Science.gov

Sample records for small open economy

  1. Growth and the Current Account in a Small Open Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benge, Matt; Wells, Graeme

    2002-01-01

    Offers a framework with which to analyze growth in a small economy with perfect capital mobility. Produces a diagrammatic representation of steady states that differs from the usual closed-economy Solow-Swan diagram. Uses the diagrams to compare open economy steady states with closed ones. Illustrate the possibility of endogenous income growth.…

  2. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  3. The monetary approach to the balance of payments: The case of the oil-based, small, open, developing economies of Libya, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Buzakuk, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    This study explores the determinants of foreign reserves flow in light of the oil-based small open economies of Libya, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. The period of study encompasses the major oil price increases of the 1970s and early 1980s, which had led to the huge transfers of foreign exchanges towards these, among other, developing economies. The framework of analysis is basically a monetary approach to the balance of payments. This study is of both a theoretical and empirical nature. It utilizes the monetary forces in the domestic money market to derive a basic balance of payments (BOP) equation that explains the monetary nature of the balance of payments. The study found that the data from those countries support the monetary relationships as hypothesized by the monetary approach, especially the negative one-to-one relation between domestic credit (DC) and the BOP. Results from the simultaneous estimations of the BOP and DC reported better estimates than the single-equation model. Findings from the reaction function indicated that the monetary authorities of these oil-based economies were actively sterilizing the effect of foreign reserve flows. Findings supported the integrated market hypothesis in Kuwait and Libya, but not in the Saudi case.

  4. An analysis of macroeconomic fluctuations for a small open oil-based economy: The case of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abdulkarim, Bander B.

    The increasing fluctuations in the oil prices through the last decades have been transferred to the oil exporting countries. Thus, many oil exporting countries experienced significant changes in the economic activity due to changes in the oil markets. In light of this, oil exporting countries have attempted to implement a policy that would stabilize the fluctuations in the oil markets recognizing the adverse effects of such behavior on oil exporting countries, as well as oil importing countries. Saudi Arabia, as the largest oil-exporting country and a member of OPEC, takes the role of oil-markets stabilizer by behaving as the swing producer. This role has caused the global economic fluctuations to transfer into the domestic economy. In addition, Saudi Arabian government has adopted a fixed exchange rate currency regime. Although it has contributed to domestic price stabilizations, this policy has also exposed the country to global economic disturbances. The purpose of the study is to empirically investigate these aspects for Saudi Arabia. First, the effects of shocks originated in the international markets on the Saudi Arabian economy. Second, how the fixed exchange rate regimes influences the domestic macroeconomic variables. Third, to what extent the oil sector contributes to the non-oil domestic fluctuations. Finally, how the findings from the study can be explained by economic theory. In pursuing this, there are four economic theories that are considered to explain the causes of business cycles. These theories are Classical Theory, Keynesian Theory, Monetarist Theory, and the Real Business Cycles. In addition, a theoretical model is derived that is suitable for an oil-based economy. The model follows the set up of McCallum and Nelson (1999). Then, the empirical models of Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) and Error Correction Model (ECM) are implemented with three different specifications: Choleski Decomposition, Block Exogeneity and long-run Cointegration

  5. Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2009-01-01

    For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

  6. Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the "knowledge economy": the "learning economy", based on the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall; the "creative economy" based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the "open knowledge economy" based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably,…

  7. The Political Economy of "Open Regionalism" and Education in Small (and Micro) States: The Construction of the Caribbean Educational Policy Space in CARICOM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jules, Tavis D.

    2014-01-01

    In this era of amplified regionalisation, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean's (ECLAC) conceptualisation of 'open regionalism' is pertinent to examine the role of regional governance mechanisms in constructing what I call the "Caribbean Educational Policy Space." With the aid of a latent content analysis of…

  8. The Management of Managers: Challenges in a Small Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, John; Boxall, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the findings of a study of the management of senior managers. The aim is to describe the ways in which firms in a small economy, such as New Zealand, manage their managers and analyse how they deal with the strategic challenges that are involved. Design/methodology/approach: The study applies the…

  9. Statistical Physics of Economic Systems: a Survey for Open Economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yong; Chen, Xun

    2012-05-01

    We extend the theoretical framework of an independent economy developed by Tao [Phys. Rev. E 82 (2010) 036118] so as to include multiple economies. Since the starting point of our framework is on the basis of the theory of the competitive markets of traditional economics, this framework shall be suitable for any free market. Our study shows that integration of world economies can decrease trade friction among economic systems, but may also cause a global economic crisis whenever economy disequilibrium occurs in any one of these economic systems.

  10. A Preliminary Analysis of Adaptive Responding under Open and Closed Economies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated the effects of open and closed economies on the adaptive behavior of 2 individuals with developmental disabilities. Across both types of economy, progressive-ratio (PR) schedules were used in which the number of responses required to obtain reinforcement increased as the session progressed. In closed-economy sessions, participants were able to obtain reinforcement only through interaction with the PR schedule requirements (i.e., more work resulted in more reinforcer access). In open-economy sessions, participants obtained reinforcers by responding on the PR schedule and were given supplemental (free) access to the reinforcers after completion of the session. In general, more responding was associated with the closed economy. PMID:16270843

  11. Foreign Direct Investment and Trade Openness: The Case of Developing Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liargovas, Panagiotis G.; Skandalis, Konstantinos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of trade openness for attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows, using a sample of 36 developing economies for the period 1990-2008. It provides a direct test of causality between FDI inflows, trade openness and other key variables in developing regions of the world: Latin America, Asia, Africa, CIS…

  12. The Costs and Economies of Open and Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumble, Greville

    This book is designed to give planners of open and distance learning programs the technical information needed to determine the cost of programs and analyze the behavior of costs. The following are among the topics discussed: budgets; classification of resources (human resources, premises and accommodation, and equipment and furniture); a basic…

  13. OER and the Value of Openness: Implications for the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge economy is marked by recent trends in technological advancement, globalisation and increasing knowledge intensity. Through new technologies like Open Educational Resources (OER), knowledge can be freely accessed by individuals around the world, blurring traditional notions of ownership and prompting a social transformation manifested…

  14. Veterinary Services in Belize: adapting organisational models to the needs of small economies.

    PubMed

    Góngora, V

    2003-08-01

    International trade in agricultural goods is governed by the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the 'SPS Agreement') of the World Trade Organization. Small economies, such as the economy of Belize, must have the necessary infrastructure in place to meet their obligations and exercise their rights under the SPS Agreement. In response to the shortcomings of a small economy, the Belize Government has established the Belize Agricultural Health Authority (BAHA) as its organisational model, to meet the challenges of providing Veterinary Services in this new millennium, as well as the demands of the international trade in animals and plants and their products. This model became operational in the year 2000 and has received national and international recognition as an appropriate model for small economies. The success of BAHA is due to strong political support and its dual public and private sector characteristics.

  15. Responding on concurrent-chains schedules in open and closed economies.

    PubMed Central

    LaFiette, M H; Fantino, E

    1989-01-01

    Pigeons' key pecks were reinforced according to concurrent-chains schedules of reinforcement. The programmed average time from the onset of the initial links to a terminal link entry was held constant across conditions while the value of variable-interval schedules in the terminal links was varied. Performance was assessed under two economic conditions: (a) an open economy in which session duration was limited to 1 hr and subjects were maintained at 80% of their free-feeding body weights with postsession food when necessary; and (b) a closed economy in which sessions were 23.5 hr long and no deprivation regimen was in effect. In all cases, the relative rate of responding in the initial links matched the reduction in overall delay to primary reinforcement correlated with entry into one terminal link relative to the reduction in delay correlated with entry into the other terminal link. Although the sum of responses made in the initial links and terminal links was found to increase, then decrease, as the rate of food presentation decreased in the closed economy, there was no consistent effect of overall rate of food presentation on total responding in the open economy. The choice data suggest that relative delay reduction predicts choice accurately, regardless of economic context. PMID:2723578

  16. Small-business employment in 22 rich economies.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, John; Lane, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Opponents of health care reform in the United States have often argued that such reform will be detrimental to small and medium-sized enterprises. The authors review the most recent data from a sample of 22 rich countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), all of which, except the United States, have universal health care systems. By every measure of small-business employment, the United States has among the world's smallest small-business sectors (as a proportion of total national employment). These findings hold for self-employed workers and across all industry groups for which the Paris-based OECD publishes internationally comparable data, including manufacturing, computer-related services, and research and development.

  17. 29. Detail view of small triangular openings from opposite side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Detail view of small triangular openings from opposite side of wall. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  18. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  19. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, June Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01

    This report characterizes small commercial buildings by market segments, systems and end-uses; develops a framework for identifying demand response (DR) enabling technologies and communication means; and reports on the design and development of a low-cost OpenADR enabling technology that delivers demand reductions as a percentage of the total predicted building peak electric demand. The results show that small offices, restaurants and retail buildings are the major contributors making up over one third of the small commercial peak demand. The majority of the small commercial buildings in California are located in southern inland areas and the central valley. Single-zone packaged units with manual and programmable thermostat controls make up the majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for small commercial buildings with less than 200 kW peak electric demand. Fluorescent tubes with magnetic ballast and manual controls dominate this customer group's lighting systems. There are various ways, each with its pros and cons for a particular application, to communicate with these systems and three methods to enable automated DR in small commercial buildings using the Open Automated Demand Response (or OpenADR) communications infrastructure. Development of DR strategies must consider building characteristics, such as weather sensitivity and load variability, as well as system design (i.e. under-sizing, under-lighting, over-sizing, etc). Finally, field tests show that requesting demand reductions as a percentage of the total building predicted peak electric demand is feasible using the OpenADR infrastructure.

  20. 28. Detail view of small triangular openings (perhaps for ventilation) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Detail view of small triangular openings (perhaps for ventilation) in top of S wall in center bay of N room of mill. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  1. Limit of small exits in open Hamiltonian systems.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Jacobo; Sanjuán, Miguel A F

    2003-05-01

    The nature of open Hamiltonian systems is analyzed, when the size of the exits decreases and tends to zero. Fractal basins appear typically in open Hamiltonian systems, but we claim that in the limit of small exits, the invariant sets tend to fill up the whole phase space with the strong consequence that a new kind of basin appears, where the unpredictability grows indefinitely. This means that for finite, arbitrarily small accuracy, we can find uncertain basins, where any information about the future of the system is lost. This total indeterminism had only been reported in dissipative systems, in particular in the so-called intermingled riddled basins, as well as in the riddledlike basins. We show that this peculiar, behavior is a general feature of open Hamiltonian systems.

  2. The long-term effects of a token economy on safety performance in open-pit mining.

    PubMed

    Fox, D K; Hopkins, B L; Anger, W K

    1987-01-01

    A token economy that used trading stamps as tokens was instituted at two dangerous open-pit mines. Employees earned stamps for working without lost-time injuries, for being in work groups in which all other workers had no lost-time injuries, for not being involved in equipment-damaging accidents, for making adopted safety suggestions, and for unusual behavior which prevented an injury or accident. They lost stamp awards if they or other workers in their group were injured, caused equipment damage, or failed to report accidents or injuries. The stamps could be exchanged for a selection of thousands of items at redemption stores. Implementation of the token economy was followed by large reductions in the number of days lost from work because of injuries, the number of lost-time injuries, and the costs of accidents and injuries. The reductions in costs far exceeded the costs of operating the token economy. All improvements were maintained over several years.

  3. Moving atoms and small molecules out of open containers.

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael L

    2013-03-21

    Density functional theory with the M05-2X exchange/correlation functional is used to study the barriers for expulsion of atoms and small molecules (N2, CO, H2, Ar, Kr, Xe, H2O) out of open fullerenes (I20) and related molecular containers (C40H20, [5]beltene, cucurbit[5]uril). The reactions are examples where dispersion plays a critical role in determining the barrier heights. Calculations are compared with experimental kinetic data for N2@I20, CO@I20, and Xe@cucurbit[5]uril (Xe@CB[5]). Comparing the four molecular containers, the activation barriers for escape of an atom or small molecule correlate with the binding energies. A new open-fullerene model container C40H20 (C40) was constructed from C60 with a constriction at both ends formed by five methylene groups around the rim. The activation barriers for escape of N2 and CO from the model container are similar to those from the I20 open-cage fullerene. In the case of H2O@C40, charge analysis reveals an interesting charge transfer at the transition state as the escaping guest is "squeezed" out of the host container.

  4. New Perspectives on the Rural Economy. Hearing on New Perspectives on the Rural Economy before the Subcommittee on Rural Economy and Family Farming of the Committee on Small Business. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Small Business.

    Testimony and prepared statements presented at a hearing before the Senate Subcommittee on Rural Economy and Family Farming focused on the concerns of rural small business. Witnesses included Senators from Montana, Illinois, New York, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa, and nine representatives of business, state government,…

  5. Developing Entrepreneurial Economies in Rural Regions: Lessons from Kentucky and Appalachia. Open Field Occasional Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurwitt, Rob; Kimel, Kris

    A 1996 workshop held in Harrodsburg, Kentucky, explored the challenge of creating an entrepreneurial economy in predominantly rural states such as Kentucky with little or no history of widespread entrepreneurial activity. Traditional approaches to economic development in such states, such as spending on relocation incentives for out-of-state…

  6. Computational discovery of small open reading frames in Bacillus lehensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin, Nurhafizhoh; Illias, Rosli Md.; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Bacillus lehensis is a Gram-positive and endospore-forming alkalitolerant bacterial strain. In recent years there has been increasing interest in alkaliphilic bacteria and their ability to grow under extreme conditions as well as their ability to serve various important functions in industrial biology especially enzyme production. Small open reading frames (sORFs) have emerged as important regulators in various biological roles such as tumor progression, hormone signalling and stress response. Over the past decade, many biocomputational tools have been developed to predict genes in bacterial genomes. In this study, three softwares were used to predict sORF (≤ 80 aa) in B. lehensis by using whole genome sequence. We used comparative analysis to identify the sORFs in B. lehensis that conserved across all other bacterial genomes. We extended the analysis by doing the homology analysis against protein database. This study established the sORFs in B. lehensis that are conserved across bacteria which might has important biological function which still remain elusive in biological field.

  7. Teaching Applied Macro in Emergent Economies: Lessons from Bahrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael S.; Epstein, Seth

    2013-01-01

    In this article we explore the challenges of adapting a standard introductory MBA course in applied macroeconomics to a student audience in a small open economy with a pegged currency. Our focus will be on the Kingdom of Bahrain, with reference to other countries in the Arabian Gulf region, where one would expect to use an open-economy theoretical…

  8. Financial policy in a small open oil-exporting developing country: The case of Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmoor, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigates the role of financial policy in small open oil-exporting countries, taking Oman as a case study. The study focuses on the interest rate, inflationary financing, and the optimal exchange-rate peg question. Simulation of the macroeconomic model of the Omani economy showed that had the interest rate ceiling policy been removed, the country would have witnessed higher growth rates during the period in which the Eurodollar deposit rates were higher than the ceiling rate on local currency time deposits. The simulation results showed that credit-driven inflationary financing was self-defeating to the extent that the trade balance deteriorated by an amount more-or-less equivalent to the increase in government credit. Finally, an attempt was made to identify the optional exchange-rate peg for the country. The study compared three pegs: the U.S. dollar, the SDR, and an import-weighted basket. It found the SDR to be the most preferable peg. It provided the greatest stability in imported and domestic inflation.

  9. Impediments to global surveillance of infectious diseases: consequences of open reporting in a global economy.

    PubMed Central

    Cash, R. A.; Narasimhan, V.

    2000-01-01

    Globalization has led to an increase in the spread of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. International efforts are being launched to control their dissemination through global surveillance, a major hindrance to which is the failure of some countries to report outbreaks. Current guidelines and regulations on emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases do not sufficiently take into account the fact that when developing countries report outbreaks they often derive few benefits and suffer disproportionately heavy social and economic consequences. In order to facilitate full participation in global surveillance by developing countries there should be: better and more affordable diagnostic capabilities to allow for timely and accurate information to be delivered in an open and transparent fashion; accurate, less sensationalist news reporting of outbreaks of diseases; adherence by countries to international regulations, including those of the World Trade Organization and the International Health Regulations; financial support for countries that are economically damaged by the diseases in question. The article presents two cases--plague in India and cholera in Peru--that illuminate some of the limitations of current practices. Recommendations are made on measures that could be taken by WHO and the world community to make global surveillance acceptable. PMID:11143197

  10. Free float and stochastic volatility: the experience of a small open economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selçuk, Faruk

    2004-11-01

    Following a dramatic collapse of a fixed exchange rate based inflation stabilization program, Turkey moved into a free floating exchange rate system in February 2001. In this paper, an asymmetric stochastic volatility model of the foreign exchange rate in Turkey is estimated for the floating period. It is shown that there is a positive relation between the exchange return and its volatility. Particularly, an increase in the return at time t results in an increase in volatility at time t+1. However, the effect is asymmetric: a decrease in the exchange rate return at time t causes a relatively less decrease in volatility at time t+1. The results imply that a central bank with a volatility smoothing policy would be biased in viewing the shocks to the exchange rate in favor of appreciation. The bias would increase if the bank is also following an inflation targeting policy.

  11. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  12. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-05-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  13. Madisonville Community College: Training Small Manufacturers To Be Competitive in the Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    Madisonville Community College (MCC) is in Madisonville, Kentucky, a small town with a strong coal industry presence. Mine closings and layoffs in the 1980s prompted the region to reorient itself toward light industry and manufacturing, but the recession of the early 1990s and globalization led to closings of several of the largest employers. In…

  14. Future Job Openings: Australia in the Knowledge Economy. Project 2000-02: Changing Skill Requirements in the Australian Labour Force in a Knowledge Economy. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Chandra; Burke, Gerald

    Forecasts of Australian labor market growth, net replacement needs, and net job openings to 2006 are presented using the nine-way grouping of occupations described by (Maglen and Shah, 1999). Analysis is based on classifying occupations by whether they are advantaged by globalization and technological change, relatively insulated, or vulnerable.…

  15. 76 FR 56879 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam.... ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/...

  16. 76 FR 17996 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

  17. 76 FR 46897 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam.... ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/...

  18. 76 FR 10942 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam.... ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/...

  19. 76 FR 22170 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

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    2011-04-20

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam.... ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/...

  20. 76 FR 37200 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

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    2011-06-24

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam.... ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/...

  1. 76 FR 17995 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed....C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed.... ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/...

  2. Role of University-Industry-Government Linkages in the Innovation Processes of a Small Catching-Up Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varblane, Urmas; Mets, Tonis; Ukrainski, Kadri

    2008-01-01

    During the transformation process from a command economy, the extraordinary statist university-industry-government (UIG) linkages model was replaced by an extreme version of laissez-faire relationships. A more modern interaction-based UIG model could be implemented only by changing the whole national innovation system of catching-up economies. The…

  3. [Market economy, health economy?].

    PubMed

    De Wever, A

    2002-09-01

    After the definition of the economy and its different types, we have to stress the political economy which integrates pure economy and society. The economical science will gradually introduce the health economy of which the definition urges to seek for a better distribution between public and private means to do more and better for the public health. The market economy is different from the state economy. She is principally conducted by the supply and demand law. The consumer's behaviour in a competitive market has some characteristics which favour the balance of this market. The healthcare market put also a health supply and demand forward but not with the same values. The needs, the supply, the consumption and the consumer's behaviour are different in this particular market which quickly evolves and progressively goes closer to the market economy. Is the healthcare an economical good or duty? The choices' criteria and the priorities are changeable. The role of the valuation studies in health economy is to try to clarify them and to favour a better use of the limited resources to the unlimited needs.

  4. Laparoscopic versus open adhesiolysis for small bowel obstruction - a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic adhesiolysis is emerging as an alternative for open surgery in adhesive small bowel obstruction. Retrospective studies suggest that laparoscopic approach shortens hospital stay and reduces complications in these patients. However, no prospective, randomized, controlled trials comparing laparoscopy to open surgery have been published. Methods/Design This is a multicenter, prospective, open label, randomized, controlled trial comparing laparoscopic adhesiolysis to open surgery in patients with computed-tomography diagnosed adhesive small bowel obstruction that is not resolving with conservative management. The primary study endpoint is the length of postoperative hospital stay in days. Sample size was estimated based on preliminary retrospective cohort, which suggested that 102 patients would provide 80% power to detect a difference of 2.5 days in the length of postoperative hospital stay with significance level of 0.05. Secondary endpoints include passage of stool, commencement of enteral nutrition, 30-day mortality, complications, postoperative pain, and the length of sick leave. Tertiary endpoints consist of the rate of ventral hernia and the recurrence of small bowel obstruction during long-term follow-up. Long-term follow-up by letter or telephone interview will take place at 1, 5, and 10 years. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this trial is the first one aiming to provide level Ib evidence to assess the use of laparoscopy in the treatment of adhesive small bowel obstruction. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01867528. Date of registration May 26th 2013. PMID:25306234

  5. 75 FR 25317 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Issue Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Issue... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Issue Committee will be conducted... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small...

  6. 77 FR 8329 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing... Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be held Tuesday,...

  7. 75 FR 11999 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  8. 75 FR 18957 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  9. 76 FR 37196 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small ] Business/Self Employed... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee...

  10. 77 FR 55527 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing... Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be held...

  11. 76 FR 22170 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee...

  12. 75 FR 47348 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  13. 77 FR 20488 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing... of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project...

  14. 77 FR 21157 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing... Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be held Tuesday, May...

  15. 76 FR 56880 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee...

  16. 76 FR 10942 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee...

  17. 76 FR 37893 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee...

  18. 75 FR 55405 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  19. 75 FR 62630 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted....S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  20. 76 FR 77893 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing... Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be held...

  1. 75 FR 39331 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  2. 77 FR 47166 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing... Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be held...

  3. 77 FR 40411 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small ] Business/Self-Employed Decreasing... Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be held Tuesday,...

  4. 76 FR 2193 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed... Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement will be...

  5. 75 FR 33893 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  6. 76 FR 46897 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee...

  7. 77 FR 61052 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing... Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be held...

  8. 77 FR 2610 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing... Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be held...

  9. 77 FR 20489 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing... Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be held Tuesday,...

  10. 75 FR 7539 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  11. 77 FR 30591 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing... Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be held Tuesday,...

  12. Identification of small open reading frames in the Glaciozyma antarctica genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat-Sharani, Shuhaila; Bharudin, Izwan; Zainuddin, Nursyafiqi; Abdul-Murad, Abdul-Munir; Abu-Bakar, Farah-Diba; Najimuddin, Nazalan; Mahadi, Nor-Muhammad; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Glaciozyma antarctica is an obligate psychrophilic yeast that was isolated from Casey Research Station, Antarctica. The objective of this study was to identify small Open Reading Frames (sORFs) in the G. antarctica genome. Small ORFs have been found in other organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human and they have been known to partake in a diverse variety of functions. In this study, ORFs were searched from the existing G. antarctica genome annotations and this resulted 294 sORFs (of at most 100 amino acids) which represented 4% of the 7857 annotated ORFs. Several of these sORFs were validated by mapping to EST and transcriptome of G. antarctica.

  13. Breaking-bud pollination: a new pollination process in partially opened flowers by small bees.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Futa; Ohsawa, Takeshi A

    2015-09-01

    Plant-pollinator interactions have usually been researched in flowers that have fully opened. However, some pollinators can visit flowers before full opening and contribute to fruit and seed sets. In this paper, we researched the pollination biology of flowers just starting to open in four field experiments. We observed the insect visitors to Lycoris sanguinea var. sanguinea for 3 years at five sites. These observations revealed that only small bees, Lasioglossum japonicum, often entered through tiny spaces between the tepals of 'breaking buds' (i.e. partially opened flowers) and collected pollen. We hypothesized that they can pollinate this species at the breaking-bud stage, when the stigma is located near the anthers. To measure the pollination effect of small bees at the breaking-bud stage, we bagged several breaking buds after small bees had visited them and examined whether these buds were pollinated. In bagging experiments, 30% of the breaking buds set fruit and seeds. Fruit-set ratios of the breaking buds did not differ significantly from those of the fully opened flowers, which had been visited by several insect species. We also counted the pollen grain numbers on the body of L. japonicum and on the anthers of randomly-selected and manipulated flowers. These experiments revealed that all of the captured bees had some pollen of target plants and that L. japonicum collected most of the pollen grains at the breaking-bud stage. Our results showed that the new pollination process, breaking-bud pollination, happened in breaking buds by L. japonicum, although there is no evidence to reveal that this is the most effective pollination method for L. sanguinea var. sanguinea. In principle, this new pollination process can occur in other flowering plants and our results are a major contribution to studies of plant-pollinator interactions.

  14. Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) Design of a Small Animal Radiotherapy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, S.; Mackie, T. R.; Jeraj, R.

    2014-03-01

    Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) was initiated with the goal of facilitating medical research by developing medical technologies including both hardware and software on an open-source platform. Our first project was to develop an integrated imaging and radiotherapy device for small animals that includes computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and radiation therapy (RT) modalities for which technical specifications were defined in the first OSMD conference held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA in December 2011. This paper specifically focuses on the development of a small animal RT (micro-RT) system by designing a binary micro multileaf collimator (bmMLC) and a small animal treatment planning system (SATPS) to enable intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Both hardware and software projects are currently under development and their current progresses are described. After the development, both bmMLC and TPS will be validated and commissioned for a micro-RT system. Both hardware design and software development will be open-sourced after completion.

  15. 76 FR 63716 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Doc No: 2011-26407] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer...: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small...

  16. 76 FR 2196 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll... Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free will be held Tuesday, February 22, 2011, at 9...

  17. Flood discharges of a small river into open coastal waters: Plume traits and material fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaston, Troy F.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Connolly, Rod M.

    2006-08-01

    The dynamics of plumes from large rivers are relatively well known. Many estuaries are small, however, and discharge directly onto exposed, open shorelines and presumably produce smaller plumes that may have different properties. Therefore this study measured traits of a small estuary on the Australian East Coast as a model system, focusing on (a) plume size, (b) distinctness of plume edges, and (c) imprints on the seafloor. Although plumes were found to be limited in spatial extent (ca. 1 km offshore × 2.4 km longshore) and were constrained near the shore by onshore winds, they exported high nutrient loads from an urbanised watershed. The small plumes were shallow (<2 m) and strongly buoyant, with sharp vertical and horizontal clines similar to much larger plumes. The edges of the plumes were highly distinct, clearly separating disparate water masses that trapped significantly higher amounts of nutrients inside the plume. Some particulate material exported from the estuary in the plumes reached the benthos of the nearshore zone, as evidenced by increases in copper concentrations in sediments under the plume. By contrast, the amount of land-sourced carbon delivered by small plumes to the seafloor was minor in comparison to larger inputs from marine sources (e.g. onshore advection of phytoplankton blooms or algae dislodged from reefs) that swamped any contribution from plumes. Overall, small plumes can be important in land-ocean coupling, but their zone of influence may be limited.

  18. 76 FR 6190 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small...

  19. 77 FR 37102 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be conducted. The...) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing...

  20. Novel Vein Patterns in Arabidopsis Induced by Small Molecules1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The critical role of veins in transporting water, nutrients, and signals suggests that some key regulators of vein formation may be genetically redundant and, thus, undetectable by forward genetic screens. To identify such regulators, we screened more than 5000 structurally diverse small molecules for compounds that alter Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf vein patterns. Many compound-induced phenotypes were observed, including vein networks with an open reticulum; decreased or increased vein number and thickness; and misaligned, misshapen, or nonpolar vascular cells. Further characterization of several individual active compounds suggests that their targets include hormone cross talk, hormone-dependent transcription, and PIN-FORMED trafficking. PMID:26574596

  1. Case study of open-source enterprise resource planning implementation in a small business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, David L.; Staley, Jesse

    2012-02-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have been recognised as offering great benefit to some organisations, although they are expensive and problematic to implement. The cost and risk make well-developed proprietorial systems unaffordable to small businesses. Open-source software (OSS) has become a viable means of producing ERP system products. The question this paper addresses is the feasibility of OSS ERP systems for small businesses. A case is reported involving two efforts to implement freely distributed ERP software products in a small US make-to-order engineering firm. The case emphasises the potential of freely distributed ERP systems, as well as some of the hurdles involved in their implementation. The paper briefly reviews highlights of OSS ERP systems, with the primary focus on reporting the case experiences for efforts to implement ERPLite software and xTuple software. While both systems worked from a technical perspective, both failed due to economic factors. While these economic conditions led to imperfect results, the case demonstrates the feasibility of OSS ERP for small businesses. Both experiences are evaluated in terms of risk dimension.

  2. Sediment depositions upstream of open check dams: new elements from small scale models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piton, Guillaume; Le Guern, Jules; Carbonari, Costanza; Recking, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Torrent hazard mitigation remains a big issue in mountainous regions. In steep slope streams and especially in their fan part, torrential floods mainly result from abrupt and massive sediment deposits. To curtail such phenomenon, soil conservation measures as well as torrent control works have been undertaken for decades. Since the 1950s, open check dams complete other structural and non-structural measures in watershed scale mitigation plans1. They are often built to trap sediments near the fan apexes. The development of earthmoving machinery after the WWII facilitated the dredging operations of open check dams. Hundreds of these structures have thus been built for 60 years. Their design evolved with the improving comprehension of torrential hydraulics and sediment transport; however this kind of structure has a general tendency to trap most of the sediments supplied by the headwaters. Secondary effects as channel incision downstream of the traps often followed an open check dam creation. This sediment starvation trend tends to propagate to the main valley rivers and to disrupt past geomorphic equilibriums. Taking it into account and to diminish useless dredging operation, a better selectivity of sediment trapping must be sought in open check dams, i.e. optimal open check dams would trap sediments during dangerous floods and flush them during normal small floods. An accurate description of the hydraulic and deposition processes that occur in sediment traps is needed to optimize existing structures and to design best-adjusted new structures. A literature review2 showed that if design criteria exist for the structure itself, little information is available on the dynamic of the sediment depositions upstream of open check dams, i.e. what are the geomorphic patterns that occur during the deposition?, what are the relevant friction laws and sediment transport formula that better describe massive depositions in sediment traps?, what are the range of Froude and Shields

  3. The Economics of Rural and Urban Small-Scale Industries in Sierra Leone. African Rural Economy Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedholm, Carl; Chuta, Enyinna

    Small-scale industry in Sierra Leone, Africa was examined in terms of: labor intensity; output generated per unit of capital; generation of positive economic profits by small-scale industry groups/processes; and seasonal and locational variations. Key analytical issues were the nature of small-scale industry supply and demand processes. Data were…

  4. "I've Never Heard of It Before": Awareness of Open Access at a Small Liberal Arts University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocken, Gregory J.; Wical, Stephanie H.

    2013-01-01

    Small colleges and universities, often late adopters of institutional repositories and open access initiatives, face challenges that have not fully been explored in the professional literature. In an effort to gauge the level of awareness of open access and institutional repositories at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire (UWEC), the authors of…

  5. Assessment of guide vane self-excitation stability at small openings in pump flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nennemann, B.; Sallaberger, M.; Henggeler, U.; Gentner, C.; Parkinson, E.

    2012-11-01

    A parameter study of self-excited pump turbine guide vane instability at small openings using a combined CFD-1DOF approach shows that clear tendencies are difficult to obtain. Two types of boundary conditions can be used in the simulations: prescribed mass flow and prescribed pressure. Simulations with both show results that - for one specific operating condition - are consistent with a self-excited guide vane incident at a prototype pump turbine. However, over a larger range of reduced velocities, the tendencies obtained with the two boundary condition types are not always consistent. Pressure boundary conditions may be the more realistic option. Results then show that with increasing reduced velocity, guide vanes will eventually reach static instability or divergence. This may not be problematic. In contrast, passing through a zone of dynamic instability during operation should and can be avoided.

  6. A comprehensive photometric study of dynamically evolved small van den Bergh-Hagen open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2016-12-01

    We present results from Johnson UBV, Kron-Cousins RI and Washington CT1T2 photometries for seven van den Bergh-Hagen (vdBH) open clusters, namely, vdBH 1, 10, 31, 72, 87, 92, and 118. The high-quality, multiband photometric data sets were used to trace the cluster stellar density radial profiles and to build colour-magnitude diagrams and colour-colour diagrams from which we estimated their structural parameters and fundamental astrophysical properties. The clusters in our sample cover a wide age range, from ˜60 Myr up to 2.8 Gyr, are of relatively small size (˜1-6 pc) and are placed at distances from the Sun which vary between 1.8 and 6.3 kpc, respectively. We also estimated lower limits for the cluster present-day masses as well as half-mass relaxation times (tr). The resulting values in combination with the structural parameter values suggest that the studied clusters are in advanced stages of their internal dynamical evolution (age/tr ˜ 20-320), possibly in the typical phase of those tidally filled with mass segregation in their core regions. Compared to open clusters in the solar neighbourhood, the seven vdBH clusters are within more massive (˜80-380 M⊙), with higher concentration parameter values (c ˜ 0.75-1.15) and dynamically evolved ones.

  7. Small-Bowel Obstruction Secondary to Adhesions After Open or Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Smolarek, Sebastian; Shalaby, Mostafa; Paolo Angelucci, Giulio; Missori, Giulia; Capuano, Ilaria; Franceschilli, Luana; Quaresima, Silvia; Di Lorenzo, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Small-bowel obstruction (SBO) is a common surgical emergency that occurs in 9% of patients after abdominal surgery. Up to 73% are caused by peritoneal adhesions. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the rate of SBOs between patients who underwent laparoscopic (LPS) and those who had open (OPS) colorectal surgery. The secondary reasons were to evaluate the rate of adhesive SBO in a cohort of patients who underwent a range of colorectal resections and to assess risk factors for the development of SBO. Method: This was a retrospective observational cohort study. Data were analyzed from a prospectively collected database and cross checked with operating theater records and hospital patient management systems. Results: During the study period, 707 patients underwent colorectal resection, 350 of whom (49.5%) were male. Median follow-up was 48.3 months. Of the patients included, 178 (25.2%) underwent LPS, whereas 529 (74.8%) had OPS. SBO occurred in 72 patients (10.2%): 20 (11.2%) in the LPS group and 52 (9.8%) in the OPS group [P = .16; hazards ratio (HR) 1.4 95% CI 0.82–2.48] within the study period. Conversion to an open procedure was associated with increased risk of SBO (P = .039; HR 2.82; 95% CI 0.78–8.51). Stoma formation was an independent risk factor for development of SBO (P = .049; HR, 0.63; 95% CI 0.39–1.03). The presence of an incisional hernia in the OPS group was associated with SBO (P = .0003; HR, 2.85; 95% CI 1.44–5.283). There was no difference in SBO between different types of procedures: right colon, left colon, and rectal surgery. Patients who developed early small-bowel obstruction (ESBO) were more often treated surgically compared to late SBO (P = .0001). Conclusion: The use of laparoscopy does not influence the rate of SBO, but conversion from laparoscopic to open surgery is associated with an increased risk of SBO. Stoma formation is associated with a 2-fold increase in SBO. Development of ESBO is

  8. High Performance Open Loop Control of Scanning with a Small Cylindrical Cantilever Beam.

    PubMed

    Kundrat, Matthew J; Reinhall, Per G; Lee, Cameron M; Seibel, Eric J

    2011-04-11

    The steady state response motion of a base excited cantilever beam with circular cross-section excited by a unidirectional displacement will fall along a straight line. However, achieving straight-line motion with a real cantilever beam of circular cross-section is difficult to accomplish. This is due to the fact that nonlinear effects, small deviations from circularity, asymmetric boundary conditions, and actuator cross coupling can induce whirling. The vast majority of previous work on cantilever beam whirling has focused on the effects of system nonlinearities. We show that whirling is a much broader problem in the design of resonant beam scanners in that the onset of whirling does not depend on large amplitude of motion. Rather, whirling is the norm in real systems due to small system asymmetries and actuator cross coupling. It is therefore necessary to control the growth of the whirling motion when a unidirectional beam motion is desired. We have developed a novel technique to identify the two eigen directions of the beam. Base excitation generated by virtual electrodes along these orthogonal eigen axes of the cantilever beam system generates tip vibration without whirl. This leads to accurate open loop control of the motion of the beam through the combined actuation of two pairs of orthogonally placed actuator electrodes.

  9. Protein-based open sandwich immuno-PCR for sensitive detection of small biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Sharif; Dong, Jinhua; Hara, Yuko; Morizane, Yoshihito; Shibasaki, Futoshi; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Open sandwich (OS) immunoassay utilizes antigen-dependent stabilization of an antibody variable region to quantify various antigens, enabling noncompetitive detection of small molecules with a broad working range. For further improvement of its sensitivity, OS Immuno-PCR was attempted with recombinant fusion proteins. The maltose binding protein-fused heavy chain variable region (MBP-V(H)) of an antibody that recognizes the C-terminal fragment of human osteocalcin (bone Gla protein, BGP), a biomarker for bone-related diseases, was immobilized onto microplate wells, and the antigen together with streptavidin (SA)-fused light chain variable region of the same antibody (SA-V(L)) was added and incubated. The amount of immobilized SA-V(L) was quantified by tethered biotinylated DNA, which was used to estimate the amount of antigen by realtime PCR. When BGP C-terminal peptide was detected, the limit of detection was 100 fg/mL, which was superior than that of our previously reported phage-based OS Immuno-PCR. The developed OS Immuno-PCR system will be useful for the detection of small molecule biomarkers for disease prevention.

  10. Tools for Inspecting and Sampling Waste in Underground Radioactive Storage Tanks with Small Access Riser Openings

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, T.A.

    1998-12-17

    Underground storage tanks with 2 inches to 3 inches diameter access ports at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site have been used to store radioactive solvents and sludge. In order to close these tanks, the contents of the tanks need to first be quantified in terms of volume and chemical and radioactive characteristics. To provide information on the volume of waste contained within the tanks, a small remote inspection system was needed. This inspection system was designed to provide lighting and provide pan and tilt capabilities in an inexpensive package with zoom abilities and color video. This system also needed to be utilized inside of a plastic tent built over the access port to contain any contamination exiting from the port. This system had to be build to travel into the small port opening, through the riser pipe, into the tank evacuated space, and out of the riser pipe and access port with no possibility of being caught and blocking the access riser. Long thin plates were found in many access riser pipes that blocked the inspection system from penetrating into the tank interiors. Retrieval tools to clear the plates from the tanks using developed sampling devices while providing safe containment for the samples. This paper will discuss the inspection systems, tools for clearing access pipes, and solvent sampling tools developed to evaluate the tank contents of the underground solvent storage tanks.

  11. TWS1, a Novel Small Protein, Regulates Various Aspects of Seed and Plant Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Guyon, Virginie; Remoué, Carine; Magnani, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Small proteins have long been overlooked due to their poor annotation and the experimental challenges they pose. However, in recent years, their role in various processes has started to emerge, opening new research avenues. Here, we present the isolation and characterization of two allelic mutants, twisted seed1-1 (tws1-1) and tws1-2, which exhibit an array of developmental and biochemical phenotypes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. We have identified AT5G01075 as the subtending gene encoding a small protein of 81 amino acids localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. TWS1 is strongly expressed in seeds, where it regulates both embryo development and accumulation of storage compounds. TWS1 loss-of-function seeds exhibit increased starch, sucrose, and protein accumulation at the detriment of fatty acids. TWS1 is also expressed in vegetative and reproductive tissues, where it is responsible for proper epidermal cell morphology and overall plant growth. At the cellular level, TWS1 is responsible for cuticle deposition on epidermal cells and organization of the endomembrane system. Finally, we show that TWS1 is a single-copy gene in Arabidopsis, and it is specifically conserved among angiosperms. PMID:27613850

  12. Primary Open Angle Glaucoma is Associated with MR Biomarkers of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mercieca, Karl; Cain, John; Hansen, Thomas; Steeples, Laura; Watkins, Amy; Spencer, Fiona; Jackson, Alan

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study tests the hypotheses that: 1) glaucoma is associated with evidence of cerebral small vessel disease; 2) that imaging biomarkers of cerebral small vessel disease in POAG and NTG will show different characteristics. 12 normal controls, 7 patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and 9 patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) were recruited. Ophthalmological clinical assessment and MR imaging of the brain were performed. MR imaging was used to quantify white matter lesion load, frequency of dilated perivascular spaces (PVS) and abnormalities in cerebral hydrodynamics. Patients with POAG had significantly greater white matter lesion load (p < 0.05), more PVS in the centrum semiovale (p < 0.05) and had higher overall PVS scores than controls (p < 0.05). In the POAG group, optic cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) was positively correlated with deep white matter hyperintensities (R2 = 0.928, p < 0.01). Mean deviation on the Humphrey visual field assessment was negatively correlated with deep white matter lesion load (R2 = −0.840, p < 0.01), total white matter lesion load (R2 = −0.928, p < 0.01) and total PVS (R2 = −0.820, p < 0.01). MR evidence of cerebral small vessel disease is strongly associated with a diagnosis of POAG and with the severity of abnormalities in CDR and visual field. PMID:26923106

  13. Greensboro Small Business Among Recipients of $1.9 Million from EPA to Support the Nations Green Economy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced almost $2 million to 19 small businesses nationwide to develop and commercialize technologies that tackle critical environmental problems. Bio-Adhesive Alliance, Inc. based in

  14. Freedom of Development for Industry and Consumers. Small Business and the Social Market Economy in the Federal Republic of Germany. Sonderdienst Special Report No. 1. Code No. 79. Q 6016.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Wilhelm; Breuer, Michael

    Small businesses have made a decisive contribution to the reconstruction and development of the German economy and society since World War II. The Federal Republic of Germany considers small-scale industry important and has granted tax relief and initiated a wide range of loan and guarantee programs for them. The Act against Restraints of…

  15. Cyberscience and the Knowledge-Based Economy. Open Access and Trade Publishing: From Contradiction to Compatibility with Non-Exclusive Copyright Licensing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armbruster, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Open source, open content and open access are set to fundamentally alter the conditions of knowledge production and distribution. Open source, open content and open access are also the most tangible result of the shift towards e-science and digital networking. Yet, widespread misperceptions exist about the impact of this shift on knowledge…

  16. Prediction of "s" Characteristics of a Pump-Turbine with Small Opening Based on V2F Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jintao; Liu, Shuhong; Wu, Yulin; Sun, Yuekun; Zuo, Zhigang

    The characteristic of a pump-turbine during the whole starting or stopping period couldn't be calculated accurately by CFD method and most of turbulence models were found inaccurate in the calculation of small opening condition, so a proper turbulence model was needed for the further study of pump-turbine. V2F model which was valid to the solid wall and SST k-ω model were used to calculate the pump-turbine with two openings that one was a small opening and the other was large opening. Results showed that V2F model can be used to simulate characteristics of pump-turbine in the whole opening range and the SST k-ω model can be used only for large openings. Results of V2F model are accuracy and it realizes the real flow in the near wall region. Results of V2F model can obtain small vortexes and some complex flow phenomenon and they are much different from results of SST k-ω model. The V2F model might be used to simulate the starting or stopping period of a pump-turbine.

  17. Mining antimicrobial peptides from small open reading frames in Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongzhong; Zhuang, Yu; Liu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Though being able to encode various kinds of bioactive peptides, small open reading frames (sORFs) are poorly annotated in many genomic data. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of sORFs in encoding antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the basal chordate model Ciona intestinalis. About 4.8 m genomic sequence was first retrieved for sORFs mining by the program sORF finder, then the sORFs were translated into amino acid sequences for AMP prediction via CAMP server, and thereafter, ten putative AMPs were selected for expression and antimicrobial activity validation. In total, over 180 peptides deduced from the sORFs were predicted to be AMPs. Among the ten tested peptides, six were found to have significant expressed sequence tag matches, providing strong evidence for gene expression; five were proved to be active against the bacterial strains. These results indicate that many sORFs in C. intestinalis genome contain AMP information. This work can serve as an important initial step to investigate the role of sORFs in the innate defense of C. intestinalis.

  18. Small Open Reading Frames, Non-Coding RNAs and Repetitive Elements in Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Julia; Tsoy, Olga V.; Thalmann, Sebastian; Čuklina, Jelena; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

    2016-01-01

    Small open reading frames (sORFs) and genes for non-coding RNAs are poorly investigated components of most genomes. Our analysis of 1391 ORFs recently annotated in the soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 revealed that 78% of them contain less than 80 codons. Twenty-one of these sORFs are conserved in or outside Alphaproteobacteria and most of them are similar to genes found in transposable elements, in line with their broad distribution. Stabilizing selection was demonstrated for sORFs with proteomic evidence and bll1319_ISGA which is conserved at the nucleotide level in 16 alphaproteobacterial species, 79 species from other taxa and 49 other Proteobacteria. Further we used Northern blot hybridization to validate ten small RNAs (BjsR1 to BjsR10) belonging to new RNA families. We found that BjsR1 and BjsR3 have homologs outside the genus Bradyrhizobium, and BjsR5, BjsR6, BjsR7, and BjsR10 have up to four imperfect copies in Bradyrhizobium genomes. BjsR8, BjsR9, and BjsR10 are present exclusively in nodules, while the other sRNAs are also expressed in liquid cultures. We also found that the level of BjsR4 decreases after exposure to tellurite and iron, and this down-regulation contributes to survival under high iron conditions. Analysis of additional small RNAs overlapping with 3’-UTRs revealed two new repetitive elements named Br-REP1 and Br-REP2. These REP elements may play roles in the genomic plasticity and gene regulation and could be useful for strain identification by PCR-fingerprinting. Furthermore, we studied two potential toxin genes in the symbiotic island and confirmed toxicity of the yhaV homolog bll1687 but not of the newly annotated higB homolog blr0229_ISGA in E. coli. Finally, we revealed transcription interference resulting in an antisense RNA complementary to blr1853, a gene induced in symbiosis. The presented results expand our knowledge on sORFs, non-coding RNAs and repetitive elements in B. japonicum and related bacteria. PMID

  19. Integrated spectral properties of 22 small angular diameter galactic open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    2007-10-01

    Aims:Flux-calibrated integrated spectra of a sample of 22 Galactic open clusters of small angular diameter are presented. With one exception (ESO 429-SC2), all objects have Galactic longitudes in the range 208° < l < 33°. The spectra cover the range ≈3600-6800 Å, with a resolution of ≈14 Å. The properties of the present cluster sample are compared with those of well-studied clusters located in two 90° sectors, centred at l = 257° and l = 347°. The dissolution rate of Galactic open clusters in these two sectors is examined. Methods: Using the equivalent widths of the Balmer lines and comparing line intensities and continuum distribution of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known properties, we derive both foreground reddening values and ages. Thus, we provide information independent of that determined through colour-magnitude diagrams. Results: The derived E(B-V) values for the whole sample vary from 0.0 in ESO 445-SC74 to 1.90 in Pismis 24, while the ages range from ~3 Myr (NGC 6604 and BH 151) to ~3.5 Gyr (Ruprecht 2). For six clusters (Dolidze 34, ESO 429-SC2, ESO 445-SC74, Ruprecht 2, BH 151 and Hogg 9) the foreground E(B-V) colour excesses and ages are determined for the first time. The results obtained for the remaining clusters show, in general terms, good agreement with previous photometric results. Conclusions: The age and reddening distributions of the present sample match those of known clusters in the two selected Galactic sectors. The present results would favour a major dissolution rate of star clusters in these two sectors. Two new solar-metallicity templates are defined corresponding to the age groups of (4-5) Myr and 30 Myr among those of Piatti et al. (2002, MNRAS, 335, 233). The Piatti et al. templates of 20 Myr and (3-4) Gyr are here redefined. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y T

  20. Small-Scale Interstellar Structure Toward the Open Cluster CHI Persei-Fuse II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Friedman, Scott

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the physical conditions of gas along sight lines toward 6 stars in the core Chi Persei open cluster. These sight lines traverse gas in both the Orion and Perseus spiral arms of the Galaxy, at distances of 500 and 2000 pc, respectively. The stars have angular separations ranging from 45 to 280 arcsec; 60 arcsec corresponds to linear distances of 0.15 and 0.6 pc in the two arms. Thus, abundance variations in these observations would constitute evidence for small-scale variations in the properties of the interstellar medium. Ground-based Na I observations at high resolution (approx. 15 km/sec) toward 172 stars (including the 6 in this study) in the double open cluster h and Chi Persei have revealed complex spatial variation. These variations are especially evident in the gas at velocities of -40 and -55 km/sec, corresponding to the Perseus spiral arm. 21 cm observations of HI emission using the Low Resolution DRAO Survey, with a 12-arcmin beam, also show variations. Averaging the Na I apparent optical depth profiles of neighboring sight lines in order to mimic such a beam size reduces the variation, as compared to the individual Na I measurements, but still show variations larger than seen in the 21 cm profiles. Na I is not the dominant ionization state of Na in the interstellar medium. Thus, it is possible that the variations seen really trace physical structures in the interstellar medium, or they may simply result from variations in the radiation field seen by the gas, or be due to some other environmental circumstance. To distinguish among these possibilities in the present study we obtained FUSE spectra toward the 6 targets in order to measure the molecular hydrogen absorption profiles along these sight lines. The higher J states of H2 are populated by the ambient W radiation field, and thus can provide insight into the environment affecting the gas. If both the high and low J states reveal absorption line profiles with

  1. Expression and strain variation of the novel “Small Open Reading Frame” 3 (smorf) multigene family in Babesia bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small open reading frame (smorf) genes comprise the second largest Babesia bovis multigene family. All known 44 variant smorf genes are located in close chromosomal proximity to ves1 genes, which encode proteins that mediate cytoadhesion and contribute to immune evasion. In this study, we characte...

  2. 75 FR 4140 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... customer service at the Internal Revenue Service. DATES: The meeting will be held Thursday, February 25... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An...

  3. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful.

  4. The effectiveness of small scale Photovoltaic (PV) systems design and cost analysis simulation on Saudi Arabian Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almansour, Faris Abdullah

    -Tariff PV system using HOMER. The result of the simulation has been discussed, analyzed, and plotted. We also give evidence in the thesis how useful the small PV systems can be as oppose to the larger scale system that must deal with location issues.

  5. Integral indicatrix of light scattering from {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} spherical particles in the region of small angles

    SciTech Connect

    Lopatin, V.N.; Shapovalov, K.A.

    1995-05-01

    The integral indicatrix of light scattering from a {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} spherical particle is studied as a function of the phase shift. It is shown analytically in the WKB approximation and numerically on the basis of the Mie theory and the WKB approximation that the dependence of the integral indicatrix on the phase shift is similar to that for the factor of light scattering efficiency. Asymptotic expressions for the integral indicatrix are obtained for large diffraction parameters in the limiting cases of small and large phase shifts in the region of small angles. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Impact of Top Management Team on Firm Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Adopting Commercial Open-Source Enterprise Resource Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereola, Sandra J.; Wier, Benson; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2012-01-01

    Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily…

  7. Outcomes of Opening Wedge Osteotomy to Correct Angular Deformity in Small Finger Clinodactyly

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Samantha L.; Goldfarb, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the outcomes and complications in a series of children with clinodactyly treated with opening wedge osteotomy of the abnormal phalanx. Methods We performed a retrospective review of all children with clinodactyly treated at our institution with opening wedge osteotomy of the abnormal middle phalanx between 2003 and 2013. Patients with concomitant pathology or prior surgery in the affected finger were excluded. Pre and postoperative clinical angle, radiographic angle, digital range of motion, and pain were compared, and complications were recorded. Results Thirteen digits in 9 patients were included. All had greater than 20° of preoperative clinical angulation (mean 36°). Mean age at the time of surgery was 11 years and mean duration of follow-up was 25 months (12–43 months). All digits had significant improvement (mean 32°) in clinical and radiographic angles after surgery. This improvement was maintained at final follow-up in 12 digits. Six patients had pain preoperatively and no patient had pain postoperatively. One digit had a recurrent deformity at final follow-up, and 3 digits developed stiffness at the distal interphalangeal joint. Conclusions Opening wedge osteotomy is an effective treatment for angulation in children with clinodactyly. We counsel families regarding the risk of distal interphalangeal joint stiffness. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV PMID:25754787

  8. Overall Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that they provide. So, to project employment, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) starts by projecting the gross domestic product (GDP) for 2018. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the…

  9. Overall Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that these workers provide. So, to project employment, BLS starts by estimating the components of gross domestic product (GDP) for 2020. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the size--in…

  10. Haemorrhagic necrosis of small intestine and acute pancreatitis following open-heart surgery

    PubMed Central

    Horton, E. H.; Murthy, S. K.; Seal, R. M. E.

    1968-01-01

    Five cases of haemorrhagic necrosis of the small intestine occurring after valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass are described. In one case, in addition to the above, there was an unusual complication, namely acute pancreatitis. The possible causes are discussed. The importance of hypotension before, during, or after bypass, or in the post-operative phase, is stressed. Images PMID:5664708

  11. Goggatomy: A Method for Opening Small Cuticular Compartments in Arthropods for Physiological Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Alan R.; Raccuglia, Davide; Scholte, Jon; Sivan-Loukianova, Elena; Barwacz, Christopher A.; Armstrong, Steven R.; Guymon, C. Allan; Nitabach, Michael N.; Eberl, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Most sense organs of arthropods are ensconced in small exoskeletal compartments that hinder direct access to plasma membranes. We have developed a method for exposing live sensory and supporting cells in such structures. The technique uses a viscous light cured resin to embed and support the structure, which is then sliced with a sharp blade. We term the procedure a “goggatomy,” from the Khoisan word for a bug, gogga. To demonstrate the utility of the method we show that it can be used to expose the auditory chordotonal organs in the second antennal segment and the olfactory receptor neurons in the third antennal segment of Drosophila melanogaster, preserving the transduction machinery. The procedure can also be used on other small arthropods, like mosquitoes and mites to expose a variety of cells. PMID:27695420

  12. Goggatomy: A Method for Opening Small Cuticular Compartments in Arthropods for Physiological Experiments.

    PubMed

    Kay, Alan R; Raccuglia, Davide; Scholte, Jon; Sivan-Loukianova, Elena; Barwacz, Christopher A; Armstrong, Steven R; Guymon, C Allan; Nitabach, Michael N; Eberl, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    Most sense organs of arthropods are ensconced in small exoskeletal compartments that hinder direct access to plasma membranes. We have developed a method for exposing live sensory and supporting cells in such structures. The technique uses a viscous light cured resin to embed and support the structure, which is then sliced with a sharp blade. We term the procedure a "goggatomy," from the Khoisan word for a bug, gogga. To demonstrate the utility of the method we show that it can be used to expose the auditory chordotonal organs in the second antennal segment and the olfactory receptor neurons in the third antennal segment of Drosophila melanogaster, preserving the transduction machinery. The procedure can also be used on other small arthropods, like mosquitoes and mites to expose a variety of cells.

  13. Fueling Open-Source Drug Discovery: 177 Small-Molecule Leads against Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Ballell, Lluís; Bates, Robert H; Young, Rob J; Alvarez-Gomez, Daniel; Alvarez-Ruiz, Emilio; Barroso, Vanessa; Blanco, Delia; Crespo, Benigno; Escribano, Jaime; González, Rubén; Lozano, Sonia; Huss, Sophie; Santos-Villarejo, Angel; Martín-Plaza, José Julio; Mendoza, Alfonso; Rebollo-Lopez, María José; Remuiñan-Blanco, Modesto; Lavandera, José Luis; Pérez-Herran, Esther; Gamo-Benito, Francisco Javier; García-Bustos, José Francisco; Barros, David; Castro, Julia P; Cammack, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of fuelling open-source, translational, early-stage drug discovery activities, the results of the recently completed antimycobacterial phenotypic screening campaign against Mycobacterium bovis BCG with hit confirmation in M. tuberculosis H37Rv were made publicly accessible. A set of 177 potent non-cytotoxic H37Rv hits was identified and will be made available to maximize the potential impact of the compounds toward a chemical genetics/proteomics exercise, while at the same time providing a plethora of potential starting points for new synthetic lead-generation activities. Two additional drug-discovery-relevant datasets are included: a) a drug-like property analysis reflecting the latest lead-like guidelines and b) an early lead-generation package of the most promising hits within the clusters identified. PMID:23307663

  14. A comparison of methods for estimating open-water evaporation in small wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, Jason R.; Stannard, David I.

    2010-01-01

    We compared evaporation measurements from a floating pan, land pan, chamber, and the Priestley-Taylor (PT) equation. Floating pan, land pan, and meteorological data were collected from June 6 to July 21, 2005, at a small wetland in the Canadian River alluvium in central Oklahoma, USA. Evaporation measured with the floating pan compared favorably to 12 h chamber measurements. Differences between chamber and floating pan rates ranged from −0.2 to 0.3 mm, mean of 0.1 mm. The difference between chamber and land pan rates ranged from 0.8 to 2.0 mm, mean of 1.5 mm. The mean chamber-to-floating pan ratio was 0.97 and the mean chamber-to-land pan ratio was 0.73. The chamber-to-floating pan ratio of 0.97 indicates the use of a floating pan to measure evaporation in small limited-fetch water bodies is an appropriate and accurate method for the site investigated. One-sided Paired t-Tests indicate daily floating pan rates were significantly less than land pan and PT rates. A two-sided Paired t-Test indicated there was no significant difference between land pan and PT values. The PT equation tends to overestimate evaporation during times when the air is of low drying power and tends to underestimate as drying power increases.

  15. Multicopter-based small format aerial photography using free and open source photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Robert Matthew

    A process is described to convert aerial photographs from flat images to 3D point clouds and then convert into height maps to be used as pseudo digital elevation models for surface modeling. All software used in the process is either free or open source. The process uses a DJI Phanton multicoper and two Canon Point and Shoot digital cameras. One camera is unaltered, and a second camera is modified to produce infrared images. A DJI Phantom FC-40 multicopter is used as the aerial platform to carry the cameras. Multiple paths are described to convert from still images (or video to still images) to N-view matches, followed by sparse point clouds then dense point clouds. Point clouds are distinct 3D points charted in an XYZ coordinate system. The dense point clouds can be converted into 3D models for viewing and analysis. A height map is extracted from the point cloud and surface images (in raster format) are created and then used in QGIS or ArcMap as pseudo digital elevation models for surface modeling. Finally, the digital elevation models are evaluated in comparison to similar LIDAR images. Keywords: Passive Remote Sensing; LIDAR; Spatial Resolution.

  16. Blood flow response in small intestinal loops at different depths during negative pressure wound therapy of the open abdomen.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, Sandra; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2013-08-01

    High closure rates of the open abdomen have been reported following negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, the method has occasionally been associated with increased development of intestinal fistulae. We have previously shown that the application of NPWT to the open abdomen causes a decrease in microvascular blood flow in the small intestinal loop and the omentum adjacent to the visceral protective layer of the dressing. In this study we investigate whether the negative pressure affects only small intestinal loops lying directly below the dressing or if it also affects small intestinal loops that are not in direct contact with the dressing. Six pigs underwent midline incision and application of NPWT to the open abdomen. The microvascular blood flow was measured in four intestinal loops at different depths from the visceral protective layer, at two different locations: beneath the dressing and at the anterior abdominal wall, before and after the application of NPWT of -50, -70, -100, -120, -150 and -170 mmHg, using laser Doppler velocimetry. Negative pressures between -50 and -170 mmHg caused a significant decrease in the microvascular blood flow in the intestinal loops in direct contact with the visceral protective layer. A slight, but significant, decrease in blood flow was also seen in the intestinal loops lying beneath these loops. The decrease in microvascular blood flow increased with the amount of negative pressure applied. No difference in blood flow was seen in the intestinal loops lying deeper in the abdominal cavity. A decrease in blood flow was seen in the upper two intestinal loops located apically and anteriorly, but not in the lower two, indicating that this is a local effect and that pressure decreases with distance from the source. A long-term decrease in blood flow in the intestinal wall may induce ischaemia and secondary necrosis in the intestinal wall, which could promote the development of intestinal fistulae. We believe that NPWT of

  17. Oscillations in rational economies.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    Economic (business) cycles are some of the most noted features of market economies, also ranked among the most serious of economic problems. Despite long historical persistence, the nature and the origin of business cycles remain controversial. In this paper we investigate the problem of the nature of business cycles from the positions of the market systems viewed as complex systems of many interacting market agents. We show that the development of cyclic instabilities in these settings can be traced down to just two fundamental factors - the competition of market agents for market shares in the settings of an open market, and the depression of market caused by accumulation of durable overproduced commodities on the market. These findings present the problem of business cycles in a new light as a systemic property of efficient market systems emerging directly from the free market competition itself, and existing in market economies at a very fundamental level.

  18. Oscillations in Rational Economies

    PubMed Central

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    Economic (business) cycles are some of the most noted features of market economies, also ranked among the most serious of economic problems. Despite long historical persistence, the nature and the origin of business cycles remain controversial. In this paper we investigate the problem of the nature of business cycles from the positions of the market systems viewed as complex systems of many interacting market agents. We show that the development of cyclic instabilities in these settings can be traced down to just two fundamental factors – the competition of market agents for market shares in the settings of an open market, and the depression of market caused by accumulation of durable overproduced commodities on the market. These findings present the problem of business cycles in a new light as a systemic property of efficient market systems emerging directly from the free market competition itself, and existing in market economies at a very fundamental level. PMID:24505319

  19. Implementing ILDs and Assessment in Small-enrollment, Calculus-based Physics Classes -- Lessons, Observations and Open Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason-McCaffrey, Deborah

    2011-04-01

    At Salem State, we offer a Physics minor, but most of our teaching load is support courses for other science majors and a lab sequence which satisfies the University's core education requirement. In three years of using assessments and ILDs in small-enrollment calculus-based Physics classes, there has been a significant implementation learning curve, there are encouraging results, a few cautions, and still some open questions to report. ILDs can be highly effective teaching tools. They do require significant advance preparation as well as a safe environment for student participation. Motivating students to do their best on assessment pre- and post-tests can also be difficult. Strategies for motivating assessment performance, experiments using clickers to encourage participation in ILDs, and modifying and developing home-grown ILDs are discussed.

  20. Antimatter Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Norm

    2004-05-01

    The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.

  1. Practical Token Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackerby, W. F.

    1988-01-01

    The article discusses special considerations in applying standard token economy techniques to behavior change with the head injured with examples of token economies at three rehabilitation facilities. (DB)

  2. 76 FR 63715 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Doc No: 2011-26405] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer... AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel...

  3. 76 FR 6189 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner... Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will...

  4. Energy efficiency in the US economy technical report four: Analysis of energy-efficiency investment decisions by small and medium-sized manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report highlights the results of a comprehensive analysis of investment decisions regarding energy-efficiency measures at small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The analysis is based primarily on the experiences of companies participating in the US Department of Energy`s Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program.

  5. Resource Use in Small Island States

    PubMed Central

    Krausmann, Fridolin; Richter, Regina; Eisenmenger, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Iceland and Trinidad and Tobago are small open, high-income island economies with very specific resource-use patterns. This article presents a material flow analysis (MFA) for the two countries covering a time period of nearly five decades. Both countries have a narrow domestic resource base, their economy being largely based on the exploitation of one or two key resources for export production. In the case of Trinidad and Tobago, the physical economy is dominated by oil and natural gas extraction and petrochemical industries, whereas Iceland's economy for centuries has been based on fisheries. More recently, abundant hydropower and geothermal heat were the basis for the establishment of large export-oriented metal processing industries, which fully depend on imported raw materials and make use of domestic renewable electricity. Both countries are highly dependent on these natural resources and vulnerable to overexploitation and price developments. We show how the export-oriented industries lead to high and growing levels of per capita material and energy use and carbon dioxide emissions resulting from large amounts of processing wastes and energy consumption in production processes. The example of small open economies with an industrial production system focused on few, but abundant, key resources and of comparatively low complexity provides interesting insights of how resource endowment paired with availability or absence of infrastructure and specific institutional arrangements drives domestic resource-use patterns. This also contributes to a better understanding and interpretation of MFA indicators, such as domestic material consumption. PMID:25505367

  6. A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground-mobile and aerial emission sampling from open area sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from open area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications including tethered balloons ...

  7. [Economy class syndrome].

    PubMed

    Morio, Hiroshi

    2003-10-01

    Economy class syndrome is venous thromboembolism following air travel. This syndrome was firstly reported in 1946, and many cases have been reported since 1990s. Low air pressure and low humidity in the aircraft cabin may contribute to the mechanism of this syndrome. Risk factors for venous thrombosis in the plane were old age, small height, obesity, hormonal therapy, malignancy, smoking, pregnancy or recent parturition, recent trauma or operation, chronic disease and history of venous thrombosis. In Japan, the feminine gender is also risk factor though reason was not well known. For prophylaxis, adequate fluid intake and leg exercise are recommended to all passengers. For passengers with high risk, prophylactic measures such as compression stockings, aspirin or low molecular weight heparin should be considered.

  8. Understanding the New Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  9. An Analysis of Small-Business Concerns and Naval Open Architecture: Options to Facilitate Small-Business Participation in the Department of the Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    within the Department of the Navy (DON) has been built on a foundation that Naval Open Architecture ( NOA ) will provide an increase in competition, a...achieving these benefits. There have been mixed reviews of NOA and there is research to suggest that there are barriers to SBC participation in the DON...market. Through NOA the DON would like to foster an environment that encourages the SBC to participate in the competition for DON Contracts thus

  10. An Open Door and a Leg Up: Increasing Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business (SDVOSB) Participation in Defense Contracting Through Simplified Acquisitions (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    An Open Door and a Leg Up: Increasing Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business (SDVOSB) Participation in Defense Contracting Through...Jennifer Lee, MSCM Department of the Navy Contracts Specialist Naval Postgraduate School Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...Defense Contracting Through Simplified Acquisitions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  11. Potential Effects of a Scenario Earthquake on the Economy of Southern California: Small Business Exposure and Sensitivity Analysis to a Magnitude 7.8 Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Hester, David J.; Wein, Anne M.

    2008-01-01

    The Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and various partners from the public and private sectors and academia, meant to improve Southern California's resiliency to natural hazards (Jones and others, 2007). In support of the MHDP objectives, the ShakeOut Scenario was developed. It describes a magnitude 7.8 (M7.8) earthquake along the southernmost 300 kilometers (200 miles) of the San Andreas Fault, identified by geoscientists as a plausible event that will cause moderate to strong shaking over much of the eight-county (Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura) Southern California region. This report contains an exposure and sensitivity analysis of small businesses in terms of labor and employment statistics. Exposure is measured as the absolute counts of labor market variables anticipated to experience each level of Instrumental Intensity (a proxy measure of damage). Sensitivity is the percentage of the exposure of each business establishment size category to each Instrumental Intensity level. The analysis concerns the direct effect of the earthquake on small businesses. The analysis is inspired by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) report that analyzed the labor market losses (exposure) of a M6.9 earthquake on the Hayward fault by overlaying geocoded labor market data on Instrumental Intensity values. The method used here is influenced by the ZIP-code-level data provided by the California Employment Development Department (CA EDD), which requires the assignment of Instrumental Intensities to ZIP codes. The ZIP-code-level labor market data includes the number of business establishments, employees, and quarterly payroll categorized by business establishment size.

  12. A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground-mobile and aerial emission sampling from open area sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaochi; Aurell, Johanna; Mitchell, William; Tabor, Dennis; Gullett, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from open area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and time-integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications such as vehicles, tethered balloons (aerostats) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to determine emission factors. The system is particularly applicable to open area sources, such as forest fires, due to its light weight (3.5 kg), compact size (6.75 L), and internal power supply. The sensor system, termed "Kolibri", consists of sensors measuring CO2 and CO, and samplers for particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Kolibri is controlled by a microcontroller which can record and transfer data in real time through a radio module. Selection of the sensors was based on laboratory testing for accuracy, response delay and recovery, cross-sensitivity, and precision. The Kolibri was compared against rack-mounted continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMs) and another mobile sampling instrument (the "Flyer") that has been used in over ten open area pollutant sampling events. Our results showed that the time series of CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations measured by the Kolibri agreed well with those from the CEMs and the Flyer, with a laboratory-tested percentage error of 4.9%, 3%, and 5.8%, respectively. The VOC emission factors obtained using the Kolibri were consistent with existing literature values that relate concentration to modified combustion efficiency. The potential effect of rotor downwash on particle sampling was investigated in an indoor laboratory and the preliminary results suggested that its influence is minimal. Field application of the Kolibri sampling open detonation plumes indicated that the CO and CO2 sensors responded dynamically and their concentrations co-varied with emission transients. The Kolibri system can be applied to various challenging open area scenarios such as

  13. Growing a market economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  14. Economic Openness and the Marginalization of Small Family Farmers: Aligning Curriculum To Meet the Needs of Rural Adolescents in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Audrey-Marie Schuh

    Economic liberalization and the rise of global competition have increased the importance of agricultural, technical, and business skills for small farmers in Brazil. However, many rural farmers are unable to attend agricultural technical schools due to low educational attainment. The first section of this paper discusses the impact that…

  15. An Azulene-Containing Low Bandgap Small Molecule for Organic Photovoltaics with High Open-Circuit Voltage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Zhu, Youqin; Yang, Daobin; Zhao, Suling; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Lin; Wu, Jianglin; Huang, Yan; Xu, Zheng; Lu, Zhiyun

    2016-10-04

    A simple azulene-containing squaraine dye (AzUSQ) showing bandgap of 1.38 eV and hole mobility up to 1.25×10(-4)  cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) was synthesized. With its low bandgap, an organic photovoltaic (OPV) device based on it has been made that exhibits an impressive open-circuit voltages (Voc ) of 0.80 V. Hence, azulene might be a promising structural unit to construct OPV materials with simultaneous low bandgap, high hole mobility and high Voc .

  16. The Exosome and Trans-Acting Small Interfering RNAs Regulate Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis during Arabidopsis Inflorescence Stem Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Patricia; Zhao, Lifang; Eveleigh, Nathan; Yu, Yu; Chen, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    The primary aerial surfaces of land plants are covered with a cuticle, a protective layer composed of the cutin polyester matrix and cuticular waxes. Previously, we discovered a unique mechanism of regulating cuticular wax biosynthesis during Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stem elongation that involves ECERIFERUM7 (CER7), a core subunit of the exosome. Because loss-of-function mutations in CER7 result in reduced expression of the wax biosynthetic gene CER3, we proposed that CER7 is involved in degrading a messenger RNA encoding a CER3 repressor. To identify this putative repressor, we performed a cer7 suppressor screen that resulted in the isolation of the posttranscriptional gene-silencing components RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE1 and SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3, indicating that small RNAs regulate CER3 expression. To establish the identity of the effector RNA species and determine whether these RNAs control CER3 transcript levels directly, we cloned additional genes identified in our suppressor screen and performed next-generation sequencing of small RNA populations that differentially accumulate in the cer7 mutant in comparison with the wild type. Our results demonstrate that the trans-acting small interfering RNA class of small RNAs are the effector molecules involved in direct silencing of CER3 and that the expression of five additional genes (EARLY RESPONSE TO DEHYDRATION14, AUXIN RESISTANT1, a translation initiation factor SUI1 family protein, and two genes of unknown function) is controlled by both CER7 and trans-acting small interfering RNAs. PMID:25502190

  17. A reliable, low-cost picture archiving and communications system for small and medium veterinary practices built using open-source technology.

    PubMed

    Iotti, Bryan; Valazza, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) are the most needed system in a modern hospital. As an integral part of the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard, they are charged with the responsibility for secure storage and accessibility of the diagnostic imaging data. These machines need to offer high performance, stability, and security while proving reliable and ergonomic in the day-to-day and long-term storage and retrieval of the data they safeguard. This paper reports the experience of the authors in developing and installing a compact and low-cost solution based on open-source technologies in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for the University of Torino, Italy, during the course of the summer of 2012. The PACS server was built on low-cost x86-based hardware and uses an open source operating system derived from Oracle OpenSolaris (Oracle Corporation, Redwood City, CA, USA) to host the DCM4CHEE PACS DICOM server (DCM4CHEE, http://www.dcm4che.org ). This solution features very high data security and an ergonomic interface to provide easy access to a large amount of imaging data. The system has been in active use for almost 2 years now and has proven to be a scalable, cost-effective solution for practices ranging from small to very large, where the use of different hardware combinations allows scaling to the different deployments, while the use of paravirtualization allows increased security and easy migrations and upgrades.

  18. Importance of small-block rotations in damage zones along transcurrent faults. Evidence from the Chuquicamata open pit, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astudillo, N.; Roperch, P.; Townley, B.; Arriagada, C.; Maksaev, V.

    2008-04-01

    Chuquicamata, in northern Chile, is one of the largest porphyry copper deposits in the world; the western side of its orebody is bounded by a major longitudinal fault, the West fault. We report paleomagnetic results from surface sites and drill cores from different geological units at Chuquicamata, especially within the late Eocene Fiesta granodiorite of the western block of the West fault. Characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRM) were determined after detailed thermal or alternating field demagnetization. Soft components carried by multidomain magnetite crystals in the Fiesta granodiorite were removed by AF demagnetization at 10-20 mT. The ChRMs, not demagnetized by alternating fields up to 100 mT, have unblocking temperatures above 580 °C with ~ 75% of the magnetization removed in the temperature range of 580-590 °C. Optical and SEM mineralogical observations, and microprobe data indicate the occurrence of multidomain magnetite formed during a late magmatic stage of alteration coeval with strong oxidation of primary titanomagnetite and formation of ilmenite, hematite, pseudobrookite, and rutile. The characteristic directions have negative inclinations and declinations (330° to 230°); strongly deflected from the expected Eocene direction. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), with degree up to 1.4, is carried by multidomain magnetite. AMS ellipsoids have subvertical foliations with azimuth varying strongly from N280° to N20°. We show that both the ChRMs and the AMS fabrics record the same apparent relative rotations between sites. Although the AMS anisotropy is high, there is no evidence for a solid-state deformation and the apparent rotation of the magnetic fabric is interpreted to be the consequence of small-block rotation. The apparent large (> 100°) counterclockwise rotations of small blocks within the Fiesta granodiorite suggest a wide damaged zone related to sinistral displacement along the West fault. This interpretation is consistent

  19. Assessing the impacts of canopy openness and flight parameters on detecting a sub-canopy tropical invasive plant using a small unmanned aerial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perroy, Ryan L.; Sullivan, Timo; Stephenson, Nathan

    2017-03-01

    Small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) have great potential to facilitate the early detection and management of invasive plants. Here we show how very high-resolution optical imagery, collected from small consumer-grade multirotor UAS platform at altitudes of 30-120 m above ground level (agl), can be used to detect individual miconia (Miconia calvescens) plants in a highly invaded tropical rainforest environment on the island of Hawai'i. The central aim of this research was to determine how overstory vegetation cover, imagery resolution, and camera look-angle impact the aerial detection of known individual miconia plants. For our finest resolution imagery (1.37 cm ground sampling distance collected at 30 m agl), we obtained a 100% detection rate for sub-canopy plants with above-crown openness values >40% and a 69% detection rate for those with >20% openness. We were unable to detect any plants with <10% above crown openness. Detection rates progressively declined with coarser spatial resolution imagery, ending in a 0% detection rate for the 120 m agl flights (ground sampling distance of 5.31 cm). The addition of forward-looking oblique imagery improved detection rates for plants below overstory vegetation, though this effect decreased with increasing flight altitude. While dense overstory canopy cover, limited flight times, and visual line of sight regulations present formidable obstacles for detecting miconia and other invasive plant species, we show that sUAS platforms carrying optical sensors can be an effective component of an integrated management plan within challenging subcanopy forest environments.

  20. Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

  1. The Effects: Economy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nutrient pollution has diverse and far-reaching effects on the U.S. economy, impacting tourism, property values, commercial fishing, recreational businesses and many other sectors that depend on clean water.

  2. Observing the economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, Stan

    2009-07-01

    In "The (unfortunate) complexity of the economy" (April pp28-32) Jean-Philippe Bouchaud presents clear evidence that traditional assumptions of rational markets have to be abandoned. The old investor slogan "buy on promise, sell on rumour" quickly magnifies a downturn into a crisis, which triggers two questions. If physics-based models are applied (beyond understanding and prediction) to actual market decisions, does this make the economy more or less stable? And, is this cause for stronger regulation?

  3. Supporting Innovation in Developing and Transitional Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Examines the impact of innovative entrepreneurship and the needs of developing and transitional economies. Outlines the operation of the European Commission's Business and Innovation Centres. Suggests that innovation must be viewed as a major issue in all enterprises and that greater recognition be given to the role of innovative small and…

  4. All-arthroscopic versus mini-open repair of small or moderate-sized rotator cuff tears: A protocol for a randomized trial [NCT00128076

    PubMed Central

    MacDermid, Joy C; Holtby, Richard; Razmjou, Helen; Bryant, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff tears are the most common source of shoulder pain and disability. Only poor quality studies have compared mini-open to arthroscopic repair, leaving surgeons with inadequate evidence to support optimal, minimally-invasive repair. Methods/Design This randomized, multi-centre, national trial will determine whether an arthroscopic or mini-open repair provides better quality of life for patients with small or moderate-sized rotator cuff tears. A national consensus meeting of investigators in the Joint Orthopaedic Initiative for National Trials of the Shoulder (JOINTS Canada) identified this question as the top priority for shoulder surgeons across Canada. The primary outcome measure is a valid quality-of-life scale (Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC)) that addresses 5 domains of health affected by rotator cuff disease. Secondary outcomes will assess rotator cuff functionality (ROM, strength, Constant score), secondary dimensions of health (general health status (SF-12) and work limitations), and repair integrity (MRI). Outcomes are measured at baseline, at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months post-operatively by blinded research assistants and musculoskeletal radiologists. Patients (n = 250) with small or medium-sized cuff tears identified by clinical examination and MRI who meet eligibility criteria will be recruited. This sample size will provide 80% power to statistically detect a clinically important difference of 20% in WORC scores between procedures after controlling for baseline WORC score (α = 0.05). A central methods centre will manage randomization, data management, and monitoring under supervision of experienced epidemiologists. Surgeons will participate in either conventional or expertise-based designs according to defined criteria to avoid biases from differential surgeon expertise. Mini-open or all-arthroscopic repair procedures will be performed according to a standardized protocol. Central Adjudication (of cases), Trial Oversight

  5. Componentry of pyroclastic fall deposits from 2008-2012 small explosive eruptions at Kilauea summit crater: insights into the dynamics of an open basaltic lava column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eychenne, J.; Houghton, B. F.; Swanson, D.; Orr, T. R.; Carey, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Eruptive activity began at Kilauea volcano's summit in March 2008 after 25 years of repose, when a small explosive event opened a 35-m-wide vent on the south wall of Halema`uma`u crater, initiating an eruptive period that extends to the time of writing. The activity has been characterized by: 1) a vigorous outgassing, 2) an unevenly intense spattering of the free surface at the top of the lava column (background activity), and 3) the occurrence of small explosive events consistently triggered by conduit-wall and/or rim collapses. A daily sampling of the pyroclasts ejected from the vent has been organized by the Hawaii Volcano Observatory since 2008. The componentry analyses of samples collected prior to and following different events from 2008 to 2012 allow us to distinguish consistent classes of juvenile particles according to their vesicularity, crystallinity and morphology. The abundances of these different classes vary from background- to explosion-samples, revealing consistent contrasting degassing and fragmentation processes before the disruption of the lava free surface by the rockfalls, and during and soon after the explosive events. These results, for samples collected in 2011-2012 combined with geophysical and visual datasets, give insights into the dynamics of the lava column and particularly into the behavior of the top of the column responding to outgassing and external disruption of the free surface-equilibrium state.

  6. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-04-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  7. Influence of the indium tin oxide/organic interface on open-circuit voltage, recombination, and cell degradation in organic small-molecule solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Stefan; Petersen, Andreas; Wagner, Thomas A.; Kniprath, Rolf; Lingenfelser, Dominic; Zen, Achmad; Kirchartz, Thomas; Zimmermann, Birger; Würfel, Uli; Feng, Xianjin; Mayer, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the performance and stability of small-molecule organic solar cells with respect to the indium tin oxide (ITO)/organic interface. Different zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc)/fullerene (C60) cell architectures with and without ITO O2-plasma treatment are compared and tested with respect to their degradation behavior under illumination in inert atmosphere. Photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS and XPS) shows that the O2-plasma treatment increases the ITO work function from 4.3 eV up to 5.6 eV. We find that both the increased ITO work function as well as the introduction of an electron blocking layer between ITO and the mixed donor/acceptor layer increases the open-circuit voltage Voc by more than 200 mV. For both cases our continuum approach device simulation quantitatively relates the increase of Voc to a reduced contact recombination and thus a reduced dark current. For cells built on ozone treated ITO we find a fast cell degradation caused by the UV part of the AM 1.5 spectrum. We identify the degradation, which manifests itself in a decrease of Voc of up to 25%, as a partial reversion of the plasma induced ITO work function increase. Additionally, we demonstrate that the degradation can be reduced by structural changes in the cell architecture, leading to improved cell stability. We present a comprehensive study of the recombination at the ITO/organic interface and its influence on the open-circuit voltage and the cell stability.

  8. Equality and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The two big events in higher education during 2010 were the implementation of the Equality Act, and the introduction of a new dispensation on fees and funding. The former is intended to promote equality, the latter is premised on the need for economy. In this article, the author focuses on the effect of the latter on the former. He considers this…

  9. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  10. Fueling the Green Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, James

    2009-01-01

    The Obama administration, along with many others, has placed a high priority on accelerating the nation's transition to a cleaner, greener economy. Transforming the nation's economic, energy, and environmental systems to become more sustainable will require a level of expertise, innovation, and cooperation unseen since the 1940s war effort. Public…

  11. Economy of Command

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, David Peter

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a principle of "economy of command", arguing that it provides a simple and natural explanation for some well-known properties of human language syntax. The focus is on the abstract combinatorial system that constructs the hierarchical structure of linguistic expressions, with long-distance dependencies…

  12. The College Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.

    2012-01-01

    As the United States grinds its way through a halting economic recovery, one thing has become abundantly clear: The recession of 2007 continues to reshape the economy in significant and permanent ways. Perhaps the most profound change is the accelerating disappearance of good-paying jobs that require only a high-school education or less. That…

  13. Costs and Potential Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottomley, J. A.; And Others

    The University of Bradford was designated as the target for research directed toward identifying potential economies in the teaching of students under alternative sets of assumptions, in order that action may be taken to secure a more economic use of resources in the higher education sector. Part one looks generally at the nature of university…

  14. Airline Safety and Economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and economy in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.

  15. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  16. Token Economies in Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Richard T.; Nicholas, Heather

    1973-01-01

    Behavior modification has become a widely known practice in rehabilitation during the past decade. A medium of exchange or token is typically used to facilitate transactions and can be traded for backup reinforcers later on. This review of the use of token economies focuses on groups of individuals usually considered target rehabilitation…

  17. Realizing Small Energy Loss of 0.55 eV, High Open-Circuit Voltage >1 V and High Efficiency >10% in Fullerene-Free Polymer Solar Cells via Energy Driver.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pei; Zhang, Mingyu; Lau, Tsz-Ki; Wu, Yao; Jia, Boyu; Wang, Jiayu; Yan, Cenqi; Qin, Meng; Lu, Xinhui; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2017-03-01

    A new, easy, and efficient approach is reported to enhance the driving force for charge transfer, break tradeoff between open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current, and simultaneously achieve very small energy loss (0.55 eV), very high open-circuit voltage (>1 V), and very high efficiency (>10%) in fullerene-free organic solar cells via an energy driver.

  18. The Knowledge Economy and Higher Education: Rankings and Classifications, Research Metrics and Learning Outcomes Measures as a System for Regulating the Value of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the global knowledge economy (the k-economy), comprised by (1) open source knowledge flows and (2) commercial markets in intellectual property and knowledge-intensive goods. Like all economy the global knowledge economy is a site of production. It is also social and cultural, taking the form of a one-world community mediated…

  19. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  20. Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastalich, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

  1. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  2. Washout rate in rat brain irradiated by a 11C beam after acetazolamide loading using a small single-ring OpenPET prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Nakajima, Yasunori; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-03-01

    In dose verification techniques of particle therapies based on in-beam positron emission tomography (PET), the causes of washout of positron emitters by physiological effects should be clarified to correct washout for accurate verification. As well, the quantitative washout rate has a potential usefulness as a diagnostic index which should be explored. Therefore, we measured washout rates of rat brain after vasodilator acetazolamide loading to investigate the possible effects of blood flow on washout. Six rat brains were irradiated by a radioisotope 11C beam and time activity curves on the whole brains were obtained with a small single-ring OpenPET prototype. Then, washout rates were calculated with the Mizuno model, where two washout rates (k 2m and k 2s ) were assumed, and a two-compartment model including efflux from tissue to blood (k 2) and influx (k 3) and efflux (k 4) between the two tissue compartments. Before the irradiations, we used laser-Doppler flowmetry to confirm that acetazolamide increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) of a rat. We compared means of k 2m , k 2s and k 2, k 3 and k 4 without acetazolamide loading (Rest) and with acetazolamide loading (ACZ). For all k values, ACZ values were lower than Rest values. In other words, though CBF increased, washout rates were decreased. This may be attributed to the implanted 11C reacting to form 11CO2. Because acetazolamide increased the concentration of CO2 in brain, suppressed diffusion of 11CO2 and decomposition of 11CO2 into ions were prevented.

  3. High open-circuit voltage small-molecule p-DTS(FBTTh 2 )2.ICBA bulk heterojunction solar cells – morphology, excited-state dynamics, and photovoltaic performance

    DOE PAGES

    Ko Kyaw, Aung Ko; Gehrig, Dominik; Zhang, Jie; ...

    2014-11-27

    The photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using the solution-processable small molecule donor 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 in combination with indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA) as an acceptor is systematically optimized by altering the processing conditions. A high open-circuit voltage of 1 V, more than 0.2 V higher than that of a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM blend, is achieved. However, the power conversion efficiency remains around 5% and thus is lower than ~8% previously reported for p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM. Transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy over a wide spectral (Vis-NIR) and dynamic (fs to μs) range in combination with multivariate curve resolution analysis of the TA data reveals thatmore » generation of free charges is more efficient in the blend with PC70BM as an acceptor. In contrast, blends with ICBA create more coulombically bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states, which recombine on the sub-nanosecond timescale by geminate recombination. Furthermore, the ns to μs charge carrier dynamics in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:ICBA blends are only weakly intensity dependent implying a significant contribution of recombination from long-lived CT states and trapped charges, while those in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM decay via an intensity-dependent recombination mechanism indicating that spatially separated (free) charge carriers are observed, which can be extracted as photocurrent from the device.« less

  4. Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvatić, Davor; Bajić, Slavica Cosović; Pehlivanović, Bećo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-10-01

    In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter γ characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, γ experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, γ experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

  5. The real new economy.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments.

  6. The Methanol Economy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Olah, George; Prakash, G. K.

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  7. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel cell vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2004-01-01

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  8. Oil and the British economy

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, F.; Hall, S.

    1983-01-01

    Despite the 1976 discovery of North Sea oil, the British economy has floundered in the early 1980s. To uncover the reasons behind this predicament, the authors examine the North Sea oil sector, show the impact of its recent development on the British economy, and analyze the automatic responses of an economy to the development of such a new sector, the ''Kay debate,'' and the experience of six other countries with oil and the manufacturing industry.

  9. Whole System Carbon Exchange of Small Stands of Pinus Ponderosa Growing at Different CO{sub 2} concentrations in open top chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J. Timothy; Ross, Peter D.; Picone, John B.; Eichelmann, Hillar Y.; Ross, Gregory N.

    1996-12-01

    Functional understanding of the carbon cycle from the molecular to the global level is a high scientific priority requiring explanation of the relationship between fluxes at different spatial and temporal scales. We describe methods used to convert an open top chamber into both closed and open flow gas exchange systems utilized to measure such fluxes. The systems described consist of temporary modifications to an open top chamber, and are put in place for several days on one or several open top chambers. In the closed system approach, a chamber is quickly sealed for a short, predetermined time interval, the change in gas concentrations is measured, then the chamber is unsealed and ventilated. In the open flow system approach, airflow into the open top chamber is measured by trace gas injection, and the air stream concentration of CO{sub 2} and water vapor is measured before and after injection into the chamber. The closed chamber approach can resolve smaller fluxes, but causes transient increases in chamber air temperature, and has a high labor requirement. The open flow approach reduces the deviation of measuring conditions from ambient, may be semi-automated (requiring less labor), allows a more frequent sampling interval, but cannot resolve low fluxes well. Data demonstrating the capabilities of these systems show that, in open canopies of ponderosa pine, scaling fluxes from leaves to whole canopies is well approximated from summation of leaf P{sub s} rates. Flux measurements obtained from these systems can be a valuable contribution to our understanding whole system material fluxes, and challenge our understanding of ecosystem carbon budgets.

  10. Learning for Development from within and beyond the Reef: Early Implementations of Open Distance Learning and Use of Open Educational Resources (OER) for the Teaching of English in a Small Island State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse Vaái, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The following article examines the beginnings of open distance learning and use of OER by the National University of Samoa Faculty of Education to address an identified national need for more teachers and to improve their quality. It highlights related challenges in the training of teachers and how different and new modes of learning are not…

  11. Thriving locally in the global economy.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2003-08-01

    More and more small and midsize companies are joining corporate giants in striving to exploit international growth markets. At the same time, civic leaders worry about their communities' economic future in light of the impact of global forces on the operation and survival of business. How can communities retain local vitality yet still link their business to the global economy? Harvard professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter addresses that question in this classic HBR article, orginally published in 1995. To avoid a clash between international economic interests and local political interests, globalizing business must learn how to be responsive to the communities in which they operate, Kanter says. And communities must determine how to create a civic culture that will attract and retain footloose companies. The author surveyed five U.S. regions with direct connections to the global economy--Boston, Cleveland, Miami, Seattle, and the Spartanburg-Greenville region of South Carolina--to determine their business and civic leader's strategies for improving their constituent's quality of life. She identified ways in which the global economy can work locally by capitalizing on the resources that distinguish one place from another. Kanter argues that regions can invest in capabilities that connect their local populations to the global economy in one of three ways: as thinkers, makers, or traders. She points to the Spartanburg-Greenville region as a good example of a world-class makers, with its exceptional blue-collar workforce that has attracted more than 200 companies from 18 countries. The history of the economic development of this region is a lesson for those seeking to understand how to achieve world-class status and bring local residents into the world economy.

  12. Economy, Academy, and Community College Faculty: A Mission Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Mary Melissa

    2009-01-01

    In the face of 21st century economic challenges, community colleges must contend with complex pressures on their mission. The dueling missions of academic transfer and workforce preparation must sustain and grow the American economy in a global market and simultaneously meet the promise to community college students--open access to quality higher…

  13. The Open University Opens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Jeremy, Ed.

    Conceived by the British Labor Government in the 1960's the Open University was viewed as a way to extend higher education to Britain's working class, but enrollment figures in classes that represent traditional academic disciplines show that the student population is predominantly middle class. Bringing education into the home presents numerous…

  14. Fuel Economy Testing and Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Fuel Economy pages provide information on current standards and how federal agencies work to enforce those laws, testing for national Corporate Average Fuel Economy or CAFE standards, and what you can do to reduce your own vehicle emissions.

  15. Virtual Economies: Threats and Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Hammer, Jessica; Camp, Jean; Callas, Jon; Bond, Mike

    In virtual economies, human and computer players produce goods and services, hold assets, and trade them with other in-game entities, in the same way that people and corporations participate in "real-world" economies. As the border between virtual worlds and the real world grows more and more permeable, privacy and security in virtual worlds matter more and more.

  16. Why Classroom Token Economies Fail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabman, Ronald S.; Tucker, Richard D.

    1974-01-01

    The reasons for clinical failures of classroom token economies are divided into three groups: (1) Problems associated with the token program itself, (2) Problems associated with the teacher, and (3) Problems associated with the specific population on which the classroom token economy is used. Each of these problem areas is discussed. (Author)

  17. Can Education Save the Economy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noy, Michelle; Zeidenberg, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The recent global economic downturn is causing U.S. workers and employers to look to the educational system for skills that will allow them to thrive when the economy recovers. Education alone cannot save the economy. Much larger forces are at work, such as international equity and debt markets, the banking crisis, and the deflation of consumer …

  18. Implementation of an Open-Loop Rule-Based Control Strategy for a Hybrid-Electric Propulsion System On a Small RPA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    ix List of Figures Figure 1: Series hybrid configuration [12... Electromotive Force (V) Um Electric Motor Open Circuit Voltage (V) u Clutch Displacement Angle (rad) Vbat Battery Voltage (V) Vd Cylinder Displacement...of three areas: series hybrid, parallel hybrid, and the power-split hybrid. A great number of these designs incorporate the gasoline internal

  19. Resource Use in Small Island States: Material Flows in Iceland and Trinidad and Tobago, 1961-2008.

    PubMed

    Krausmann, Fridolin; Richter, Regina; Eisenmenger, Nina

    2014-04-01

    Iceland and Trinidad and Tobago are small open, high-income island economies with very specific resource-use patterns. This article presents a material flow analysis (MFA) for the two countries covering a time period of nearly five decades. Both countries have a narrow domestic resource base, their economy being largely based on the exploitation of one or two key resources for export production. In the case of Trinidad and Tobago, the physical economy is dominated by oil and natural gas extraction and petrochemical industries, whereas Iceland's economy for centuries has been based on fisheries. More recently, abundant hydropower and geothermal heat were the basis for the establishment of large export-oriented metal processing industries, which fully depend on imported raw materials and make use of domestic renewable electricity. Both countries are highly dependent on these natural resources and vulnerable to overexploitation and price developments. We show how the export-oriented industries lead to high and growing levels of per capita material and energy use and carbon dioxide emissions resulting from large amounts of processing wastes and energy consumption in production processes. The example of small open economies with an industrial production system focused on few, but abundant, key resources and of comparatively low complexity provides interesting insights of how resource endowment paired with availability or absence of infrastructure and specific institutional arrangements drives domestic resource-use patterns. This also contributes to a better understanding and interpretation of MFA indicators, such as domestic material consumption.

  20. Designing Corporate Training in Developing Economies Using Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geith, Chris; Vignare, Karen; Bourquin, Leslie D.; Thiagarajan, Deepa

    2010-01-01

    The Food Safety Knowledge Network (FSKN) is a collaboration between Michigan State University, the Global Food Safety Initiative of the Consumer Goods Forum, and other food industry and public sector partners. FSKN's goal is to help strengthen the food industry's response to the complex food safety knowledge and training challenges that affect…

  1. For a Political Economy of Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In understanding the changes that are impacting the global higher education sector, developing a critique of the relationships between technology and technological innovation, new managerialism and financialisation, and the impact of the secular crisis of global capitalism is critical. Moreover, it is important to critique these changes…

  2. Influence of habitat structure and mouth dynamics on avifauna of intermittently-open estuaries: A study of four small South African estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terörde, Anja I.; Turpie, Jane K.

    2013-07-01

    Habitat composition was a major factor in determining waterbird species composition and abundance, particularly the area of floodplain and vegetated channel in four intermittently open estuaries (IOEs) in the warm-temperate coastal biogeographical region of South Africa. Average bird densities on the four estuaries varied from 0.5 to 4.2 birds per hectare, and community composition differed significantly between estuaries. However, the considerable variation in abundance of macrophytes did not have a detectable effect on waterbirds. Under closed mouth conditions, piscivorous birds dominated the avifauna. Each estuary's avifauna responded differently in terms of changes in feeding guild composition when the mouth opened. Bird abundance changed immediately after breaching, but not consistently. Diversity was significantly higher under open-mouth conditions for three of the four estuaries, and species composition was significantly different from that under closed-mouth conditions at all four estuaries. Changes in mouth dynamics as a result of climate change, water abstraction and artificial breaching could lead to significant changes in estuarine fauna.

  3. Digitalizing the Circular Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Markus A.

    2016-12-01

    Metallurgy is a key enabler of a circular economy (CE), its digitalization is the metallurgical Internet of Things (m-IoT). In short: Metallurgy is at the heart of a CE, as metals all have strong intrinsic recycling potentials. Process metallurgy, as a key enabler for a CE, will help much to deliver its goals. The first-principles models of process engineering help quantify the resource efficiency (RE) of the CE system, connecting all stakeholders via digitalization. This provides well-argued and first-principles environmental information to empower a tax paying consumer society, policy, legislators, and environmentalists. It provides the details of capital expenditure and operational expenditure estimates. Through this path, the opportunities and limits of a CE, recycling, and its technology can be estimated. The true boundaries of sustainability can be determined in addition to the techno-economic evaluation of RE. The integration of metallurgical reactor technology and systems digitally, not only on one site but linking different sites globally via hardware, is the basis for describing CE systems as dynamic feedback control loops, i.e., the m-IoT. It is the linkage of the global carrier metallurgical processing system infrastructure that maximizes the recovery of all minor and technology elements in its associated refining metallurgical infrastructure. This will be illustrated through the following: (1) System optimization models for multimetal metallurgical processing. These map large-scale m-IoT systems linked to computer-aided design tools of the original equipment manufacturers and then establish a recycling index through the quantification of RE. (2) Reactor optimization and industrial system solutions to realize the "CE (within a) Corporation—CEC," realizing the CE of society. (3) Real-time measurement of ore and scrap properties in intelligent plant structures, linked to the modeling, simulation, and optimization of industrial extractive process

  4. A single gene for juvenile and middle-age onset open-angle glaucomas confined within a small interval on chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, V.; Dumont, M.; Plante, M.

    1994-09-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) encompasses a complex of ocular disease entities characterized by an optic neuropathy causing progressive loss of the visual fields and usually associated with elevated intraocular pressure. POAG can be subdivided into two groups according to age of onset: (1) the more prevalent middle to late-age onset chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) diagnosed after age 40 and (2) the less common form, juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG), which occurs between 3 years of age and early adulthood. Susceptibility to either COAG or JOAG has been found to be inherited. We studied 141 members of a huge multigeneration French Canadian family affected with an autosomal dominant form of POAG. Both JOAG and COAG were diagnosed in 43 patients. To first position the disease gene, AFM microsatellites markers specific to chromosome 1q21-q31 were selected since linkage of JOAG to this region was recently demonstrated in two Caucasian families. Tight linkage was observed between the JOAG/COAG phenotype and 7 microsatellite markers on chromosome 1q23-q25; a maximum lod score of 6.62 at {theta}=0 was obtained with AFM278ye5. Using a recombination mapping strategy based on a unique founder effect, a characteristic JOAG/COAG haplotype spanning 12 cM was next recognized between loci D1S196 and D1S212. Two key recombination events in affected patients further confined the disease locus within a 5 cM interval between loci D1S445 and D1S452/D1S210. These results are the first to demonstrate that JOAG and one adult form of POAG map at a single locus on chromosome 1q23-q25. They also provide members of this family with a new diagnostic tool to identify the at-risk individuals.

  5. NAFTA and the Mexican Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-04

    their social and economic environment. The study states that NAFTA accelerated the transition of Mexico to a liberalized economy but did not create the...Trade Agreement (NAFTA), in effect since January 1994, plays a very strong role in the bilateral economic relationship between Mexico and the United...health issues. The effects of NAFTA on Mexico and the state of the Mexican economy have important impacts on U.S. economic and political interests. As

  6. Defense Spending and the Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-07

    DEFENSE SPENDING AND THE ECONOMY Rudolph G. Penner Director Congressional Budget Office Before the Task Force on Economic Policy and Growth...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Spending and the Economy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Administration budgets have proposed even more defense spending and less nondefense spending than provided in the resolution. Additional emphasis on defense

  7. The Knowledge Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Bruno; Perra, Nicola; Ciulla, Fabio; Zhang, Qian; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    Although the study of scientific and citation networks is well developed, the way in which ideas and concepts flow between scientific groups scattered around the world is still an open problem. We take a first step in this direction by using the citation patterns over the course of decades to shed light on how areas and fields in the general area of physics have evolved both temporally and geographically. By geocoding the affiliations associated with each article published by the APS journals to the country level, and by borrowing concepts from the field of economics and international trade we can explore how ideas produced in one country are exported, through citations, to other countries. An objective way of ranking countries based on their contributions to the overall scientific effort is also proposed as well as a map of how the different subfields of Physics are related to each other.

  8. Older Runners Retain Youthful Running Economy Despite Biomechanical Differences

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Owen N.; Kipp, Shalaya; Roby, Jaclyn M.; Grabowski, Alena M.; Kram, Rodger; Ortega, Justus D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sixty-five years of age typically marks the onset of impaired walking economy. However, running economy has not been assessed beyond the age of 65 years. Furthermore, a critical determinant of running economy is the spring-like storage and return of elastic energy from the leg during stance, which is related to leg stiffness. Therefore, we investigated whether runners over the age of 65 years retain youthful running economy and/or leg stiffness across running speeds. Methods Fifteen young and fifteen older runners ran on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.01, 2.46, and 2.91 m·s−1. We measured their rates of metabolic energy consumption (i.e. metabolic power), ground reaction forces, and stride kinematics. Results There were only small differences in running economy between young and older runners across the range of speeds. Statistically, the older runners consumed 2–9% less metabolic energy than the young runners across speeds (p=0.012). Also, the leg stiffness of older runners was 10–20% lower than that of young runners across the range of speeds (p=0.002) and in contrast to the younger runners, the leg stiffness of older runners decreased with speed (p<0.001). Conclusion Runners beyond 65 years of age maintain youthful running economy despite biomechanical differences. It may be that vigorous exercise, such as running, prevents the age related deterioration of muscular efficiency, and therefore may make everyday activities easier. PMID:26587844

  9. Predicted Shifts in Small Mammal Distributions and Biodiversity in the Altered Future Environment of Alaska: An Open Access Data and Machine Learning Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Baltensperger, A. P.; Huettmann, F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is acting to reallocate biomes, shift the distribution of species, and alter community assemblages in Alaska. Predictions regarding how these changes will affect the biodiversity and interspecific relationships of small mammals are necessary to pro-actively inform conservation planning. We used a set of online occurrence records and machine learning methods to create bioclimatic envelope models for 17 species of small mammals (rodents and shrews) across Alaska. Models formed the basis for sets of species-specific distribution maps for 2010 and were projected forward using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A2 scenario to predict distributions of the same species for 2100. We found that distributions of cold-climate, northern, and interior small mammal species experienced large decreases in area while shifting northward, upward in elevation, and inland across the state. In contrast, many southern and continental species expanded throughout Alaska, and also moved down-slope and toward the coast. Statewide community assemblages remained constant for 15 of the 17 species, but distributional shifts resulted in novel species assemblages in several regions. Overall biodiversity patterns were similar for both time frames, but followed general species distribution movement trends. Biodiversity losses occurred in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and Seward Peninsula while the Beaufort Coastal Plain and western Brooks Range experienced modest gains in species richness as distributions shifted to form novel assemblages. Quantitative species distribution and biodiversity change projections should help land managers to develop adaptive strategies for conserving dispersal corridors, small mammal biodiversity, and ecosystem functionality into the future. PMID:26207828

  10. Predicted Shifts in Small Mammal Distributions and Biodiversity in the Altered Future Environment of Alaska: An Open Access Data and Machine Learning Perspective.

    PubMed

    Baltensperger, A P; Huettmann, F

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is acting to reallocate biomes, shift the distribution of species, and alter community assemblages in Alaska. Predictions regarding how these changes will affect the biodiversity and interspecific relationships of small mammals are necessary to pro-actively inform conservation planning. We used a set of online occurrence records and machine learning methods to create bioclimatic envelope models for 17 species of small mammals (rodents and shrews) across Alaska. Models formed the basis for sets of species-specific distribution maps for 2010 and were projected forward using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A2 scenario to predict distributions of the same species for 2100. We found that distributions of cold-climate, northern, and interior small mammal species experienced large decreases in area while shifting northward, upward in elevation, and inland across the state. In contrast, many southern and continental species expanded throughout Alaska, and also moved down-slope and toward the coast. Statewide community assemblages remained constant for 15 of the 17 species, but distributional shifts resulted in novel species assemblages in several regions. Overall biodiversity patterns were similar for both time frames, but followed general species distribution movement trends. Biodiversity losses occurred in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and Seward Peninsula while the Beaufort Coastal Plain and western Brooks Range experienced modest gains in species richness as distributions shifted to form novel assemblages. Quantitative species distribution and biodiversity change projections should help land managers to develop adaptive strategies for conserving dispersal corridors, small mammal biodiversity, and ecosystem functionality into the future.

  11. Comprehensive Annotation of Physcomitrella patens Small RNA Loci Reveals That the Heterochromatic Short Interfering RNA Pathway Is Largely Conserved in Land Plants[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Coruh, Ceyda; Cho, Sung Hyun; Shahid, Saima; Liu, Qikun; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Axtell, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Many plant small RNAs are sequence-specific negative regulators of target mRNAs and/or chromatin. In angiosperms, the two most abundant endogenous small RNA populations are usually 21-nucleotide microRNAs (miRNAs) and 24-nucleotide heterochromatic short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Heterochromatic siRNAs are derived from repetitive regions and reinforce DNA methylation at targeted loci. The existence and extent of heterochromatic siRNAs in other land plant lineages has been unclear. Using small RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) of the moss Physcomitrella patens, we identified 1090 loci that produce mostly 23- to 24-nucleotide siRNAs. These loci are mostly in intergenic regions with dense DNA methylation. Accumulation of siRNAs from these loci depends upon P. patens homologs of DICER-LIKE3 (DCL3), RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE2, and the largest subunit of DNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE IV, with the largest subunit of a Pol V homolog contributing to expression at a smaller subset of the loci. A MINIMAL DICER-LIKE (mDCL) gene, which lacks the N-terminal helicase domain typical of DCL proteins, is specifically required for 23-nucleotide siRNA accumulation. We conclude that heterochromatic siRNAs, and their biogenesis pathways, are largely identical between angiosperms and P. patens, with the notable exception of the P. patens-specific use of mDCL to produce 23-nucleotide siRNAs. PMID:26209555

  12. The Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein EMB2654 Is Essential for Trans-Splicing of a Chloroplast Small Ribosomal Subunit Transcript1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sanglard, Lilian Vincis Pereira; Bussell, John D.; Howell, Katharine A.

    2017-01-01

    We report the partial complementation and subsequent comparative molecular analysis of two nonviable mutants impaired in chloroplast translation, one (emb2394) lacking the RPL6 protein, and the other (emb2654) carrying a mutation in a gene encoding a P-class pentatricopeptide repeat protein. We show that EMB2654 is required for the trans-splicing of the plastid rps12 transcript and that therefore the emb2654 mutant lacks Rps12 protein and fails to assemble the small subunit of the plastid ribosome, explaining the loss of plastid translation and consequent embryo-lethal phenotype. Predictions of the EMB2654 binding site match a small RNA “footprint” located on the 5′ half of the trans-spliced intron that is almost absent in the partially complemented mutant. EMB2654 binds sequence specifically to this target sequence in vitro. Altered patterns in nuclease-protected small RNA fragments in emb2654 show that EMB2654 binding must be an early step in, or prior to, the formation of a large protein-RNA complex covering the free ends of the two rps12 intron halves. PMID:28011633

  13. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    SciTech Connect

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  14. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  15. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  16. Model Year 2017 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2016-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  17. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  18. Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

    enterprises taxes, etc. What purposes are the specified methods applied to? The regional companies management and their reforming. One of the major directions - transformation of the enterprises into the viable industrial companies, an effective economic structures formation. In this connection, the technology of financial streams management allows to solve another important problem. The created (or reorganized) structure can be checked up in various economic modes even before practical realization of the project. The received data can be applied to an indicative plans substantiation and control over their performance. They can be used at negotiations with the enterprises heads, which are spent for interests of a regional industrial policy. Such approach can become base for concrete (as figures, plans and schemes) coordination of long-term investment priorities of the largest firms and companies, their production programs coordination, the mutual markets formation and the cooperation communications stabilization, payment chains, the social and economic development programs creation. It opens opportunities for the regional branches, enterprises, the major economic centers coordinated management. An effective planning of price pools, investment programs, the control over tax revenues and financial streams becomes possible. All this are necessary elements of a regional authorities economic policy. The offered approach considerably surpasses by it's efficiency auditor, "paper" or traditional computer technology. Bulky computer centers are not capable to cope with the given class problems. At the same time the small mobile commissions of experts "armed" with modern intellectual technologies, are capable to solve rather scale analytical problems. On the basis of the offered methods can be generated means of automation of the regional industrial complex development management. They are focused on concrete objects of various scale: territorial complexes, branches, groups of the

  19. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    PubMed

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies.

  20. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a)...

  1. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a)...

  2. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a)...

  3. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a)...

  4. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a)...

  5. Differential regulation of hepatitis B virus core protein expression and genome replication by a small upstream open reading frame and naturally occurring mutations in the precore region.

    PubMed

    Zong, Li; Qin, Yanli; Jia, Haodi; Ye, Lei; Wang, Yongxiang; Zhang, Jiming; Wands, Jack R; Tong, Shuping; Li, Jisu

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcribes two subsets of 3.5-kb RNAs: precore RNA for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) expression, and pregenomic RNA for core and P protein translation as well as genome replication. HBeAg expression could be prevented by mutations in the precore region, while an upstream open reading frame (uORF) has been proposed as a negative regulator of core protein translation. We employed replication competent HBV DNA constructs and transient transfection experiments in Huh7 cells to verify the uORF effect and to explore the alternative function of precore RNA. Optimized Kozak sequence for the uORF or extra ATG codons as present in some HBV genotypes reduced core protein expression. G1896A nonsense mutation promoted more efficient core protein expression than mutated precore ATG, while a +1 frameshift mutation was ineffective. In conclusion, various HBeAg-negative precore mutations and mutations affecting uORF differentially regulate core protein expression and genome replication.

  6. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy…

  7. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    fuel economy with increasing restriction. However, the level of restriction required to cause a substantial (10-15%) decrease in fuel economy (such as that cited in the literature) was so severe that the vehicle was almost undrivable. Acceleration performance on all vehicles was improved with a clean air filter. Once it was determined how severe the restriction had to be to affect the carbureted vehicle fuel economy, the 2007 Buick Lucerne was retested in a similar manner. We were not able to achieve the level of restriction that was achieved with the 1972 Pontiac with the Lucerne. The Lucerne's air filter box would not hold the filter in place under such severe conditions. (It is believed that this testing exceeded the design limits of the air box.) Tests were conducted at a lower restriction level (although still considerably more severe than the initial clogged filter testing), allowing the air filter to stay seated in the air box, and no significant change was observed in the Lucerne's fuel economy or the AFR over the HFET cycle. Closed-loop control in modern fuel injected vehicle applications is sophisticated enough to keep a clogged air filter from affecting the vehicle fuel economy. However for older, open-loop, carbureted vehicles, a clogged air filter can affect the fuel economy. For the vehicle tested, the fuel economy with a new air filter improved as much as 14% over that with a severely clogged filter (in which the filter was so clogged that drivability was impacted). Under a more typical state of clog, the improvement with a new filter ranged from 2 to 6%.

  8. Radiation processing and market economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagórski, Z. P.

    1998-06-01

    In the system of totalitarian economy, regulated by bureaucracy, the real value of equipment, materials and services is almost completely unknown, what makes impossible the comparison of different technologies, eliminates competition, disturbs research and development. With introduction of market economy in Central and Eastern Europe, the radiation processing has lost doubtful support, becoming an independent business, subject to laws of free market economy. Only the most valuable objects of processing have survived that test. At the top of the list are: radiation sterilization of medical equipment and radiation induced crosslinking of polymers, polyethylene in particular. New elements of competition has entered the scene, as well as questions of international regulations and standards have appeared.

  9. Overjustification effects in token economies.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, E B

    1979-01-01

    This study tested the relevance to clinical token economies of the overjustification hypothesis that tangible reward interferes with intrinsic interest in target behaviors and causes such behaviors to be less probable following a period of reinforcement than preceding such a period. The study was carried out in an ongoing token economy for chronic psychiatric patients. Alternated over an 8-week period were weeks of token and no-token reward for one of the program's target behaviors, toothbrushing. Two different amounts of token reward were employed in order to examine whether reward magnitude might influence the presence or extent of overjustification effects. Little evidence was found for the presence of overjustification effects in token economies. However, maintenance of toothbrushing was greater in no-token weeks following weeks of low amounts of token reward than in no-token weeks following weeks of higher amounts of reward. The importance of such complex functional relationships is discussed. PMID:511808

  10. Arabidopsis Small Rubber Particle Protein Homolog SRPs Play Dual Roles as Positive Factors for Tissue Growth and Development and in Drought Stress Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Yu; Park, Ki Youl; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) act as repositories for fatty acids and sterols, which are used for various cellular processes such as energy production and membrane and hormone synthesis. LD-associated proteins play important roles in seed development and germination, but their functions in postgermination growth are not well understood. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains three SRP homologs (SRP1, SRP2, and SRP3) that share sequence identities with small rubber particle proteins of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In this report, the possible cellular roles of SRPs in postgermination growth and the drought tolerance response were investigated. Arabidopsis SRPs appeared to be LD-associated proteins and displayed polymerization properties in vivo and in vitro. SRP-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S:SRP1, 35S:SRP2, and 35S:SRP3) exhibited higher vegetative and reproductive growth and markedly better tolerance to drought stress than wild-type Arabidopsis. In addition, constitutive over-expression of SRPs resulted in increased numbers of large LDs in postgermination seedlings. In contrast, single (srp1, 35S:SRP2-RNAi, and srp3) and triple (35S:SRP2-RNAi/srp1srp3) loss-of-function mutant lines exhibited the opposite phenotypes. Our results suggest that Arabidopsis SRPs play dual roles as positive factors in postgermination growth and the drought stress tolerance response. The possible relationships between LD-associated proteins and the drought stress response are discussed. PMID:26903535

  11. Orosomucoid Proteins Interact with the Small Subunit of Serine Palmitoyltransferase and Contribute to Sphingolipid Homeostasis and Stress Responses in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Yin, Jian; Rong, Chan; Li, Kai-En; Wu, Jian-Xin; Huang, Li-Qun; Zeng, Hong-Yun; Sahu, Sunil Kumar; Yao, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), a pyridoxyl-5′-phosphate-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. In humans and yeast, orosomucoid proteins (ORMs) negatively regulate SPT and thus play an important role in maintaining sphingolipid levels. Despite the importance of sphingoid intermediates as bioactive molecules, the regulation of sphingolipid biosynthesis through SPT is not well understood in plants. Here, we identified and characterized the Arabidopsis thaliana ORMs, ORM1 and ORM2. Loss of function of both ORM1 and ORM2 (orm1 amiR-ORM2) stimulated de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis, leading to strong sphingolipid accumulation, especially of long-chain bases and ceramides. Yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays confirmed that ORM1 and ORM2 physically interact with the small subunit of SPT (ssSPT), indicating that ORMs inhibit ssSPT function. We found that orm1 amiR-ORM2 plants exhibited an early-senescence phenotype accompanied by H2O2 production at the cell wall and in mitochondria, active vesicular trafficking, and formation of cell wall appositions. Strikingly, the orm1 amiR-ORM2 plants showed increased expression of genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress and defenses and also had enhanced resistance to oxidative stress and pathogen infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that ORMs interact with SPT to regulate sphingolipid homeostasis and play a pivotal role in environmental stress tolerance in plants. PMID:27923879

  12. PWC Opens up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2011-01-01

    Coming up with the latest and greatest learning curriculum for employees year after year can be overwhelming--especially if one works for a small or mid-size company with minimal resources. Fortunately, there is a burgeoning trend that three-time No. 1 Top 125er PwC is helping to "open" up. In creating PwC Open University, the professional…

  13. Cell-to-cell movement of turnip crinkle virus is controlled by two small open reading frames that function in trans.

    PubMed

    Li, W Z; Qu, F; Morris, T J

    1998-05-10

    Previous studies on turnip crinkle virus (TCV) have suggested that the two small, centrally located ORFs, conserved in all Carmoviruses, are both required for cell-to-cell movement (Hacker et al., 1992). We now demonstrate that the cell-to-cell movement of TCV is mediated by in trans complementation of the two proteins. First, both of the putative movement proteins (MPs p8 and p9) were shown to be translated in vitro from transcripts representing the 1.7-kb subgenomic RNA. Western blot analysis, using antisera prepared against GST fusion proteins of both genes, was then used to show that the p8 but not the p9 protein accumulated to detectable levels in particulate fractions of infected cells. Cell-to-cell movement of various MP mutants in Arabidopsis was evaluated by in situ hybridization of inoculated leaves. Changes in either of the two MP genes resulted in failure of the mutants to move cell-to-cell. Coat protein was found to be unnecessary for cell-to-cell movement. Complementation of cell-to-cell movement by co-inoculating p8-defective mutants with a p9-defective mutant resulted in delayed systemic infection. In contrast, efficient cell-to-cell movement was achieved when the MP mutants were inoculated into transgenic plants expressing the corresponding functional gene(s). These experiments provide further evidence that both MP genes encoded by Carmoviruses must function in trans in the same cell in order to mediate cell-to-cell movement.

  14. Constitutive Expression of Arabidopsis SMALL AUXIN UP RNA19 (SAUR19) in Tomato Confers Auxin-Independent Hypocotyl Elongation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Spartz, Angela K.; Miller, Nathan D.; Wu, Guosheng

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA or auxin) mediates the elongation growth of shoot tissues by promoting cell expansion. According to the acid growth theory proposed in the 1970s, auxin activates plasma membrane H+-ATPases (PM H+-ATPases) to facilitate cell expansion by both loosening the cell wall through acidification and promoting solute uptake. Mechanistically, however, this process is poorly understood. Recent findings in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have demonstrated that auxin-induced SMALL AUXIN UP RNA (SAUR) genes promote elongation growth and play a key role in PM H+-ATPase activation by inhibiting PP2C.D family protein phosphatases. Here, we extend these findings by demonstrating that SAUR proteins also inhibit tomato PP2C.D family phosphatases and that AtSAUR19 overexpression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) confers the same suite of phenotypes as previously reported for Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we employ a custom image-based method for measuring hypocotyl segment elongation with high resolution and a method for measuring cell wall mechanical properties, to add mechanistic details to the emerging description of auxin-mediated cell expansion. We find that constitutive expression of GFP-AtSAUR19 bypasses the normal requirement of auxin for elongation growth by increasing the mechanical extensibility of excised hypocotyl segments. In contrast, hypocotyl segments overexpressing a PP2C.D phosphatase are specifically impaired in auxin-mediated elongation. The time courses of auxin-induced SAUR expression and auxin-dependent elongation growth were closely correlated. These findings indicate that induction of SAUR expression is sufficient to elicit auxin-mediated expansion growth by activating PM H+-ATPases to facilitate apoplast acidification and mechanical wall loosening. PMID:27999086

  15. Class I and II Small Heat Shock Proteins Together with HSP101 Protect Protein Translation Factors during Heat Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Eman; Fowler, Mary E.; Kim, Minsoo; Bordowitz, Juliana; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are well documented to act in vitro as molecular chaperones to prevent the irreversible aggregation of heat-sensitive proteins. However, the in vivo activities of sHSPs remain unclear. To investigate the two most abundant classes of plant cytosolic sHSPs (class I [CI] and class II [CII]), RNA interference (RNAi) and overexpression lines were created in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and shown to have reduced and enhanced tolerance, respectively, to extreme heat stress. Affinity purification of CI and CII sHSPs from heat-stressed seedlings recovered eukaryotic translation elongation factor (eEF) 1B (α-, β-, and γ-subunits) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (three isoforms), although the association with CI sHSPs was stronger and additional proteins involved in translation were recovered with CI sHSPs. eEF1B subunits became partially insoluble during heat stress and, in the CI and CII RNAi lines, showed reduced recovery to the soluble cell fraction after heat stress, which was also dependent on HSP101. Furthermore, after heat stress, CI sHSPs showed increased retention in the insoluble fraction in the CII RNAi line and vice versa. Immunolocalization revealed that both CI and CII sHSPs were present in cytosolic foci, some of which colocalized with HSP101 and with eEF1Bγ and eEF1Bβ. Thus, CI and CII sHSPs have both unique and overlapping functions and act either directly or indirectly to protect specific translation factors in cytosolic stress granules. PMID:27474115

  16. Adventures in the Alaska Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackstadt, Steve; Huskey, Lee

    This publication was developed to increase students' understanding of basic economic concepts and the historical development of Alaska's economy. Comics depict major historical events as they occurred, but specific characters are fictionalized. Each of nine episodes is accompanied by several pages of explanatory text, which enlarges on the episode…

  17. Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Roger D.

    1996-01-01

    Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize…

  18. Schools for a Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    English schools have always been involved with the economy of their time, but it was not until the mid-nineteenth century that schooling for the poor became primarily an adjunct of industry, rather than of the Church. This industrial style of education, preparation for the production line, still informs the school system, though Britain is no…

  19. Open Content in Open Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  20. Open-system degassing, gas fluxing, and the growth and entrainment of olivine during small volume mafic eruptions: A case study of Volcan Jorullo, central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, P. J.; Johnson, E. R.; Delgado Granados, H.

    2005-12-01

    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions from mafic arc volcanoes commonly contain highly variable H2O and CO2 contents that are best explained by olivine crystallization over a wide range of depths during ascent and degassing. An excellent example of this is found in deposits from the 1759-1774 eruption of Jorullo volcano in the subduction-related Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Jorullo's earliest lavas are primitive (9.3 wt% MgO, Fo86-91 olivine), and lava compositions evolved over time as a result of crystal fractionation (Luhr and Carmichael, 1985). We analyzed melt inclusions in Mg-rich olivine from a 5-meter-thick proximal ash fall sequence. Melt inclusions from the basal tephra have variable H2O (<1-5.2 wt%) and CO2 (44-900 ppm), corresponding to crystallization pressures of <100 bars to 4.2 kb. This indicates that olivine crystallized over a range of depths extending from the mid-crust to very shallow levels beneath the volcano. Relations between H2O and incompatible K, Ti, and P, and comparison to experimental phase equilibria demonstrates that olivine crystallization is driven primarily by the effects of H2O loss from the melt during ascent. A puzzling feature of the H2O and CO2 data at Jorullo and other mafic arc volcanoes is that CO2 concentrations do not decrease as rapidly with degassing as is predicted by degassing models. A likely explanation involves open-system degassing in which relatively CO2-rich vapor fluxes upwards through the conduit. This vapor is probably released by crystallizing and degassing magma at greater depths within the system. Melt inclusions from the upper part of the tephra section at Jorullo have lower H2O (0.2-1.4 wt%) than inclusions from the basal tephra and no detectable CO2, suggesting shallow crystallization of degassed magma toward the end of the violent-Strombolian-style eruptions. The change in olivine crystallization depths over time probably results from evolution of the conduit system. During the early, pre-eruption stage, as

  1. Model Year 2007 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  2. Model Year 2010 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-14

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  3. Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  4. Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  5. Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  6. Model Year 2006 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2005-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  7. Model Year 2009 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2008-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  8. Model Year 2008 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  9. Model Year 2005 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  10. Landscape and zonal features of the formation of producing economy in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman

    2016-04-01

    there was a cattle breeding economic and cultural type of producing economy with a simplified system of natural and anthropogenic and anthropogenic landscapes involving a maximum of 4-5 natural and economic systems. In the forest-steppe zone a significant part of the population was settled in the valley landscapes. The basis of the economy was pastoral and house cattle breeding with a predominance of beef cattle and pigs and hoe-mattock agriculture, which was only possible in the floodplain landscape complexes. In the areas of permanent settlements long grazing in one place led to the complete destruction of vegetation. The forced reduction of the agricultural land areas led to significant ecologic crisis. In the forest zone, along with hunters, fishermen and gatherers there appear the first tribes, who already engaged in the forest cattle breeding. First, they raised pigs and then small and beef cattle, while hunting and fishing were of subordinate nature. Pastures were situated mainly in floodplains and lakeside lowlands which had more open spaces. It is the extensive economy of that time that can be associated with the deforestation of flood plains of rivers and lakes and the emergence of meadows. There arises a natural-economic system with floodplain cattle-breeding (agricultural geo-systems of pasture type with floodplain meadows and woodlands), which existed for a long time. In all landscape zones the character of the relationship between men and the landscape was determined by the nature of producing activity, as well as natural features of "accommodating" landscape. The formation of nature use systems and settlement patterns strictly depend on the local landscape structure. In all earlier historical periods in similar landscape (zonal) conditions the settlers had the same type of economy, thus forming the same types of natural and economic systems and similar anthropogenically transformed landscapes. The dramatic change in the nature use occurs with the

  11. Scale economies in rail transit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, I.

    1994-06-01

    The research uses Federal Transit Administration Section 15 data to investigate the operating costs of 13 heavy-rail and 13 light-rail urban mass transit systems for the period 1985-91. A Cobb-Douglas technology is used to investigate various types of economies of scale. The principal findings are: (1) Adding additional passenges to an existing network and schedule of services involves zero marginal cost for heavy-rail systems, and small additional costs for light-rail systems. (2) Adding additional trains, and passengers, to an existing network leads to a less than proportionate increase in costs. (3) An expanded route network results in mild increases in unit costs for the large heavy-rail systems. The smaller light-rail systems display reduced unit costs with an expanded network. The research suggests that the minimum efficient scale for rail operation is approximately 25 route miles.

  12. Virtual phosphorus ore requirement of Japanese economy.

    PubMed

    Matsubae, Kazuyo; Kajiyama, Jun; Hiraki, Takehito; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2011-08-01

    Phosphorus is indispensable for agricultural production. Hence, the consumption of imported food indirectly implies the import of phosphorus resources. The global consumption of agricultural products depends on a small number of ore-producing countries. For sustainable management of phosphorus resources, the global supply and demand network should be clarified. In this study, we propose the virtual phosphorus ore requirement as a new indicator of the direct and indirect phosphorus requirements for our society. The virtual phosphorus ore requirement indicates the direct and indirect demands for phosphorus ore transformed into agricultural products and fertilizer. In this study, the virtual phosphorus ore requirement was evaluated for the Japanese economy in 2005. Importantly, the results show that our society requires twice as much phosphorus ore as the domestic demand for fertilizer production. The phosphorus contained in "eaten" agricultural products was only 12% of virtual phosphorus ore requirement.

  13. Digital Economy and Management in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the digital economy and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital economy, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital economy in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)

  14. Teaching Economics in the Mini-Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet produced by the State of Indiana introduces elementary teachers to economic concepts appropriate to the elementary curriculum and explains how to use mini-economy activities to teach these concepts. Chapter 1 describes how the mini-economy works, while chapter 2 introduces basic economic vocabulary and discusses market economy. Ideas…

  15. Serving Business in an Information Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1988

    1988-01-01

    The 23 articles in this theme issue focus on various aspects of library services to business in an information economy: "Serving Business in an Information Economy" (C. Bain); "New York's Resurging Economy and State Economic Development Information" (R. G. Paolino); "Department of Economic Development Library: Services to…

  16. [Immigration in the world economy].

    PubMed

    Sassen, S

    1995-01-01

    "Immigration is at least partly an outcome of the actions of the governments and major private economic actors of the developed countries. The case of Japan is of interest here because it allows us to capture the intersection of economic internationalization and immigration in its inception.... This paper argues that [Japan's] new immigration is part of the globalisation of [its] economy. Japan is a major presence in a regional Asian economic system where it is the leading investor, foreign aid donor, and exporter of consumer goods (including cultural products). The new immigration to Japan is not unrelated to these processes of internationalization. Internationalization provides a context within which bridges are built with the countries of origin of potential emigrants and internationalization contributes to make the Japanese economy more porous, particularly so in the case of large cities." (EXCERPT)

  17. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  18. 78 FR 46799 - Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 RIN 0625-XC001 Use of Market Economy Input Prices in... (``NME'') producer pays to a market economy supplier when a factor of production is purchased from a market economy supplier and paid for in market economy currency, in the calculation of normal value...

  19. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  20. Political economy of population growth.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S; Mehta, H S

    1987-01-01

    Tracing the origin of political economy as a class-science, this paper focuses on the political economy of population growth. Exposing the limitations of Malthusian ideas and their invalidity even for the capitalist economies, it discusses the subsequent revival of the Malthusian model during the period of de-colonization and the misinterpretation of the relationship between population growth and development in the developing and developed countries. Taking India, China, and Japan as some case studies, the paper examines the relationship between birth rate levels and some correlates. It elaborates on the Indian experience, emphasizing the association of population growth with poverty and unemployment and lays bare some of the hidden causes of these phenomena. The authors examine some interstate variations in India and identify constraints and prospects of the existing population policy. The paper proposes outlines of a democratic population policy as an integral part of India's development strategy which should recognize human beings not simply as consumers but also as producers of material values. It pleads for 1) restructuring of property relations; 2) bringing down the mortality rates and raising of the literacy levels, especially among females; and 3) improving nutritional levels, as prerequisites for bringing down birth rates.

  1. Population and the Colombian economy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  2. Open File: New Modalities for Educational Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchert, Lene, Ed.; Epskamp, Kees, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal focuses on comparative education and has four major sections. The "Viewpoint/Controversy" section contains one article: "Is the Globalization of the Economy Creating Values for a New Civilization?" (Koichiro Matsuura). The "Open File: Rethinking Educational Aid" section contains the following articles:…

  3. The Economics of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Catherine M.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines from an economic perspective the ways in which Open Educational Resources (OER) can be linked to economic growth, equality of access to knowledge, and the improvement of teaching and learning. In leading economies, technology and knowledge are the critical factors of economic growth, which is a significant shift from the…

  4. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-02-15

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services.

  5. Equilibrium in a Production Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarolla, Maria B.; Haussmann, Ulrich G.

    2011-06-15

    Consider a closed production-consumption economy with multiple agents and multiple resources. The resources are used to produce the consumption good. The agents derive utility from holding resources as well as consuming the good produced. They aim to maximize their utility while the manager of the production facility aims to maximize profits. With the aid of a representative agent (who has a multivariable utility function) it is shown that an Arrow-Debreu equilibrium exists. In so doing we establish technical results that will be used to solve the stochastic dynamic problem (a case with infinite dimensional commodity space so the General Equilibrium Theory does not apply) elsewhere.

  6. Bolivia's economy--an update.

    PubMed

    Weisbrot, Mark; Sandoval, Luis

    2008-01-01

    This report looks at Bolivia's main economic indicators over the past year (mid-2006 to mid-2007), noting improvements in growth, fiscal balances, balance of payments, and international reserves. These improvements were largely due to government policies and choices, such as increased hydrocarbons royalties and control over the hydrocarbons sector, and have allowed the government to embark on a number of programs targeting the poor and landless. The report also notes that Bolivia faces many challenges: expansion of land reform, more rapid growth and poverty reduction, the reduction of regional and demographic disparities, and an accelerated diversification of the economy away from hydrocarbons and minerals.

  7. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  8. Health Information Economy: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Kamal; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Health Information Economy (HIE) is one of the broader, more complex, and challenging and yet important topics in the field of health science that requires the identification of its dimensions for planning and policy making. The aim of this study was to determine HIE concept dimensions. Methods: This paper presents a systematic methodology for analyzing the trends of HIE. For this purpose, the main keywords of this area were identified and searched in the databases and from among 4775 retrieved sources, 12 sources were studied in the field of HIE. Results: Information Economy (IE) in the world has passed behind four paradigms that involve the information evaluation perspective, the information technology perspective, the asymmetric information perspective and information value perspective. In this research, the fourth perspective in the HIE was analyzed. The main findings of this research were categorized in three major groups, including the flow of information process in the field of health (production. collection, processing and dissemination), and information applications in the same field (education, research, health industry, policy, legislation, and decision-making) and the underlying fields. Conclusion: According to the findings, HIE has already developed a theoretical and conceptual gap that due to its importance in the next decade would be one of the research approaches to health science. PMID:26153182

  9. Does the economy affect teenage substance use?

    PubMed

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    This research examines how teenage drug and alcohol use responds to changes in the economy. In contrast to the recent literature confirming pro-cyclical alcohol use among adults, this research offers strong evidence that a weaker economy leads to greater teenage marijuana and hard-drug use and some evidence that a weaker economy also leads to higher teenage alcohol use. The findings are based on logistic models with state and year fixed effects, using teenagers from the NLSY-1997. The evidence also indicates that teenagers are more likely to sell drugs in weaker economies. This suggests one mechanism for counter-cyclical drug use - that access to illicit drugs is easier when the economy is weaker. These results also suggest that the strengthening economy in the 1990s mitigated what would otherwise have been much larger increases in teenage drug use.

  10. Photovoltaic Small Molecules of TPA(FxBT-T-Cz)3: Tuning Open-Circuit Voltage over 1.0 V for Their Organic Solar Cells by Increasing Fluorine Substitution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Duan, Linrui; Tao, Qiang; Peng, Wenhong; Chen, Jianhua; Tan, Hua; Yang, Renqiang; Zhu, Weiguo

    2016-11-09

    To simultaneously improve both open-circuit voltage (Voc) and short-circuit current density (Jsc) for organic solar cells, a novel D(A-π-Ar)3 type of photovoltaic small molecules of TPA(FxBT-T-3Cz)3 was designed and synthesized, which contain central triphenylamine (TPA), terminal carbazole (Cz), armed fluorine-substituted benzothiadiazole (FxBT, where x = 1 or 2), and bridged thiophene (T) units. A narrowed ultraviolet-visible absorption and a decreasing highest occupied molecular orbital energy level were observed from TPA(F1BT-T-3Cz)3 to TPA(F2BT-T-3Cz)3 with increasing fluorine substitution. However, the TPA(F2BT-T-3Cz)3/PC71BM-based solar devices showed a rising Voc of 1.01 V and an enhanced Jsc of 10.84 mA cm(-2) as well as a comparable power conversion efficiency of 4.81% in comparison to the TPA(F1BT-T-3Cz)3/PC71BM-based devices. Furthermore, in comparison to the parent TPA(BT-T-3Cz)3 molecule without fluorine substitution, the fluorine-substituted TPA(FxBT-T-3Cz)3 molecules exhibited significantly incremental Voc and Jsc values in their bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, owing to fluorine incorporation in the electron-deficient benzothiadiazole unit.

  11. Economy Home Improvement, Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Economy Home Improvement, Inc. (the Company) is located in Lexington, Kentucky. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Lexington, Kentucky.

  12. Building Green Economies on Tribal Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Division of Energy and Mineral Development (DEMD) is assisting tribes in strengthening and diversifying their economies by utilizing the power generated from renewable resources on tribal reservations.

  13. Opening remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1994-09-01

    Included in this paper are the opening remarks of S.G. Hildebrand, from Environmental Science Division, ORNL, to a conference on water resources and water resource issues. Wetlands are the focus of this talk, with an emphasis on conservation and land use to conserve wetland functions and values.

  14. Open Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Annette; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Adult adoptees are increasingly challenging the practice of sealing their birth records. The authors examine the historical roots of adoptive practices in this country and suggest that the time has come for open adoption to gain acceptance as an alternative. (Author)

  15. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  16. Results of a token economy.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, D T; Cayner, J J; McLaughlin-Reidel, T

    1978-12-01

    A token economy for chronic psychiatric patients (average hospital stay of ten years) is reported. One hundred seventy-four patients were treated. Follow-up data were obtained on 173 patients who had been discharged from the hospital for an average of three years at the time of follow-up. One hundred twenty-five patients completed the program, which featured a graduated method for shaping behavior (functional levels). Ninety-one of the 125 patients who completed the program and were living in the community were employed. The program was most effective with patients who had been in the hospital for less than ten years and had an IQ above 80.

  17. Roadmap towards a sustainable hydrogen economy in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Salgado, Joel; Estrada-Martínez, Arquímedes

    The fast developing of fuel cell (FC) technologies has open a window to alternative energy sources such as natural gas, methanol, ethanol, or hydrogen. This paper outlines the prospects for a hydrogen economy in Mexico. If we consider a hydrogen economy in Mexico in the near future and if all the national energy could be produced by hydrogen, the country will require 46.5 million tons per year. By 2010, it would have approximately 3300 automobiles with fuel cells. In the initial phase of a "hydrogen economy", hydrogen could be produced from the current competitive fossil fuels. Hydrogen is a unique fuel with unmatched properties. In the Mexican hydrogen industry, we do not know yet how many tons of hydrogen per year are produced for the different uses of chemical production, oil refining, metal treating or electrical applications. At this moment, hydrogen national resources are 837.7 million tons, which reverts a huge potential in hydrocarbon resources. Hydrogen costs from natural gas are about three times the cost of the feedstock, thus US 6 feedstock gas would result in the hydrogen costing US 18 per million of Btu, which is equivalent to gasoline costing about US$ 2 per gallon.

  18. The global household: toward a feminist postcapitalist international political economy.

    PubMed

    Safri, Maliha; Graham, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to introduce a new category into international political economy-the global household-and to begin to widen the focus of international political economy to include nonmarket transactions and noncapitalist production. As an economic institution composed of transnational extended families and codwellers (including international migrants and family members left behind in countries of origin), the global household is engaged in coordinating international migration, sending and receiving billions of dollars in remittances, and organizing and conducting market- and non-market-oriented production on an international scale. We first trace the discursive antecedents of the global household concept to theories of the household as a site of noncapitalist production and to feminist ethnographies of transnational families. In order to demonstrate the potential significance and effect of this newly recognized institution, we estimate the aggregate population of global households, the size and distribution of remittances, and the magnitude and sectoral scope of global household production. We then examine the implications of the global household concept for three areas of inquiry: globalization, economic development, and the household politics of economic transformation. Finally, we briefly explore the possibilities for research and activism opened up by a feminist, postcapitalist international political economy centered on the global household.

  19. Child Care and the New Economy: Part I--Three Pillars of the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Late in 2008, when it was becoming apparent that the economic downturn was not a simple blip but a serious recession, Warren Buffet confidently predicted that the American economy would bounce back and be as strong as ever. However, he observed, "the economy that emerges will not be the same economy that entered the downturn." Since then, one…

  20. Training in Toronto's "New Economy"=La formation dans la "nouvelle" economie de Toronto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Perspectives Series, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This Community Perspectives Series document includes statements about the new economy in Toronto made by four participants in a March 2001 forum. The new economy was defined by the moderator as "an economy that emphasizes knowledge and technical processes put to the production of goods and other outputs so that an individual's knowledge is…

  1. The Meaning of Foreign Investment in the Chinese Economy. Training Discussion Paper No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Claudio de Moura

    As the Chinese economy opens up to the outside world, the decision to engage in joint ventures with foreign capital is among the most important national policies. Significant direct consequences of joint ventures are the influx of foreign capital, expanding exports, and employment creation. However, the great importance of joint ventures lies in…

  2. China and the Knowledge Economy: Seizing the 21st Century. WBI Development Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlman, Carl J.; Aubert, Jean-Eric

    For a large part of the last two millennia, China was the world's largest and most advanced economy. Then it missed the Industrial Revolution and stagnated. Only after opening to the outside world in 1979 was China's economic performance again impressive. At the turn of the 21st century, China faces daunting internal challenges compounded by the…

  3. The Token Economy: Reducing the Disruptive and Off-Task Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Nicole Taylor

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a token economy as an intervention to reduce disruptive and off-task behavior of third grade students in an open concept setting. The intervention combines the use of a token reinforcement with a raffle style drawing. The students receive tokens on an intermittent reinforcement schedule for being on-task,…

  4. Opening education.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marshall S

    2009-01-02

    Spurred by the publication of Massachusetts Institute of Technology OpenCourseWare in 2002, the open educational resources (OER) movement, which has rapidly expanded and captured the imagination and energy of millions of creators and users throughout the world, now faces many opportunities and substantial challenges as it moves to become an integral part of the world's educational environment. The confluence of the Web and a spirit of sharing intellectual property have fueled a worldwide movement to make knowledge and education materials open to all for use. OER are content (courses, books, lesson plans, articles, etc.), tools (virtual laboratories, simulations, and games), and software that support learning and educational practice. OER are free on the Web, and most have licenses that allow copyright holders to retain ownership while providing specified rights for use in original and modified forms. At the least, OER have helped to level the distribution of knowledge across the world. A second promise of OER is to help transform educational practices. This article explores the history of and promises and challenges for OER.

  5. NAFTA: The Mexican Economy, and Undocumented Migration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-28

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NAFTA , the Mexican Economy, and Undocumented Migration 5a...ABSTRACT NAFTA , The Mexican Economy, and Undocumented Migration The North American Free Trade Agreement is variously blamed for undocumented...potential, and recommends measures to increase the chances of positive results. 15. SUBJECT TERMS NAFTA , Mexican undocumented migration 16

  6. The Rural Economy in a New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas G.

    Technological change, globalization, and localization have changed rural economies. They have increased labor productivity, reducing the importance of labor costs in location decisions; decreased the importance of distance; increased the importance of economies of scale; and increased the role of local conditions and choices in determining…

  7. Government and the Economy--Stabilization Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkin, John W.

    This document describes the operation of public and private sector mechanisms which work to keep the Canadian economy stable. Part I discusses the many sources of instability in the Canadian economy. Instability is measured primarily in fluctuations in aggregate income or gross national product. Two important contributors to economic fluctuations…

  8. Political Capital in a Market Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

  9. Knowledge Production in a Cooperative Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottey, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge here means something similar to but broader than science--it is reliable but not necessarily as systematic or explicit. A cooperative economy is contrasted with the competitive economy that has dominated political thinking almost everywhere for about half a century - the neo-liberal period. It is argued that the neo-liberal ideology and…

  10. Higher Education, Development and the Learning Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the claims for the new economy as necessary background to analyzing changes in knowledge production and the role of the university in the so-called learning economy. The article develops an argument for "knowledge networks" as a basis for the university to promote regional development at home and international development…

  11. The Hydrogen Economy as a Technological Bluff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is a technological bluff in its implied assurance that, despite the accelerating pace at which we are depleting the remaining half of our fossil fuels, our energy future is secure. Elementary thermodynamic considerations are developed to show that a hydrogen economy is about as feasible as a perpetual motion machine. Hydrogen…

  12. Towards the Political Economy of Pluriactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Terry

    1990-01-01

    Explores theoretical concerns of political economy approaches in agriculture and links these to farm pluriactivity. Focuses on relevance of debates concerning labor commoditization and uneven development, suggesting recognition of pluriactivity for broader understanding of political economy. Recommends broader approach for understanding economic…

  13. Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data asset contains measured summary fuel economy estimates and test data for light-duty vehicle manufacturers by model for certification as required under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA) and The Energy Independent Security Act of 2007 (EISA) to collect vehicle fuel economy estimates for the creation of Economy Labels and for the calculation of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE). Manufacturers submit data on an annual basis, or as needed to document vehicle model changes.The EPA performs targeted fuel economy confirmatory tests on approximately 15% of vehicles submitted for validation. Confirmatory data on vehicles is associated with its corresponding submission data to verify the accuracy of manufacturer submissions beyond standard business rules. Submitted data comes in XML format or as documents, with the majority of submissions being sent in XML, and includes descriptive information on the vehicle itself, fuel economy information, and the manufacturer's testing approach. This data may contain proprietary information (CBI) such as information on estimated sales or other data elements indicated by the submitter as confidential. CBI data is not publically available; however, within the EPA data can accessed under the restrictions of the Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) CBI policy [RCS Link]. Datasets are segmented by vehicle model/manufacturer and/or year with corresponding fuel economy, te

  14. The solar-hydrogen economy: an analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Warren D.

    2007-09-01

    The 20th Century was the age of the Petroleum Economy while the 21st Century is certainly the age of the Solar-Hydrogen Economy. The global Solar-Hydrogen Economy that is now emerging follows a different logic. Under this new economic paradigm, new machines and methods are once again being developed while companies are restructuring. The Petroleum Economy will be briefly explored in relation to oil consumption, Hubbert's curve, and oil reserves with emphasis on the "oil crash". Concerns and criticisms about the Hydrogen Economy will be addressed by debunking some of the "hydrogen myths". There are three major driving factors for the establishment of the Solar-Hydrogen Economy, i.e. the environment, the economy with the coming "oil crash", and national security. The New Energy decentralization pathway has developed many progressive features, e.g., reducing the dependence on oil, reducing the air pollution and CO II. The technical and economic aspects of the various Solar-Hydrogen energy options and combinations will be analyzed. A proposed 24-hour/day 200 MWe solar-hydrogen power plant for the U.S. with selected energy options will be discussed. There are fast emerging Solar Hydrogen energy infrastructures in the U.S., Europe, Japan and China. Some of the major infrastructure projects in the transportation and energy sectors will be discussed. The current and projected growth in the Solar-Hydrogen Economy through 2045 will be given.

  15. Getting Tenure in a Down Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Darla; Maidment, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Academic tenure is now under attack. A down economy has placed greater pressure on institutions making tenure more difficult to obtain. Nineteen tips for gaining tenure in a down economy are presented along with several justifications for tenure and why tenure is important for the preservation of the academy and the freedom to research and teach.

  16. Manufacturing Careers, Skilled Workers and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In order to jumpstart the economy, "Made in the U.S.A." needs to be synonymous with in-demand, high-quality products sold throughout the world. Recognizing the importance of the manufacturing industry and its connection to a healthy economy, President Obama addressed Carnegie Mellon University and launched the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership…

  17. Politics Between Economy and Culture. Introductory Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokkan, Stein

    The introductory statement to the plenary session of the Ninth World Congress of the International Political Science Association announces the first of two major themes, politics between economy and culture. This theme is described as investigating the culture-economy dialectic at all levels of politics -- global, territorial, national, community,…

  18. Guidelines for Establishing and Maintaining Token Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, Brenda Smith; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The following stages in planning a token economy with students having behavior problems are discussed: (1) identifying target behaviors; (2) specifying and selecting reinforcers; (3) identifying token types and schedules; (4) planning token distribution and redemption; (5) initiating and implementing the token economy system; and (6) planning…

  19. Using Classroom Token Economies as Instructional Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minner, Sam; Knutson, Richard

    1980-01-01

    The use of a token economy in teaching special needs students is outlined. Steps in establishing a token economy are presented and activities, such as the use of charge cards and a classroom bank, which help develop related skills are discussed. (PHR)

  20. Price Discrimination, Economies of Scale, and Profits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Donghyun

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)

  1. The Informal Economy: Recent Trends, Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Martha Alter

    2016-08-01

    Informal employment represents more than half of nonagricultural employment in most developing regions, contributes to the overall economy, and provides pathways to reduction of poverty and inequality. Support to the informal economy should include the expansion of occupational health and safety to include informal workers, based on an analysis of their work places and work risks. The paper presents main schools of thought and argues for a holistic understanding of the different segments of the informal work force and for policies and interventions tailored to the needs and constraints of these different segments. The paper recommends a policy approach which seeks to extend social protection, including occupational health and safety services, to informal workers, and to increase the productivity of informal enterprises and informal workers through an enabling environment and support services. The paper calls for a new paradigm of a hybrid economy which would value and integrate the informal economy alongside the formal economies.

  2. 40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related... economy calculations. The calculations of vehicle fuel economy values require the weighted...

  3. Opening the Dutch Open Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.; de Wijn, A. G.; Sütterlin, P.; Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Hammerschlag, R. H.

    2002-10-01

    We hope to "open the DOT" to the international solar physics community as a facility for high-resolution tomography of the solar atmosphere. Our aim is to do so combining peer-review time allocation with service-mode operation in a "hands-on-telescope" education program bringing students to La Palma to assist in the observing and processing. The largest step needed is considerable speedup of the DOT speckle processing.

  4. Open University

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  5. Paraguay: population and the economy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1986-01-01

    Paraguay's political conflicts and development experiences have been accompanied by compensatory population movements; however, economic and population policies of the past are not adequate to address the current economic challenges. The principal structural problem is dependence on international commodity prices. Since late 1984, the international prices for soya and cotton have declined more than 50%; these 2 products account for 83% of official exports. The external debt has grown significantly in the past 5 years and is increasingly difficult to service. A major problem the government faces in servicing the debt and maintaining economic growth is its inability to get control of foreign exchange. Much of Paraguay's external trade is contraband, with the dollars passing into the black market. As a result of the illegal economy, government earnings have been insufficient to cover expenses. Unemployment stands at 12% because of general economic decline, cuts in government expenditure, and the reduction of investment in hydroelectricity. Occupation of new land, the classic solution by the Paraguayan peasantry, is no longer a viable option since all land is now utilized. About 20-25% of Paraguayans live outside the country, expecially in Argentina. In 1986, a commission drafted an Adjustment Plan that recommended a devaluation of the official gurani rate, tax increases, higher tariffs for public services, and incentives to invest in priority areas; however, this plan has not been implemented to date.

  6. Financing pharmaceuticals in transition economies.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, P

    1999-06-01

    This paper (a) provides a methodological taxonomy of pricing, financing, reimbursement, and cost containment methodologies for pharmaceuticals; (b) analyzes complex agency relationships and the health versus industrial policy tradeoff; (c) pinpoints financing measures to balance safety and effectiveness of medicines and their affordability by publicly funded systems in transition; and (d) highlights viable options for policy-makers for the financing of pharmaceuticals in transition. Three categories of measures and their implications for pharmaceutical policy cost containing are analyzed: supply-side measures, targeting manufacturers, proxy demand-side measures, targeting physicians and pharmacists, and demand-side measures, targeting patients. In pursuing supply side measures, we explore free pricing for pharmaceuticals, direct price controls, cost-plus and cost pricing, average pricing and international price comparisons, profit control, reference pricing, the introduction of a fourth hurdle, positive and negative lists, and other price control measures. The analysis of proxy-demand measures includes budgets for physicians, generic policies, practice guidelines, monitoring the authorizing behavior of physicians, and disease management schemes. Demand-side measures explore the effectiveness of patient co-payments, the impact of allowing products over-the-counter and health promotion programs. Global policies should operate simultaneously on the supply, the proxy demand, and the demand-side. Policy-making needs to have a continuous long-term planning. The importation of policies into transition economy may require extensive and expensive adaptation, and/or lead to sub-optimal policy outcomes.

  7. Welcome to the experience economy.

    PubMed

    Pine, B J; Gilmore, J H

    1998-01-01

    First there was agriculture, then manufactured goods, and eventually services. Each change represented a step up in economic value--a way for producers to distinguish their products from increasingly undifferentiated competitive offerings. Now, as services are in their turn becoming commoditized, companies are looking for the next higher value in an economic offering. Leading-edge companies are finding that it lies in staging experiences. To reach this higher level of competition, companies will have to learn how to design, sell, and deliver experiences that customers will readily pay for. An experience occurs when a company uses services as the stage--and goods as props--for engaging individuals in a way that creates a memorable event. And while experiences have always been at the heart of the entertainment business, any company stages an experience when it engages customers in a personal, memorable way. The lessons of pioneering experience providers, including the Walt Disney Company, can help companies learn how to compete in the experience economy. The authors offer five design principles that drive the creation of memorable experiences. First, create a consistent theme, one that resonates throughout the entire experience. Second, layer the theme with positive cues--for example, easy-to-follow signs. Third, eliminate negative cues, those visual or aural messages that distract or contradict the theme. Fourth, offer memorabilia that commemorate the experience for the user. Finally, engage all five senses--through sights, sounds, and so on--to heighten the experience and thus make it more memorable.

  8. The economy of solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Scheer, H. |

    1994-12-31

    Solar energy is often regarded as environmentally-friendly, but, at the same time as not economical. A global economical view shows, however, that renewable energies can bring about substantial economic and social benefits today, even before their wide market introduction has begun. They are a basic economic innovation for durably overcoming the ever increasing risk innate in the current economic development: they provide new jobs in industry, crafts, and agriculture; a long-term reduction of administrative and health costs; reduced subsidies, increased foreign exchange assets for national economies; reduced military expenses to secure the energy supply structure; and preservation of agriculture on a sustainable basis. In the medium- and long-term, they are a precondition for reducing operation and management costs of the energy supply system. On the basis of a completely new tax system - the entropy tax - solar energy can become the trigger of a new economic dynamics which remains within the ecological limits of growth. 27 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Exercise economy in skiing and running.

    PubMed

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46), body mass (r = -0.09-0.46) and body height (r = 0.11-0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  10. Economies of Size in Production Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Economies of size refer to the ability of a farm to lower costs of production by increasing production. Agriculture production displays an L-shaped average cost curve where costs are lower initially but reach a point where no further gains are achieved. Spreading fixed costs, bulk purchases, and marketing power are cited as reasons for economies of size. Labor-reducing technologies may be the primary reason. Most studies do not include the external costs from prophylactic antibiotic use, impact on rural communities, and environmental damage associated with large-scale production. These can contribute to the economies of size. PMID:23144676

  11. Open-Source Colorimeter

    PubMed Central

    Anzalone, Gerald C.; Glover, Alexandra G.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of what have historically been sophisticated research-related sensors and tools has limited their adoption to a relatively small group of well-funded researchers. This paper provides a methodology for applying an open-source approach to design and development of a colorimeter. A 3-D printable, open-source colorimeter utilizing only open-source hardware and software solutions and readily available discrete components is discussed and its performance compared to a commercial portable colorimeter. Performance is evaluated with commercial vials prepared for the closed reflux chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. This approach reduced the cost of reliable closed reflux COD by two orders of magnitude making it an economic alternative for the vast majority of potential users. The open-source colorimeter demonstrated good reproducibility and serves as a platform for further development and derivation of the design for other, similar purposes such as nephelometry. This approach promises unprecedented access to sophisticated instrumentation based on low-cost sensors by those most in need of it, under-developed and developing world laboratories. PMID:23604032

  12. Environmental protection, the economy, and jobs: national and regional analyses.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, Roger H; Wendling, Robert M; Diperna, Paula

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between environmental protection (EP), the economy, and jobs has been an issue of harsh contention for decades. Does EP harm the economy and destroy jobs or facilitate economic growth and create jobs? We address this issue by summarizing the results of the Jobs and the Environment Initiative, research funded by nonprofit foundations to quantify the relationship between EP, the economy, and jobs. We estimate the size of the US environmental industry and the numbers of environment-related jobs at the national level and in the states of Florida, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, and Wisconsin. This is the first time that such comprehensive, detailed estimates have been developed. Our major finding is that, contrary to conventional wisdom, EP, economic growth, and jobs creation are complementary and compatible: investments in EP create jobs and displace jobs, but the net effect on employment is positive. Second, environment protection has grown rapidly to become a major sales-generating, job-creating industry--$300 billion/year and 5 million jobs in 2003. Third, most of the 5 million jobs created are standard jobs for accountants, engineers, computer analysts, clerks, factory workers, etc., and the classic environmental job (environmental engineer, ecologist, etc.) constitutes only a small portion of the jobs created. Most of the persons employed in the jobs created may not even realize that they owe their livelihood to protecting the environment. Fourth, at the state level, the relationship between environmental policies and economic/job growth is positive, not negative. States can have strong economies and simultaneously protect the environment. Finally, environmental jobs are concentrated in manufacturing and professional, information, scientific, and technical services, and are thus disproportionately the types of jobs all states seek to attract.

  13. High open-circuit voltage small-molecule p-DTS(FBTTh 2 )2.ICBA bulk heterojunction solar cells – morphology, excited-state dynamics, and photovoltaic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ko Kyaw, Aung Ko; Gehrig, Dominik; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Ye; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Laquai, Frédéric; Nguyen, Thuc -Quyen

    2014-11-27

    The photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using the solution-processable small molecule donor 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 in combination with indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA) as an acceptor is systematically optimized by altering the processing conditions. A high open-circuit voltage of 1 V, more than 0.2 V higher than that of a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM blend, is achieved. However, the power conversion efficiency remains around 5% and thus is lower than ~8% previously reported for p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM. Transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy over a wide spectral (Vis-NIR) and dynamic (fs to μs) range in combination with multivariate curve resolution analysis of the TA data reveals that generation of free charges is more efficient in the blend with PC70BM as an acceptor. In contrast, blends with ICBA create more coulombically bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states, which recombine on the sub-nanosecond timescale by geminate recombination. Furthermore, the ns to μs charge carrier dynamics in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:ICBA blends are only weakly intensity dependent implying a significant contribution of recombination from long-lived CT states and trapped charges, while those in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM decay via an intensity-dependent recombination mechanism indicating that spatially separated (free) charge carriers are observed, which can be extracted as photocurrent from the device.

  14. OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

  15. Power from space and the hydrogen economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Philip K.; Haynes, William E.

    2005-07-01

    Recent discoveries of methane hydrates under the Arctic permafrost and on continental shelves have revealed an immense energy resource. This has two major implications for the Solar Power Satellite (SPS). First, the SPS will not be built unless it can produce electricity at a price competitive with that generated using methane from hydrates (perhaps with sequestration of carbon dioxide). Second, steam reformation of methane is much cheaper than water electrolysis as a source of hydrogen, so there is little role for the SPS (or any other electric power technology) in the proposed hydrogen economy. On the other hand, an economy based on methane-electric hybrid vehicles offers advantages quite comparable to the hydrogen economy, without its technical problems and immense capital requirements. The methane economy also offers a transitional path to increasing direct use of electricity in transportation, a development that could create a major market for the SPS.

  16. The Clean Air Act and the Economy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Since 1970, cleaner air and a growing economy have gone hand in hand. The Act has created market opportunities that have helped to inspire innovation in cleaner technologies for which the United States has become a global market leader.

  17. E3: Economy, Energy and Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    E3 is a technical assistance framework helping communities, manufacturers, and manufacturing supply chains adapt and thrive in today's green economy. Find information on pollution prevention, sustainable business practices, and energy efficiency.

  18. Traffic airships with special reference to economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leyensetter, Walther

    1921-01-01

    The first part of this report details the efficiency and economy of airship travel, while the second part presents methods of economic efficiency with regards to construction, cost of upkeep and operation, and the establishment of airship lines.

  19. Worker Displacement in an Expanding Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipple, Steven

    1997-01-01

    As the economy grew in the mid-1900s, job loss declined and the rate of reemployment rose. Job losses that did occur were more widely dispersed across industries and occupations than in earlier years. (Author)

  20. Transportation Fuels and the Hydrogen Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbard, Alex

    2004-11-01

    An energy analysis of transportation fuels is performed for comparing automobiles and fuels currently in the marketplace as real world benchmarks projected as "hydrogen economy" requirements. Comparisons are made for ideal case average energy values at Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) at 20°C, 1 atmosphere with no loses. "Real world" benchmarks currently in the marketplace illuminate the challenges to be met if an equivalent "hydrogen economy" is to become reality. The idea of a "hydrogen economy" is that, at some time in the future, world energy needs will be supplied in part or totally from hydrogen; in part as compared to the current "petroleum economy" that is the source of most of the world's transportation fuels and only a portion of total energy use, or hydrogen as the source of all energy consumption.

  1. Historical Improvement in Speed Skating Economy.

    PubMed

    Noordhof, Dionne A; van Tok, Elmy; Joosten, Florentine S J G M; Hettinga, Florentina J; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Foster, Carl; de Koning, Jos J

    2017-02-01

    Half the improvement in 1500-m speed-skating world records can be explained by technological innovations and the other half by athletic improvement. It is hypothesized that improved skating economy is accountable for much of the athletic improvement.

  2. Policy Simulation of the International Coffee Economy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    roastings ACCUS Dwmmy variable for United States apparent green coffee roastings DCUS Dummy variable for extremes in United States coffee roasting ...AD-AI1N 682 DEPARTMENT OF STATE. WASHINGTON DC OFFICE OF EXTERNAL-ETC F/8 5/3 POLICY SIMULATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COFFEE ECONOMY.(U) 1981 W C...POLICY SIMULATION OF T=E INTERNATIONAL COFFEE ECONOMY: FINAL REPORT by Walter C. Labys* This final report describes the completed research of the coffee

  3. Piracy and Its Impact on the Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    maximum 200 words) This thesis attempts to shed light on the growing threat maritime piracy has on the economy along with possible solutions...shed light on the growing threat maritime piracy has on the economy along with possible solutions (military and diplomatic operations) the world...would like to thank my wife, Kathleen, for her constant support and understanding with all the effort that was put into this thesis. I would also

  4. Geothermal Small Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2003-05-01

    Small businesses are the cornerstone of the American economy. Over 22 million small businesses account for approximately 99% of employers, employ about half of the private sector workforce, and are responsible for about two-thirds of net new jobs. Many small businesses fared better than the Fortune 500 in 2001. Non-farm proprietors income rose 2.4% in 2001 while corporate profits declined 7.2%. Yet not all is rosy for small businesses, particularly new ones. One-third close within two years of opening. From 1989 to 1992, almost half closed within four years; only 39.5% were still open after six years. Why do some new businesses thrive and some fail? What helps a new business succeed? Industry knowledge, business and financial planning, and good management. Small geothermal businesses are no different. Low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources exist throughout the western United States, the majority not yet tapped. A recent survey of ten western states identified more than 9,000 thermal wells and springs, over 900 low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas, and hundreds of direct-use sites. Many opportunities exist for geothermal entrepreneurs to develop many of these sites into thriving small businesses. The ''Geothermal Small Business Workbook'' (''Workbook'') was written to give geothermal entrepreneurs, small businesses, and developers the tools they need to understand geothermal applications--both direct use and small-scale power generation--and to write a business and financing plan. The Workbook will: Provide background, market, and regulatory data for direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; Refer you to several sources of useful information including owners of existing geothermal businesses, trade associations, and other organizations; Break down the complicated and sometimes tedious process of writing a business plan into five easy steps; Lead you--the geothermal entrepreneur, small company, or

  5. Institutions of Higher Education as Engines of Small Business Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Rodney D.; Venkatachalam, Padma

    2005-01-01

    Universities today exert an ever-increasing stimulus to small business development, contributing to national and local economic development as the general economy becomes increasingly knowledge-based. The transition to a knowledge-based economy, coupled with the passage of the Bayh-Dole Act in 1980, has resulted in stronger university-industry…

  6. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  7. The token economy: a decade later.

    PubMed

    Kazdin, A E

    1982-01-01

    In the last decade, the token economy has been extended widely across populations and behaviors in treatment, rehabilitation, educational, and community settings. Outcome research has expanded as well to include large-scale program evaluations and comparative and combined treatment studies of the token economy. In a previous review (Kazdin & Bootzin, 1972), several obstacles were identified for the effective application of the token economy. These included identifying procedures to enhance program efficacy, to train staff, to overcome client resistance, and to promote long-term maintenance and transfer of training. The present paper discusses recent advances in research and reviews progress on the major issues identified previously. New issues have become salient in the last decade that pertain to the extension of the token economy to institutional settings. The demands for maintaining the integrity of treatment, the ability to integrate token economies within existing institutional constraints, and the disseminability of the procedures on a large scale are major issues that may dictate the future of the token economy.

  8. Openness initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  9. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  10. The Configuration of Local Economic Power and Civic Participation in the Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Troy; Mathews, Todd L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the authors test the hypothesis that local economic concentration is associated with decreased levels of civic participation. They define economic concentration as a social context in which a small number of corporate establishments or industries dominate a local economy. They argue that economic concentration leads to a monolithic…

  11. Theory and evidence for using the economy-of-scale law in power plant economics

    SciTech Connect

    Phung, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    This report compiles theory and evidence for the use of the economy-of-scale law in energy economics, particularly in the estimation of capital costs for coal-fired and nuclear power plants. The economy-of-scale law is widely used in its simplest form: cost is directly proportional to capacity raised to an exponent. An additive constant is an important component that is not generally taken into account. Also, the economy of scale is perforce valid only over a limited size range. The majority of engineering studies have estimated an economy of scale exponent of 0.7 to 0.9 for coal-fired plants and an exponent of 0.4 to 0.6 for nuclear plants in the capacity ranges of 400 to 1000 MWe. However, the majority of econometric analyses found little or no economy of scale for coal-fired plants and only a slight economy of scale for nuclear plants. This disparity is explained by the fact that economists have included regulatory and time-related costs in addition to the direct and indirect costs used by the engineers. Regulatory and time-related costs have become an increasingly larger portion of total costs during the last decade. In addition, these costs appeared to have either a very small economy of scale or to be increasing as the size of the power plant increased. We conclude that gains in economy of scale can only be made by reducing regulatory and time-related costs through design standardization and regulatory stability, in combination with more favorable economic conditions. 59 refs.

  12. 40 CFR 1066.840 - Highway fuel economy test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Highway fuel economy test procedure... Highway fuel economy test procedure. This section describes the procedure for the highway fuel economy test (HFET). This test involves emission sampling and fuel economy measurement for certain vehicles...

  13. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related... economy calculations. The Administrator will use the calculation procedure set forth in this paragraph...

  14. Translation, the Knowledge Economy, and Crossing Boundaries in Contemporary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yun-Shiuan

    2016-01-01

    Significant developments in the global economy and information technology have been accompanied by a transformation in the nature and process of knowledge production and dissemination. Concepts such as the knowledge economy or creative economy have been formulated to accommodate the new and complex developments in knowledge, creativity, economy,…

  15. 40 CFR 600.113-93 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-93... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-93 Fuel economy calculations....

  16. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-88 Fuel economy calculations....

  17. 40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-78 Fuel economy calculations....

  18. Youth and the New Economy=Les jeunes et la nouvelle economie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Perspectives Series, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This Community Perspective Series document includes statements about young people in the new economy of Toronto made by three participants in the October 2000 annual general meeting of the Toronto Training Board. "A Hitchhiker's Guide to the New Economy" (Olivia Chow) suggests that training programs available to young people are…

  19. Education and the Economy: Boosting Texas's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  20. Education and the Economy: Boosting Washington's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  1. Education and the Economy: Boosting Mississippi's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  2. Education and the Economy: Boosting Indiana's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  3. Education and the Economy: Boosting Oregon's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  4. Education and the Economy: Boosting Arkansas' Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  5. Education and the Economy: Boosting Florida's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  6. Education and the Economy: Boosting Virginia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  7. Education and the Economy: Boosting Louisiana's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  8. Education and the Economy: Boosting the District of Columbia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  9. Education and the Economy: Boosting California's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  10. Education and the Economy: Boosting Ohio's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  11. Education and the Economy: Boosting Illinois's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  12. Education and the Economy: Boosting South Carolina's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  13. Education and the Economy: Boosting Maryland's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  14. Education and the Economy: Boosting New Jersey's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  15. Education and the Economy: Boosting Idaho's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  16. Education and the Economy: Boosting West Virginia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  17. Education and the Economy: Boosting Pennsylvania's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  18. Education and the Economy: Boosting New Mexico's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  19. Education and the Economy: Boosting Colorado's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  20. Education and the Economy: Boosting Tennessee's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  1. Education and the Economy: Boosting Montana's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  2. Education and the Economy: Boosting Minnesota's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  3. Education and the Economy: Boosting Michigan's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  4. Education and the Economy: Boosting Missouri's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  5. Education and the Economy: Boosting Rhode Island's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  6. Education and the Economy: Boosting Vermont's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  7. Education and the Economy: Boosting Oklahoma's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  8. Education and the Economy: Boosting Massachusetts' Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  9. Education and the Economy: Boosting Kansas' Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  10. Education and the Economy: Boosting New Hampshire's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  11. Education and the Economy: Boosting Delaware's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  12. Education and the Economy: Boosting New York's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  13. Education and the Economy: Boosting Alaska's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  14. Education and the Economy: Boosting Wisconsin's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  15. Education and the Economy: Boosting Nebraska's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  16. Education and the Economy: Boosting Georgia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  17. Education and the Economy: Boosting Hawaii's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  18. Education and the Economy: Boosting Wyoming's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  19. Education and the Economy: Boosting North Dakota's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  20. Education and the Economy: Boosting South Dakota's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  1. Education and the Economy: Boosting Iowa's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  2. Education and the Economy: Boosting Kentucky's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  3. Education and the Economy: Boosting Connecticut's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  4. Education and the Economy: Boosting Maine's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  5. Education and the Economy: Boosting North Carolina's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  6. Education and the Economy: Boosting Arizona's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  7. Education and the Economy: Boosting Alabama's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  8. Education and the Economy: Boosting Nevada's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  9. Education and the Economy: Boosting Utah's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  10. Education and the Economy: Boosting the Nation's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  11. Green Skills for Green Economy: Case of the Environmental Education Role in Kazakhstan's Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlimbetova, Gaini; Zhylbaev, Zhanbol; Syrymbetova, Lyailya; ?liyeva, Aiman

    2016-01-01

    The research on situation with developing "green skills" in conditions of transition to "green economy" is analysed in this article. Kazakhstan like many other states has been going through transition to "green economy" since 2013. Economic reforms have made an impact on the system of environmental education. The…

  12. Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuokkanen, Rauna

    2011-01-01

    The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

  13. Running biomechanics: shorter heels, better economy.

    PubMed

    Scholz, M N; Bobbert, M F; van Soest, A J; Clark, J R; van Heerden, J

    2008-10-01

    Better running economy (i.e. a lower rate of energy consumption at a given speed) is correlated with superior distance running performance. There is substantial variation in running economy, even among elite runners. This variation might be due to variation in the storage and reutilization of elastic energy in tendons. Using a simple musculoskeletal model, it was predicted that the amount of energy stored in a tendon during a given movement depends more critically on moment arm than on mechanical properties of the tendon, with the amount of stored energy increasing as the moment arm gets smaller. Assuming a link between elastic energy reutilization and overall metabolic cost of running, a smaller moment arm should therefore be associated with superior running economy. This prediction was confirmed experimentally in a group of 15 highly trained runners. The moment arm of the Achilles tendon was determined from standardized photographs of the ankle, using the position of anatomical landmarks. Running economy was measured as the rate of metabolic energy consumption during level treadmill running at a speed of 16 km h(-1). A strong correlation was found between the moment arm of the Achilles tendon and running economy. Smaller muscle moment arms correlated with lower rates of metabolic energy consumption (r(2)=0.75, P<0.001).

  14. Walking economy in people with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Cory L; Schenkman, Margaret L; McFann, Kim; Wolfe, Pamela; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2009-01-01

    Gait dysfunction is an early problem identified by patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Alterations in gait may result in an increase in the energy cost of walking (i.e., walking economy). The purpose of this study was to determine whether walking economy is atypical in patients with PD when compared with healthy controls. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the associations of age, sex, and level of disease severity with walking economy in patients with PD. The rate of oxygen consumption (VO2) and other responses to treadmill walking were compared in 90 patients (64.4±10.3 yr) and 44 controls (64.6±7.3 yr) at several walking speeds. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to determine relationships of age, sex, and disease state with walking economy in PD patients. Walking economy was significantly worse in PD patients than in controls at all speeds above 1.0 mph. Across all speeds, VO2 was 6 to 10% higher in PD patients. Heart rate, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, and rating of perceived exertion were correspondingly elevated. No significant relationship of age, sex, or UPDRS score with VO2 was found for patients with PD. The findings suggest that the physiologic stress of daily physical activities is increased in patients with early to mid-stage PD, and this may contribute to the elevated level of fatigue that is characteristic of PD. PMID:19441128

  15. An entropic framework for modeling economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caticha, Ariel; Golan, Amos

    2014-08-01

    We develop an information-theoretic framework for economic modeling. This framework is based on principles of entropic inference that are designed for reasoning on the basis of incomplete information. We take the point of view of an external observer who has access to limited information about broad macroscopic economic features. We view this framework as complementary to more traditional methods. The economy is modeled as a collection of agents about whom we make no assumptions of rationality (in the sense of maximizing utility or profit). States of statistical equilibrium are introduced as those macrostates that maximize entropy subject to the relevant information codified into constraints. The basic assumption is that this information refers to supply and demand and is expressed in the form of the expected values of certain quantities (such as inputs, resources, goods, production functions, utility functions and budgets). The notion of economic entropy is introduced. It provides a measure of the uniformity of the distribution of goods and resources. It captures both the welfare state of the economy as well as the characteristics of the market (say, monopolistic, concentrated or competitive). Prices, which turn out to be the Lagrange multipliers, are endogenously generated by the economy. Further studies include the equilibrium between two economies and the conditions for stability. As an example, the case of the nonlinear economy that arises from linear production and utility functions is treated in some detail.

  16. Open Education Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bough, Max, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This journal provides 12 brief articles focused on open education. Topics explored include (1) open education and reading, (2) mainstreaming, (3) characteristics of an open teacher, (4) administration of an open concept school, (5) an existential methodology in the language arts, (6) social studies in open education, (7) open education in early…

  17. Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Digitization of information and the Internet have profoundly expanded the capacity for openness. This report details the benefits of openness in three areas--open standards, open-source software, and open innovation--and examines the major issues in the debate over whether openness should be encouraged or not. The report explains each of these…

  18. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  19. What Should You Ask Your Doctor About Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Should You Ask Your Doctor About Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma? It’s important to have honest, open discussions ... Doctor About Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma? More In Small Intestine Cancer About Small Intestine Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, ...

  20. Towards a statistical mechanics of economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jericó, João Pedro; Marsili, Matteo

    2016-12-01

    The relevance of a given good in the production network of an economy can be quantified by its degree. We find that, across a large dataset of IO matrices for different countries, degrees follow an exponential distribution when the level of aggregation of economic activity is coarse enough. We confirm this by studying the US economy, for which data at a finer classification are available, at different level of aggregation. We recover the same "universal" degree distribution in models of large random economies, upon aggregation. The convergence to the exponential distribution is faster when aggregation is performed disregarding the nature of economic activities. This suggests that the loss of information on microscopic details depends on the classification methods employed by government agencies.

  1. Sanitary engineering and water economy in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Krul, W. F. J. M.

    1957-01-01

    The author deals with a wide variety of aspects of water economy and the development of water resources, relating them to the sanitary engineering problems they give rise to. Among those aspects are the balance between available resources and water needs for various purposes; accumulation and storage of surface and ground water, and methods of replenishing ground water supplies; pollution and purification; and organizational measures to deal with the urgent problems raised by the heavy demands on the world's water supply as a result of both increased population and the increased need for agricultural and industrial development. The author considers that at the national level over-all plans for developing the water economy of countries might well be drawn up by national water boards and that the economy of inter-State river basins should receive international study. In such work the United Nations and its specialized agencies might be of assistance. PMID:13472427

  2. Automotive fuel economy and emissions program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Baisley, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental data were generated to support an assessment of the relationship between automobile fuel economy and emissions control systems. Tests were made at both the engine and vehicle levels. Detailed investigations were made on cold-start emissions devices, exhaust gas recirculation systems, and air injection reactor systems. Based on the results of engine tests, an alternative emission control system and modified control strategy were implemented and tested in the vehicle. With the same fuel economy and NOx emissions as the stock vehicle, the modified vehicle reduced HC and CO emissions by about 20 percent. By removing the NOx emissions constraint, the modified vehicle demonstrated about 12 percent better fuel economy than the stock vehicle.

  3. Intrinsic reinforcers in a classroom token economy.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, T F; Malaby, J

    1972-01-01

    An inexpensive, easily managed token economy was used in a normal classroom for one academic year, and data were collected for the entire academic performance in spelling, language, handwriting, and math for that year. During a baseline period, assignment completion was variable. The introduction of a token economy with a point exchange every five days increased assignment completion and decreased variability of performance. An application of a token economy that had a point exchange averaging four days was accompanied by an assignment completion rate that approximated 100%. A reinforcement contingency for which quiet behavior rather than for assignment completion was eased quiet behavior was accompanied by a marked diminution of assignment completion. A reintroduction of the token reinforcement for assignment completion system increased assignment completion again.

  4. Opening address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen My cordial thanks to you for participating in our workshop and to all those who have sponsored it. When in 1957 I attended the International Congress on Fundamental Constants held in Turin on the occasion of the first centenary of the death of Amedeo Avogadro, I did not expect that about thirty-five years later a small but representative number of distinguished scientists would meet here again, to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal figure of the Avogadro constant. At that time, the uncertainty of the value of this constant was linked to the fourth decimal figure, as reported in the book by DuMond and Cohen. The progress made in the meantime is universally acknowledged to be due to the discovery of x-ray interferometry. We are honoured that one of the two founding fathers, Prof. Ulrich Bonse, is here with us, but we regret that the other, Prof. Michael Hart, is not present. After Bonse and Hart's discovery, the x-ray crystal density method triggered, as in a chain reaction, the investigation of two other quantities related to the Avogadro constant—density and molar mass. Scientists became, so to speak, resonant and since then have directed their efforts, just to mention a few examples, to producing near-perfect silicon spheres and determining their density, to calibrating, with increasing accuracy, mass spectrometers, and to studying the degree of homogeneity of silicon specimens. Obviously, I do not need to explain to you why the Avogadro constant is important. I wish, however, to underline that it is not only because of its position among fundamental constants, as we all know very well its direct links with the fine structure constant, the Boltzmann and Faraday constants, the h/e ratio, but also because when a new value of NA is obtained, the whole structure of the fundamental constants is shaken to a lesser or greater extent. Let me also remind you that the second part of the title of this workshop concerns the silicon

  5. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  6. 3 CFR 8525 - Proclamation 8525 of May 20, 2010. Small Business Week, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... heart of the American dream. They are the backbone of our Nation’s economy, they employ tens of millions... small businesses drive our economy toward recovery and long-term growth. The American Recovery and... the country. The Affordable Care Act makes it easier for small business owners to provide...

  7. Divvy Economies Based On (An Abstract) Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Dennis G.

    2004-04-01

    The Leontief Input-Output economic system can provide a model for a one-parameter family of economic systems based on an abstract temperature T. In particular, given a normalized input-output matrix R and taking R= R(1), a family of economic systems R(1/T)=R(α) is developed that represents heating (T>1) and cooling (T<1) of the economy relative to T=1. .The economy for a given value of T represents the solution of a constrained maximum entropy problem.

  8. An inquiry into the household economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuelson, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The value of the time which people devote to each activity of their lives is compared with the money they spend on the activity. After tax wage rates are used to value an individual's time. The enormous size of the household economy and the fact that for most activities the value of the consumer's time devoted to an activity exceeds the money expenditures on the activity, suggest that there are many opportunities for productivity improvements in the household economy which have been overlooked in most traditional thinking on productivity.

  9. A strategic approach to a green economy.

    PubMed

    Trumka, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    The crash has happened and we face dual market failures: climate change and the greatest economic crisis of our lifetimes. American labor believes that we must have a strategic approach to greening the economy centered on domestic investment in new technologies, the creation of good jobs, and leading a shared international response to both these issues. The nay-sayers are the same financial and industrial interests that advised the world economy into chaos. Their advice to us is more of the same: no rules, no regulations, free markets, and free trade. But now is the time for real change.

  10. Haptic seat for fuel economy feedback

    DOEpatents

    Bobbitt, III, John Thomas

    2016-08-30

    A process of providing driver fuel economy feedback is disclosed in which vehicle sensors provide for haptic feedback on fuel usage. Such sensors may include one or more of a speed sensors, global position satellite units, vehicle pitch/roll angle sensors, suspension displacement sensors, longitudinal accelerometer sensors, throttle position in sensors, steering angle sensors, break pressure sensors, and lateral accelerometer sensors. Sensors used singlely or collectively can provide enhanced feedback as to various environmental conditions and operating conditions such that a more accurate assessment of fuel economy information can be provided to the driver.

  11. When does inequality freeze an economy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerico, João Pedro; Landes, François P.; Marsili, Matteo; Pérez Castillo, Isaac; Volpati, Valerio

    2016-07-01

    Inequality and its consequences are the subject of intense recent debate. Using a simplified model of the economy, we address the relation between inequality and liquidity, the latter understood as the frequency of economic exchanges. Assuming a Pareto distribution of wealth for the agents, that is consistent with empirical findings, we find an inverse relation between wealth inequality and overall liquidity. We show that an increase in the inequality of wealth results in an even sharper concentration of the liquid financial resources. This leads to a congestion of the flow of goods and the arrest of the economy when the Pareto exponent reaches one.

  12. Defense Spending and the Civilian Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    1980s. We are now once again in a period of substantially declining military expenditure . Although not perfectly correlated with total defense spending ...AD-A257 677 - IIIIIIIIIII11liiIll/I l///ll III1II lllI! A RAND NOTE Defense Spending and the Civilian Economy DTIC C. R. Neu S ELECTE r• DEC 01...NOTE N-3083-PCT Defense Spending and the Civilian Economy C. R. Neu October 1990 Accesion For Supported by the NTlSCRA.. Pew Charitable Trusts TA

  13. An Exploration of Open Innovation: An Environmental Scanning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elci, Nuray

    2009-01-01

    Globalization and direction toward a knowledge economy, along with an economic downturn, is creating a competitive environment that calls for corporations to become more innovative. As the business environment becomes more competitive and dynamic, corporations are looking for new ways of achieving innovation. Open innovation is one approach that…

  14. Remuneration differences in the emerging economies of China and India.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Erhua Iris; Lu, Zhao; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Tian; Papola, T S; Pais, Jesim; Sahu, Partha Pratim

    2010-10-01

    Emerging economies by definition tend to be less dependent on expatriate skills and labour than lower-income countries, yet remuneration (pay plus benefits) differences between expatriate and local workers persist in them to some degree. According to relative deprivation theory, economic development paradoxically elevates the salience of relatively small gaps in remuneration. We therefore expected workers to report injustice and demotivation regarding relative remuneration, despite the closing of remuneration gaps between expatriate and local workers due to the economic development of recent years. To explore that possibility, 482 skilled professionals from a variety of sectors and organizations in two emerging economies, India (n = 233, response rate = 54%) and China (n = 249, response rate = 58%), participated in the research. International salaries were greater than local salaries by a factor of 2.73:1 in India and 1.90:1 in China; these mean ratios bordered on intolerable in the India sample and were largely tolerable among the sample from China. In both countries, differently remunerated workers differed in their justice cognitions and their demotivation, with lowered motivation and fewer justice cognitions in the locally salaried, local workers. These differences were however more statistically significant between people working in India than in China. Insofar as the motivational and justice gaps persisted, the findings support relative deprivation theory. Insofar as the same gaps appear to be sharper in the country with the higher-not lower-mean remuneration differential, they do not. An in-country workshop with local experts who interpreted the findings (in India), and content analysis of the participants' recommendations (in China) jointly recommended linking remuneration to (i) workplace performance instead of (ii) economy-of-origin, to help promote (iii) fairness.

  15. The correlation between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake: cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships in highly trained distance runners.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Andrew J; Ingham, Stephen A; Atkinson, Greg; Folland, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    A positive relationship between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) has been postulated in trained athletes, but previous evidence is equivocal and could have been confounded by statistical artefacts. Whether this relationship is preserved in response to running training (changes in running economy and V̇O2max) has yet to be explored. This study examined the relationships of (i) running economy and V̇O2max between runners, and (ii) the changes in running economy and V̇O2max that occur within runners in response to habitual training. 168 trained distance runners (males, n = 98, V̇O2max 73.0 ± 6.3 mL∙kg-1∙min-1; females, n = 70, V̇O2max 65.2 ± 5.9 mL kg-1∙min-1) performed a discontinuous submaximal running test to determine running economy (kcal∙km-1). A continuous incremental treadmill running test to volitional exhaustion was used to determine V̇O2max 54 participants (males, n = 27; females, n = 27) also completed at least one follow up assessment. Partial correlation analysis revealed small positive relationships between running economy and V̇O2max (males r = 0.26, females r = 0.25; P<0.006), in addition to moderate positive relationships between the changes in running economy and V̇O2max in response to habitual training (r = 0.35; P<0.001). In conclusion, the current investigation demonstrates that only a small to moderate relationship exists between running economy and V̇O2max in highly trained distance runners. With >85% of the variance in these parameters unexplained by this relationship, these findings reaffirm that running economy and V̇O2max are primarily determined independently.

  16. The initiation of homeless youth into the street economy.

    PubMed

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S

    2009-04-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based organizations. All participated in structured interviews and 25% participated in qualitative interviews. Almost all HY had participated in the street (81%) and formal economies (69%). Five main factors simultaneously influenced initiation into the street economy: social control/bonds, barriers to the formal economy (e.g., homelessness, educational deficits, mental health problems, incarceration, stigma), tangible and social/emotional benefits of the street economy, severe economic need, and the active recruitment of HY into the street economy by others. Qualitative and quantitative data sources were congruent. Intervention efforts are needed at multiple levels of influence to promote HY's success in the formal economy.

  17. Adult Education and the Irish Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Sexton

    2004-01-01

    The Irish Economy is at an interesting and dynamic phase of its development and people are faced with major decisions that will impact on the Irish society for many years to come. These decisions are and must be made by all who are in a position to influence. Economic evolution or revolution is not new and is most certainly not new to these…

  18. Black Women in the Emerging Services Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Bette

    1989-01-01

    Examines the impact of a services economy on the work and income of Black women in relation to current labor theory, employment patterns of Black and White women, and future policy implications. Discusses the growing feminization of poverty as the product of a growing subculture of low-wage work. (JS)

  19. Facing the Challenges of a Turbulent Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gann, Pamela B.

    2009-01-01

    As college presidents face the challenges of a turbulent and uncertain economy, they are working to assess the impacts on their strategic financial positions and to develop response plans that reflect their institutional missions and values. How can college presidents navigate during these difficult economic times as they seek to hold on to the…

  20. The Economy of a Lucky Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Tony

    1984-01-01

    Australia has one of the highest standards of living in the world. Agriculture, grazing, and mining are the mainstays of the country's economy. Since the end of World War II, Australia has developed an advanced industrial base that manufactures a wide range of goods, from automobiles to clothespins. (RM)

  1. California Community Colleges: Vital to the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The California Community Colleges play an important role in boosting the state's economy by serving more than 2.3 million students a year. In fact, one out of three community college students in the U.S. is enrolled in a California community college, making it the nation's largest system of higher education. Their 112 colleges provide students…

  2. The Learning Region between Pedagogy and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Economic growth is stimulated through learning. In "the learning economies" of those European regions that chose to develop their human and intellectual capital wisely, benefits have been visible. But this is a one-dimensional outlook in a multi-dimensional world. A "Learning Region" is an entirely different entity, pooling and…

  3. The Socialist Market Economy and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yixian, Li

    2006-01-01

    The [Chinese Communist] Party's Fourteenth Congress unequivocally confirmed the building of a socialist market system. The Third Plenary Session of the Party's Twelfth Congress in 1984 propounding the market led to economic reforms and the advancing of the theory of a socialist market economy. It constitutes a deepened understanding of the…

  4. Economics of automobile fuel-economy standards

    SciTech Connect

    Kleit, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1978 the Federal government has mandated that new automobiles sold by major firms in the United States reach certain levels of average fuel efficiency. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards can generate implicit taxes and subsidies for various types of cars. They also can have an impact on market structure, creating regulatory economies of scope. CAFE standards may also act to increase the profits of firms in the automobile industry, either by preventing competition among firms constrained by the standards or by creating profit opportunities for firms not constrained by the standards. CAFE standards are shown to have had a significant effect on the price of new cars in model years 1983 through 1986, raising the price of fuel inefficient cars and lowering the price of fuel efficient cars. The gasoline savings resulting from the imposition of higher standards are computed, as well as the welfare loss they generate. It is concluded that automobile fuel economy standards can save gasoline,but only at a large loss to the economy. An empirical model of the political support for CAFE standards is developed and tested. It is shown that support for the standards comes from the one major domestic automobile company that would benefit from higher standards, as well as from those who in general prefer regulatory solutions to the free market.

  5. Leading Indicator: New England's Higher Education Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    In few places is higher education so ingrained in a region's economic vitality as in New England. Students from all over the world enroll in New England's institutions of learning and research, bringing resources to finance their education and living expenses that reverberate throughout local and state economies. Human capital-based industries…

  6. What Does the Economy Bode for Fundraising?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourbon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    With the United States economy on a rollercoaster ride this year and words like "meltdown," "bailout," and "crisis" commonly used in recent weeks in connection with the financial markets, college and university administrators might find themselves becoming increasingly anxious about their fundraising plans. They…

  7. Your Institution in a Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, William

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author offers his reflections on the American economy and its "slow, gradual, and tedious" recovery. What the American people are experiencing now is not one of the ordinary recessions that have been experienced since World War II. What they have seen is a bursting of a bubble in the credit markets and in financial…

  8. Political Economy in Applied Linguistics Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    2017-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review is based on the fundamental idea that political economy should be adopted as a frame for research and discussion in applied linguistics as part of a general social turn which has taken hold in the field over the past three decades. It starts with Susan Gal's (1989) early call for such a move in sociolinguistics and…

  9. Reconsidering an Economy of Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayanagi, Mitsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    This article has an overall aim as follows: to develop an alternative understanding to a narrow view of education, and in particular teacher training--preparatory and continuing--in terms of economy, as well as the competencies needed for the teaching profession. It takes the view that such an alternative is or could be found in the ideas put…

  10. Library Automation in a Difficult Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    The downturn in the economy has taken its toll on libraries. Even in the best of times, most libraries have to work with budgets that are barely adequate to support their essential activities. In these recent months, the recession has subtracted significant funds from the parent organizations of many libraries: city, county, and state governments;…

  11. Apparel Graduate Course Focuses on Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnock, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Students at all levels of study must understand the impact and consequences of globalization. Because of technology innovations, integration of world economies through trade and cash flows, and the movement of people from one location to another, the world is becoming flatter. Based on this growing need to study globalization, a graduate course,…

  12. Income Inequality, Global Economy and the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheol-Sung; Nielsen, Francois; Alderson, Arthur S.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate interrelationship among income inequality, global economy and the role of the state using an unbalanced panel data set with 311 observations on 60 countries, dated from 1970 to 1994. The analysis proceeds in two stages. First, we test for effects on income inequality of variables characterizing the situation of a society in the…

  13. Iraq’s Economy: Past, Present, Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-03

    Political Economy, and Martin A. Weiss, Analyst in International Trade and Finance, Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade Division. 2 Dani Rodrik . “Growth...to Dani Rodrik , a prominent development economist, "in the long run, the main thing that ensures convergence with the living standards of advanced

  14. Building New York City's Innovation Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Jim; Bowles, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Academic research institutions have long been important economic anchors for New York City. They provide thousands of jobs and serve as a magnet for talented students and faculty, who inject hundreds of millions of dollars into the local economy through federal research grants. Yet, even though New York's concentration of top-fight scientific…

  15. Educating for the Knowledge Economy? Critical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, Hugh, Ed.; Young, Michael, Ed.; Daniels, Harry, Ed.; Balarin, Maria, Ed.; Lowe, John, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The promise, embraced by governments around the world, is that the knowledge economy will provide knowledge workers with a degree of autonomy and permission to think which enables them to be creative and to attract high incomes. What credence should we give to this promise? The current economic crisis is provoking a reappraisal of both economic…

  16. The "Celtic Tiger" and a Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Gerard M.; O'Sullivan, Eoin

    2006-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Ireland has proactively marketed its educated workforce, its favourable corporate tax rates, membership of the European common market, and other advantages, to multinational technology corporations. The resulting foreign direct investment in high-tech manufacturing operations has driven a booming Irish economy that has…

  17. The Political Economy of North American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John H., Ed.

    This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

  18. The Information Economy--A European Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmot, R.

    From a European perspective, this paper focuses on a set of issues affecting the emerging information economy. Among the issues covered are: developing a means of measuring the value of information and knowledge; studying other institutions such as the United States Department of Defense and the United States venture capital industry which are…

  19. Biotech Tradeoffs in the Rural Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttel, Frederick H.

    1987-01-01

    Synthesizes findings with personal estimates of likely impacts of biotechnology on nonmetropolitan economy, farming, public research institutions. Indicates biotechnology's benefit to rural America may come in expanded demand for raw materials although drawbacks may include declining farm numbers and displacement of rural workers in…

  20. Valid Knowledge: The Economy and the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    The future of Western universities as public institutions is the subject of extensive continuing debate, underpinned by the issue of what constitutes "valid knowledge". Where in the past only propositional knowledge codified by academics was considered valid, in the new economy enabled by information and communications technology, the procedural…

  1. A Revised Curriculum in Political Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taube, Richard K.

    1975-01-01

    The economics curriculum developed to fit Dominican College's new urban-international focus is outlined. Eight courses in the sequence are the nature of economics in a political context, comparative decision making systems, current issues, political economy in your experience, international political economics, economic development, macroeconomic…

  2. Technology transfer to the broader economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, Gordon; Clark, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Approaches to the transfer of government-funded civil space technology to the broader commercial economy were addressed by Working Panel no. 4. Some of the problems related to current strategies for technology transfer and recommendations for new approaches are described in outline form.

  3. Trends in Alaska's People and Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda; Killorin, Mary; Martin, Stephanie

    This booklet provides data on Alaska's population, economy, health, education, government, and natural resources, including specific information on Alaska Natives. Since 1960, Alaska's population has tripled and become more diverse, more stable, older, less likely to be male or married, and more concentrated. About 69 percent of the population…

  4. A Cooperative Home-School Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Belinda D.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes token economy systems for use with students with severe behavioral disorders, including systems extending from the classroom into home life. Techniques for soliciting parent participation, training parents, and maintaining the system are put forth. Variations on the system and a sample checklist are also included. (PB)

  5. Establishing and Balancing a Classroom Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center, David B.; Arnault, Lynne

    The paper presents a classroom token economy system for providing classroom structure, eliminating or controlling a variety of problem behaviors, and for demonstration and teaching purposes. The first section addresses income production (payment for productive work using classroom work periods as payment periods). A percentage method in paying for…

  6. Token economy in a hospital rehabilitation system.

    PubMed

    Baker, R

    1988-09-01

    A ward-based token economy programme which formed one part of a larger rehabilitative service for long-stay psychiatric patients is described. The clinical effectiveness of the programme is examined by the use of various nursing, psychological and psychiatric assessments before and after the patients' treatment on the ward, and the progress of former patients is followed-up as they move to different parts of the rehabilitation service. Significant clinical gains in patients' psychiatric symptomatology and problem behaviour on the ward are reported, although there were indications that improvement was not fully maintained as the patients moved on to other parts of the service. Comparison of the present clinical programme with the earlier research programmes on the ward indicated that the present regime was superior. The advantages and problems of token economy as a rehabilitative facility are discussed, outlining the various different roles for token economy with psychiatric rehabilitation. Finally, the future of token economy for long-stay patients is considered, questioning whether it might more appropriately be replaced by other structured ward programmes.

  7. A Home-School Token Economy Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Charles L.; Fairchild, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Presents a workable plan for all counselors who wish to establish cooperation and collaboration between parents and teachers concerning children's problems that involve achievement and misbehavior. A basic outline of how to implement a home-school token economy plan is presented with two case examples illustrating its use and effectiveness.…

  8. Peer Managed Token Economies: Evaluation and Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedell, Jeffrey R.; Archer, Robert P.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicate equivalent levels of patient performance when contingent reinforcement in a residential token economy program was controlled by either patient peer groups or staff. Patients in a peer-managed program showed positive ward behavior, reductions in psychosocial problems, and increase in potential for adjusting to community life.…

  9. Economy's Troubles Could Hit Colleges Unusually Hard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2008-01-01

    Financial experts everywhere agree that the economy appears headed toward a recession. The question is how long it will last and how deep it will be. The last recession, in 2001, lasted less than a year. Most sectors, including higher education, shrugged it off. During lengthier downturns, colleges have often benefited from increased enrollments.…

  10. Political economy of Clinton's ambitious energy program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldy, Joseph E.

    2016-10-01

    Hillary Clinton's campaign has stressed her continuity with Obama's energy policy on key aspects such as decarbonization of the US economy, technological innovation and global cooperation. However, policy reforms to deliver long-term climate goals might be out of reach in a highly divided Congress.

  11. Labor and the Economy in 1973

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defina, Catherine C.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the economy in 1973 includes coverage of price controls and freezes; monetary and fiscal policy; unemployment collective bargaining (apparel, railroads, rubber, electrical equipment, postal, trucking, automobiles); strikes; legal developments (employment discrimination and legislation); union developments (indictment, farm ferment,…

  12. The Air Transportation Policy of Small States: Meeting the Challenges of Globalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniou, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The air transport policies of small states are currently at a crossroad. Policy makers in these countries are facing a difficult dilemma: either follow the general trend of liberalization and pay the high cost of the resulting restructuring or maintain the existing regulatory and ownership structures at the risk of isolation thus undermining the viability and sustainability of their air transport sector and their economies in general. This paper proposes to explore the broad issues raised by this difficult dilemma, to outline its special significance in the context of small states and to delineate the options opened to the economic policymakers; in these states. After a brief note on the method of research, we sketch the main elements of the international air transport industry in which the airlines of small states are called upon to act. We then propose to review the main features of the analytical framework of this debate as it pertains to the special circumstances of these states. Then we focus on the challenges facing the airlines of Small States, while the next section proposes a number of the alternative policy options open to the policy makers in these states. The main conclusions are drawn in the final section.

  13. Open Source, Openness, and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David

    2006-01-01

    In this article David Wiley provides an overview of how the general expansion of open source software has affected the world of education in particular. In doing so, Wiley not only addresses the development of open source software applications for teachers and administrators, he also discusses how the fundamental philosophy of the open source…

  14. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    PubMed

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  15. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country.

  16. Abraham Lincoln and the global economy.

    PubMed

    Hormats, Robert D

    2003-08-01

    Abraham Lincoln would have well understood the challenges facing many modern emerging nations. In Lincoln's America, as in many developing nations today, sweeping economic change threatened older industries, traditional ways of living, and social and national cohesion by exposing economies and societies to new and powerful competitive forces. Yet even in the midst of the brutal and expensive American Civil war--and in part because of it--Lincoln and the Republican Congress enacted bold legislation that helped create a huge national market, a strong and unified economy governed by national institutions, and a rising middle class of businessmen and property owners. Figuring out how to maximize the benefits of globalization while minimizing its disruptions is a formidable challenge for policy makers. How do you expand opportunities for the talented and the lucky while making sure the rest of society doesn't fall behind? It may be helpful to look at the principles that informed the policies that Lincoln and the Republican Congress instituted after they came to power in 1861: Facilitate the upward mobility of low- and middle-income groups to give them a significant stake in the country. Emphasize the good of the national economy over regional interests. Affirm the need for sound government institutions to temper the dynamics of the free enterprise system. Tailor policies to the national situation. Realize that a period of turmoil may present a unique opportunity for reform. These principles drove the reforms that helped Americans cope with and benefit from rapid technological advances and the fast integration of the American economy in the nineteenth century. They may be instructive to today's policy makers who are struggling to help their own citizens integrate into the fast-changing global economy of the twenty-first century.

  17. Instabilities in large economies: aggregate volatility without idiosyncratic shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonart, Julius; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Landier, Augustin; Thesmar, David

    2014-10-01

    We study a dynamical model of interconnected firms which allows for certain market imperfections and frictions, restricted here to be myopic price forecasts and slow adjustment of production. Whereas the standard rational equilibrium is still formally a stationary solution of the dynamics, we show that this equilibrium becomes linearly unstable in a whole region of parameter space. When agents attempt to reach the optimal production target too quickly, coordination breaks down and the dynamics becomes chaotic. In the unstable, ‘turbulent’ phase, the aggregate volatility of the total output remains substantial even when the amplitude of idiosyncratic shocks goes to zero or when the size of the economy becomes large. In other words, crises become endogenous. This suggests an interesting resolution of the ‘small shocks, large business cycles’ puzzle.

  18. An analysis of a token economy in stuttering therapy.

    PubMed

    Ingham, R J; Andrews, G

    1973-01-01

    A stuttering therapy program in which adult stutterers were hospitalized and treated in small groups (n = 4) under token economy conditions is described. The Token System reinforced reductions and penalized increases in stuttering during conversation. The therapy program was divided into three stages. Initially, subjects were treated by the token system, which was then integrated with a delayed auditory feedback schedule designed to instate and shape a prolonged speech pattern into normal fluent speech. Finally, subjects passed through a speech situation hierarchy while under token control conditions. Experiments conducted in the first two stages of treatment are described. The first-stage experiments examined the design of the token system; the second-stage experiment assessed the effect of a contingent punishment schedule integrated with the delayed auditory feedback procedure in order to shape rate of speaking as well as fluency.

  19. Designing normative open virtual enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Emilia; Giret, Adriana; Botti, Vicente

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest on developing virtual enterprises in order to deal with the globalisation of the economy, the rapid growth of information technologies and the increase of competitiveness. In this paper we deal with the development of normative open virtual enterprises (NOVEs). They are systems with a global objective that are composed of a set of heterogeneous entities and enterprises that exchange services following a specific normative context. In order to analyse and design systems of this kind the multi-agent paradigm seems suitable because it offers a specific solution for supporting the social and contractual relationships between enterprises and for formalising their business processes. This paper presents how the Regulated Open Multi-agent systems (ROMAS) methodology, an agent-oriented software methodology, can be used to analyse and design NOVEs. ROMAS offers a complete development process that allows identifying and formalising of the structure of NOVEs, their normative context and the interactions among their members. The use of ROMAS is exemplified by means of a case study that represents an automotive supply chain.

  20. Lack of Sleep Takes Big Bite Out of World Economies

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162298.html Lack of Sleep Takes Big Bite Out of World Economies More ... increased risk of death linked to lack of sleep among U.S. workers cost the nation's economy as ...

  1. Skin Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy The sometimes deadly conditions cost $75 billion in ... a major impact on Americans and the U.S. economy, a new report finds. "The impact of skin ...

  2. Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

  3. Discussion and Conclusion: A Global Perspective on the World Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hague, Douglas

    1983-01-01

    Important changes are taking place in the world economy which are not adequately dealt with by either Keynesian or monetarist theories. Too much emphasis placed on what is happening in the American and western European economies can blind us to important developments in such nonwestern economies as the OPEC nations. (IS)

  4. 48 CFR 17.502-2 - The Economy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Economy Act. 17.502-2... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Interagency Acquisitions 17.502-2 The Economy Act. (a) The Economy Act (31 U.S.C. 1535) authorizes agencies to enter into agreements to obtain supplies...

  5. 42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Economy and efficiency. 440.370 Section 440.370...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and any... requirements and other economy and efficiency principles that would otherwise be applicable to the services...

  6. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuel economy standards. 531.5 Section 531.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel economy standards. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each manufacturer of...

  7. 42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Economy and efficiency. 440.370 Section 440.370...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and any... requirements and other economy and efficiency principles that would otherwise be applicable to the services...

  8. 48 CFR 17.502-2 - The Economy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Economy Act. 17.502-2... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Interagency Acquisitions 17.502-2 The Economy Act. (a) The Economy Act (31 U.S.C. 1535) authorizes agencies to enter into agreements to obtain supplies...

  9. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuel economy standards. 531.5 Section 531.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel economy standards. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each manufacturer of...

  10. 48 CFR 17.502-2 - The Economy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Economy Act. 17.502-2... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Interagency Acquisitions 17.502-2 The Economy Act. (a) The Economy Act (31 U.S.C. 1535) authorizes agencies to enter into agreements to obtain supplies...

  11. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  12. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  13. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  14. 42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Economy and efficiency. 440.370 Section 440.370...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and any... requirements and other economy and efficiency principles that would otherwise be applicable to the services...

  15. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  16. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fuel economy standards. 531.5 Section 531.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel economy standards. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, each manufacturer of...

  17. 48 CFR 17.502-2 - The Economy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Economy Act. 17.502-2... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Interagency Acquisitions 17.502-2 The Economy Act. (a) The Economy Act (31 U.S.C. 1535) authorizes agencies to enter into agreements to obtain supplies...

  18. English and the Knowledge Economy: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on knowledge economy discourse and considers the appeal of this discourse to English educators. Knowledge economy discourse is defined as a mode of thought and expression that assumes a broad-based economy driven by innovation will soon emerge in the USA. This discourse, it is argued, offers English teachers solutions to some…

  19. The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

  20. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  1. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel economy standards. 531.5 Section 531.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel economy standards. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each manufacturer of...

  2. 75 FR 55739 - Cybersecurity, Innovation and the Internet Economy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Internet Economy AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S. Department of... innovation in the Internet economy has been extended until 5 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) on September 20... cybersecurity challenges in the commercial sector and innovation in the Internet economy, with a closing...

  3. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  4. 75 FR 36633 - Cybersecurity and Innovation in the Information Economy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Cybersecurity and Innovation in the Information Economy AGENCY: National... cybersecurity in the commercial space and innovation in the Internet economy. DATES: The meeting will be held on... review of cybersecurity and innovation in the Internet economy, with a particular emphasis on...

  5. Analysis on Inclusion of Social Studies Economy Concepts in Coursebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Mustafa; Osmanoglu, Ahmet Emin

    2015-01-01

    Having an efficient and satisfactory economy education may enable an individual to actively participate in decision making process about economy-related issues. This is very important for democratic societies. This research aims to search methods and levels of teaching "economy" concepts prepared for Turkey 2005 Social Studies Program in…

  6. Measuring flood footprint of a regional economy - A case study for the UK flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of the urban economy and society is central to understanding the broad impacts of flooding and to identify cost-effective adaptation and mitigation measures. Assessments of the flooding impacts on cities have traditionally focused on the initial impact on people and assets. These initial estimates (so-called ';direct damage') are useful both in understanding the immediate implications of damage, and in marshalling the pools of capital and supplies required for re-building after an event. Since different economies as well as societies are coupled, especially under the current economic crisis, any small-scale damage may be multiplied and cascaded throughout wider economic systems and social networks. The direct and indirect damage is currently not evaluated well and could be captured by quantification of what we call the flood footprint. Flooding in one location can impact the whole UK economy. Neglecting these knock-on costs (i.e. the true footprint of the flood) means we might be ignoring the economic benefits and beneficiaries of flood risk management interventions. In 2007, for example, floods cost the economy about £3.2 bn directly, but the wider effect might actually add another 50% to 250% to that. Flood footprint is a measure of the exclusive total socioeconomic impact that is directly and indirectly caused by a flood event to the flooding region and wider economic systems and social networks. We adopt the UK 2012 flooding. An input-output basic dynamic inequalities (BDI) model is used to assess the impact of the floodings on the level of a Yorkshire economy, accounting for interactions between industries through demand and supply of intermediate consumption goods with a circular flow. After the disaster the economy will be unbalanced. The recovery process finishes when the economy is completely balance, i.e., when labour production capacity equals demands and production and all the variables reach pre-disaster levels. The analysis is carried out

  7. Ventilation air, the economy cycle, and VAV

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, R.W.

    1994-10-01

    This article describes a simple yet effective method of providing both minimum and economy cycle control of outside air with a VAV system. Like most of the people in the HVAC industry, the author has been aware that there are problems with ventilation air and economy cycle outside air control when variable air volume (VAV) systems are used. It seemed obvious that the simple solution was to use an injection fan in the outside air intake to provide the minimum ventilation requirement under any operating condition of the VAV system and--presto--the problem would be solved. Recently the author was asked to prepare a seminar on HVAC controls for one of the ASHRAE chapters, with special emphasis on VAV systems. This forced him to take a careful look at the situation, and in the ensuing analysis, it became apparent that the previous look at the problem had not discovered the simplest and perhaps best solution.

  8. Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chantornvong, S.; McCargo, D.

    2001-01-01

    Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economy of tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns.


Keywords: anti-tobacco legislation; political economy; Thailand; transnational tobacco companies PMID:11226361

  9. The token economy: an evaluative review1

    PubMed Central

    Kazdin, Alan E.; Bootzin, Richard R.

    1972-01-01

    Token economies have been applied in a wide range of settings. While there are several advantages to the use of this procedure, there are obstacles that may impede its implementation and therapeutic efficacy. These include: staff training, client resistance, circumvention of the contingencies, and non-responsiveness of subjects. Studies employing token programs with psychiatric patients, retardates, children in classroom settings, delinquents, and autistic children are reviewed. Although token economies are successful while in operation, the issue of generalization of behavior gains or resistance to extinction has not been given careful consideration. Inasmuch as generalization is perhaps the most crucial issue, several procedures are presented that are designed to facilitate maintenance of performance when reinforcement is withdrawn. Methodological suggestions for investigations on token reinforcement in applied settings are presented. PMID:16795358

  10. The token economy: an evaluative review.

    PubMed

    Kazdin, A E; Bootzin, R R

    1972-01-01

    Token economies have been applied in a wide range of settings. While there are several advantages to the use of this procedure, there are obstacles that may impede its implementation and therapeutic efficacy. These include: staff training, client resistance, circumvention of the contingencies, and non-responsiveness of subjects. Studies employing token programs with psychiatric patients, retardates, children in classroom settings, delinquents, and autistic children are reviewed. Although token economies are successful while in operation, the issue of generalization of behavior gains or resistance to extinction has not been given careful consideration. Inasmuch as generalization is perhaps the most crucial issue, several procedures are presented that are designed to facilitate maintenance of performance when reinforcement is withdrawn. Methodological suggestions for investigations on token reinforcement in applied settings are presented.

  11. Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies.

    PubMed

    Raghupathy, Lakshmi; Chaturvedi, Ashish

    2013-09-01

    Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH&S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for "green economy".

  12. Open PHACTS: semantic interoperability for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Williams, Antony J; Harland, Lee; Groth, Paul; Pettifer, Stephen; Chichester, Christine; Willighagen, Egon L; Evelo, Chris T; Blomberg, Niklas; Ecker, Gerhard; Goble, Carole; Mons, Barend

    2012-11-01

    Open PHACTS is a public-private partnership between academia, publishers, small and medium sized enterprises and pharmaceutical companies. The goal of the project is to deliver and sustain an 'open pharmacological space' using and enhancing state-of-the-art semantic web standards and technologies. It is focused on practical and robust applications to solve specific questions in drug discovery research. OPS is intended to facilitate improvements in drug discovery in academia and industry and to support open innovation and in-house non-public drug discovery research. This paper lays out the challenges and how the Open PHACTS project is hoping to address these challenges technically and socially.

  13. Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyles, Bennett

    2007-01-01

    People know about the Sakai Project (open source course management system); they may even know about Kuali (open source financials). So, what is the next wave in open source software? This article discusses business intelligence (BI) systems. Though open source BI may still be only a rumor in most campus IT departments, some brave early adopters…

  14. Computers and small satellites: How FORTE is utilizing the WWW as a {open_quotes}paperless{close_quotes} information resource and the development of a unique resource management planning tool

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, D.; Carter, M.; Franz, R.

    1997-10-01

    The Fast-On-orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) satellite is the second satellite to be developed and flown by Los Alamos National Laboratory and is scheduled to be launched August, 1997 by a Pegasus XL rocket. FORTE follows in the footsteps of the ALEXIS satellite in utilizing a very small operations crew for mission operations. Partially based upon the ALEXIS automation and World Wide Web (WWW) usage for data dissemination, FORTE began at an early stage of ground processing to use the web as a repository of information about all aspects of the satellite. Detailed descriptions of the various satellite and experiment components, cable diagrams, integration photographs as well as extensive test data have all been compiled into a single site as a means of archiving the data at a single location. In this manner, it is readily available during times of ground testing, ground station operation training as well as anomaly resolution. Small satellites usually require extensive effort to optimize operation under minimal resources. For the FORTE satellite, a unique planning tool has been developed over the past 2 years which balances the various resources of the satellite (power, memory, downlink, on board command buffer, etc.) to provide the maximum data acquisition. This paper will concentrate on a description of both the extensive web interface and the planning tool. 6 refs.

  15. China’s new-age small farms and their vertical integration: agribusiness or co-ops?

    PubMed

    Huang, Philip C C

    2011-01-01

    The future of Chinese agriculture lies not with large mechanized farms but with small capital-labor dual intensifying family farms for livestock-poultry-fish raising and vegetable-fruit cultivation. Chinese food consumption patterns have been changing from the old 8:1:1 pattern of 8 parts grain, 1 part meat, and 1 part vegetables to a 4:3:3 pattern, with a corresponding transformation in agricultural structure. Small family-farming is better suited for the new-age agriculture, including organic farming, than large-scale mechanized farming, because of the intensive, incremental, and variegated hand labor involved, not readily open to economies of scale, though compatible with economies of scope. It is also better suited to the realities of severe population pressure on land. But it requires vertical integration from cultivation to processing to marketing, albeit without horizontal integration for farming. It is against such a background that co-ops have arisen spontaneously for integrating small farms with processing and marketing. The Chinese government, however, has been supporting aggressively capitalistic agribusinesses as the preferred mode of vertical integration. At present, Chinese agriculture is poised at a crossroads, with the future organizational mode for vertical integration as yet uncertain.

  16. Can small institutes address some problems facing biomedical researchers?

    PubMed

    Sheetz, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    At a time of historically low National Institutes of Health funding rates and many problems with the conduct of research (unfunded mandates, disgruntled reviewers, and rampant paranoia), there is a concern that biomedical research as a profession is waning in the United States (see "Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws" by Alberts and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). However, it is wonderful to discover something new and to tackle tough puzzles. If we could focus more of our effort on discussing scientific problems and doing research, then we could be more productive and perhaps happier. One potential solution is to focus efforts on small thematic institutes in the university structure that can provide a stimulating and supportive environment for innovation and exploration. With an open-lab concept, there are economies of scale that can diminish paperwork and costs, while providing greater access to state-of-the-art equipment. Merging multiple disciplines around a common theme can catalyze innovation, and this enables individuals to develop new concepts without giving up the credit they deserve, because it is usually clear who did the work. Small institutes do not solve larger systemic problems but rather enable collective efforts to address the noisome aspects of the system and foster an innovative community effort to address scientific problems.

  17. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities for

  18. Use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy. One of the important requirements for Gen. IV High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) is passive safety. Currently all the HTGR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. [1] The decay heat first is transferred to core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. Similar concepts have been widely used in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs, advanced light water reactors like AP1000. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area. RVACS tends to be less expensive. However, it limits the largest achievable power level for modular HTGRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface). When the relative decay heat removal capability is reduced, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annual designs with internal reflector can mitigate this effect therefore further increase the power. Another way to increase power is to increase power density. However, it is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides safety, HTGRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor designs. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of HTGRs. Forsberg [2] pointed out other disadvantages of using RVACS such as conflicting functional requirements for the reactor vessel and scaling distortion for integral effect test of the system performance. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume based passive decay removal system, call Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove

  19. Effects of economy type and nicotine on the essential value of food in rats.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Rachel N; Dallery, Jesse

    2012-03-01

    The exponential demand equation proposed by Hursh and Silberberg (2008) provides an estimate of the essential value of a good as a function of price. The model predicts that essential value should remain constant across changes in the magnitude of a reinforcer, but may change as a function of motivational operations. In Experiment 1, rats' demand for food across a sequence of fixed-ratio schedules was assessed during open and closed economy conditions and across one- and two-pellet per reinforcer delivery conditions. The exponential equation was fitted to the relation between fixed-ratio size and the logarithm of the absolute number of reinforcers. Estimates of the rate of change in elasticity of food, the proposed measure of essential value, were compared across conditions. Essential value was equivalent across magnitudes during the closed economy, but showed a slight decrease across magnitudes during the open economy. Experiment 2 explored the behavioral mechanisms of nicotine's effects on consumption with the results from Experiment 1 serving as a within-subject frame of reference. The same subjects were administered nicotine via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps at a dose of 3 mg/kg/day and exposed to both the one- and two-pellet conditions under a closed economy. Although nicotine produced large decreases in demand, essential value was not significantly changed. The data from the present experiments provide further evidence for the adequacy of the exponential demand equation as a tool for quantifying the rate of change in elasticity of a good and for assessing behavioral mechanisms of drug action.

  20. Pakistan: social basis of the economy.

    PubMed

    Maloney, C

    1987-01-01

    Pakistan's gross domestic product (GDP) has grown at an average of 5.3%/year since 1950 and real per capita income has increased 3.7%/year over the past decade, despite a 3% annual population growth rate. Contributing to this dynamic economic growth have been migration, the construction of a new national economy following independence, controlled irrigation, foreign exchange availability, and an expectation on the part of the public of higher earnings and consumption. Despite these trends, the Pakistan economy is structurally weak and there have been rapid increases in both the domestic and foreign debt. Economic growth has been based largely on trading and soft services. Government departments are known for their corruption. This self-contradictory economic picture derives directly from the structure of Pakistani society, which is dominated by the elite of Punjab Province. Urbanization is increasing economic inequality in the society, and government taxation policies are biased toward big agriculture and industry. Pakistan's poor performance in education, social development, and family planning are expected to inhibit future economic development. Only 26% of Pakistanis are literate, reflecting the low social value placed on education. Even in urban areas, there is no evidence of a decline in fertility. This results from the psychological and economic need for children, women's limited roles, Islamic opposition to family planning, and inefficient government delivery of social services. Within a few years, population growth will magnify the structural weaknesses of the Pakistan economy. It is hoped that the dynamic nature of Panjabi values and behavior, especially of the new middle class, will lead to a redress of this situation.

  1. 76 FR 3827 - Regulatory Flexibility, Small Business, and Job Creation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of January 18, 2011 Regulatory Flexibility, Small Business, and Job Creation... American economy; they help to fuel productivity, economic growth, and job creation. More than half of all... 15-year period, small businesses created more than 60 percent of all new jobs in the Nation....

  2. Small Business in America: The Year 2000 and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Enterprise Advancement, Washington, DC.

    Small businesses are meeting the challenges of a changing economy and leading the way in production and job creation. Small businesses especially will continue to benefit from demographic and societal shifts, in particular the emergence of the two-career family that fuels the service industry. Women and minority persons are the newest…

  3. Open Smart Energy Gateway (OpenSEG)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    The Open Smart Energy Gateway (OpenSEG) aims to provide near-real time smart meter data to consumers without the delays or latencies associated with it being transported to the utility data center and then back to the consumer's application. To do this, the gateway queries the local Smart Meter to which it is bound to get energy consumption information at pre-defined intervals (minimum interval is 4 seconds). OpenSEG then stores the resulting data internally for retrieval by an external application.

  4. Aspen: A microsimulation model of the economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.; Quint, T.; Arnold, T.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents, Aspen. Sandia National Laboratories is developing this new agent-based microeconomic simulation model of the U.S. economy. The model is notable because it allows a large number of individual economic agents to be modeled at a high level of detail and with a great degree of freedom. Some features of Aspen are (a) a sophisticated message-passing system that allows individual pairs of agents to communicate, (b) the use of genetic algorithms to simulate the learning of certain agents, and (c) a detailed financial sector that includes a banking system and a bond market. Results from runs of the model are also presented.

  5. [The informal economy: an occupational health issue].

    PubMed

    Carretero Ares, José Luis; Cueva Oliver, Begoña; Vidal Martínez, Asunción; Rigo Martínez, María Vicenta; Lobato Cañón, José Rafael

    Informal economy must be differentiated from concepts such as informal employment and the informal sector, each with its own characteristics. There are several types of informal workers that are grouped into several categories according to their work. The families of these workers are grouped into vulnerable job, which is also not beneficial for health coverage. Informal working conditions mean great morbidity resulting in economic losses and a large number of quality-adjusted life year, especially among young populations and women. Health policies are needed to reduce socio-economic inequalities, improve the training of health professionals and the accessibility of health services to these workers.

  6. VEEP - Vehicle Economy, Emissions, and Performance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    VEEP is a general-purpose discrete event simulation program being developed to study the performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions of a vehicle modeled as a collection of its separate components. It is written in SIMSCRIPT II.5. The purpose of this paper is to present the design methodology, describe the simulation model and its components, and summarize the preliminary results. Topics include chief programmer team concepts, the SDDL design language, program portability, user-oriented design, the program's user command syntax, the simulation procedure, and model validation.

  7. The reliability of the Extra Load Index as a measure of relative load carriage economy.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Sean; Cooke, Carlton; Lloyd, Ray

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the reliability of the extra load index (ELI) as a method for assessing relative load carriage economy. Seventeen volunteers (12 males, 5 females) performed walking trials at 3 km·h(-1), 6 km·h(-1) and a self-selected speed. Trial conditions were repeated 7 days later to assess test-retest reliability. Trials involved four 4-minute periods of walking, each separated by 5 min of rest. The initial stage was performed unloaded followed in a randomised order by a second unloaded period and walking with backpacks of 7 and 20 kg. Results show ELI values did not differ significantly between trials for any of the speeds (p = 0.46) with either of the additional loads (p = 0.297). The systematic bias, limits of agreement and coefficients of variation were small in all trial conditions. We conclude the ELI appears to be a reliable measure of relative load carriage economy. Practitioner Summary: This paper demonstrates that the ELI is a reliable measure of load carriage economy at a range of walking speeds with both a light and heavy load. The ELI, therefore, represents a useful tool for comparing the relative economy associated with different load carriage systems.

  8. Gallbladder removal - open

    MedlinePlus

    ... the surgeon needs to switch to an open surgery if laparoscopic surgery cannot be successfully continued. Other reasons for removing the gallbladder by open surgery: Unexpected bleeding during the laparoscopic operation Obesity Pancreatitis (inflammation in the pancreas) Pregnancy ( ...

  9. Non-crisis economies must make adjustments too. World Economy survey.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    This article presents ¿The World Economy in 1999,¿ a report prepared by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). It was noted in the report that 39 developing countries had gross domestic product (GDP) per capita growth exceeding 3% in 1996, compared to just 13 countries in 1999. This indicates that 32 developing countries would suffer a decline in GDP per capita by the year 2000 as compared to 14 in 1996. In addition, slow growth has been recorded at just 2% in 1998 and 1999, with only continued growth in North America and Europe keeping the world economy going. Continued slow growth was expected for the year 2000. In terms of income, commodity prices have fallen in developing countries. Net transfer of financial resources from developing countries was almost $60 billion in 1998, compared to positive flows of about $35 billion in the first half of the 1990s. Overall, the brunt of world economic slow-down had been borne by the developing and transition economies. Thus, according to Mr. Nitin Desai, it is important that there is a coordinated policy response to crisis situations, rather than expecting the crisis economies to undertake the bulk of adjustment actions. There are advantages in coordination, which should include developing countries and the Group of Seven.

  10. The Knowledge Economy and Innovation: Certain Uncertainty and the Risk Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Fahey, Johannah; Kenway, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge economy is a dominant force in today's world, and innovation policy and national systems of innovation are central to it. In this article, we draw on different sociological and economic theories of risk to engage critically with innovation policy and national systems of innovation. Beck's understanding of a risk society, Schumpeter's…

  11. Emigration and wages in an open economy: some evidence from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Z

    1991-01-01

    "This paper examines the impact of labour emigration on the wages of both the skilled and unskilled workers....Using... Pakistani data, it is found that unskilled labour is used extremely intensively in the agriculture sector (exportable), skilled labour is used extremely intensively in the manufacturing sector (importable), and capital is used as the middle factor in both the traded goods sectors. Moreover, capital is used significantly less intensively in the construction (non-traded) sector relative to both the traded sectors.... The results suggest that the higher wages to both the skilled and unskilled workers must be compensated by a reduction in the rate of returns to capital if export-oriented and import-competing sectors in Pakistan are to remain internationally competitive."

  12. The Political Economy of Open-Source Software in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettell, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The debate about the impact of information and communication technology has tended to focus on either its economic or its political aspects. The growing centrality of this technology to life in the 21st century, however, raises important questions about social ownership and control that necessitate a broader and more holistic analysis. Central to…

  13. A Pedagogical Note on the Open Economy IS-LM Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William A.

    1988-01-01

    Argues the diagrammatic IS-LM Model, despite its limitations, remains an important pedagogical tool for the presentation of intermediate macroeconomic theory. Proposes a modification that focuses more explicitly on stock portfolio equilibrium and will be more revealing to students. (BSR)

  14. [Environmental governance and the green economy].

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Pedro Roberto; Sinisgalli, Paulo Antonio de Almeida

    2012-06-01

    The Rio+20 Conference will mobilize the global community in 2012 to participate in a challenging debate on the global environmental reality and the existing modus operandi with respect to the broad and generic topics of development and the environment. One of the core themes of this meeting is the transition to a green economy in the context of sustainable development and the eradication of poverty. The issue of Global Environmental Governance will top the agenda of the Rio +20 discussions, with a view to promoting and accelerating the transition to sustainable societies. It presents, often in a controversial way, the creation of conditions to define new institutional spaces and shared decision-making processes. Before embarking on the discussion about what king of sustainability should be behind the Green Economy, and its applicability, the scope of this article is to ask readers to reflect on what should be the priority in the discussion on environmental governance This should be explained to the extent that there is a need to change the existing mechanisms of profoundly unequal exploitation of resources, which blocks progress in decision-making processes, as decisions of the few create a perverse logic of appropriation of natural resources and the non-resolution of social exclusion.

  15. The World Economy Today and Tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Viktor

    The Future of the Civilization is linked to the ability of men to organize an effective mode of economic reproduction. It is difficult to see clearly now which this mode will be really. Even to reach it beyond the horizon of one or two ten years is not easy because the world economy is in which time situated in a turning point. The period of adaptation to the petrole price rise and to the dismounting of the Bretton-Woods monetary system, that had begin between 60th and 70th, go to the finish. In the first tens of the 21st century the development of the world economy would go in the frame of the all-round globalization of economic, social, cultural, ethical and political relations called to soften the enormious differences in standards of life between the regions of the Earth, between the developed and developing countries. The image of a remote Future is given by some western authors who draw a picture of a postindustrial, even a postteconomic society. This society would be based on a creative work and on a high level of well-beging of all men. The most attractive utopies of 18th-19th centuries are reviwed under the pens of these prophets…

  16. Agrofuels capitalism: a view from political economy.

    PubMed

    White, Ben; Dasgupta, Anirban

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the global expansion of agrofuels feedstock production from a political economy perspective. It considers and dismisses the environmental and pro-poor developmental justifications attached to agrofuels. To local populations and direct producers, the specific destination of the crop as fuel, food, cosmetics or other final uses in faraway places is probably of less interest than the forms of (direct or indirect) appropriation of their land and the forms of their insertion or exclusion as producers in global commodity chains. Global demand for both agrofuels and food is stimulating new forms (or the resurgence of old forms) of corporate land grabbing and expropriation, and of incorporation of smallholders in contracted production. Drawing both on recent studies on agrofuels expansion and on the political economy literature on agrarian transition and capitalism in agriculture, this article raises the question whether "agrofuels capitalism" is in any way essentially different from other forms of capitalist agrarian monocrop production, and in turn whether the agrarian transitions involved require new tools of analysis.

  17. Openness as infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The advent of open access to peer reviewed scholarly literature in the biomedical sciences creates the opening to examine scholarship in general, and chemistry in particular, to see where and how novel forms of network technology can accelerate the scientific method. This paper examines broad trends in information access and openness with an eye towards their applications in chemistry. PMID:21999327

  18. In Brief: Open government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama's Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government requires federal agencies to take steps toward increased transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Agencies are accepting suggestions until 19 March 2010. For more information, visit http://www.whitehouse.gov/open and http://www.usa.gov/webcontent/open/tool_poc.shtml.

  19. Open Rotor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale E.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The ERA project executed a comprehensive test program for Open Rotor aerodynamic and acoustic performance. System studies used the data to estimate the fuel burn savings and acoustic margin for an aircraft system with open rotor propulsion. The acoustic measurements were used to produce an auralization that compares the legacy blades to the current generation of open rotor designs.

  20. Population studies should reflect the criterion of productive forces and the viewpoint of a market-oriented economy.

    PubMed

    Peng, X

    1989-01-01

    This commentary is on the role of population studies in a market oriented economy which reflects Marxist theories on productive forces. Population development must not be viewed unidimensionally. Prior thinking focused on the mode of social production determining population development and vice versa. The assumption prevalent prior to 1978 was that there was no common pattern among different societies. This view was openly challenged in the 2nd national population science symposium in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. It was stated that population development is affected by production techniques in either capitalist or socialist countries. Further understanding of this relationship based on quantitative and qualitative research was required. Public ownership is the basis of a socialist economy. Marxist views were that populations in market or nonmarket economies are different, and population scholars need to study these relationships. There was a mistaken belief that a socialist economy was nonmarket oriented. Correcting the mistake meant taking into consideration migration, urbanization, employment, expenditure, and the relationship to reproduction, as well as rethinking the development patterns. When the price of the labor force differs from its value, the investment in population and population quality will be affected. This has led to rampant commercialization and higher school dropout rates. Short term interests predominate. The trend does not benefit the quality of the population or the promotion of social productive forces. Further examination is needed of the effects of urbanization on a planned market oriented economy with socialist public ownership.