-scale dynamo mechanism, the magnetic shear-current effect, is discussed and explored. Here, the effect relies on the interaction of magnetic fluctuations with a mean shear flow, meaning the saturated state of the small-scale dynamo can drive a large-scale dynamo – in some sense the inverse of dynamo quenching. The dynamo is non-helical, with the mean fieldmore » $${\\it\\alpha}$$coefficient zero, and is caused by the interaction between an off-diagonal component of the turbulent resistivity and the stretching of the large-scale field by shear flow. Following up on previous numerical and analytic work, this paper presents further details of the numerical evidence for the effect, as well as an heuristic description of how magnetic fluctuations can interact with shear flow to produce the required electromotive force. The pressure response of the fluid is fundamental to this mechanism, which helps explain why the magnetic effect is stronger than its kinematic cousin, and the basic idea is related to the well-known lack of turbulent resistivity quenching by magnetic fluctuations. As well as being interesting for its applications to general high Reynolds number astrophysical turbulence, where strong small-scale magnetic fluctuations are expected to be prevalent, the magnetic shear-current effect is a likely candidate for large-scale dynamo in the unstratified regions of ionized accretion disks. Evidence for this is discussed, as well as future research directions and the challenges involved with understanding details of the effect in astrophysically relevant regimes.« less

  19. High-resolution small field-of-view magnetic resonance image acquisition system using a small planar coil and a pneumatic manipulator in an open MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Miki, Kohei; Masamune, Ken

    2015-10-01

    Low-field open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used for performing image-guided neurosurgical procedures. Intraoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images are useful for tracking brain shifts and verifying residual tumors. However, it is difficult to precisely determine the boundary of the brain tumors and normal brain tissues because the MR image resolution is low, especially when using a low-field open MRI scanner. To overcome this problem, a high-resolution MR image acquisition system was developed and tested. An MR-compatible manipulator with pneumatic actuators containing an MR signal receiver with a small radiofrequency (RF) coil was developed. The manipulator had five degrees of freedom for position and orientation control of the RF coil. An 8-mm planar RF coil with resistance and inductance of 2.04 [Formula: see text] and 1.00 [Formula: see text] was attached to the MR signal receiver at the distal end of the probe. MR images of phantom test devices were acquired using the MR signal receiver and normal head coil for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) testing. The SNR of MR images acquired using the MR signal receiver was 8.0 times greater than that of MR images acquired using the normal head coil. The RF coil was moved by the manipulator, and local MR images of a phantom with a 2-mm grid were acquired using the MR signal receiver. A wide field-of-view MR image was generated from a montage of local MR images. A small field-of-view RF system with a pneumatic manipulator was integrated in a low-field MRI scanner to allow acquisition of both wide field-of-view and high-resolution MR images. This system is promising for image-guided neurosurgery as it may allow brain tumors to be observed more clearly and removed precisely.

  20. Mercury's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury is the only inner solar system body other than Earth to possess an active core dynamo-driven magnetic field and the only planet with a small, highly dynamic magnetosphere. Measurements made by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft have provided a wealth of data on Mercury's magnetic field environment. Mercury's weak magnetic field was discovered 40 years ago by the Mariner 10 spacecraft, but its large-scale geometry, strength and origin could not be definitively established. MESSENGER data have shown that the field is dynamo-generated and can be described as an offset axisymmetric dipole field (hereafter OAD): the magnetic equator lies ~0.2 RM (RM = 2440 km) north of the geographic equator and the dipole moment is 2.8 x1019 Am2 (~0.03% that of Earth's). The weak internal field and the high, but variable, solar wind ram pressure drive vigorous magnetospheric dynamics and result in an average distance from the planet center to the sub-solar magnetopause of only 1.42 RM. Magnetospheric models developed with MESSENGER data have allowed re-analysis of the Mariner 10 observations, establishing that there has been no measureable secular variation in the internal field over 40 years. Together with spatial power spectra for the OAD, this provides critical constraints for viable dynamo models. Time-varying magnetopause fields induce secondary core fields, the magnitudes of which confirm the core radius estimated from MESSENGER gravity and Earth-based radar data. After accounting for large-scale magnetospheric fields, residual signatures are dominated by additional external fields that are organized in the local time frame and that vary with magnetospheric activity. Birkeland currents have been identified, which likely close in the planetary interior at depths below the base of the crust. Near-periapsis magnetic field measurements at altitudes greater than 200 km have tantalizing hints of crustal fields, but crustal

  1. Cosmological magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Kerstin E.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic fields are observed on nearly all scales in the Universe, from stars and galaxies up to galaxy clusters and even beyond. The origin of cosmic magnetic fields is still an open question, however a large class of models puts its origin in the very early Universe. A magnetic dynamo amplifying an initial seed magnetic field could explain the present day strength of the galactic magnetic field. However, it is still an open problem how and when this initial magnetic field was created. Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide a window to the early Universe and might therefore be able to tell us whether cosmic magnetic fields are of a primordial cosmological origin and at the same time constrain its parameters. We will give an overview of the observational evidence of large-scale magnetic fields, describe generation mechanisms of primordial magnetic fields and possible imprints in the CMB.

  2. Coronal energy distribution and X-ray activity in the small scale magnetic field of the quiet sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habbal, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    The energy distribution in the small-scale magnetic field that pervades the solar surface, and its relationship to X-ray/coronal activity are discussed. The observed emission from the small scale structures, at temperatures characteristic of the chromosphere, transition region and corona, emanates from the boundaries of supergranular cells, within coronal bright points. This emission is characterized by a strong temporal and spatial variability with no definite pattern. The analysis of simultaneous, multiwavelength EUV observations shows that the spatial density of the enhanced as well as variable emission from the small scale structures exhibits a pronounced temperature dependence with significant maxima at 100,000 and 1,000,000 K. Within the limits of the spatial (1-5 arcsec) and temporal (1-5 min) resolution of data available at present, the observed variability in the small scale structure cannot account for the coroal heating of the quiet sun. The characteristics of their emission are more likely to be an indicator of the coronal heating mechanisms.

  3. Coronal energy distribution and X-ray activity in the small scale magnetic field of the quiet sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habbal, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    The energy distribution in the small-scale magnetic field that pervades the solar surface, and its relationship to X-ray/coronal activity are discussed. The observed emission from the small scale structures, at temperatures characteristic of the chromosphere, transition region and corona, emanates from the boundaries of supergranular cells, within coronal bright points. This emission is characterized by a strong temporal and spatial variability with no definite pattern. The analysis of simultaneous, multiwavelength EUV observations shows that the spatial density of the enhanced as well as variable emission from the small scale structures exhibits a pronounced temperature dependence with significant maxima at 100,000 and 1,000,000 K. Within the limits of the spatial (1-5 arcsec) and temporal (1-5 min) resolution of data available at present, the observed variability in the small scale structure cannot account for the coroal heating of the quiet sun. The characteristics of their emission are more likely to be an indicator of the coronal heating mechanisms.

  4. Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gay B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

  5. Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gay B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

  6. Facility Measures Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honess, Shawn B.; Narvaez, Pablo; Mcauley, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Partly automated facility measures and computes steady near magnetic field produced by object. Designed to determine magnetic fields of equipment to be installed on spacecraft including sensitive magnetometers, with view toward application of compensating fields to reduce interfernece with spacecraft-magnetometer readings. Because of its convenient operating features and sensitivity of its measurements, facility serves as prototype for similar facilities devoted to magnetic characterization of medical equipment, magnets for high-energy particle accelerators, and magnetic materials.

  7. Relationship between the Occurrence of a Flare and the Small-Scale Variation of Photospheric Magnetic Field in Active Region 12371

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jihye; Magara, Tetsuya; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the flare productivity of a magnetic structure by focusing on the spatial and temporal changes of photospheric magnetic field. The physical process to develop a flare-producing magnetic structure in the corona in response to these photospheric changes is one of the hot topics. We analyzed small-scale photospheric changes of observation data to see how they are related to the occurrence of a flare. It is found that difference of transverse components between potential field and observed photospheric vector field is noticeable in a small-scale emerging region near the main polarity inversion line in AR12371 when it produced an M-class flare. We also investigate a flare-producing coronal magnetic configuration of this active region by using a nonlinear force-free field model.

  8. Characteristics of Jeffrey fluid model for peristaltic flow of chyme in small intestine with magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Nadeem, S.; Lee, Changhoon

    In the present article we have analyzed the Jeffrey fluid model for the peristaltic flow of chyme in the small intestine. We have formulated the problem using two non-periodic sinusoidal waves of different wavelengths propagating with same speed c along the outer wall of the tube. Governing equations for the problem under consideration have been simplified under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximation (such assumptions are consistent since Re (Reynolds number) is very small and long wavelength approximation also exists in the small intestine). Exact solutions have been calculated for velocity and pressure rise. Physical behavior of different parameters of Jeffrey fluid has been presented graphically for velocity, pressure rise, pressure gradient and frictional forces. The trapping phenomenon is also discussed at the end of the article.

  9. Mathematical model of a novel small magnetorheological damper by using outer magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liutian; Li, Junhui; Zhu, Wenhui

    2017-03-01

    In order to realize small loading and small damping, a mini Magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) damper is suggested by using new method of outer coils, and its physical model is established firstly. It was found that the landing force is only 1.74˜8N, the landing force is the third-order function with the current by polynomial fitting of the experimental data, which shows a force-current model. The results of force-displacement and force-velocity indicate that it has nonlinear hysteretic damping characteristics. Based on the new mini-mode principle and the damping characteristics, an improved nonlinear dynamics model is proposed, and its parameter expressions are obtained by parameter identification and regression fitting. Model curves fit well with experimental curves, and the improved model has fully demonstrated the dynamic characteristics of the mini-MRF damper. It will provide scientific method and physical model for the small MRF damper development.

  10. Magnetic Fields in Irregular Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Muehle, S.; Robishaw, T.; Everett, J.; Wilcots, E.; Zweibel, E.; Heiles, C.

    2007-12-01

    Magnetic fields are an important component of the interstellar medium (ISM). They provide a source of pressure support, transfer energy from supernovae, are a possible heating mechanism for the ISM, and channel gas flows. Despite the importance of magnetic fields in the ISM, what generates and sustains galactic magnetic fields or how magnetic fields, gas, and stars interact in galaxies is not well understood. The magnetic fields may be especially important in low-mass galaxies like irregulars where the magnetic pressure may be great enough for the field to be dynamically important. Only three irregular galaxies besides the LMC and the SMC have previously observed magnetic field structures. NGC 4449 (Chyzy et al. 2000) and the LMC (Gaensler et al. 2005) both have large-scale fields, while IC 10 and NGC 6822 have mostly random fields (Chyzy et al. 2003). Our goal is to determine what mechanisms generate and sustain large-scale magnetic fields in irregular galaxies and what causes the range of magnetic field structure in irregular galaxies. We have observed the polarized radio continuum emission of four irregular galaxies with the VLA, GBT, and ATCA. Our observations double the number of irregular galaxies with observed magnetic field structure. Here we present results from two of our galaxies: NGC 4214 and NGC 1569. We find that NGC 4214 has a mostly random magnetic field structure, which is not surprising given its weak bar, small size, and high star formation rate. The magnetic field of NGC 1569 has large-scale structure which has been shaped not by a dynamo, but by an outflow generated by the massive star formation rate in this galaxy. Support for this research has been provided by a GBT Student Support Award, a Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium Graduate Fellowship, and an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.

  11. Small-amplitude magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth in cylindrical liners and Z-pinches imploded in an axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Clark, R. W.; Mikitchuk, D.; Kroupp, E.; Maron, Y.; Fisher, A.; Schmit, P. F.

    2014-10-01

    Recent progress in developing the MagLIF approach to pulsed-power driven inertial confinement fusion has stimulated the interest in observation and mitigation of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRTI) of liners and Z-pinches imploded in an axial magnetic field. Theoretical analysis of these issues is particularly important because direct numerical simulation of the MRTI development is challenging due to intrinsically 3D helical structure of the fastest-growing modes. We review the analytical small-amplitude theory of the MRTI perturbation development and the weakly nonlinear theory of MRTI mode interaction, emphasizing basic physics, opportunity for 3D code verification against exact analytical solutions, and stabilization criteria. The theory is compared to the experimental results obtained at Weizmann Institute with gas-puff Z pinches and on the Z facility at Sandia with solid liners imploded in an axial magnetic field. Work supported by the US DOE/NNSA, and by the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. A small-scale dynamo in feedback-dominated galaxies as the origin of cosmic magnetic fields - I. The kinematic phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Michael; Teyssier, Romain

    2016-04-01

    The origin and evolution of magnetic fields in the Universe is still an open question. Their observations in galaxies suggest strong magnetic fields already at high redshift as well as at present time. However, neither primordial magnetic fields nor battery processes can account for such high field strengths, which implies the presence of a dynamo process with rapid growth rates in high-redshift galaxies and subsequent maintenance against decay. We investigate the particular role played by feedback mechanisms in creating strong fluid turbulence, allowing for a magnetic dynamo to emerge. Performing magnetohydrodynamic simulations of isolated cooling gas haloes, we compare the magnetic field evolution for various initial field topologies and various stellar feedback mechanisms. We find that feedback can indeed drive strong gas turbulence and dynamo action. We see typical properties of Kolmogorov turbulence with a k-5/3 kinetic energy spectrum, as well as a small-scale dynamo, with a k3/2 magnetic energy spectrum predicted by Kazantsev dynamo theory. We also investigate simulations with a final quiescent phase. As turbulence decreases, the galactic fountain settles into a thin, rotationally supported disc. The magnetic field develops a large-scale well-ordered structure with even symmetry, which is in good agreement with magnetic field observations of nearby spirals. Our findings suggest that weak initial seed fields were first amplified by a small-scale dynamo during a violent feedback-dominated early phase in the galaxy formation history, followed by a more quiescent evolution, where the fields have slowly decayed or were maintained via large-scale dynamo action.

  13. Spin-up flow in non-small magnetic fields: Numerical evaluation of the predictions of the common magnetization relaxation equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves-Guerrero, Arlex; Peña-Cruz, Víctor A.; Rinaldi, Carlos; Fuentes-Díaz, David

    2017-07-01

    The flow of a ferrofluid between two parallel infinitely long plates generated by a rotating magnetic field has been studied analytically and numerically using spin diffusion theory for a broad range of frequencies and intensities of the magnetic field. This work was motivated by interest in obtaining better agreement between the theoretical predictions and the experimental observations of the dependence of the flow magnitude on the amplitude and frequency of the magnetic field. These discrepancies have been attributed to the use of asymptotic solutions to assess velocity profiles obtained to moderate magnetic field strength and to the need to use a more accurate magnetization equation to high amplitudes and frequencies of the magnetic field. For such reasons, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the magnetization equations derived by Shliomis [Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 1291 (1972)] (Sh-72) and by Martsenyuk, Raikher, and Shliomis [Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 413 (1974)] (MRSh-74) on the flow predictions of the spin diffusion theory using a simple geometry. It was found that the flow predictions for the two cases studied match with an asymptotic solution in the limit of low field strength when the Langevin parameter (α ) is less than 0.1, for any value of the dimensionless frequency (Ω ˜ ) . Marked differences were found in the predictions of flow magnitude dependence on the amplitude and frequency of the magnetic field when Sh-72 or MRSh-74 was used for α >1 . Results also show that there is a critical value of frequency above which the velocity of the ferrofluid decreases with increasing magnetic field amplitude. Whereas the value of the critical frequency predicted by the Sh-72 magnetization equation is approximately unity for any value of the magnetic field amplitude, the MRSh-74 equation predicts that the critical frequency increases with increasing magnetic field amplitude. Predictions of the MRSh-74 equation are in qualitative agreement with

  14. Enhancing the strain sensitivity of CoFe₂O₄ at low magnetic fields without affecting the magnetostriction coefficient by substitution of small amounts of Mg for Fe.

    PubMed

    Anantharamaiah, P N; Joy, P A

    2016-04-21

    Attaining high magnetostrictive strain sensitivity (dλ/dH) with high magnetostriction strain (λ) is desirable for sintered polycrystalline cobalt ferrite for various applications. It is shown that substitution of a small amount of Fe(3+) by Mg(2+) in CoMgxFe2-xO4 (x < 0.1) gives a comparable maximum magnetostriction coefficient to that of the unsubstituted counterpart, with large improvement in the strain sensitivity at relatively low magnetic fields. A large increase in the magnetostriction coefficient is obtained at low magnetic fields for the substituted compositions. The magnetostriction parameters are further enhanced by magnetic field annealing of the sintered products. The results are analyzed based on powder XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and magnetic measurements and based on the results from these studies, the changes in the magnetostriction parameters are correlated with the changes in the cation distribution, magnetic anisotropy and microstructure.

  15. Photonic Magnetic Field Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyntjes, Geert

    2002-02-01

    Small, in-line polarization rotators or isolators to reduce feedback in fiber optic links can be the basis for excellent magnetic field sensors. Based on the giant magneto-optical (GMO) or Faraday effect in iron garnets, they with a magnetic field of a few hundred Gauss, (20 mT) for an interaction length for an optical beam of a few millimeters achieve a polarization rotation or phase shift of 45 deg (1/8 cycle). When powered by a small laser diode, with the induced linear phase shift recovered at the shot noise limit, we have demonstrated sensitivities at the 3.3 nT/Hz1/2 level for frequencies from less than 1 Hz to frequencies into the high kHz range. Through further improvements; an increase in interaction length, better materials and by far the greatest factor, the addition of a flux concentrator, sensitivities at the pT/Hz1/2 level appear to be within reach. We will detail such a design and discuss the issues that may limit achieving these goals.

  16. Magnetic Fields in Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landstreet, J.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Magnetism—the force that deflects the needle of a compass—and magnetic fields have been found in some hundreds of stars during the past 50 yr. Magnetic fields have been detected in T Tauri stars and other pre-main-sequence stars, several types of main sequence stars, white dwarfs and neutron stars. We now know a number of methods by which such magnetic fields may be detected, we are in the proces...

  17. Organic magnetic field sensor

    DOEpatents

    McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph

    2017-01-24

    An organic, spin-dependent magnetic field sensor (10) includes an active stack (12) having an organic material with a spin-dependence. The sensor (10) also includes a back electrical contact (14) electrically coupled to a back of the active stack (12) and a front electrical contact (16) electrically coupled to a front of the active stack (12). A magnetic field generator (18) is oriented so as to provide an oscillating magnetic field which penetrates the active stack (12).

  18. The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.

    2014-01-01

    The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a quantization uncertainty of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05%. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers - multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes - to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.

  19. The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.

    2015-12-01

    The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a resolution of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05 %. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers—multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes—to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.

  20. Quasi-single helicity state by a small positive pulse of toroidal magnetic field in TPE-RX reversed field pinch experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Y.; Koguchi, H.; Yambe, K.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.

    2006-12-15

    By applying a small positive pulse ({delta}B{sub ta}) in toroidal magnetic field, the quasi-single helicity (QSH) state can be obtained with a controllable and reproducible manner in a reversed-field pinch (RFP) experiment on the large RFP machine, TPE-RX [Y. Yagi et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 45, 421 (1999)]. The QSH state in RFP is one of the states where the improved confinement can be observed, and is important for development toward the pure single helicity (SH) state. In the SH state, the dynamo-action for sustaining the RFP configuration will be driven by a single helical mode and its harmonics, and the anomalous plasma loss can be avoided which is caused by the multi-helicity dynamo action in ordinary RFPs. In the operating condition presented here, the reversal of toroidal magnetic field (B{sub ta}) is maintained at a shallow value ({approx}-1 mT) for a certain period ({approx}20 ms) after the setting up of the RFP configuration and then the positive {delta}B{sub ta} ((less-or-similar sign)5 mT magnitude and {approx}2 ms width) is applied to the B{sub ta}, which is usually negative during the sustaining phase of RFP. Just after applying the pulse, the m/n=1/6 mode (m and n being the poloidal and toroidal Fourier mode numbers, respectively) grows dominantly and the configuration goes into QSH state. This QSH state can be sustained for a long period (up to {approx}45 ms) almost until the end of discharge by applying a delayed reversal of B{sub ta} with appropriate timing and magnitude. The setting up of the QSH states shows a reproducibility of almost 100% with the same timing corresponding to the applied positive pulse. This observation can confirm the interpretation in the former report [Y. Hirano et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 112501 (2005)], in which it is claimed that the QSH state is obtained when a small positive pulse in toroidal magnetic field spontaneously appears.

  1. Effect of Adjuvant Magnetic Fields in Radiotherapy on Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jianguo; Sheng, Huaying; Zhu, Chihong; Jiang, Hao; Ma, Shenglin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To explore sensitization and possible mechanisms of adjuvant magnetic fields (MFs) in radiotherapy (RT) of non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods. Human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells were treated with MF, RT, and combined MF-RT. Colony-forming efficiency was calculated, cell cycle and apoptosis were measured, and changes in cell cycle- and apoptosis-related gene expression were measured by microarray. Results. A 0.5 T, 8 Hz stationary MF showed a duration-dependent inhibitory effect lasting for 1–4 hours. The MF-treated groups had significantly greater cell inhibition than did controls (P < 0.05). Surviving fractions and growth curves derived from colony-forming assay showed that the MF-only, RT-only, and MF-RT groups had inhibited cell growth; the MF-RT group showed a synergetic effect. Microarray of A549 cells exposed for 1 hour to MF showed that 19 cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes had 2-fold upregulation and 40 genes had 2-fold downregulation. MF significantly arrested cells in G2 and M phases, apparently sensitizing the cells to RT. Conclusions. MF may inhibit A549 cells and can increase their sensitivity to RT, possibly by affecting cell cycle- and apoptosis-related signaling pathways. PMID:24224175

  2. Magnetic field generator

    DOEpatents

    Krienin, Frank

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic field generating device provides a useful magnetic field within a specific retgion, while keeping nearby surrounding regions virtually field free. By placing an appropriate current density along a flux line of the source, the stray field effects of the generator may be contained. One current carrying structure may support a truncated cosine distribution, and it may be surrounded by a current structure which follows a flux line that would occur in a full coaxial double cosine distribution. Strong magnetic fields may be generated and contained using superconducting cables to approximate required current surfaces.

  3. The Heliospheric Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Mathew J.; Forsyth, Robert J.

    2013-12-01

    The heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) is the extension of the coronal magnetic field carried out into the solar system by the solar wind. It is the means by which the Sun interacts with planetary magnetospheres and channels charged particles propagating through the heliosphere. As the HMF remains rooted at the solar photosphere as the Sun rotates, the large-scale HMF traces out an Archimedean spiral. This pattern is distorted by the interaction of fast and slow solar wind streams, as well as the interplanetary manifestations of transient solar eruptions called coronal mass ejections. On the smaller scale, the HMF exhibits an array of waves, discontinuities, and turbulence, which give hints to the solar wind formation process. This review aims to summarise observations and theory of the small- and large-scale structure of the HMF. Solar-cycle and cycle-to-cycle evolution of the HMF is discussed in terms of recent spacecraft observations and pre-spaceage proxies for the HMF in geomagnetic and galactic cosmic ray records.

  4. Magnetic fields from phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Everett, Allen

    1998-11-01

    The generation of primordial magnetic fields from cosmological phase transitions is discussed, paying particular attention to the electroweak transition and to the various definitions of the ``average'' field that have been put forward. It is emphasized that only the volume average has dynamical significance as a seed for galactic dynamos. On rather general grounds of causality and energy conservation, it is shown that, in the absence of MHD effects that transfer power in the magnetic field from small to large scales, processes occurring at the electroweak transition cannot generate fields stronger than 10-20 G on a scale of 0.5 Mpc. However, it is implausible that this upper bound could ever be reached, as it would require all the energy in the Universe to be turned into a magnetic field coherent at the horizon scale. Non-linear MHD effects seem therefore to be necessary if the electroweak transition is to create a primordial seed field.

  5. Anisotropic magnetic particles in a magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Martchenko, Ilya; Mihut, Adriana M.; Bialik, Erik; Hirt, Ann M.; Rufier, Chantal; Menzel, Andreas; Dietsch, Hervé; Linse, Per

    2016-01-01

    We characterize the structural properties of magnetic ellipsoidal hematite colloids with an aspect ratio ρ ≈ 2.3 using a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering and computer simulations. The evolution of the phase diagram with packing fraction φ and the strength of an applied magnetic field B is described, and the coupling between orientational order of magnetic ellipsoids and the bulk magnetic behavior of their suspension addressed. We establish quantitative structural criteria for the different phase and arrest transitions and map distinct isotropic, polarized non-nematic, and nematic phases over an extended range in the φ–B coordinates. We show that upon a rotational arrest of the ellipsoids around φ = 0.59, the bulk magnetic behavior of their suspension switches from superparamagnetic to ordered weakly ferromagnetic. If densely packed and arrested, these magnetic particles thus provide persisting remanent magnetization of the suspension. By exploring structural and magnetic properties together, we extend the often used colloid-atom analogy to the case of magnetic spins. PMID:27722439

  6. TURBULENT MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE QUIET SUN: IMPLICATIONS OF HINODE OBSERVATIONS AND SMALL-SCALE DYNAMO SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pietarila Graham, Jonathan; Danilovic, Sanja; Schuessler, Manfred

    2009-03-10

    Using turbulent MHD simulations (magnetic Reynolds numbers up to {approx}8000) and Hinode observations, we study effects of turbulence on measuring the solar magnetic field outside active regions. First, from synthetic Stokes V profiles for the Fe I lines at 6301 and 6302 A, we show that a peaked probability distribution function (PDF) for observationally derived field estimates is consistent with a monotonic PDF for actual vertical field strengths. Hence, the prevalence of weak fields is greater than would be naively inferred from observations. Second, we employ the fractal self-similar geometry of the turbulent solar magnetic field to derive two estimates (numerical and observational) of the true mean vertical unsigned flux density. We also find observational evidence that the scales of magnetic structuring in the photosphere extend at least down to an order of magnitude smaller than 200 km: the self-similar power-law scaling in the signed measure from a Hinode magnetogram ranges (over two decades in length scales and including the granulation scale) down to the {approx}200 km resolution limit. From the self-similar scaling, we determine a lower bound for the true quiet-Sun mean vertical unsigned flux density of {approx}50 G. This is consistent with our numerically based estimates that 80% or more of the vertical unsigned flux should be invisible to Stokes V observations at a resolution of 200 km owing to the cancellation of signal from opposite magnetic polarities. Our estimates significantly reduce the order-of-magnitude discrepancy between Zeeman- and Hanle-based estimates.

  7. Bio-effects of near-zero magnetic fields on the growth, development and reproduction of small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus and brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Wan, Gui-jun; Jiang, Shou-lin; Zhao, Zong-chao; Xu, Jing-jing; Tao, Xiao-rong; Sword, Gregory A; Gao, Yue-bo; Pan, Wei-dong; Chen, Fa-jun

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic fields markedly affect the growth and development of many species of organisms potentially due to cryptochrome and endogenous presence of magnetic materials. Sensitivity to magnetic fields can also be involved in geomagnetic orientation by some long-distance migratory insects. In this study, near-zero magnetic fields (NZMF) in relation to normal geomagnetic fields (GMF) were setup using the Hypomagnetic Field Space System (HMFs) to investigate the effects of magnetic fields on the growth, development and reproduction of two species of migratory planthopper, the small brown planthopper (abbr. SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus, and the brown planthopper (abbr. BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. Exposure of both L. striatellus and N. lugens to NZMF delayed egg and nymphal developmental durations and decreased adult weight and female fecundity. The 1st-5th instars of SBPH and BPH showed different responses to NZMF. The 4th instar was significantly affected by NZMF, especially for BPH males, in which NZMF exposure reduced the difference in development duration between females and males. Compared with GMF, the vitellogenin transcript levels of newly molted female adults and the number of eggs per female were significantly reduced in both planthopper species, indicating a negative effect on fertility under NZMF. Our findings provided experimental evidence that NZMF negatively affected the growth and development of SBPH and BPH, with particularly strong effects on reproduction.

  8. Photospheric and coronal magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Sheeley, N.R., Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on small-scale and large-scale photospheric and coronal magnetic fields during 1987-1990 is reviewed, focusing on observational studies. Particular attention is given to the new techniques, which include the correlation tracking of granules, the use of highly Zeeman-sensitive infrared spectral lines and multiple lines to deduce small-scale field strength, the application of long integration times coupled with good seeing conditions to study weak fields, and the use of high-resolution CCD detectors together with computer image-processing techniques to obtain images with unsurpassed spatial resolution. Synoptic observations of large-scale fields during the sunspot cycle are also discussed. 101 refs.

  9. PREPROCESSING MAGNETIC FIELDS WITH CHROMOSPHERIC LONGITUDINAL FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya T.; Kusano, K.

    2012-06-20

    Nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation is a powerful tool for the modeling of the magnetic field in the solar corona. However, since the photospheric magnetic field does not in general satisfy the force-free condition, some kind of processing is required to assimilate data into the model. In this paper, we report the results of new preprocessing for the NLFFF extrapolation. Through this preprocessing, we expect to obtain magnetic field data similar to those in the chromosphere. In our preprocessing, we add a new term concerning chromospheric longitudinal fields into the optimization function proposed by Wiegelmann et al. We perform a parameter survey of six free parameters to find minimum force- and torque-freeness with the simulated-annealing method. Analyzed data are a photospheric vector magnetogram of AR 10953 observed with the Hinode spectropolarimeter and a chromospheric longitudinal magnetogram observed with SOLIS spectropolarimeter. It is found that some preprocessed fields show the smallest force- and torque-freeness and are very similar to the chromospheric longitudinal fields. On the other hand, other preprocessed fields show noisy maps, although the force- and torque-freeness are of the same order. By analyzing preprocessed noisy maps in the wave number space, we found that small and large wave number components balance out on the force-free index. We also discuss our iteration limit of the simulated-annealing method and magnetic structure broadening in the chromosphere.

  10. Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Masashi

    The magnetic-field characteristics in spiral galaxies are investigated, with emphasis on the Milky Way. The dynamo theory is considered, and axisymmetric spiral (ASS) and bisymmetric spiral (BSS) magnetic fields are analyzed. Toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields are discussed.

  11. Magnetic field dosimeter development

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    In recent years there has been increased concern over potential health hazards related to exposure of personnel to magnetic fields. If exposure standards are to be established, then a means for measuring magnetic field dose must be available. To meet this need, the Department of Energy has funded development of prototype dosimeters at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This manual reviews the principle of operation of the dosimeter and also contains step-by-step instructions for its operation.

  12. Magnetosheath magnetic field variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.

    1994-01-01

    A case study using simulations IRM and CCE observations demonstrates that transient magnetospheric events correspond to pressure pulses in the magnetosheath, inward bow shock motion, and magnetopause compression. Statistical surveys indicate that the magnetosheath magnetic field orientation rarely remains constant during periods of magnetopause and bow shock motion (both characterized by periods of 1 to 10 min). There is no tendency for bow shock motion to occur for southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations.

  13. Solar Wind Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.

  14. Solar Wind Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.

  15. Magnetic Field Illuminated

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-16

    Each day NASA solar scientists produce overlays (in white lines) that show their estimation of how the magnetic field lines above the sun are configured (June16, 2016). In the video clip we show the sun in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light, then reveal the magnetic field line configuration in the same wavelength. Notice how the lines are tightly bundled near the lighter-toned active regions, which are magnetically intense regions. The magnetic lines from the darker areas, called coronal holes, open out into space and the extended lines show that. Our magnetically active sun is a dynamic body that changes all the time. Movie are also available at the Photojournal. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20881

  16. Molecules in Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana

    2015-08-01

    Molecules probe cool matter in the Universe and various astrophysical objects. Their ability to sense magnetic fields provides new insights into magnetic properties of these objects. During the past fifteen years we have carried out a theoretical study of molecular magnetic effects such as the Zeeman, Paschen-Back and Hanle effects and their applications for inferring magnetic structures and spatial inhomogeneities on the Sun, cool stars, brown dwarfs, and exoplanets from molecular spectro-polarimetry (e.g., Berdyugina 2011). Here, we present an overview of this study and compare our theoretical predictions with recent laboratory measurements of magnetic properties of some molecules. We present also a new web-based tool to compute molecular magnetic effects and polarized spectra which is supported by the ERC Advanced Grant HotMol.

  17. Spin-orbit torque induced magnetization switching in Ta/Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20}/MgO structures under small in-plane magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Jiangwei Zheng, Yuqiang; Su, Xianpeng; Hao, Liang; Wang, Ying; Bai, Jianmin; Wei, Fulin

    2016-04-25

    Spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced magnetization switching under small in-plane magnetic fields in as-deposited and annealed Ta/CoFeB/MgO structures is studied. For the as-deposited samples, partial SOT-induced switching behavior is observed under an in-plane field of less than 100 Oe. Conversely, for the annealed samples, an in-plane field of 10 Oe is large enough to achieve full deterministic magnetization switching. The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction at the Ta/CoFeB interface is believed to be the main reason for the discrepancy of the requisite in-plane magnetic fields for switching in the as-deposited and annealed samples. In addition, asymmetric field dependence behavior of SOT-induced magnetization switching is observed in the annealed samples. Deterministic magnetization switching in the absence of an external magnetic field is obtained in the annealed samples, which is extremely important to develop SOT-based magnetoresistive random access memory.

  18. Cluster Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, C. L.; Taylor, G. B.

    Magnetic fields in the intercluster medium have been measured using a variety of techniques, including studies of synchrotron relic and halo radio sources within clusters, studies of inverse Compton X-ray emission from clusters, surveys of Faraday rotation measures of polarized radio sources both within and behind clusters, and studies of cluster cold fronts in X-ray images. These measurements imply that most cluster atmospheres are substantially magnetized, with typical field strengths of order 1 μGauss with high areal filling factors out to Mpc radii. There is likely to be considerable variation in field strengths and topologies both within and between clusters, especially when comparing dynamically relaxed clusters to those that have recently undergone a merger. In some locations, such as the cores of cooling flow clusters, the magnetic fields reach levels of 10-40 μG and may be dynamically important. In all clusters the magnetic fields have a significant effect on energy transport in the intracluster medium. We also review current theories on the origin of cluster magnetic fields.

  19. Magnetic Field Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilin, Andrew V.

    2006-01-01

    The Magnetic Field Solver computer program calculates the magnetic field generated by a group of collinear, cylindrical axisymmetric electromagnet coils. Given the current flowing in, and the number of turns, axial position, and axial and radial dimensions of each coil, the program calculates matrix coefficients for a finite-difference system of equations that approximates a two-dimensional partial differential equation for the magnetic potential contributed by the coil. The program iteratively solves these finite-difference equations by use of the modified incomplete Cholesky preconditioned-conjugate-gradient method. The total magnetic potential as a function of axial (z) and radial (r) position is then calculated as a sum of the magnetic potentials of the individual coils, using a high-accuracy interpolation scheme. Then the r and z components of the magnetic field as functions of r and z are calculated from the total magnetic potential by use of a high-accuracy finite-difference scheme. Notably, for the finite-difference calculations, the program generates nonuniform two-dimensional computational meshes from nonuniform one-dimensional meshes. Each mesh is generated in such a way as to minimize the numerical error for a benchmark one-dimensional magnetostatic problem.

  20. Magnetic fields at uranus.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acuña, M H; Behannon, K W; Burlaga, L F; Connerney, J E; Lepping, R P; Neubauer, F M

    1986-07-04

    The magnetic field experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft revealed a strong planetary magnetic field of Uranus and an associated magnetosphere and fully developed bipolar masnetic tail. The detached bow shock wave in the solar wind supersonic flow was observed upstream at 23.7 Uranus radii (1 R(U) = 25,600 km) and the magnetopause boundary at 18.0 R(U), near the planet-sun line. A miaximum magnetic field of 413 nanotesla was observed at 4.19 R(U ), just before closest approach. Initial analyses reveal that the planetary magnetic field is well represented by that of a dipole offset from the center of the planet by 0.3 R(U). The angle between Uranus' angular momentum vector and the dipole moment vector has the surprisingly large value of 60 degrees. Thus, in an astrophysical context, the field of Uranus may be described as that of an oblique rotator. The dipole moment of 0.23 gauss R(3)(U), combined with the large spatial offset, leads to minimum and maximum magnetic fields on the surface of the planet of approximately 0.1 and 1.1 gauss, respectively. The rotation period of the magnetic field and hence that of the interior of the planet is estimated to be 17.29+/- 0.10 hours; the magnetotail rotates about the planet-sun line with the same period. Thelarge offset and tilt lead to auroral zones far from the planetary rotation axis poles. The rings and the moons are embedded deep within the magnetosphere, and, because of the large dipole tilt, they will have a profound and diurnally varying influence as absorbers of the trapped radiation belt particles.

  1. Near field imaging of refraction via the magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanté, Boubacar; Germain, Dylan; de Lustrac, André

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally map positive and negative refractions by probing the magnetic field after the interaction of a complex metallo-dielectric composite with electromagnetic wave. The structure consists of coupled electric dipoles and negative refractive index is achieved exclusively from coupled localized resonances. By mapping out the magnetic field, negative refraction is directly observed from the three dimensional composite using a small magnetic antenna as local probe. Our work shows that light meta-matter interaction can be equally probed from magnetic light.

  2. Magnetic Field Arches

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-28

    When an active region rotated into a profile view, SDO was able to capture the magnificent loops arching above an active region (Sept. 28-29, 2016). Active region are areas of strong magnetic fields. The magnetic field lines above these regions are illuminated by charged particles spiraling along them. The images were taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. The video covers 12 hours of activity. The Earth was inset to give a sense of the scale of these towering arches. Movies are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21101

  3. Ohm's law for mean magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1984-11-01

    Spatially complicated magnetic fields are frequently treated as the sum of a large, slowly varying, mean field and a small, rapidly varying, field. The primary effect of the small field is to modify the Ohm's law of the mean field. A set of plausible assumptions leads to a form of the mean field Ohm's law which is fundamentally different from the conventional alpha effect of dynamo theory.

  4. Magnetic dipole in a nonuniform magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2017-05-01

    The magnetic moment of a permanent magnet is determined from forces acting on the magnet in nonuniform magnetic fields produced by two coaxial current-carrying coils. Therefore, the measurements are performed under well controllable and reproducible conditions. With a data-acquisition system, the experiments can be done in a reasonably short time. The magnetic moment of the magnet is in good agreement with values obtained by other experimental techniques. The experiment is well suited for undergraduate laboratories.

  5. Incidence of elbow injuries in adolescent baseball players: screening by a low field magnetic resonance imaging system specialized for small joints.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yoshikazu; Maehara, Kiyoshi; Kanahori, Tetsuya; Hiyama, Takashi; Kawamura, Takashi; Minami, Manabu

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to examine the capability of screening for elbow injuries induced by baseball using a low field small joint MRI system. Sixty-two players in the 4th-6th elementary school grades, with ages ranging from 9 to 12 years, participated in this study. Screening for elbow injuries was performed using a low-magnetic-field (0.2-T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system designed for examinations of small joints of the extremities. Gradient-echo coronal, sagittal, and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) coronal images of the dominant arm used for pitching were obtained to identify medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries with or without avulsion fracture and osteochondritis dissecans. All 62 examinations were performed successfully, with 26 players (41.9 %) showing positive findings, all being confined to the MCL. No child showed bone damage. All criteria in the MRI evaluation of injuries showed high agreement rates and kappa values between two radiologists. Screening for early detection of elbow injuries in junior Japanese baseball players can be successfully performed using a low-field MRI system specialized for small joints. The percentage of MCL injury without avulsion fracture was unexpectedly high (41.9 %).

  6. High field superconducting magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  7. The interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Large-scale properties of the interplanetary magnetic field as determined by the solar wind velocity structure are examined. The various ways in which magnetic fields affect phenomena in the solar wind are summarized. The dominant role of high and low velocity solar wind streams that persist, with fluctuations and evolution, for weeks or months is emphasized. It is suggested that for most purposes the sector structure is better identified with the stream structure than with the magnetic polarity and that the polarity does not necessarily change from one velocity sector to the next. Several mechanisms that might produce the stream structure are considered. The interaction of the high and low velocity streams is analyzed in a model that is steady state when viewed in a frame that corotates with the sun.

  8. The Sun Magnetic Field

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-16

    This frame from an animation shows how the magnetic field lines emanating from our sun spiral out into the solar system as the sun rotates. NASA Voyager 1 is in an area scientists are calling the stagnation region, at the outer layer of the heliosphere.

  9. Trapped magnetic field measurements on HTS bulk by peak controlled pulsed field magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Watasaki, Masahiro; Kimura, Yosuke; Miki, Motohiro; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2010-06-01

    For the past several years, we have studied the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor assembled with melt-textured Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk magnets. If the single pulse field magnetizes a bulk effectively, size of electrical motor will become small for the strong magnetic field of the HTS magnets without reducing output power of motor. In the previous study, we showed that the HTS bulk was magnetized to excellent cone-shape magnetic field distribution by using the waveform control pulse magnetization (WCPM) method. The WCPM technique made possible the active control of the waveform on which magnetic flux motion depended. We generated the pulse waveform with controlled risetime for HTS bulk magnetization to suppress the magnetic flux motion which decreases magnetization efficiency. The pulsed maximum magnetic flux density with slow risetime is not beyond the maximum magnetic flux density which is trapped by the static field magnetization. But, as for applying the pulse which has fast risetime, the magnetic flux which exceed greatly the threshold penetrates the bulk and causes the disorder of the trapped magnetic distribution. This fact suggests the possibility that the threshold at pulsed magnetization influences the dynamic magnetic flux motion. In this study, Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk is magnetized by the controlled arbitrary trapezoidal shape pulse, of which the maximum magnetic flux density is controlled not to exceed the threshold. We will present the trapped magnetic characteristics and the technique to generate the controlled pulsed field.

  10. Flow Transitions in a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

    1996-01-01

    Critical Rayleigh numbers have been measured in a liquid metal cylinder of finite height in the presence of a rotating magnetic field. Several different stability regimes were observed, which were determined by the values of the Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers. For weak rotating magnetic fields and small Rayleigh numbers, the experimental observations can be explained by the existence of a single non-axisymmetric meridional roll rotating around the cylinder, driven by the azimuthal component of the magnetic field. The measured dependence of rotational velocity on magnetic field strength is consistent with the existence of laminar flow in this regime.

  11. Magnetic field of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    glaciers and a permafrost. This is a global warming. The version of the author: the periods of inversion of a magnetic field of the Earth determine cycles of the Ice Age. At inversions of a magnetic field when B=0, radial electric currents are small or are absent, excretion of thermal energy minimally or an equal to zero,it is the beginning of the cooling the Earth and offensive of the Ice Age. Disappearance warm current Gulf Stream warming the north of the Europe and Canada. Drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in a rotation the opposite to rotation of the Earth, is acknowledgement of drift of a kernel of the Earth in a rotation the opposite to rotation of the Earth and is acknowledgement of the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth ». The author continues to develop the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth » and invites geophysicists to accept in it participation in it.

  12. Magnetic fields and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.L.

    1993-10-01

    This letter is a response to an article by Savitz and Kaune, EHP 101:76-80. W-L wire code was applied to data from a 1988 Denver study, and an association was reported between high W-L wire code and childhood cancer. This author discusses several studies and provides explanations which weakens the argument that classification error resulted in an appreciable reduction in the association between W-L high wire code and childhood cancer. In conclusion, the fact that new wire code is only weakly correlated with magnetic field measurements (in the same manner as the original W-L wire code) suggests that the newly reported stronger association with childhood cancer is likely due to factors other than magnetic fields. Differential residential mobility and differential residential age are two possible explanations and are suggestive that the reported association may be false.

  13. Photonic Magnetic Field Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    reduce feedback in fiber optic links can be the basis for excellent magnetic field sensors. Based on the giant magneto-optical ( GMO ) or Faraday...Squids are those based upon the giant magneto-optical ( GMO ) effect in ferrimagnetic materials or YIG garnets and the giant magneto-resistance (GMR...effect in manganese based compounds. The development of the GMO material was mostly motivated by the need for compact, in-line fiber optical

  14. Magnetic field reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axford, W. I.

    The fundamental principles of particle acceleration by magnetic reconnection in cosmic plasmas are reviewed. The history of reconnection models is traced, and consideration is given to the Kelvin-Helmholtz theorem, the frozen-field theorem, the application of the Kelvin-Helmholtz theorem to a collisionless plasma, solutions to specific reconnection problems, and configurational instability. Diagrams and graphs are provided, and the objections raised by critics of the reconnection theory and/or its astrophysical applications are discussed.

  15. Coronal Magnetic Field Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegelmann, Thomas; Petrie, Gordon J. D.; Riley, Pete

    2017-09-01

    Coronal magnetic field models use photospheric field measurements as boundary condition to model the solar corona. We review in this paper the most common model assumptions, starting from MHD-models, magnetohydrostatics, force-free and finally potential field models. Each model in this list is somewhat less complex than the previous one and makes more restrictive assumptions by neglecting physical effects. The magnetohydrostatic approach neglects time-dependent phenomena and plasma flows, the force-free approach neglects additionally the gradient of the plasma pressure and the gravity force. This leads to the assumption of a vanishing Lorentz force and electric currents are parallel (or anti-parallel) to the magnetic field lines. Finally, the potential field approach neglects also these currents. We outline the main assumptions, benefits and limitations of these models both from a theoretical (how realistic are the models?) and a practical viewpoint (which computer resources to we need?). Finally we address the important problem of noisy and inconsistent photospheric boundary conditions and the possibility of using chromospheric and coronal observations to improve the models.

  16. Minimizing magnetic fields for precision experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Altarev, I.; Fierlinger, P.; Lins, T.; Marino, M. G.; Nießen, B.; Petzoldt, G.; Reisner, M.; Stuiber, S. Sturm, M.; Taggart Singh, J.; Taubenheim, B.; Rohrer, H. K.; Schläpfer, U.

    2015-06-21

    An increasing number of measurements in fundamental and applied physics rely on magnetically shielded environments with sub nano-Tesla residual magnetic fields. State of the art magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) consist of up to seven layers of high permeability materials in combination with highly conductive shields. Proper magnetic equilibration is crucial to obtain such low magnetic fields with small gradients in any MSR. Here, we report on a scheme to magnetically equilibrate MSRs with a 10 times reduced duration of the magnetic equilibration sequence and a significantly lower magnetic field with improved homogeneity. For the search of the neutron's electric dipole moment, our finding corresponds to a 40% improvement of the statistical reach of the measurement. However, this versatile procedure can improve the performance of any MSR for any application.

  17. Observations of Interstellar Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutcher, R.; Heiles, C.; Troland, T.

    This article describes how interstellar magnetic fields are detected, measured, and mapped, the results of such observations, and the role played by interstellar magnetic fields in the physics of the interstellar medium. A goal of the observations is the measurement of the morphology and strengths of the uniform (Bu) and random (Br) components of magnetic fields. Observational techniques probe either the component of B parallel to the line of sight (B_parallel) or in the plane of the sky (B_⊥). Tracers of B_parallel are Faraday rotation of the position angle of linearly polarized radiation and Zeeman splitting of spectral lines. Tracers of B_⊥ are the strength of synchrotron radiation and linear polarization of syn chrotron radiation and of emission or absorption from dust and spectral lines. Starlight polarization shows that on large spatial scales the Galactic magnetic field is not heavily tangled (B_u/B_r ≈ 0.7 - 1.0), that the field is generally parallel to the Galactic plane near the plane, that the local field points approximately along the local spiral arm (pitch angle 9.4(°) , center of curvature 7.8 kpc distant towards ℓ ≈ -15.4(°) ), and that off the Galactic plane there is considerable small-scale structure to the field. Galactic synchrotron emission shows magnetic spiral arms with a total strength B_t ≈ 6 #55G and B_u ≈ 4 #55G. Pulsar data show evidence for reversals of the field direction with Galactic radius and yield B_r ≈ 5 #55G and B_u ≈ 1.5 #55G; the morphology of the large-scale mean field is consistent with dynamo generation. H I Zeeman detections for diffuse clouds yield B_parallel char 126 5 - 20 #55G with many limits B_parallel #55G. A recent survey of Galactic H I in absorption against extragalactic sources confirms the result that the fields in diffuse clouds are often quite weak. The critical parameter for evaluating the importance of magnetic fields in star formation is the ratio of the mass to the magnetic flux, M

  18. Magnetic Field Topology in Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.

    2000-01-01

    We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.

  19. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  20. Magnetic Field Topology in Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.

    2000-01-01

    We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.

  1. Magnetic field switchable dry adhesives.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Bovero, Enrico; Menon, Carlo

    2015-02-04

    A magnetic field controllable dry adhesive device is manufactured. The normal adhesion force can be increased or decreased depending on the presence of an applied magnetic field. If the magnetic field is present during the entire normal adhesion test cycle which includes both applying a preloading force and measuring the pulloff pressure, a decrease in adhesion is observed when compared to when there is no applied magnetic field. Similarly, if the magnetic field is present only during the preload portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, a decrease in adhesion is observed because of an increased stiffness of the magnetically controlled dry adhesive device. When the applied magnetic field is present during only the pulloff portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, either an increase or a decrease in normal adhesion is observed depending on the direction of the applied magnetic field.

  2. The Martian magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the Martian magnetic field measurements and the criticisms made of them. The measurements of the Mars 2, 3, and 5 spacecraft were interpreted by Dolginov et al. (1976, 1978) to be consistent with an intrinsic planetary magnetic moment of 2.5 times 10 to the 22nd power gauss cu cm, basing this result on the apparent size of the obstacle responsible for deflecting the solar wind and an apparent encounter of the spacecraft with the planetary field. It is shown that if the dependence of the Martian magnetic moment on the rotation rate was linear, the estimate of the moment would be far larger than reported by Dolginov et al. An upper limit of 250 km is calculated for the dynamo radius using the similarity law, compared with 500 km obtained by Dolginov et al. It is concluded that the possible strength of a Martian dynamo is below expectations, and it is likely that the Mars dynamo is not presently operative.

  3. Superhorizon magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanelli, Leonardo

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the evolution of superhorizon-scale magnetic fields from the end of inflation till today. Whatever is the mechanism responsible for their generation during inflation, we find that a given magnetic mode with wave number k evolves, after inflation, according to the values of k ηe , nk , and Ωk , where ηe is the conformal time at the end of inflation, nk is the number density spectrum of inflation-produced photons, and Ωk is the phase difference between the two Bogoliubov coefficients which characterize the state of that mode at the end of inflation. For any realistic inflationary magnetogenesis scenario, we find that nk-1≪|k ηe|≪1 , and three evolutionary scenarios are possible: (i) |Ωk∓π |=O (1 ) , in which case the evolution of the magnetic spectrum Bk(η ) is adiabatic, a2Bk(η )=const , with a being the expansion parameter; (ii) |Ωk∓π |≪|k ηe| , in which case the evolution is superadiabatic, a2Bk(η )∝η ; (iii) |k ηe|≪|Ωk∓π |≪1 or |k ηe|˜|Ωk∓π |≪1 , in which case an early phase of adiabatic evolution is followed, after a time η⋆˜|Ωk∓π |/k , by a superadiabatic evolution. Once a given mode reenters the horizon, it remains frozen into the plasma and then evolves adiabatically till today. As a corollary of our results, we find that inflation-generated magnetic fields evolve adiabatically on all scales and for all times in conformal-invariant free Maxwell theory, while they evolve superadiabatically after inflation on superhorizon scales in the nonconformal-invariant Ratra model, where the inflaton is kinematically coupled to the electromagnetic field. The latter result supports and, somehow, clarifies our recent claim that the Ratra model can account for the presence of cosmic magnetic fields without suffering from both backreaction and strong-coupling problems.

  4. Electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.

  5. Elementary modes of excitation caused by the quadratic Zeeman term and the sensitivity of spin structures of small spin-2 condensates against the magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    He, Y. Z.; Bao, C. G.

    2011-12-15

    The response of spin-2 small condensates to an external magnetic field B is studied. The parameters of the interaction are considered as variable. The emphasis is placed on clarifying the modes of excitation caused by the quadratic Zeeman term. The theoretical method used is beyond the mean-field theory. A set of eigenstates with the U(5) superset of SO(5) superset of SO(3) symmetry is introduced to facilitate the analysis. To obtain a quantitative evaluation on the response, the fidelity susceptibility and the B-dependent average populations of spin components have been calculated. Mostly the particle number N=30 is assumed. The effect with a larger or smaller N is also considered. It was found that the sensitivity of the response depends strongly both on the interaction and on the inherent symmetry.

  6. Vortex dynamics in a thin superconducting film with a non-uniform magnetic field applied at its center with a small coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemberger, Thomas R.; Loh, Yen Lee

    2016-10-01

    This paper models the dynamics of vortices that are generated in the middle of a thin, large-area, superconducting film by a low-frequency magnetic field from a small coil, motivated by a desire to better understand measurements of the superconducting coherence length made with a two-coil apparatus. When the applied field exceeds a critical value, vortices and antivortices originate near the middle of the film at the radius where the Lorentz force of the screening supercurrent is largest. The Lorentz force from the screening supercurrent pushes vortices toward the center of the film and antivortices outward. In an experiment, vortices are detected as an increase in mutual inductance between the drive coil and a coaxial "pickup" coil on the opposite side of the film. The model shows that the essential features of measurements are well described when vortex pinning and the attendant hysteresis are included.

  7. Vortex dynamics in a thin superconducting film with a non-uniform magnetic field applied at its center with a small coil

    SciTech Connect

    Lemberger, Thomas R.; Loh, Yen Lee

    2016-10-27

    This article models the dynamics of vortices that are generated in the middle of a thin, large-area, superconducting film by a low-frequency magnetic field from a small coil, motivated by a desire to better understand measurements of the superconducting coherence length made with a two-coil apparatus. When the applied field exceeds a critical value, vortices and antivortices originate near the middle of the film at the radius where the Lorentz force of the screening supercurrent is largest. The Lorentz force from the screening supercurrent pushes vortices toward the center of the film and antivortices outward. In an experiment, vortices are detected as an increase in mutual inductance between drive coil and a coaxial “pickup” coil on the opposite side of the film. Lastly, the model shows that the essential features of measurements are well described when vortex pinning and the attendant hysteresis are included.

  8. Vortex dynamics in a thin superconducting film with a non-uniform magnetic field applied at its center with a small coil

    DOE PAGES

    Lemberger, Thomas R.; Loh, Yen Lee

    2016-10-27

    This article models the dynamics of vortices that are generated in the middle of a thin, large-area, superconducting film by a low-frequency magnetic field from a small coil, motivated by a desire to better understand measurements of the superconducting coherence length made with a two-coil apparatus. When the applied field exceeds a critical value, vortices and antivortices originate near the middle of the film at the radius where the Lorentz force of the screening supercurrent is largest. The Lorentz force from the screening supercurrent pushes vortices toward the center of the film and antivortices outward. In an experiment, vortices aremore » detected as an increase in mutual inductance between drive coil and a coaxial “pickup” coil on the opposite side of the film. Lastly, the model shows that the essential features of measurements are well described when vortex pinning and the attendant hysteresis are included.« less

  9. Ohm's law for mean magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1986-05-01

    The magnetic fields associated with plasmas frequently exhibit small amplitude MHD fluctuations. It is useful to have equations for the magnetic field averaged over these fluctuations, the so-called mean field equations. Under very general assumptions it is shown that the effect of MHD fluctuations on a force-free plasma can be represented by one parameter in Ohm's law, which is effectively the coefficient of electric current viscosity.

  10. Magnetic field spectrum at cosmological recombination revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saga, Shohei; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Takahashi, Keitaro; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2015-06-01

    If vector type perturbations are present in the primordial plasma before recombination, the generation of magnetic fields is known to be inevitable through the Harrison mechanism. In the context of the standard cosmological perturbation theory, nonlinear couplings of first-order scalar perturbations create second-order vector perturbations, which generate magnetic fields. Here we reinvestigate the generation of magnetic fields at second-order in cosmological perturbations on the basis of our previous study, and extend it by newly taking into account the time evolution of purely second-order vector perturbations with a newly developed second-order Boltzmann code. We confirm that the amplitude of magnetic fields from the product-terms of the first-order scalar modes is consistent with the result in our previous study. However, we find, both numerically and analytically, that the magnetic fields from the purely second-order vector perturbations partially cancel out the magnetic fields from one of the product-terms of the first-order scalar modes, in the tight coupling regime in the radiation dominated era. Therefore, the amplitude of the magnetic fields on small scales, k ≳10 h Mpc-1 , is smaller than the previous estimates. The amplitude of the generated magnetic fields at cosmological recombination is about Brec=5.0 ×10-24 Gauss on k =5.0 ×10-1 h Mpc-1 . Finally, we discuss the reason for the discrepancies that exist in estimates of the amplitude of magnetic fields among other authors.

  11. Reconnection of Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Spacecraft observations of steady and nonsteady reconnection at the magnetopause are reviewed. Computer simulations of three-dimensional reconnection in the geomagnetic tail are discussed. Theoretical aspects of the energization of particles in current sheets and of the microprocesses in the diffusion region are presented. Terrella experiments in which magnetospheric reconnection is simulated at both the magnetopause and in the tail are described. The possible role of reconnection in the evolution of solar magnetic fields and solar flares is discussed. A two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic computer simulation of turbulent reconnection is examined. Results concerning reconnection in Tokamak devices are also presented.

  12. Nonlinear energy dissipation of magnetic nanoparticles in oscillating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Aquino, D.; Rinaldi, C.

    2015-11-01

    The heating of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions subjected to alternating magnetic fields enables a variety of emerging applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia and triggered drug release. Rosensweig (2002) [25] obtained a model for the heat dissipation rate of a collection of non-interacting particles. However, the assumptions made in this analysis make it rigorously valid only in the limit of small applied magnetic field amplitude and frequency (i.e., values of the Langevin parameter that are much less than unity and frequencies below the inverse relaxation time). In this contribution we approach the problem from an alternative point of view by solving the phenomenological magnetization relaxation equation exactly for the case of arbitrary magnetic field amplitude and frequency and by solving a more accurate magnetization relaxation equation numerically. We also use rotational Brownian dynamics simulations of non-interacting magnetic nanoparticles subjected to an alternating magnetic field to estimate the rate of energy dissipation and compare the results of the phenomenological theories to the particle-scale simulations. The results are summarized in terms of a normalized energy dissipation rate and show that Rosensweig's expression provides an upper bound on the energy dissipation rate achieved at high field frequency and amplitude. Estimates of the predicted dependence of energy dissipation rate, quantified as specific absorption rate (SAR), on magnetic field amplitude and frequency, and particle core and hydrodynamic diameter, are also given.

  13. Saturn's Magnetic Field and Magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Smith, E J; Davis, L; Jones, D E; Coleman, P J; Colburn, D S; Dyal, P; Sonett, C P

    1980-01-25

    The Pioneer Saturn vector helium magnetometer has detected a bow shock and magnetopause at Saturn and has provided an accurate characterization of the planetary field. The equatorial surface field is 0.20 gauss, a factor of 3 to 5 times smaller than anticipated on the basis of attempted scalings from Earth and Jupiter. The tilt angle between the magnetic dipole axis and Saturn's rotation axis is < 1 degrees , a surprisingly small value. Spherical harmonic analysis of the measurements shows that the ratio of quadrupole to dipole moments is < 10 percent, indicating that the field is more uniform than those of the Earth or Jupiter and consistent with Saturn having a relatively small core. The field in the outer magnetosphere shows systematic departures from the dipole field, principally a compression of the field near noon and an equatorial orientation associated with a current sheet near dawn. A hydromagnetic wake resulting from the interaction of Titan with the rotating magnetosphere appears to have been observed.

  14. Polar Magnetic Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the initial data reduction and analysis of the magnetic field measurements of the Polar spacecraft. At this writing data for the first three years of the mission have been processed and deposited in the key parameter database. These data are also available in a variety of time resolutions and coordinate systems via a webserver at UCLA that provides both plots and digital data. The flight software has twice been reprogrammed: once to remove a glitch in the data where there were rare collisions between commands in the central processing unit and once to provide burst mode data at 100 samples per second on a regular basis. The instrument continues to function as described in the instrument paper (1.1 in the bibliography attached below). The early observations were compared with observations on the same field lines at lower altitude. The polar magnetic measurements also proved to be most useful for testing the accuracy of MHD models. WE also made important contributions to study of waves and turbulence.

  15. Assembly of magnetic spheres in strong homogeneous magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, René; Stanković, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The assembly in two dimensions of spherical magnets in strong magnetic field is addressed theoretically. It is shown that the attraction and assembly of parallel magnetic chains is the result of a delicate interplay of dipole-dipole interactions and short ranged excluded volume correlations. Minimal energy structures are obtained by numerical optimization procedure as well as analytical considerations. For a small number of constitutive magnets Ntot ≤ 26, a straight chain is found to be the ground state. In the regime of larger Ntot ≥ 27, the magnets form two touching chains with equally long tails at both ends. We succeed to identify the transition from two to three touching chains at Ntot = 129. Overall, this study sheds light on the mechanisms of the recently experimentally observed ribbon formation of superparamagnetic colloids via lateral aggregation of magnetic chains in magnetic field (Darras et al., 2016).

  16. Magnetic Fields: Visible and Permanent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkeljohn, Dorothy R.; Earl, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Children will be able to see the concept of a magnetic field translated into a visible reality using the simple method outlined. Standard shelf paper, magnets, iron filings, and paint in a spray can are used to prepare a permanent and well-detailed picture of the magnetic field. (Author/JN)

  17. Optimal magnetic attitude control of small spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jinsong

    Spacecraft attitude control, using only magnetic coils, suffers from being unable to apply a torque about the axis defined by the magnetic field of the earth. This lack of controllability results in marginal stability, slow slew maneuvering and convergence to equilibrium positions. Currently available control schemes typically require one or more orbits to finish a large angle attitude maneuver, which severely restricts the application of magnetic control in projects requiring fast attitude maneuvers. In this dissertation, the open-loop time-optimal magnetic control is first presented to show the potential performance increase of the magnetic attitude control method. Nonlinear time-varying models with constrained inputs are considered instead of the linearized model generally used. The results show that time-optimal magnetic attitude control can be considerably faster, than the current available control schemes. The inherent weakness of the open-loop method is its lack of robustness; specifically, its response is sensitive to small changes in the system. Two methods, model predictive control and continuous optimization approach, are presented as closed-loop control strategies to increase the robustness of the time-optimal approach. Simulation results show that these two feedback control schemes effectively improve the robustness of the control system. Finally, magnetic attitude regulation after the time-optimal magnetic control is discussed. The main contribution of this work shows that magnetic attitude control is not necessarily slow, as commonly believed, as long as an appropriate control algorithm is applied. The different time-optimal controllers presented show considerable convergence time reduction for large angle attitude maneuvers; which enables magnetic attitude control to be applied to more time-critical applications.

  18. Small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.

    PubMed

    Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S

    2012-12-01

    The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude, fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(ℓ)∝ℓ^{ϑ}, where v(ℓ) is the eddy velocity at a scale ℓ. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with ϑ=1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with ϑ=1/2. In this work, we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the evolution of the small-scale magnetic field, using the WKB approximation. In the limit of low magnetic Prandtl numbers, the growth rate is proportional to Rm^{(1-ϑ)/(1+ϑ)}. We furthermore discuss the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{crit}, which is required for small-scale dynamo action. The value of Rm_{crit} is roughly 100 for Kolmogorov turbulence and 2700 for Burgers. Furthermore, we discuss that Rm_{crit} provides a stronger constraint in the limit of low Pm than it does for large Pm. We conclude that the small-scale dynamo can operate in the regime of low magnetic Prandtl numbers if the magnetic Reynolds number is large enough. Thus, the magnetic field amplification on small scales can take place in a broad range of physical environments and amplify week magnetic seed fields on short time scales.

  19. Small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2012-12-01

    The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude, fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(ℓ)∝ℓϑ, where v(ℓ) is the eddy velocity at a scale ℓ. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with ϑ=1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with ϑ=1/2. In this work, we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the evolution of the small-scale magnetic field, using the WKB approximation. In the limit of low magnetic Prandtl numbers, the growth rate is proportional to Rm(1-ϑ)/(1+ϑ). We furthermore discuss the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rmcrit, which is required for small-scale dynamo action. The value of Rmcrit is roughly 100 for Kolmogorov turbulence and 2700 for Burgers. Furthermore, we discuss that Rmcrit provides a stronger constraint in the limit of low Pm than it does for large Pm. We conclude that the small-scale dynamo can operate in the regime of low magnetic Prandtl numbers if the magnetic Reynolds number is large enough. Thus, the magnetic field amplification on small scales can take place in a broad range of physical environments and amplify week magnetic seed fields on short time scales.

  20. Explaining Mercury's peculiar magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicht, Johannes; Cao, Hao; Heyner, Daniel; Dietrich, Wieland; Christensen, Ulrich R.

    2014-05-01

    MESSENGER magnetometer data revealed that Mercury's magnetic field is not only particularly weak but also has a peculiar geometry. The MESSENGER team finds that the location of the magnetic equator always lies significantly north of the geographic equator, is largely independent of the distance to the planet, and also varies only weakly with longitude. The field is best described by an axial dipole that is offset to the north by about 20% of the planetary radius. In terms of classical Gauss coefficients, this translates into a low axial dipole component of g10= -190 nT but a relatively large axial quadrupole contribution that amounts to roughly 40% of this value. The axial octupole is also sizable while higher harmonic contributions are much weaker. Very remarkable is also the fact that the equatorial dipole contribution is very small, consistent with a dipole tilt below 0.8 degree, and this is also true for the other non-axisymmetic field contributions. We analyze several numerical dynamos concerning their capability of explaining Mercury's magnetic field. Classical schemes geared to model the geomagnetic field typically show a much weaker quadrupole component and thus a smaller offset. The onset only becomes larger when the dynamo operates in the multipolar regime at higher Rayleigh numbers. However, since the more complex dynamics generally promotes all higher multipole contributions the location of the magnetic equator varies strongly with longitude and distance to the planet. The situation improves when introducing a stably stratified outer layer in the dynamo region, representing either a rigid FeS layer or a sub-adiabatic core-mantle boundary heat flux. This layer filters out the higher harmonic contributions and the field not only becomes sufficiently weak but also assumes a Mercury like offset geometry during a few percent of the simulation time. To increase the likelihood for the offset configuration, the north-south symmetry must be permanently broken

  1. Feedback of a small-scale magnetic dynamo.

    PubMed

    Nazarenko, S V; Falkovich, G E; Galtier, S

    2001-01-01

    We develop a WKB approach to the rapid distortion theory for magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with large magnetic Prandtl number. Within this theory, we study the growth of small-scale magnetic fluctuations in a large-scale velocity field being initially a pure strain. We show that the magnetic Lorentz force excites a secondary flow in the form of counterrotating vortices on the periphery of the magnetic spot. Those vortices slow down stretching of the magnetic spot and thus provide a negative feedback for a small-scale magnetic dynamo.

  2. Circular polarization of obliquely propagating whistler wave magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bellan, P. M.

    2013-08-15

    The circular polarization of the magnetic field of obliquely propagating whistler waves is derived using a basis set associated with the wave partial differential equation. The wave energy is mainly magnetic and the wave propagation consists of this magnetic energy sloshing back and forth between two orthogonal components of magnetic field in quadrature. The wave electric field energy is small compared to the magnetic field energy.

  3. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-08-06

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

  4. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Yehuda; Mahale, Narayan K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  5. Martian external magnetic field proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlais, Benoit; Civet, Francois

    2015-04-01

    Mars possesses no dynamic magnetic field of internal origin as it is the case for the Earth or for Mercury. Instead Mars is characterized by an intense and localized magnetic field of crustal origin. This field is the result of past magnetization and demagnetization processes, and reflects its evolution. The Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) interacts with Mars' ionized environment to create an external magnetic field. This external field is weak compared to lithospheric one but very dynamic, and may hamper the detailed analysis of the internal magnetic field at some places or times. Because there are currently no magnetic field measurements made at Mars' surface, it is not possible to directly monitor the external field temporal variability as it is done in Earth's ground magnetic observatories. In this study we examine to indirect ways of quantifying this external field. First we use the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission which measures the solar wind about one hour upstream of the bow-shock resulting from the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's internal magnetic field. These measurements are extrapolated to Mars' position taking into account the orbital configurations of the Mars-Earth system and the velocity of particles carrying the IMF. Second we directly use Mars Global Surveyor magnetic field measurements to quantify the level of variability of the external field. We subtract from the measurements the internal field which is otherwise modeled, and bin the residuals first on a spatial and then on a temporal mesh. This allows to compute daily or semi daily index. We present a comparison of these two proxies and demonstrate their complementarity. We also illustrate our analysis by comparing our Martian external field proxies to terrestrial index at epochs of known strong activity. These proxies will especially be useful for upcoming magnetic field measurements made around or at the surface of Mars.

  6. Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.

    1987-12-01

    The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

  7. Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Miller, G

    1987-12-01

    The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

  8. Magnetic-field-dosimetry system

    DOEpatents

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1981-01-21

    A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.

  9. Magnetic-field-dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1981-01-21

    A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.

  10. Small Satellite Passive Magnetic Attitude Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhardt, David T.

    Passive Magnetic Attitude Control (PMAC) is capable of aligning a satellite within 5 degrees of the local magnetic field at low resource cost, making it ideal for a small satellite. However, simulation attempts to date have not been able to predict the attitude dynamics at a level sufficient for mission design. Also, some satellites have suffered from degraded performance due to an incomplete understanding of PMAC system design. This dissertation alleviates these issues by discussing the design, inputs, and validation of PMAC systems for small satellites. Design rules for a PMAC system are defined using the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat as an example. A Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter (MEKF) is defined for the attitude determination of a PMAC satellite without a rate gyro. After on-orbit calibration of the off-the-shelf magnetometer and photodiodes and an on-orbit fit to the satellite magnetic moment, the MEKF regularly achieves a three sigma attitude uncertainty of 4 degrees or less. CSSWE is found to settle to the magnetic field in seven days, verifying its attitude design requirement. A Helmholtz cage is constructed and used to characterize the CSSWE bar magnet and hysteresis rods both individually and in the flight configuration. Fitted parameters which govern the magnetic material behavior are used as input to a PMAC dynamics simulation. All components of this simulation are described and defined. Simulation-based dynamics analysis shows that certain initial conditions result in abnormally decreased settling times; these cases may be identified by their dynamic response. The simulation output is compared to the MEKF output; the true dynamics are well modeled and the predicted settling time is found to possess a 20 percent error, a significant improvement over prior simulation.

  11. Magnetoresistive sensor for weak magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Timothy J.; Dahlberg, E. Dan

    1997-04-01

    A new excitation technique is described for the measurement of weak magnetic fields (<0.01 Oe). The resistance variation of a magnetoresistive element due to an oscillating excitation field is converted into a voltage proportional to the environmental field. The excitation field amplitude is set large enough to saturate the magnetization during each half-cycle, greatly reducing hysteresis effects in the output signal. Both anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR) structures have been used to measure fields with sufficient accuracy for compass applications. Such devices could be made with extremely small dimensions and power requirements.

  12. OBSERVATIONS OF A SMALL INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE ASSOCIATED WITH A MAGNETIC RECONNECTION EXHAUST

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, H. Q.; Wu, D. J.

    2009-11-10

    A small interplanetary magnetic flux rope prior to an X-line magnetic reconnection exhaust was observed on 1998 March 25 at 1 AU. The X-line magnetic reconnection exhaust has been identified and reported by Gosling et al. The duration of this small magnetic flux rope is about 2 hr. We fitted the constant alpha force-free model to the observed magnetic fields. The model fitting results show that the spacecraft crosses the magnetic flux rope well away from the axis, with d {sub 0}/R {sub 0} being 0.76. The fitting results also show that its magnetic configuration is a right-handed helical flux rope, that the estimated field intensity at the axis is 16.3 nT, and that its diameter is 0.0190 AU. In addition, the axial direction of this rope is (theta = 6 deg., phi = 214 deg.), namely, this magnetic flux rope is lying nearly in the ecliptic plane. According to the geometric relation of the small flux rope and the reconnection exhaust, it is very possible that the small magnetic flux rope has a larger scale initially and comes from the corona; its magnetic fields are peeled off when moving from the Sun to the Earth and at last it reaches a small scale. Though magnetic reconnection can produce a flux-rope topology, in this case the X-line magnetic reconnection is destroying rather than generating the small magnetic flux rope.

  13. Vestibular stimulation by magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Bryan K.; Roberts, Dale C.; Della Santina, Charles C.; Carey, John P.; Zee, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals working next to strong static magnetic fields occasionally report disorientation and vertigo. With the increasing strength of magnetic fields used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, these reports have become more common. It was recently learned that humans, mice and zebrafish all demonstrate behaviors consistent with constant peripheral vestibular stimulation while inside a strong, static magnetic field. The proposed mechanism for this effect involves a Lorentz force resulting from the interaction of a strong static magnetic field with naturally occurring ionic currents flowing through the inner ear endolymph into vestibular hair cells. The resulting force within the endolymph is strong enough to displace the lateral semicircular canal cupula, inducing vertigo and the horizontal nystagmus seen in normal mice and in humans. This review explores the evidence for interactions of magnetic fields with the vestibular system. PMID:25735662

  14. Magnetic fields around evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Ferreira, M.; Vlemmings, W.; Kemball, A.; Amiri, N.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Olofsson, G.

    2014-04-01

    A number of mechanisms, such as magnetic fields, (binary) companions and circumstellar disks have been suggested to be the cause of non-spherical PNe and in particular collimated outflows. This work investigates one of these mechanisms: the magnetic fields. While MHD simulations show that the fields can indeed be important, few observations of magnetic fields have been done so far. We used the VLBA to observe five evolved stars, with the goal of detecting the magnetic field by means of water maser polarization. The sample consists in four AGB stars (IK Tau, RT Vir, IRC+60370 and AP Lyn) and one pPN (OH231.8+4.2). In four of the five sources, several strong maser features were detected allowing us to measure the linear and/or circular polarization. Based on the circular polarization detections, we infer the strength of the component of the field along the line of sight to be between ~30 mG and ~330 mG in the water maser regions of these four sources. When extrapolated to the surface of the stars, the magnetic field strength would be between a few hundred mG and a few Gauss when assuming a toroidal field geometry and higher when assuming more complex magnetic fields. We conclude that the magnetic energy we derived in the water maser regions is higher than the thermal and kinetic energy, leading to the conclusion that, indeed, magnetic fields probably play an important role in shaping Planetary Nebulae.

  15. Generation of solar magnetic fields. I. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, E. N.

    Attention is given to those magnetic field properties which allow the fields to destroy themselves rapidly, thereby producing solar, stellar and geomagnetic activity. Magnetic fields actively figure in the production of flares, plages, eruptions and streamers. The existence of magnetic fields in other stars is inferred from the X-rays that can be observed to radiate from them. In the second part of this paper, the discussion in the first part of the generation of magnetic fields from the motion of conducting fluids is further developed through the proposal of the 'short, sudden' idealization, and quick bursts of turbulence during which any degree of twisting and rotation can be accomplished are introduced. After these quick bursts of motion, the fluid is held motionless so that small scale irregularities subside, leaving a smooth, average and large scale state. This cycle is repeated at time intervals tau, producing the dynamo equations for the mean vector potential.

  16. Space applications of superconductivity - High field magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fickett, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses developments in superconducting magnets and their applications in space technology. Superconducting magnets are characterized by high fields (to 15T and higher) and high current densities combined with low mass and small size. The superconducting materials and coil design are being improved and new high-strength composites are being used for magnet structural components. Such problems as maintaining low cooling temperatures (near 4 K) for long periods of time and degradation of existing high-field superconductors at low strain levels can be remedied by research and engineering. Some of the proposed space applications of superconducting magnets include: cosmic ray analysis with magnetic spectrometers, energy storage and conversion, energy generation by magnetohydrodynamic and thermonuclear fusion techniques, and propulsion. Several operational superconducting magnet systems are detailed.

  17. Steady State Chaotic Magnetic Fields and Particle Dynamics Cross-field Transport of Particles in Chaotic Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, B.; Ram, A.

    2009-12-01

    The observed propagation of cosmic rays in the interplanetary space cannot be explained unless there is diffusion of the energetic particles across the interplanetary magnetic field. The cross-field diffusion of cosmic rays is assumed to be due to the chaotic nature of the interplanetary/intergalactic magnetic fields. Among the classic works on this subject have been those of Parker [1] and Jokipii [2]. Parker considered the passage of cosmic ray particles and energetic solar particles in a large scale magnetic field containing small scale irregularities. In the context of cosmic ray propagation, Jokipii considered a small fluctuating component, added on to a uniform magnetic field, to study the spatial transport of particles. We consider asymmetric, steady-state magnetic fields, in three spatial dimensions, generated by currents flowing in circular loops and straight lines [3]. We find that under very special circumstances can one generate large scale coherent magnetic fields. In general, even simple asymmetric current configurations generate spatially chaotic magnetic fields in three-dimensions. The motion of charged particles in these chaotic magnetic fields is quite coherent. This is a surprising result as one generally assumes that spatially chaotic magnetic fields will give rise to chaotic particle motion. So chaotic magnetic fields by themselves do not lead to cross-field transport. However, if we consider a current system, e.g., a current loop, embedded in a uniform magnetic field then a particle can undergo cross-field transport. For cross-field diffusion of charged particles it is necessary that the magnetic field lines be three dimensional. [1] E.N. Parker, Planet. Space Sci. 13, 9, (1965) [2] J.R. Jokipii, Astrophys. J. 146, 480, (1966). [3] A.K. Ram and B. Dasgupta, in 35th EPS Conference on Plasma Phys. Hersonissos, ECA Vol.32D, O-4.059 (2008); and Eos Trans. AGU 88 (52), Fall Meet. Suppl. Abstract NG21B-0522 (2007).

  18. The Capacitive Magnetic Field Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyatkov, D. O.; Yurchenko, A. V.; Balashov, V. B.; Yurchenko, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    The results of a study of sensitive element magnetic field sensor are represented in this paper. The sensor is based on the change of the capacitance with an active dielectric (ferrofluid) due to the magnitude of magnetic field. To prepare the ferrofluid magnetic particles are used, which have a followingdispersion equal to 50 < Ø < 56, 45 < Ø < 50, 40 < Ø < 45 and Ø < 40micron of nanocrystalline alloy of brand 5BDSR. The dependence of the sensitivity of the capacitive element from the ferrofluid with different dispersion of magnetic particles is considered. The threshold of sensitivity and sensitivity of a measuring cell with ferrofluid by a magnetic field was determined. The experimental graphs of capacitance change of the magnitude of magnetic field are presented.

  19. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-11-06

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Combustion instability mitigation by magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jocher, Agnes; Pitsch, Heinz; Gomez, Thomas; Bonnety, Jérôme; Legros, Guillaume

    2017-06-01

    The present interdisciplinary study combines electromagnetics and combustion to unveil an original and basic experiment displaying a spontaneous flame instability that is mitigated as the non-premixed sooting flame experiences a magnetic perturbation. This magnetic instability mitigation is reproduced by direct numerical simulations to be further elucidated by a flow stability analysis. A key role in the stabilization process is attributed to the momentum and thermochemistry coupling that the magnetic force, acting mainly on paramagnetic oxygen, contributes to sustain. The spatial local stability analysis based on the numerical simulations shows that the magnetic field tends to reduce the growth rates of small flame perturbations.

  1. Combustion instability mitigation by magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Jocher, Agnes; Pitsch, Heinz; Gomez, Thomas; Bonnety, Jérôme; Legros, Guillaume

    2017-06-01

    The present interdisciplinary study combines electromagnetics and combustion to unveil an original and basic experiment displaying a spontaneous flame instability that is mitigated as the non-premixed sooting flame experiences a magnetic perturbation. This magnetic instability mitigation is reproduced by direct numerical simulations to be further elucidated by a flow stability analysis. A key role in the stabilization process is attributed to the momentum and thermochemistry coupling that the magnetic force, acting mainly on paramagnetic oxygen, contributes to sustain. The spatial local stability analysis based on the numerical simulations shows that the magnetic field tends to reduce the growth rates of small flame perturbations.

  2. Cosmic Magnetic Fields - An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielebinski, Richard; Beck, Rainer

    Magnetic fields have been known in antiquity. Aristotle attributes the first of what could be called a scientific discussion on magnetism to Thales, who lived from about 625 BC. In China “magnetic carts” were in use to help the Emperor in his journeys of inspection. Plinius comments that in the Asia Minor province of Magnesia shepherds' staffs get at times “glued” to a stone, a alodestone. In Europe the magnetic compass came through the Arab sailors who met the Portuguese explorers. The first scientific treatise on magnetism, “De Magnete”, was published by William Gilbert who in 1600 described his experiments and suggested that the Earth was a huge magnet. Johannes Kepler was a correspondent of Gilbert and at times suggested that planetary motion was due to magnetic forces. Alas, this concept was demolished by Isaac Newton,who seeing the falling apple decided that gravity was enough. This concept of dealing with gravitational forces only remains en vogue even today. The explanations why magnetic effects must be neglected go from “magnetic energy is only 1% of gravitation” to “magnetic fields only complicate the beautiful computer solutions”. What is disregarded is the fact that magnetic effects are very directional(not omni-directional as gravity) and also the fact that magnetic fields are seen every where in our cosmic universe.

  3. Magnetic Fields of Nondegenerate Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, J.-F.; Landstreet, J. D.

    2009-09-01

    Magnetic fields are present in a wide variety of stars throughout the HR diagram and play a role at basically all evolutionary stages, from very-low-mass dwarfs to very massive stars, and from young star-forming molecular clouds and protostellar accretion discs to evolved giants/supergiants and magnetic white dwarfs/neutron stars. These fields range from a few μG (e.g., in molecular clouds) to TG and more (e.g., in magnetic neutron stars); in nondegenerate stars in particular, they feature large-scale topologies varying from simple nearly axisymmetric dipoles to complex nonaxsymmetric structures, and from mainly poloidal to mainly toroidal topologies. After recalling the main techniques of detecting and modeling stellar magnetic fields, we review the existing properties of magnetic fields reported in cool, hot, and young nondegenerate stars and protostars, and discuss our understanding of the origin of these fields and their impact on the birth and life of stars.

  4. Topology of Saturn's main magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Ness, N. F.

    1981-08-01

    The reported analysis of Saturn's main magnetic field takes into account the data obtained by Voyager 1 during its close flyby of Saturn in November 1980. A magnetic field model for the analysis of Saturn's main field in which the distributed ring currents are explicitly modelled is constructed. The considered internal field parameters constitute a first approximation to Saturn's main field. Several model current systems that might be expected on physical grounds to be active in Saturn's magnetosphere are considered. It is pointed out that certain aspects of Saturn's main magnetic field relevant to the planet's interior have been discussed by Stevenson (1980). In particular, the unexpectedly small dipole moment seems to be consistent with the gravitational settling of helium, which leads to a much smaller electrically conducting and convecting region than would be expected of a homogeneous distribution of hydrogen and helium.

  5. Probing Magnetic Fields of Early Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    How do magnetic fields form and evolve in early galaxies? A new study has provided some clever observations to help us answer this question.The Puzzle of Growing FieldsDynamo theory is the primary model describing how magnetic fields develop in galaxies. In this picture, magnetic fields start out as weak seed fields that are small and unordered. These fields then become ordered and amplified by large-scale rotation and turbulence in galaxy disks and halos, eventually leading to the magnetic fields we observe in galaxies today.Schematic showinghow to indirectly measure protogalactic magnetic fields. The measured polarization of a background quasar is altered by the fields in a foreground protogalaxy. Click for a closer look! [Farnes et al. 2017/Adolf Schaller/STSCI/NRAO/AUI/NSF]To test this model, we need observations of the magnetic fields in young protogalaxies. Unfortunately, we dont have the sensitivity to be able to measure these fields directly but a team of scientists led by Jamie Farnes (Radboud University in the Netherlands) have come up with a creative alternative.The key is to find early protogalaxies that absorb the light of more distant background objects. If a protogalaxy lies between us and a distant quasar, then magnetic fields of the protogalaxy if present will affect the polarization measurements of the background quasar.Observing Galactic Building BlocksTop: Redshift distribution for the background quasars in the authors sample. Bottom: Redshift distribution for the foreground protogalaxies the authors are exploring. [Farnes et al. 2017]Farnes and collaborators examined two types of foreground protogalaxies: Damped Lyman-Alpha Absorbers (DLAs) and Lyman Limit Systems (LLSs). They obtained polarimetric data for a sample of 114 distant quasars with nothing in the foreground (the control sample), 19 quasars with DLAs in the foreground, and 27 quasars with LLSs in the foreground. They then used statistical analysis techniques to draw conclusions about

  6. Axion production from primordial magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Kohei; Nakai, Yuichiro

    2017-07-01

    Production of axionlike particles (ALPs) by primordial magnetic fields may have significant impacts on cosmology. We discuss the production of ALPs in the presence of the primordial magnetic fields. We find a region of the ALP mass and photon coupling which realizes the observed properties of the dark matter with appropriate initial conditions for the magnetic fields. This region may be interesting in light of recent indications for the 3.5 keV lines from galaxy clusters. For a small axion mass, a region of previously allowed parameter spaces is excluded by overproduction of ALPs as a hot/warm dark matter component. Since the abundance of ALPs strongly depends on the initial conditions of primordial magnetic fields, our results provide implications for scenarios of magnetogenesis.

  7. 24 segment high field permanent sextupole magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliev, A.; Nelyubin, V.; Koptev, V.; Kravtsov, P.; Lorentz, B.; Marik, H. J.; Mikirtytchiants, M.; Nekipelov, M.; Rathmann, F.; Paetz gen. Schieck, H.; Seyfarth, H.; Steffens, E.

    2000-09-01

    We report on the design, construction, and magnetic field measurements of a system of high field sextupole magnets made from NdFeB compounds. The magnets are utilized as a focusing system for neutral hydrogen (or deuterium) atoms in a polarized atomic beam source based on Stern-Gerlach spin separation. Each magnet consists of 24 segments of permanently magnetized material differing in remanence and coercivity to reduce demagnetization. According to quadratic extrapolation to the pole tip the magnetic flux density reaches values of up to B0=1.69 T. Three-dimensional field calculations using the MAFIA code were carried out to optimize the magnet performance and to avoid demagnetization by selecting appropriate materials for the individual segments. Measurements of the radial, azimuthal, and longitudinal magnetic flux density distributions were carried out by means of a small Hall probe (100×200×15 μm3). The measurements with the small probe permitted to extract experimentally higher order multipole components very close (˜100 μm) to the inner surface. Experimental values obtained are compared to predictions based on MAFIA calculations and on the Halbach formalism.

  8. Magnetic field synthesis for microwave magnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, F. R.

    1982-04-01

    The Microwave and Quantum Magnetics Group of the M.I.T. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science undertook a two-year research program directed at developing synthesis procedures that allow magnetostatic and/or magnetoelastic modes to be specially tailored for microwave signal processing applications that include magnetically tunable filters and limiters as well as delay lines that are either linearly dispersive or nondispersive over prescribed bandwidths. Special emphasis was given to devices employing thin films of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) that are blessed with spatially nonuniform dc magnetic fields.

  9. The Global and Small-scale Magnetic Fields of Fully Convective, Rapidly Spinning M Dwarf Pair GJ65 A and B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukhov, Oleg; Lavail, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    The nearby M dwarf binary GJ65 AB, also known as BL Cet and UV Cet, is a unique benchmark for investigation of dynamo-driven activity of low-mass stars. Magnetic activity of GJ65 was repeatedly assessed by indirect means, such as studies of flares, photometric variability, X-ray, and radio emission. Here, we present a direct analysis of large-scale and local surface magnetic fields in both components. Interpreting high-resolution circular polarization spectra (sensitive to a large-scale field geometry) we uncovered a remarkable difference of the global stellar field topologies. Despite nearly identical masses and rotation rates, the secondary exhibits an axisymmetric, dipolar-like global field with an average strength of 1.3 kG while the primary has a much weaker, more complex, and non-axisymmetric 0.3 kG field. On the other hand, an analysis of the differential Zeeman intensification (sensitive to the total magnetic flux) shows the two stars having similar magnetic fluxes of 5.2 and 6.7 kG for GJ65 A and B, respectively, although there is evidence that the field strength distribution in GJ65 B is shifted toward a higher field strength compared to GJ65 A. Based on these complementary magnetic field diagnostic results, we suggest that the dissimilar radio and X-ray variability of GJ65 A and B is linked to their different global magnetic field topologies. However, this difference appears to be restricted to the upper atmospheric layers but does not encompass the bulk of the stars and has no influence on the fundamental stellar properties.

  10. Magnetic Field Transport in Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Amir; Vishniac, Ethan

    2017-06-01

    The most plausible theories for launching astrophysical jets rely on strong magnetic fields at the inner parts of some accretion disks. An internal dynamo can in principle generate small scale magnetic fields in situ but generating a large scale field in a disk seems a difficult task in the dynamo theories. In fact, as far as numerous numerical experiments indicate, a dynamo-generated field in general would not be coherent enough over the large length scales of order the disk's radius. Instead, a large scale poloidal field dragged in from the environment, and compressed by the accretion, provides a more promising possibility. The difficulty in the latter picture, however, arises from the reconnection of the radial field component across the mid-plane which annihilates the field faster than it is dragged inward by the accretion. We suggest that a combination of different effects, including magnetic buoyancy and turbulent pumping, is responsible for the vertical transport of the field lines toward the surface of the disk. The radial component of the poloidal field vanishes at the mid-plane, which efficiently impedes reconnection, and grows exponentially toward the surface where it can become much larger than the vertical field component. This allows the poloidal field to be efficiently advected to small radii until the allowed bending angle drops to of order unity, and the field can drive a strong outflow.

  11. Magnetic field homogeneity perturbations in finite Halbach dipole magnets.

    PubMed

    Turek, Krzysztof; Liszkowski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Halbach hollow cylinder dipole magnets of a low or relatively low aspect ratio attract considerable attention due to their applications, among others, in compact NMR and MRI systems for investigating small objects. However, a complete mathematical framework for the analysis of magnetic fields in these magnets has been developed only for their infinitely long precursors. In such a case the analysis is reduced to two-dimensions (2D). The paper details the analysis of the 3D magnetic field in the Halbach dipole cylinders of a finite length. The analysis is based on three equations in which the components of the magnetic flux density Bx, By and Bz are expanded to infinite power series of the radial coordinate r. The zeroth term in the series corresponds to a homogeneous magnetic field Bc, which is perturbed by the higher order terms due to a finite magnet length. This set of equations is supplemented with an equation for the field profile B(z) along the magnet axis, presented for the first time. It is demonstrated that the geometrical factors in the coefficients of particular powers of r, defined by intricate integrals are the coefficients of the Taylor expansion of the homogeneity profile (B(z)-Bc)/Bc. As a consequence, the components of B can be easily calculated with an arbitrary accuracy. In order to describe perturbations of the field due to segmentation, two additional equations are borrowed from the 2D theory. It is shown that the 2D approach to the perturbations generated by the segmentation can be applied to the 3D Halbach structures unless r is not too close to the inner radius of the cylinder ri. The mathematical framework presented in the paper was verified with great precision by computations of B by a highly accurate integration of the magnetostatic Coulomb law and utilized to analyze the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field in the magnet with the accuracy better than 1 ppm.

  12. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines

    DOEpatents

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  13. Preflare magnetic and velocity fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Gaizauskas, V.; Chapman, G. A.; Deloach, A. C.; Gary, G. A.; Jones, H. P.; Karpen, J. T.; Martres, M.-J.; Porter, J. G.; Schmeider, B.

    1986-01-01

    A characterization is given of the preflare magnetic field, using theoretical models of force free fields together with observed field structure to determine the general morphology. Direct observational evidence for sheared magnetic fields is presented. The role of this magnetic shear in the flare process is considered within the context of a MHD model that describes the buildup of magnetic energy, and the concept of a critical value of shear is explored. The related subject of electric currents in the preflare state is discussed next, with emphasis on new insights provided by direct calculations of the vertical electric current density from vector magnetograph data and on the role of these currents in producing preflare brightenings. Results from investigations concerning velocity fields in flaring active regions, describing observations and analyses of preflare ejecta, sheared velocities, and vortical motions near flaring sites are given. This is followed by a critical review of prevalent concepts concerning the association of flux emergence with flares

  14. AC photovoltaic module magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C.; Chang, G.J.; Reyes, A.B.; Whitaker, C.M.

    1997-12-31

    Implementation of alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) modules, particularly for distributed applications such as PV rooftops and facades, may be slowed by public concern about electric and magnetic fields (EMF). This paper documents magnetic field measurements on an AC PV module, complementing EMF research on direct-current PV modules conducted by PG and E in 1993. Although not comprehensive, the PV EMF data indicate that 60 Hz magnetic fields (the EMF type of greatest public concern) from PV modules are comparable to, or significantly less than, those from household appliances. Given the present EMF research knowledge, AC PV module EMF may not merit considerable concern.

  15. Magnetic Field of Strange Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdasaryan, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    The generation of a magnetic field in a strange quark star owing to differential rotation of the superfluid and superconducting quark core relative to the normal electron-nuclear crust of the star is examined. The maximum possible magnetic field on the surface is estimated for various models of strange dwarfs. Depending on the configuration parameters, i.e., the mass M and radius R of the star, a range of 103-105 G is found. These values of the magnetic field may be an additional condition for identification of strange dwarfs among the extensive class of observed white dwarfs.

  16. Magnetoconvection in sheared magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, N. H.; Garcia, O. E.

    2008-10-15

    The development of magnetoconvection in a sheared magnetic field is investigated. The equilibrium magnetic field B{sub 0} is horizontal and its orientation varies linearly along the vertical axis. Preliminary consideration of the transition from the inertial to the viscous regime of the gravitational resistive interchange instability, reveals that the latter is characterized by the existence of viscoresistive boundary layers of vertical width which scales as Q{sup -1/6}, where Q is the Chandrasekhar number. The situation is analogous to the one encountered in magnetically confined laboratory plasmas, where convective flows are constrained by the magnetic shear to develop in boundary layers located around resonant magnetic surfaces in order to fulfill the 'interchange condition'k{center_dot}B{sub 0}=0, where k is the wave vector of the magnetic perturbation. It follows that when the effect of thermal diffusion is taken into account in the process, convection can only occur above a certain critical value of the Rayleigh number which scales as Q{sup 2/3} for large Q. At the onset, the convection pattern is a superposition of identically thin convective rolls everywhere aligned with the local magnetic field lines and which therefore adopt the magnetic field geometry, a situation also reminiscent of the penumbra of sunspots. Using this degeneracy, equations describing the weakly nonlinear state are obtained and discussed. A reduced magnetohydrodynamic description of magnetoconvection is introduced. Since it is valid for arbitrary magnetic field configurations, it allows a simple extension to the case where there exists an inclination between the direction of gravity and the plane spanned by the equilibrium magnetic field. These reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations are proposed as a powerful tool for further investigations of magnetoconvection in more complex field line geometries.

  17. Preface: Cosmic magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovichev, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Recent advances in observations and modeling have opened new perspectives for the understanding of fundamental dynamical processes of cosmic magnetism, and associated magnetic activity on the Sun, stars and galaxies. The goal of the Special Issue is to discuss the progress in solar physics and astrophysics, similarities and differences in phenomenology and physics of magnetic phenomena on the Sun and other stars. Space observatories, ground-based telescopes, and new observational methods have provided tremendous amount of data that need to be analyzed and understood. The solar observations discovered multi-scale organization of solar activity, dramatically changing current paradigms of solar variability. On the other side, stellar observations discovered new regimes of dynamics and magnetism that are different from the corresponding solar phenomena, but described by the same physics. Stars represent an astrophysical laboratory for studying the dynamical, magnetic and radiation processes across a broad range of stellar masses and ages. These studies allow us to look at the origin and evolution of our Sun, whereas detailed investigations of the solar magnetism give us a fundamental basis for interpretation and understanding of unresolved stellar data.

  18. Master equations for pulsed magnetic fields: Application to magnetic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; Luban, Marshall

    2005-10-01

    We extend spin-lattice relaxation theory to incorporate the use of pulsed magnetic fields for probing the hysteresis effects and magnetization steps and plateaus exhibited, at low temperatures, by the dynamical magnetization of magnetic molecules. The main assumption made is that the lattice degrees of freedom equilibrate in times much shorter than both the experimental time scale (determined by the sweep rate) and the typical spin-lattice relaxation time. We first consider the isotropic case (a magnetic molecule with a ground state of spin S well separated from the excited levels and also the general isotropic Heisenberg-Hamiltonian where all energy levels are relevant) and then we include small off-diagonal terms in the spin Hamiltonian to take into account the Landau-Zener-Stückelberg (LZS) effect. In the first case, and for an S=1/2 magnetic molecule we arrive at the generalized Bloch equation recently used for the magnetic molecule {V6} in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 147204 (2005)]. An analogous equation is derived for the magnetization, at low temperatures, of antiferromagnetic ring systems. The LZS effect is discussed for magnetic molecules with a low spin ground state, for which we arrive at a very convenient set of equations that take into account the combined effects of LZS and thermal transitions. In particular, these equations explain the deviation from exact magnetization reversal at B≈0 observed in {V6} . They also account for the small magnetization plateaus (“magnetic Foehn effect”), following the LZS steps that have been observed in several magnetic molecules. Finally, we discuss the role of the phonon bottleneck effect at low temperatures and specifically we indicate how this can give rise to a pronounced Foehn effect.

  19. Magnetic fields during galaxy mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodenbeck, Kai; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.

    2016-09-01

    Galaxy mergers are expected to play a central role for the evolution of galaxies and may have a strong effect on their magnetic fields. We present the first grid-based 3D magnetohydrodynamical simulations investigating the evolution of magnetic fields during merger events. For this purpose, we employed a simplified model considering the merger event of magnetized gaseous disks in the absence of stellar feedback and without a stellar or dark matter component. We show that our model naturally leads to the production of two peaks in the evolution of the average magnetic field strength within 5 kpc, within 25 kpc, and on scales in between 5 and 25 kpc. The latter is consistent with the peak in the magnetic field strength previously reported in a merger sequence of observed galaxies. We show that the peak on the galactic scale and in the outer regions is most likely due to geometrical effects, as the core of one galaxy enters the outskirts of the other one. In addition, the magnetic field within the central ~5 kpc is physically enhanced, which reflects the enhancement in density that is due to efficient angular momentum transport. We conclude that high-resolution observations of the central regions will be particularly relevant for probing the evolution of magnetic field structures during merger events.

  20. Quench tests of Nb3Al small racetrack magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, R.; Kikuchi, A.; Tartaglia, Michael Albert; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kotelnikov, S.; Lamm, Michael J.; /Fermilab /NIMC, Tsukuba /KEK, Tsukuba

    2007-08-01

    Two Cu stabilized Nb3Al strands, F1 (Nb matrixed) and F3 (Ta matrixed), have been made at NIMS and their Rutherford cables were made at Fermilab in collaboration with NIMS. A Small Race-track magnet using F1 Rutherford cable, the first Nb3Al dipole magnet in the world, was constructed and tested to full current at Fermilab. This magnet was tested extensively to full short sample data and its quench characteristics were studied and reported. The 3-D magnetic field calculation was done with ANSYS to find the peak field. The quench characteristics of the magnet are explained with the characteristics of the Nb3Al strand and Rutherford cable. The other Small Race-track magnet using Ta matrixed F3 strand was constructed and will be tested in the near future. The advantages and disadvantages of these Nb3Al cables are discussed.

  1. Simple mechanism for reversals of earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Pétrélis, François; Fauve, Stéphan; Dormy, Emmanuel; Valet, Jean-Pierre

    2009-04-10

    We show that a model, recently used to describe all the dynamical regimes of the magnetic field generated by the dynamo effect in the von Kármán sodium experiment, also provides a simple explanation of the reversals of Earth's magnetic field, despite strong differences between both systems. The validity of the model relies on the smallness of the magnetic Prandtl number.

  2. Simple Mechanism for Reversals of Earth's Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Petrelis, Francois; Fauve, Stephan; Dormy, Emmanuel; Valet, Jean-Pierre

    2009-04-10

    We show that a model, recently used to describe all the dynamical regimes of the magnetic field generated by the dynamo effect in the von Karman sodium experiment, also provides a simple explanation of the reversals of Earth's magnetic field, despite strong differences between both systems. The validity of the model relies on the smallness of the magnetic Prandtl number.

  3. Small fields: Nonequilibrium radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Indra J.; Ding, George X.; Ahnesjoe, Anders

    2008-01-15

    Advances in radiation treatment with beamlet-based intensity modulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery (including specialized equipments like CyberKnife, Gamma Knife, tomotherapy, and high-resolution multileaf collimating systems) have resulted in the use of reduced treatment fields to a subcentimeter scale. Compared to the traditional radiotherapy with fields {>=}4x4 cm{sup 2}, this can result in significant uncertainty in the accuracy of clinical dosimetry. The dosimetry of small fields is challenging due to nonequilibrium conditions created as a consequence of the secondary electron track lengths and the source size projected through the collimating system that are comparable to the treatment field size. It is further complicated by the prolonged electron tracks in the presence of low-density inhomogeneities. Also, radiation detectors introduced into such fields usually perturb the level of disequilibrium. Hence, the dosimetric accuracy previously achieved for standard radiotherapy applications is at risk for both absolute and relative dose determination. This article summarizes the present knowledge and gives an insight into the future procedures to handle the nonequilibrium radiation dosimetry problems. It is anticipated that new miniature detectors with controlled perturbations and corrections will be available to meet the demand for accurate measurements. It is also expected that the Monte Carlo techniques will increasingly be used in assessing the accuracy, verification, and calculation of dose, and will aid perturbation calculations of detectors used in small and highly conformal radiation beams.

  4. Magnetic monopole detector with sensitivity to extremely small magnetic charge

    SciTech Connect

    Fryberger, D.; St. Lorant, S.; Tillmann, E.; Wolff, A.

    1986-10-01

    A magnetic monopole detector with a sensitivity range down to extremely small magnetic charge is described. Backgrounds in the detector are discussed and representative background distributions are given. Appropriate steps to minimize these backgrounds are detailed. The region of sensitivity of the detector to magnetic monopoles in terms of monopole charge and monopole mass is given.

  5. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Denver, T.; Espley, J.; Jorgensen, J. L.; Jorgensen, P. S.; Lawton, P.; Malinnikova, A.; Merayo, J. M.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Smith, E. J.

    2017-02-01

    The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter's planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor suites, each consisting of a tri-axial Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located imaging sensors mounted on an ultra-stable optical bench. The imaging system sensors are part of a subsystem that provides accurate attitude information (to ˜20 arcsec on a spinning spacecraft) near the point of measurement of the magnetic field. The two sensor suites are accommodated at 10 and 12 m from the body of the spacecraft on a 4 m long magnetometer boom affixed to the outer end of one of 's three solar array assemblies. The magnetometer sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics boards within the magnetometer electronics package mounted inside Juno's massive radiation shielded vault. The imaging sensors are controlled by a fully hardware redundant electronics package also mounted within the radiation vault. Each magnetometer sensor measures the vector magnetic field with 100 ppm absolute vector accuracy over a wide dynamic range (to 16 Gauss = 1.6 × 106 nT per axis) with a resolution of ˜0.05 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range (±1600 nT per axis). Both magnetometers sample the magnetic field simultaneously at an intrinsic sample rate of 64 vector samples per second. The magnetic field instrumentation may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. The attitude determination system compares images with an on-board star catalog to provide attitude solutions (quaternions) at a rate of up to 4 solutions per second, and may be configured to acquire images of selected targets for science and engineering analysis. The system tracks and catalogs objects that pass through the imager field of

  6. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benna, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Denver, T.; Espley, J.; Jorgensen, J. L.; Jorgensen, P. S.; Lawton, P.; Malinnikova, A.; Merayo, J. M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter's planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor suites, each consisting of a tri-axial Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located imaging sensors mounted on an ultra-stable optical bench. The imaging system sensors are part of a subsystem that provides accurate attitude information (to approx. 20 arcsec on a spinning spacecraft) near the point of measurement of the magnetic field. The two sensor suites are accommodated at 10 and 12 m from the body of the spacecraft on a 4 m long magnetometer boom affixed to the outer end of one of 's three solar array assemblies. The magnetometer sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics boards within the magnetometer electronics package mounted inside Juno's massive radiation shielded vault. The imaging sensors are controlled by a fully hardware redundant electronics package also mounted within the radiation vault. Each magnetometer sensor measures the vector magnetic field with 100 ppm absolute vector accuracy over a wide dynamic range (to 16 Gauss = 1.6 x 10(exp. 6) nT per axis) with a resolution of approx. 0.05 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range (+/-1600 nT per axis). Both magnetometers sample the magnetic field simultaneously at an intrinsic sample rate of 64 vector samples per second. The magnetic field instrumentation may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. The attitude determination system compares images with an on-board star catalog to provide attitude solutions (quaternions) at a rate of up to 4 solutions per second, and may be configured to acquire images of selected targets for science and engineering analysis. The system tracks and catalogs objects that pass through

  7. Magnetic fields in primordial accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are considered a vital ingredient of contemporary star formation and may have been important during the formation of the first stars in the presence of an efficient amplification mechanism. Initial seed fields are provided via plasma fluctuations and are subsequently amplified by the small-scale dynamo, leading to a strong, tangled magnetic field. We explore how the magnetic field provided by the small-scale dynamo is further amplified via the α-Ω dynamo in a protostellar disk and assess its implications. For this purpose, we consider two characteristic cases, a typical Pop. III star with 10M⊙ and an accretion rate of 10-3M⊙ yr-1, and a supermassive star with 105M⊙ and an accretion rate of 10-1M⊙ yr-1. For the 10M⊙ Pop. III star, we find that coherent magnetic fields can be produced on scales of at least 100 AU, which are sufficient to drive a jet with a luminosity of 100L⊙ and a mass outflow rate of 10-3.7M⊙ yr-1. For the supermassive star, the dynamical timescales in its environment are even shorter, implying smaller orbital timescales and an efficient magnetization out to at least 1000 AU. The jet luminosity corresponds to ~106.0L⊙ and a mass outflow rate of 10-2.1M⊙ yr-1. We expect that the feedback from the supermassive star can have a relevant impact on its host galaxy.

  8. Investigation of Magnetic Field Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-28

    the magnetic field in space by cancelling the ambient magnetic field. An observatory-quality, proton - precession magnetometer is available to monitor...test and calibrate the fluxgate magnetometers . Changes in design of the induction-coil magnetometere should enhance their reliability. The value of...Report) Ill. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES IS. KEY WORDS (CoEntnue on revere side I necoseer mnd Identify by block mamber) AFGL Magnetometer Network Fluxgate

  9. Magnetic-Field Hazards Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Puchalska, I. B., Influence of magnetic fields on frog sciatic nerve , Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 91:118 (1979). 35. Fardon, 3. C., "Effect of magnetic...fields, Bioelectromagnetic 2:357 (1981). 41. Gaffey, C. T. and Tenforde, T. S., Bioelectric properties of frog sciatic nerves during exposure to...available from: U.S. Dept. of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon 97208 (1982). 29. Levy , R. H., and Jones, G. S., "Plasma

  10. Untwisting magnetic fields in the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Ramit; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr; Chye Low, Boon

    2012-07-01

    The solar corona is the tenuous atmosphere of the Sun characterized by a temperature of the order of million degrees Kelvin, an ambient magnetic field of 10 to 15 Gauss and a very high magnetic Reynolds number because of which it qualifies as a near-ideal magnetofluid system. It is well known that for such a system, the magnetic flux across every fluid surface remains effectively constant to a good approximation. Under this so called ``frozen-in'' condition then, it is possible to partition this magnetofluid into contiguous magnetic subvolumes each entrapping its own subsystem of magnetic flux. Thin magnetic flux tubes are an elementary example of such magnetic subvolumes evolving in time with no exchange of fluid among them. The internal twists and interweaving of these flux tubes, collectively referred as the magnetic topology, remains conserved under the frozen-in condition. Because of the dynamical evolution of the magnetofluid, two such subvolumes can come into direct contact with each other by expelling a third interstitial subvolume. In this process, the magnetic field may become discontinuous across the surface of contact by forming a current sheet there. Because of the small spatial scales generated by steepening of magnetic field gradient, the otherwise negligible resistivity becomes dominant and allows for reconnection of field lines which converts magnetic energy into heat. This phenomenon of spontaneous current sheet formation and its subsequent resistive decay is believed to be a possible mechanism for heating the solar corona to its million degree Kelvin temperature. In this work the dynamics of spontaneous current sheet formation is explored through numerical simulations and the results are presented.

  11. Observation of Magnetic Fields Generated by Tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoj, Chandrasekharan; Maus, Stefan; Chulliat, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Tsunamis produce perturbations in the Earth's magnetic field by electromagnetic induction. Recent deployments of highly accurate magnetometers and the exceptionally deep solar minimum provided ideal conditions to observe these small signals from the tsunami resulting from the strong Chilean earthquake on 27 February 2010. Magnetic observatory measurements on Easter Island, 3500 kilometers west of the epicenter, show a periodic signal of 1 nanotesla, coincident in time with recordings from the local tide gauge. The detection of these magnetic signals represents a milestone in understanding tsunami-induced electromagnetic effects.

  12. Optical sensor of magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.

    1986-03-25

    An optical magnetic field strength sensor for measuring the field strength of a magnetic field comprising a dilute magnetic semi-conductor probe having first and second ends, longitudinally positioned in the magnetic field for providing Faraday polarization rotation of light passing therethrough relative to the strength of the magnetic field. Light provided by a remote light source is propagated through an optical fiber coupler and a single optical fiber strand between the probe and the light source for providing a light path therebetween. A polarizer and an apparatus for rotating the polarization of the light is provided in the light path and a reflector is carried by the second end of the probe for reflecting the light back through the probe and thence through the polarizer to the optical coupler. A photo detector apparatus is operably connected to the optical coupler for detecting and measuring the intensity of the reflected light and comparing same to the light source intensity whereby the magnetic field strength may be calculated.

  13. Quantum oscillations without magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianyu; Pikulin, D. I.; Franz, M.

    2017-01-01

    When the magnetic field B is applied to a metal, nearly all observable quantities exhibit oscillations periodic in 1 /B . Such quantum oscillations reflect the fundamental reorganization of electron states into Landau levels as a canonical response of the metal to the applied magnetic field. We predict here that, remarkably, in the recently discovered Dirac and Weyl semimetals, quantum oscillations can occur in the complete absence of magnetic field. These zero-field quantum oscillations are driven by elastic strain which, in the space of the low-energy Dirac fermions, acts as a chiral gauge potential. We propose an experimental setup in which the strain in a thin film (or nanowire) can generate a pseudomagnetic field b as large as 15 T and demonstrate the resulting de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations periodic in 1 /b .

  14. Effects of static magnetic fields on plants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, O.

    In our recent experiment on STS-107 (MFA-Biotube) we took advantage of the magnetic heterogeneity of the gravity receptor cells of flax roots, namely stronger diamagnetism of starch-filled amyloplasts compared to cytoplasm (Δ ≊ < 0). High gradient magnetic fields (HGMF, grad(H2/2) up to 109-1010 Oe2/cm) of the experimental chambers (MFCs) repelled amyloplasts from the zones of stronger field thus providing a directional stimulus for plant gravisensing system in microgravity, and causing the roots to react. Such reaction was observed in the video downlink pictures. Unfortunately, the ``Columbia'' tragedy caused loss of the plant material and most of the images, thus preventing us from detailed studies of the results. Currently we are looking for a possibility to repeat this experiment. Therefore, it is very important to understand, what other effects (besides displacing amyloplasts) static magnetic fields with intensities 0 to 2.5104 Oe, and with the size of the area of non-uniformity 10-3 to 1 cm. These effects were estimated theoretically and tested experimentally. No statistically significant differences in growth rates or rates of gravicurvature were observed in experiments with Linum, Arabidopsis, Hordeum, Avena, Ceratodon and Chara between the plants grown in uniform magnetic fields of various intensities (102 to 2.5104 Oe) and those grown in the Earth's magnetic field. Microscopic studies also did not detect any structural differences between test and control plants. The magnitudes of possible effects of static magnetic fields on plant cells and organs (including effects on ion currents, magneto-hydrodynamic effects in moving cytoplasm, ponderomotive forces on other cellular structures, effects on some biochemical reactions and biomolecules) were estimated theoretically. The estimations have shown, that these effects are small compared to the thermodynamic noise and thus are insignificant. Both theoretical estimations and control experiments confirm, that

  15. Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and Faraday rotation of the polarization angle are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30 \\upmu G) and in central starburst regions (50-100 \\upmu G). Such fields are dynamically important; they affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields, which can be regular or anisotropic turbulent, where the latter originates from isotropic turbulent fields by the action of compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields (10-15 \\upmu G) are generally found in interarm regions. In galaxies with strong density waves, ordered fields are also observed at the inner edges of spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies and in central regions. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are a tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium.—Faraday rotation measures of the diffuse polarized radio emission from galaxy disks reveal large-scale spiral patterns that can be described by the superposition of azimuthal modes; these are signatures of regular fields generated by mean-field dynamos. "Magnetic arms" between gaseous spiral arms may also be products of dynamo action, but need a stable spiral pattern to develop. Helically twisted field loops winding around spiral arms were found in two galaxies so far. Large-scale field reversals, like the one found in the Milky Way, could not yet be detected in external galaxies. In radio halos around edge-on galaxies, ordered magnetic fields with X-shaped patterns are observed. The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields, in particular their first occurrence in young galaxies and their dynamical importance during galaxy evolution, will be studied with

  16. Nanometric alternating magnetic field generator.

    PubMed

    Espejo, A P; Tejo, F; Vidal-Silva, N; Escrig, J

    2017-07-05

    In this work we introduce an alternating magnetic field generator in a cylindrical nanostructure. This field appears due to the rotation of a magnetic domain wall located at some position, generating a magnetic region that varies its direction of magnetization alternately, thus inducing an alternating magnetic flux in its vicinity. This phenomenon occurs due to the competition between a spin-polarized current and a magnetic field, which allows to control both the angular velocity and the pinning position of the domain wall. As proof of concept, we study the particular case of a diameter-modulated nanowire with a spin-polarized current along its axis and the demagnetizing field produced by its modulation. This inhomogeneous field allows one to control the angular velocity of the domain wall as a function of its position along the nanowire allowing frequencies in the GHz range to be achieved. This generator could be used in telecommunications for devices in the range of radiofrequencies or, following Faraday's induction law, could also induce an electromotive force and be used as a movable alternate voltage source in future nanodevices.

  17. Strong Magnetic Field Characterisation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    coils were driven by a pulsed-power system to generate the fields. All the sources were characterised through a series of measurements and modelling... generated for the coils. Options for further investigation were provided. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED This...investigation. The desired field strength was based on assessments [1] from preliminary magnetohydrodynamic ( MHD ) modelling and while not achievable by

  18. Small Magnetic Sensors for Space Applications

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Michelena, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Small magnetic sensors are widely used integrated in vehicles, mobile phones, medical devices, etc for navigation, speed, position and angular sensing. These magnetic sensors are potential candidates for space sector applications in which mass, volume and power savings are important issues. This work covers the magnetic technologies available in the marketplace and the steps towards their implementation in space applications, the actual trend of miniaturization the front-end technologies, and the convergence of the mature and miniaturized magnetic sensor to the space sector through the small satellite concept. PMID:22574012

  19. MAGNETIC FIELDS FROM QCD PHASE TRANSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Tevzadze, Alexander G.; Kisslinger, Leonard; Kahniashvili, Tina; Brandenburg, Axel

    2012-11-01

    We study the evolution of QCD phase transition-generated magnetic fields (MFs) in freely decaying MHD turbulence of the expanding universe. We consider an MF generation model that starts from basic non-perturbative QCD theory and predicts stochastic MFs with an amplitude of the order of 0.02 {mu}G and small magnetic helicity. We employ direct numerical simulations to model the MHD turbulence decay and identify two different regimes: a 'weakly helical' turbulence regime, when magnetic helicity increases during decay, and 'fully helical' turbulence, when maximal magnetic helicity is reached and an inverse cascade develops. The results of our analysis show that in the most optimistic scenario the magnetic correlation length in the comoving frame can reach 10 kpc with the amplitude of the effective MF being 0.007 nG. We demonstrate that the considered model of magnetogenesis can provide the seed MF for galaxies and clusters.

  20. MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS FOR FAST-CHANGING MAGNETIC FIELDS.

    SciTech Connect

    JAIN, A.; ESCALLIER, J.; GANETIS, G.; LOUIE, W.; MARONE, A.; THOMAS. R.; WANDERER, P.

    2004-10-03

    Several recent applications for fast ramped magnets have been found that require rapid measurement of the field quality during the ramp. (In one instance, accelerator dipoles will be ramped at 1 T/sec, with measurements needed to the accuracy typically required for accelerators.) We have built and tested a new type of magnetic field measuring system to meet this need. The system consists of 16 stationary pickup windings mounted on a cylinder. The signals induced in the windings in a changing magnetic field are sampled and analyzed to obtain the field harmonics. To minimize costs, printed circuit boards were used for the pickup windings and a combination of amplifiers and ADPs used for the voltage readout system. New software was developed for the analysis. Magnetic field measurements of a model dipole developed for the SIS200 accelerator at GSI are presented. The measurements are needed to insure that eddy currents induced by the fast ramps do not impact the field quality needed for successful accelerator operation.

  1. Cosmic Magnetic Fields: Observations and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer

    2011-09-01

    ``relics'', probably shock fronts by cluster mergers, can have degrees of polarization of up to 60% and extents of up to 2 Mpc. The IGM magnetic field strength is >=3 10-16 G with a filling factor of at least 60%, derived from the combination of data from the HESS and FERMI telescopes.--Polarization observations with the forthcoming large radio telescopes will open a new era in the observation of cosmic magnetic fields and will help to understand their origin. At low frequencies, LOFAR (10-250 MHz) will allow us to map the structure of weak magnetic fields in the outer regions and halos of galaxies and galaxy clusters. Small Faraday rotation measures can also be best measured at low frequencies. Polarization at higher frequencies (1-10 GHz), as observed with the EVLA, MeerKAT, APERTIF and the SKA, will trace magnetic fields in the disks and central regions of nearby galaxies in unprecedented detail. The SKA pulsar survey will find many new pulsars; their RMs will map the Milky Way's magnetic field with high precision. All-sky surveys of Faraday rotation measures towards a dense grid of polarized background sources with the SKA and its precursor telescope ASKAP are dedicated to measure magnetic fields in distant intervening galaxies, galaxy clusters and intergalactic filaments, and will be used to model the overall structure and strength of the magnetic field in the Milky Way. With the SKA, ordered fields in distant galaxies and cluster relics can be measured to redshifts of z~=0.5, turbulent fields in starburst galaxies or cluster halos to z~=3 and regular fields in intervening galaxies towards QSOs to z~=5.

  2. SIGNATURES OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION AT BOUNDARIES OF INTERPLANETARY SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Hui; Yao Shuo; Zong Qiugang; Qi Yu; He Jiansen

    2010-09-01

    The interaction between interplanetary small-scale magnetic flux ropes and the magnetic field in the ambient solar wind is an important topic in the understanding of the evolution of magnetic structures in the heliosphere. Through a survey of 125 previously reported small flux ropes from 1995 to 2005, we find that 44 of them reveal clear signatures of Alfvenic fluctuations and thus classify them as Alfven wave trains rather than flux ropes. Signatures of magnetic reconnection, generally including a plasma jet of {approx}30 km s{sup -1} within a magnetic field rotational region, are clearly present at boundaries of about 42% of the flux ropes and 14% of the wave trains. The reconnection exhausts are often observed to show a local increase in the proton temperature, density, and plasma beta. About 66% of the reconnection events at flux rope boundaries are associated with a magnetic field shear angle larger than 90{sup 0} and 73% of them reveal a decrease of 20% or more in the magnetic field magnitude, suggesting a dominance of anti-parallel reconnection at flux rope boundaries. The occurrence rate of magnetic reconnection at flux rope boundaries through the years 1995-2005 is also investigated and we find that it is relatively low around the solar maximum and much higher when approaching solar minima. The average magnetic field depression and shear angle for reconnection events at flux rope boundaries also reveal a similar trend from 1995 to 2005. Our results demonstrate for the first time that boundaries of a substantial fraction of small-scale flux ropes have properties similar to those of magnetic clouds, in the sense that both of them exhibit signatures of magnetic reconnection. The observed reconnection signatures could be related either to the formation of small flux ropes or to the interaction between flux ropes and the interplanetary magnetic fields.

  3. Suppression of edge-localized modes by magnetic field perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Kleva, Robert G.; Guzdar, Parvez N.

    2010-11-15

    Transport bursts in simulations of edge-localized modes (ELMs) in tokamaks are suppressed by the application of magnetic field perturbations. The amplitude of the applied magnetic field perturbations is characterized by a stochasticity parameter S. When S>1, magnetic flux surfaces are destroyed and the magnetic field lines diffuse in minor radius. As S increases in the simulations, the magnitude of the ELM bursts decreases. The size of bursts is reduced to a very small value while S is still less than unity and most of the magnetic flux surfaces are still preserved. Magnetic field line stochasticity is not a requirement for the stabilization of ELMs by the magnetic field perturbations. The magnetic field perturbations act by suppressing the growth of the resistive ballooning instability that underlies the ELM bursts.

  4. The magnetic field of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Ronnie

    The magnetic field of the Milky Way is a significant component of our Galaxy, and impacts a great variety of Galactic processes. For example, it regulates star formation, accelerates cosmic rays, transports energy and momentum, acts as a source of pressure, and obfuscates the arrival directions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). This thesis is mainly concerned with the large scale Galactic magnetic field (GMF), and the effect it has on UHECRs. In Chapter 1 we review what is known about Galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields, their origin, the different observables of the GMF, and the ancillary data that is necessary to constrain astrophysical magnetic fields. Chapter 2 introduces a method to quantify the quality-of-fit between data and observables sensitive to the large scale Galactic magnetic field. We combine WMAP5 polarized synchrotron data and rotation measures of extragalactic sources in a joint analysis to obtain best-fit parameters and confidence levels for GMF models common in the literature. None of the existing models provide a good fit in both the disk and halo regions, and in many instances best-fit parameters are quite different than the original values. We introduce a simple model of the magnetic field in the halo that provides a much improved fit to the data. We show that some characteristics of the electron densities can already be constrained using our method and with future data it may be possible to carry out a self-consistent analysis in which models of the GMF and electron densities are simultaneously optimized. Chapter 3 investigates the observed excess of UHECRs in the region of the sky close to the nearby radio galaxy Centaurus A. We constrain the large-scale Galactic magnetic field and the small-scale random magnetic field in the direction of Cen A, and estimate the deflection of the observed UHECRs and predict their source positions on the sky. We find that the deflection due to random fields are small compared to deflections

  5. Indoor localization using magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

    Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing

  6. Neutrino Conversions in Solar Random Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrente-Lujan, E.

    We consider the effect of a random magnetic field in the convective zone of the Sun on resonant neutrino spin-flavour oscillations. We argue for the existence of a field of strongly chaotic nature at the bottom of the convective zone. The expected signals in the different experiments (SK,GALLEX-SAGE,Homestake) are obtained as a function of the level of noise, regular magnetic field and neutrino mixing parameters. Previous results obtained for small mixing and ad-hoc regular magnetic profiles are reobtained. We find that MSW regions are stable up to very large levels of noise (P=0.7-0.8) and they are acceptable from the point of view of antineutrino production. For strong noise any parameter region (Δm2,sin22θ) is excluded: this model of noisy magnetic field is not compatible with particle physics solutions to the SNP. One is allowed then to reverse the problem and to put limits on r.m.s field strength, correlation length and transition magnetic moments by demanding a solution to the SNP under this scenario.

  7. Plasma Equilibria With Stochastic Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krommes, J. A.; Reiman, A. H.

    2009-05-01

    Plasma equilibria that include regions of stochastic magnetic fields are of interest in a variety of applications, including tokamaks with ergodic limiters and high-pressure stellarators. Such equilibria are examined theoretically, and a numerical algorithm for their construction is described.^2,3 % The balance between stochastic diffusion of magnetic lines and small effects^2 omitted from the simplest MHD description can support pressure and current profiles that need not be flattened in stochastic regions. The diffusion can be described analytically by renormalizing stochastic Langevin equations for pressure and parallel current j, with particular attention being paid to the satisfaction of the periodicity constraints in toroidal configurations with sheared magnetic fields. The equilibrium field configuration can then be constructed by coupling the prediction for j to Amp'ere's law, which is solved numerically. A. Reiman et al., Pressure-induced breaking of equilibrium flux surfaces in the W7AS stellarator, Nucl. Fusion 47, 572--8 (2007). J. A. Krommes and A. H. Reiman, Plasma equilibrium in a magnetic field with stochastic regions, submitted to Phys. Plasmas. J. A. Krommes, Fundamental statistical theories of plasma turbulence in magnetic fields, Phys. Reports 360, 1--351.

  8. Magnetic fields in Local Group dwarf irregulars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyży, K. T.; Weżgowiec, M.; Beck, R.; Bomans, D. J.

    2011-05-01

    Aims: We wish to clarify whether strong magnetic fields can be effectively generated in typically low-mass dwarf galaxies and to assess the role of dwarf galaxies in the magnetization of the Universe. Methods: We performed a search for radio emission and magnetic fields in an unbiased sample of 12 Local Group (LG) irregular and dwarf irregular galaxies with the 100-m Effelsberg telescope at 2.64 GHz. Three galaxies were detected. A higher frequency (4.85 GHz) was used to search for polarized emission in five dwarfs that are the most luminous ones in the infrared domain, of which three were detected. Results: Magnetic fields in LG dwarfs are weak, with a mean value of the total field strength of <4.2 ± 1.8 μG, three times lower than in the normal spirals. The strongest field among all LG dwarfs of 10 μG (at 2.64 GHz) is observed in the starburst dwarf IC 10. The production of total magnetic fields in dwarf systems appears to be regulated mainly by the star-formation surface density (with the power-law exponent of 0.30 ± 0.04) or by the gas surface density (with the exponent 0.47 ± 0.09). In addition, we find systematically stronger fields in objects of higher global star-formation rate. The dwarf galaxies follow a similar far-infrared relationship (with a slope of 0.91 ± 0.08) to that determined for high surface brightness spiral galaxies. The magnetic field strength in dwarf galaxies does not correlate with their maximum rotational velocity, indicating that a small-scale rather than a large-scale dynamo process is responsible for producting magnetic fields in dwarfs. If magnetization of the Universe by galactic outflows is coeval with its metal enrichment, we show that more massive objects (such as Lyman break galaxies) can efficiently magnetize the intergalactic medium with a magnetic field strength of about 0.8 nG out to a distance of 160-530 kpc at redshifts 5-3, respectively. Magnetic fields that are several times weaker and shorter magnetization

  9. Observations of Mercury's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.; Behannon, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Whang, Y. C.

    1975-01-01

    Magnetic field data obtained by Mariner 10 during the third and final encounter with the planet Mercury on 16 March 1975 were studied. A well developed bow shock and modest magnetosphere, previously observed at first encounter on 29 March 1974, were again observed. In addition, a much stronger magnetic field near closest approach, 400 gamma versus 98 gamma, was observed at an altitude of 327 km and approximately 70 deg north Mercurian latitude. Spherical harmonic analysis of the data provide an estimate of the centered planetary magnetic dipole of 4.7 x 10 to the 22nd power Gauss/cu cm with the axis tilted 12 deg to the rotation axis and in the same sense as Earth's. The interplanetary field was sufficiently different between first and third encounters that in addition to the very large field magnitude observed, it argues strongly against a complex induction process generating the observed planetary field. While a possibility exists that Mercury possesses a remanent field due to magnetization early in its formation, a present day active dynamo seems to be a more likely candidate for its origin.

  10. Satellite to study earth's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Magnetic Field Satellite (Magsat) designed to measure the near earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies is briefly described. A scalar magnetometer to measure the magnitude of the earth's crustal magnetic field and a vector magnetometer to measure magnetic field direction as well as magnitude are included. The mission and its objectives are summarized along with the data collection and processing system.

  11. Galactic and Intergalactic Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, U.; Fletcher, A.

    This course-tested textbook conveys the fundamentals of magnetic fields and relativistic plasma in diffuse cosmic media, with a primary focus on phenomena that have been observed at different wavelengths. Theoretical concepts are addressed wherever necessary, with derivations presented in sufficient detail to be generally accessible. In the first few chapters the authors present an introduction to various astrophysical phenomena related to cosmic magnetism, with scales ranging from molecular clouds in star-forming regions and supernova remnants in the Milky Way, to clusters of galaxies. Later chapters address the role of magnetic fields in the evolution of the interstellar medium, galaxies and galaxy clusters. The book is intended for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students in astronomy and physics and will serve as an entry point for those starting their first research projects in the field.

  12. Dynamo magnetic-field generation in turbulent accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic fields can play important roles in the dynamics and evolution of accretion disks. The presence of strong differential rotation and vertical density gradients in turbulent disks allows the alpha-omega dynamo mechanism to offset the turbulent dissipation and maintain strong magnetic fields. It is found that MHD dynamo magnetic-field normal modes in an accretion disk are highly localized to restricted regions of a disk. Implications for the character of real, dynamically constrained magnetic fields in accretion disks are discussed. The magnetic stress due to the mean magnetic field is found to be of the order of a viscous stress. The dominant stress, however, is likely to come from small-scale fluctuating magnetic fields. These fields may also give rise to energetic flares above the disk surface, providing a possible explanation for the highly variable hard X-ray emission from objects like Cyg X-l.

  13. Dynamo magnetic-field generation in turbulent accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic fields can play important roles in the dynamics and evolution of accretion disks. The presence of strong differential rotation and vertical density gradients in turbulent disks allows the alpha-omega dynamo mechanism to offset the turbulent dissipation and maintain strong magnetic fields. It is found that MHD dynamo magnetic-field normal modes in an accretion disk are highly localized to restricted regions of a disk. Implications for the character of real, dynamically constrained magnetic fields in accretion disks are discussed. The magnetic stress due to the mean magnetic field is found to be of the order of a viscous stress. The dominant stress, however, is likely to come from small-scale fluctuating magnetic fields. These fields may also give rise to energetic flares above the disk surface, providing a possible explanation for the highly variable hard X-ray emission from objects like Cyg X-l.

  14. Solar Polarimetry - from Turbulent Magnetic Fields to Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleint, Lucia

    2016-07-01

    Polarimetric measurements are essential to investigate the solar magnetic field. Scattering polarization and the Hanle effect allow us to probe the turbulent magnetic field and the still open questions of its strength and variability. Directed magnetic fields can be detected via the Zeeman effect. To derive their orientation and strength, so-called inversion codes are used, which iteratively modify a model atmosphere and calculate the resulting polarization profiles that are then compared to the observations. While photospheric polarimetry is well-established, chromospheric polarimetry is still in its infancy, especially because it requires a treatment in non-LTE, making it a complex non-linear problem. But some of the most important open questions concern the strength and geometry of the chromospheric magnetic field. In this talk, I will review different polarimetric analysis techniques and recent advances in magnetic field measurements going from the small scales of turbulent magnetic fields to changes of magnetic fields in an active region during flares.

  15. Influence of sloped electric field on magnetic-field-induced domain wall creep in a perpendicularly magnetized Co wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakizakai, Haruka; Yamada, Kihiro; Ando, Fuyuki; Kawaguchi, Masashi; Koyama, Tomohiro; Kim, Sanghoon; Moriyama, Takahiro; Chiba, Daichi; Ono, Teruo

    2017-05-01

    A creep motion of the magnetic domain wall (DW) in a perpendicularly magnetized Co wire, where the DW energy is artificially varied by applying a sloped electric field, is studied. Under the sloped electric field and a constant external magnetic field, the DW velocity gradually changes according to the position of the wire owing to the spatially varying DW energy. Although the sloped DW energy can be a source to drive a DW, no clear electric-field-induced DW motion is observed, most likely because the effective magnetic field induced by the sloped electric field is very small in the present system.

  16. Effects of non-linearities on magnetic field generation

    SciTech Connect

    Nalson, Ellie; Malik, Karim A.; Christopherson, Adam J. E-mail: achristopherson@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic fields are present on all scales in the Universe. While we understand the processes which amplify the fields fairly well, we do not have a ''natural'' mechanism to generate the small initial seed fields. By using fully relativistic cosmological perturbation theory and going beyond the usual confines of linear theory we show analytically how magnetic fields are generated. This is the first analytical calculation of the magnetic field at second order, using gauge-invariant cosmological perturbation theory, and including all the source terms. To this end, we have rederived the full set of governing equations independently. Our results suggest that magnetic fields of the order of 10{sup -30}- 10{sup -27} G can be generated (although this depends on the small scale cut-off of the integral), which is largely in agreement with previous results that relied upon numerical calculations. These fields are likely too small to act as the primordial seed fields for dynamo mechanisms.

  17. Coils of Magnetic Field Lines

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-27

    A smallish solar filament looks like it collapsed into the sun and set off a minor eruption that hurled plasma into space (June 20, 2017). Then, the disrupted magnetic field immediately began to reorganize itself, hence the bright series of spirals coiling up over that area. The magnetic field lines are made visible in extreme ultraviolet light as charged particles spin along them. Also of interest are the darker, cooler strands of plasma being pulled and twisted at the edge of the sun just below the active region. The activity here is in a 21-hour period. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21764

  18. The manipulation of magnetic coercive field and orientation of magnetic anisotropy via electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jun-Sen; Ye, Jun; Yang, Yun-Long; Xie, Yong; Li, Wei; Chen, Zi-Yu

    2016-08-01

    We report the effects of the electric field on the magnetic coercive field (H c) and uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) orientation of polycrystalline Ni film grown on an unpoled (0 1 1) [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3](1-x)-[PbTiO3] x (PMN-PT) single crystal substrate. Under various electric fields, normalized magnetic hysteresis loops of Ni films change in width; this represents the change of coercive field (ΔH c). Loop shapes are found to depend on the angle between the magnetic field and the sample, where changes in the shape reveal a small rotation of UMA. All these changes show that the magnetic properties vary periodically with a periodic electric field, by strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in the Ni/Ag/PMN-PT/Ag heterostructure. The poled PMN-PT produces strains under electric fields in the range of  -4.2 kV cm-1  ⩽  E  ⩽  4.2 kV cm-1, then transfers it to Ni films resulting in changes to its H c and UMA. The curves of the in-plane H c and strain, at two mutually orthogonal directions, represent butterfly patterns versus the applied electric field. In addition, the changes observed in both the H c and strain show asymmetric features in two orthogonal directions, which results in a small rotation angle of the UMA of Ni as the electric field decreases. The effective manipulation of magnitude and orientation of magnetic anisotropy via electric fields in ferromagnetic/ferroelectric (FM/FE) heterostructures is an important step towards controlling the magnetic tunnel junctions.

  19. Torsional oscillations of neutron stars with highly tangled magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotani, Hajime

    2015-11-01

    To determine the frequencies of magnetic oscillations in neutron stars with highly tangled magnetic fields, we derive the perturbation equations. We assume that the field strength of the global magnetic structure is so small that such fields are negligible compared with tangled fields, which may still be far from a realistic configuration. Then, we systematically examine the spectra of the magnetic oscillations, as varying the magnetic field strength and stellar mass. The frequencies without crust elasticity are completely proportional to the strength of the magnetic field, whose proportionality constant depends strongly on the stellar mass. On the other hand, the oscillation spectra with crust elasticity become more complicated, where the frequencies even for weak magnetic fields are different from the crustal torsional oscillations without magnetic fields. For discussing spectra, the critical field strength can play an important role, and it is determined in such a way that the shear velocity is equivalent to the Alfvén velocity at the crust basis. Additionally, we find that the effect of the crust elasticity can be seen strongly in the fundamental oscillations with a lower harmonic index, ℓ. Unlike the stellar models with a pure dipole magnetic field, we also find that the spectra with highly tangled magnetic fields become discrete, where one can expect many of the eigenfrequencies. Maybe these frequencies could be detected after the violent phenomena breaking the global magnetic field structure.

  20. Neutrino conversions in solar random magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semikoz, V. B.; Torrente-Lujan, E.

    1999-09-01

    We consider the effect of a random magnetic field in the convective zone of the Sun superimposed to a regular magnetic field on resonant neutrino spin-flavor oscillations. We argue for the existence of a field of strongly chaotic nature at the bottom of the convective zone. In contrast to previous attempts we employ a model motivated regular magnetic field profile: it is a static field solution to the solar equilibrium hydro-magnetic equations. These solutions have been known for a long time in the literature. We show for the first time that in addition they are twisting solutions. In this scenario electron antineutrinos are produced through cascades like νeL-->νμL-- >ν~eR, The detection of ν~eR at Earth would be a long-awaited signature of the Majorana nature of the neutrino. The expected signals in the different experiments (SK, GALLEX-SAGE, Homestake) are obtained as a function of the level of noise, regular magnetic field and neutrino mixing parameters. Previous results obtained for small mixing and ad-hoc regular magnetic profiles are reobtained. We confirm the strong suppression for a large part of the parameter space of the ν~eR-flux for high energy boron neutrinos in agreement with present data of the SK experiment. We find that MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) regions (Δm2~=10-5 eV2, both small and large mixing solutions) are stable up to very large levels of noise (P=0.7-0.8) but they are acceptable from the point of view of antineutrino production only for moderate levels of noise (P~=0.95). For strong noise and a reasonable regular magnetic field, any parameter region (Δm2, sin 2 2θ) is excluded. As a consequence, we are allowed to reverse the problem and to put limits on the r.m.s. field strength and transition magnetic moments by demanding a particle physics solution to the SNP in this scenario.

  1. Magnetic field contribution to the Lorentz model.

    PubMed

    Oughstun, Kurt E; Albanese, Richard A

    2006-07-01

    The classical Lorentz model of dielectric dispersion is based on the microscopic Lorentz force relation and Newton's second law of motion for an ensemble of harmonically bound electrons. The magnetic field contribution in the Lorentz force relation is neglected because it is typically small in comparison with the electric field contribution. Inclusion of this term leads to a microscopic polarization density that contains both perpendicular and parallel components relative to the plane wave propagation vector. The modified parallel and perpendicular polarizabilities are both nonlinear in the local electric field strength.

  2. Magnetic Field Twisting by Intergranular Downdrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taroyan, Youra; Williams, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The interaction of an intergranular downdraft with an embedded vertical magnetic field is examined. It is demonstrated that the downdraft may couple to small magnetic twists leading to an instability. The descending plasma exponentially amplifies the magnetic twists when it decelerates with depth due to increasing density. Most efficient amplification is found in the vicinity of the level, where the kinetic energy density of the downdraft reaches equipartition with the magnetic energy density. Continual extraction of energy from the decelerating plasma and growth in the total azimuthal energy occurs as a consequence of the wave-flow coupling along the downdraft. The presented mechanism may drive vortices and torsional motions that have been detected between granules and in simulations of magnetoconvection.

  3. Magnetic fields and density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Salsbury Jr., Freddie

    1999-02-01

    A major focus of this dissertation is the development of functionals for the magnetic susceptibility and the chemical shielding within the context of magnetic field density functional theory (BDFT). These functionals depend on the electron density in the absence of the field, which is unlike any other treatment of these responses. There have been several advances made within this theory. The first of which is the development of local density functionals for chemical shieldings and magnetic susceptibilities. There are the first such functionals ever proposed. These parameters have been studied by constructing functionals for the current density and then using the Biot-Savart equations to obtain the responses. In order to examine the advantages and disadvantages of the local functionals, they were tested numerically on some small molecules.

  4. Magnetic fields around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofalo, David A. G.

    Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our

  5. Majorana neutrinos and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schechter, J.; Valle, J. W. F.

    1981-10-01

    It is stressed that if neutrinos are massive they are probably of "Majorana" type. This implies that their magnetic-moment form factor vanishes identically so that the previously discussed phenomenon of spin rotation in a magnetic field would not appear to take place. We point out that Majorana neutrinos can, however, have transition moments. This enables an inhomogeneous magnetic field to rotate both spin and "flavor" of a neutrino. In this case the spin rotation changes particle to antiparticle. The spin-flavor-rotation effect is worked out in detail. We also discuss the parametrization and calculation of the electromagnetic form factors of Majorana neutrinos. Our discussion takes into account the somewhat unusual quantum theory of massive Majorana particles.

  6. Tweezing of Magnetic and Non-Magnetic Objects with Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Timonen, Jaakko V I; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2017-02-15

    Although strong magnetic fields cannot be conveniently "focused" like light, modern microfabrication techniques enable preparation of microstructures with which the field gradients - and resulting magnetic forces - can be localized to very small dimensions. This ability provides the foundation for magnetic tweezers which in their classical variant can address magnetic targets. More recently, the so-called negative magnetophoretic tweezers have also been developed which enable trapping and manipulations of completely nonmagnetic particles provided that they are suspended in a high-magnetic-susceptibility liquid. These two modes of magnetic tweezing are complimentary techniques tailorable for different types of applications. This Progress Report provides the theoretical basis for both modalities and illustrates their specific uses ranging from the manipulation of colloids in 2D and 3D, to trapping of living cells, control of cell function, experiments with single molecules, and more.

  7. Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, Sushan

    2017-09-01

    This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the evolution of magnetic fields in neutron stars, which basically defines the evolutionary pathways between different observational classes of neutron stars. The emphasis here is on the evolution in binary systems and the newly emergent classes of millisecond pulsars.

  8. Transverse Magnetic Field Propellant Isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2000-01-01

    An alternative high voltage isolator for electric propulsion and ground-based ion source applications has been designed and tested. This design employs a transverse magnetic field that increases the breakdown voltage. The design can greatly enhance the operating range of laboratory isolators used for high voltage applications.

  9. Crystal field and magnetic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made in the temperature range 1.3 to 4.2 K on powdered samples of ErH3. The susceptibility exhibits Curie-Weiss behavior from 4.2 to 2 K, and intercepts the negative temperature axis at theta = 1.05 + or - 0.05 K, indicating that the material is antiferromagnetic. The low field effective moment is 6.77 + or - 0.27 Bohr magnetons per ion. The magnetization exhibits a temperature independent contribution, the slope of which is (5 + or - 1.2) x 10 to the -6th Weber m/kg Tesla. The saturation moment is 3.84 + or - 1 - 0.15 Bohr magnetons per ion. The results can be qualitatively explained by the effects of crystal fields on the magnetic ions. No definitive assignment of a crystal field ground state can be given, nor can a clear choice between cubically or hexagonally symmetric crystal fields be made. For hexagonal symmetry, the first excited state is estimated to be 86 to 100 K above the ground state. For cubic symmetry, the splitting is on the order of 160 to 180 K.

  10. Ultralow field magnetization reversal of two-body magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Lu, Jincheng; Lu, Xiaofeng; Tang, Rujun; Sun, Z. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Field induced magnetization reversal was investigated in a system of two magnetic nanoparticles with uniaxial anisotropies and magnetostatic interaction. By using the micromagnetic simulation, ultralow switching field strength was found when the separation distance between the two particles reaches a critical small value (on nanometer scale) in the perpendicular configuration where the anisotropic axes of the two particles are perpendicular to the separation line. The switching field increases sharply when the separation is away from the critical distance. The ultralow field switching phenomenon was missed in the parallel configuration where both the anisotropic axes are aligned along the separation line of the two particles. The micromagnetic results are consistent with the previous theoretical prediction [J. Appl. Phys. 109, 104303 (2011)] where dipolar interaction between two single-domain magnetic particles was considered. Our present simulations offered further proofs and possibilities for the low-power applications of information storage as the two-body magnetic nanoparticles might be implemented as a composite information bit.

  11. Skyrmion motion driven by oscillating magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Duck-Ho; Je, Soong-Geun; Chun, Byong Sun; Kim, Wondong; Qiu, Z.Q.; Choe, Sug-Bong; Hwang, Chanyong

    2016-01-01

    The one-dimensional magnetic skyrmion motion induced by an electric current has attracted much interest because of its application potential in next-generation magnetic memory devices. Recently, the unidirectional motion of large (20 μm in diameter) magnetic bubbles with two-dimensional skyrmion topology, driven by an oscillating magnetic field, has also been demonstrated. For application in high-density memory devices, it is preferable to reduce the size of skyrmion. Here we show by numerical simulation that a skyrmion of a few tens of nanometres can also be driven by high-frequency field oscillations, but with a different direction of motion from the in-plane component of the tilted oscillating field. We found that a high-frequency field for small skyrmions can excite skyrmion resonant modes and that a combination of different modes results in a final skyrmion motion with a helical trajectory. Because this helical motion depends on the frequency of the field, we can control both the speed and the direction of the skyrmion motion, which is a distinguishable characteristic compared with other methods. PMID:26847334

  12. Coronal and interplanetary magnetic field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1999-06-01

    We provide an historical perspective of coronal and interplanetary field models. The structure of the interplanetary medium is controlled by the coronal magnetic field from which the solar wind emanates. This field has been described with ``Source Surface'' (SS) and ``Heliospheric Current Sheet'' (HCS) models. The ``Source Surface'' model was the first to open the solar field into interplanetary space using volumetric coronal currents, which were a ``source'' for the IMF. The Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS) model provided a more physically realistic solution. The field structure was primarily a dipole, however, without regard to sign, the shape appeared to be a monopole pattern (uniform field stress). Ulysses has observed this behavior. Recently, Sheeley and Wang have utilized the HCS field model to calculate solar wind structures fairly accurately. Fisk, Schwadron, and Zurbuchen have investigated small differences from the SS model. These differences allow field line motions reminiscent of a ``timeline'' or moving ``streakline'' in a flow field, similar to the smoke pattern generated by a skywriting plane. Differences exist in the magnetic field geometry, from the Parker ``garden hose'' model affecting both the ``winding angle'' as well as the amount of latitudinal ``wandering.''

  13. Separation of magnetic field lines

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2012-11-15

    The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor {sigma}, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e{sup 2{sigma}}, and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e{sup {sigma}}. Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/{omega}{sub pe}, which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if {sigma} becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }=7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm is about e{sup 23} times larger, so when {sigma} Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 23, two lines separated by c/{omega}{sub pe} at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, {sigma}, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.

  14. Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Marita

    2015-03-01

    The magnetic field structure in edge-on galaxies observed so far shows a plane-parallel magnetic field component in the disk of the galaxy and an X-shaped field in its halo. The plane-parallel field is thought to be the projected axisymmetric (ASS) disk field as observed in face-on galaxies. Some galaxies addionionally exhibit strong vertical magnetic fields in the halo right above and below the central region of the disk. The mean-field dynamo theory in the disk cannot explain these observed fields without the action of a wind, which also probably plays an important role to keep the vertical scale heights constant in galaxies of different Hubble types and star formation activities, as has been observed in the radio continuum: At λ6 cm the vertical scale heights of the thin disk and the thick disk/halo in a sample of five edge-on galaxies are similar with a mean value of 300 +/- 50 pc for the thin disk and 1.8 +/- 0.2 kpc for the thick disk (a table and references are given in Krause 2011) with our sample including the brightest halo observed so far, NGC 253, with strong star formation, as well as one of the weakest halos, NGC 4565, with weak star formation. If synchrotron emission is the dominant loss process of the relativistic electrons the outer shape of the radio emission should be dumbbell-like as has been observed in several edge-on galaxies like e.g. NGC 253 (Heesen et al. 2009) and NGC 4565. As the synchrotron lifetime t syn at a single frequency is proportional to the total magnetic field strength B t -1.5, a cosmic ray bulk speed (velocity of a galactic wind) can be defined as v CR = h CR /t syn = 2 h z /t syn , where h CR and h z are the scale heights of the cosmic rays and the observed radio emission at this freqnency. Similar observed radio scale heights imply a self regulation mechanism between the galactic wind velocity, the total magnetic field strength and the star formation rate SFR in the disk: v CR ~ B t 1.5 ~ SFR ~ 0.5 (Niklas & Beck 1997).

  15. Magnetic fields in the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The observed properties of solar magnetic fields are reviewed, with particular reference to the complexities imposed on the field by motions of the highly conducting gas. Turbulent interactions between gas and field lead to heating or cooling of the gas according to whether the field energy density is less or greater than the maximum kinetic energy density in the convection zone. The field strength above which cooling sets in is 700 gauss. A weak solar dipole field may be primeval, but dynamo action is also important in generating new flux. The dynamo is probably not confined to the convection zone, but extends throughout most of the volume of the sun. Planetary tides appear to play a role in driving the dynamo.

  16. Discussion - Winds and magnetic fields of active OB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouret, Jean-Claude; Cidale, Lydia

    2011-07-01

    The discussion on winds and magnetic fields of active OB stars was carried out by S. Owoki, G. Wade, M. Cantiello, O. Kochukhov, M. Smith, C. Neiner, T. Rivinius, H. Henrichs and R. Townsend. The topics were the ability to detect small and large scale magnetic fields in massive stars and the need to consider limits on photometric variability of the star surface brightness.

  17. The magnetic field of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1976-01-01

    The paper is concerned mainly with the intrinsic planetary field which dominates the inner magnetosphere up to a distance of 10 to 12 Jovian radii where other phenomena, such as ring currents and diamagnetic effects of trapped charged particles, become significant. The main magnetic field of Jupiter as determined by in-situ observations by Pioner 10 and 11 is found to be relatively more complex than a simple offset tilted dipole. Deviations from a simple dipole geometry lead to distortions of the charged particle L shells and warping of the magnetic equator. Enhanced absorption effects associated with Io and Amalthea are predicted. The results are consistent with the conclusions derived from extensive radio observations at decimetric and decametric wavelengths for the planetary field.

  18. Oxide superconductors under magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitazawa, K.

    1990-01-01

    One of the current most serious problems for the oxide superconductors from the standpoint of practical application is the various novel features derived mainly from their extremely short coherence. In particular, the coherence length so far observed in the cuprate superconductors is in the range of 0.1 nm perpendicular to the CuO2 plane. This seems to be creating most of the difficulties in the device fabrication and in the performance under the magnetic field. Some of the superconducting properties under the magnetic field will be discussed in terms of the short coherence length. A model will be presented based on the gradual strengthening of the pinning force with decrease in temperature and the weak coupling at the grain boundaries. Secondly, the broadening of the superconducting transition under the magnetic field is discussed. This is observed significantly only when the field is applied perpendicular to the basal plane and the relative orientation of the current to the field is insignificant in determining the extent of the broadening. Besides, the change in the strength of the pinning force does not affect the width of the broadening. From these observations discussions will be made on a model based on the giant fluctuation. Based on this model, it is predicted that the coherence length along the c-axis will be the single most important material parameter to determine the performance of the superconductor under a strong magnetic field. It seems that BYCO is superior in this regard to Bi- or Tl-systems as far as the performance at 77 K is considered, although another material with the coherence length slightly longer along the c-axis is still highly desired.

  19. Oxide superconductors under magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitazawa, K.

    1991-01-01

    One of the current most serious problems for the oxide superconductors from the standpoint of practical application is the various novel features derived mainly from their extremely short coherence. In particular, the coherence length so far observed in the cuprate superconductors is in the range of 0.1 nm perpendicular to the CuO2 plane. This seems to be creating most of the difficulties in the device fabrication and in the performance under the magnetic field. Some of the superconducting properties under the magnetic field will be discussed in terms of the short coherence length. A model will be presented based on the gradual strengthening of the pinning force with decrease in temperature and the weak coupling at the grain boundaries. Secondly, the broadening of the superconducting transition under the magnetic field is discussed. This is observed significantly only when the field is applied perpendicular to the basal plane and the relative orientation of the current to the field is insignificant in determining the extent of broadening. Besides, the change in the strength of the pinning force does not affect the width of the broadening. From these observations discussions will be made on a model based on the giant fluctuation. Based on this model, it is predicted that the coherence length along the c-axis will be the single most important material parameter to determine the performance of the superconductor under a strong magnetic field. It seems that BYCO is superior in this regard to Bi- or Tl-systems as far as the performance at 77 K is considered, although another material with the coherence length slightly longer along the c-axis is still highly desired.

  20. Magnetic fringe field interference between the quadrupole and corrector magnets in the CSNS/RCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mei; Kang, Wen; Deng, Changdong; Sun, Xianjing; Li, Li; Wu, Xi; Gong, Lingling; Cheng, Da; Zhu, Yingshun; Chen, Fusan

    2017-03-01

    The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) employs large aperture quadrupole and corrector magnets with small aspect ratios and relatively short iron to iron separations; so the fringe field interference becomes serious which results in integral field strength reduction and extra field harmonics. We have performed 3D magnetic field simulations to investigate the magnetic field interference in the magnet assemblies and made some adjustments on the magnet arrangement. The Fourier analysis is used to quantify the integral gradient reduction and field harmonic changes of the quadrupole magnets. Some magnetic field measurements are undertaken to verify the simulation results. The simulation details and the major results are presented in this paper.

  1. Reconstruction from small-angle neutron scattering measurements of the real space magnetic field distribution in the mixed state of Sr2RuO4.

    PubMed

    Kealey, P G; Riseman, T M; Forgan, E M; Galvin, L M; Mackenzie, A P; Lee, S L; Paul, D M; Cubitt, R; Agterberg, D F; Heeb, R; Mao, Z Q; Maeno, Y

    2000-06-26

    We have measured the diffracted neutron scattering intensities from the square magnetic flux lattice in the perovskite superconductor Sr2RuO4, which is thought to exhibit p-wave pairing with a two-component order parameter. The relative intensities of different flux lattice Bragg reflections over a wide range of field and temperature have been shown to be inconsistent with a single component Ginzburg-Landau theory but qualitatively agree with a two-component p-wave Ginzburg-Landau theory.

  2. Pulsed-field magnetometry for rock magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Kazuto

    2015-07-01

    An improved method is proposed for measuring dynamic magnetizations of bulk volcanic rock samples induced by a pulsed-field of 0.7 T and a duration of 10 ms. The transient magnetization is measured by a sensing system that consists of a pair of inductive differential coils, an analog preamplifier and integrator, and a high-speed digital storage scope. The system was calibrated using a paramagnetic salt (Gd2O3) and was tested to different kinds of volcanic rocks with their magnetic properties well-documented previously. The results were comparable with those measured by a quasi-static method using a vibrating sample magnetometer, although there were small discrepancies in hysteresis parameters suggesting the time-dependence of the magnetic properties. The proposed system provides not only the magnetization over the short interval of a pulse but also the rapid (~3 ms) exponential decay after a pulse. The decay time constant was different among the samples under study, indicating the variations of their magnetic relaxation time. Although the present system is not sensitive enough to characterize varieties of natural samples including sediments, it has the potential as a versatile and convenient tool for rock magnetism.

  3. Confined ferrofluid droplet in crossed magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D P; Miranda, J A

    2007-08-01

    When a ferrofluid drop is trapped in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell and subjected to a vertical magnetic field, a fingering instability results in the droplet evolving into a complex branched structure. This fingering instability depends on the magnetic field ramp rate but also depends critically on the initial state of the droplet. Small perturbations in the initial droplet can have a large influence on the resulting final pattern. By simultaneously applying a stabilizing (horizontal) azimuthal magnetic field, we gain more control over the mode selection mechanism. We perform a linear stability analysis that shows that any single mode can be selected by appropriately adjusting the strengths of the applied fields. This offers a unique and accurate mode selection mechanism for this confined magnetic fluid system. We present the results of numerical simulations that demonstrate that this mode selection mechanism is quite robust and "overpowers" any initial perturbations on the droplet. This provides a predictable way to obtain patterns with any desired number of fingers.

  4. The HMI Magnetic Field Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, Jon Todd; Liu, Y.; Schou, J.; Scherrer, P.; HMI Science Team

    2009-05-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) will provide frequent full-disk magnetic field data after launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), currently scheduled for fall 2009. 16 megapixel line-of-sight magnetograms (Blos) will be recorded every 45 seconds. A full set of polarized filtergrams needed to determine the vector magnetic field requires 90 seconds. Quick-look data will be available within a few minutes of observation. Quick-look space weather and browse products must have identified users, and the list currently includes full disk magnetograms, feature identification and movies, 12-minute disambiguated vector fields in active region patches, time evolution of AR indices, synoptic synchronic frames, potential and MHD model results, and 1 AU predictions. A more complete set of definitive science data products will be offered about a day later and come in three types. "Pipeline” products, such as full disk vector magnetograms, will be computed for all data on an appropriate cadence. A larger menu of "On Demand” products, such as Non-Linear Force Free Field snapshots of an evolving active region, will be produced whenever a user wants them. Less commonly needed "On Request” products that require significant project resources, such as a high resolution MHD simulation of the global corona, will be created subject to availability of resources. Further information can be found at the SDO Joint Science Operations Center web page, jsoc.stanford.edu

  5. Active tuning of a microstrip hairpin-line microwave bandpass filter on a polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet substrate using small magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, S. M.; Geiler, A. L.; Chen, Z.; Chen, Y.; Arruda, T.; Xie, C.; Wang, L.; Zhu, X.; Liu, M.; Mukerjee, S.; Vittoria, C.; Harris, V. G.

    2011-04-01

    Active magnetic tuning of a microstrip hairpin-line coupled resonator bandpass filter fabricated on a polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet substrate has been demonstrated. The filter exhibits a five-pole Chebyshev response with passband center frequency tunability from 8.3 to 9 GHz under low applied H fields of 50-200 Oe. The instantaneous bandwidth was measured to be approximately 1 GHz. During tuning, passband center frequency insertion loss varies between 1 and 1.4 dB. Good agreement between simulated and measured device performance was demonstrated. Advantages of the proposed filter design include planar geometry, compact size, low insertion loss, and low field tunability. The proposed design approach lends itself to the implementation of a wide range of filter responses, including low pass, high pass, bandpass, and band stop, as well as passband characteristics, including center frequency, fractional bandwidth, passband ripple, out-of-band rejection, etc.

  6. Magnetization reversal in circular vortex dots of small radius.

    PubMed

    Goiriena-Goikoetxea, M; Guslienko, K Y; Rouco, M; Orue, I; Berganza, E; Jaafar, M; Asenjo, A; Fernández-Gubieda, M L; Fernández Barquín, L; García-Arribas, A

    2017-08-10

    We present a detailed study of the magnetic behavior of Permalloy (Ni80Fe20 alloy) circular nanodots with small radii (30 nm and 70 nm) and different thicknesses (30 nm or 50 nm). Despite the small size of the dots, the measured hysteresis loops manifestly display the features of classical vortex behavior with zero remanence and lobes at high magnetic fields. This is remarkable because the size of the magnetic vortex core is comparable to the dot diameter, as revealed by magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations. The dot ground states are close to the border of the vortex stability and, depending on the dot size, the magnetization distribution combines attributes of the typical vortex, single domain states or even presents features resembling magnetic skyrmions. An analytical model of the dot magnetization reversal, accounting for the large vortex core size, is developed to explain the observed behavior, providing a rather good agreement with the experimental results. The study extends the understanding of magnetic nanodots beyond the classical vortex concept (where the vortex core spins have a negligible influence on the magnetic behavior) and can therefore be useful for improving emerging spintronic applications, such as spin-torque nano-oscillators. It also delimits the feasibility of producing a well-defined vortex configuration in sub-100 nm dots, enabling the intracellular magneto-mechanical actuation for biomedical applications.

  7. Magnetic Fields in Massive Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, Thushara

    Magnetic fields pervade galaxies, shaping them from the largest scales to the smallest star forming scales. A firm understanding of their role is crucial to our understanding of the physics of ISM. A dominant phase of the ISM that has received considerable attention is that of filaments which are ubiquitous and dominate the mass reservoir in molecular clouds. Enormous progress has been made recently towards understanding filament properties. The next major step should be to understand the role of magnetic fields in filaments. We propose to take advantage of HAWC+ dust emission polarimeter now available on SOFIA to launch a pilot polarization study towards three major classes of filaments: (i) Pristine (ii) Hub-Filament systems and (iii) Perturbed. HAWC+ will trace the connection between the star forming cores and the filaments enveloping them. By covering a vast range in parameter space from quiescent to active filaments, we will be constraining the initial conditions prior to star formation, during star formation and after star formation (feedback from newly formed stars on their parent clouds.) The interpretation of observations will be supported by extensive custom-made numerical simulations of magnetized clouds and subsequent dust radiative transfer with various grain alignment mechanisms, as provided by collaborators. Combined, these observations will provide the first panoramic view of the magnetized nature of massive filaments in the ISM.

  8. Magnetic Fields in Massive Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, G. S. Thushara

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic fields pervade galaxies, shaping them from the largest scales to the smallest star forming scales. A firm understanding of their role is crucial to our understanding of the physics of ISM. A dominant phase of the ISM that has received considerable attention is that of filaments which are ubiquitous and dominate the mass reservoir in molecular clouds. Enormous progress has been made recently towards understanding filament properties. The next major step should be to understand the role of magnetic fields in filaments. We propose to take advantage of HAWC+ dust emission polarimeter now available on SOFIA to launch a pilot polarization study towards three major classes of filaments: (i) Pristine (ii) Hub-Filament systems and (iii) Perturbed. HAWC+ will trace the connection between the star forming cores and the filaments enveloping them. By covering a vast range in parameter space from quiescent to active filaments, we will be constraining the initial conditions prior to star formation, during star formation and after star formation (feedback from newly formed stars on their parent clouds.) The interpretation of observations will be supported by extensive custom--made numerical simulations of magnetized clouds and subsequent dust radiative transfer with various grain alignment mechanisms, as provided by collaborators. Combined, these observations will provide the first panoramic view of the magnetized nature of massive filaments in the ISM.

  9. Simulations of the bootstrap current in small rotating magnetic islands

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, A.; Poli, E.; Peeters, A. G.

    2008-11-01

    The bootstrap current in small magnetic islands of neoclassical tearing modes is studied in numerical simulations whith the guiding center particle code HAGIS. The contributions of both, electrons and ions, are included, as well as the island rotation and its electric field. The case of islands that are smaller than the ion banana orbit width is studied. We find that the size of the bootstrap current in small islands depends strongly on the rotation frequency of the island.

  10. Field errors in superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, M. Q.

    1982-01-01

    The mission of this workshop is a discussion of the techniques for tracking particles through arbitrary accelerator field configurations to look for dynamical effects that are suggested by various theoretical models but are not amenable to detailed analysis. A major motivation for this type of study is that many of our accelerator projects are based on the use of superconducting magnets which have field imperfections that are larger and of a more complex nature than those of conventional magnets. Questions such as resonances, uncorrectable closed orbit effects, coupling between planes, and diffusion mechanisms all assume new importance. Since, simultaneously, we are trying to do sophisticated beam manipulations such as stacking, high current accelerator, long life storage, and low loss extraction, we clearly need efficient and accurate tracking programs to proceed with confidence.

  11. Magnetic fields for fluid motion.

    PubMed

    Weston, Melissa C; Gerner, Matthew D; Fritsch, Ingrid

    2010-05-01

    Three forces induced by magnetic fields offer unique control of fluid motion and new opportunities in microfluidics. This article describes magnetoconvective phenomena in terms of the theory and controversy, tuning by redox processes at electrodes, early-stage applications in analytical chemistry, mature applications in disciplines far afield, and future directions for micro total analysis systems. (To listen to a podcast about this article, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html .).

  12. Error field generation of solenoid magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Many applications for large solenoids and solenoidal arrays depend on the high precision of the axial field profile. In cases where requirements of ..delta..B/B for nonaxial fields are on the order of 10/sup -4/, the actual winding techniques of the solenoid need to be considered. Whereas an ideal solenoid consisting of current loops would generate no radial fields along the axis, in reality, the actual current-carrying conductors must follow spiral or helical paths. A straightforward method for determining the radial error fields generated by coils wound with actual techniques employed in magnet fabrication has been developed. The method devised uses a computer code which models a magnet by sending a single, current-carrying filament along the same path taken by the conductor during coil winding. Helical and spiral paths are simulated using small, straight-line current segments. This technique, whose results are presented in this paper, was used to predict radial field errors for the Elmo Bumpy Torus-Proof of Principle magnet. These results include effects due to various winding methods, not only spiral/helical and layer-to-layer transitions, but also the effects caused by worst-case tolerance conditions both from the conductor and the winding form (bobbin). Contributions made by extraneous circuitry (e.g., overhead buswork and incoming leads) are also mentioned.

  13. Radiation from Relativistic Shocks with Turbulent Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishkawa, K.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Niemiec, J.; Mizuno, A.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Oka, M.; Fishman, J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-positron (electron-ion) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs at shocked region. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the shock. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons in turbulent magnetic fields has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. New recent calculation of spectra with various different Lorentz factors of jets (two electrons) and initial magnetic fields. New spectra based on small simulations will be presented.

  14. Magnetic Fields and Bow Shocks Illustration

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-19

    This illustration shows quasi-parallel top and quasi-perpendicular bottom magnetic field conditions at a planetary bow shock. Bow shocks are shockwaves created when the solar wind blows on a planet magnetic field.

  15. Solar and Interstellar Magnetic Fields Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-03

    This artist concept shows the different expected directions of the magnetic fields in interstellar space black lines and the magnetic field emanating from our sun white lines as NASA Voyager 1 spacecraft travels northward out of the heliosphere.

  16. Passing Comet Affects Magnetic Field at Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-09

    This artist depiction shows the close encounter between comet Siding Sprng and Mars in 2014. The comet powerful magnetic field temporarily merged with, and overwhelmed, the planet weak magnetic field.

  17. Comparing Magnetic Fields on Earth and Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation compares the magnetic fields on Earth and Mars. The Earth has a large-scale planetary magnetic field that can protect it from space weather and other hazards. Mars, on the other hand...

  18. Field quality aspects of CBA superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, S.; Engelmann, R.; Fernow, R.; Greene, A.F.; Herrera, J.; Kirk, H.; Skaritka, J.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.

    1983-01-01

    A series of superconducting dipole magnets for the BNL Colliding Beam Accelerator which were manufactured to have the proper field quality characteristics has been tested. This report presents the analysis of the field harmonics of these magnets.

  19. Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display.

  20. Magnetic holes in the solar wind. [(interplanetary magnetic fields)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, J. M.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Lemaire, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis is presented of high resolution interplanetary magnetic field measurements from the magnetometer on Explorer 43 which showed that low magnetic field intensities in the solar wind at 1 AU occur as distinct depressions or 'holes'. These magnetic holes are new kinetic-scale phenomena, having a characteristic dimension on the order of 20,000 km. They occurred at a rate of 1.5/day in the 18-day time span (March 18 to April 6, 1971) that was analyzed. Most of the magnetic holes are characterized by both a depression in the absolute value of the magnetic field, and a change in the magnetic field direction; some of these are possibly the result of magnetic merging. However, in other cases the magnetic field direction does not change; such holes are not due to magnetic merging, but might be a diamagnetic effect due to localized plasma inhomogeneities.

  1. Pumping Liquid Oxygen by Use of Pulsed Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Lane, John; Immer, Christopher; Simpson, James

    2004-01-01

    An effort is underway to develop a method of pumping small amounts of liquid oxygen by use of pulsed magnetic fields. This development is motivated by a desire to reduce corrosion and hazards of explosion and combustion by eliminating all moving pump parts in contact with the pumped oxygen. The method exploits the known paramagnetism of liquid oxygen. Since they both behave similarly, the existing theory of ferrofluids (liquids with colloidally suspended magnetic particles) is directly applicable to paramagnetic liquid oxygen. In general, the force density of the paramagnetic interaction is proportional to the magnetic susceptibility multiplied by the gradient of the square of the magnitude of the magnetic field. The local force is in the direction of intensifying magnetic field. In the case of liquid oxygen, the magnetic susceptibility is large enough that a strong magnetic-field gradient can lift the liquid in normal Earth gravitation.

  2. Field quality measurements of a 2-Tesla transmission line magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Velev, G.V.; Foster, W.; Kashikhin, V.; Mazur, P.; Oleck, A.; Piekarz, H.; Schlabach, P.; Sylvester, C.; Wake, M.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-09-01

    A prototype 2-Tesla superconducting transmission line magnet for future hadron colliders was designed, built and tested at Fermilab. The 1.5 m long, combined-function gradient-dipole magnet has a vertical pole aperture of 20 mm. To measure the magnetic field quality in such a small magnet aperture, a specialized rotating coil of 15.2 mm diameter, 0.69 m long was fabricated. Using this probe, a program of magnetic field quality measurements was successfully performed. Results of the measurements are presented and discussed.

  3. Plasma expansion in the presence of a dipole magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, D.; Omidi, N.

    2005-07-15

    Simulations of the initial expansion of a plasma injected into a stationary magnetized background plasma in the presence of a dipole magnetic field are carried out in two dimensions with a kinetic ion, massless fluid electron (hybrid) electromagnetic code. For small values of the magnetic dipole, the injected ions have large gyroradii compared to the scale length of the dipole field and are essentially unmagnetized. As a result, these ions expand, excluding the ambient magnetic field and plasma to form a diamagnetic cavity. However, for stronger magnetic dipoles, the ratio of the gyroradii of the injected ions to the dipole field scale length is small so that they remain magnetized, and hence trapped in the dipole field, as they expand. The trapping and expansion then lead to additional plasma currents and resulting magnetic fields that not only exclude the background field but also interact with the dipole field in a more complex manner that stretches the closed dipole field lines. A criterion to distinguish between the two regimes is derived and is then briefly discussed in the context of applying the results to the plasma sail scheme for the propulsion of small spacecraft in the solar wind.

  4. Triaxial magnetic field gradient system for microcoil magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeber, D. A.; Hoftiezer, J. H.; Daniel, W. B.; Rutgers, M. A.; Pennington, C. H.

    2000-11-01

    There is a great advantage in signal to noise ratio (S/N) that can be obtained in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments on very small samples (having spatial dimensions ˜100 μm or less) if one employs NMR "micro" receiver coils, "microcoils," which are of similarly small dimensions. The gains in S/N could enable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy with spatial resolution of ˜1-2 μm, much better than currently available. Such MRI microscopy however requires very strong (>10 T/m), rapidly switchable triaxial magnetic field gradients. Here, we report the design and construction of such a triaxial gradient system, producing gradients substantially greater than 15 T/m in all three directions, x, y, and z (and as high as 50 T/m for the x direction). The gradients are switchable within time ˜10 μs and adequately uniform (within 5% over a volume of [600μm3] for microcoil MRI of small samples.

  5. Minireview: Biological effects of magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, M.; Mustarelli, P. ); Caprotti, M. )

    1991-01-01

    The literature about the biological effects of magnetic fields is reviewed. The authors begin by discussing the weak and/or time variable fields, responsible for subtle changes in the circadian rhythms of superior animals, which are believed to be induced by same sort of resonant mechanism. The safety issues related with the strong magnetic fields and gradients generated by clinical NMR magnets are then considered. The last portion summarizes the debate about the biological effects of strong and uniform magnetic fields.

  6. STUDIES IN GALACTIC ASTRONOMY, INCLUDING MAGNETIC FIELDS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ASTRONOMY , GALAXIES), (*GALAXIES, BIBLIOGRAPHIES), (*BIBLIOGRAPHIES, GALAXIES), NOVAE, INTERSTELLAR MATTER, MAGNETIC FIELDS, POLARIZATION, STARS, STABILITY, ENERGY, DISTRIBUTION, OPTICAL PROPERTIES, CELESTIAL MECHANICS

  7. Rotating copper plasmoid in external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Pramod K.; Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-02-15

    Effect of nonuniform magnetic field on the expanding copper plasmoid in helium and argon gases using optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging is presented. We report a peculiar oscillatory rotation of plasmoid in magnetic field and argon ambient. The temporal variation and appearance of the dip in the electron temperature show a direct evidence of the threading and expulsion of the magnetic field lines from the plasmoid. Rayleigh Taylor instability produced at the interface separating magnetic field and plasma is discussed.

  8. Radiative instabilities in sheared magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, J. F.; Sparks, L.; Van Hoven, G.

    1988-01-01

    The structure and growth rate of the radiative instability in a sheared magnetic field B have been calculated analytically using the Braginskii fluid equations. In a shear layer, temperature and density perturbations are linked by the propagation of sound waves parallel to the local magnetic field. As a consequence, density clumping or condensation plays an important role in driving the instability. Parallel thermal conduction localizes the mode to a narrow layer where K(parallel) is small and stabilizes short wavelengths k larger-than(c) where k(c) depends on the local radiation and conduction rates. Thermal coupling to ions also limits the width of the unstable spectrum. It is shown that a broad spectrum of modes is typically unstable in tokamak edge plasmas and it is argued that this instability is sufficiently robust to drive the large-amplitude density fluctuations often measured there.

  9. An induction heating device using planar coil with high amplitude alternating magnetic fields for magnetic hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zuhe; Zhuo, Zihang; Cai, Dongyang; Wu, Jian'an; Wang, Jie; Tang, Jintian

    2015-01-01

    Induction heating devices using the induction coil and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are the way that the magnetic hyperthermia is heading. To facilitate the induction heating of in vivo magnetic nanoparticles in hyperthermia experiments on large animals. An induction heating device using a planar coil was designed with a magnetic field frequency of 328 kHz. The coil's magnetic field distribution and the device's induction heating performance on different concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles were measured. The alternating magnetic field produced in the axis position 165 mm away from the coil center is 40 Gs in amplitude; magnetic nanoparticles with a concentration higher than 80 mg. mL-1 can be heated up rapidly. Our results demonstrate that the device can be applied not only to in vitro and in small animal experiments of magnetic hyperthermia using MNPs, but also in large animal experiments.

  10. Applied Magnetic Field Enhances Arc Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T. A.; Loutfy, R. O.; Withers, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Applied magnetic field enhances performance of vaporization part of arc vapor deposition apparatus. When no magnetic field applied by external means, arc wonders semirandomly over cathode, with net motion toward electrical feedthrough. When magnetic field applied arc moves circumferentially around cathode, and downward motion suppressed.

  11. A Magnetic Field Sensor Based on a Magnetic Fluid-Filled FP-FBG Structure.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ji; Wang, Fuyin; Luo, Hong; Wang, Qi; Xiong, Shuidong

    2016-04-29

    Based on the characteristic magnetic-controlled refractive index property, in this paper, a magnetic fluid is used as a sensitive medium to detect the magnetic field in the fiber optic Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The temperature compensation in fiber Fabry-Perot magnetic sensor is demonstrated and achieved. The refractive index of the magnetic fluid varies with the applied magnetic field and external temperature, and a cross-sensitivity effect of the temperature and magnetic field occurs in the Fabry-Perot magnetic sensor and the accuracy of magnetic field measurements is affected by the thermal effect. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a modified sensor structure. With a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) written in the insert fiber end of the Fabry-Perot cavity, the FBG acts as a temperature compensation unit for the magnetic field measurement and it provides an effective solution to the cross-sensitivity effect. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of magnetic field detection improves from 0.23 nm/mT to 0.53 nm/mT, and the magnetic field measurement resolution finally reaches 37.7 T. The temperature-compensated FP-FBG magnetic sensor has obvious advantages of small volume and high sensitivity, and it has a good prospect in applications in the power industry and national defense technology areas.

  12. A Magnetic Field Sensor Based on a Magnetic Fluid-Filled FP-FBG Structure

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ji; Wang, Fuyin; Luo, Hong; Wang, Qi; Xiong, Shuidong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the characteristic magnetic-controlled refractive index property, in this paper, a magnetic fluid is used as a sensitive medium to detect the magnetic field in the fiber optic Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The temperature compensation in fiber Fabry-Perot magnetic sensor is demonstrated and achieved. The refractive index of the magnetic fluid varies with the applied magnetic field and external temperature, and a cross-sensitivity effect of the temperature and magnetic field occurs in the Fabry-Perot magnetic sensor and the accuracy of magnetic field measurements is affected by the thermal effect. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a modified sensor structure. With a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) written in the insert fiber end of the Fabry-Perot cavity, the FBG acts as a temperature compensation unit for the magnetic field measurement and it provides an effective solution to the cross-sensitivity effect. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of magnetic field detection improves from 0.23 nm/mT to 0.53 nm/mT, and the magnetic field measurement resolution finally reaches 37.7 T. The temperature-compensated FP-FBG magnetic sensor has obvious advantages of small volume and high sensitivity, and it has a good prospect in applications in the power industry and national defense technology areas. PMID:27136564

  13. Magnetic field contribution to the last electron-photon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2010-11-01

    When the cosmic microwave photons scatter electrons just prior to the decoupling of matter and radiation, magnetic fields do contribute to the Stokes matrix as well as to the scalar, vector and tensor components of the transport equations for the brightness perturbations. The magnetized electron-photon scattering is hereby discussed in general terms by including, for the first time, the contribution of magnetic fields with arbitrary direction and in the presence of the scalar, vector and tensor modes of the geometry. The propagation of relic vectors and relic gravitons is discussed for a varying magnetic field orientation and for different photon directions. The source terms of the transport equations in the presence of the relativistic fluctuations of the geometry are also explicitly averaged over the magnetic field orientations and the problem of a consistent account of the small-scale and large-scale magnetic field is briefly outlined.

  14. Stellar magnetic fields from four Stokes parameter observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusomarov, N.; Kochukhov, O.; Piskunov, N.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Doppler imaging (MDI) from observations of four Stokes parameters can uncover new information that is of interest to the evolution and structure of magnetic fields of intermediate and high-mass stars. Our MDI study of the chemically peculiar star HD 24712 from four Stokes parameter observations, obtained with the HARPSpol instrument at the 3.6-m ESO telescope, revealed a magnetic field with strong dipolar component and weak small-scale contributions. This finding gives evidence for the hypothesis that old Ap stars have predominantly dipolar magnetic fields.

  15. Pattern formation in a complex plasma in high magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, M; Konopka, U; Bandyopadhyay, P; Morfill, G E

    2011-05-27

    Low-pressure room-temperature neon, argon, krypton, and air plasmas were studied in magnetic fields up to flux densities of 2.3 T. Filaments appeared parallel to the magnetic field lines, and patterns such as spirals and concentric circles formed in the perpendicular direction. We link these effects to the magnetization of the ions. We also used a layer of embedded microparticles as probes in the plasma. Their motion changed dramatically from a collective rotation of the whole ensemble in moderate magnetic fields to a rotation in several small vortices centered at the filaments. © 2011 American Physical Society

  16. Kinetic Interactions Between the Solar Wind and Lunar Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halekas, J. S.; Poppe, A. R.; Fatemi, S.; Turner, D. L.; Holmstrom, M.

    2016-12-01

    Despite their relatively weak strength, small scale, and incoherence, lunar magnetic anomalies can affect the incoming solar wind flow. The plasma interaction with lunar magnetic fields drives significant compressions of the solar wind plasma and magnetic field, deflections of the incoming flow, and a host of plasma waves ranging from the ULF to the electrostatic range. Recent work suggests that the large-scale features of the solar wind-magnetic anomaly interactions may be driven by ion-ion instabilities excited by reflected ions, raising the possibility that they are analogous to ion foreshock phenomena. Indeed, despite their small scale, many of the phenomena observed near lunar magnetic anomalies appear to have analogues in the foreshock regions of terrestrial planets. We discuss the charged particle distributions, fields, and waves observed near lunar magnetic anomalies, and place them in a context with the foreshocks of the Earth, Mars, and other solar system objects.

  17. Magnetic Susceptibility Measurement System for Small and Weak Magnetic Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Julius Reynard

    In this study a system is constructed which uses a force method for taking magnetic susceptibility measurements of small (< 100 mg) and weak (< 100x 10-6 emu/g) magnetic substances. The system is constructed with several pieces of readily available hardware. Some of the hardware includes a stable frame structure, a CAHN electrobalance, electromagnet, a thermocouple, a power supply, interfaces, and a personal computer. Each of these components is tested individually as well as together with other devices. Since the electrobalance is extremely sensitive the balance must be placed on a stable frame. The completed system is capable of studying the magnetic properties from room temperature to 77 K of a variety of samples. In addition, a novel method is developed to produce hysteresis loops for especially small and weak magnetic samples. Extensive testing is done to ensure the magnetization results obtained on known samples compare with what has been reported. Some of the samples that have been measured are MnO (TN was 122 K), CdSe (magnetic susceptibility was -0.3 x 10-6 emu/g) with iron attached ligands, FexTeyOz type samples with and without nickel, a YBaCuO superconductor, and cells doped with magnetite nanoparticles. The results are compared to measurements made with SQUID magnetometers.

  18. A polyvalent harmonic coil testing method for small-aperture magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arpaia, Pasquale; Buzio, Marco; Golluccio, Giancarlo; Walckiers, Louis

    2012-08-01

    A method to characterize permanent and fast-pulsed iron-dominated magnets with small apertures is presented. The harmonic coil measurement technique is enhanced specifically for small-aperture magnets by (1) in situ calibration, for facing search-coil production inaccuracy, (2) rotating the magnet around its axis, for correcting systematic effects, and (3) measuring magnetic fluxes by stationary coils at different angular positions for measuring fast pulsed magnets. This method allows a quadrupole magnet for particle accelerators to be characterized completely, by assessing multipole field components, magnetic axis position, and field direction. In this paper, initially the metrological problems arising from testing small-aperture magnets are highlighted. Then, the basic ideas of the proposed method and the architecture of the corresponding measurement system are illustrated. Finally, experimental validation results are shown for small-aperture permanent and fast-ramped quadrupole magnets for the new linear accelerator Linac4 at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research).

  19. A polyvalent harmonic coil testing method for small-aperture magnets.

    PubMed

    Arpaia, Pasquale; Buzio, Marco; Golluccio, Giancarlo; Walckiers, Louis

    2012-08-01

    A method to characterize permanent and fast-pulsed iron-dominated magnets with small apertures is presented. The harmonic coil measurement technique is enhanced specifically for small-aperture magnets by (1) in situ calibration, for facing search-coil production inaccuracy, (2) rotating the magnet around its axis, for correcting systematic effects, and (3) measuring magnetic fluxes by stationary coils at different angular positions for measuring fast pulsed magnets. This method allows a quadrupole magnet for particle accelerators to be characterized completely, by assessing multipole field components, magnetic axis position, and field direction. In this paper, initially the metrological problems arising from testing small-aperture magnets are highlighted. Then, the basic ideas of the proposed method and the architecture of the corresponding measurement system are illustrated. Finally, experimental validation results are shown for small-aperture permanent and fast-ramped quadrupole magnets for the new linear accelerator Linac4 at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research).

  20. Particle size, magnetic field, and blood velocity effects on particle retention in magnetic drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Erica M; Maxim, Peter G; Eaton, John K

    2010-01-01

    A physics-based model of a general magnetic drug targeting (MDT) system was developed with the goal of realizing the practical limitations of MDT when electromagnets are the source of the magnetic field. The simulation tracks magnetic particles subject to gravity, drag force, magnetic force, and hydrodynamic lift in specified flow fields and external magnetic field distributions. A model problem was analyzed to determine the effect of drug particle size, blood flow velocity, and magnetic field gradient strength on efficiency in holding particles stationary in a laminar Poiseuille flow modeling blood flow in a medium-sized artery. It was found that particle retention rate increased with increasing particle diameter and magnetic field gradient strength and decreased with increasing bulk flow velocity. The results suggest that MDT systems with electromagnets are unsuitable for use in small arteries because it is difficult to control particles smaller than about 20 microm in diameter.

  1. Emptying Dirac valleys in bismuth using high magnetic fields

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Zengwei; Wang, Jinhua; Zuo, Huakun; ...

    2017-05-19

    The Fermi surface of elemental bismuth consists of three small rotationally equivalent electron pockets, offering a valley degree of freedom to charge carriers. A relatively small magnetic field can confine electrons to their lowest Landau level. This is the quantum limit attained in other dilute metals upon application of sufficiently strong magnetic field. Here in this paper we report on the observation of another threshold magnetic field never encountered before in any other solid. Above this field, Bempty, one or two valleys become totally empty. Drying up a Fermi sea by magnetic field in the Brillouin zone leads to amore » manyfold enhancement in electric conductance. We trace the origin of the large drop in magnetoresistance across Bempty to transfer of carriers between valleys with highly anisotropic mobilities. The non-interacting picture of electrons with field-dependent mobility explains most results but the Coulomb interaction may play a role in shaping the fine details.« less

  2. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.

  3. Hybrid Shielding for Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, David; Royal, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Precision symmetry measurements such as the search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron require magnetic shielding rooms to reduce the ambient field to the pT scale. The massive mu-metal sheets and large separation between layers make these shield rooms bulky and expensive. Active field cancellation systems used to reduce the surrounding field are limited in uniformity of cancellation. A novel approach to reducing the space between shield layers and increasing the effectiveness of active cancellation is to combine the two systems into a hybrid system, with active and passive layers interspersed. We demonstrate this idea in a prototype with an active layer sandwiched between two passive layers of shielding.

  4. Pressure, Chaotic Magnetic Fields and MHD Equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    S.R. Hudson & N. Nakajima

    2010-05-12

    Analyzes of plasma behavior often begin with a description of the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium, this being the simplest model capable of approximating macroscopic force balance. Ideal force balance is when the pressure gradient is supported by the Lorentz force, ∇p = j x B. We discuss the implications of allowing for a chaotic magnetic field on the solutions to this equation. We argue that the solutions are pathological and not suitable for numerical calculations. If the pressure and magnetic Field are continuous, the only non-trivial solutions have an uncountable infinity of discontinuities in the pressure gradient and current. The problems arise from the arbitrarily small length scales in the structure of the field, and the consequence of ideal force balance that the pressure is constant along the Field-lines, B • ∇p = 0. A simple method to ameliorate the singularities is to include a small but Finite perpendicular diffusion. A self-consistent set of equilibrium equations is described and some algorithmic approaches aimed at solving these equations are discussed.

  5. Interplanetary magnetic field data book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    An interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data set is presented that is uniform with respect to inclusion of cislunar IMF data only, and which has as complete time coverage as presently possible over a full solar cycle. Macroscale phenomena in the interplanetary medium (sector structure, heliolatitude variations, solar cycle variations, etc.) and other phenomena (e.g., ground level cosmic-ray events) for which knowledge of the IMF with hourly resolution is necessary, are discussed. Listings and plots of cislunar hourly averaged IMP parameters over the period November 27, 1963, to May 17, 1974, are presented along with discussion of the mutual consistency of the IMF data used herein. The magnetic tape from which the plots and listings were generated, which is available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), is also discussed.

  6. The Giotto magnetic field investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, F. M.; Musmann, G.; Acuna, M. H.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Mariani, F.; Wallis, M.; Ungstrup, E.; Schmidt, H.

    1983-01-01

    The Giotto spacecraft will carry sensors for investigating the interplanetary magnetic field while en route and the interaction between the solar wind magnetoplasma and Halley's Comet neutral gas outflow during close approach. Giotto will carry an outboard biaxial fluxgate system and inboard electronics. The instrumentation draws 1.2 kW and weighs 1.31 kg. Sampling rates will be 28/sec during close encounter, covering selectable ranges from 16 nT to 65,535 nT. In-flight calibration techniques are under development to ensure magnetic cleanliness will be obtained. Measurements are also planned of the inbound bow shock, the magnetosheath and the cometary ionopause. The data will be collected as close as 1000 km from the comet surface.

  7. Magnetic field sources and their threat to magnetic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic storage media (tapes, disks, cards, etc.) may be damaged by external magnetic fields. The potential for such damage has been researched, but no objective standard exists for the protection of such media. This paper summarizes a magnetic storage facility standard, Publication 933, that ensures magnetic protection of data storage media.

  8. Static magnetic fields: animal studies.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Various experimental studies carried out over the last 30-40 years have examined the effects of the chronic or acute exposure of laboratory animals to static magnetic fields. Many of the earlier studies have been adequately reviewed elsewhere; few adverse effects were identified. This review focuses on studies carried out more recently, mostly those using vertebrates, particularly mammals. Four main areas of investigation have been covered, viz., nervous system and behavioural studies, cardiovascular system responses, reproduction and development, and genotoxicity and cancer. Work on the role of the natural geomagnetic field in animal orientation and migration has been omitted. Generally, the acute responses found during exposure to static fields above about 4 T are consistent with those found in volunteer studies, namely the induction of flow potentials around the heart and the development of aversive/avoidance behaviour resulting from body movement in such fields. No consistently demonstrable effects of exposure to fields of approximately 1T and above have been seen on other behavioural or cardiovascular endpoints. In addition, no adverse effects of such fields on reproduction and development or on the growth and development of tumours have been firmly established. Overall, however, far too few animal studies have been carried out to reach any firm conclusions.

  9. Magnetic field penetration of erosion switch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Rodney J.; Jones, Michael E.; Grossmann, John M.; Ottinger, Paul F.

    1988-10-01

    Computer simulations demonstrate that the entrainment (or advection) of magnetic field with the flow of cathode-emitted electrons can constitute a dominant mechanism for the magnetic field penetration of erosion switch plasmas. Cross-field drift in the accelerating electric field near the cathode starts the penetration process. Plasma erosion propagates the point for emission and magnetic field injection along the cathode toward the load-for the possibility of rapid switch opening.

  10. Harmonic undulator radiations with constant magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeevakhan, Hussain; Mishra, G.

    2015-01-01

    Harmonic undulators has been analysed in the presence of constant magnetic field along the direction of main undulator field. The spectrum modifications in harmonic undulator radiations and intensity degradation as a function of constant magnetic field magnitude at fundamental and third harmonics have been evaluated with a numerical integration method and generalised Bessel function. The role of harmonic field to overcome the intensity reduction due to constant magnetic field and energy spread in electron beam has also been demonstrated.

  11. Evolution of field line helicity during magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, A. J. B. Hornig, G.; Wilmot-Smith, A. L.; Yeates, A. R.

    2015-03-15

    We investigate the evolution of field line helicity for magnetic fields that connect two boundaries without null points, with emphasis on localized finite-B magnetic reconnection. Total (relative) magnetic helicity is already recognized as an important topological constraint on magnetohydrodynamic processes. Field line helicity offers further advantages because it preserves all topological information and can distinguish between different magnetic fields with the same total helicity. Magnetic reconnection changes field connectivity and field line helicity reflects these changes; the goal of this paper is to characterize that evolution. We start by deriving the evolution equation for field line helicity and examining its terms, also obtaining a simplified form for cases where dynamics are localized within the domain. The main result, which we support using kinematic examples, is that during localized reconnection in a complex magnetic field, the evolution of field line helicity is dominated by a work-like term that is evaluated at the field line endpoints, namely, the scalar product of the generalized field line velocity and the vector potential. Furthermore, the flux integral of this term over certain areas is very small compared to the integral of the unsigned quantity, which indicates that changes of field line helicity happen in a well-organized pairwise manner. It follows that reconnection is very efficient at redistributing helicity in complex magnetic fields despite having little effect on the total helicity.

  12. Evolution of field line helicity during magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, A. J. B.; Yeates, A. R.; Hornig, G.; Wilmot-Smith, A. L.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the evolution of field line helicity for magnetic fields that connect two boundaries without null points, with emphasis on localized finite-B magnetic reconnection. Total (relative) magnetic helicity is already recognized as an important topological constraint on magnetohydrodynamic processes. Field line helicity offers further advantages because it preserves all topological information and can distinguish between different magnetic fields with the same total helicity. Magnetic reconnection changes field connectivity and field line helicity reflects these changes; the goal of this paper is to characterize that evolution. We start by deriving the evolution equation for field line helicity and examining its terms, also obtaining a simplified form for cases where dynamics are localized within the domain. The main result, which we support using kinematic examples, is that during localized reconnection in a complex magnetic field, the evolution of field line helicity is dominated by a work-like term that is evaluated at the field line endpoints, namely, the scalar product of the generalized field line velocity and the vector potential. Furthermore, the flux integral of this term over certain areas is very small compared to the integral of the unsigned quantity, which indicates that changes of field line helicity happen in a well-organized pairwise manner. It follows that reconnection is very efficient at redistributing helicity in complex magnetic fields despite having little effect on the total helicity.

  13. Magnetically tunable broadband transmission through a single small aperture

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Ke; Liu, Wenjun; Guo, Yunsheng; Dong, Guoyan; Lei, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Extraordinary transmission through a small aperture is of great interest. However, it faces a limitation that most of approaches can not realize the tunable transmission property, which is not benefit for the miniaturization of the microwave system. Here, we demonstrate a magnetically tunable broadband transmission through a small aperture. By placing two ferrite rods symmetrically on both sides of a single small aperture, the strongly localized electromagnetic fields are effectively coupled to the two ferrite rods. Both the simulated and experimental results indicate that such structure not only realizes a nearly total transmission through a small aperture, but also obtains a magnetically tunable property. This work offers new opportunities for the miniaturization of the microwave system. PMID:26198543

  14. Magnetically tunable broadband transmission through a single small aperture.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ke; Liu, Wenjun; Guo, Yunsheng; Dong, Guoyan; Lei, Ming

    2015-07-22

    Extraordinary transmission through a small aperture is of great interest. However, it faces a limitation that most of approaches can not realize the tunable transmission property, which is not benefit for the miniaturization of the microwave system. Here, we demonstrate a magnetically tunable broadband transmission through a small aperture. By placing two ferrite rods symmetrically on both sides of a single small aperture, the strongly localized electromagnetic fields are effectively coupled to the two ferrite rods. Both the simulated and experimental results indicate that such structure not only realizes a nearly total transmission through a small aperture, but also obtains a magnetically tunable property. This work offers new opportunities for the miniaturization of the microwave system.

  15. Graphene in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlita, Milan; Escoffier, Walter; Plochocka, Paulina; Raquet, Bertrand; Zeitler, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Carbon-based nano-materials, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, represent a fascinating research area aiming at exploring their remarkable physical and electronic properties. These materials not only constitute a playground for physicists, they are also very promising for practical applications and are envisioned as elementary bricks of the future of the nano-electronics. As for graphene, its potential already lies in the domain of opto-electronics where its unique electronic and optical properties can be fully exploited. Indeed, recent technological advances have demonstrated its effectiveness in the fabrication of solar cells and ultra-fast lasers, as well as touch-screens and sensitive photo-detectors. Although the photo-voltaic technology is now dominated by silicon-based devices, the use of graphene could very well provide higher efficiency. However, before the applied research to take place, one must first demonstrates the operativeness of carbon-based nano-materials, and this is where the fundamental research comes into play. In this context, the use of magnetic field has been proven extremely useful for addressing their fundamental properties as it provides an external and adjustable parameter which drastically modifies their electronic band structure. In order to induce some significant changes, very high magnetic fields are required and can be provided using both DC and pulsed technology, depending of the experimental constraints. In this article, we review some of the challenging experiments on single nano-objects performed in high magnetic and low temperature. We shall mainly focus on the high-field magneto-optical and magneto-transport experiments which provided comprehensive understanding of the peculiar Landau level quantization of the Dirac-type charge carriers in graphene and thin graphite.

  16. Recycling of the Solar Corona's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, R. M.; Parnell, C. E.; Longcope, D. W.; Priest, E. R.

    2004-09-01

    Magnetic fields play a dominant role in the atmospheres of the Sun and other Sun-like stars. Outside sunspot regions, the photosphere of the so-called quiet Sun contains myriads of small-scale magnetic concentrations, with strengths ranging from the detection limit of ~1016 Mx up to ~3×1020 Mx. The tireless motion of these magnetic flux concentrations, along with the continual appearance and disappearance of opposite-polarity pairs of fluxes, releases a substantial amount of energy that may be associated with a whole host of physical processes in the solar corona, not least the enigma of coronal heating. We find here that the timescale for magnetic flux to be remapped in the quiet-Sun corona is, surprisingly, only 1.4 hr (around 1/10 of the photospheric flux recycling time), implying that the quiet-Sun corona is far more dynamic than previously thought. Besides leading to a fuller understanding of the origins of magnetically driven phenomena in our Sun's corona, such a process may also be crucial for the understanding of stellar atmospheres in general.

  17. Permanent Magnet Ecr Plasma Source With Magnetic Field Optimization

    DOEpatents

    Doughty, Frank C.; Spencer, John E.

    2000-12-19

    In a plasma-producing device, an optimized magnet field for electron cyclotron resonance plasma generation is provided by a shaped pole piece. The shaped pole piece adjusts spacing between the magnet and the resonance zone, creates a convex or concave resonance zone, and decreases stray fields between the resonance zone and the workpiece. For a cylindrical permanent magnet, the pole piece includes a disk adjacent the magnet together with an annular cylindrical sidewall structure axially aligned with the magnet and extending from the base around the permanent magnet. The pole piece directs magnetic field lines into the resonance zone, moving the resonance zone further from the face of the magnet. Additional permanent magnets or magnet arrays may be utilized to control field contours on a local scale. Rather than a permeable material, the sidewall structure may be composed of an annular cylindrical magnetic material having a polarity opposite that of the permanent magnet, creating convex regions in the resonance zone. An annular disk-shaped recurve section at the end of the sidewall structure forms magnetic mirrors keeping the plasma off the pole piece. A recurve section composed of magnetic material having a radial polarity forms convex regions and/or magnetic mirrors within the resonance zone.

  18. Low-field magnetic resonance imaging of gases

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, D.M.; Espy, M.A.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a six-month, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main goal of this project was to develop the capability to conduct low-field magnetic resonance imaging of hyper-polarized noble gas nuclei and of thermally polarized protons in water. The authors constructed a versatile low-field NMR system using a SQUID gradiometer detector inside a magnetically shielded room. This device has sufficient low-field sensitivity to detect the small signals associated with NMR at low magnetic fields.

  19. Magnetic Field in the Gravitationally Stratified Coronal Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, B. N.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    We study the effect of gravitational stratification on the estimation of magnetic fields in the coronal loops. By using the method of MHD seismology of kink waves for the estimation of magnetic field of coronal loops, we derive a new formula for the magnetic field considering the effect of gravitational stratification. The fast-kink wave is a potential diagnostic tool for the estimation of magnetic field in fluxtubes. We consider the eleven kink oscillation cases observed by TRACE between July 1998 and June 2001. We calculate magnetic field in the stratified loops ( B str) and compare them with the previously calculated absolute magnetic field ( B abs). The gravitational stratification efficiently affects the magnetic field estimation in the coronal loops as it affects also the properties of kink waves. We find ≈22% increment in the magnetic field for the smallest ( L = 72 Mm) while ≈ 42% increment in the absolute magnetic field for the longest ( L = 406 Mm) coronal loops. The magnetic fields B str and B abs also increase with the number density, if the loop length does not vary much. The increment in the magnetic field due to gravitational stratification is small at the lower number densities, however, it is large at the higher number densities. We find that damping time of kink waves due to phase-mixing is less in the case of gravitationally stratified loops compared to nonstratified ones. This indicates the more rapid damping of kink waves in the stratified loops. In conclusion, we find that the gravitational stratification efficiently affects the estimation of magnetic field and damping time estimation especially in the longer coronal loops.

  20. Vacuum Magnetic Field Mapping of the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, J. T.; Hanson, J.; Hartwell, G. J.; Knowlton, S. F.; Montgomery, C.; Munoz, J.

    2007-11-01

    Vacuum magnetic field mapping experiments are performed on the CTH torsatron with a movable electron gun and phosphor-coated screen or movable wand at two different toroidal locations. These experiments compare the experimentally measured magnetic configuration produced by the as-built coil set, to the magnetic configuration simulated with the IFT Biot-Savart code using the measured coil set parameters. Efforts to minimize differences between the experimentally measured location of the magnetic axis and its predicted value utilizing a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) process result in small modifications of the helical coil winding law used to model the vacuum magnetic field geometry of CTH. Because these studies are performed at relatively low fields B = 0.01 - 0.05 T, a uniform ambient magnetic field is included in the minimization procedure.

  1. Near-Field Magnetic Dipole Moment Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Patrick K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the data analysis technique used for magnetic testing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Excellent results have been obtained using this technique to convert a spacecraft s measured magnetic field data into its respective magnetic dipole moment model. The model is most accurate with the earth s geomagnetic field cancelled in a spherical region bounded by the measurement magnetometers with a minimum radius large enough to enclose the magnetic source. Considerably enhanced spacecraft magnetic testing is offered by using this technique in conjunction with a computer-controlled magnetic field measurement system. Such a system, with real-time magnetic field display capabilities, has been incorporated into other existing magnetic measurement facilities and is also used at remote locations where transport to a magnetics test facility is impractical.

  2. Magnetic Fields in Irregular Galaxies: NGC 4214

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Wilcots, E. M.; Robishaw, T.; Heiles, C.; Zweibel, E.

    2006-12-01

    Magnetic fields are an important component of the interstellar medium of galaxies. They provide support, transfer energy from supernovae, provide a possible heating mechanism, and channel gas flows (Beck 2004). Despite the importance of magnetic fields in the ISM, it is not well known what generates and sustains galactic magnetic fields or how magnetic fields, gas, and stars interact in galaxies. The magnetic fields may be especially important in low-mass galaxies like irregulars where the magnetic pressure may be great enough for the field to be dynamically important. However, only four irregular galaxies besides the LMC and the SMC have observed magnetic field structures. The goal of our project is to significantly increase the number of irregular galaxies with observed magnetic field structure. Here we present preliminary results for one of the galaxies in our sample: NGC 4214. Using the VLA and the GBT, we have obtained 3cm, 6cm, and 20cm radio continuum polarization observations of this well-studied galaxy. Our observations allow us to investigate the effects of NGC 4214's high star formation rate, slow rotation rate, and weak bar on the structure of its magnetic field. We find that NGC 4214's magnetic field has an S-shaped structure, with the central field following the bar and the outer edges curving to follow the shape of the arms. The mechanism for generating these fields is still uncertain. A. Kepley is funded by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.

  3. Magnetic impurities in small metal clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, G. M.

    2005-09-01

    [Dedicated to Bernhard Mühlschlegel on the occasion of his 80th birthday]Magnetic impurities in small metallic clusters are investigated in the framework of the Anderson model by using exact diagonalization and geometry optimization methods.The singlet-triplet spin gap E shows a remarkable dependence as a function of band-filling, cluster structure, and impurity position that can be interpreted in terms of the environment-specific conduction-electron spectrum. The low-energy spin excitations involve similar energies as isomerizations. Interesting correlations between cluster structure and magnetic behavior are revealed. Finite-temperature properties such as specific heat, effective impurity moment, and magnetic susceptibility are calculated exactly in the canonical ensemble. A finite-size equivalent of the Kondo effect is identified and its structural dependence is discussed.

  4. Magnetic field generation by rotating black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, D. A.; Vilenkin, A.

    1981-01-01

    A new mechanism of cosmic magnetic field generation is discussed. Neutrinos asymmetrically emitted by rotating black holes scatter on protons and produce a proton current which generates the magnetic field. It is shown that this mechanism can in principle produce a seed field sufficiently strong to account for present galactic fields.

  5. Magnetic fields from the electroweak phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Tornkvist, O.

    1998-02-01

    I review some of the mechanisms through which primordial magnetic fields may be created in the electroweak phase transition. I show that no magnetic fields are produced initially from two-bubble collisions in a first-order transition. The initial field produced in a three-bubble collision is computed. The evolution of fields at later times is discussed.

  6. Solar and Magnetic Attitude Determination for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodham, Kurt; Blackman, Kathie; Sanneman, Paul

    1997-01-01

    During the Phase B development of the NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Orbiter-1 (EO-1) spacecraft, detailed analyses were performed for on-board attitude determination using the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field. This work utilized the TRMM 'Contingency Mode' as a starting point but concentrated on implementation for a small spacecraft without a high performance mechanical gyro package. The analyses and simulations performed demonstrate a geographic dependence due to diurnal variations in the Earth magnetic field with respect to the Sun synchronous, nearly polar orbit. Sensitivity to uncompensated residual magnetic fields of the spacecraft and field modeling errors is shown to be the most significant obstacle for maximizing performance. Performance has been evaluated with a number of inertial reference units and various mounting orientations for the two-axis Fine Sun Sensors. Attitude determination accuracy using the six state Kalman Filter executing at 2 Hz is approximately 0.2 deg, 3-sigma, per axis. Although EO-1 was subsequently driven to a stellar-based attitude determination system as a result of tighter pointing requirements, solar/magnetic attitude determination is demonstrated to be applicable to a range of small spacecraft with medium precision pointing requirements.

  7. Carbon nanotube field effect transistors under high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Georgy; Smirnov, Dmitry; Tselev, Alexander; Yang, Yanfei; Kalugin, Nikolay

    2006-03-01

    Magnetic field, when applied parallel to the CNT axis, alters the energy gap in the CNT electron spectrum with a period corresponding to one quantum of magnetic flux through the cross-section of the CNT. With available magnetic fields (10^1T by the order of magnitude), gap oscillations can be observed only in multi-wall CNTs with diameters larger than approx 5 nm, where effects of band structure variation are smeared out by defects and by quantum interference effects. As follows from [1], it is possible to separate effects of disorder from those of the band structure modification by studying magnetotransport in small diameter CNTs while controllably changing the position of the Fermi level of the CNT by electrostatic doping, i.e. by applying a gate voltage in the field effect transistor configuration. We have studied several samples of individual CTNs contacted by palladium electrodes placed on an oxidized heavily doped silicon substrate that served as a back-gate. We find that magnetoresistance of a CNT strongly depends on the Fermi level position with respect to the nanotube's charge neutrality point (CNP). Details and the analysis of our experimental data will be presented. [1] S. Roche, R. Saito, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 246803 (2001)

  8. Magnetic field observations in Comet Halley's coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedler, W.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Yeroshenko, Ye. G.; Styashkin, V. A.; Russell, C. T.

    1986-05-01

    During the encounter with Comet Halley, the magnetometer (MISCHA) aboard the Vega 1 spacecraft observed an increased level of magnetic field turbulence, resulting from an upstream bow wave. Both Vega spacecraft measured a peak field strength of 70-80 nT and observed draping of magnetic field lines around the cometary obstacle. An unexpected rotation of the magnetic field vector was observed, which may reflect either penetration of magnetic field lines into a diffuse layer related to the contact surface separating the solar-wind and cometary plasma, or the persistence of pre-existing interplanetary field structures.

  9. Spin dephasing in a magnetic dipole field.

    PubMed

    Ziener, C H; Kampf, T; Reents, G; Schlemmer, H-P; Bauer, W R

    2012-05-01

    Transverse relaxation by dephasing in an inhomogeneous field is a general mechanism in physics, for example, in semiconductor physics, muon spectroscopy, or nuclear magnetic resonance. In magnetic resonance imaging the transverse relaxation provides information on the properties of several biological tissues. Since the dipole field is the most important part of the multipole expansion of the local inhomogeneous field, dephasing in a dipole field is highly important in relaxation theory. However, there have been no analytical solutions which describe the dephasing in a magnetic dipole field. In this work we give a complete analytical solution for the dephasing in a magnetic dipole field which is valid over the whole dynamic range.

  10. Spin dephasing in a magnetic dipole field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziener, C. H.; Kampf, T.; Reents, G.; Schlemmer, H.-P.; Bauer, W. R.

    2012-05-01

    Transverse relaxation by dephasing in an inhomogeneous field is a general mechanism in physics, for example, in semiconductor physics, muon spectroscopy, or nuclear magnetic resonance. In magnetic resonance imaging the transverse relaxation provides information on the properties of several biological tissues. Since the dipole field is the most important part of the multipole expansion of the local inhomogeneous field, dephasing in a dipole field is highly important in relaxation theory. However, there have been no analytical solutions which describe the dephasing in a magnetic dipole field. In this work we give a complete analytical solution for the dephasing in a magnetic dipole field which is valid over the whole dynamic range.

  11. Magnetic field effects on microwave absorbing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Ira; Hollingsworth, Charles S.; Mckinney, Ted M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was to gather information to formulate a microwave absorber that can work in the presence of strong constant direct current (DC) magnetic fields. The program was conducted in four steps. The first step was to investigate the electrical and magnetic properties of magnetic and ferrite microwave absorbers in the presence of strong magnetic fields. This included both experimental measurements and a literature survey of properties that may be applicable to finding an appropriate absorbing material. The second step was to identify those material properties that will produce desirable absorptive properties in the presence of intense magnetic fields and determine the range of magnetic field in which the absorbers remain effective. The third step was to establish ferrite absorber designs that will produce low reflection and adequate absorption in the presence of intense inhomogeneous static magnetic fields. The fourth and final step was to prepare and test samples of such magnetic microwave absorbers if such designs seem practical.

  12. Chiral plasmons without magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Song, Justin C. W.; Rudner, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmons, the collective oscillations of interacting electrons, possess emergent properties that dramatically alter the optical response of metals. We predict the existence of a new class of plasmons—chiral Berry plasmons (CBPs)—for a wide range of 2D metallic systems including gapped Dirac materials. As we show, in these materials the interplay between Berry curvature and electron–electron interactions yields chiral plasmonic modes at zero magnetic field. The CBP modes are confined to system boundaries, even in the absence of topological edge states, with chirality manifested in split energy dispersions for oppositely directed plasmon waves. We unveil a rich CBP phenomenology and propose setups for realizing them, including in anomalous Hall metals and optically pumped 2D Dirac materials. Realization of CBPs will offer a powerful paradigm for magnetic field-free, subwavelength optical nonreciprocity, in the mid-IR to terahertz range, with tunable splittings as large as tens of THz, as well as sensitive all-optical diagnostics of topological bands. PMID:27071090

  13. Chiral plasmons without magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Justin C. W.

    2016-04-01

    Plasmons, the collective oscillations of interacting electrons, possess emergent properties that dramatically alter the optical response of metals. We predict the existence of a new class of plasmons—chiral Berry plasmons (CBPs)—for a wide range of 2D metallic systems including gapped Dirac materials. As we show, in these materials the interplay between Berry curvature and electron-electron interactions yields chiral plasmonic modes at zero magnetic field. The CBP modes are confined to system boundaries, even in the absence of topological edge states, with chirality manifested in split energy dispersions for oppositely directed plasmon waves. We unveil a rich CBP phenomenology and propose setups for realizing them, including in anomalous Hall metals and optically pumped 2D Dirac materials. Realization of CBPs will offer a powerful paradigm for magnetic field-free, subwavelength optical nonreciprocity, in the mid-IR to terahertz range, with tunable splittings as large as tens of THz, as well as sensitive all-optical diagnostics of topological bands.

  14. The flexible magnetic field thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    The thruster is designed so that ion currents to various internal surfaces can be measured directly; these measurements facilitate calculations of the distribution of ion currents inside the discharge chamber. Experiments are described suggesting that the distribution of ion currents inside the discharge chamber is strongly dependent on the shape and strength of the magnetic field but independent of the discharge current, discharge voltage, and neutral flow rate. Measurements of the energy cost per plasma ion suggest that this cost decreases with increasing magnetic field strength as a consequence of increased anode shielding from the primary electrons. Energy costs per argon plasma ion as low as 50 eV are measured. The energy cost per beam ion is found to be a function of the energy cost per plasma ion, extracted ion fraction, and discharge voltage. Part of the energy cost per beam ion has to do with creating many ions in the plasma and then extracting only a fraction of them into the beam. The balance of the energy goes into accelerating the remaining plasma ions into the walls of the discharge chamber.

  15. Magnetic field waves at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles W.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Mish, William H.; Wong, Hung K.

    1994-01-01

    The research efforts funded by the Uranus Data Analysis Program (UDAP) grant to the Bartol Research Institute (BRI) involved the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. Upstream wave studies are motivated as a study of the physics of collisionless shocks. Collisionless shocks in plasmas are capable of 'reflecting' a fraction of the incoming thermal particle distribution and directing the resulting energetic particle motion back into the upstream region. Once within the upstream region, the backward streaming energetic particles convey information of the approaching shock to the supersonic flow. This particle population is responsible for the generation of upstream magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations known as 'upstream waves', for slowing the incoming wind prior to the formation of the shock ramp, and for heating of the upstream plasma. The waves produced at Uranus not only differed in several regards from the observations at other planetary bow shocks, but also gave new information regarding the nature of the reflected particle populations which were largely unmeasurable by the particle instruments. Four distinct magnetic field wave types were observed upstream of the Uranian bow shock: low-frequency Alfven or fast magnetosonic waves excited by energetic protons originating at or behind the bow shock; whistler wave bursts driven by gyrating ion distributions within the shock ramp; and two whistler wave types simultaneously observed upstream of the flanks of the shock and argued to arise from resonance with energetic electrons. In addition, observations of energetic particle distributions by the LECP experiment, thermal particle populations observed by the PLS experiment, and electron plasma oscillations recorded by the PWS experiment proved instrumental to this study and are included to some degree in the papers and presentations supported by this grant.

  16. Magnetic Field Distribution for Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, A.; Kholtygin, A.

    2017-06-01

    A model of the evolution of an ensemble of magnetic massive stars on the main sequence is developed. We use our own population synthesis code, which allows us to obtain distributions of stars by radii, ages, masses, temperatures, effective magnetic fields, and magnetic fluxes from the pre-main sequence up to the TAMS stages. We assume that magnetic fields in massive stars decrease with time. The rate of magnetic field dissipation may depend on the mass of a star on ZAMS. The distribution of magnetic fluxes of the ZAMS stars is assumed to be log-normal. We show that such kind of distribution may be a result of the dynamo action occurring at the pre-MS evolutionary stage of magnetic stars. Our model also includes capabilities for statistical simulations and parameter estimation necessary for the analysis of real data. Comparison of model magnetic field distributions with those obtained from recent measurements of stellar magnetic fields allows us to conclude that the evolution of magnetic fields of massive stars is very slow if not absent. The shape of the real magnetic field distribution has no indications of the “magnetic desert,” previously suggested by Lignieres et al. (2014). Based on those findings we argue that the observed fraction of magnetic stars is determined only by physical conditions at early stages of stellar evolution.

  17. Magnetic Sensors with Picotesla Magnetic Field Sensitivity at Room Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    concern MTJ - magnetic tunneling junction pT - the picotesla (10-12 tesla) SQUID - Superconducting quantum interference device MFC - magnetic flux...magnetic noise by annealing of MTJ in high magnetic field and a hydrogen environment, and (3) increasing signal by the use of external low-noise...indicate the reference layer pinning direction. Fig. 2 The structure of the magnetic tunnel junctions ( MTJs ) is 5 nm Ta / 5 nm

  18. Introduction to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Kaune, W T

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the reader to electric and magnetic fields, particularly those fields produced by electric power systems and other sources using frequencies in the power-frequency range. Electric fields are produced by electric charges; a magnetic field also is produced if these charges are in motion. Electric fields exert forces on other charges; if in motion, these charges will experience magnetic forces. Power-frequency electric and magnetic fields induce electric currents in conducting bodies such as living organisms. The current density vector is used to describe the distribution of current within a body. The surface of the human body is an excellent shield for power-frequency electric fields, but power-frequency magnetic fields penetrate without significant attenuation; the electric fields induced inside the body by either exposure are comparable in magnitude. Electric fields induced inside a human by most environmental electric and magnetic fields appear to be small in magnitude compared to levels naturally occurring in living tissues. Detection of such fields thus would seem to require the existence of unknown biological mechanisms. Complete characterization of a power-frequency field requires measurement of the magnitudes and electrical phases of the fundamental and harmonic amplitudes of its three vector components. Most available instrumentation measures only a small subset, or some weighted average, of these quantities. Hand-held survey meters have been used widely to measure power-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Automated data-acquisition systems have come into use more recently to make electric- and magnetic-field recordings, covering periods of hours to days, in residences and other environments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8206045

  19. Thin high-order shims for small dipole NMR magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, Andrew; Conradi, Mark

    2017-08-01

    An NMR shim coil design method that addresses the severe spatial constraints of miniaturized dipole magnets is introduced. The fundamental design element, a collection of straight wires, is shown to be sufficient for producing a complete set of shim fields of high mathematical order. In accord with these theoretical considerations, a shim set is constructed using four wires in each of four directions to create all first through fourth order fields, except one. This shim set, with its supporting structure, occupies only 2 mm of the available 5 mm gap in a small 1.6 T magnet. However, the fields produced by the individual wires are found to differ significantly from theoretical expectations. To produce the desired harmonic shim fields, the magnetic field of each of the 32 wires is mapped in three dimensions, and linear combinations of these maps are formed. The resulting shim fields are found to be very pure. The shims are used in a prototype high-resolution NMR magnet in which the 1.0 mm sample size is only possible due to the thinness of the shim set. The resulting spectra demonstrate shimming to high resolution (<25 ppb FWHM) without undue heating effects.

  20. Thin high-order shims for small dipole NMR magnets.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Andrew; Conradi, Mark

    2017-08-01

    An NMR shim coil design method that addresses the severe spatial constraints of miniaturized dipole magnets is introduced. The fundamental design element, a collection of straight wires, is shown to be sufficient for producing a complete set of shim fields of high mathematical order. In accord with these theoretical considerations, a shim set is constructed using four wires in each of four directions to create all first through fourth order fields, except one. This shim set, with its supporting structure, occupies only 2mm of the available 5mm gap in a small 1.6T magnet. However, the fields produced by the individual wires are found to differ significantly from theoretical expectations. To produce the desired harmonic shim fields, the magnetic field of each of the 32 wires is mapped in three dimensions, and linear combinations of these maps are formed. The resulting shim fields are found to be very pure. The shims are used in a prototype high-resolution NMR magnet in which the 1.0mm sample size is only possible due to the thinness of the shim set. The resulting spectra demonstrate shimming to high resolution (<25ppb FWHM) without undue heating effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic Trapping of Bacteria at Low Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z. M.; Wu, R. G.; Wang, Z. P.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A suspension of non-magnetic entities in a ferrofluid is referred to as an inverse ferrofluid. Current research to trap non-magnetic entities in an inverse ferrofluid focuses on using large permanent magnets to generate high magnetic field gradients, which seriously limits Lab-on-a-Chip applications. On the other hand, in this work, trapping of non-magnetic entities, e.g., bacteria in a uniform external magnetic field was studied with a novel chip design. An inverse ferrofluid flows in a channel and a non-magnetic island is placed in the middle of this channel. The magnetic field was distorted by this island due to the magnetic susceptibility difference between this island and the surrounding ferrofluid, resulting in magnetic forces applied on the non-magnetic entities. Both the ferromagnetic particles and the non-magnetic entities, e.g., bacteria were attracted towards the island, and subsequently accumulate in different regions. The alignment of the ferrimagnetic particles and optical transparency of the ferrofluid was greatly enhanced by the bacteria at low applied magnetic fields. This work is applicable to lab-on-a-chip based detection and trapping of non-magnetic entities bacteria and cells. PMID:27254771

  2. Magnetic Trapping of Bacteria at Low Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. M.; Wu, R. G.; Wang, Z. P.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2016-06-01

    A suspension of non-magnetic entities in a ferrofluid is referred to as an inverse ferrofluid. Current research to trap non-magnetic entities in an inverse ferrofluid focuses on using large permanent magnets to generate high magnetic field gradients, which seriously limits Lab-on-a-Chip applications. On the other hand, in this work, trapping of non-magnetic entities, e.g., bacteria in a uniform external magnetic field was studied with a novel chip design. An inverse ferrofluid flows in a channel and a non-magnetic island is placed in the middle of this channel. The magnetic field was distorted by this island due to the magnetic susceptibility difference between this island and the surrounding ferrofluid, resulting in magnetic forces applied on the non-magnetic entities. Both the ferromagnetic particles and the non-magnetic entities, e.g., bacteria were attracted towards the island, and subsequently accumulate in different regions. The alignment of the ferrimagnetic particles and optical transparency of the ferrofluid was greatly enhanced by the bacteria at low applied magnetic fields. This work is applicable to lab-on-a-chip based detection and trapping of non-magnetic entities bacteria and cells.

  3. Small magnetic structures near the polar regions of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, I.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Balmaceda, L.; Domingo, V.

    2017-10-01

    The study of the small magnetic structures of the solar photosphere is of great relevance because of their association with concentrations of magnetic field and their possible contribution to the variations of the Total Solar Irradiance. These structures are known to appear close to active regions and ubiquitously in the quiet Sun areas. Numerous studies about their distribution across all over the solar surface have been done with high-resolution instrumentation. However, since the observations have always been carried out from the ecliptic plane, their distribution near the polar regions is not well known. Future missions, like Solar Orbiter, will certainly provide valuable information on these yet unexplored regions. In this work, and in preparation for that moment, we select favorable periods for the observation of the polar regions of the Sun, and study the fraction of covered surface by small magnetic structures and its variation with the solar activity.

  4. Deformation of Water by a Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zijun; Dahlberg, E. Dan

    2011-01-01

    After the discovery that superconducting magnets could levitate diamagnetic objects, researchers became interested in measuring the repulsion of diamagnetic fluids in strong magnetic fields, which was given the name "The Moses Effect." Both for the levitation experiments and the quantitative studies on liquids, the large magnetic fields necessary…

  5. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this…

  6. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this…

  7. Deformation of Water by a Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zijun; Dahlberg, E. Dan

    2011-01-01

    After the discovery that superconducting magnets could levitate diamagnetic objects, researchers became interested in measuring the repulsion of diamagnetic fluids in strong magnetic fields, which was given the name "The Moses Effect." Both for the levitation experiments and the quantitative studies on liquids, the large magnetic fields necessary…

  8. Baryon onset in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, Alexander; Preis, Florian; Schmitt, Andreas

    2016-01-22

    The critical baryon chemical potential for the onset of nuclear matter is a function of the vacuum mass and the binding energy. Both quantities are affected by an external magnetic field. We show within two relativistic mean-field models – including magnetic catalysis, but omitting the anomalous magnetic moment – that a magnetic field increases both the vacuum mass and the binding energy. For sufficiently large magnetic fields, the effect on the vacuum mass dominates and as a result the critical baryon chemical potential is increased.

  9. Magnetic field concentrator for probing optical magnetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Antosiewicz, Tomasz J; Wróbel, Piotr; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2010-12-06

    Development of all dielectric and plasmonic metamaterials with a tunable optical frequency magnetic response creates a need for new inspection techniques. We propose a method of measuring magnetic responses of such metamaterials within a wide range of optical frequencies with a single probe. A tapered fiber probe with a radially corrugated metal coating concentrates azimuthally polarized light in the near-field into a subwavelength spot the longitudinal magnetic field component which is much stronger than the perpendicular electric one. The active probe may be used in a future scanning near-field magnetic microscope for studies of magnetic responses of subwavelength elementary cells of metamaterials.

  10. Analysis of magnetic field levels at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulou, Christos G.

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this work is to evaluate the magnetic field levels of distribution systems and other equipment at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Magnetic fields levels in several operational areas and various facilities are investigated. Three dimensional mappings and contour are provided along with the measured data. Furthermore, the portion of magnetic fields generated by the 60 Hz fundamental frequency and the portion generated by harmonics are examined. Finally, possible mitigation techniques for attenuating fields from electric panels are discussed.

  11. Magnetic field gradiometer. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser-Smith, A.C.

    1983-02-01

    This report has two principal goals. First, to present a general review of magnetic field gradiometers and, second, to provide new data concerning these gradiometers, including new information about their response to magnetic dipole fields. A system of nomenclature is introduced that is consistent with the mathematical concept of gradient and which provides a basis for discussions of the different functions of magnetic field gradiometers and differential magnetometers. The distinction between component gradiometers and total field gradiometers is also stressed.

  12. Chiral spiral induced by a strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuki, Hiroaki

    2016-11-01

    We study the modification of the chiral phase structure of QCD due to an external magnetic field. We first demonstrate how the effect of magnetic field can systematically be incorporated into a generalized Ginzburg-Landau framework. We then analyze the phase structure in the vicinity of the chiral critical point. In the chiral limit, the effect is found to be so drastic that it brings a "continent" of chiral spiral in the phase diagram, by which the chiral tricritical point is totally washed out. This is the case no matter how small the intensity of magnetic field is. On the other hand, the current quark mass protects the chiral critical point from a weak magnetic field. However, the critical point will eventually be covered by the chiral spiral phase as the magnetic field grows.

  13. Detecting solar axions using Earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Huber, Patrick

    2006-10-06

    We show that solar axion conversion to photons in the Earth's magnetosphere can produce an x-ray flux, with average energy omega approximately 4 keV, which is measurable on the dark side of the Earth. The smallness of the Earth's magnetic field is compensated by a large magnetized volume. For axion masses m(a) less, similar10(-4) eV, a low-Earth-orbit x-ray detector with an effective area of 10(4) cm(2), pointed at the solar core, can probe the photon-axion coupling down to 10(-11) GeV-1, in 1 yr. Thus, the sensitivity of this new approach will be an order of magnitude beyond current laboratory limits.

  14. On the Dynamics of Small-Scale Solar Magnetic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Title, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    We report on the dynamics of the small-scale solar magnetic field, based on analysis of very high resolution images of the solar photosphere obtained at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope. The data sets are movies from 1 to 4 hr in length, taken in several wavelength bands with a typical time between frames of 20 s. The primary method of tracking small-scale magnetic elements is with very high contrast images of photospheric bright points, taken through a 12 A bandpass filter centered at 4305 A in the Fraunhofer 'G band.' Previous studies have established that such bright points are unambiguously associated with sites of small-scale magnetic flux in the photosphere, although the details of the mechanism responsible for the brightening of the flux elements remain uncertain. The G band bright points move in the intergranular lanes at speeds from 0.5 to 5 km/s. The motions appear to be constrained to the intergranular lanes and are primarily driven by the evolution of the local granular convection flow field. Continual fragmentation and merging of flux is the fundamental evolutionary mode of small-scale magnetic structures in the solar photosphere. Rotation and folding of chains or groups of bright points are also observed. The timescale for magnetic flux evolution in active region plage is on the order of the correlation time of granulation (typically 6-8 minutes), but significant morphological changes can occur on timescales as short as 100 S. Smaller fragments are occasionally seen to fade beyond observable contrast. The concept of a stable, isolated subarcsecond magnetic 'flux tube' in the solar photosphere is inconsistent with the observations presented here.

  15. Transient magnetic field and temperature modeling in large magnet applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gurol, H.; Hardy, G.E.; Peck, S.D.; Leung, E. . Space Systems Div.)

    1989-07-01

    This paper discusses a coupled magnetic/thermal model developed to study heat and magnetic field diffusion in conducting materials subject to time-varying external fields. There are numerous applications, both military and commercial. These include: energy storage devices, pulsed power transformers, and electromagnetic launchers. The time scales of interest may range from a magnetic field pulse of a microsecond in an electromagnetic launcher, to hundreds of seconds in an energy storage magnet. The problem can be dominated by either the magnetic field or heat diffusion, depending on the temperature and the material properties of the conductor. In general, heat diffuses much more rapidly in high electrical conductivity materials of cryogenic temperatures. The magnetic field takes longer to diffuse, since screening currents can be rapidly set up which shield the interior of the material from further magnetic field penetration. Conversely, in high resistivity materials, the magnetic field diffuses much more rapidly. A coupled two-dimensional thermal/magnetic model has been developed. The results of this model, showing the time and spatial variation of the magnetic field and temperature, are discussed for the projectile of an electromagnetic launcher.

  16. Magnetic fields and intrathecal pump malfunction.

    PubMed

    Huh, Billy; Roldan, Carlos J

    2016-01-01

    Medical technology has impacted the overall life expectancy. Many conditions traditionally considered fatal are now curable. Surviving chronic diseases and aging of the population have increased the number of people with chronic pain. Many devices are also available to manage severe refractory pain. As such, implantable drug-delivery system (IDDS) is a small battery-powered, programmable pump implanted under the subcutaneous tissue of the abdomen and connected to a small catheter tunneled into the spine. Implantable drug-delivery system is used for the administration of morphine, ziconotide, baclofen, or their mixtures into the cerebrospinal fluid. Like many medical devices, IDDS has technical glitch which limits its performance under certain conditions. Implantable drug-delivery system is susceptible to magnetic field such as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which can temporarily stall the rotor of the pump motor and suspend drug delivery. We encountered a patient from out of town seen at emergency department with increased pain and symptoms of opiates withdrawal after intermittent IDDS malfunction. He denied any exposure to magnetic fields or MRI. However, the pump interrogation showed multiple motor stall events in the event log. After a detailed inquiry, the most likely cause of pump malfunction appears to be frequent placement of a laptop computer on his abdomen close to the pump. The magnets in the laptop speakers may have caused the rotor of the pump motor to stall during the computer use, and frequent stall has caused symptoms of withdrawal. No other mechanical failures were found. The patient was discharged home after the symptoms resolved, and the pump was reprogrammed.

  17. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  18. Quark stars with strong magnetic fields: considering different magnetic field geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Liu, Xi-Wei; Zheng, Xiao-Ping

    2017-09-01

    We calculate the mass-radius relationship of quark stars with the magnetized density-dependent quark mass model in this work, considering two magnetic field geometries: a statistically isotropic, tangled field and a force-free configuration. In both cases, magnetic field production decreases in the case of maximum quark star mass. Furthermore, a tangled, isotropic magnetic field has a relatively smaller impact on the mass and radius, compared to the force-free configuration, which implies that the geometry of the interior magnetic field is at least as important as the field strength itself when the influence of the strong magnetic field on the mass and radius is assessed.

  19. Unique topological characterization of braided magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Yeates, A. R.; Hornig, G.

    2013-01-15

    We introduce a topological flux function to quantify the topology of magnetic braids: non-zero, line-tied magnetic fields whose field lines all connect between two boundaries. This scalar function is an ideal invariant defined on a cross-section of the magnetic field, and measures the average poloidal magnetic flux around any given field line, or the average pairwise crossing number between a given field line and all others. Moreover, its integral over the cross-section yields the relative magnetic helicity. Using the fact that the flux function is also an action in the Hamiltonian formulation of the field line equations, we prove that it uniquely characterizes the field line mapping and hence the magnetic topology.

  20. Miniature cyclotron resonance ion source using small permanent magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anicich, V. G.; Huntress, W. T., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An ion source using the cyclotron resonance principle is described. A miniaturized ion source device is used in an air gap of a small permanent magnet with a substantially uniform field in the air gap of about 0.5 inch. The device and permanent magnet are placed in an enclosure which is maintained at a high vacuum (typically 10 to the minus 7th power) into which a sample gas can be introduced. The ion beam end of the device is placed very close to an aperture through which an ion beam can exit into the apparatus for an experiment.

  1. Application peculiarities of magnetic materials for protection from magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai, P.; Dmitrenko, V.; Grabchikov, S.; Vlasik, K.; Novikov, A.; Petrenko, D.; Trukhanov, V.; Ulin, S.; Uteshev, Z.; Chernysheva, V.; Shustov, A.

    2016-02-01

    In different materials for magnetic shields, the maximum permeability is achieved for different values of the magnetic field. This determines the choice of material. So for protection from magnetic fields strength of 10 - 150 A/m it is advisable to apply the amorphous ribbon 84KXCP. For stronger fields (more than 400 A/m) it is recommended to use MFS based on Ni20Fe80. Use of these materials allows creating an effective shield working in a wide range of magnetic field strengths.

  2. Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    Lubell, Martin S.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies.

  3. Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    Lubell, M.S.

    1994-10-25

    A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

  4. Strong intrinsic mixing in vortex magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Martin, James E; Shea-Rohwer, Lauren; Solis, Kyle J

    2009-07-01

    We report a method of magnetic mixing wherein a "vortex" magnetic field applied to a suspension of magnetic particles creates strong homogeneous mixing throughout the fluid volume. Experiments designed to elucidate the microscopic mechanism of mixing show that the torque is quadratic in the field, decreases with field frequency, and is optimized at a vortex field angle of approximately 55 degrees . Theory and simulations indicate that the field-induced formation of volatile particle chains is responsible for these phenomena. This technique has applications in microfluidic devices and is ideally suited to applications such as accelerating the binding of target biomolecules to biofunctionalized magnetic microbeads.

  5. Coronal rain in magnetic bipolar weak fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Fang, X.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We intend to investigate the underlying physics for the coronal rain phenomenon in a representative bipolar magnetic field, including the formation and the dynamics of coronal rain blobs. Methods: With the MPI-AMRVAC code, we performed three dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with strong heating localized on footpoints of magnetic loops after a relaxation to quiet solar atmosphere. Results: Progressive cooling and in-situ condensation starts at the loop top due to radiative thermal instability. The first large-scale condensation on the loop top suffers Rayleigh-Taylor instability and becomes fragmented into smaller blobs. The blobs fall vertically dragging magnetic loops until they reach low-β regions and start to fall along the loops from loop top to loop footpoints. A statistic study of the coronal rain blobs finds that small blobs with masses of less than 1010 g dominate the population. When blobs fall to lower regions along the magnetic loops, they are stretched and develop a non-uniform velocity pattern with an anti-parallel shearing pattern seen to develop along the central axis of the blobs. Synthetic images of simulated coronal rain with Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly well resemble real observations presenting dark falling clumps in hot channels and bright rain blobs in a cool channel. We also find density inhomogeneities during a coronal rain "shower", which reflects the observed multi-stranded nature of coronal rain. Movies associated to Figs. 3 and 7 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Effects of static magnetic field on mutagenesis in in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikehata, M.; Yoshie, S.; Hirota, N.; Hayakawa, T.

    2009-03-01

    Effects of static magnetic field up to 13 T were estimated in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We observed that exposure to a 5 T static magnetic field resulted in a slight but significant increase in gene recombination frequency while frequency of reverse point mutation was not altered in S. cerevisiae. This mutagenic effect showed a dose response relationship as J-shape. To investigate an involvement of reactive oxygen species in possible mutagenic effect of static magnetic field, SOD deficient E. coli QC774 was used in thymine synthesis-based mutation assay. The result shows that static magnetic field up to 13 T did not indicate mutagenicity. Thus, it is suggested that frequency of point mutation does not changed under static magnetic field regardless of its susceptibility to superoxide. These results suggest that strong static magnetic field would have small but detectable mutagenic potential. Although mechanism of the mutagenic effect of static magnetic field has not been elucidated yet, the extent of this effect is estimated extremely small by comparison with other mutagens such as ultraviolet irradiation.

  7. Magnetic field waves at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles W.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Mish, William H.; Wong, Hung K.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed research efforts funded by the UDAP grant to the BRI involve the study of magnetic field waves associated with the Uranian bow shock. This is a collaborative venture bringing together investigators at the BRI, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In addition, other collaborations have been formed with investigators granted UDAP funds for similar studies and with investigators affiliated with other Voyager experiments. These investigations and the corresponding collaborations are included in the report. The proposed effort as originally conceived included an examination of waves downstream from the shock within the magnetosheath. However, the observations of unexpected complexity and diversity within the upstream region have necessitated that we confine our efforts to those observations recorded upstream of the bow shock on the inbound and outbound legs of the encounter by the Voyager 2 spacecraft.

  8. Whistler mode refraction in highly nonuniform magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R.

    2016-12-01

    In a large laboratory plasma the propagation of whistler modes is measured in highly nonuniform magnetic fields created by a current-carrying wires. Ray tracing is not applicable since the wavelength and gradient scale length are comparable. The waves are excited with a loop antenna near the wire. The antenna launches an m=1 helicon mode in a uniform plasma. The total magnetic field consists of a weak uniform background field and a nearly circular field of a straight wire across the background field. A circular loop produces 3D null points and a 2D null line. The whistler wave propagation will be shown. It is relevant to whistler mode propagation in space plasmas near magnetic null-points, small flux ropes, lunar crustal magnetic fields and active wave injection experiments.

  9. DYNAMICS OF CHROMOSPHERIC UPFLOWS AND UNDERLYING MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Yurchyshyn, V.; Abramenko, V.; Goode, P.

    2013-04-10

    We used H{alpha}-0.1 nm and magnetic field (at 1.56{mu}) data obtained with the New Solar Telescope to study the origin of the disk counterparts to type II spicules, so-called rapid blueshifted excursions (RBEs). The high time cadence of our chromospheric (10 s) and magnetic field (45 s) data allowed us to generate x-t plots using slits parallel to the spines of the RBEs. These plots, along with potential field extrapolation, led us to suggest that the occurrence of RBEs is generally correlated with the appearance of new, mixed, or unipolar fields in close proximity to network fields. RBEs show a tendency to occur at the interface between large-scale fields and small-scale dynamic magnetic loops and thus are likely to be associated with the existence of a magnetic canopy. Detection of kinked and/or inverse {sup Y-}shaped RBEs further confirm this conclusion.

  10. Heating of cardiovascular stents in intense radiofrequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Foster, K R; Goldberg, R; Bonsignore, C

    1999-01-01

    We consider the heating of a metal stent in an alternating magnetic field from an induction heating furnace. An approximate theoretical analysis is conducted to estimate the magnetic field strength needed to produce substantial temperature increases. Experiments of stent heating in industrial furnaces are reported, which confirm the model. The results show that magnetic fields inside inductance furnaces are capable of significantly heating stents. However, the fields fall off very quickly with distance and in most locations outside the heating coil, field levels are far too small to produce significant heating. The ANSI/IEEE C95.1-1992 limits for human exposure to alternating magnetic fields provide adequate protection against potential excessive heating of the stents.

  11. ALIGNMENT OF THE SCALAR GRADIENT IN EVOLVING MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Sur, Sharanya; Scannapieco, Evan; Pan, Liubin E-mail: evan.scannapieco@asu.edu

    2014-07-20

    We conduct simulations of turbulent mixing in the presence of a magnetic field, grown by the small-scale dynamo. We show that the scalar gradient field, ∇C, which must be large for diffusion to operate, is strongly biased perpendicular to the magnetic field, B. This is true both early on, when the magnetic field is negligible, and at late times, when the field is strong enough to back react on the flow. This occurs because ∇C increases within the plane of a compressive motion, but B increases perpendicular to it. At late times, the magnetic field resists compression, making it harder for scalar gradients to grow and likely slowing mixing.

  12. The magnetic field in the collapsing protosolar nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzmaikina, T.V.

    1985-10-01

    The authors discuss the behavior of the magnetic field in the contracting protosolar nebula with a relatively small angular momentum. In the process of collapse, the growth of the magnetic field limits the dissipation processes-first ambipolar diffusion and then ohmic dissipation. The magnetic field, strengthened by differential rotation, is capable of redistributing angular momentum over a time less than the time of the evolution of the core. This leads to the formation of a differentially rotating disk from the outer equatorial layers of the core.

  13. Magnetic Field Generation and Electron Acceleration in Relativistic Laser Channel

    SciTech Connect

    I.Yu. Kostyukov; G. Shvets; N.J. Fisch; J.M. Rax

    2001-12-12

    The interaction between energetic electrons and a circularly polarized laser pulse inside an ion channel is studied. Laser radiation can be resonantly absorbed by electrons executing betatron oscillations in the ion channel and absorbing angular momentum from the laser. The absorbed angular momentum manifests itself as a strong axial magnetic field (inverse Faraday effect). The magnitude of this magnetic field is calculated and related to the amount of the absorbed energy. Absorbed energy and generated magnetic field are estimated for the small and large energy gain regimes. Qualitative comparisons with recent experiments are also made.

  14. The bootstrap current in small rotating magnetic islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, A.; Poli, E.; Peeters, A. G.

    2009-09-01

    The bootstrap current in small magnetic islands of neoclassical tearing modes is studied with guiding center particle simulations including pitch angle scattering. A model for a rotating island and its electric field is used and a new approximation to the electric potential in small islands is derived. Islands with sizes of the order of the ion banana orbit width are studied by means of a two-step model, which allows to treat both ions and electrons kinetically. The bootstrap current in such small islands is found to depend strongly on the direction of rotation of the island. The bootstrap current in small islands rotating in the ion diamagnetic direction is strongly diminished, similarly to what happens in big islands. In small islands rotating in the electron diamagnetic direction, on the contrary, the bootstrap current is almost completely preserved, implying a reduced neoclassical drive of the island growth.

  15. The bootstrap current in small rotating magnetic islands

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, A.; Poli, E.; Peeters, A. G.

    2009-09-15

    The bootstrap current in small magnetic islands of neoclassical tearing modes is studied with guiding center particle simulations including pitch angle scattering. A model for a rotating island and its electric field is used and a new approximation to the electric potential in small islands is derived. Islands with sizes of the order of the ion banana orbit width are studied by means of a two-step model, which allows to treat both ions and electrons kinetically. The bootstrap current in such small islands is found to depend strongly on the direction of rotation of the island. The bootstrap current in small islands rotating in the ion diamagnetic direction is strongly diminished, similarly to what happens in big islands. In small islands rotating in the electron diamagnetic direction, on the contrary, the bootstrap current is almost completely preserved, implying a reduced neoclassical drive of the island growth.

  16. Representation of magnetic fields in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    Several methods by which a magnetic field in space can be represented are reviewed with particular attention to problems of the observed geomagnetic field. Time dependence is assumed to be negligible, and five main classes of representation are described by vector potential, scalar potential, orthogonal vectors, Euler potentials, and expanded magnetic field.

  17. DC-based magnetic field controller

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.; Morgan, J.P.

    1994-05-31

    A magnetic field controller is described for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a Hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage. 1 fig.

  18. DC-based magnetic field controller

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.; Morgan, John P,.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic field controller for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage.

  19. Magnetic field in the plane of a physical dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, P.-M.; Grace, Alyssa L.; Hui, Kaleonui J.; Loving, Rebekah K.

    2016-07-01

    We study the magnetic field in the plane of a circular current-carrying loop. We both solve Biot-Savart’s equation numerically and perform measurements with high spatial resolution. The results extend our quantitative understanding of a physical magnetic dipole by providing an accurate and complete picture of the field in this plane, which complements existing analytical expressions valid at very small and large radius, near the loop axis, and for point dipoles.

  20. Static uniform magnetic fields and amoebae

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, S.G.; Srikanth, S.; Mahajan, S.M.; Ventrice, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    Three species of potentially pathogenic amoebae were exposed to 71 and 106.5 mT from constant homogeneous magnetic fields and examined for inhibition of population growth. The number of amoebae for three species was significantly less than controls after a 72 h exposure to the magnetic fields when the temperature was 20 C or above. Axenic cultures, i.e., cultures grown without bacteria, were significantly affected after only 24 h. In 20 of 21 tests using the three species, the magnetic field significantly inhibited the growth of amoebae. In one test in which the temperature was 20 C for 48 h, exposure to the magnetic field was not inhibitory. Final numbers of magnetic field-exposed amoebae ranged from 9 to 72% lower than the final numbers of unexposed controls, depending on the species. This research may lead to disinfection strategies utilizing magnetic fields for surfaces on which pathogenic amoebae may proliferate.

  1. MEASUREMENTS OF STELLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS USING AUTOCORRELATION OF SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Borra, E. F.; Deschatelets, D.

    2015-11-15

    We present a novel technique that uses the autocorrelation of the spectrum of a star to measure the line broadening caused by the modulus of its average surface magnetic field. The advantage of the autocorrelation comes from the fact that it can detect very small spectral line broadening effects because it averages over many spectral lines and therefore gives an average with a very high signal-to-noise ratio. We validate the technique with the spectra of known magnetic stars and obtain autocorrelation curves that are in full agreement with published magnetic curves obtained with Zeeman splitting. The autocorrelation also gives less noisy curves so that it can be used to obtain very accurate curves. We degrade the resolution of the spectra of these magnetic stars to lower spectral resolutions where the Zeeman splitting is undetectable. At these resolutions, the autocorrelation still gives good quality curves, thereby showing that it can be used to measure magnetic fields in spectra where the Zeeman splitting is significantly smaller than the width of the spectral line. This would therefore allow observing magnetic fields in very faint Ap stars with low-resolution spectrographs, thereby greatly increasing the number of known magnetic stars. It also demonstrates that the autocorrelation can measure magnetic fields in rapidly rotating stars as well as weak magnetic fields that give a Zeeman splitting smaller than the intrinsic width of the spectral lines. Finally, it shows that the autocorrelation can be used to find unknown magnetic stars in low-resolution spectroscopic surveys.

  2. Electric-field and magnetic-field sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieckowski, T. W.

    1993-05-01

    Analysis of double-loaded loop antennas and their properties has led to the design of new measuring sensors which enable has led to determination of both electric field strength and magnetic field strength. Sensors of the design proposed are applicable to a quasipoint measurement providing independent determination of the electric and magnetic component of the field.

  3. Magnetic field sensor for isotropically sensing an incident magnetic field in a sensor plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pant, Bharat B. (Inventor); Wan, Hong (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic field sensor that isotropically senses an incident magnetic field. This is preferably accomplished by providing a magnetic field sensor device that has one or more circular shaped magnetoresistive sensor elements for sensing the incident magnetic field. The magnetoresistive material used is preferably isotropic, and may be a CMR material or some form of a GMR material. Because the sensor elements are circular in shape, shape anisotropy is eliminated. Thus, the resulting magnetic field sensor device provides an output that is relatively independent of the direction of the incident magnetic field in the sensor plane.

  4. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, M. R.; Haagmans, R.; Floberghagen, R.; Plank, G.; Menard, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in 2012. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of 3 identical satellites. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently approaching the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products to the Swarm user community. The setup of Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. More information on the Swarm mission can be found at the mission web site (see URL below).

  5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in the Earth's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollos, Stefan; Hollos, Richard

    2002-10-01

    We will address the challenges of doing NMR in the Earth's magnetic field. The design of an Earth's field proton precession magnetometer will be presented along with some preliminary attempts to do spectroscopy with this device.

  6. Rotating sample magnetometer for cryogenic temperatures and high magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Eisterer, M; Hengstberger, F; Voutsinas, C S; Hörhager, N; Sorta, S; Hecher, J; Weber, H W

    2011-06-01

    We report on the design and implementation of a rotating sample magnetometer (RSM) operating in the variable temperature insert (VTI) of a cryostat equipped with a high-field magnet. The limited space and the cryogenic temperatures impose the most critical design parameters: the small bore size of the magnet requires a very compact pick-up coil system and the low temperatures demand a very careful design of the bearings. Despite these difficulties the RSM achieves excellent resolution at high magnetic field sweep rates, exceeding that of a typical vibrating sample magnetometer by about a factor of ten. In addition the gas-flow cryostat and the high-field superconducting magnet provide a temperature and magnetic field range unprecedented for this type of magnetometer. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  7. Effects of magnetic field on anisotropic temperature relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Chao; Ren Haijun; Cai Huishan; Li Ding

    2013-03-15

    In a strongly magnetized plasma, where the particles' thermal gyro-radii are smaller than the Debye length, the magnetic field greatly affects the plasma's relaxation processes. The expressions for the time rates of change of the electron and ion parallel and perpendicular temperatures are obtained and calculated analytically for small anisotropies through considering binary collisions between charged particles in the presence of a uniform magnetic field by using perturbation theory. Based on these expressions, the effects of the magnetic field on the relaxation of anisotropic electron and ion temperatures due to electron-electron collisions, ion-ion collisions, and electron-ion collisions are investigated. Consequently, the relaxation times of anisotropic electron and ion temperatures to isotropy are calculated. It is shown that electron-ion collisions can affect the relaxation of an anisotropic ion distribution in the strong magnetic field.

  8. Magnetic Field Observation around Current Path by Magnetic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saida, Daisuke; Takahashi, Takuji

    2004-07-01

    The magnetic field around a GaAs/AlGaAs mesa stripe induced by an AC current in the range of 0.3-15.6 μA was observed by magnetic force microscopy (MFM). To confirm the possibility of the vector decomposition of the current-induced magnetic field gradient, we compared the magnetic force signals in the cases of parallel and perpendicular configurations between the MFM cantilever and the current path. In addition, we proposed a novel way of eliminating some effects of electrostatic force, by which a good linearity in the magnetic force signals against the currents was achieved. The spatial resolution of this method was also discussed.

  9. Magnetically modified bioсells in constant magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, E. G.; Panina, L. K.; Kolikov, V. A.; Bogomolova, E. V.; Snetov, V. N.; Cherepkova, I. A.; Kiselev, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Paper addresses the inverse problem in determining the area, where the external constant magnetic field captures the biological cells modified by the magnetic nanoparticles. Zero velocity isolines, in area where the modified cells are captured by the magnetic field were determined by numerical method for two locations of the magnet. The problem was solved taking into account the gravitational field, magnetic induction, density of medium, concentration and size of cells, and size and magnetization of nanoparticles attached to the cell. Increase in the number of the nanoparticles attached to the cell and decrease in the cell' size, enlarges the area, where the modified cells are captured and concentrated by the magnet. Solution is confirmed by the visible pattern formation of the modified cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  10. Velocity measurement on Taylor Couette flow of a magnetic fluid with small aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikura, Hiroshige; Aritomi, Masanori; Takeda, Yasushi

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, the application of ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) method to investigate magnetic-fluids flow is described. The objective of the research is to measure the internal flow of a magnetic fluid on Taylor-Couette flow with small aspect ratio using the UVP method and to analyze the influence of the applied magnetic field. The flow structure of a magnetic fluid in a concentric annular geometry with a small aspect ratio of 3 and a radius ratio of 0.6 for an inner-cylinder rotation was investigated. Axial velocity distributions were measured using the UVP measurement technique. A non-uniform magnetic field was applied to the flow field using a permanent magnet, located outside of the cylinders. The results demonstrated that the UVP method was capable to provide the information on the structure of Taylor-Couette flow with small aspect ratio, in a magnetic fluid.

  11. Transport in sheared stochastic magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Vanden Eijnden, E.; Balescu, R.

    1997-02-01

    The transport of test particles in a stochastic magnetic field with a sheared component is studied. Two stages in the particle dynamics are distinguished depending on whether the collisional effects perpendicular to the main field are negligible or not. Whenever the perpendicular collisions are unimportant, the particles show a subdiffusive behavior which is slower in the presence of shear. The particle dynamics is then inhomogeneous and non-Markovian and no diffusion coefficient may be properly defined. When the perpendicular collision frequency is small, this subdiffusive stage may be very long. In the truly asymptotic stage, however, the perpendicular collisions must be accounted for and the particle motion eventually becomes diffusive. Here again, however, the shear is shown to reduce the anomalous diffusion coefficient of the system. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Operating a magnetic nozzle helicon thruster with strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Kazunori Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira

    2016-03-15

    A pulsed axial magnetic field up to ∼2.8 kG is applied to a 26-mm-inner-diameter helicon plasma thruster immersed in a vacuum chamber, and the thrust is measured using a pendulum target. The pendulum is located 30-cm-downstream of the thruster, and the thruster rf power and argon flow rate are fixed at 1 kW and 70 sccm (which gives a chamber pressure of 0.7 mTorr). The imparted thrust increases as the applied magnetic field is increased and saturates at a maximum value of ∼9.5 mN for magnetic field above ∼2 kG. At the maximum magnetic field, it is demonstrated that the normalized plasma density, and the ion flow energy in the magnetic nozzle, agree within ∼50% and of 10%, respectively, with a one-dimensional model that ignores radial losses from the nozzle. This magnetic nozzle model is combined with a simple global model of the thruster source that incorporates an artificially controlled factor α, to account for radial plasma losses to the walls, where α = 0 and 1 correspond to zero losses and no magnetic field, respectively. Comparison between the experiments and the model implies that the radial losses in the thruster source are experimentally reduced by the applied magnetic field to about 10% of that obtained from the no magnetic field model.

  13. Magnetic field evolution in tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnerot, Clément; Price, Daniel J.; Lodato, Giuseppe; Rossi, Elena M.

    2017-08-01

    When a star gets tidally disrupted by a supermassive black hole, its magnetic field is expected to pervade its debris. In this paper, we study this process via smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the disruption and early debris evolution including the stellar magnetic field. As the gas stretches into a stream, we show that the magnetic field evolution is strongly dependent on its orientation with respect to the stretching direction. In particular, an alignment of the field lines with the direction of stretching induces an increase of the magnetic energy. For disruptions happening well within the tidal radius, the star compression causes the magnetic field strength to sharply increase by an order of magnitude at the time of pericentre passage. If the disruption is partial, we find evidence for a dynamo process occurring inside the surviving core due to the formation of vortices. This causes an amplification of the magnetic field strength by a factor of ˜10. However, this value represents a lower limit since it increases with numerical resolution. For an initial field strength of 1 G, the magnetic field never becomes dynamically important. Instead, the disruption of a star with a strong 1 MG magnetic field produces a debris stream within which magnetic pressure becomes similar to gas pressure a few tens of hours after disruption. If the remnant of one or multiple partial disruptions is eventually fully disrupted, its magnetic field could be large enough to magnetically power the relativistic jet detected from Swift J1644+57. Magnetized streams could also be significantly thickened by magnetic pressure when it overcomes the confining effect of self-gravity.

  14. Active magnetic suspension in main magnetic field of electric motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urusov, I. D.; Galkin, V. I.; Likhoshvay, I. P.

    1985-10-01

    An active magnetic suspension for the rotor of an electric motor is considered, especially in small or miniature high-speed devices such as gyros, microturbomachines, and machine-tool spindle drives where it would eliminate the need for extra bearings and contribute to size and weight reduction. A disk-type rotor made of a ferromagnetic material is located horizontally inside the bore of a vertical stator so that weight and external loads compensate the magnetic pull upward. This pull is generated by the magnetic field in the air gap and can be automatically controlled by an electronic feedback circuit which regulates the stator input voltage depending on the rotor position along the stator bore, with a displacement transducer on the rotor indicating the position. The performance of such a suspension with automatic control in a 3-phase induction motor is analyzed on the basis of the system of differential equations describing the behavior of the electromechanical system during axial oscillations of the rotor, assuming a constant rotor speed during the transient periods.

  15. Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth’s magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  16. Magnetic vector field tag and seal

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R.

    2004-08-31

    One or more magnets are placed in a container (preferably on objects inside the container) and the magnetic field strength and vector direction are measured with a magnetometer from at least one location near the container to provide the container with a magnetic vector field tag and seal. The location(s) of the magnetometer relative to the container are also noted. If the position of any magnet inside the container changes, then the measured vector fields at the these locations also change, indicating that the tag has been removed, the seal has broken, and therefore that the container and objects inside may have been tampered with. A hollow wheel with magnets inside may also provide a similar magnetic vector field tag and seal. As the wheel turns, the magnets tumble randomly inside, removing the tag and breaking the seal.

  17. Magnetic monopole field exposed by electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béché, Armand; van Boxem, Ruben; van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Verbeeck, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The experimental search for magnetic monopole particles has, so far, been in vain. Nevertheless, these elusive particles of magnetic charge have fuelled a rich field of theoretical study. Here, we created an approximation of a magnetic monopole in free space at the end of a long, nanoscopically thin magnetic needle. We experimentally demonstrate that the interaction of this approximate magnetic monopole field with a beam of electrons produces an electron vortex state, as theoretically predicted for a true magnetic monopole. This fundamental quantum mechanical scattering experiment is independent of the speed of the electrons and has consequences for all situations where electrons meet such monopole magnetic fields, as, for example, in solids. The set-up not only shows an attractive way to produce electron vortex states but also provides a unique insight into monopole fields and shows that electron vortices might well occur in unexplored solid-state physics situations.

  18. Simulation of Magnetic Field Guided Plasma Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersohn, Frans; Sheehan, J. P.; Gallimore, Alec; Shebalin, John

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic field guided expansion of a radio-frequency plasma was simulated with a quasi-one-dimensional particle-in-cell code. Two-dimensional effects were included in a one-dimensional particle-in-cell code by varying the cross-sectional area of the one dimensional domain and including forces due to the magnetic field. Acceleration of electrons by the magnetic field forces leads to the formation of potential structures which then accelerate the ions into a beam. Density changes due to the plasma expansion only weakly affect the ion acceleration. Rapidly diverging magnetic fields lead to more rapid acceleration and the electrons cool as they expand.

  19. Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2002-07-29

    Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode.

  20. Microchannel plates phototubes in high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Barnyakov, M. Yu.; Karpov, S. V.; Katcin, A. A.; Prisekin, V. G.

    2017-09-01

    Microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes (MCP PMT) can work in a high magnetic field and have an excellent time resolution. The influence of the magnetic fields up to 4 T on the parameters of several MCP PMTs of different designs was investigated. PMTs with two, three and four MCPs were tested in magnetic fields. The tested samples have different diameters of MCP pores: 3.5, 6, 8 and 10 microns. Dependencies of the time resolution, the gain and the photoelectron collection efficiency on the magnetic field are presented below.

  1. Thermodynamical instabilities under strong magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. J.

    2017-03-01

    The thermodynamical instabilities of low densities in the n p matter and n p e matter are studied within several relativistic nuclear models under some values of magnetic fields. The results are compared between each other and the effects of the symmetry energy slope at saturation density on the instability are investigated. The instability regions can exhibit bands due to the presence of Landau levels for very strong magnetic fields of the order of 1017 G, while for weaker magnetic fields, the bands are replaced by many diffused or scattered pieces. It also shows that the proton fraction in the inner crust of neutron stars may be complex under strong magnetic fields.

  2. Variable magnetic field and temperature magnetic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, J.; Engel-Herbert, R.; Hesjedal, T.

    2005-11-01

    Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) studies of epitaxial MnAs films on GaAs(001) have been performed as a function of the applied magnetic field and the sample temperature. For this purpose, we combined a stable variable-temperature sample stage with a compact magnet assembly to fit a commercial magnetic force microscope. In order to keep the thermal drift that affects MFM measurements low, we employed a permanent magnet that can be rotated in a yoke assembly guiding the magnetic flux to the sample.

  3. Free oscillations of magnetic fluid in strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polunin, V. M.; Ryapolov, P. A.; Platonov, V. B.; Kuz'ko, A. E.

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents the esults of measuring the elastic parameters of an oscillatory system (coefficient of pondermotive elasticity, damping factor, and oscillation frequency) whose viscous inertial element is represented by a magnetic fluid confined in a tube by magnetic levitation in a strong magnetic field. The role of elasticity is played by the pondermotive force acting on thin layers at the upper and lower ends of the fluid column. It is shown that, by measuring the elastic oscillation frequencies of the magnetic fluid column, it is possible to develop a fundamentally new absolute method for determining the saturation magnetization of a magnetic colloid.

  4. Magnetic Field Synthesis for Microwave Magnetics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    layer is etched first with a potassium iodide soliuton, while the lower chromium layer is etched with a KMnO4 and sodium hydroxide solution. Finally, the...inhomogeneity in the saturation magnetization near the interface between the gadolinium gallium garnet and yttrium iron garnet could give rise to an

  5. Numerical analysis of magnetic field in superconducting magnetic energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Kanamaru, Y. ); Amemiya, Y. )

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is more useful than the other systems of electric energy storage because of larger stored energy and higher efficiency. The other systems are the battery, the flywheel, the pumped-storage power station. Some models of solenoid type SMES are designed in U.S.A. and Japan. But a high magnetic field happens by the large scale SMES in the living environment, and makes the erroneous operations of the computer display, the pacemaker of the heart and the electronic equipments. We study some fit designs of magnetic shielding of the solenoidal type SMES for reduction of the magnetic field in living environment. When some superconducting shielding coils are over the main storage coil, magnetic field reduces remarkably than the case of non shielding coil. The calculated results of the magnetic field are obtained y the finite element method.

  6. Strong-field atomic ionization in an elliptically polarized laser field and a constant magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rylyuk, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    Within the framework of the quasistationary quasienergy state (QQES) formalism, the tunneling and multiphoton ionization of atoms and ions subjected to a perturbation by a high intense laser radiation field of an arbitrary polarization and a constant magnetic field are considered. On the basis of the exact solution of the Schrödinger equation and the Green's function for the electron moving in an arbitrary laser field and crossed constant electric and magnetic fields, the integral equation for the complex quasienergy and the energy spectrum of the ejected electron are derived. Using the "imaginary-time" method, the extremal subbarrier trajectory of the photoelectron moving in a nonstationary laser field and a constant magnetic field are considered. Within the framework of the QQES formalism and the quasiclassical perturbation theory, ionization rates when the Coulomb interaction of the photoelectron with the parent ion is taken into account at arbitrary values of the Keldysh parameter are derived. The high accuracy of rates is confirmed by comparison with the results of numerical calculations. Simple analytical expressions for the ionization rate with the Coulomb correction in the tunneling and multiphoton regimes in the case of an elliptically polarized laser beam propagating at an arbitrary angle to the constant magnetic field are derived and discussed. The limits of small and large magnetic fields and low and high frequency of a laser field are considered in details. It is shown that in the presence of a nonstationary laser field perturbation, the constant magnetic field may either decrease or increase the ionization rate. The analytical consideration and numerical calculations also showed that the difference between the ionization rates for an s electron in the case of right- and left-elliptically polarized laser fields is especially significant in the multiphoton regime for not-too-high magnetic fields and decreases as the magnetic field increases. The paper

  7. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  8. The generation of magnetic fields by the polarization electric field in the ionosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinagawa, H.; Cravens, T. E.; Wu, D.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements by the magnetometer on the Pioneer Venus orbiter have established that during conditions of low solar wind dynamic pressure, large-scale magnetic fields are not present in the ionosphere of Venus but that during conditions of high solar wind dynamic pressure the ionosphere of Venus is magnetized. The source of the magnetic field is thought to be currents induced in the ionosphere by the solar wind. We will show that ionospheric polarization electric field can act as a source, or 'battery', producing a small magnetic field, even without any initial magnetic field. We have calculated this polarization source as a function of altitude and solar zenith angle. The magnetic field was then determined using a 2D kinematic dynamo model of the ionosphere of Venus. The magnetic field attains a maximum strength of about 5 nT at a solar zenith angle of about 120 deg. This magnetic field might act as a 'seed' field for magnetic flux ropes and terminator waves.

  9. Magnetic field evolution in interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drzazga, R. T.; Chyży, K. T.; Jurusik, W.; Wiórkiewicz, K.

    2011-09-01

    Aims: Violent gravitational interactions can change the morphologies of galaxies and, by means of merging, transform them into elliptical galaxies. We aim to investigate how they affect the evolution of galactic magnetic fields. Methods: We selected 16 systems of interacting galaxies with available VLA archive radio data at 4.86 and 1.4 GHz and compared their radio emission and estimated magnetic field strengths with their star-forming activity, far-infrared emission, and the stage of tidal interaction. Results: The estimated mean of total magnetic field strength for our sample of interacting galaxies is 14 ± 5 μG, which is larger than for the non-interacting objects. The field regularity (of 0.27 ± 0.09) is lower than in typical spirals and indicates enhanced production of random magnetic fields in the interacting objects. We find a general evolution of magnetic fields: for weak interactions the strength of magnetic field is almost constant (10-15 μG) as interaction advances, then it increases up to 2× , peaks at the nuclear coalescence (25 μG), and decreases again, down to 5-6 μG, for the post-merger remnants. The main production of magnetic fields in colliding galaxies thus terminates somewhere close to the nuclear coalescence, after which magnetic field diffuses. The magnetic field strength for whole galaxies is weakly affected by the star formation rate (SFR), while the dependence is higher for galactic centres. We show that the morphological distortions visible in the radio total and polarized emission do not depend statistically on the global or local SFRs, while they do increase (especially in the polarization) with the advance of interaction. The constructed radio-far-infrared relations for interacting and non-interacting galaxies display a similar balance between the generation of cosmic rays, magnetic fields, and the production of the thermal energy and dust radiation. Conclusions: The regular magnetic fields are much more sensitive to

  10. Magnetic field strength in solar coronal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arregui, I.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2017-03-01

    We applied Bayesian techniques to the problem of inferring the magnetic field strength in transversely oscillating solar coronal loops from observed periods and damping times. This was done by computing the marginal posterior probability density for parameters such as the waveguide density, the density contrast, the transverse inhomogeneity length scale, and the magnetic field strength under the assumption that the observed waves can be modelled as standing or propagating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink modes of magnetic flux tubes. Our results indicate that the magnetic field strength can be inferred, even if the densities inside and outside the structure are largely unknown. When information on plasma density is available, the method enables to self-consistently include this knowledge to further constrain the inferred magnetic field strength. The inclusion of the observed oscillation damping enables to obtain information on the transverse density structuring and considerably alters the obtained posterior for the magnetic field strength.

  11. Association of solar coronal loops to photospheric magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep Chitta, Lakshmi; Peter, Hardi; Solanki, Sami

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic connectivity and its evolution from the solar photosphere to the corona will play a crucial role in the energetics of the solar atmosphere. To explore this connectivity, we use high spatial resolution magnetic field observations of an active region from the balloon-borne SUNRISE telescope, in combination with the observations of coronal loops imaged in extreme ultraviolet by SDO/AIA. We show that photospheric magnetic field at the base of coronal loops is rapidly evolving through small-scale flux emergence and cancellation events with rates on the order of 10^15 Mx/s. When observed at high spatial resolution better than 0.5 arcsec, we find that basically all coronal loops considered so far are rooted in the photosphere above small-scale opposite polarity magnetic field patches. In the photosphere, the magnetic field threading coronal loops is interacting with opposite polarity parasitic magnetic concentrations leading to dynamic signatures in the upper atmosphere. Chromospheric small-scale jets aligned to coronal loops are observed at these locations. We will present preliminary results from 3D MHD simulations of coronal loops driven by realistic magneto-convection and discuss what role the magnetic interactions at coronal loop footpoints could play in the evolution of coronal loops and their heating.

  12. Prospects for x-ray polarimetry measurements of magnetic fields in magnetized liner inertial fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, Alan G. Gilmore, Mark

    2014-11-15

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments, where a metal liner is imploded to compress a magnetized seed plasma may generate peak magnetic fields ∼10{sup 4} T (100 Megagauss) over small volumes (∼10{sup −10}m{sup 3}) at high plasma densities (∼10{sup 28}m{sup −3}) on 100 ns time scales. Such conditions are extremely challenging to diagnose. We discuss the possibility of, and issues involved in, using polarimetry techniques at x-ray wavelengths to measure magnetic fields under these extreme conditions.

  13. Prospects for x-ray polarimetry measurements of magnetic fields in magnetized liner inertial fusion plasmas.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Alan G; Gilmore, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments, where a metal liner is imploded to compress a magnetized seed plasma may generate peak magnetic fields ∼10(4) T (100 Megagauss) over small volumes (∼10(-10)m(3)) at high plasma densities (∼10(28)m(-3)) on 100 ns time scales. Such conditions are extremely challenging to diagnose. We discuss the possibility of, and issues involved in, using polarimetry techniques at x-ray wavelengths to measure magnetic fields under these extreme conditions.

  14. Magnetic field and angular momentum evolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallet, F.

    2013-11-01

    The magnetic field in young stellar object is clearly the most important component when one dealing with the angular momentum evolution of solar-like stars. It controls this latter one from the pre-main sequence, during the ``disk locking'' phase where the stars magnetically interact with their surrounding disk, to the main-sequence through powerful stellar winds that remove angular momentum from the stellar surface. We present new models for the rotational evolution of solar-like stars between 1 Myr and 10 Gyr with the aim to reproduce the distributions of rotational periods observed for star forming regions and young open clusters within this age range. Our simulations are produced by a recent model dedicated to the study of the angular momentum evolution of solar-type stars. This model include a new wind braking law based on recent numerical simulations of magnetized stellar winds and a specific dynamo and mass-loss prescription are used to link the angular momentum loss-rate to angular velocity evolution. The model additionally allows for a core/envelope decoupling with an angular momentum transfer between these two regions. Since this former model didn't include any physical star/disk interaction description, two star/disk interaction processes are eventually added to it in order to reproduce the apparent small angular velocities to which the stellar surface is subject during the disk accretion phase. We have developed rotational evolution models for slow, median and fast rotators including two star/disk interaction scenarios that are the magnetospheric ejection and the accretion powered stellar winds processes. The models appear to fail at reproducing the rotational behaviour of solar-type stars except when a more intense magnetic field is used during the disk accretion phase.

  15. CSEM-steel hybrid wiggler/undulator magnetic field studies

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Marks, S.; Plate, D.; Shuman, D.

    1985-05-01

    Current design of permanent magnet wiggler/undulators use either pure charge sheet equivalent material (CSEM) or the CSEM-Steel hybrid configuration. Hybrid configurations offer higher field strength at small gaps, field distributions dominated by the pole surfaces and pole tuning. Nominal performance of the hybrid is generally predicted using a 2-D magnetic design code neglecting transverse geometry. Magnetic measurements are presented showing transverse configuration influence on performance, from a combination of models using CSEMs, REC (H/sub c/ = 9.2 kOe) and NdFe (H/sub c/ = 10.7 kOe), different pole widths and end configurations. Results show peak field improvement using NdFe in place of REC in identical models, gap peak field decrease with pole width decrease (all results less than computed 2-D fields), transverse gap field distributions, and importance of CSEM material overhanging the poles in the transverse direction for highest gap fields.

  16. CSEM-Steel hybrid wiggler/undulator magnetic field studies

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Marks, S.; Plate, D.; Shuman, D.

    1985-06-01

    Current design of permanent magnet wiggler/undulators use either pure charge sheet equivalent material (CSEM) or the CSEM-Steel hybrid configuration. Hybrid configurations offer higher field strength at small gaps, field distributions dominated by the pole surfaces and pole tuning. Nominal performance of the hybrid is generally predicted using a 2-D magnetic design code neglecting transverse geometry. Magnetic measurements are presented showing transverse configuration influence on performance, from a combination of models using CSEMs, REC (H/sub c/ = 9.2 KOe) and NdFe (H/sub c/ = 10.7 kOe), different pole widths and end configurations. Results show peak field improvement using NdFe in place of REC in identical models, gap peak field decrease with pole width decrease (all results less than computed 2-D fields), transverse gap field distributions, and importance of CSEM material overhanging the poles in the transverse direction for highest gap fields. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Magnetic field decay in model SSC dipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, W.S.; Althaus, R.F.; Barale, P.J.; Benjegerdes, R.W.; Green, M.A.; Green, M.I.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1988-08-01

    We have observed that some of our model SSC dipoles have long time constant decays of the magnetic field harmonics with amplitudes large enough to result in significant beam loss, if they are not corrected. The magnets were run at constant current at the SSC injection field level of 0.3 tesla for one to three hours and changes in the magnetic field were observed. One explanation for the observed field decay is time dependent superconductor magnetization. Another explanation involves flux creep or flux flow. Data are presented on how the decay changes with previous flux history. Similar magnets with different Nb-Ti filament spacings and matrix materials have different long time field decay. A theoretical model using proximity coupling and flux creep for the observed field decay is discussed. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Jeremy; Gubbins, David

    1989-01-01

    Describes the change of earth's magnetic field at the boundary between the outer core and the mantle. Measurement techniques used during the last 300 years are considered. Discusses the theories and research for explaining the field change. (YP)

  19. The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Jeremy; Gubbins, David

    1989-01-01

    Describes the change of earth's magnetic field at the boundary between the outer core and the mantle. Measurement techniques used during the last 300 years are considered. Discusses the theories and research for explaining the field change. (YP)

  20. Magnetic Field Investigations During ROSETTA's Steins Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassmeier, K.; Auster, H.; Richter, I.; Motschmann, U.; RPC/ROMAP Teams

    2009-05-01

    During the recent Steins flyby of the ROSETTA spacecraft magnetic field measurements have been made with both, the RPC orbiter magnetometer and the ROMAP lander magnetometer. These combined magnetic field measurements allow a detailed examination of any magnetic signatures caused either directly by the asteroid or indirectly by Steins different modes of interaction with the solar wind. Comparing our measurements with simulation results show that Steins does not possess a significant remanent magnetization. The magnetization is estimated at less than 1 mAm2/kg. This is significantly different from results at Braille and Gaspra.

  1. Supersolid phases in the magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji-Guo; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2017-02-01

    We study the ground state phases of the ultracold atomic condensates loaded in a two-dimensional optical lattice with the magnetic fields. Apart from uniform superfluid (SF) phase, four types of supersolid (SS) phases in the presence of the uniform magnetic fluxes and two types of SS phases in the presence of the staggered magnetic fluxes are found. For the system without magnetic flux, except for a certain unit phase factor ϕ x (y) = π, the magnetic field has no effect on the system.

  2. Stochasticity from external magnetic field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, G.G.; Wootton, A.J. . Fusion Research Center)

    1994-08-01

    To determine whether or not magnetic field lines inside a tokamak plasma are stochastic the authors need the Fourier coefficients of any perturbing radial field inside the plasma. Usually what is measured with magnetic pick-up coils is the root mean square poloidal field outside the plasma. Although no unique transformation is available, they present a model which allows an interpretation of the measured (external) root mean square field in terms of the internal Fourier harmonics. The results are applied to particular TEXT discharges, and suggest a link between magnetic stochasticity and in increasing (more positive) radial electric field, as measured with a heavy ion beam probe.

  3. Small-angle electron scattering from magnetic artificial lattice.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Kazuya; Koyama, Tsukasa; Mori, Shigeo; Harada, Ken; Togawa, Yoshihiko

    2012-01-01

    In this study, quantitative reciprocal-space analyses of magnetic domain structures in magnetic artificial lattices of patterned elements were performed by means of the small-angle electron scattering (SAES) technique. Using a conventional transmission electron microscope with a LaB(6) thermal-emission electron gun, Lorentz deflection due to magnetic moments in patterned elements and Bragg diffraction due to the lattice periodicity are simultaneously recorded at an angle of the order of less than 1 10(-)(6) rad when using electron waves with high spatial coherency and large camera length. The present SAES technique together with TEM real-space imaging methods such as Lorentz microscopy will be useful in analyzing electromagnetic fields in nano-scaled materials.

  4. Control of magnetism by electric fields.

    PubMed

    Matsukura, Fumihiro; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ohno, Hideo

    2015-03-01

    The electrical manipulation of magnetism and magnetic properties has been achieved across a number of different material systems. For example, applying an electric field to a ferromagnetic material through an insulator alters its charge-carrier population. In the case of thin films of ferromagnetic semiconductors, this change in carrier density in turn affects the magnetic exchange interaction and magnetic anisotropy; in ferromagnetic metals, it instead changes the Fermi level position at the interface that governs the magnetic anisotropy of the metal. In multiferroics, an applied electric field couples with the magnetization through electrical polarization. This Review summarizes the experimental progress made in the electrical manipulation of magnetization in such materials, discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms, and finally presents the future prospects of the field.

  5. Gravity Field Characterization around Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yu

    A small body rendezvous mission requires accurate gravity field characterization for safe, accurate navigation purposes. However, the current techniques of gravity field modeling around small bodies are not achieved to the level of satisfaction. This thesis will address how the process of current gravity field characterization can be made more robust for future small body missions. First we perform the covariance analysis around small bodies via multiple slow flybys. Flyby characterization requires less laborious scheduling than its orbit counterpart, simultaneously reducing the risk of impact into the asteroid's surface. It will be shown that the level of initial characterization that can occur with this approach is no less than the orbit approach. Next, we apply the same technique of gravity field characterization to estimate the spin state of 4179 Touatis, which is a near-Earth asteroid in close to 4:1 resonance with the Earth. The data accumulated from 1992-2008 are processed in a least-squares filter to predict Toutatis' orientation during the 2012 apparition. The center-of-mass offset and the moments of inertia estimated thereof can be used to constrain the internal density distribution within the body. Then, the spin state estimation is developed to a generalized method to estimate the internal density distribution within a small body. The density distribution is estimated from the orbit determination solution of the gravitational coefficients. It will be shown that the surface gravity field reconstructed from the estimated density distribution yields higher accuracy than the conventional gravity field models. Finally, we will investigate two types of relatively unknown gravity fields, namely the interior gravity field and interior spherical Bessel gravity field, in order to investigate how accurately the surface gravity field can be mapped out for proximity operations purposes. It will be shown that these formulations compute the surface gravity field with

  6. Magnetization of disclinated graphene in nonuniform magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshanzamir-Nikou, M.; Goudarzi, H.

    2017-02-01

    Two-dimensional disclinated atomic graphene layer in curved space-time is exactly discussed, and the explicit dependence of Landau levels on the topological defect and external magnetic field are obtained in the presence of nonuniform magnetic field. It is worth mentioning that the presence of topological defect reduces the degeneracy of energy levels. The persistent current, magnetization, susceptibility and the magnetoresistance of structure are investigated. It can be shown that the curvature of the conical surface affects the pattern of oscillations of persistent current and, of course, corresponding magnetoresistance. The behavior of the above physical quantities as a function of magnetic flux is explicitly found for various defects. We observe that increasing magnetic field leads to a aperiodic oscillation. The large Aharonov-Bohm flux gives rise to vanish the magnetization oscillations.

  7. Magnetic field evolution of accreting neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istomin, Y. N.; Semerikov, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The flow of a matter, accreting on to a magnetized neutron star, is accompanied by an electric current. The closing of the electric current occurs in the crust of a neutron stars in the polar region across the magnetic field. But the conductivity of the crust along the magnetic field greatly exceeds the conductivity across the field, so the current penetrates deep into the crust down up to the superconducting core. The magnetic field, generated by the accretion current, increases greatly with the depth of penetration due to the Hall conductivity of the crust is also much larger than the transverse conductivity. As a result, the current begins to flow mainly in the toroidal direction, creating a strong longitudinal magnetic field, far exceeding an initial dipole field. This field exists only in the narrow polar tube of r width, narrowing with the depth, i.e. with increasing of the crust density ρ, r ∝ ρ-1/4. Accordingly, the magnetic field B in the tube increases with the depth, B∝ρ1/2, and reaches the value of about 1017 Gauss in the core. It destroys superconducting vortices in the core of a star in the narrow region of the size of the order of 10 cm. Because of generated density gradient of vortices, they constantly flow into this dead zone and the number of vortices decreases, the magnetic field of a star decreases as well. The attenuation of the magnetic field is exponential, B = B0(1 + t/τ)-1. The characteristic time of decreasing of the magnetic field τ is equal to τ ≃ 103 yr. Thus, the magnetic field of accreted neutron stars decreases to values of 108-109 Gauss during 107-106 yr.

  8. Single-layer high field dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim V. Kashikhin and Alexander V. Zlobin

    2001-07-30

    Fermilab is developing high field dipole magnets for post-LHC hadron colliders. Several designs with a nominal field of 10-12 T, coil bore size of 40-50 mm based on both shell-type and block-type coil geometry are currently under consideration. This paper presents a new approach to magnet design, based on simple and robust single-layer coils optimized for the maximum field, good field quality and minimum number of turns.

  9. Two-axis magnetic field sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jander, Albrecht (Inventor); Nordman, Catherine A. (Inventor); Qian, Zhenghong (Inventor); Smith, Carl H. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A ferromagnetic thin-film based magnetic field sensor with first and second sensitive direction sensing structures each having a nonmagnetic intermediate layer with two major surfaces on opposite sides thereof having a magnetization reference layer on one and an anisotropic ferromagnetic material sensing layer on the other having a length in a selected length direction and a smaller width perpendicular thereto and parallel to the relatively fixed magnetization direction. The relatively fixed magnetization direction of said magnetization reference layer in each is oriented in substantially parallel to the substrate but substantially perpendicular to that of the other. An annealing process is used to form the desired magnetization directions.

  10. Beginning stages of local magnetic field formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumba, V.

    Based on a study of the initial stages of local magnetic field formation, the appearance of a new magnetic flux in the photosphere is studied. This magnetic flux is found to occur both under the influence of different modes of convective motion as well as under the action of Paleomagnetic fields. Waldmeier's Heliographic Maps of the Photosphere and Mt. Wilson Observatory daily magnetic maps were used in the analysis. Observed regularities could not be explained by a model of magnetic flux tubes emerging on the photospheric surface. This model can not account for the practically simultaneous development of separate active regions, belonging to different solar hemispheres and different cycles of solar activity in one, relatively narrow, 'unipolar' sector of the background field. It is also difficult to explain the different roles and velocities of negative and positive polarities during the formation of new magnetic fields. The importance of velocity measurements and maps for solving the observed phenomenon is stressed.

  11. The magnetic field of ζ Ori A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Bouret, J.-C.; Tkachenko, A.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields play a significant role in the evolution of massive stars. About 7% of massive stars are found to be magnetic at a level detectable with current instrumentation (Wade et al. 2013) and only a few magnetic O stars are known. Detecting magnetic field in O stars is particularly challenging because they only have few, often broad, lines to measure the field, which leads to a deficit in the knowledge of the basic magnetic properties of O stars. We present new spectropolarimetric Narval observations of ζ Ori A. We also provide a new analysis of both the new and older data taking binarity into account. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of a magnetic field in ζ Ori A. We identify that it belongs to ζ Ori Aa and characterize it.

  12. Modeling Magnetic Field Topology at Jupiter with the Khurana Magnetic Field Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, I.; Bagenal, F.

    2008-12-01

    To explore the degree of coupling between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and Jupiter's magnetosphere, we traced magnetic field lines from the polar region of the planet using the Khurana [1997, 2005] magnetic field model. We used a parameterized definition of the Jovian magnetopause created by Joy et al. [2002] that varies with the value of the solar wind dynamic pressure. We searched for field lines that cross the magnetopause and that potentially connect to the interplanetary magnetic field. We further explored the variation on magnetic field structure with local time orientation of Jupiter's dipole (i.e. Central Meridian Longitude) as well as upstream solar wind and IMF conditions.

  13. Disruption of coronal magnetic field arcades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran; Linker, Jon A.

    1994-01-01

    The ideal and resistive properties of isolated large-scale coronal magnetic arcades are studied using axisymmetric solutions of the time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in spherical geometry. We examine how flares and coronal mass ejections may be initiated by sudden disruptions of the magnetic field. The evolution of coronal arcades in response to applied shearing photospheric flows indicates that disruptive behavior can occur beyond a critical shear. The disruption can be traced to ideal MHD magnetic nonequilibrium. The magnetic field expands outward in a process that opens the field lines and produces a tangential discontinuity in the magnetic field. In the presence of plasma resistivity, the resulting current sheet is the site of rapid reconnection, leading to an impulsive release of magnetic energy, fast flows, and the ejection of a plasmoid. We relate these results to previous studies of force-free fields and to the properties of the open-field configuration. We show that the field lines in an arcade are forced open when the magnetic energy approaches (but is still below) the open-field energy, creating a partially open field in which most of the field lines extend away from the solar surface. Preliminary application of this model to helmet streamers indicates that it is relevant to the initiation of coronal mass ejections.

  14. Disruption of coronal magnetic field arcades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran; Linker, Jon A.

    1994-01-01

    The ideal and resistive properties of isolated large-scale coronal magnetic arcades are studied using axisymmetric solutions of the time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in spherical geometry. We examine how flares and coronal mass ejections may be initiated by sudden disruptions of the magnetic field. The evolution of coronal arcades in response to applied shearing photospheric flows indicates that disruptive behavior can occur beyond a critical shear. The disruption can be traced to ideal MHD magnetic nonequilibrium. The magnetic field expands outward in a process that opens the field lines and produces a tangential discontinuity in the magnetic field. In the presence of plasma resistivity, the resulting current sheet is the site of rapid reconnection, leading to an impulsive release of magnetic energy, fast flows, and the ejection of a plasmoid. We relate these results to previous studies of force-free fields and to the properties of the open-field configuration. We show that the field lines in an arcade are forced open when the magnetic energy approaches (but is still below) the open-field energy, creating a partially open field in which most of the field lines extend away from the solar surface. Preliminary application of this model to helmet streamers indicates that it is relevant to the initiation of coronal mass ejections.

  15. Fluctuating magnetic field induced resonant activation

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Shrabani; Das, Sudip; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2014-12-14

    In this paper, we have studied the properties of a Brownian particle at stationary state in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field. Time dependence of the field makes the system thermodynamically open. As a signature of that the steady state distribution function becomes function of damping strength, intensity of fluctuations and constant parts of the applied magnetic field. It also depends on the correlation time of the fluctuating magnetic field. Our another observation is that the random magnetic field can induce the resonant activation phenomenon. Here correlation time is increased under the fixed variance of the fluctuating field. But if the correlation time (τ) increases under the fixed field strength then the mean first passage time rapidly grows at low τ and it almost converges at other limit. This is sharp contrast to the usual colored noise driven open system case where the mean first passage time diverges exponentially. We have also observed that a giant enhancement of barrier crossing rate occurs particularly at large strength of constant parts of the applied magnetic field even for very weak fluctuating magnetic field. Finally, break down of the Arrhenius result and disappearance of the Kramers’ turn over phenomenon may occur in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field.

  16. Nuclear magnetization in gallium arsenide quantum dots at zero magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Sallen, G.; Kunz, S.; Amand, T.; Bouet, L.; Kuroda, T.; Mano, T.; Paget, D.; Krebs, O.; Marie, X.; Sakoda, K.; Urbaszek, B.

    2014-01-01

    Optical and electrical control of the nuclear spin system allows enhancing the sensitivity of NMR applications and spin-based information storage and processing. Dynamic nuclear polarization in semiconductors is commonly achieved in the presence of a stabilizing external magnetic field. Here we report efficient optical pumping of nuclear spins at zero magnetic field in strain-free GaAs quantum dots. The strong interaction of a single, optically injected electron spin with the nuclear spins acts as a stabilizing, effective magnetic field (Knight field) on the nuclei. We optically tune the Knight field amplitude and direction. In combination with a small transverse magnetic field, we are able to control the longitudinal and transverse components of the nuclear spin polarization in the absence of lattice strain—that is, in dots with strongly reduced static nuclear quadrupole effects, as reproduced by our model calculations. PMID:24500329

  17. The rate of separation of magnetic lines of force in a random magnetic field.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The mixing of magnetic lines of force, as represented by their rate of separation, as a function of distance along the magnetic field, is considered with emphasis on neighboring lines of force. This effect is particularly important in understanding the transport of charged particles perpendicular to the average magnetic field. The calculation is carried out in the approximation that the separation changes by an amount small compared with the correlation scale normal to the field, in a distance along the field of a few correlation scales. It is found that the rate of separation is very sensitive to the precise form of the power spectrum. Application to the interplanetary and interstellar magnetic fields is discussed, and it is shown that in some cases field lines, much closer together than the correlation scale, separate at a rate which is effectively as rapid as if they were many correlation lengths apart.

  18. Nuclear magnetization in gallium arsenide quantum dots at zero magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Sallen, G; Kunz, S; Amand, T; Bouet, L; Kuroda, T; Mano, T; Paget, D; Krebs, O; Marie, X; Sakoda, K; Urbaszek, B

    2014-01-01

    Optical and electrical control of the nuclear spin system allows enhancing the sensitivity of NMR applications and spin-based information storage and processing. Dynamic nuclear polarization in semiconductors is commonly achieved in the presence of a stabilizing external magnetic field. Here we report efficient optical pumping of nuclear spins at zero magnetic field in strain-free GaAs quantum dots. The strong interaction of a single, optically injected electron spin with the nuclear spins acts as a stabilizing, effective magnetic field (Knight field) on the nuclei. We optically tune the Knight field amplitude and direction. In combination with a small transverse magnetic field, we are able to control the longitudinal and transverse components of the nuclear spin polarization in the absence of lattice strain--that is, in dots with strongly reduced static nuclear quadrupole effects, as reproduced by our model calculations.

  19. Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, D.; Pons, J. A.; Miralles, J. A.; Rea, N.

    2015-05-01

    Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing properties and, for magnetars, it provides the energy budget for the outburst activity and high quiescent luminosities (usually well above the rotational energy budget). We aim at unifying this observational variety by linking the results of the state-of-the-art 2D magneto-thermal simulations with observational data. The comparison between theory and observations allows to place two strong constraints on the physical properties of the inner crust. First, strong electrical currents must circulate in the crust, rather than in the star core. Second, the innermost part of the crust must be highly resistive, which is in principle in agreement with the presence of a novel phase of matter so-called nuclear pasta phase.

  20. Interplanetary stream magnetism: Kinematic effects. [solar magnetic fields and wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Barouch, E.

    1974-01-01

    The particle density, and the magnetic field intensity and direction are calculated in corotating streams of the solar wind, assuming that the solar wind velocity is constant and radial and that its azimuthal variations are not two rapid. The effects of the radial velocity profile in corotating streams on the magnetic fields were examined using kinematic approximation and a variety of field configurations on the inner boundary. Kinematic and dynamic effects are discussed.

  1. Modeling the evolution of galactic magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Yar-Mukhamedov, D.

    2015-04-15

    An analytic model for evolution of galactic magnetic fields in hierarchical galaxy formation frameworks is introduced. Its major innovative components include explicit and detailed treatment of the physics of merger events, mass gains and losses, gravitational energy sources and delays associated with formation of large-scale magnetic fields. This paper describes the model, its implementation, and core results obtained by its means.

  2. Paramagnetic ellipsoidal microswimmer in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, Mario; Fan, Louis; Pak, On Shun

    We study the two-dimensional Brownian dynamics of an ellipsoidal paramagnetic microswimmer moving at low-Reynolds-number and subject to a magnetic field. Its corresponding mean-square displacement tensor showing the effect of particles's shape, activity and magnetic field, on the microswimmer's diffusion is analytically obtained. A comparison among analytical and computational results is also made and we obtain excellent agreement.

  3. Magnetic Fields at the Center of Coils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Philippe; Hui, Kaleonui; Goldman, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    In this note we synthesize and extend expressions for the magnetic field at the center of very short and very long current-carrying coils. Elementary physics textbooks present the following equation for the magnetic field inside a very long current-carrying coil (solenoid): B[subscript sol] = µ[subscript 0] (N/L) I, (1) where I is the current, N…

  4. Magnetic Fields at the Center of Coils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Philippe; Hui, Kaleonui; Goldman, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    In this note we synthesize and extend expressions for the magnetic field at the center of very short and very long current-carrying coils. Elementary physics textbooks present the following equation for the magnetic field inside a very long current-carrying coil (solenoid): B[subscript sol] = µ[subscript 0] (N/L) I, (1) where I is the current, N…

  5. On interplanetary electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, I. I.; Kropotkin, A. P.; Veselovskii, I. S.

    1982-08-01

    A kinematic model of the stationary electromagnetic fields in interplanetary space with finite conductivity is considered. The electrodynamic problem is solved for a medium with uniform conductivity and radial plasma outflow from a spherical source. Simple analytical formulae are obtained for electric and magnetic fields, currents and charges in the case of a uniformly-magnetized rotating sphere.

  6. Vacuum magnetic fields with dense flux surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, J R

    1982-05-01

    A procedure is given for eliminating resonances and stochasticity in nonaxisymmetric vacuum toroidal magnetic field. The results of this procedure are tested by the surface of section method. It is found that one can obtain magnetic fields with increased rotational transform and decreased island structure while retaining basically the same winding law.

  7. Solar Magnetic Field: Zeeman and Hanle Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, J.; Murdin, P.

    2001-10-01

    An external magnetic field causes the atomic energy levels to split into different sublevels, and the emitted radiation becomes polarized. This phenomenon is called the ZEEMAN EFFECT. When atoms in a magnetic field scatter radiation via bound-bound transitions, the phase relations or quantum interferences between the Zeeman-split sublevels give rise to POLARIZATION phenomena that go under the nam...

  8. Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Tatchyn, Roman O.

    1997-01-01

    Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis.

  9. Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Tatchyn, R.O.

    1997-01-21

    Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis. 10 figs.

  10. Mechanics of magnetic fluid column in strong magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polunin, V. M.; Ryapolov, P. A.; Platonov, V. B.

    2017-06-01

    Elastic-and magnetic properties of magnetic fluid confined by ponderomotive force in a tube fixed in horizontal position are considered. The system is placed in a strong magnetic field under the influence of external static and dynamic perturbations. An experimental setup has been developed. A theoretical basis of the processes of magnetic colloid elastic deformation has been proposed. The values of the static ponderomotive elasticity coefficient and the elasticity coefficient under dynamic action are experimentally determined. The calculations of the saturation magnetization for two magnetic fluid samples, carried out according to the equation containing the dynamic elasticity coefficient, are in good agreement with the experimental magnetization curve. The described method is of interest when studying magnetophoresis and aggregation of nanoparticles in magnetic colloids.

  11. In vivo heating of magnetic nanoparticles in alternating magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Babincová, M; Altanerová, V; Altaner, C; Cicmanec, P; Babinec, P

    2004-08-01

    We have evaluated heating capabilities of new magnetic nanoparticles. In in vitro experiments they were exposed to an alternating magnetic field with frequency 3.5 MHz and induction 1.5 mT produced in three turn pancake coil. In in vivo experiments rats with injected magnetic nanoparticles were also exposed to an ac field. An optimal increase of temperature of the tumor to 44 degrees C was achieved after 10 minutes of exposure. Obtained results showed that magnetic nanoparticles may be easily heated in vitro as well as in vivo, and may be therefore useful for hyperthermic therapy of cancer.

  12. Energy of magnetic moment of superconducting current in magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurtovoi, V. L.; Nikulov, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    The energy of magnetic moment of the persistent current circulating in superconducting loop in an externally produced magnetic field is not taken into account in the theory of quantization effects because of identification of the Hamiltonian with the energy. This identification misleads if, in accordance with the conservation law, the energy of a state is the energy expended for its creation. The energy of magnetic moment is deduced from a creation history of the current state in magnetic field both in the classical and quantum case. But taking this energy into account demolishes the agreement between theory and experiment. Impartial consideration of this problem discovers the contradiction both in theory and experiment.

  13. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydorenko, Maksym; Tomalak, Oleksandr; Shtanov, Yuri

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of `inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending on a single combined variable. In this case, the late-time asymptotics of the conformal chiral chemical potential reproduces the universal scaling law previously found in the literature for the system under consideration. This regime is terminated at lower temperatures because of scattering of electrons with chirality change, which exponentially washes out chiral asymmetry. We derive an expression for the termination temperature as a function of the chiral asymmetry and energy density of helical magnetic field.

  14. Magnetic Helicity and Large Scale Magnetic Fields: A Primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric G.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic fields of laboratory, planetary, stellar, and galactic plasmas commonly exhibit significant order on large temporal or spatial scales compared to the otherwise random motions within the hosting system. Such ordered fields can be measured in the case of planets, stars, and galaxies, or inferred indirectly by the action of their dynamical influence, such as jets. Whether large scale fields are amplified in situ or a remnant from previous stages of an object's history is often debated for objects without a definitive magnetic activity cycle. Magnetic helicity, a measure of twist and linkage of magnetic field lines, is a unifying tool for understanding large scale field evolution for both mechanisms of origin. Its importance stems from its two basic properties: (1) magnetic helicity is typically better conserved than magnetic energy; and (2) the magnetic energy associated with a fixed amount of magnetic helicity is minimized when the system relaxes this helical structure to the largest scale available. Here I discuss how magnetic helicity has come to help us understand the saturation of and sustenance of large scale dynamos, the need for either local or global helicity fluxes to avoid dynamo quenching, and the associated observational consequences. I also discuss how magnetic helicity acts as a hindrance to turbulent diffusion of large scale fields, and thus a helper for fossil remnant large scale field origin models in some contexts. I briefly discuss the connection between large scale fields and accretion disk theory as well. The goal here is to provide a conceptual primer to help the reader efficiently penetrate the literature.

  15. New constraints on the primordial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Dai G.; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.

    2010-01-15

    We present the newest statistical and numerical analysis of the matter and cosmic microwave background power spectrum with effects of the primordial magnetic field (PMF) included. New limits to the PMF strength and power spectral index are obtained based upon the accumulated data for both the matter and CMB power spectra on small angular scales. We find that a maximum develops in the probability distribution for a magnitude of the PMF of |B{sub {lambda}|}=0.85{+-}1.25({+-}1{sigma}) nG on a comoving scale of at 1 Mpc, corresponding to upper limits of <2.10 nG (68% CL) and <2.98 nG (95% CL). While for the power spectral index we find n{sub B}=-2.37{sub -0.73}{sup +0.88}({+-}1{sigma}), corresponding to upper limits of <-1.19 (68% CL) and <-0.25 (95% CL). This result provides new constraints on models for magnetic field generation and the physics of the early universe. We conclude that future observational programs for the CMB and matter power spectrum will likely provide not only upper limits but also lower limits to the PMF parameters.

  16. Orienting Paramecium with intense static magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, James M., Jr.; Guevorkian, Karine; Quindel, Carl

    2004-03-01

    Recent experiments on cell division suggest the application of intense static magnetic fields as a novel tool for the manipulation of biological systems [1]. The magnetic field appears to couple to the intrinsic anisotropies in the diamagnetic components of the cells. Here, we present measurements of the intrinsic average diamagnetic anisotropy of the whole single celled ciliate, Paramecium Caudatum. Magnetic fields, 2.5 T < B < 8 T were applied to immobilized (non-swimming) Paramecium Caudatum that were suspended in a density matched medium. The organisms align with their long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field. Their intrinsic diamagnetic anisotropy is 3x10-11 in cgs units. We will discuss the implications of these results for employing magnetic fields to probe the behavior of swimming Paramecium. [1] J. M. Valles, Jr. et al., Expt. Cell Res.274, 112-118 (2002).

  17. Tracing magnetic field orientation in starless cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswar, G.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Lee, C. W.; Dib, S.

    It is now well understood that stars are formed in the interiors of dense, gravitationally bound molecular cloud cores that are both magnetized and turbulent. But the relative role played by the magnetic field and the turbulence in cloud formation and evolution and in the subsequent star formation is a matter of debate. In a magnetically dominated scenario, the magnetic field geometry of the cores is expected to be inherited unchanged from their low-density envelope, even for an hour glass geometry of the field, unless the action of turbulence disturbs it. We carried out polarimetry of stars projected on starless molecular clouds, LDN 183 and LDN 1544, in R-filter. The comparison of these fields with those in the interiors of the cloud cores inferred from the sub-mm polarization shows that both magnetic field and turbulence are important in the cloud formation and evolution of star formation.

  18. Chaotic magnetic fields: Particle motion and energization

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Brahmananda; Ram, Abhay K.; Li, Gang; Li, Xiaocan

    2014-02-11

    Magnetic field line equations correspond to a Hamiltonian dynamical system, so the features of a Hamiltonian systems can easily be adopted for discussing some essential features of magnetic field lines. The integrability of the magnetic field line equations are discussed by various authors and it can be shown that these equations are, in general, not integrable. We demonstrate several examples of realistic chaotic magnetic fields, produced by asymmetric current configurations. Particular examples of chaotic force-free field and non force-free fields are shown. We have studied, for the first time, the motion of a charged particle in chaotic magnetic fields. It is found that the motion of a charged particle in a chaotic magnetic field is not necessarily chaotic. We also showed that charged particles moving in a time-dependent chaotic magnetic field are energized. Such energization processes could play a dominant role in particle energization in several astrophysical environments including solar corona, solar flares and cosmic ray propagation in space.

  19. Technical Note: Ion chamber angular dependence in a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Michael; Rathee, Satyapal; Fallone, B Gino

    2017-08-01

    There have been several studies investigating dose deposition effects within radiation detectors in the presence of a magnetic field. However, to date there has only been a passing investigation which explicitly investigates detector dose-response as a function of detector orientation. Herein we will investigate the dose-response as a function angular orientation of a PR06C ionization chamber. We will also benchmark the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE with the newly developed magnetic field Fano test. The PENELOPE Monte Carlo package was used to simulate a PR06C ionization chamber in 0.35 T through 1.5 T magnetic fields oriented either parallel or orthogonal to an incident 6 MV radiation beam. The ionization chamber was rotated through a number of polar and azimuthal angles. The dose deposited within the chamber at each angular position and magnetic field strength was scored then normalized to that deposited in the same orientation with no magnetic field. The simulation was also benchmarked via a Fano test in magnetic field. The Fano test yielded a 0.4% difference between simulation and expected result, which is similar to previous findings and sufficient for the purposes of this study. The angular dose-response map in all cases where the magnetic field is oriented orthogonal to the radiation beam is quite varied and can range from 0.89 to 1.08. Angular deviations as small as 3° can lead to dose-response changes in excess of 1%. When the magnetic field is parallel to the photon beam, the angular dose-response map is homogeneous and less than 1% below 1.0 T. Within a magnetic field-oriented orthogonal to the radiation beam, the ionization chamber dose-response fluctuates greatly as a function of polar and azimuthal angle, where a parallel field yields a more homogeneous dose-response. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. History of Solar Magnetic Fields Since George Ellery Hale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    2017-09-01

    As my own work on the Sun's magnetic field started exactly 50 years ago at Crimea in the USSR, I have been a participant in the field during nearly half the time span since Hale's discovery in 1908 of magnetic fields in sunspots. The present historical account is accompanied by photos from my personal slide collection, which show a number of the leading personalities who advanced the field in different areas: measurement techniques, from photographic to photoelectric and imaging methods in spectro-polarimetry; theoretical foundations of MHD and the origin of cosmic magnetic fields (birth of dynamo theory); the quest for increased angular resolution from national projects to international consortia (for instruments both on ground and in space); introduction of the Hanle effect in astrophysics and the Second Solar Spectrum as its playground; small-scale nature of the field, the fundamental resolution limit, and transcending it by resolution-independent diagnostics.

  1. History of Solar Magnetic Fields Since George Ellery Hale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    2015-09-01

    As my own work on the Sun's magnetic field started exactly 50 years ago at Crimea in the USSR, I have been a participant in the field during nearly half the time span since Hale's discovery in 1908 of magnetic fields in sunspots. The present historical account is accompanied by photos from my personal slide collection, which show a number of the leading personalities who advanced the field in different areas: measurement techniques, from photographic to photoelectric and imaging methods in spectro-polarimetry; theoretical foundations of MHD and the origin of cosmic magnetic fields (birth of dynamo theory); the quest for increased angular resolution from national projects to international consortia (for instruments both on ground and in space); introduction of the Hanle effect in astrophysics and the Second Solar Spectrum as its playground; small-scale nature of the field, the fundamental resolution limit, and transcending it by resolution-independent diagnostics.

  2. Cosmic ray modulation in a random anisotropic magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorman, L. I.; Fedorov, Y. I.; Katz, M. I.; Nosov, S. F.; Shakhov, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Inhomogeneities of the interplanetary magnetic field can be divided into small scale and large scale ones as may be required by the character of the problem of cosmic ray (CR) propagation. CR propagation in stochastic magnetic fields is of diffusion character. The main contribution into the scattering of CR particles is made by their interaction with inhomogeneities of the magnetic field H which have characteristic dimensions 1 of the order of Larmor radius R=cp/eH of particle (p is the absolute value of particle momentum, e is particle charge, c is velocity of light). Scattering of particles on such inhomogeneities leads to their diffusion mostly along a magnetic field with characteristic dimensions of variation in space exceeding the mean free path.

  3. Bending of magnetic filaments under a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Valera P.; Winklhofer, Michael

    2004-12-01

    Magnetic beads and superparamagnetic (SP) colloid particles have successfully been employed for micromechanical manipulation of soft material, in situ probing of elastic properties, and design of smart materials (ferrogels). Here we derive analytical expressions for the equilibrium shape of magnetic fibers, considering two end-member cases, (a) SP or single-domain particles concentrated at the free end of cantilevered rods or tubes, and (b) filaments consisting of SP particles, with this case being mathematically equivalent to tubes containing SP particles. Our analysis yields also metastable equilibrium states (MES’s), which only exist above a critical filament length, but become more stable with increasing magnetic field. The MES’s for case (a) are, like the ground state, circular arcs, but more strongly bent. The multiform MES’s in case (b), which comprise hairpin, sinuous, or even closed shapes, have recently been observed in experiments, too. We also study the effect of gravity on the balance between bending and magnetic energy, which leads to curves with inflection point if the influence of gravity is stronger than that of the magnetic field. Because of their simple experimental realization, case (a) magnetic filaments are deemed highly suitable for micromechanical experiments on long chains of polymer molecules. Another potential application of cantilevered magnetic filaments with magnetic material attached to the free end is in scanning probe microscopes. Because the magnetic field due to the magnetic tip is comparatively weak, the magnetization structure of the sample to be investigated would not be affected by the probe. Thus, for the examination of magnetically soft materials, probes in the form of magnetic filaments may hold advantages over tips usually employed in magnetic force microscopy.

  4. Bending of magnetic filaments under a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Shcherbakov, Valera P; Winklhofer, Michael

    2004-12-01

    Magnetic beads and superparamagnetic (SP) colloid particles have successfully been employed for micromechanical manipulation of soft material, in situ probing of elastic properties, and design of smart materials (ferrogels). Here we derive analytical expressions for the equilibrium shape of magnetic fibers, considering two end-member cases, (a) SP or single-domain particles concentrated at the free end of cantilevered rods or tubes, and (b) filaments consisting of SP particles, with this case being mathematically equivalent to tubes containing SP particles. Our analysis yields also metastable equilibrium states (MES's), which only exist above a critical filament length, but become more stable with increasing magnetic field. The MES's for case (a) are, like the ground state, circular arcs, but more strongly bent. The multiform MES's in case (b), which comprise hairpin, sinuous, or even closed shapes, have recently been observed in experiments, too. We also study the effect of gravity on the balance between bending and magnetic energy, which leads to curves with inflection point if the influence of gravity is stronger than that of the magnetic field. Because of their simple experimental realization, case (a) magnetic filaments are deemed highly suitable for micromechanical experiments on long chains of polymer molecules. Another potential application of cantilevered magnetic filaments with magnetic material attached to the free end is in scanning probe microscopes. Because the magnetic field due to the magnetic tip is comparatively weak, the magnetization structure of the sample to be investigated would not be affected by the probe. Thus, for the examination of magnetically soft materials, probes in the form of magnetic filaments may hold advantages over tips usually employed in magnetic force microscopy.

  5. Formation of magnetically anisotropic composite films at low magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi Zahedi, Maryam; Ennen, Inga; Marchi, Sophie; Barthel, Markus J.; Hütten, Andreas; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Fragouli, Despina

    2017-04-01

    We present a straightforward two-step technique for the fabrication of poly (methyl methacrylate) composites with embedded aligned magnetic chains. First, ferromagnetic microwires are realized in a poly (methyl methacrylate) solution by assembling iron nanoparticles in a methyl methacrylate solution under heat in an external magnetic field of 160 mT. The simultaneous thermal polymerization of the monomer throughout the wires is responsible for their permanent linkage and stability. Next, the polymer solution containing the randomly dispersed microwires is casted on a solid substrate in the presence of a low magnetic field (20-40 mT) which induces the final alignment of the microwires into long magnetic chains upon evaporation of the solvent. We prove that the presence of the nanoparticles assembled in the form of microwires is a key factor for the formation of the anisotropic films under low magnetic fields. In fact, such low fields are not capable of driving and assembling dispersed magnetic nanoparticles in the same type of polymer solutions. Hence, this innovative approach can be utilized for the synthesis of magnetically anisotropic nanocomposite films at low magnetic fields.

  6. Central Magnetic Field of a Magnetic White Dwarf Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Hridaya; Sebastian, Kunnat

    2017-07-01

    Observations of over-luminous Type 1a supernovae have prompted researchers to come up with various hypotheses in order to explain them. One hypothesis is based on the explosion of a progenitor super-massive magnetic white dwarf star. These stars are assumed to have very strong magnetic fields inside of them. However, there is a lack of analytic proof of the existence of such magnetic fields in the magnetic white dwarf stars. In this work, we plan to address an analytic proof of the existence of very strong magnetic fields in the center of these magnetic white dwarfs. We will see that for a one Landau-level white dwarf star, with central density {10}9{--}{10}11 {{g}} {{cm}}-3, it is possible to have central magnetic fields of the order of {10}13{--}{10}15G at least. In the presence of strong magnetic fields, the threshold densities chosen for this work that correspond to instabilities due to general relativity and pycnonuclear reactions have been found to increase so that the matter does not acquire instability at such central densities.

  7. Warm inflation in presence of magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Piccinelli, Gabriella; Ayala, Alejandro; Mizher, Ana Julia

    2013-07-23

    We present preliminary results on the possible effects that primordial magnetic fields can have for a warm inflation scenario, based on global supersymmetry, with a new-inflation-type potential. This work is motivated by two considerations: first, magnetic fields seem to be present in the universe on all scales which rises de possibility that they could also permeate the early universe; second, the recent emergence of inflationary models where the inflaton is not assumed to be isolated but instead it is taken as an interacting field, even during the inflationary expansion. The effects of magnetic fields are included resorting to Schwinger's proper time method.

  8. Teaching Representation Translations with Magnetic Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillotson, Wilson Andrew; McCaskey, Timothy; Nasser, Luis

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory exercise designed to help students translate between different field representations. It starts with students qualitatively mapping field lines for various bar magnet configurations and continues with a Hall probe experiment in which students execute a series of scaffolded tasks, culminating in the prediction and measurement of the spatial variation of magnetic field components along a line near magnets. We describe the experimental tasks, various difficulties students have throughout, and ways this lab makes even their incorrect predictions better. We suggest that developing lab activities of this nature brings a new dimension to the ways students learn and interact with field concepts.

  9. The magnetic field of ζ Orionis A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Tkachenko, A.; Bouret, J.-C.; Rivinius, Th.

    2015-10-01

    Context. ζ Ori A is a hot star claimed to host a weak magnetic field, but no clear magnetic detection was obtained so far. In addition, it was recently shown to be a binary system composed of a O9.5I supergiant and a B1IV star. Aims: We aim at verifying the presence of a magnetic field in ζ Ori A, identifying to which of the two binary components it belongs (or whether both stars are magnetic), and characterizing the field. Methods: Very high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric data were obtained with Narval at the Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL) in France. Archival HEROS, FEROS and UVES spectroscopic data were also used. The data were first disentangled to separate the two components. We then analyzed them with the least-squares deconvolution technique to extract the magnetic information. Results: We confirm that ζ Ori A is magnetic. We find that the supergiant component ζ Ori Aa is the magnetic component: Zeeman signatures are observed and rotational modulation of the longitudinal magnetic field is clearly detected with a period of 6.829 d. This is the only magnetic O supergiant known as of today. With an oblique dipole field model of the Stokes V profiles, we show that the polar field strength is ~140 G. Because the magnetic field is weak and the stellar wind is strong, ζ Ori Aa does not host a centrifugally supported magnetosphere. It may host a dynamical magnetosphere. Its companion ζ Ori Ab does not show any magnetic signature, with an upper limit on the undetected field of ~300 G. Based on observations obtained at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (USR5026) operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Fukushima, E.; Rath, A.R.; Roeder, S.B.W.

    1984-05-01

    An apparatus for unilaterally producing a substantially homogeneous magnetic field. The apparatus includes two circular electromagnet coils, a small coil and a large coil, which are coaxial with one another and which are separated by a distance equal to one-half the difference in the radius of the two coils. By appropriate selection of electrical currents, which are passed through the coils in opposite directions, a region of homogeneous magnetic field is formed. This region is centered on the common axis of the two coils, at a point on the axis which is at a distance from the small coil equal to one-half the radius of the small coil, and which is on the opposite side of the small coil from the large coil. The apparatus has particular application in the field of diagnostic medical NMR and other NMR applications.

  11. Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Fukushima, Eiichi; Rath, Alan R.; Roeder, Stephen B. W.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for unilaterally producing a substantially homogeneous magnetic field. The apparatus includes two circular electromagnet coils, a small coil and a large coil, which are coaxial with one another and which are separated by a distance equal to one-half the difference in the radius of the two coils. By appropriate selection of electrical currents, which are passed through the coil in opposite directions, a region of homogeneous magnetic field is formed. This region is centered on the common axis of the two coils, at a point on the axis which is at a distance from the small coil equal to one-half the radius of the small coil, and which is on the opposite side of the small coil from the large coil. The apparatus has particular application in the field of diagnostic medical NMR and other NMR applications.

  12. Magnetic field amplification during the common envelope phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlmann, Sebastian T.; Röpke, Friedrich K.; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker; Müller, Ewald

    2016-10-01

    During the common envelope (CE) phase, a giant star in a binary system overflows its Roche lobe and unstable mass transfer leads to a spiral-in of the companion, resulting in a close binary system or in a merger of the stellar cores. Dynamo processes during the CE phase have been proposed as a mechanism to generate magnetic fields that are important for forming magnetic white dwarfs (MWDs) and for shaping planetary nebulae. Here, we present the first magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the dynamical spiral-in during a CE phase. We find that magnetic fields are strongly amplified in the accretion stream around the 1 M⊙ companion as it spirals into the envelope of a 2 M⊙ RG. This leads to field strengths of 10-100 kG throughout the envelope after 120 d. The magnetic field amplification is consistent with being driven by the magnetorotational instability. The field strengths reached in our simulation make the magnetic field interesting for diagnostic purposes, but they are dynamically irrelevant. They are also too small to explain the formation of the highest fields found in MWDs, but may be relevant for luminous red novae, and detecting magnetic fields in these events would support the scenario as proposed here.

  13. Magnetic fields in noninvasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Scaff, Milberto; Guilhoto, Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2014-04-01

    The idea that magnetic fields could be used therapeutically arose 2000 years ago. These therapeutic possibilities were expanded after the discovery of electromagnetic induction by the Englishman Michael Faraday and the American Joseph Henry. In 1896, Arsène d'Arsonval reported his experience with noninvasive brain magnetic stimulation to the scientific French community. In the second half of the 20th century, changing magnetic fields emerged as a noninvasive tool to study the nervous system and to modulate neural function. In 1985, Barker, Jalinous, and Freeston presented transcranial magnetic stimulation, a relatively focal and painless technique. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been proposed as a clinical neurophysiology tool and as a potential adjuvant treatment for psychiatric and neurologic conditions. This article aims to contextualize the progress of use of magnetic fields in the history of neuroscience and medical sciences, until 1985.

  14. Field Mapping System for Solenoid Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K. H.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, D. E.; Lee, H. G.; Park, S. J.; Chung, C. W.; Kang, B. K.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional Hall probe mapping system for measuring the solenoid magnet of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun has been developed. It can map the solenoid field either in Cartesian or in cylindrical coordinate system with a measurement reproducibility better than 5 × 10-5 T. The system has three axis motors: one for the azimuthal direction and the other two for the x and z direction. This architecture makes the measuring system simple in fabrication. The magnetic center was calculated using the measured axial component of magnetic field Bz in Cartesian coordinate system because the accuracy of magnetic axis measurement could be improved significantly by using Bz, instead of the radial component of magnetic field Br. This paper describes the measurement system and summarizes the measurement results for the solenoid magnetic of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun.

  15. Magnetic-field-controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sungjung; Kim, Taeyueb; Shin, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ju Young; Hong, Jinki; Song, Jin Dong; Chang, Joonyeon; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Rhie, Kungwon; Han, Suk Hee; Shin, Kyung-Ho; Johnson, Mark

    2013-02-07

    Logic devices based on magnetism show promise for increasing computational efficiency while decreasing consumed power. They offer zero quiescent power and yet combine novel functions such as programmable logic operation and non-volatile built-in memory. However, practical efforts to adapt a magnetic device to logic suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio and other performance attributes that are not adequate for logic gates. Rather than exploiting magnetoresistive effects that result from spin-dependent transport of carriers, we have approached the development of a magnetic logic device in a different way: we use the phenomenon of large magnetoresistance found in non-magnetic semiconductors in high electric fields. Here we report a device showing a strong diode characteristic that is highly sensitive to both the sign and the magnitude of an external magnetic field, offering a reversible change between two different characteristic states by the application of a magnetic field. This feature results from magnetic control of carrier generation and recombination in an InSb p-n bilayer channel. Simple circuits combining such elementary devices are fabricated and tested, and Boolean logic functions including AND, OR, NAND and NOR are performed. They are programmed dynamically by external electric or magnetic signals, demonstrating magnetic-field-controlled semiconductor reconfigurable logic at room temperature. This magnetic technology permits a new kind of spintronic device, characterized as a current switch rather than a voltage switch, and provides a simple and compact platform for non-volatile reconfigurable logic devices.

  16. Sensitivity of magnetic field gradients over Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baykiev, Eldar; Ebbing, Jörg; Brönner, Marco; Fabian, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic fields from forward calculations of global crustal or lithospheric models cannot be compared easily with spherical harmonic (SH) crustal field models derived from the satellite observations. The reason for this is, that the lithospheric field has a significant part in the low-degree spherical harmonics (n<14) that are dominated by the core field. These low-degree harmonics are commonly zeroed out to retrieve the lithospheric magnetic field. In addition, at satellite height far-field effects from sources outside a regional study affect the long-wavelength part of the magnetic field. Because magnetic field gradients are less sensitive to the long wavelength anomalies, they are also less affected by the far field. However, the gradients still contain information about deep lithospheric structures. We present sensitivity tests based on a synthetic model of the Fennoscandian lithosphere to validate the influence of induced and remanent magnetization in magnetic data at the height of airborne surveys and satellite missions. The use of airborne data and satellite data is complementary because, due to their different height, they are sensitive to different depth domains. To correctly account for global and local aspects of the lithospheric field, our analysis is based on surface discretization by tesseroids (spherical prisms).

  17. Dynamic Magnetic Field Applications for Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Grugel, Richard N.; Motakef, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic fields, variable in time and space, can be used to control convection in electrically conducting melts. Flow induced by these fields has been found to be beneficial for crystal growth applications. It allows increased crystal growth rates, and improves homogeneity and quality. Particularly beneficial is the natural convection damping capability of alternating magnetic fields. One well-known example is the rotating magnetic field (RMF) configuration. RMF induces liquid motion consisting of a swirling basic flow and a meridional secondary flow. In addition to crystal growth applications, RMF can also be used for mixing non-homogeneous melts in continuous metal castings. These applied aspects have stimulated increasing research on RMF-induced fluid dynamics. A novel type of magnetic field configuration consisting of an axisymmetric magnetostatic wave, designated the traveling magnetic field (TMF), has been recently proposed. It induces a basic flow in the form of a single vortex. TMF may find use in crystal growth techniques such as the vertical Bridgman (VB), float zone (FZ), and the traveling heater method. In this review, both methods, RMF and TMF are presented. Our recent theoretical and experimental results include such topics as localized TMF, natural convection dumping using TMF in a vertical Bridgman configuration, the traveling heater method, and the Lorentz force induced by TMF as a function of frequency. Experimentally, alloy mixing results, with and without applied TMF, will be presented. Finally, advantages of the traveling magnetic field, in comparison to the more mature rotating magnetic field method, will be discussed.

  18. INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD SURROUNDING THE HELIOPAUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Whang, Y. C.

    2010-02-20

    This paper presents a three-dimensional analytical solution, in the limit of very low plasma beta-ratio, for the distortion of the interstellar magnetic field surrounding the heliopause. The solution is obtained using a line dipole method that is the integration of point dipole along a semi-infinite line; it represents the magnetic field caused by the presence of the heliopause. The solution allows the variation of the undisturbed magnetic field at any inclination angle. The heliosphere is considered as having blunt-nosed geometry on the upwind side and it asymptotically approaches a cylindrical geometry having an open exit for the continuous outflow of the solar wind on the downwind side. The heliopause is treated as a magnetohydrodynamic tangential discontinuity; the interstellar magnetic field lines at the boundary are tangential to the heliopause. The interstellar magnetic field is substantially distorted due to the presence of the heliopause. The solution shows the draping of the field lines around the heliopause. The magnetic field strength varies substantially near the surface of the heliopause. The effect on the magnetic field due to the presence of the heliopause penetrates very deep into the interstellar space; the depth of penetration is of the same order of magnitude as the scale length of the heliosphere.

  19. Dynamic Magnetic Field Applications for Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Grugel, Richard N.; Motakef, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic fields, variable in time and space, can be used to control convection in electrically conducting melts. Flow induced by these fields has been found to be beneficial for crystal growth applications. It allows increased crystal growth rates, and improves homogeneity and quality. Particularly beneficial is the natural convection damping capability of alternating magnetic fields. One well-known example is the rotating magnetic field (RMF) configuration. RMF induces liquid motion consisting of a swirling basic flow and a meridional secondary flow. In addition to crystal growth applications, RMF can also be used for mixing non-homogeneous melts in continuous metal castings. These applied aspects have stimulated increasing research on RMF-induced fluid dynamics. A novel type of magnetic field configuration consisting of an axisymmetric magnetostatic wave, designated the traveling magnetic field (TMF), has been recently proposed. It induces a basic flow in the form of a single vortex. TMF may find use in crystal growth techniques such as the vertical Bridgman (VB), float zone (FZ), and the traveling heater method. In this review, both methods, RMF and TMF are presented. Our recent theoretical and experimental results include such topics as localized TMF, natural convection dumping using TMF in a vertical Bridgman configuration, the traveling heater method, and the Lorentz force induced by TMF as a function of frequency. Experimentally, alloy mixing results, with and without applied TMF, will be presented. Finally, advantages of the traveling magnetic field, in comparison to the more mature rotating magnetic field method, will be discussed.

  20. The earth's magnetic field: Its history, origin and planetary perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, R. T.; McElhinny, M. W.

    The history of geomagnetism and palaeomagnetism is examined, and an analysis and description of the present geomagnetic field is presented. The magnetic compass is discussed along with declination, inclination, secular variation, magnetic charts and the search for the poles, fossil magnetism and the magnetic field in the past, transient magnetic variations regarding the external magnetic field, the origin of the earth's magnetic field, magnetic elements and charts, a spherical harmonic analysis description of the earth's magnetic field, uniqueness and other mathematical problems, geomagnetic secular variation, and the external magnetic field. Other topics explored are elated to the fundamentals of palaeomagnetism, palaeomagnetic observations regarding the recent geomagnetic field, reversals of the earth's magnetic field, the time-averaged palaeomagnetic field, the origin of the earth's magnetic field, advanced dynamo theory, the origin of secular variation and field reversals, lunar magnetism, and magnetic fields of the sun, planets, and meteorites.

  1. Decay of Resonaces in Strong Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Peter

    2015-08-01

    We suggest that decay properties (branching ratios) of hadronic resonances may become modified in strong external magnetic field. The behavior of K±*, K0* vector mesons as well as Λ* (1520) and Ξ0* baryonic states is considered in static fields 1013-1015 T. In particular, n = 0 Landau level energy increase of charged particles in the external magnetic field, and the interaction of hadron magnetic moments with the field is taken into account. We suggest that enhanced yield of dileptons and photons from ρ0(770) mesons may occur if strong decay channel ρ0 → π+π- is significantly suppressed. CP - violating π+π- decays of pseudoscalar ηc and η(547) mesons in the magnetic field are discussed, and superpositions of quarkonium states ηc,b and χc,b(nP) with Ψ(nS), ϒ(nS) mesons in the external field are considered.

  2. Interaction of gravitational waves with magnetic and electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Barrabes, C.; Hogan, P. A.

    2010-03-15

    The existence of large-scale magnetic fields in the universe has led to the observation that if gravitational waves propagating in a cosmological environment encounter even a small magnetic field then electromagnetic radiation is produced. To study this phenomenon in more detail we take it out of the cosmological context and at the same time simplify the gravitational radiation to impulsive waves. Specifically, to illustrate our findings, we describe the following three physical situations: (1) a cylindrical impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a magnetic field, (2) an axially symmetric impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with an electric field and (3) a 'spherical' impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a small magnetic field. In cases (1) and (3) electromagnetic radiation is produced behind the gravitational wave. In case (2) no electromagnetic radiation appears after the wave unless a current is established behind the wave breaking the Maxwell vacuum. In all three cases the presence of the magnetic or electric fields results in a modification of the amplitude of the incoming gravitational wave which is explicitly calculated using the Einstein-Maxwell vacuum field equations.

  3. The Measurement of Magnetic Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, H. J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses five experimental methods used by senior high school students to provide an accurate calibration curve of magnet current against the magnetic flux density produced by an electromagnet. Compares the relative merits of the five methods, both as measurements and from an educational viewpoint. (JR)

  4. The Measurement of Magnetic Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, H. J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses five experimental methods used by senior high school students to provide an accurate calibration curve of magnet current against the magnetic flux density produced by an electromagnet. Compares the relative merits of the five methods, both as measurements and from an educational viewpoint. (JR)

  5. External-field-free magnetic biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuanpeng; Wang, Yi; Klein, Todd; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2014-03-24

    In this paper, we report a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) detection scheme without the presence of any external magnetic field. The proposed magnetic sensor uses a patterned groove structure within the sensor so that no external magnetic field is needed to magnetize the MNPs. An example is given based on a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensing device with a spin valve structure. For this structure, the detection of MNPs located inside the groove and near the free layer is demonstrated under no external magnetic field. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to calculate the signal to noise level of this detection scheme. A maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 18.6 dB from one iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle with 8 nm radius is achieved. As proof of concept, this external-field-free GMR sensor with groove structure of 200 nm × 200 nm is fabricated using a photo and an electron beam integrated lithography process. Using this sensor, the feasibility demonstration of the detection SNR of 9.3 dB is achieved for 30 μl magnetic nanoparticles suspension (30 nm iron oxide particles, 1 mg/ml). This proposed external-field-free sensor structure is not limited to GMR devices and could be applicable to other magnetic biosensing devices.

  6. Magnetic reconnection in Saturn's magnetotail: A comprehensive magnetic field survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. W.; Jackman, C. M.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2016-04-01

    Reconnection within planetary magnetotails is responsible for locally energizing particles and changing the magnetic topology. Its role in terms of global magnetospheric dynamics can involve changing the mass and flux content of the magnetosphere. We have identified reconnection related events in spacecraft magnetometer data recorded during Cassini's exploration of Saturn's magnetotail. The events are identified from deflections in the north-south component of the magnetic field, significant above a background level. Data were selected to provide full tail coverage, encompassing the dawn and dusk flanks as well as the deepest midnight orbits. Overall 2094 reconnection related events were identified, with an average rate of 5.0 events per day. The majority of events occur in clusters (within 3 h of other events). We examine changes in this rate in terms of local time and latitude coverage, taking seasonal effects into account. The observed reconnection rate peaks postmidnight with more infrequent but steady loss seen on the dusk flank. We estimate the mass loss from the event catalog and find it to be insufficient to balance the input from the moon Enceladus. Several reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. The reconnection X line location appears to be highly variable, though a statistical separation between events tailward and planetward of the X line is observed at a radial distance of between 20 and 30RS downtail. The small sample size at dawn prevents comprehensive statistical comparison with the dusk flank observations in terms of flux closure.

  7. Magnetic reconnection in Saturn's magnetotail: A comprehensive magnetic field survey.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Jackman, C M; Thomsen, M F

    2016-04-01

    Reconnection within planetary magnetotails is responsible for locally energizing particles and changing the magnetic topology. Its role in terms of global magnetospheric dynamics can involve changing the mass and flux content of the magnetosphere. We have identified reconnection related events in spacecraft magnetometer data recorded during Cassini's exploration of Saturn's magnetotail. The events are identified from deflections in the north-south component of the magnetic field, significant above a background level. Data were selected to provide full tail coverage, encompassing the dawn and dusk flanks as well as the deepest midnight orbits. Overall 2094 reconnection related events were identified, with an average rate of 5.0 events per day. The majority of events occur in clusters (within 3 h of other events). We examine changes in this rate in terms of local time and latitude coverage, taking seasonal effects into account. The observed reconnection rate peaks postmidnight with more infrequent but steady loss seen on the dusk flank. We estimate the mass loss from the event catalog and find it to be insufficient to balance the input from the moon Enceladus. Several reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. The reconnection X line location appears to be highly variable, though a statistical separation between events tailward and planetward of the X line is observed at a radial distance of between 20 and 30RS downtail. The small sample size at dawn prevents comprehensive statistical comparison with the dusk flank observations in terms of flux closure.

  8. Interplanetary magnetic field and geomagnetic Dst variations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, V. L.; Desai, U. D.

    1973-01-01

    The interplanetary magnetic field has been shown to influence the ring current field represented by Dst. Explorer 28 hourly magnetic field observations have been used with the hourly Dst values. The moderate geomagnetic storms of 60 gammas and quiet-time fluctuations of 10 to 30 gammas are correlated with the north to south change of the interplanetary field component perpendicular to the ecliptic. This change in the interplanetary field occurs one to three hours earlier than the corresponding change in the Dst field.

  9. Polarized radiation diagnostics of stellar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, Gautier

    The main techniques used to diagnose magnetic fields in stars from polarimetric observations are presented. First, a summary of the physics of spectral line formation in the presence of a magnetic field is given. Departures from the simple case of linear Zeeman effect are briefly considered: partial Paschen-Back effect, contribution of hyperfine structure, and combined Stark and Zeeman effects. Important approximate solutions of the equation of transfer of polarized light in spectral lines are introduced. The procedure for disk-integration of emergent Stokes profiles, which is central to stellar magnetic field studies, is described, with special attention to the treatment of stellar rotation. This formalism is used to discuss the determination of the mean longitudinal magnetic field (through the photographic technique and through Balmer line photopolarimetry). This is done within the specific framework of Ap stars, which, with their unique large-scale organized magnetic fields, are an ideal laboratory for studies of stellar magnetism. Special attention is paid to those Ap stars whose magnetically split line components are resolved in high-dispersion Stokes I spectra, and to the determination of their mean magnetic field modulus. Various techniques of exploitation of the information contained in polarized spectral line profiles are reviewed: the moment technique (in particular, the determination of the crossover and of the mean quadratic field), Zeeman-Doppler imaging, and least-squares deconvolution. The prospects that these methods open for linear polarization studies are sketched. The way in which linear polarization diagnostics complement their Stokes I and V counterparts is emphasized by consideration of the results of broad band linear polarization measurements. Illustrations of the use of various diagnostics to derive properties of the magnetic fields of Ap stars are given. This is used to show the interest of deriving more physically realistic models of the

  10. Protein detection with magnetic nanoparticles in a rotating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieckhoff, Jan; Lak, Aidin; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A detection scheme based on magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) dynamics in a rotating magnetic field for a quantitative and easy-to-perform detection of proteins is illustrated. For the measurements, a fluxgate-based setup was applied, which measures the MNP dynamics, while a rotating magnetic field is generated. The MNPs exhibit single iron oxide cores of 25 nm and 40 nm diameter, respectively, as well as a protein G functionalized shell. IgG antibodies were utilized as binding target molecules for the physical proof-of-concept. The measurement results were fitted with a theoretical model describing the magnetization dynamics in a rotating magnetic field. The established detection scheme allows quantitative determination of proteins even at a concentration lower than of the particles. The observed differences between the two MNP types are discussed on the basis of logistic functions.

  11. Magnetic field geometry of the large globule CB 34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, A.; Das, H. S.; Medhi, Biman J.; Wolf, S.

    2016-12-01

    We report the results of optical polarimetric observations of a Bok globule CB34 to study magnetic field structure on large scales (105-106 AU), which is combined with archival sub-mm observations to characterize the magnetic field structure of CB34 on small scales (104-105 AU). The optical polarization measurements indicate that the magnetic field in the globule is constrained to a maximum radius of 105 AU around the core, out to densities not smaller than 104 cm^{-3}. Our study is mainly concentrated on two submillimeter cores C1 and C2 of CB34. The direction of magnetic field of core C2 is found to be nearly perpendicular to the CO outflow direction of the globule. The magnetic field of core C1 is almost aligned with the minor axis of the core which is typical for magnetically dominated star formation models. The mean value of offset between the minor axis of core C2 and the outflow direction is found to be 14° which suggests that the direct ion of the outflow is almost aligned with the minor axis of core C2. The magnetic field strength in the plane-of-sky for cores C1 and C2 is estimated to be ≈ 34 μG and ≈ 70 μG.

  12. Scattering in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Carey

    2002-08-19

    The fixed target program at Fermilab has come to an end. New projects are in the planning stage. Among them is a muon storage ring. Up to the present, all storage rings in high-energy physics have carried stable particles, namely the electron and proton and their antiparticles. The muon is unstable and decays with a mean lifetime of 2.0 x 10{sup -6} sec. Two types of cooling have been used in the past. One is stochastic cooling where an electrode is used to detect the positions of the particles and send a signal to another position across the ring. Through successive applications of this technique, the phase space is ultimately greatly reduced and beams can be made to collide with a useful event rate. The second type of cooling is electron cooling. Here protons and electrons are made to travel together for a short distance. Equipartition causes transfer of transverse energy of the protons to that of the electrons. Neither of these methods is fast enough to allow acceleration of a sufficient number of muons up to maximum energy before they decay. A new method known as ionization cooling has been proposed.[1] The muons are cooled by passing them through a container of liquid hydrogen. The energy loss reduces both transverse and longitudinal momentum. The longitudinal momentum is restored with RF cavities. The net result is to maintain the longitudinal momentum while cooling the transverse momentum. To minimize the total travel distance of the muons the liquid hydrogen is placed inside the focusing solenoids. The question arises as to whether the presence of the solenoids influences the phase space occupied by the muons. After the muon scatters it has transverse momentum. In a constant longitudinal magnetic field the trajectory wraps around the field lines and coincides in momentum and position with a particle which scatters one cycle later. Here we calculate the change in emittance for both a drift space and a solenoid. We find that the presence of the solenoid does

  13. Low-frequency magnetic field effect on cytoskeleton and chromatin.

    PubMed

    Kroupová, Jana; Bártová, Eva; Fojt, Lukás; Strasák, Ludek; Kozubek, Stanislav; Vetterl, Vladimír

    2007-01-01

    The effect of magnetic fields on the living systems is studied in vivo or in vitro in very broad spectrum of organisms, cells and tissues. The mechanism of their acting is not known until now. We studied low-frequency magnetic field effect on cytoskeleton and on the structure of chromatin in human cells. We used cell line of small lung carcinoma (A549) and the effects of magnetic field on cytoskeleton and higher-order chromatin structure were analyzed 96 h of magnetic field exposure. Magnetic field generated by the cylindrical soil was homogenous and the cells were cultivated at 37 degrees C in humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO(2). Magnetic field induction was B(m)=2 mT and the net frequency f=50 Hz. In such affected and control cells the F-actin was estimated using FITC-conjugated Phalloidin and mitochondria were studied using MitoTracker (Molecular Probes). Images of cytoskeleton and genetic loci were acquired using confocal microscopy and analysis was performed by FISH 2.0 software. Slight morphological changes of F-actin filaments and mitochondria were observed in affected cells and nuclear condensation was found. These effects could be related to the process of cell death apoptosis probably induced by magnetic field. The studies aimed at centromeric heterochromatin (9cen) did not show statistically significant changes. Therefore, we suggest that magnetic field has no influence on higher order chromatin structure but certain changes could be observed on the level of cytoskeleton. However, these statements need a thorough verification. Our preliminary experiments will be extended and the effect of magnetic field on another structures of cytoskeleton and cell nuclei will be further studied.

  14. Surface magnetic fields across the HR Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landstreet, John D.

    2015-10-01

    The past 20 years have seen remarkable advances in spectropolarimetric instrumentation that have allowed us, for the first time, to identify some magnetic stars in most major stages of stellar evolution. We are beginning to see the broad outline of how such fields change during stellar evolution, to confront theoretical hypotheses and models of magnetic field structure and evolution with detailed data, and to understand more of the ways in which the presence of a field in turn affects stellar structure and evolution.

  15. Hyperfine magnetic fields in substituted Finemet alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzózka, K.; Sovák, P.; Szumiata, T.; Gawroński, M.; Górka, B.

    2016-12-01

    Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the hyperfine fields of Finemet-type alloys in form of ribbons, substituted alternatively by Mn, Ni, Co, Al, Zn, V or Ge of various concentration. The comparative analysis of magnetic hyperfine fields was carried out which enabled to understand the role of added elements in as-quenched as well as annealed samples. Moreover, the influence of the substitution on the mean direction of the local hyperfine magnetic field was examined.

  16. Manipulating Cells with Static Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, J. M.; Guevorkian, K.

    2005-07-01

    We review our investigations of the use of static magnetic fields, B, for manipulating cells and cellular processes. We describe how B fields modify the cell division pattern of frog embryos and consequently can be used to probe the pattern determinants. We also observe that magnetic fields modify the swimming behavior of Paramecium Caudatum. We describe these modifications and their potential application to investigations of their swimming behavior.

  17. Write field asymmetry in perpendicular magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhanjie; Bai, Daniel Z.; Lin, Ed; Mao, Sining

    2012-04-01

    We present a systematic study of write field asymmetry by using micromagnetic modeling for a perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) writer structure. Parameters investigated include initial magnetization condition, write current amplitude, write current frequency, and initial write current polarity. It is found that the write current amplitude and frequency (data rate) are the dominant factors that impact the field asymmetry. Lower write current amplitude and higher write current frequency will deteriorate the write field asymmetry, causing recording performance (such as bit error rate) degradation.

  18. Biological effects of high DC magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1981-06-01

    The principal focus of the program is the analysis of magnetic field effects on physiological functions in experimental animals and selected organ and tissue systems. A major research effort has involved the use of electrical recording techniques to detect functional alterations in the cardiovascular, neural, and visual systems during the application of DC magnetic fields. These systems involve ionic conduction processes, and are therefore potentially sensitive to electrodynamic interactions with an applied magnetic field. In the specific case of the visual system, magnetic interactions could also arise through orientational effects on the magnetically anisotropic photopigment molecules within retinal photoreceptor cells. In addition to studies with potentially sensitive target tissues, an evaluation is being made of magnetic field effects on a broad range of other physiological functions in laboratory mammals, including the measurement of circadian rhythms using noninvasive recording techniques. Results of investigations of magnetic field effects on the conformation of DNA, and on the growth and development of plants and insects are also reported. Figures and tables provide a brief summary of some representative observations in each of the research areas described. No significant alterations were observed in any of the physiological parameters examined to date, with the exception of major changes that occur in the electrocardiogram during magnetic field exposure. Studies with several species of animals have provided evidence that this phenomenon is attributable to electrical potentials that are induced during pulsatile blood flow in the aorta and in other major vessels of the circulatory system.

  19. Ferrofluid Turbulence Modification by Applied Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Kristopher; Finlayson, Bruce; Riley, James

    2004-11-01

    A ferrofluid is a dielectric liquid with stable nanoscale (3-15 nm) magnetic particles suspended within it such that it responds strongly to magnetic fields. Ferrofluids are stable and retain their ability to flow even in intense magnetic fields. Applications such as hermetic seals in computer hard drives and increased heat transfer in electrical devices take advantage of the ability to control and position the liquid using magnetic fields. Ferrofluid theory has been successful at predicting laminar flow and some mean turbulence properties, but has never been extended to study the physics of turbulent flows. Our research objective is to use direct numerical simulation as a tool to gain insight on how the basic physics of ferrofluid turbulence are modified with magnetic fields. We present simulation results of homogeneous ferrofluid turbulence with steady and oscillating applied magnetic fields. Mean properties (e.g., velocity, spin rate, and total dissipation) and energetics (e.g., wave number distribution of kinetic and rotational energy) are reported and compared to analogous Newtonian fluid cases. Increasing the magnetic particle relaxation time, which corresponds to increasing the size of the ferrofluild particles, can lead to dramatic effects when the magnetic field is turned on.

  20. Vector Magnetic Field in Emerging Flux Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Pariat, E.

    A crucial phase in magnetic flux emergence is the rise of magnetic flux tubes through the solar photosphere, which represents a severe transition between the very different environments of the solar interior and corona. Multi-wavelength observations with Flare Genesis, TRACE, SoHO, and more recently with the vector magnetographs at THEMIS and Hida (DST) led to the following conclusions. The fragmented magnetic field in the emergence region - with dipped field lines or bald patches - is directly related with Ellerman bombs, arch filament systems, and overlying coronal loops. Measurements of vector magnetic fields have given evidence that undulating "serpentine" fields are present while magnetic flux tubes cross the photosphere. See the sketch below, and for more detail see Pariat et al. (2004, 2007); Watanabe et al. (2008):