Science.gov

Sample records for small open economy

  1. Growth and the Current Account in a Small Open Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benge, Matt; Wells, Graeme

    2002-01-01

    Offers a framework with which to analyze growth in a small economy with perfect capital mobility. Produces a diagrammatic representation of steady states that differs from the usual closed-economy Solow-Swan diagram. Uses the diagrams to compare open economy steady states with closed ones. Illustrate the possibility of endogenous income growth.…

  2. Intergenerational redistribution in a small open economy with endogenous fertility.

    PubMed

    Kolmar, M

    1997-08-01

    The literature comparing fully funded (FF) and pay-as-you-go (PAYG) financed public pension systems in small, open economies stresses the importance of the Aaron condition as an empirical measure to decide which system can be expected to lead to a higher long-run welfare. A country with a PAYG system has a higher level of utility than a country with a FF system if the growth rate of total wage income exceeds the interest rate. Endogenizing population growth makes one determinant of the growth rate of wage incomes endogenous. The author demonstrates why the Aaron condition ceases to be a good indicator in this case. For PAYG-financed pension systems, claims can be calculated according to individual contributions or the number of children in a family. Analysis determined that for both structural determinants there is no interior solution of the problem of intergenerational utility maximization. Pure systems are therefore always welfare maximizing. Moreover, children-related pension claims induce a fiscal externality which tends to be positive. The determination of the optimal contribution rate shows that the Aaron condition is generally a misleading indicator for the comparison of FF and PAYG-financed pension systems.

  3. An analysis of macroeconomic fluctuations for a small open oil-based economy: The case of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abdulkarim, Bander B.

    The increasing fluctuations in the oil prices through the last decades have been transferred to the oil exporting countries. Thus, many oil exporting countries experienced significant changes in the economic activity due to changes in the oil markets. In light of this, oil exporting countries have attempted to implement a policy that would stabilize the fluctuations in the oil markets recognizing the adverse effects of such behavior on oil exporting countries, as well as oil importing countries. Saudi Arabia, as the largest oil-exporting country and a member of OPEC, takes the role of oil-markets stabilizer by behaving as the swing producer. This role has caused the global economic fluctuations to transfer into the domestic economy. In addition, Saudi Arabian government has adopted a fixed exchange rate currency regime. Although it has contributed to domestic price stabilizations, this policy has also exposed the country to global economic disturbances. The purpose of the study is to empirically investigate these aspects for Saudi Arabia. First, the effects of shocks originated in the international markets on the Saudi Arabian economy. Second, how the fixed exchange rate regimes influences the domestic macroeconomic variables. Third, to what extent the oil sector contributes to the non-oil domestic fluctuations. Finally, how the findings from the study can be explained by economic theory. In pursuing this, there are four economic theories that are considered to explain the causes of business cycles. These theories are Classical Theory, Keynesian Theory, Monetarist Theory, and the Real Business Cycles. In addition, a theoretical model is derived that is suitable for an oil-based economy. The model follows the set up of McCallum and Nelson (1999). Then, the empirical models of Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) and Error Correction Model (ECM) are implemented with three different specifications: Choleski Decomposition, Block Exogeneity and long-run Cointegration

  4. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  5. Does satiation close the open economy?

    PubMed Central

    POSADAS-SÁNCHEZ, DIANA; KILLEEN, PETER R.

    2006-01-01

    Pigeons responded on fixed-interval and fixed-ratio food schedules during sessions of extended duration. Pause lengths from the beginning of the session, when the subjects were hungry, resembled those found in open economies, whereas pause lengths from the end of the sessions, when the subjects were close to satiation, resembled those from closed economies. A model of motivation captured key features of the data, suggesting that a changing level of hunger is a causal factor in the behavioral differences observed between open and closed economies. Behavioral theories may provide a parsimonious alternative to economic theories in accounting for such effects. PMID:16573210

  6. Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2009-01-01

    For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

  7. Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the "knowledge economy": the "learning economy", based on the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall; the "creative economy" based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the "open knowledge economy" based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably,…

  8. On the distinction between open and closed economies.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, W; Peden, B F

    1987-07-01

    Open and closed economies have been assumed to produce opposite relations between responding and the programmed density of reward (the amount of reward divided by its cost). Experimental procedures that are treated as open economies typically dissociate responding and total reward by providing supplemental income outside the experimental session; procedures construed as closed economies do not. In an open economy responding is assumed to be directly related to reward density, whereas in a closed economy responding is assumed to be inversely related to reward density. In contrast to this predicted correlation between response-reward relations and type of economy, behavior regulation theory predicts both direct and inverse relations in both open and closed economies. Specifically, responding should be a bitonic function of reward density regardless of the type of economy and is dependent only on the ratio of the schedule terms rather than on their absolute size. These predictions were tested by four experiments in which pigeons' key pecking produced food on fixed-ratio and variable-interval schedules over a range of reward magnitudes and under several open- and closed-economy procedures. The results better supported the behavior regulation view by showing a general bitonic function between key pecking and food density in all conditions. In most cases, the absolute size of the schedule requirement and the magnitude of reward had no effect; equal ratios of these terms produced approximately equal responding. PMID:3625103

  9. On the distinction between open and closed economies.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, W; Peden, B F

    1987-07-01

    Open and closed economies have been assumed to produce opposite relations between responding and the programmed density of reward (the amount of reward divided by its cost). Experimental procedures that are treated as open economies typically dissociate responding and total reward by providing supplemental income outside the experimental session; procedures construed as closed economies do not. In an open economy responding is assumed to be directly related to reward density, whereas in a closed economy responding is assumed to be inversely related to reward density. In contrast to this predicted correlation between response-reward relations and type of economy, behavior regulation theory predicts both direct and inverse relations in both open and closed economies. Specifically, responding should be a bitonic function of reward density regardless of the type of economy and is dependent only on the ratio of the schedule terms rather than on their absolute size. These predictions were tested by four experiments in which pigeons' key pecking produced food on fixed-ratio and variable-interval schedules over a range of reward magnitudes and under several open- and closed-economy procedures. The results better supported the behavior regulation view by showing a general bitonic function between key pecking and food density in all conditions. In most cases, the absolute size of the schedule requirement and the magnitude of reward had no effect; equal ratios of these terms produced approximately equal responding.

  10. The Political Economy of "Open Regionalism" and Education in Small (and Micro) States: The Construction of the Caribbean Educational Policy Space in CARICOM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jules, Tavis D.

    2014-01-01

    In this era of amplified regionalisation, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean's (ECLAC) conceptualisation of 'open regionalism' is pertinent to examine the role of regional governance mechanisms in constructing what I call the "Caribbean Educational Policy Space." With the aid of a latent content…

  11. The Management of Managers: Challenges in a Small Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, John; Boxall, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the findings of a study of the management of senior managers. The aim is to describe the ways in which firms in a small economy, such as New Zealand, manage their managers and analyse how they deal with the strategic challenges that are involved. Design/methodology/approach: The study applies the…

  12. Environmental and energy issues in an open economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Kyungsoo

    The environmental and energy consequences of globalization have become an important topic of debate. My dissertation examines the interaction between environmental and energy issues and international trade. Specifically, I investigate environmental regulations and policy in an open economy. In the first chapter, I analyze how an environmental tax on pollution from consumption affects trade flows and welfare in an open economy. In particular, I argue that the effect of an environmental tax on the direction of trade flows depends on who is directly burdened by the regulation (consumers or producers) regardless of who is the polluter. In the case of pollution generated by consumers, a tax on consumers who are the polluters tends to increase exports and reduce imports of dirty goods. This result is the opposite of the well-known effect arising from taxes on pollution-intensive industries. Stringent environmental regulations on pollution-intensive industries diminishes exports and increases imports of dirty industries. In terms of welfare, I show the importance of targeting the policy instrument to the correct source of pollution. Assuming pollution is caused by the consumption of a good, a production tax has a weak effect on increasing welfare through reducing pollution. Furthermore, welfare can fall if the production tax ratio is too high, leading to reduced national income. The second chapter is motivated by recent trends in the U.S. economy: increasing imports from China, decreasing energy consumption, and increasing output. There are two primary theoretical approaches related to the relationship between energy use in U.S. manufacturing and increasing imports from China: Heckscher-Ohlin (H-O) trade theory and the Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH). These two frameworks generate opposite predictions about the relationship between these trends. H-O theory suggests that with increased Chinese import penetration, U.S. manufacturing should move toward more energy

  13. Open Education and the Creative Economy: Global Perspectives and Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tze-Chang

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is to deal the issues of open education, creative economies, higher education. It also compares the performances in these aspects among different countries. The conception of the "creative economy" develops within the context of "global neoliberalism" and "knowledge economy." These three notions are…

  14. A Preliminary Analysis of Adaptive Responding Under Open and Closed Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roane, Henry S.; Call, Nathan A.; Falcomata, Terry S.

    2005-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated the effects of open and closed economies on the adaptive behavior of 2 individuals with developmental disabilities. Across both types of economy, progressive-ratio (PR) schedules were used in which the number of responses required to obtain reinforcement increased as the session progressed. In…

  15. A Preliminary Analysis of Adaptive Responding under Open and Closed Economies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated the effects of open and closed economies on the adaptive behavior of 2 individuals with developmental disabilities. Across both types of economy, progressive-ratio (PR) schedules were used in which the number of responses required to obtain reinforcement increased as the session progressed. In closed-economy sessions, participants were able to obtain reinforcement only through interaction with the PR schedule requirements (i.e., more work resulted in more reinforcer access). In open-economy sessions, participants obtained reinforcers by responding on the PR schedule and were given supplemental (free) access to the reinforcers after completion of the session. In general, more responding was associated with the closed economy. PMID:16270843

  16. Foreign Direct Investment and Trade Openness: The Case of Developing Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liargovas, Panagiotis G.; Skandalis, Konstantinos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of trade openness for attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows, using a sample of 36 developing economies for the period 1990-2008. It provides a direct test of causality between FDI inflows, trade openness and other key variables in developing regions of the world: Latin America, Asia, Africa, CIS…

  17. Open and continuous fermentation: products, conditions and bioprocess economy.

    PubMed

    Li, Teng; Chen, Xiang-bin; Chen, Jin-chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fermentation is the key to industrial biotechnology. Most fermentation processes are sensitive to microbial contamination and require an energy intensive sterilization process. The majority of microbial fermentations can only be conducted over a short period of time in a batch or fed-batch culture, further increasing energy consumption and process complexity, and these factors contribute to the high costs of bio-products. In an effort to make bio-products more economically competitive, increased attention has been paid to developing open (unsterile) and continuous processes. If well conducted, continuous fermentation processes will lead to the reduced cost of industrial bio-products. To achieve cost-efficient open and continuous fermentations, the feeding of raw materials and the removal of products must be conducted in a continuous manner without the risk of contamination, even under 'open' conditions. Factors such as the stability of the biological system as a whole during long cultivations, as well as the yield and productivity of the process, are also important. Microorganisms that grow under extreme conditions such as high or low pH, high osmotic pressure, and high or low temperature, as well as under conditions of mixed culturing, cell immobilization, and solid state cultivation, are of interest for developing open and continuous fermentation processes. PMID:25476917

  18. The Costs and Economies of Open and Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumble, Greville

    This book is designed to give planners of open and distance learning programs the technical information needed to determine the cost of programs and analyze the behavior of costs. The following are among the topics discussed: budgets; classification of resources (human resources, premises and accommodation, and equipment and furniture); a basic…

  19. OER and the Value of Openness: Implications for the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge economy is marked by recent trends in technological advancement, globalisation and increasing knowledge intensity. Through new technologies like Open Educational Resources (OER), knowledge can be freely accessed by individuals around the world, blurring traditional notions of ownership and prompting a social transformation manifested…

  20. New Perspectives on the Rural Economy. Hearing on New Perspectives on the Rural Economy before the Subcommittee on Rural Economy and Family Farming of the Committee on Small Business. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Small Business.

    Testimony and prepared statements presented at a hearing before the Senate Subcommittee on Rural Economy and Family Farming focused on the concerns of rural small business. Witnesses included Senators from Montana, Illinois, New York, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa, and nine representatives of business, state government,…

  1. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  2. Pulsed Direct Current Electrospray: Enabling Systematic Analysis of Small Volume Sample by Boosting Sample Economy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhenwei; Xiong, Xingchuang; Guo, Chengan; Si, Xingyu; Zhao, Yaoyao; He, Muyi; Yang, Chengdui; Xu, Wei; Tang, Fei; Fang, Xiang; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2015-11-17

    We had developed pulsed direct current electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (pulsed-dc-ESI-MS) for systematically profiling and determining components in small volume sample. Pulsed-dc-ESI utilized constant high voltage to induce the generation of single polarity pulsed electrospray remotely. This method had significantly boosted the sample economy, so as to obtain several minutes MS signal duration from merely picoliter volume sample. The elongated MS signal duration enable us to collect abundant MS(2) information on interested components in a small volume sample for systematical analysis. This method had been successfully applied for single cell metabolomics analysis. We had obtained 2-D profile of metabolites (including exact mass and MS(2) data) from single plant and mammalian cell, concerning 1034 components and 656 components for Allium cepa and HeLa cells, respectively. Further identification had found 162 compounds and 28 different modification groups of 141 saccharides in a single Allium cepa cell, indicating pulsed-dc-ESI a powerful tool for small volume sample systematical analysis.

  3. Pulsed Direct Current Electrospray: Enabling Systematic Analysis of Small Volume Sample by Boosting Sample Economy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhenwei; Xiong, Xingchuang; Guo, Chengan; Si, Xingyu; Zhao, Yaoyao; He, Muyi; Yang, Chengdui; Xu, Wei; Tang, Fei; Fang, Xiang; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2015-11-17

    We had developed pulsed direct current electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (pulsed-dc-ESI-MS) for systematically profiling and determining components in small volume sample. Pulsed-dc-ESI utilized constant high voltage to induce the generation of single polarity pulsed electrospray remotely. This method had significantly boosted the sample economy, so as to obtain several minutes MS signal duration from merely picoliter volume sample. The elongated MS signal duration enable us to collect abundant MS(2) information on interested components in a small volume sample for systematical analysis. This method had been successfully applied for single cell metabolomics analysis. We had obtained 2-D profile of metabolites (including exact mass and MS(2) data) from single plant and mammalian cell, concerning 1034 components and 656 components for Allium cepa and HeLa cells, respectively. Further identification had found 162 compounds and 28 different modification groups of 141 saccharides in a single Allium cepa cell, indicating pulsed-dc-ESI a powerful tool for small volume sample systematical analysis. PMID:26488206

  4. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, June Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01

    This report characterizes small commercial buildings by market segments, systems and end-uses; develops a framework for identifying demand response (DR) enabling technologies and communication means; and reports on the design and development of a low-cost OpenADR enabling technology that delivers demand reductions as a percentage of the total predicted building peak electric demand. The results show that small offices, restaurants and retail buildings are the major contributors making up over one third of the small commercial peak demand. The majority of the small commercial buildings in California are located in southern inland areas and the central valley. Single-zone packaged units with manual and programmable thermostat controls make up the majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for small commercial buildings with less than 200 kW peak electric demand. Fluorescent tubes with magnetic ballast and manual controls dominate this customer group's lighting systems. There are various ways, each with its pros and cons for a particular application, to communicate with these systems and three methods to enable automated DR in small commercial buildings using the Open Automated Demand Response (or OpenADR) communications infrastructure. Development of DR strategies must consider building characteristics, such as weather sensitivity and load variability, as well as system design (i.e. under-sizing, under-lighting, over-sizing, etc). Finally, field tests show that requesting demand reductions as a percentage of the total building predicted peak electric demand is feasible using the OpenADR infrastructure.

  5. Staying Competitive. How Small and Mid-Sized Companies Are Meeting the Challenge of a Global Economy. Workforce Brief #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Terri; Kaufmann, Barbara

    Small and mid-sized businesses must change their production and service delivery methods if they are to remain competitive in a global economy. According to businesspersons, service providers, and employees who participated in 18 focus groups in 10 cities throughout the United States, businesses are being forced to change their ways of doing…

  6. Depleted uranium dioxide powder flow through very small openings

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, S.L.; Johnston, J.W.; Owzarski, P.C.; Mishima, J.; Schwendiman, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Release of plutonium dioxide from a breached shipping container was simulated using depleted uranium dioxide. Microgram quantities of the powder were carried by pressurized air through very small openings in a vessel approximately the same dimensions as a shipping container. Powder transmission was measured as a function of upstream pressure above and below the static powder level. 3 refs.

  7. Teaching Applied Macro in Emergent Economies: Lessons from Bahrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael S.; Epstein, Seth

    2013-01-01

    In this article we explore the challenges of adapting a standard introductory MBA course in applied macroeconomics to a student audience in a small open economy with a pegged currency. Our focus will be on the Kingdom of Bahrain, with reference to other countries in the Arabian Gulf region, where one would expect to use an open-economy theoretical…

  8. Moving atoms and small molecules out of open containers.

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael L

    2013-03-21

    Density functional theory with the M05-2X exchange/correlation functional is used to study the barriers for expulsion of atoms and small molecules (N2, CO, H2, Ar, Kr, Xe, H2O) out of open fullerenes (I20) and related molecular containers (C40H20, [5]beltene, cucurbit[5]uril). The reactions are examples where dispersion plays a critical role in determining the barrier heights. Calculations are compared with experimental kinetic data for N2@I20, CO@I20, and Xe@cucurbit[5]uril (Xe@CB[5]). Comparing the four molecular containers, the activation barriers for escape of an atom or small molecule correlate with the binding energies. A new open-fullerene model container C40H20 (C40) was constructed from C60 with a constriction at both ends formed by five methylene groups around the rim. The activation barriers for escape of N2 and CO from the model container are similar to those from the I20 open-cage fullerene. In the case of H2O@C40, charge analysis reveals an interesting charge transfer at the transition state as the escaping guest is "squeezed" out of the host container.

  9. Developing Entrepreneurial Economies in Rural Regions: Lessons from Kentucky and Appalachia. Open Field Occasional Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurwitt, Rob; Kimel, Kris

    A 1996 workshop held in Harrodsburg, Kentucky, explored the challenge of creating an entrepreneurial economy in predominantly rural states such as Kentucky with little or no history of widespread entrepreneurial activity. Traditional approaches to economic development in such states, such as spending on relocation incentives for out-of-state…

  10. R&D Centres in Mexico in an Open Economy: Redefining Operating Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gortari Rabiela, Rebeca; Corral, Maria Josefa Santos

    2004-01-01

    Structural changes in Mexico's economy and trade policies have influenced firms' efforts to achieve technological innovation and improve their learning processes. In this context, R&D centres face new challenges in responding to firms' technological needs. The authors analyse how this new environment is affecting the operating practices of R&D…

  11. Hundreds of putatively functional small open reading frames in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The relationship between DNA sequence and encoded information is still an unsolved puzzle. The number of protein-coding genes in higher eukaryotes identified by genome projects is lower than was expected, while a considerable amount of putatively non-coding transcription has been detected. Functional small open reading frames (smORFs) are known to exist in several organisms. However, coding sequence detection methods are biased against detecting such very short open reading frames. Thus, a substantial number of non-canonical coding regions encoding short peptides might await characterization. Results Using bio-informatics methods, we have searched for smORFs of less than 100 amino acids in the putatively non-coding euchromatic DNA of Drosophila melanogaster, and initially identified nearly 600,000 of them. We have studied the pattern of conservation of these smORFs as coding entities between D. melanogaster and Drosophila pseudoobscura, their presence in syntenic and in transcribed regions of the genome, and their ratio of conservative versus non-conservative nucleotide changes. For negative controls, we compared the results with those obtained using random short sequences, while a positive control was provided by smORFs validated by proteomics data. Conclusions The combination of these analyses led us to postulate the existence of at least 401 functional smORFs in Drosophila, with the possibility that as many as 4,561 such functional smORFs may exist. PMID:22118156

  12. Is Small Finally Becoming Beautiful? Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in the New Economy. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejonckheere, J.; Ramioul, M.; Van Hootegem, G.

    This report addresses small and medium-sized enterprises' (SMEs') role in the changing international division of labor and trade in information service activities. Chapter 2 describes the EMERGENCE project to map and measure eWork. Chapter 3 reviews literature that shows SMEs account for the overwhelming majority of companies and make a crucial…

  13. Madisonville Community College: Training Small Manufacturers To Be Competitive in the Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    Madisonville Community College (MCC) is in Madisonville, Kentucky, a small town with a strong coal industry presence. Mine closings and layoffs in the 1980s prompted the region to reorient itself toward light industry and manufacturing, but the recession of the early 1990s and globalization led to closings of several of the largest employers. In…

  14. Computational discovery of small open reading frames in Bacillus lehensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin, Nurhafizhoh; Illias, Rosli Md.; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Bacillus lehensis is a Gram-positive and endospore-forming alkalitolerant bacterial strain. In recent years there has been increasing interest in alkaliphilic bacteria and their ability to grow under extreme conditions as well as their ability to serve various important functions in industrial biology especially enzyme production. Small open reading frames (sORFs) have emerged as important regulators in various biological roles such as tumor progression, hormone signalling and stress response. Over the past decade, many biocomputational tools have been developed to predict genes in bacterial genomes. In this study, three softwares were used to predict sORF (≤ 80 aa) in B. lehensis by using whole genome sequence. We used comparative analysis to identify the sORFs in B. lehensis that conserved across all other bacterial genomes. We extended the analysis by doing the homology analysis against protein database. This study established the sORFs in B. lehensis that are conserved across bacteria which might has important biological function which still remain elusive in biological field.

  15. Financial policy in a small open oil-exporting developing country: The case of Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmoor, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigates the role of financial policy in small open oil-exporting countries, taking Oman as a case study. The study focuses on the interest rate, inflationary financing, and the optimal exchange-rate peg question. Simulation of the macroeconomic model of the Omani economy showed that had the interest rate ceiling policy been removed, the country would have witnessed higher growth rates during the period in which the Eurodollar deposit rates were higher than the ceiling rate on local currency time deposits. The simulation results showed that credit-driven inflationary financing was self-defeating to the extent that the trade balance deteriorated by an amount more-or-less equivalent to the increase in government credit. Finally, an attempt was made to identify the optional exchange-rate peg for the country. The study compared three pegs: the U.S. dollar, the SDR, and an import-weighted basket. It found the SDR to be the most preferable peg. It provided the greatest stability in imported and domestic inflation.

  16. Career and Training in the New Economy: A Study Focused to Small Scale Enterprises Located in OSTIM Organized Industrial Region in Ankara/Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksoy, Hasan Huseyin

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe training levels related to careers, employment, and influences of "new economy" in small and mid-sized firms. The organizational side of career development behaviors was also a focus of this study. Interviews related to company policies and practices were conducted with 26 employers or managers…

  17. Role of University-Industry-Government Linkages in the Innovation Processes of a Small Catching-Up Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varblane, Urmas; Mets, Tonis; Ukrainski, Kadri

    2008-01-01

    During the transformation process from a command economy, the extraordinary statist university-industry-government (UIG) linkages model was replaced by an extreme version of laissez-faire relationships. A more modern interaction-based UIG model could be implemented only by changing the whole national innovation system of catching-up economies. The…

  18. Impediments to global surveillance of infectious diseases: consequences of open reporting in a global economy.

    PubMed Central

    Cash, R. A.; Narasimhan, V.

    2000-01-01

    Globalization has led to an increase in the spread of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. International efforts are being launched to control their dissemination through global surveillance, a major hindrance to which is the failure of some countries to report outbreaks. Current guidelines and regulations on emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases do not sufficiently take into account the fact that when developing countries report outbreaks they often derive few benefits and suffer disproportionately heavy social and economic consequences. In order to facilitate full participation in global surveillance by developing countries there should be: better and more affordable diagnostic capabilities to allow for timely and accurate information to be delivered in an open and transparent fashion; accurate, less sensationalist news reporting of outbreaks of diseases; adherence by countries to international regulations, including those of the World Trade Organization and the International Health Regulations; financial support for countries that are economically damaged by the diseases in question. The article presents two cases--plague in India and cholera in Peru--that illuminate some of the limitations of current practices. Recommendations are made on measures that could be taken by WHO and the world community to make global surveillance acceptable. PMID:11143197

  19. 76 FR 17996 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

  20. Future Job Openings: Australia in the Knowledge Economy. Project 2000-02: Changing Skill Requirements in the Australian Labour Force in a Knowledge Economy. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Chandra; Burke, Gerald

    Forecasts of Australian labor market growth, net replacement needs, and net job openings to 2006 are presented using the nine-way grouping of occupations described by (Maglen and Shah, 1999). Analysis is based on classifying occupations by whether they are advantaged by globalization and technological change, relatively insulated, or vulnerable.…

  1. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-05-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  2. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  3. Numerical simulation of pressure fluctuation in 1000MW Francis turbine under small opening condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, R. Z.; Wang, H. G.; Yao, Y.; Shu, L. F.; Huang, Y. J.

    2012-11-01

    In order to study the cause of abnormal vibration in large Francis turbine under small opening condition, CFD method was adopted to analyze the flow filed and pressure fluctuation. Numerical simulation was performed on the commercial CFD code Ansys FLUENT 12, using DES method. After an effective validation of the computation result, the flow behaviour of internal flow field under small opening condition is analyzed. Pressure fluctuation in different working mode is obtained by unsteady CFD simulation, and results is compared to study its change. Radial force fluctuation is also analyzed. The result shows that the unstable flow under small opening condition leads to an increase of turbine instability in reverse pump mode, and is one possible reason of the abnormal oscillation.

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  1. Laparoscopic versus open adhesiolysis for small bowel obstruction - a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic adhesiolysis is emerging as an alternative for open surgery in adhesive small bowel obstruction. Retrospective studies suggest that laparoscopic approach shortens hospital stay and reduces complications in these patients. However, no prospective, randomized, controlled trials comparing laparoscopy to open surgery have been published. Methods/Design This is a multicenter, prospective, open label, randomized, controlled trial comparing laparoscopic adhesiolysis to open surgery in patients with computed-tomography diagnosed adhesive small bowel obstruction that is not resolving with conservative management. The primary study endpoint is the length of postoperative hospital stay in days. Sample size was estimated based on preliminary retrospective cohort, which suggested that 102 patients would provide 80% power to detect a difference of 2.5 days in the length of postoperative hospital stay with significance level of 0.05. Secondary endpoints include passage of stool, commencement of enteral nutrition, 30-day mortality, complications, postoperative pain, and the length of sick leave. Tertiary endpoints consist of the rate of ventral hernia and the recurrence of small bowel obstruction during long-term follow-up. Long-term follow-up by letter or telephone interview will take place at 1, 5, and 10 years. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this trial is the first one aiming to provide level Ib evidence to assess the use of laparoscopy in the treatment of adhesive small bowel obstruction. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01867528. Date of registration May 26th 2013. PMID:25306234

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  3. Identification of small open reading frames in the Glaciozyma antarctica genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat-Sharani, Shuhaila; Bharudin, Izwan; Zainuddin, Nursyafiqi; Abdul-Murad, Abdul-Munir; Abu-Bakar, Farah-Diba; Najimuddin, Nazalan; Mahadi, Nor-Muhammad; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Glaciozyma antarctica is an obligate psychrophilic yeast that was isolated from Casey Research Station, Antarctica. The objective of this study was to identify small Open Reading Frames (sORFs) in the G. antarctica genome. Small ORFs have been found in other organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human and they have been known to partake in a diverse variety of functions. In this study, ORFs were searched from the existing G. antarctica genome annotations and this resulted 294 sORFs (of at most 100 amino acids) which represented 4% of the 7857 annotated ORFs. Several of these sORFs were validated by mapping to EST and transcriptome of G. antarctica.

  4. Breaking-bud pollination: a new pollination process in partially opened flowers by small bees.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Futa; Ohsawa, Takeshi A

    2015-09-01

    Plant-pollinator interactions have usually been researched in flowers that have fully opened. However, some pollinators can visit flowers before full opening and contribute to fruit and seed sets. In this paper, we researched the pollination biology of flowers just starting to open in four field experiments. We observed the insect visitors to Lycoris sanguinea var. sanguinea for 3 years at five sites. These observations revealed that only small bees, Lasioglossum japonicum, often entered through tiny spaces between the tepals of 'breaking buds' (i.e. partially opened flowers) and collected pollen. We hypothesized that they can pollinate this species at the breaking-bud stage, when the stigma is located near the anthers. To measure the pollination effect of small bees at the breaking-bud stage, we bagged several breaking buds after small bees had visited them and examined whether these buds were pollinated. In bagging experiments, 30% of the breaking buds set fruit and seeds. Fruit-set ratios of the breaking buds did not differ significantly from those of the fully opened flowers, which had been visited by several insect species. We also counted the pollen grain numbers on the body of L. japonicum and on the anthers of randomly-selected and manipulated flowers. These experiments revealed that all of the captured bees had some pollen of target plants and that L. japonicum collected most of the pollen grains at the breaking-bud stage. Our results showed that the new pollination process, breaking-bud pollination, happened in breaking buds by L. japonicum, although there is no evidence to reveal that this is the most effective pollination method for L. sanguinea var. sanguinea. In principle, this new pollination process can occur in other flowering plants and our results are a major contribution to studies of plant-pollinator interactions.

  5. Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) Design of a Small Animal Radiotherapy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, S.; Mackie, T. R.; Jeraj, R.

    2014-03-01

    Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) was initiated with the goal of facilitating medical research by developing medical technologies including both hardware and software on an open-source platform. Our first project was to develop an integrated imaging and radiotherapy device for small animals that includes computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and radiation therapy (RT) modalities for which technical specifications were defined in the first OSMD conference held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA in December 2011. This paper specifically focuses on the development of a small animal RT (micro-RT) system by designing a binary micro multileaf collimator (bmMLC) and a small animal treatment planning system (SATPS) to enable intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Both hardware and software projects are currently under development and their current progresses are described. After the development, both bmMLC and TPS will be validated and commissioned for a micro-RT system. Both hardware design and software development will be open-sourced after completion.

  6. [Concept and methodology on up-scaling issue of small watershed prototypes for reconstructing ecological economies in Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xu; Liu, Guobin; Chen, Youqi; Chang, Xin

    2004-06-01

    The general ecological situation of Loess Plateau is kept deteriorating, despite great efforts have been made and some achievements were gained after 50 years' endeavor to control soil erosion and renovate ecological landscape. Investigations on the past 20 years results from 11 experimental sites showed that the extension of prototypes and models derived from these sites, which were all based on one scale of small watershed, were unsatisfactory. The possible reasons for such a situation could be attributed to the too coarse scale of map, on which, the regional planning were set up and the locations of these experiment sites were decided, the too fine scale of the small watershed which were usually 3-10 km2 in size, the shortage of studies on various scales particularly on the meso-scale, and the lack of methods of scaling on up-scaling. Based on the analysis of restraints in management of small watershed, the specific concept and relevant proposed methods of resemblance-scaling and multi-scale complementarity were put forward and tested.

  7. Effect of age on survival between open repair and surveillance for small abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Filardo, Giovanni; Lederle, Frank A; Ballard, David J; Hamilton, Cody; da Graca, Briget; Herrin, Jeph; Sass, Danielle M; Johnson, Gary R; Powell, Janet T

    2014-10-15

    Randomized controlled trials have shown no significant difference in survival between immediate open repair and surveillance with selective repair for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms of 4.0 to 5.5 cm in diameter. This lack of difference has been shown to hold true for all diameters in this range, in men and women, but the question of whether patients of different ages might obtain different benefits has remained unanswered. Using the pooled patient-level data for the 2,226 patients randomized to immediate open repair or surveillance in the United Kingdom Small Aneurysm Trial (UKSAT; September 1, 1991, to July 31, 1998; follow-up 2.6 to 6.9 years) or the Aneurysm Detection and Management (ADAM) trial (August 1, 1992, to July 31, 2000; follow-up 3.5 to 8.0 years), the adjusted effect of age on survival in the 2 treatment groups was estimated using a generalized propensity approach, accounting for a comprehensive array of clinical and nonclinical risk factors. No significant difference in survival between immediate open repair and surveillance was observed for patients of any age, overall (p = 0.606) or in men (p = 0.371) or women separately (p = 0.167). In conclusion, survival did not differ significantly between immediate open repair and surveillance for patients of any age, overall or in men or women. Combined with the previous evidence regarding diameter, and the lack of benefit of immediate endovascular in trials comparing it with surveillance repair for small abdominal aortic aneurysms, these results suggest that surveillance should be the first-line management strategy of choice for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms of 4.0 to 5.5 cm.

  8. Propagating rift during the opening of a small oceanic basin: The Protector Basin (Scotia Arc, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Bohoyo, Fernando; Maldonado, Andrés; Schreider, Anatoly; Suriñach, Emma; Vázquez, Juan Tomas

    2006-01-01

    The opening of oceanic basins constitutes one of the key features of Plate Tectonics because it determines the rifting and displacement of the continental crustal blocks. Although the mechanisms of development of large oceans are well known, the opening and evolution of small and middle size oceanic basins have not been studied in detail. The Protector Basin, located in the southern Scotia Sea, is a good example of a small oceanic basin developed between two thinned continental blocks, the Pirie Bank and the Terror Rise, poorly studied up to now. A new set of multibeam bathymetry, multichannel seismic reflection, and gravity and magnetic anomaly profiles obtained on the SCAN 2001 cruise led us to determine that the Protector Basin probably opened during the period comprised between C5Dn (17.4 Ma) and C5ACn-C5ABr chrons (13.8 Ma), forming a N-S oriented spreading axis. The end of spreading is slightly younger to the north. The start of spreading is clearly diachronous, with the most complete set of chrons up to C5Dn in the southern profile, C5Cn in the middle section and only up to C5ADn in the northern part of the basin. The spreading axis propagated northwards during the basin development, producing the wedge shape of the basin. In addition, at the NE part of the basin, a reverse fault developed in the border of the Pirie Bank after basin opening accentuates the sharp northern end. Moreover, the northwestern part of the Pirie Bank margin is an extremely stretched continental crust with N-S elongated magnetic anomalies related to incipient oceanic southward propagating spreading axes. The Protector Basin shows the oldest evidence of E-W continental stretching and subsequent oceanic spreading during Middle Miocene, related with the eastward development of the Scotia Arc that continues up to Present. The relative rotation of continental blocks during the development of small sized oceanic basins by continental block drifting favoured the opening of wedge shape basins

  9. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful.

  10. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful. PMID:26455783

  11. Young open clusters in the Milky Way and Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martayan, C.

    2010-01-01

    NGC 6611, Trumpler 14, Trumpler 15, Trumpler 16, and Collinder 232 are very young open clusters located in star-formation regions in the Eagle Nebula and Carina in the Milky Way, and NGC 346 in the Small Magellanic Cloud. With different instrumentation and techniques, it has been possible to detect and classify new Herbig Ae/Be and classical Be stars and to provide new tests/comparisons of the Be stars' appearance models. Special (He-strong) stars in these star-formation regions are also discussed.

  12. Novel Vein Patterns in Arabidopsis Induced by Small Molecules1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The critical role of veins in transporting water, nutrients, and signals suggests that some key regulators of vein formation may be genetically redundant and, thus, undetectable by forward genetic screens. To identify such regulators, we screened more than 5000 structurally diverse small molecules for compounds that alter Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf vein patterns. Many compound-induced phenotypes were observed, including vein networks with an open reticulum; decreased or increased vein number and thickness; and misaligned, misshapen, or nonpolar vascular cells. Further characterization of several individual active compounds suggests that their targets include hormone cross talk, hormone-dependent transcription, and PIN-FORMED trafficking. PMID:26574596

  13. 75 FR 62630 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ...An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...

  14. 75 FR 11999 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

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  19. "I've Never Heard of It Before": Awareness of Open Access at a Small Liberal Arts University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocken, Gregory J.; Wical, Stephanie H.

    2013-01-01

    Small colleges and universities, often late adopters of institutional repositories and open access initiatives, face challenges that have not fully been explored in the professional literature. In an effort to gauge the level of awareness of open access and institutional repositories at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire (UWEC), the authors of…

  20. The effectiveness of small scale Photovoltaic (PV) systems design and cost analysis simulation on Saudi Arabian Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almansour, Faris Abdullah

    -Tariff PV system using HOMER. The result of the simulation has been discussed, analyzed, and plotted. We also give evidence in the thesis how useful the small PV systems can be as oppose to the larger scale system that must deal with location issues.

  1. Case study of open-source enterprise resource planning implementation in a small business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, David L.; Staley, Jesse

    2012-02-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have been recognised as offering great benefit to some organisations, although they are expensive and problematic to implement. The cost and risk make well-developed proprietorial systems unaffordable to small businesses. Open-source software (OSS) has become a viable means of producing ERP system products. The question this paper addresses is the feasibility of OSS ERP systems for small businesses. A case is reported involving two efforts to implement freely distributed ERP software products in a small US make-to-order engineering firm. The case emphasises the potential of freely distributed ERP systems, as well as some of the hurdles involved in their implementation. The paper briefly reviews highlights of OSS ERP systems, with the primary focus on reporting the case experiences for efforts to implement ERPLite software and xTuple software. While both systems worked from a technical perspective, both failed due to economic factors. While these economic conditions led to imperfect results, the case demonstrates the feasibility of OSS ERP for small businesses. Both experiences are evaluated in terms of risk dimension.

  2. Sediment depositions upstream of open check dams: new elements from small scale models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piton, Guillaume; Le Guern, Jules; Carbonari, Costanza; Recking, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Torrent hazard mitigation remains a big issue in mountainous regions. In steep slope streams and especially in their fan part, torrential floods mainly result from abrupt and massive sediment deposits. To curtail such phenomenon, soil conservation measures as well as torrent control works have been undertaken for decades. Since the 1950s, open check dams complete other structural and non-structural measures in watershed scale mitigation plans1. They are often built to trap sediments near the fan apexes. The development of earthmoving machinery after the WWII facilitated the dredging operations of open check dams. Hundreds of these structures have thus been built for 60 years. Their design evolved with the improving comprehension of torrential hydraulics and sediment transport; however this kind of structure has a general tendency to trap most of the sediments supplied by the headwaters. Secondary effects as channel incision downstream of the traps often followed an open check dam creation. This sediment starvation trend tends to propagate to the main valley rivers and to disrupt past geomorphic equilibriums. Taking it into account and to diminish useless dredging operation, a better selectivity of sediment trapping must be sought in open check dams, i.e. optimal open check dams would trap sediments during dangerous floods and flush them during normal small floods. An accurate description of the hydraulic and deposition processes that occur in sediment traps is needed to optimize existing structures and to design best-adjusted new structures. A literature review2 showed that if design criteria exist for the structure itself, little information is available on the dynamic of the sediment depositions upstream of open check dams, i.e. what are the geomorphic patterns that occur during the deposition?, what are the relevant friction laws and sediment transport formula that better describe massive depositions in sediment traps?, what are the range of Froude and Shields

  3. The effects of wastewater discharges on the functioning of a small temporarily open/closed estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, Robynne A.; Stretch, Derek D.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2010-04-01

    Wastewater discharges affect the functioning of small temporarily open/closed estuaries (TOCEs) through two main mechanisms: (1) they can significantly change the water balance by altering the quantity of water inflows, and (2) they can significantly change the nutrient balance and hence the water quality. This study investigated the bio-physical responses of a typical, small TOCE on the east coast of South Africa, the Mhlanga Estuary. This estuary receives significant inflows of treated effluent from upstream wastewater treatment works. Water and nutrient budgets were used together with biological sampling to investigate changes in the functioning of the system. The increase in inflows due to the effluent discharges has significantly increased the mouth breaching frequency. Furthermore, when the mouth closes, the accumulation of nutrients leads to eutrophication and algal blooms. A grey water index, namely the proportion of effluent in the estuary and an indicator of the additional nutrient inputs into the estuary, reached high values (≳50%) during low flow regimes and when the mouth was closed. In these hyper-eutrophic conditions (DIN and DIP concentrations up to 457 μM and 100 μM respectively), field measurements showed that algal blooms occurred within about 14 days following closure of the mouth (chlorophyll-a concentrations up to 375 mg chl-a m -3). Water and nutrient balance simulations for alternative scenarios suggest that further increases in wastewater discharges would result in more frequent breaching events and longer open mouth conditions, but the occurrence of hyper-eutrophic conditions would initially intensify despite more frequent openings. The study indicates how water and nutrient balance simulations can be used in the planning and impact assessment of wastewater treatment facilities.

  4. Improved Identification and Analysis of Small Open Reading Frame Encoded Polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiao; Diedrich, Jolene K; Jungreis, Irwin; Donaldson, Cynthia; Vaughan, Joan; Kellis, Manolis; Yates, John R; Saghatelian, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Computational, genomic, and proteomic approaches have been used to discover nonannotated protein-coding small open reading frames (smORFs). Some novel smORFs have crucial biological roles in cells and organisms, which motivates the search for additional smORFs. Proteomic smORF discovery methods are advantageous because they detect smORF-encoded polypeptides (SEPs) to validate smORF translation and SEP stability. Because SEPs are shorter and less abundant than average proteins, SEP detection using proteomics faces unique challenges. Here, we optimize several steps in the SEP discovery workflow to improve SEP isolation and identification. These changes have led to the detection of several new human SEPs (novel human genes), improved confidence in the SEP assignments, and enabled quantification of SEPs under different cellular conditions. These improvements will allow faster detection and characterization of new SEPs and smORFs. PMID:27010111

  5. Effect of location of opening incision on astigmatic correction after small-incision lenticule extraction

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tommy C. Y.; Ng, Alex LK; Cheng, George P. M.; Wang, Zheng; Woo, Victor C. P.; Jhanji, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    We compared the visual and refractive outcomes between 2 different incisional sites in small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for low myopic astigmatism. This was a contralateral eye study. Consecutive cases that underwent bilateral SMILE surgery were included. Procedures for both eyes were identical apart from the location of opening incision. The incision was set on the temporal side for the right eye (Group 1), while a superior incision was set for the left eye (Group 2). Twenty-nine patients with a mean age of 35.0 ± 9.6 years were included. Preoperative visual and refractive parameters were comparable between the 2 groups (p > 0.250). At 3 months, the logMAR uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.074 ± 0.090 in Group 1 and 0.084 ± 0.130 in Group 2 (p = 0.861). No difference was found in the postoperative manifest spherical equivalent (p = 0.501) and manifest cylinder (p = 0.178) between the 2 groups. The efficacy index was 0.85 ± 0.16 in Group 1 and 0.85 ± 0.20 in Group 2 (p = 0.828). Astigmatic correction was not significantly affected by the location of opening incisions using vector analysis. Our study did not find significant differences in visual and refractive outcomes with temporal or superior opening incision during SMILE surgery. PMID:27775085

  6. Small-molecule 3D structure prediction using open crystallography data.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Peter; Baldi, Pierre

    2013-12-23

    Predicting the 3D structures of small molecules is a common problem in chemoinformatics. Even the best methods are inaccurate for complex molecules, and there is a large gap in accuracy between proprietary and free algorithms. Previous work presented COSMOS, a novel data-driven algorithm that uses knowledge of known structures from the Cambridge Structural Database and demonstrates performance that was competitive with proprietary algorithms. However, dependence on the Cambridge Structural Database prevented its widespread use. Here, we present an updated version of the COSMOS structure predictor, complete with a free structure library derived from open data sources. We demonstrate that COSMOS performs better than other freely available methods, with a mean RMSD of 1.16 and 1.68 Å for organic and metal-organic structures, respectively, and a mean prediction time of 60 ms per molecule. This is a 17% and 20% reduction, respectively, in RMSD compared to the free predictor provided by Open Babel, and it is 10 times faster. The ChemDB Web portal provides a COSMOS prediction Web server, as well as downloadable copies of the COSMOS executable and library of molecular substructures.

  7. A comprehensive photometric study of dynamically evolved small van den Bergh-Hagen open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2016-09-01

    We present results from Johnson UBV, Kron-Cousins RI and Washington CT1T2 photometries for seven van den Bergh-Hagen (vdBH) open clusters, namely, vdBH 1, 10, 31, 72, 87, 92, and 118. The high-quality, multi-band photometric data sets were used to trace the cluster stellar density radial profiles and to build colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and colour-colour (CC) diagrams from which we estimated their structural parameters and fundamental astrophysical properties. The clusters in our sample cover a wide age range, from ˜ 60 Myr up to 2.8 Gyr, are of relatively small size (˜ 1 - 6 pc) and are placed at distances from the Sun which vary between 1.8 and 6.3 kpc, respectively. We also estimated lower limits for the cluster present-day masses as well as half-mass relaxation times (tr). The resulting values in combination with the structural parameter values suggest that the studied clusters are in advanced stages of their internal dynamical evolution (age/tr ˜ 20 - 320), possibly in the typical phase of those tidally filled with mass segregation in their core regions. Compared to open clusters in the solar neighbourhood, the seven vdBH clusters are within more massive (˜ 80 - 380M$⊙$), with higher concentration parameter values (c ˜ 0.75-1.15) and dynamically evolved ones.

  8. Tools for Inspecting and Sampling Waste in Underground Radioactive Storage Tanks with Small Access Riser Openings

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, T.A.

    1998-12-17

    Underground storage tanks with 2 inches to 3 inches diameter access ports at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site have been used to store radioactive solvents and sludge. In order to close these tanks, the contents of the tanks need to first be quantified in terms of volume and chemical and radioactive characteristics. To provide information on the volume of waste contained within the tanks, a small remote inspection system was needed. This inspection system was designed to provide lighting and provide pan and tilt capabilities in an inexpensive package with zoom abilities and color video. This system also needed to be utilized inside of a plastic tent built over the access port to contain any contamination exiting from the port. This system had to be build to travel into the small port opening, through the riser pipe, into the tank evacuated space, and out of the riser pipe and access port with no possibility of being caught and blocking the access riser. Long thin plates were found in many access riser pipes that blocked the inspection system from penetrating into the tank interiors. Retrieval tools to clear the plates from the tanks using developed sampling devices while providing safe containment for the samples. This paper will discuss the inspection systems, tools for clearing access pipes, and solvent sampling tools developed to evaluate the tank contents of the underground solvent storage tanks.

  9. Primary Open Angle Glaucoma is Associated with MR Biomarkers of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mercieca, Karl; Cain, John; Hansen, Thomas; Steeples, Laura; Watkins, Amy; Spencer, Fiona; Jackson, Alan

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study tests the hypotheses that: 1) glaucoma is associated with evidence of cerebral small vessel disease; 2) that imaging biomarkers of cerebral small vessel disease in POAG and NTG will show different characteristics. 12 normal controls, 7 patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and 9 patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) were recruited. Ophthalmological clinical assessment and MR imaging of the brain were performed. MR imaging was used to quantify white matter lesion load, frequency of dilated perivascular spaces (PVS) and abnormalities in cerebral hydrodynamics. Patients with POAG had significantly greater white matter lesion load (p < 0.05), more PVS in the centrum semiovale (p < 0.05) and had higher overall PVS scores than controls (p < 0.05). In the POAG group, optic cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) was positively correlated with deep white matter hyperintensities (R2 = 0.928, p < 0.01). Mean deviation on the Humphrey visual field assessment was negatively correlated with deep white matter lesion load (R2 = −0.840, p < 0.01), total white matter lesion load (R2 = −0.928, p < 0.01) and total PVS (R2 = −0.820, p < 0.01). MR evidence of cerebral small vessel disease is strongly associated with a diagnosis of POAG and with the severity of abnormalities in CDR and visual field. PMID:26923106

  10. Cyberscience and the Knowledge-Based Economy. Open Access and Trade Publishing: From Contradiction to Compatibility with Non-Exclusive Copyright Licensing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armbruster, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Open source, open content and open access are set to fundamentally alter the conditions of knowledge production and distribution. Open source, open content and open access are also the most tangible result of the shift towards e-science and digital networking. Yet, widespread misperceptions exist about the impact of this shift on knowledge…

  11. Overall Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that these workers provide. So, to project employment, BLS starts by estimating the components of gross domestic product (GDP) for 2020. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the size--in…

  12. Overall Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that they provide. So, to project employment, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) starts by projecting the gross domestic product (GDP) for 2018. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the…

  13. Orbital Feshbach resonances with a small energy gap between open and closed channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yanting; Zhang, Ren; Zhang, Peng

    2016-04-01

    Recently, a new type of Feshbach resonance, i.e., orbital Feshbach resonance (OFR), was proposed for the ultracold alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms and was experimentally observed in the ultracold gases of 173Yb atoms. Unlike most of the magnetic Feshbach resonances of ultracold alkali atoms, when the OFR of 173Yb atoms appears, the energy gap between the thresholds of the open channel (OC) and the closed channel (CC) is much smaller than the characteristic energy of the interatomic interaction, i.e., the van der Waals energy. In this paper we study the OFR in systems with a small CC-OC threshold gap. We show that in these systems the OFR can be induced by the coupling between the OC and either an isolated bound state of the CC or the scattering states of the CC. Moreover, we also show that in each case the two-channel Huang-Yang pesudopotential is always applicable for the approximate calculation of the low-energy scattering amplitude. Our results imply that in the two-channel theoretical calculations for these systems it is appropriate to take into account the contributions from the scattering states of the CC.

  14. Small Open Reading Frames, Non-Coding RNAs and Repetitive Elements in Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Julia; Tsoy, Olga V.; Thalmann, Sebastian; Čuklina, Jelena; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

    2016-01-01

    Small open reading frames (sORFs) and genes for non-coding RNAs are poorly investigated components of most genomes. Our analysis of 1391 ORFs recently annotated in the soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 revealed that 78% of them contain less than 80 codons. Twenty-one of these sORFs are conserved in or outside Alphaproteobacteria and most of them are similar to genes found in transposable elements, in line with their broad distribution. Stabilizing selection was demonstrated for sORFs with proteomic evidence and bll1319_ISGA which is conserved at the nucleotide level in 16 alphaproteobacterial species, 79 species from other taxa and 49 other Proteobacteria. Further we used Northern blot hybridization to validate ten small RNAs (BjsR1 to BjsR10) belonging to new RNA families. We found that BjsR1 and BjsR3 have homologs outside the genus Bradyrhizobium, and BjsR5, BjsR6, BjsR7, and BjsR10 have up to four imperfect copies in Bradyrhizobium genomes. BjsR8, BjsR9, and BjsR10 are present exclusively in nodules, while the other sRNAs are also expressed in liquid cultures. We also found that the level of BjsR4 decreases after exposure to tellurite and iron, and this down-regulation contributes to survival under high iron conditions. Analysis of additional small RNAs overlapping with 3’-UTRs revealed two new repetitive elements named Br-REP1 and Br-REP2. These REP elements may play roles in the genomic plasticity and gene regulation and could be useful for strain identification by PCR-fingerprinting. Furthermore, we studied two potential toxin genes in the symbiotic island and confirmed toxicity of the yhaV homolog bll1687 but not of the newly annotated higB homolog blr0229_ISGA in E. coli. Finally, we revealed transcription interference resulting in an antisense RNA complementary to blr1853, a gene induced in symbiosis. The presented results expand our knowledge on sORFs, non-coding RNAs and repetitive elements in B. japonicum and related bacteria. PMID

  15. The open prototype for educational NanoSats: Fixing the other side of the small satellite cost equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Josh; Straub, Jeremy; Whalen, David

    Government supported nano-satellite launch programs and emerging commercial small satellite launch services are reducing the cost of access to space for educational and other CubeSat projects. The cost and complexity of designing and building these satellites remains a vexing complication for many would be CubeSat aspirants. The Open Prototype for Educational NanoSats (OPEN), a proposed nano-satellite development platform, is described in this paper. OPEN endeavors to reduce the costs and risks associated with educational, government and commercial nano-satellite development. OPEN provides free and publicly available plans for building, testing and operating a versatile, low-cost satellite, based on the standardized CubeSat form-factor. OPEN consists of public-domain educational reference plans, complete with engineering schematics, CAD files, construction and test instructions as well as ancillary reference materials relevant to satellite building and operation. By making the plan, to produce a small but capable spacecraft freely available, OPEN seeks to lower the barriers to access on the other side (non-launch costs) of the satellite cost equation.

  16. 77 FR 8329 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ...An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...

  17. 76 FR 37196 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...

  18. 77 FR 61052 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ...An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...

  19. 77 FR 21157 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ...An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...

  20. 77 FR 20488 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...

  1. 77 FR 20489 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...

  2. Expression and strain variation of the novel “Small Open Reading Frame” 3 (smorf) multigene family in Babesia bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small open reading frame (smorf) genes comprise the second largest Babesia bovis multigene family. All known 44 variant smorf genes are located in close chromosomal proximity to ves1 genes, which encode proteins that mediate cytoadhesion and contribute to immune evasion. In this study, we characte...

  3. Integrated spectral properties of 22 small angular diameter galactic open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    2007-10-01

    Aims:Flux-calibrated integrated spectra of a sample of 22 Galactic open clusters of small angular diameter are presented. With one exception (ESO 429-SC2), all objects have Galactic longitudes in the range 208° < l < 33°. The spectra cover the range ≈3600-6800 Å, with a resolution of ≈14 Å. The properties of the present cluster sample are compared with those of well-studied clusters located in two 90° sectors, centred at l = 257° and l = 347°. The dissolution rate of Galactic open clusters in these two sectors is examined. Methods: Using the equivalent widths of the Balmer lines and comparing line intensities and continuum distribution of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known properties, we derive both foreground reddening values and ages. Thus, we provide information independent of that determined through colour-magnitude diagrams. Results: The derived E(B-V) values for the whole sample vary from 0.0 in ESO 445-SC74 to 1.90 in Pismis 24, while the ages range from ~3 Myr (NGC 6604 and BH 151) to ~3.5 Gyr (Ruprecht 2). For six clusters (Dolidze 34, ESO 429-SC2, ESO 445-SC74, Ruprecht 2, BH 151 and Hogg 9) the foreground E(B-V) colour excesses and ages are determined for the first time. The results obtained for the remaining clusters show, in general terms, good agreement with previous photometric results. Conclusions: The age and reddening distributions of the present sample match those of known clusters in the two selected Galactic sectors. The present results would favour a major dissolution rate of star clusters in these two sectors. Two new solar-metallicity templates are defined corresponding to the age groups of (4-5) Myr and 30 Myr among those of Piatti et al. (2002, MNRAS, 335, 233). The Piatti et al. templates of 20 Myr and (3-4) Gyr are here redefined. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y T

  4. Small-Scale Interstellar Structure Toward the Open Cluster CHI Persei-Fuse II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Friedman, Scott

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the physical conditions of gas along sight lines toward 6 stars in the core Chi Persei open cluster. These sight lines traverse gas in both the Orion and Perseus spiral arms of the Galaxy, at distances of 500 and 2000 pc, respectively. The stars have angular separations ranging from 45 to 280 arcsec; 60 arcsec corresponds to linear distances of 0.15 and 0.6 pc in the two arms. Thus, abundance variations in these observations would constitute evidence for small-scale variations in the properties of the interstellar medium. Ground-based Na I observations at high resolution (approx. 15 km/sec) toward 172 stars (including the 6 in this study) in the double open cluster h and Chi Persei have revealed complex spatial variation. These variations are especially evident in the gas at velocities of -40 and -55 km/sec, corresponding to the Perseus spiral arm. 21 cm observations of HI emission using the Low Resolution DRAO Survey, with a 12-arcmin beam, also show variations. Averaging the Na I apparent optical depth profiles of neighboring sight lines in order to mimic such a beam size reduces the variation, as compared to the individual Na I measurements, but still show variations larger than seen in the 21 cm profiles. Na I is not the dominant ionization state of Na in the interstellar medium. Thus, it is possible that the variations seen really trace physical structures in the interstellar medium, or they may simply result from variations in the radiation field seen by the gas, or be due to some other environmental circumstance. To distinguish among these possibilities in the present study we obtained FUSE spectra toward the 6 targets in order to measure the molecular hydrogen absorption profiles along these sight lines. The higher J states of H2 are populated by the ambient W radiation field, and thus can provide insight into the environment affecting the gas. If both the high and low J states reveal absorption line profiles with

  5. Oscillations in Rational Economies

    PubMed Central

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    Economic (business) cycles are some of the most noted features of market economies, also ranked among the most serious of economic problems. Despite long historical persistence, the nature and the origin of business cycles remain controversial. In this paper we investigate the problem of the nature of business cycles from the positions of the market systems viewed as complex systems of many interacting market agents. We show that the development of cyclic instabilities in these settings can be traced down to just two fundamental factors – the competition of market agents for market shares in the settings of an open market, and the depression of market caused by accumulation of durable overproduced commodities on the market. These findings present the problem of business cycles in a new light as a systemic property of efficient market systems emerging directly from the free market competition itself, and existing in market economies at a very fundamental level. PMID:24505319

  6. Impact of Top Management Team on Firm Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Adopting Commercial Open-Source Enterprise Resource Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereola, Sandra J.; Wier, Benson; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2012-01-01

    Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily…

  7. Silicon-based guided-wave optical flow sensor using a diaphragm with a small opening as an orifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkawa, Masashi; Sato, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Our proposed silicon-based guided-wave optical flow sensor consists of a diaphragm with a small opening used as an orifice and a waveguide across the diaphragm. The sensor operates based on Bernoulli's theorem and the elasto-optic effect. A sensor, which had a 10×10-mm2, 50-μm-thick diaphragm with a 0.34×0.34-mm2 opening, was fabricated to demonstrate and confirm the sensor operation. Measured output power as a function of flow rate using oxygen gas agreed quite well with the theoretical prediction although slight deviation was seen in the high flow rate region. Moreover, according to Bernoulli's theorem, sensitivity is strongly dependent on sectional area of opening. So, three sensors with different opening areas, such as 0.28×0.28, 0.34×0.34, and 0.55×0.55 mm2, were fabricated to examine such a dependence, which would be helpful to design the sensor. The measured sensitivity was found to be almost proportional to area of the opening, similar to the theoretical prediction.

  8. Nuclides Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-07-01

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  9. Gating Competence of Constitutively Open CLC-0 Mutants Revealed by the Interaction with a Small Organic Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Traverso, Sonia; Elia, Laura; Pusch, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Opening of CLC chloride channels is coupled to the translocation of the permeant anion. From the recent structure determination of bacterial CLC proteins in the closed and open configuration, a glutamate residue was hypothesized to form part of the Cl−-sensitive gate. The negatively charged side-chain of the glutamate was suggested to occlude the permeation pathway in the closed state, while opening of a single protopore of the double-pore channel would reflect mainly a movement of this side-chain toward the extracellular pore vestibule, with little rearrangement of the rest of the channel. Here we show that mutating this critical residue (Glu166) in the prototype Torpedo CLC-0 to alanine, serine, or lysine leads to constitutively open channels, whereas a mutation to aspartate strongly slowed down opening. Furthermore, we investigated the interaction of the small organic channel blocker p-chlorophenoxy-acetic acid (CPA) with the mutants E166A and E166S. Both mutants were strongly inhibited by CPA at negative voltages with a >200-fold larger affinity than for wild-type CLC-0 (apparent KD at −140 mV ∼4 μM). A three-state linear model with an open state, a low-affinity and a high-affinity CPA-bound state can quantitatively describe steady-state and kinetic properties of the CPA block. The parameters of the model and additional mutagenesis suggest that the high-affinity CPA-bound state is similar to the closed configuration of the protopore gate of wild-type CLC-0. In the E166A mutant the glutamate side chain that occludes the permeation pathway is absent. Thus, if gating consists only in movement of this side-chain the mutant E166A should not be able to assume a closed conformation. It may thus be that fast gating in CLC-0 is more complex than anticipated from the bacterial structures. PMID:12913089

  10. Antimatter Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Norm

    2004-05-01

    The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.

  11. Practical Token Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackerby, W. F.

    1988-01-01

    The article discusses special considerations in applying standard token economy techniques to behavior change with the head injured with examples of token economies at three rehabilitation facilities. (DB)

  12. Drought stress differentially regulates the expression of small open reading frames (sORFs) in Arabidopsis roots and shoots.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Sultana; Bashir, Khurram; Nakaminami, Kentaro; Hanada, Kousuke; Matsui, Akihiro; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-08-01

    Characterizing the molecular mechanisms governing the response of plant roots and shoots to drought stress could aid the development of strategies aiming to ameliorate drought stress. Small open reading frames (sORFs), putatively encoding small peptides, may play a significant role in the response to different abiotic stresses. Microarray analyses revealed that after 5, 7 and 9 d of a drought treatment, 2, 77, and 104 sORFs were up-regulated in roots, respectively; while the number of upregulated sORFs in shoots was 12, 45, and 158, respectively. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed the up-regulated expression of ATRIKEN29196 and ATRIKEN32280 specifically in roots. The identified upregulated sORFs, particularly those in roots, may contribute to drought stress tolerance.

  13. Measurement of a structured backflow in an open small channel induced by surface-tension gradients.

    PubMed

    Pulido-Companys, Alba; Claret, Josep; Ignés-Mullol, Jordi; Sagués, Francesc

    2013-05-24

    We present experiments in which the laterally confined flow of a surfactant film driven by controlled surface tension gradients causes the subtended liquid layer to self-organize into an inner upstream microduct surrounded by the downstream flow. The anomalous interfacial flow profiles and the concomitant backflow are a result of the feedback between two-dimensional and three-dimensional microfluidics realized during flow in open microchannels. Bulk and surface particle image velocimetry data combined with an interfacial hydrodynamics model explain the dependence of the observed phenomena on channel geometry.

  14. Depleted uranium dioxide powder flow through very small openings. [In shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, S.L.; Johnston, J.W.; Mishima, J.; Owzarski, P.C.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Long, G.B.

    1980-02-01

    Results are presented of experiments that measured the leakage of depleted uranium dioxide (DUO) powder through microorifices in a vessel approximately the same dimensions as a plutonium dioxide shipping container. Leaks were measured as a function of upstream pressure (15 psig to 1000 psig) and above and below the static powder level. An equation was developed to predict powder transmission from leaks using ln (A..sqrt..P) > 10.5 (A = area; P = pressure). Maximum DUO transmission values were calculated for leaks where ln (A..sqrt..P) < 10.5. Conclusions were: (1) diameter was the most important parameter in powder leakage; diameter and pressure were both significant; (2) the duration of a run had no statistically discernible effect on powder transmitted in times ranging to 24 h; (3) the opening orifice or capillary types and location above or below the static powder level affected powder transmission; (4) agitation did not influence the flow from a leak below the static powder level; (5) the amount of powder covering a leak did not affect the leak below the static powder level; (6) leakage below the static powder level maximized at 100 psig for openings less than approximately 100 ..mu..; (7) plugging was a frequent occurrence: 6% of the orifices and 17% of the capillaries plugged immediately upon pressurization (above powder leaks); and (8) efforts to increase the powder leakage by various procedures were unsuccessful. 64 figures, 44 tables.

  15. Explosive events in connection with small scale flux emergence in open field regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galsgaard, Klaus; Moreno-Insertis, Fernando, , Prof

    In recent years observations have shown that the emergence of new magnetic flux from the convection zone into the open field regions in the corona may generate spectacular jet phenomena. A smaller number of jets seem to end their near steady state phase in one or more spectacular eruptions where material is accelerated away from the solar surface reaching fairly high velocities. To investigate the jet phenomena, we have conducted a number of numerical MHD experiments that investigate the general interaction between an emerging bipolar flux region and the open coronal magnetic field. Under the correct conditions, this generates a well defined jet phase and the model explains many of the general characteristics of the typical Eiffel tower jets. Towards the end phase of the jet, the remains of the emerged flux system may experience some violent eruptions. This talk will discuss the general characteristics of these eruptions, aiming at providing an explanation to why they occur, and how they develop in general. These jets and eruptions may be what is taking place in some of the so-called breakout models described in a number of recent observational papers.

  16. Goggatomy: A Method for Opening Small Cuticular Compartments in Arthropods for Physiological Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Alan R.; Raccuglia, Davide; Scholte, Jon; Sivan-Loukianova, Elena; Barwacz, Christopher A.; Armstrong, Steven R.; Guymon, C. Allan; Nitabach, Michael N.; Eberl, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Most sense organs of arthropods are ensconced in small exoskeletal compartments that hinder direct access to plasma membranes. We have developed a method for exposing live sensory and supporting cells in such structures. The technique uses a viscous light cured resin to embed and support the structure, which is then sliced with a sharp blade. We term the procedure a “goggatomy,” from the Khoisan word for a bug, gogga. To demonstrate the utility of the method we show that it can be used to expose the auditory chordotonal organs in the second antennal segment and the olfactory receptor neurons in the third antennal segment of Drosophila melanogaster, preserving the transduction machinery. The procedure can also be used on other small arthropods, like mosquitoes and mites to expose a variety of cells.

  17. Goggatomy: A Method for Opening Small Cuticular Compartments in Arthropods for Physiological Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Alan R.; Raccuglia, Davide; Scholte, Jon; Sivan-Loukianova, Elena; Barwacz, Christopher A.; Armstrong, Steven R.; Guymon, C. Allan; Nitabach, Michael N.; Eberl, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Most sense organs of arthropods are ensconced in small exoskeletal compartments that hinder direct access to plasma membranes. We have developed a method for exposing live sensory and supporting cells in such structures. The technique uses a viscous light cured resin to embed and support the structure, which is then sliced with a sharp blade. We term the procedure a “goggatomy,” from the Khoisan word for a bug, gogga. To demonstrate the utility of the method we show that it can be used to expose the auditory chordotonal organs in the second antennal segment and the olfactory receptor neurons in the third antennal segment of Drosophila melanogaster, preserving the transduction machinery. The procedure can also be used on other small arthropods, like mosquitoes and mites to expose a variety of cells. PMID:27695420

  18. Resource Use in Small Island States

    PubMed Central

    Krausmann, Fridolin; Richter, Regina; Eisenmenger, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Iceland and Trinidad and Tobago are small open, high-income island economies with very specific resource-use patterns. This article presents a material flow analysis (MFA) for the two countries covering a time period of nearly five decades. Both countries have a narrow domestic resource base, their economy being largely based on the exploitation of one or two key resources for export production. In the case of Trinidad and Tobago, the physical economy is dominated by oil and natural gas extraction and petrochemical industries, whereas Iceland's economy for centuries has been based on fisheries. More recently, abundant hydropower and geothermal heat were the basis for the establishment of large export-oriented metal processing industries, which fully depend on imported raw materials and make use of domestic renewable electricity. Both countries are highly dependent on these natural resources and vulnerable to overexploitation and price developments. We show how the export-oriented industries lead to high and growing levels of per capita material and energy use and carbon dioxide emissions resulting from large amounts of processing wastes and energy consumption in production processes. The example of small open economies with an industrial production system focused on few, but abundant, key resources and of comparatively low complexity provides interesting insights of how resource endowment paired with availability or absence of infrastructure and specific institutional arrangements drives domestic resource-use patterns. This also contributes to a better understanding and interpretation of MFA indicators, such as domestic material consumption. PMID:25505367

  19. Energy efficiency in the US economy technical report four: Analysis of energy-efficiency investment decisions by small and medium-sized manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report highlights the results of a comprehensive analysis of investment decisions regarding energy-efficiency measures at small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The analysis is based primarily on the experiences of companies participating in the US Department of Energy`s Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program.

  20. Openings

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  1. Turbocharging of small internal combustion engine as a means of improving engine/application system fuel economy-further turbocharger improvements. Final report Oct 80-Feb 82

    SciTech Connect

    Arvin, J.R.

    1982-04-01

    Improvements to a small diesel engine turbocharger were made based on data gathered during a previous Army contract. The improved turbocharger was fabricated and tested on a small, four cylinder, 239 CID diesel engine. Engine dynamometer test data revealed a 2 to 9 percent reduction in fuel consumption at all points over the operating envelope. A turbocharger was operated for 1011 hours at speeds between 70000 and 78000 rpm without incident. The ball bearings were in excellent condition at the end of the test. A math model of the engine and turbocharger was generated. The model was used to estimate 13 Mode Federal Diesel Emissions Cycle, the LA4 driving cycle and the application of the variable area turbine nozzle (VATN) turbocharger to a diesel engine driven generator set. A recommendation was made to build a gen set demo unit. A fuel savings of 8 to 10 percent was estimated for a 30KW DED generator set.

  2. A comparison of methods for estimating open-water evaporation in small wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, Jason R.; Stannard, David I.

    2010-01-01

    We compared evaporation measurements from a floating pan, land pan, chamber, and the Priestley-Taylor (PT) equation. Floating pan, land pan, and meteorological data were collected from June 6 to July 21, 2005, at a small wetland in the Canadian River alluvium in central Oklahoma, USA. Evaporation measured with the floating pan compared favorably to 12 h chamber measurements. Differences between chamber and floating pan rates ranged from −0.2 to 0.3 mm, mean of 0.1 mm. The difference between chamber and land pan rates ranged from 0.8 to 2.0 mm, mean of 1.5 mm. The mean chamber-to-floating pan ratio was 0.97 and the mean chamber-to-land pan ratio was 0.73. The chamber-to-floating pan ratio of 0.97 indicates the use of a floating pan to measure evaporation in small limited-fetch water bodies is an appropriate and accurate method for the site investigated. One-sided Paired t-Tests indicate daily floating pan rates were significantly less than land pan and PT rates. A two-sided Paired t-Test indicated there was no significant difference between land pan and PT values. The PT equation tends to overestimate evaporation during times when the air is of low drying power and tends to underestimate as drying power increases.

  3. Small deformations of supersymmetric Wilson loops and open spin-chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drukker, Nadav; Kawamoto, Shoichi

    2006-07-01

    We study insertions of composite operators into Wilson loops in Script N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. The loops follow a circular or straight path and the composite insertions transform in the adjoint representation of the gauge group. This provides a gauge invariant way to define the correlator of non-singlet operators. Since the basic loop preserves an SL(2,Bbb R) subgroup of the conformal group, we can assign a conformal dimension to those insertions and calculate the corrections to the classical dimension in perturbation theory. The calculation turns out to be very similar to that of single-trace local operators and may also be expressed in terms of a spin-chain. In this case the spin-chain is open and at one-loop order has Neumann boundary conditions on the type of scalar insertions that we consider. This system is integrable and we write the Bethe ansatz describing it. We compare the spectrum in the limit of large angular momentum both in the dilute gas approximation and the thermodynamic limit to the relevant string solution in the BMN limit and in the full AdS5 × S5 metric and find agreement.

  4. BRAF mutations in non-small cell lung cancer: has finally Janus opened the door?

    PubMed

    Caparica, Rafael; de Castro, Gilberto; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio; Caglevic, Christian; Calogero, Raffaele; Giallombardo, Marco; Santos, Edgardo S; Raez, Luis E; Rolfo, Christian

    2016-05-01

    B-Raf mutations occur in about 1-2% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). These mutations generate a permanent activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which promotes tumor growth and proliferation. In the present review, we discuss B-Raf mutation epidemiology, diagnostic methods to detect B-Raf mutations, the role of B-Raf as a driver mutation and a potential therapeutic target in NSCLC. The results of clinical trials involving B-Raf or MAPK pathway inhibitors for the treatment of NSCLC are also discussed. Clinical trials evaluating B-Raf inhibitors in BRAF mutated NSCLC patients have shown promising results, and larger prospective studies are warranted to validate these findings. Enrollment of these patients in clinical trials is an interesting strategy to offer a potentially more effective and less toxic targeted therapy.

  5. BRAF mutations in non-small cell lung cancer: has finally Janus opened the door?

    PubMed

    Caparica, Rafael; de Castro, Gilberto; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio; Caglevic, Christian; Calogero, Raffaele; Giallombardo, Marco; Santos, Edgardo S; Raez, Luis E; Rolfo, Christian

    2016-05-01

    B-Raf mutations occur in about 1-2% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). These mutations generate a permanent activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which promotes tumor growth and proliferation. In the present review, we discuss B-Raf mutation epidemiology, diagnostic methods to detect B-Raf mutations, the role of B-Raf as a driver mutation and a potential therapeutic target in NSCLC. The results of clinical trials involving B-Raf or MAPK pathway inhibitors for the treatment of NSCLC are also discussed. Clinical trials evaluating B-Raf inhibitors in BRAF mutated NSCLC patients have shown promising results, and larger prospective studies are warranted to validate these findings. Enrollment of these patients in clinical trials is an interesting strategy to offer a potentially more effective and less toxic targeted therapy. PMID:26960735

  6. Small Heat Shock Proteins Can Release Light Dependence of Tobacco Seed during Germination1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyun Jo; Park, Soo Min; Kim, Keun Pill; Suh, Mi Chung; Lee, Mi Ok; Lee, Seong-Kon; Xinli, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) function as ATP-independent molecular chaperones, and although the production and function of sHSPs have often been described under heat stress, the expression and function of sHSPs in fundamental developmental processes, such as pollen and seed development, have also been confirmed. Seed germination involves the breaking of dormancy and the resumption of embryo growth that accompany global changes in transcription, translation, and metabolism. In many plants, germination is triggered simply by imbibition of water; however, different seeds require different conditions in addition to water. For small-seeded plants, like Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), light is an important regulator of seed germination. The facts that sHSPs accumulate during seed development, sHSPs interact with various client proteins, and seed germination accompanies synthesis and/or activation of diverse proteins led us to investigate the role of sHSPs in seed germination, especially in the context of light dependence. In this study, we have built transgenic tobacco plants that ectopically express sHSP, and the effect was germination of the seeds in the dark. Administering heat shock to the seeds also resulted in the alleviation of light dependence during seed germination. Subcellular localization of ectopically expressed sHSP was mainly observed in the cytoplasm, whereas heat shock-induced sHSPs were transported to the nucleus. We hypothesize that ectopically expressed sHSPs in the cytoplasm led the status of cytoplasmic proteins involved in seed germination to function during germination without additional stimulus and that heat shock can be another signal that induces seed germination. PMID:25604531

  7. Implementing ILDs and Assessment in Small-enrollment, Calculus-based Physics Classes -- Lessons, Observations and Open Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason-McCaffrey, Deborah

    2011-04-01

    At Salem State, we offer a Physics minor, but most of our teaching load is support courses for other science majors and a lab sequence which satisfies the University's core education requirement. In three years of using assessments and ILDs in small-enrollment calculus-based Physics classes, there has been a significant implementation learning curve, there are encouraging results, a few cautions, and still some open questions to report. ILDs can be highly effective teaching tools. They do require significant advance preparation as well as a safe environment for student participation. Motivating students to do their best on assessment pre- and post-tests can also be difficult. Strategies for motivating assessment performance, experiments using clickers to encourage participation in ILDs, and modifying and developing home-grown ILDs are discussed.

  8. Comparison of Porcine Small Intestinal Submucosa versus Polypropylene in Open Inguinal Hernia Repair: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xin; Xiao, Dongdong; Wang, Wenyue; Song, Zhicheng; Yang, Zhi; Chen, Yuanwen; Gu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) with polypropylene in open inguinal hernia repair. Method Electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were used to compare patient outcomes for the two groups via meta-analysis. Result A total of 3 randomized controlled trials encompassing 200 patients were included in the meta-analysis. There was no significant difference in recurrence (P = 0.16), hematomas (P = 0.06), postoperative pain within 30 days (P = 0.45), or postoperative pain after 1 year (P = 0.12) between the 2 groups. The incidence of discomfort was significantly lower (P = 0.0006) in the SIS group. However, the SIS group experienced a significantly higher incidence of seroma (P = 0.03). Conclusions Compared to polypropylene, using SIS in open inguinal hernia repair is associated with a lower incidence of discomfort and a higher incidence of seroma. However, well-designed larger RCT studies with a longer follow-up period are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26252895

  9. Enhancement of Open-Circuit Voltage by Using the 58-π Silylmethyl Fullerenes in Small-Molecule Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Il; Delacou, Clément; Nakagawa, Takafumi; Matsuo, Yutaka

    2016-04-20

    The application of 58-π-1,4-bis(silylmethyl)[60]fullerenes, C60 (CH2 SiMe2 Ph)(CH2 SiMe2 Ar) (Ar=Ph and 2-methoxylphenyl for SIMEF-1 and SIMEF-2, respectively), in small-molecule organic solar cells with a diketopyrrolopyrrole donor (3,6-bis[5-(benzofuran-2-yl)thiophen-2-yl]-2,5-bis(2-ethylhexyl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione (DPP(TBFu)2 )) is demonstrated. With the 58-π-silylmethyl fullerene acceptor, SIMEF-1, the devices showed the highest efficiency of 4.57 % with an average of 4.10 %. They manifested an improved open-circuit voltage (1.03 V) owing to the high-lying LUMO level of SIMEF-1, while maintaining a high short-circuit density (9.91 mA cm(-2) ) through controlling the crystallinity of DPP by thermal treatment. On the other hand, despite even higher open-circuit voltage (1.05 V), SIMEF-2-based devices showed lower performances of 3.53 %, owing to a low short-circuit current density (8.33 mA cm(-2) ) and fill factor (0.40) arising from the asymmetric structure, which results in a lower mobility and immiscibility.

  10. Potential Effects of a Scenario Earthquake on the Economy of Southern California: Small Business Exposure and Sensitivity Analysis to a Magnitude 7.8 Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Hester, David J.; Wein, Anne M.

    2008-01-01

    The Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and various partners from the public and private sectors and academia, meant to improve Southern California's resiliency to natural hazards (Jones and others, 2007). In support of the MHDP objectives, the ShakeOut Scenario was developed. It describes a magnitude 7.8 (M7.8) earthquake along the southernmost 300 kilometers (200 miles) of the San Andreas Fault, identified by geoscientists as a plausible event that will cause moderate to strong shaking over much of the eight-county (Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura) Southern California region. This report contains an exposure and sensitivity analysis of small businesses in terms of labor and employment statistics. Exposure is measured as the absolute counts of labor market variables anticipated to experience each level of Instrumental Intensity (a proxy measure of damage). Sensitivity is the percentage of the exposure of each business establishment size category to each Instrumental Intensity level. The analysis concerns the direct effect of the earthquake on small businesses. The analysis is inspired by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) report that analyzed the labor market losses (exposure) of a M6.9 earthquake on the Hayward fault by overlaying geocoded labor market data on Instrumental Intensity values. The method used here is influenced by the ZIP-code-level data provided by the California Employment Development Department (CA EDD), which requires the assignment of Instrumental Intensities to ZIP codes. The ZIP-code-level labor market data includes the number of business establishments, employees, and quarterly payroll categorized by business establishment size.

  11. Comparison of laparoscopic hepatectomy, percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and open hepatectomy in the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chong; Jin, Ren-an; Liang, Xiao; Cai, Xiu-jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Three mainstream techniques—laparoscopic hepatectomy (LH), percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (pRFA), and open hepatectomy (OH)—were compared in this study, in terms of their efficacies in the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: A comparative study was performed within a total of 94 patients diagnosed with small HCC in our hospital from 2005 to 2010, who underwent LH (28), RFA (33), or OH (33). They had either a single tumor lesion of less than 5 cm or up to three nodules with diameters of less than 3 cm each. Outcomes were carefully evaluated throughout a 3-year follow-up interval and statistically interpreted. Results: The pRFA group had a significantly lower disease-free survival rate compared with the two surgical groups (P=0.001) and significantly shorter overall survival (P=0.005), while the LH group and the OH group had no difference in survival results. For patients younger than 60 years old, surgical approaches offered a better long-term overall survival prognosis (P=0.008). There were no statistically significant differences among the three groups in overall survival for elderly patients (P=0.104). Conclusions: Among patients with small HCC, LH may provide better curative effects than pRFA without increasing complication rates. pRFA leads to faster recurrence than surgical resections. LH has similar therapeutic effects to OH and causes less trauma. For patients younger than 60 years old, LH may be the best curative treatment. Elderly patients may choose either surgery or pRFA. PMID:26984844

  12. Understanding the New Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  13. Growing a market economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  14. Development Challenges and Opportunities Confronting Economies in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    "Economies in Transition" (hereafter EIT or EITs) are countries in the process of shifting from "command" to "more open", liberalized, free market economic systems. In addition to achieving major structural adjustments to their economies, the transformational process requires the introduction of a high degree of transparency in both the economic…

  15. Translation of the mRNA for the sporulation gene spoIIID of Bacillus subtilis is dependent upon translation of a small upstream open reading frame.

    PubMed Central

    Decatur, A; McMurry, M T; Kunkel, B N; Losick, R

    1997-01-01

    We report the existence of a small open reading frame (usd) that is located between the promoter and coding sequence for the sporulation gene spoIIID in Bacillus subtilis. The mRNA from the usd-spoIIID operon contains an inverted repeat sequence that is predicted to form a stem-loop structure that would sequester the ribosome binding site for spoIIID. A mutation eliminating the ribosome binding site for the upstream open reading frame caused an oligosporogenous phenotype and interfered with the translation, but not the transcription, of the downstream gene spoIIID. We propose that efficient synthesis of SpoIIID requires that the putative stem-loop structure be disrupted by translation through the upstream open reading frame. PMID:9023218

  16. Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

  17. 76 FR 2193 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public... Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement will be...

  18. Fullerene-free small molecule organic solar cells with a high open circuit voltage of 1.15 V.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wang; Li, Miaomiao; Kan, Bin; Liu, Feng; Wan, Xiangjian; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Hongtao; Russell, Thomas P; Chen, Yongsheng

    2016-01-11

    A new small molecule named DTBTF with thiobarbituric acid as a terminal group was designed and synthesized as an acceptor for organic photovoltaic applications. DTBTF exhibits strong absorption in the visible region, and a relatively high lying LUMO energy level (-3.62 eV). All-small-molecule organic solar cells based on DR3TSBDT:DTBTF blend films show a considerable PCE of 3.84% with a high V(oc) of 1.15 V. PMID:26538446

  19. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-04-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  20. Economic Openness and the Marginalization of Small Family Farmers: Aligning Curriculum To Meet the Needs of Rural Adolescents in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Audrey-Marie Schuh

    Economic liberalization and the rise of global competition have increased the importance of agricultural, technical, and business skills for small farmers in Brazil. However, many rural farmers are unable to attend agricultural technical schools due to low educational attainment. The first section of this paper discusses the impact that…

  1. An Azulene-Containing Low Bandgap Small Molecule for Organic Photovoltaics with High Open-Circuit Voltage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Zhu, Youqin; Yang, Daobin; Zhao, Suling; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Lin; Wu, Jianglin; Huang, Yan; Xu, Zheng; Lu, Zhiyun

    2016-10-01

    A simple azulene-containing squaraine dye (AzUSQ) showing bandgap of 1.38 eV and hole mobility up to 1.25×10(-4)  cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) was synthesized. With its low bandgap, an organic photovoltaic (OPV) device based on it has been made that exhibits an impressive open-circuit voltages (Voc ) of 0.80 V. Hence, azulene might be a promising structural unit to construct OPV materials with simultaneous low bandgap, high hole mobility and high Voc . PMID:27490139

  2. An Azulene-Containing Low Bandgap Small Molecule for Organic Photovoltaics with High Open-Circuit Voltage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Zhu, Youqin; Yang, Daobin; Zhao, Suling; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Lin; Wu, Jianglin; Huang, Yan; Xu, Zheng; Lu, Zhiyun

    2016-10-01

    A simple azulene-containing squaraine dye (AzUSQ) showing bandgap of 1.38 eV and hole mobility up to 1.25×10(-4)  cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) was synthesized. With its low bandgap, an organic photovoltaic (OPV) device based on it has been made that exhibits an impressive open-circuit voltages (Voc ) of 0.80 V. Hence, azulene might be a promising structural unit to construct OPV materials with simultaneous low bandgap, high hole mobility and high Voc .

  3. The College Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.

    2012-01-01

    As the United States grinds its way through a halting economic recovery, one thing has become abundantly clear: The recession of 2007 continues to reshape the economy in significant and permanent ways. Perhaps the most profound change is the accelerating disappearance of good-paying jobs that require only a high-school education or less. That…

  4. Equality and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The two big events in higher education during 2010 were the implementation of the Equality Act, and the introduction of a new dispensation on fees and funding. The former is intended to promote equality, the latter is premised on the need for economy. In this article, the author focuses on the effect of the latter on the former. He considers this…

  5. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  6. Airline Safety and Economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and economy in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.

  7. Rural Economies and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Dennis

    Both the rural economy and the disability community in rural areas can benefit from a recognition that they are mutually dependent. With the decline of rural America, the economic base underpinning all aspects of disability support systems is weakening. In addition, rural disability services often are compartmentalized along functional lines with…

  8. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  9. Fueling the Green Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, James

    2009-01-01

    The Obama administration, along with many others, has placed a high priority on accelerating the nation's transition to a cleaner, greener economy. Transforming the nation's economic, energy, and environmental systems to become more sustainable will require a level of expertise, innovation, and cooperation unseen since the 1940s war effort. Public…

  10. Economy of Command

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, David Peter

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a principle of "economy of command", arguing that it provides a simple and natural explanation for some well-known properties of human language syntax. The focus is on the abstract combinatorial system that constructs the hierarchical structure of linguistic expressions, with long-distance dependencies…

  11. The Spatial Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggett, Peter

    1978-01-01

    Discusses basic economic factors including resources, labor, and capital and discusses the flows that link them together in a recognizable geographical pattern. Suggests that geographers can contribute to better understanding of the spatial economy by undertaking research with scholars from other disciplines. (Author/DB)

  12. Combining of small fragment screws and large fragment plates for open reduction and internal fixation of periprosthetic humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Seybold, Dominik; Citak, Mustafa; Königshausen, Matthias; Gessmann, Jan; Schildhauer, Thomas A

    2011-10-01

    Operative treatment of periprosthetic humeral fractures in elderly patients with osteoporotic bone requires a stable fixations technique. The combination of 3.5 cortical screws with washers in a 4.5 Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen, Limited-contact dynamic compression plate or Locking plate, allows a stable periprosthetic fixation with the small 3.5 screws and 4.5 screws above and below the prosthesis, respectively. This combination is a cost-effective technique to treat periprosthetic humeral fractures.

  13. The Knowledge Economy and Higher Education: Rankings and Classifications, Research Metrics and Learning Outcomes Measures as a System for Regulating the Value of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the global knowledge economy (the k-economy), comprised by (1) open source knowledge flows and (2) commercial markets in intellectual property and knowledge-intensive goods. Like all economy the global knowledge economy is a site of production. It is also social and cultural, taking the form of a one-world community mediated…

  14. Combining of small fragment screws and large fragment plates for open reduction and internal fixation of periprosthetic humeral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Seybold, Dominik; Citak, Mustafa; Königshausen, Matthias; Gessmann, Jan; Schildhauer, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Operative treatment of periprosthetic humeral fractures in elderly patients with osteoporotic bone requires a stable fixations technique. The combination of 3.5 cortical screws with washers in a 4.5 Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen, Limited-contact dynamic compression plate or Locking plate, allows a stable periprosthetic fixation with the small 3.5 screws and 4.5 screws above and below the prosthesis, respectively. This combination is a cost-effective technique to treat periprosthetic humeral fractures. PMID:22223961

  15. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  16. Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastalich, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

  17. Importance of small-block rotations in damage zones along transcurrent faults. Evidence from the Chuquicamata open pit, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astudillo, N.; Roperch, P.; Townley, B.; Arriagada, C.; Maksaev, V.

    2008-04-01

    Chuquicamata, in northern Chile, is one of the largest porphyry copper deposits in the world; the western side of its orebody is bounded by a major longitudinal fault, the West fault. We report paleomagnetic results from surface sites and drill cores from different geological units at Chuquicamata, especially within the late Eocene Fiesta granodiorite of the western block of the West fault. Characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRM) were determined after detailed thermal or alternating field demagnetization. Soft components carried by multidomain magnetite crystals in the Fiesta granodiorite were removed by AF demagnetization at 10-20 mT. The ChRMs, not demagnetized by alternating fields up to 100 mT, have unblocking temperatures above 580 °C with ~ 75% of the magnetization removed in the temperature range of 580-590 °C. Optical and SEM mineralogical observations, and microprobe data indicate the occurrence of multidomain magnetite formed during a late magmatic stage of alteration coeval with strong oxidation of primary titanomagnetite and formation of ilmenite, hematite, pseudobrookite, and rutile. The characteristic directions have negative inclinations and declinations (330° to 230°); strongly deflected from the expected Eocene direction. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), with degree up to 1.4, is carried by multidomain magnetite. AMS ellipsoids have subvertical foliations with azimuth varying strongly from N280° to N20°. We show that both the ChRMs and the AMS fabrics record the same apparent relative rotations between sites. Although the AMS anisotropy is high, there is no evidence for a solid-state deformation and the apparent rotation of the magnetic fabric is interpreted to be the consequence of small-block rotation. The apparent large (> 100°) counterclockwise rotations of small blocks within the Fiesta granodiorite suggest a wide damaged zone related to sinistral displacement along the West fault. This interpretation is consistent

  18. Economy class syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sahiar, F; Mohler, S R

    1994-10-01

    A recent case of the "Economy Class Syndrome" is presented, emphasizing the syndrome's aeromedical implications and prevention. The clinical presentation, current modes of prophylaxis and therapy, plus a brief but pertinent historical background, are described. The syndrome is potentially fatal, and the authors stress that the condition needs to be recognized as a preventable hazard of air travel. Adoption of the preventive measures described herein can assist in promoting healthy air travel.

  19. Landscape and zonal features of the formation of producing economy in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman

    2016-04-01

    there was a cattle breeding economic and cultural type of producing economy with a simplified system of natural and anthropogenic and anthropogenic landscapes involving a maximum of 4-5 natural and economic systems. In the forest-steppe zone a significant part of the population was settled in the valley landscapes. The basis of the economy was pastoral and house cattle breeding with a predominance of beef cattle and pigs and hoe-mattock agriculture, which was only possible in the floodplain landscape complexes. In the areas of permanent settlements long grazing in one place led to the complete destruction of vegetation. The forced reduction of the agricultural land areas led to significant ecologic crisis. In the forest zone, along with hunters, fishermen and gatherers there appear the first tribes, who already engaged in the forest cattle breeding. First, they raised pigs and then small and beef cattle, while hunting and fishing were of subordinate nature. Pastures were situated mainly in floodplains and lakeside lowlands which had more open spaces. It is the extensive economy of that time that can be associated with the deforestation of flood plains of rivers and lakes and the emergence of meadows. There arises a natural-economic system with floodplain cattle-breeding (agricultural geo-systems of pasture type with floodplain meadows and woodlands), which existed for a long time. In all landscape zones the character of the relationship between men and the landscape was determined by the nature of producing activity, as well as natural features of "accommodating" landscape. The formation of nature use systems and settlement patterns strictly depend on the local landscape structure. In all earlier historical periods in similar landscape (zonal) conditions the settlers had the same type of economy, thus forming the same types of natural and economic systems and similar anthropogenically transformed landscapes. The dramatic change in the nature use occurs with the

  20. Is Small Business Doomed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Education Forum, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a sampling of viewpoints from businessmen, economists, futurists, and government experts on the future of small business presented at hearings before the Subcommittee on Antitrust, Consumers, and Employment, Committee on Small Business, House of Representatives. Problems of taxes, the economy, and government regulations are discussed from…

  1. The Small Business Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicke, Thomas S.

    1996-01-01

    Recognizes and discusses the special place that small business occupies, not only in American history, but also in American thought and culture. Examines the various conflicts between big and small business. Notes that the division of territory, products, and services between the two is largely defined by economies of scale. (MJP)

  2. Recruitment and growth of two small-bodied resident fish species (Gobiidae and Atherinidae) in oligohaline, seasonally open lagoons.

    PubMed

    Close, P G; Davies, P M; Trayler, K

    2010-04-01

    Spatio-temporal recruitment patterns, growth and survival of the Swan River goby Pseudogobius olorum and western hardyhead Leptatherina wallacei are described from two small, coastal lagoons on the south coast of Western Australia. In these lagoons, estuarine salinity dynamics were relatively stable over much of the autumn-spring period when freshwater inputs from rivers were reduced and there was no oceanic connection. Preflexion and flexion stages of both fish species contributed strongly to population size structure in downstream reaches, whereas upstream reaches were dominated by postflexion larvae and juvenile stages. Spawning of both species was protracted and largely asynchronous, although the episodic presence of stronger preflexion and flexion cohorts suggested some synchronized spawning had occurred. Comparison with estuarine conditions over this period provided evidence that synchronized spawning may be related to temperature and salinity variations from a combination of freshwater inputs and periods of marine exchange. Uninterrupted growth and the progression of cohorts through to juvenile stages were consistent with the generally stable estuarine conditions. Larval and juvenile stages of both species were also tolerant of abrupt changes in salinity and temperature, which occurred due to a non-seasonal oceanic connection. These findings were consistent with the euryhaline nature of adults of both species.

  3. Insights into open/closed conformations of the catalytically active human guanylate kinase as investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rohit; Khan, Nazimuddin; Menzel, Andreas; Rajkovic, Ivan; Konrad, Manfred; Techert, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Bio-catalysis is the outcome of a subtle interplay between internal motions in enzymes and chemical kinetics. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) investigation of an enzyme's internal motions during catalysis offers an integral view of the protein's structural plasticity, dynamics, and function, which is useful for understanding allosteric effects and developing novel medicines. Guanylate kinase (GMPK) is an essential enzyme involved in the guanine nucleotide metabolism of unicellular and multicellular organisms. It is also required for the intracellular activation of numerous antiviral and anticancer purine nucleoside analog prodrugs. Catalytically active recombinant human GMPK (hGMPK) was purified for the first time and changes in the size and shape of open/closed hGMPK were tracked by SAXS. The binding of substrates (GMP + AMPPNP or Ap5G or GMP + ADP) resulted in the compaction of size and shape of hGMPK. The structural changes between open and completely closed hGMPK conformation were confirmed by observing differences in the hGMPK secondary structures with circular dichroism spectroscopy. PMID:26446352

  4. Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvatić, Davor; Bajić, Slavica Cosović; Pehlivanović, Bećo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-10-01

    In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter γ characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, γ experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, γ experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

  5. The real new economy.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments.

  6. Scorpionate-type coordination in MFU-4l metal-organic frameworks: small-molecule binding and activation upon the thermally activated formation of open metal sites.

    PubMed

    Denysenko, Dmytro; Grzywa, Maciej; Jelic, Jelena; Reuter, Karsten; Volkmer, Dirk

    2014-06-01

    Postsynthetic metal and ligand exchange is a versatile approach towards functionalized MFU-4l frameworks. Upon thermal treatment of MFU-4l formates, coordinatively strongly unsaturated metal centers, such as zinc(II) hydride or copper(I) species, are generated selectively. Cu(I)-MFU-4l prepared in this way was stable under ambient conditions and showed fully reversible chemisorption of small molecules, such as O2, N2, and H2, with corresponding isosteric heats of adsorption of 53, 42, and 32 kJ mol(-1), respectively, as determined by gas-sorption measurements and confirmed by DFT calculations. Moreover, Cu(I)-MFU-4l formed stable complexes with C2H4 and CO. These complexes were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The demonstrated hydride transfer to electrophiles and strong binding of small gas molecules suggests these novel, yet robust, metal-organic frameworks with open metal sites as promising catalytic materials comprising earth-abundant metal elements.

  7. The Methanol Economy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Olah, George; Prakash, G. K.

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  8. Research fuels local economies

    SciTech Connect

    Bosisio, M. )

    1990-04-01

    Research from US DOA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has resulted in a number of new products, alternative crops, and an increase in planted acreage of crops due to pest control by pheromones. Superslurper, produced from cornstarch, was found to absorb 1400 times its weight in moisture. This material is being used in fuel filters to remove water in fuel tanks and pumps. There is a growing market for these filters; superslurpers also are used in body powders, diapers, absorbent soft goods, batteries, soil additives, and in medical and recreational coldpacks. Local economies have benefited as a direct result of ARS efforts.

  9. Thriving locally in the global economy.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2003-08-01

    More and more small and midsize companies are joining corporate giants in striving to exploit international growth markets. At the same time, civic leaders worry about their communities' economic future in light of the impact of global forces on the operation and survival of business. How can communities retain local vitality yet still link their business to the global economy? Harvard professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter addresses that question in this classic HBR article, orginally published in 1995. To avoid a clash between international economic interests and local political interests, globalizing business must learn how to be responsive to the communities in which they operate, Kanter says. And communities must determine how to create a civic culture that will attract and retain footloose companies. The author surveyed five U.S. regions with direct connections to the global economy--Boston, Cleveland, Miami, Seattle, and the Spartanburg-Greenville region of South Carolina--to determine their business and civic leader's strategies for improving their constituent's quality of life. She identified ways in which the global economy can work locally by capitalizing on the resources that distinguish one place from another. Kanter argues that regions can invest in capabilities that connect their local populations to the global economy in one of three ways: as thinkers, makers, or traders. She points to the Spartanburg-Greenville region as a good example of a world-class makers, with its exceptional blue-collar workforce that has attracted more than 200 companies from 18 countries. The history of the economic development of this region is a lesson for those seeking to understand how to achieve world-class status and bring local residents into the world economy.

  10. Quantification of water and sediment yield from small catchment in open mining areas: experience and results from Poro nickel mining basin in New Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, Nicolle; Allenbach, Michel; Wottling, Geoffroy; Carpentier, Laureen; Freydier, Perrine; Navarrot, Lucie

    2014-05-01

    Water management in mining environments is a major challenge of the mining projects. In New Caledonia large areas have been excavated for Nickel mining since the end of the 19th century. In the past, the bad management of the water and coarse sediments left scars in the landscape and management problems in the channel reaches downstream. Nowadays, open mining techniques no longer yield coarse material out of the mining areas but the management of water and fine sediment remains a difficult question as the suspended sediments reach the very fragile environment of the lagoon. In addition, in many areas, it threatens human activities in the downstream rivers. In order to quantify and understand the formation of runoff, erosion and sediment transport in small mining watersheds the "Hydromine" project was initiated in 2008 by the New Caledonia government (DAVAR) with the collaboration of the University of New Caledonia (UNC) and later with the scientific support of Irstea Grenoble. The questions addressed by this project are: - What is the response (water and sediments) of a mining watershed to a rainfall input? - What factors control this response? - What are the processes involved? And which are dominant in the various hydrometeorological situations? - What are the characteristics of the transported materials? - What is the efficiency of mitigation works in the mining area? Two small embedded catchments (0.09 and 0.30 km²) are monitored for measuring rainfall, runoff and fine sediment transport in the mining area of Poro, East cost of New Caledonia. Elevation ranges from 197 to 366 m.a.s.l. The slope are steep (36 % in average but locally up to 130%) and the vegetation cover is very low (20% for the larger basin, 0% for the headwater basin). Rainfall-runoff and discharge-sediment concentration (SSC) relationship were analysed at the event and annual time scale. As a result, we pointed out the main factors that influence the response of the basins to a rainfall event

  11. Economy, Academy, and Community College Faculty: A Mission Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Mary Melissa

    2009-01-01

    In the face of 21st century economic challenges, community colleges must contend with complex pressures on their mission. The dueling missions of academic transfer and workforce preparation must sustain and grow the American economy in a global market and simultaneously meet the promise to community college students--open access to quality higher…

  12. Restricted ADP movement in cardiomyocytes: Cytosolic diffusion obstacles are complemented with a small number of open mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels.

    PubMed

    Simson, Päivo; Jepihhina, Natalja; Laasmaa, Martin; Peterson, Pearu; Birkedal, Rikke; Vendelin, Marko

    2016-08-01

    Adequate intracellular energy transfer is crucial for proper cardiac function. In energy starved failing hearts, partial restoration of energy transfer can rescue mechanical performance. There are two types of diffusion obstacles that interfere with energy transfer from mitochondria to ATPases: mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) with voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) permeable to small hydrophilic molecules and cytoplasmatic diffusion barriers grouping ATP-producers and -consumers. So far, there is no method developed to clearly distinguish the contributions of cytoplasmatic barriers and MOM to the overall diffusion restriction. Furthermore, the number of open VDACs in vivo remains unknown. The aim of this work was to establish the partitioning of intracellular diffusion obstacles in cardiomyocytes. We studied the response of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation of permeabilized rat cardiomyocytes to changes in extracellular ADP by recording 3D image stacks of NADH autofluorescence. Using cell-specific mathematical models, we determined the permeability of MOM and cytoplasmatic barriers. We found that only ~2% of VDACs are accessible to cytosolic ADP and cytoplasmatic diffusion barriers reduce the apparent diffusion coefficient by 6-10×. In cardiomyocytes, diffusion barriers in the cytoplasm and by the MOM restrict ADP/ATP diffusion to similar extents suggesting a major role of both barriers in energy transfer and other intracellular processes. PMID:27261153

  13. The Economy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    The macroeconomic trends shaping the United States economy and the effects of those trends on higher education are considered. Warning institutions of higher education about possible problems in the economy will place them in a better position to react if necessary. The economic environment is discussed in terms of productivity (goods and services…

  14. Can Education Save the Economy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noy, Michelle; Zeidenberg, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The recent global economic downturn is causing U.S. workers and employers to look to the educational system for skills that will allow them to thrive when the economy recovers. Education alone cannot save the economy. Much larger forces are at work, such as international equity and debt markets, the banking crisis, and the deflation of consumer …

  15. Why Classroom Token Economies Fail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabman, Ronald S.; Tucker, Richard D.

    1974-01-01

    The reasons for clinical failures of classroom token economies are divided into three groups: (1) Problems associated with the token program itself, (2) Problems associated with the teacher, and (3) Problems associated with the specific population on which the classroom token economy is used. Each of these problem areas is discussed. (Author)

  16. Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonenc, Sertac; Tanrivermis, Harun

    In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

  17. Individual diversity of functional brain network economy.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Ganger, Sebastian; Windischberger, Christian; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-04-01

    On average, brain network economy represents a trade-off between communication efficiency, robustness, and connection cost, although an analogous understanding on an individual level is largely missing. Evaluating resting-state networks of 42 healthy participants with seven Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory revealed that not even half of all possible connections were common across subjects. The strongest similarities among individuals were observed for interhemispheric and/or short-range connections, which may relate to the essential feature of the human brain to develop specialized systems within each hemisphere. Despite this marked variability in individual network architecture, all subjects exhibited equal small-world properties. Furthermore, interdependency between four major network economy metrics was observed across healthy individuals. The characteristic path length was associated with the clustering coefficient (peak correlation r=0.93), the response to network attacks (r=-0.97), and the physical connection cost in three-dimensional space (r=-0.62). On the other hand, clustering was negatively related to attack response (r=-0.75) and connection cost (r=-0.59). Finally, increased connection cost was associated with better response to attacks (r=0.65). This indicates that functional brain networks with high global information transfer also exhibit strong network resilience. However, it seems that these advantages come at the cost of decreased local communication efficiency and increased physical connection cost. Except for wiring length, the results were replicated on a subsample at three Tesla (n=20). These findings highlight the finely tuned interrelationships between different parameters of brain network economy. Moreover, the understanding of the individual diversity of functional brain network economy may provide further insights in the vulnerability to mental and neurological disorders.

  18. Washout rate in rat brain irradiated by a 11C beam after acetazolamide loading using a small single-ring OpenPET prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Nakajima, Yasunori; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-03-01

    In dose verification techniques of particle therapies based on in-beam positron emission tomography (PET), the causes of washout of positron emitters by physiological effects should be clarified to correct washout for accurate verification. As well, the quantitative washout rate has a potential usefulness as a diagnostic index which should be explored. Therefore, we measured washout rates of rat brain after vasodilator acetazolamide loading to investigate the possible effects of blood flow on washout. Six rat brains were irradiated by a radioisotope 11C beam and time activity curves on the whole brains were obtained with a small single-ring OpenPET prototype. Then, washout rates were calculated with the Mizuno model, where two washout rates (k 2m and k 2s ) were assumed, and a two-compartment model including efflux from tissue to blood (k 2) and influx (k 3) and efflux (k 4) between the two tissue compartments. Before the irradiations, we used laser-Doppler flowmetry to confirm that acetazolamide increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) of a rat. We compared means of k 2m , k 2s and k 2, k 3 and k 4 without acetazolamide loading (Rest) and with acetazolamide loading (ACZ). For all k values, ACZ values were lower than Rest values. In other words, though CBF increased, washout rates were decreased. This may be attributed to the implanted 11C reacting to form 11CO2. Because acetazolamide increased the concentration of CO2 in brain, suppressed diffusion of 11CO2 and decomposition of 11CO2 into ions were prevented.

  19. High open-circuit voltage small-molecule p-DTS(FBTTh 2 )2.ICBA bulk heterojunction solar cells – morphology, excited-state dynamics, and photovoltaic performance

    DOE PAGES

    Ko Kyaw, Aung Ko; Gehrig, Dominik; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Ye; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Laquai, Frédéric; Nguyen, Thuc -Quyen

    2014-11-27

    The photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using the solution-processable small molecule donor 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 in combination with indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA) as an acceptor is systematically optimized by altering the processing conditions. A high open-circuit voltage of 1 V, more than 0.2 V higher than that of a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM blend, is achieved. However, the power conversion efficiency remains around 5% and thus is lower than ~8% previously reported for p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM. Transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy over a wide spectral (Vis-NIR) and dynamic (fs to μs) range in combination with multivariate curve resolution analysis of the TA data reveals thatmore » generation of free charges is more efficient in the blend with PC70BM as an acceptor. In contrast, blends with ICBA create more coulombically bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states, which recombine on the sub-nanosecond timescale by geminate recombination. Furthermore, the ns to μs charge carrier dynamics in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:ICBA blends are only weakly intensity dependent implying a significant contribution of recombination from long-lived CT states and trapped charges, while those in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM decay via an intensity-dependent recombination mechanism indicating that spatially separated (free) charge carriers are observed, which can be extracted as photocurrent from the device.« less

  20. Positive expression of protein chromosome 9 open reading frame 86 (C9orf86) correlated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Gui-Lin; Tao, Ya-Lan; Wu, Qi-Nian; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background Chromosome 9 open reading frame 86 (C9orf86) is a novel subfamily of GTPases. Previous studies have implicated C9orf86 as a potential oncogene. Methods C9orf86 expression was detected in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cell lines by RT-PCR and western blotting. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect 180 consecutive NSCLC specimens and 16 normal lung tissues. The correlation between C9orf86 expression and clinicopathological parameters was evaluated. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox hazards ratio models were used to estimate the effect of C9orf86 expression on survival. Results C9orf86 was expressed in the cytoplasm in 74 of 180 (41.11%) NSCLC specimens. In clinical pathology analysis, C9orf86 expression significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and clinical stage significantly (P<0.05). Multivariable analysis confirmed that C9orf86 expression increased the risk of death after adjusting for other clinicopathological factors (P<0.01). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were significantly prolonged in the C9orf86 negative group compared to the C9orf86 positive group (P<0.001). Adjuvant chemotherapy prolonged OS and DFS in resected NSCLC patients with C9orf86 negative expression (P<0.001) but not C9orf86 positive. Conclusions Positive expression of C9orf86 is an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC patients, and C9orf86 may serve as a prognostic biomarker for patients with NSCLC. PMID:27499931

  1. The Knowledge Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Bruno; Perra, Nicola; Ciulla, Fabio; Zhang, Qian; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    Although the study of scientific and citation networks is well developed, the way in which ideas and concepts flow between scientific groups scattered around the world is still an open problem. We take a first step in this direction by using the citation patterns over the course of decades to shed light on how areas and fields in the general area of physics have evolved both temporally and geographically. By geocoding the affiliations associated with each article published by the APS journals to the country level, and by borrowing concepts from the field of economics and international trade we can explore how ideas produced in one country are exported, through citations, to other countries. An objective way of ranking countries based on their contributions to the overall scientific effort is also proposed as well as a map of how the different subfields of Physics are related to each other.

  2. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    SciTech Connect

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  3. Scale Economies in Public Education: Evidence from School Level Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Tyler J.; Bosworth, Ryan

    2002-01-01

    Begins with a discussion of cost and efficiency in education. Presents an empirical model to estimate school-level economies of scale. Applies model to expenditure data set by school from 17 Wyoming school districts. Finds that it costs more per student in a small school than in large schools to achieve similar educational outcomes, thus…

  4. Dabrafenib in BRAF V600E–Mutant Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: an Open-label, Single arm, Multicenter, Phase 2 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Planchard, David; Kim, Tae Min; Mazieres, Julien; Quoix, Elisabeth; Riely, Gregory; Barlesi, Fabrice; Souquet, Pierre-John; Smit, Egbert F.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Kelly, Ronan J.; Cho, B. C.; Socinski, Mark A.; Pandite, Lini; Nase, Christine; Ma, Bo; D’Amelio, Anthony; Mookerjee, Bijoyesh; Curtis, C. Martin; Johnson, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Activating BRAF V600E mutations are found in approximately 1–2% of adenocarcinomas of the lung offering an opportunity to test targeted therapy for this disease. Dabrafenib is an oral selective inhibitor of the BRAF kinase. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical activity of dabrafenib in patients with advanced BRAF V600E-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods In this phase 2, multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label study of previously treated and untreated patients with stage IV, metastatic NSCLC and BRAF V600E mutation, we evaluated the antitumor activity and safety of oral dabrafenib (150 mg twice daily). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed overall response rate (ORR) in patients receiving ≥ 1 dose of study drug. Safety analysis was performed on the all-treated population (all previously treated and untreated patients receiving ≥ 1 dose of study drug). The study is ongoing but not enrolling participants in this cohort. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01336634. Findings Between August 2011 and February 2014 a total of 84 previously treated and untreated patients were enrolled. Investigator-assessed ORR for 78 pretreated patients was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23·1 to 44·9). Independent review committee assessment of ORR was consistent with investigator-based assessment. Four of the six previously untreated patients had an objective response. One patient died on study due to intracranial hemorrhage that was considered by the investigator to be due to study drug. Serious adverse events were reported in 35 (42%) of 84 patients. The most frequent grade 3 or higher adverse events were cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (10 [12%] of 84 patients), asthenia (4 [5%] of 84 patients), and basal cell carcinoma (4 [5%] of 84 patients). Interpretation This is, to our knowledge, the first prospective trial focusing on BRAF V600E-mutant NSCLC to show clinical activity of a BRAF inhibitor. The

  5. Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

    enterprises taxes, etc. What purposes are the specified methods applied to? The regional companies management and their reforming. One of the major directions - transformation of the enterprises into the viable industrial companies, an effective economic structures formation. In this connection, the technology of financial streams management allows to solve another important problem. The created (or reorganized) structure can be checked up in various economic modes even before practical realization of the project. The received data can be applied to an indicative plans substantiation and control over their performance. They can be used at negotiations with the enterprises heads, which are spent for interests of a regional industrial policy. Such approach can become base for concrete (as figures, plans and schemes) coordination of long-term investment priorities of the largest firms and companies, their production programs coordination, the mutual markets formation and the cooperation communications stabilization, payment chains, the social and economic development programs creation. It opens opportunities for the regional branches, enterprises, the major economic centers coordinated management. An effective planning of price pools, investment programs, the control over tax revenues and financial streams becomes possible. All this are necessary elements of a regional authorities economic policy. The offered approach considerably surpasses by it's efficiency auditor, "paper" or traditional computer technology. Bulky computer centers are not capable to cope with the given class problems. At the same time the small mobile commissions of experts "armed" with modern intellectual technologies, are capable to solve rather scale analytical problems. On the basis of the offered methods can be generated means of automation of the regional industrial complex development management. They are focused on concrete objects of various scale: territorial complexes, branches, groups of the

  6. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  7. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  8. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  9. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    PubMed

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies.

  10. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    PubMed

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies. PMID:26983175

  11. Whole System Carbon Exchange of Small Stands of Pinus Ponderosa Growing at Different CO{sub 2} concentrations in open top chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J. Timothy; Ross, Peter D.; Picone, John B.; Eichelmann, Hillar Y.; Ross, Gregory N.

    1996-12-01

    Functional understanding of the carbon cycle from the molecular to the global level is a high scientific priority requiring explanation of the relationship between fluxes at different spatial and temporal scales. We describe methods used to convert an open top chamber into both closed and open flow gas exchange systems utilized to measure such fluxes. The systems described consist of temporary modifications to an open top chamber, and are put in place for several days on one or several open top chambers. In the closed system approach, a chamber is quickly sealed for a short, predetermined time interval, the change in gas concentrations is measured, then the chamber is unsealed and ventilated. In the open flow system approach, airflow into the open top chamber is measured by trace gas injection, and the air stream concentration of CO{sub 2} and water vapor is measured before and after injection into the chamber. The closed chamber approach can resolve smaller fluxes, but causes transient increases in chamber air temperature, and has a high labor requirement. The open flow approach reduces the deviation of measuring conditions from ambient, may be semi-automated (requiring less labor), allows a more frequent sampling interval, but cannot resolve low fluxes well. Data demonstrating the capabilities of these systems show that, in open canopies of ponderosa pine, scaling fluxes from leaves to whole canopies is well approximated from summation of leaf P{sub s} rates. Flux measurements obtained from these systems can be a valuable contribution to our understanding whole system material fluxes, and challenge our understanding of ecosystem carbon budgets.

  12. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    fuel economy with increasing restriction. However, the level of restriction required to cause a substantial (10-15%) decrease in fuel economy (such as that cited in the literature) was so severe that the vehicle was almost undrivable. Acceleration performance on all vehicles was improved with a clean air filter. Once it was determined how severe the restriction had to be to affect the carbureted vehicle fuel economy, the 2007 Buick Lucerne was retested in a similar manner. We were not able to achieve the level of restriction that was achieved with the 1972 Pontiac with the Lucerne. The Lucerne's air filter box would not hold the filter in place under such severe conditions. (It is believed that this testing exceeded the design limits of the air box.) Tests were conducted at a lower restriction level (although still considerably more severe than the initial clogged filter testing), allowing the air filter to stay seated in the air box, and no significant change was observed in the Lucerne's fuel economy or the AFR over the HFET cycle. Closed-loop control in modern fuel injected vehicle applications is sophisticated enough to keep a clogged air filter from affecting the vehicle fuel economy. However for older, open-loop, carbureted vehicles, a clogged air filter can affect the fuel economy. For the vehicle tested, the fuel economy with a new air filter improved as much as 14% over that with a severely clogged filter (in which the filter was so clogged that drivability was impacted). Under a more typical state of clog, the improvement with a new filter ranged from 2 to 6%.

  13. Overjustification effects in token economies.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, E B

    1979-01-01

    This study tested the relevance to clinical token economies of the overjustification hypothesis that tangible reward interferes with intrinsic interest in target behaviors and causes such behaviors to be less probable following a period of reinforcement than preceding such a period. The study was carried out in an ongoing token economy for chronic psychiatric patients. Alternated over an 8-week period were weeks of token and no-token reward for one of the program's target behaviors, toothbrushing. Two different amounts of token reward were employed in order to examine whether reward magnitude might influence the presence or extent of overjustification effects. Little evidence was found for the presence of overjustification effects in token economies. However, maintenance of toothbrushing was greater in no-token weeks following weeks of low amounts of token reward than in no-token weeks following weeks of higher amounts of reward. The importance of such complex functional relationships is discussed. PMID:511808

  14. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  15. Economies of scale in non-revenue producing cost centers: implications for hospital mergers.

    PubMed

    Dranove, D

    1998-01-01

    This paper uses semiparametric methods to estimate the magnitude of economies of scale in 14 non-revenue producing cost centers in hospitals. There are substantial economies of scale in small hospitals, but economies are exhausted in hospitals with over 10,000 discharges annually. In recent hospital mergers challenged by federal antitrust agencies, one or both hospitals had over 10,000 discharges, suggesting that efficiency gains in non-revenue producing cost centers will be small, and could easily be offset by nominal price increases.

  16. Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Roger D.

    1996-01-01

    Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize labor. (MJP)

  17. The Political Economy of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    1985-01-01

    The political economy of education treats education as a factor shaped by the power relations between different economic, political, and social groups. Specific topics discussed include the economic value of education, education as an allocator of economic roles, education and social class, education and income distribution, and education and…

  18. Enterprise Skills for the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Laura; Anderson, Maggie; Brown, Wendy; Wilson, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Purpose ? In response to the emergence of an enterprise economy, government claims that building an enterprise culture is vital. Correspondingly, provision of entrepreneurship education in higher education has expanded. The paper aims to assess the potential of entrepreneurship education to develop skills, and of whether students perceive them as…

  19. Adventures in the Alaska Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackstadt, Steve; Huskey, Lee

    This publication was developed to increase students' understanding of basic economic concepts and the historical development of Alaska's economy. Comics depict major historical events as they occurred, but specific characters are fictionalized. Each of nine episodes is accompanied by several pages of explanatory text, which enlarges on the episode…

  20. Landscape and zonal features of the formation of producing economy in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman

    2016-04-01

    there was a cattle breeding economic and cultural type of producing economy with a simplified system of natural and anthropogenic and anthropogenic landscapes involving a maximum of 4-5 natural and economic systems. In the forest-steppe zone a significant part of the population was settled in the valley landscapes. The basis of the economy was pastoral and house cattle breeding with a predominance of beef cattle and pigs and hoe-mattock agriculture, which was only possible in the floodplain landscape complexes. In the areas of permanent settlements long grazing in one place led to the complete destruction of vegetation. The forced reduction of the agricultural land areas led to significant ecologic crisis. In the forest zone, along with hunters, fishermen and gatherers there appear the first tribes, who already engaged in the forest cattle breeding. First, they raised pigs and then small and beef cattle, while hunting and fishing were of subordinate nature. Pastures were situated mainly in floodplains and lakeside lowlands which had more open spaces. It is the extensive economy of that time that can be associated with the deforestation of flood plains of rivers and lakes and the emergence of meadows. There arises a natural-economic system with floodplain cattle-breeding (agricultural geo-systems of pasture type with floodplain meadows and woodlands), which existed for a long time. In all landscape zones the character of the relationship between men and the landscape was determined by the nature of producing activity, as well as natural features of "accommodating" landscape. The formation of nature use systems and settlement patterns strictly depend on the local landscape structure. In all earlier historical periods in similar landscape (zonal) conditions the settlers had the same type of economy, thus forming the same types of natural and economic systems and similar anthropogenically transformed landscapes. The dramatic change in the nature use occurs with the

  1. Scale economies in rail transit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, I.

    1994-06-01

    The research uses Federal Transit Administration Section 15 data to investigate the operating costs of 13 heavy-rail and 13 light-rail urban mass transit systems for the period 1985-91. A Cobb-Douglas technology is used to investigate various types of economies of scale. The principal findings are: (1) Adding additional passenges to an existing network and schedule of services involves zero marginal cost for heavy-rail systems, and small additional costs for light-rail systems. (2) Adding additional trains, and passengers, to an existing network leads to a less than proportionate increase in costs. (3) An expanded route network results in mild increases in unit costs for the large heavy-rail systems. The smaller light-rail systems display reduced unit costs with an expanded network. The research suggests that the minimum efficient scale for rail operation is approximately 25 route miles.

  2. The small turbine revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.L.

    1995-07-01

    Until the mid-1960s, improvements in technology and economies of scale made each new generating unit installed less expensive than the previous one. Later, bigger was still better. Larger units cost less per kilowatt than smaller units. Today, that may be changing. In some situations, distributed generation -the use of small, dispersed units (usually gas turbines) in the place of large central stations- can be the most attractive option.

  3. Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  4. Model Year 2007 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  5. Model Year 2006 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2005-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  6. Model Year 2008 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  7. Model Year 2005 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  8. Model Year 2010 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-14

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  9. Model Year 2009 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2008-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  10. Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  11. Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  12. Long-acting somatostatin analogues provide significant beneficial effect in patients with refractory small bowel angiodysplasia: Results from a proof of concept open label mono-centre trial

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Barry; Breslin, Niall; McNamara, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Small bowel angiodysplasias account for over 50% of causes of small bowel bleeding and carry a worse prognosis than lesions located elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract. Re-bleeding rates are high even after first-line endoscopic therapy and are associated with high levels of morbidity for affected patients. Small trials of long-acting somatostatin analogues have shown promising results but have not yet been assessed in patients with refractory small bowel disease. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of long-acting somatostatin analogues in reducing re-bleeding rates and transfusion requirements, and improving haemoglobin levels in patients with refractory small bowel angiodysplasia. Methods Patients with refractory small bowel angiodysplasia were treated with 20 mg of long-acting octreotide for a minimum of three months. Response was assessed according to: rates of re-bleeding, haemoglobin levels, transfusion requirements, and side effects. Results A total of 24 patients were initially treated and 20 received at least three doses. Rates of complete, partial and non-response were 70%, 20% and 10% respectively. Average haemoglobin rates increased from 9.19 g/dl to 11.35 g/dl (p = 0.0027, 95% confidence interval (CI) −3.5 to −1.1) in the group overall and 70% remained transfusion-free after a mean treatment duration of 8.8 months. The rate of adverse events was higher than previously reported at 30%. Conclusion Long-acting somatostatin analogues offer a therapeutic advantage in a significant proportion of patients with small bowel angiodysplasia. With careful patient selection and close observation, a long-acting somatostatin analogue should be considered in all patients with persistent anaemia attributable to refractory disease in conjunction with other standard treatments. PMID:26966525

  13. The State of Small Business: A Report of the President. Together with the Annual Report on Small Business and Competition of the Small Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC.

    This volume consists of a report of the President concerning the state of small businesses as well as the U.S. Small Business Administration annual report on small business and competition. Addressed in the President's report are the following issues: the role of small business in the economy; the foundations of small business policy; and problems…

  14. Digital Economy and Management in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the digital economy and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital economy, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital economy in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)

  15. Serving Business in an Information Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1988

    1988-01-01

    The 23 articles in this theme issue focus on various aspects of library services to business in an information economy: "Serving Business in an Information Economy" (C. Bain); "New York's Resurging Economy and State Economic Development Information" (R. G. Paolino); "Department of Economic Development Library: Services to Business" (B. S.…

  16. Teaching Economics in the Mini-Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet produced by the State of Indiana introduces elementary teachers to economic concepts appropriate to the elementary curriculum and explains how to use mini-economy activities to teach these concepts. Chapter 1 describes how the mini-economy works, while chapter 2 introduces basic economic vocabulary and discusses market economy. Ideas…

  17. [Immigration in the world economy].

    PubMed

    Sassen, S

    1995-01-01

    "Immigration is at least partly an outcome of the actions of the governments and major private economic actors of the developed countries. The case of Japan is of interest here because it allows us to capture the intersection of economic internationalization and immigration in its inception.... This paper argues that [Japan's] new immigration is part of the globalisation of [its] economy. Japan is a major presence in a regional Asian economic system where it is the leading investor, foreign aid donor, and exporter of consumer goods (including cultural products). The new immigration to Japan is not unrelated to these processes of internationalization. Internationalization provides a context within which bridges are built with the countries of origin of potential emigrants and internationalization contributes to make the Japanese economy more porous, particularly so in the case of large cities." (EXCERPT)

  18. Small Business Among Koreans in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonacich, Edna; And Others

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the character of small business among Koreans in Los Angeles, to examine the means by which Koreans are able to enter small business in an economy which clearly is moving in the opposite direction, and to consider why it is that immigrant small business should flourish within monopoly capitalism. Korean…

  19. Political economy of population growth.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S; Mehta, H S

    1987-01-01

    Tracing the origin of political economy as a class-science, this paper focuses on the political economy of population growth. Exposing the limitations of Malthusian ideas and their invalidity even for the capitalist economies, it discusses the subsequent revival of the Malthusian model during the period of de-colonization and the misinterpretation of the relationship between population growth and development in the developing and developed countries. Taking India, China, and Japan as some case studies, the paper examines the relationship between birth rate levels and some correlates. It elaborates on the Indian experience, emphasizing the association of population growth with poverty and unemployment and lays bare some of the hidden causes of these phenomena. The authors examine some interstate variations in India and identify constraints and prospects of the existing population policy. The paper proposes outlines of a democratic population policy as an integral part of India's development strategy which should recognize human beings not simply as consumers but also as producers of material values. It pleads for 1) restructuring of property relations; 2) bringing down the mortality rates and raising of the literacy levels, especially among females; and 3) improving nutritional levels, as prerequisites for bringing down birth rates.

  20. Advanced materials and the economy

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.P.; Flemings, M.C.

    1986-10-01

    Advances in materials science and engineering have impact quickly throughout the economy. On the average, every person in the US requires the securing and processing of some 20,000 pounds of nonrenewable, nonfuel mineral resources each year. Industries engaged in the direct production of primary materials employ approximately 1.5 million wage and salaried personnel, or about 1.5% of the labor force. On each person employed in the primary materials industries depend the jobs of from two to three workers in other sectors. The value of shipments of advanced materials is about $70 billion, or approximately 14% of total materials shipments. The production of such materials occupies about 10% of the total labor force of the materials industries. As in the case of employment, the indirect effect of the presence of these materials on the rest of the economy is highly significant. The reason is that advanced materials are not an end product; they are assembled into components critical to the successful performance and operation of such large, complex systems as aircraft and aerospace vehicles, electronic devices and automobiles. Advanced materials are essential to the future growth of these and other industries. In fact, progress in materials science sets ultimate limits on the rate at which key sectors of the economy can grown.

  1. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...)(1) of this section for which a fuel economy value approved under 40 CFR part 600, does not exist... section for which a fuel economy value has been neither determined nor approved under 40 CFR part 600, the... subpart F of 40 CFR part 600. (c) Average fuel economy. Average fuel economy must be based upon...

  2. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...)(1) of this section for which a fuel economy value approved under 40 CFR part 600, does not exist... section for which a fuel economy value has been neither determined nor approved under 40 CFR part 600, the... subpart F of 40 CFR part 600. (c) Average fuel economy. Average fuel economy must be based upon...

  3. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...)(1) of this section for which a fuel economy value approved under 40 CFR part 600, does not exist... section for which a fuel economy value has been neither determined nor approved under 40 CFR part 600, the... subpart F of 40 CFR part 600. (c) Average fuel economy. Average fuel economy must be based upon...

  4. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...)(1) of this section for which a fuel economy value approved under 40 CFR part 600, does not exist... section for which a fuel economy value has been neither determined nor approved under 40 CFR part 600, the... subpart F of 40 CFR part 600. (c) Average fuel economy. Average fuel economy must be based upon...

  5. Designing Corporate Training in Developing Economies Using Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geith, Chris; Vignare, Karen; Bourquin, Leslie D.; Thiagarajan, Deepa

    2010-01-01

    The Food Safety Knowledge Network (FSKN) is a collaboration between Michigan State University, the Global Food Safety Initiative of the Consumer Goods Forum, and other food industry and public sector partners. FSKN's goal is to help strengthen the food industry's response to the complex food safety knowledge and training challenges that affect…

  6. For a Political Economy of Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In understanding the changes that are impacting the global higher education sector, developing a critique of the relationships between technology and technological innovation, new managerialism and financialisation, and the impact of the secular crisis of global capitalism is critical. Moreover, it is important to critique these changes…

  7. Population and the Colombian economy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  8. Population and the Colombian economy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  9. A single gene for juvenile and middle-age onset open-angle glaucomas confined within a small interval on chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, V.; Dumont, M.; Plante, M.

    1994-09-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) encompasses a complex of ocular disease entities characterized by an optic neuropathy causing progressive loss of the visual fields and usually associated with elevated intraocular pressure. POAG can be subdivided into two groups according to age of onset: (1) the more prevalent middle to late-age onset chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) diagnosed after age 40 and (2) the less common form, juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG), which occurs between 3 years of age and early adulthood. Susceptibility to either COAG or JOAG has been found to be inherited. We studied 141 members of a huge multigeneration French Canadian family affected with an autosomal dominant form of POAG. Both JOAG and COAG were diagnosed in 43 patients. To first position the disease gene, AFM microsatellites markers specific to chromosome 1q21-q31 were selected since linkage of JOAG to this region was recently demonstrated in two Caucasian families. Tight linkage was observed between the JOAG/COAG phenotype and 7 microsatellite markers on chromosome 1q23-q25; a maximum lod score of 6.62 at {theta}=0 was obtained with AFM278ye5. Using a recombination mapping strategy based on a unique founder effect, a characteristic JOAG/COAG haplotype spanning 12 cM was next recognized between loci D1S196 and D1S212. Two key recombination events in affected patients further confined the disease locus within a 5 cM interval between loci D1S445 and D1S452/D1S210. These results are the first to demonstrate that JOAG and one adult form of POAG map at a single locus on chromosome 1q23-q25. They also provide members of this family with a new diagnostic tool to identify the at-risk individuals.

  10. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-02-15

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services.

  11. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-02-15

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services. PMID:26674686

  12. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  13. Predicted Shifts in Small Mammal Distributions and Biodiversity in the Altered Future Environment of Alaska: An Open Access Data and Machine Learning Perspective.

    PubMed

    Baltensperger, A P; Huettmann, F

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is acting to reallocate biomes, shift the distribution of species, and alter community assemblages in Alaska. Predictions regarding how these changes will affect the biodiversity and interspecific relationships of small mammals are necessary to pro-actively inform conservation planning. We used a set of online occurrence records and machine learning methods to create bioclimatic envelope models for 17 species of small mammals (rodents and shrews) across Alaska. Models formed the basis for sets of species-specific distribution maps for 2010 and were projected forward using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A2 scenario to predict distributions of the same species for 2100. We found that distributions of cold-climate, northern, and interior small mammal species experienced large decreases in area while shifting northward, upward in elevation, and inland across the state. In contrast, many southern and continental species expanded throughout Alaska, and also moved down-slope and toward the coast. Statewide community assemblages remained constant for 15 of the 17 species, but distributional shifts resulted in novel species assemblages in several regions. Overall biodiversity patterns were similar for both time frames, but followed general species distribution movement trends. Biodiversity losses occurred in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and Seward Peninsula while the Beaufort Coastal Plain and western Brooks Range experienced modest gains in species richness as distributions shifted to form novel assemblages. Quantitative species distribution and biodiversity change projections should help land managers to develop adaptive strategies for conserving dispersal corridors, small mammal biodiversity, and ecosystem functionality into the future.

  14. Arabidopsis RNASE THREE LIKE2 Modulates the Expression of Protein-Coding Genes via 24-Nucleotide Small Interfering RNA-Directed DNA Methylation[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hachet, Mélanie; Comella, Pascale; Zytnicki, Matthias; Vaucheret, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    RNaseIII enzymes catalyze the cleavage of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and have diverse functions in RNA maturation. Arabidopsis thaliana RNASE THREE LIKE2 (RTL2), which carries one RNaseIII and two dsRNA binding (DRB) domains, is a unique Arabidopsis RNaseIII enzyme resembling the budding yeast small interfering RNA (siRNA)-producing Dcr1 enzyme. Here, we show that RTL2 modulates the production of a subset of small RNAs and that this activity depends on both its RNaseIII and DRB domains. However, the mode of action of RTL2 differs from that of Dcr1. Whereas Dcr1 directly cleaves dsRNAs into 23-nucleotide siRNAs, RTL2 likely cleaves dsRNAs into longer molecules, which are subsequently processed into small RNAs by the DICER-LIKE enzymes. Depending on the dsRNA considered, RTL2-mediated maturation either improves (RTL2-dependent loci) or reduces (RTL2-sensitive loci) the production of small RNAs. Because the vast majority of RTL2-regulated loci correspond to transposons and intergenic regions producing 24-nucleotide siRNAs that guide DNA methylation, RTL2 depletion modifies DNA methylation in these regions. Nevertheless, 13% of RTL2-regulated loci correspond to protein-coding genes. We show that changes in 24-nucleotide siRNA levels also affect DNA methylation levels at such loci and inversely correlate with mRNA steady state levels, thus implicating RTL2 in the regulation of protein-coding gene expression. PMID:26764378

  15. Predicted Shifts in Small Mammal Distributions and Biodiversity in the Altered Future Environment of Alaska: An Open Access Data and Machine Learning Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Baltensperger, A. P.; Huettmann, F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is acting to reallocate biomes, shift the distribution of species, and alter community assemblages in Alaska. Predictions regarding how these changes will affect the biodiversity and interspecific relationships of small mammals are necessary to pro-actively inform conservation planning. We used a set of online occurrence records and machine learning methods to create bioclimatic envelope models for 17 species of small mammals (rodents and shrews) across Alaska. Models formed the basis for sets of species-specific distribution maps for 2010 and were projected forward using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A2 scenario to predict distributions of the same species for 2100. We found that distributions of cold-climate, northern, and interior small mammal species experienced large decreases in area while shifting northward, upward in elevation, and inland across the state. In contrast, many southern and continental species expanded throughout Alaska, and also moved down-slope and toward the coast. Statewide community assemblages remained constant for 15 of the 17 species, but distributional shifts resulted in novel species assemblages in several regions. Overall biodiversity patterns were similar for both time frames, but followed general species distribution movement trends. Biodiversity losses occurred in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and Seward Peninsula while the Beaufort Coastal Plain and western Brooks Range experienced modest gains in species richness as distributions shifted to form novel assemblages. Quantitative species distribution and biodiversity change projections should help land managers to develop adaptive strategies for conserving dispersal corridors, small mammal biodiversity, and ecosystem functionality into the future. PMID:26207828

  16. Predicted Shifts in Small Mammal Distributions and Biodiversity in the Altered Future Environment of Alaska: An Open Access Data and Machine Learning Perspective.

    PubMed

    Baltensperger, A P; Huettmann, F

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is acting to reallocate biomes, shift the distribution of species, and alter community assemblages in Alaska. Predictions regarding how these changes will affect the biodiversity and interspecific relationships of small mammals are necessary to pro-actively inform conservation planning. We used a set of online occurrence records and machine learning methods to create bioclimatic envelope models for 17 species of small mammals (rodents and shrews) across Alaska. Models formed the basis for sets of species-specific distribution maps for 2010 and were projected forward using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A2 scenario to predict distributions of the same species for 2100. We found that distributions of cold-climate, northern, and interior small mammal species experienced large decreases in area while shifting northward, upward in elevation, and inland across the state. In contrast, many southern and continental species expanded throughout Alaska, and also moved down-slope and toward the coast. Statewide community assemblages remained constant for 15 of the 17 species, but distributional shifts resulted in novel species assemblages in several regions. Overall biodiversity patterns were similar for both time frames, but followed general species distribution movement trends. Biodiversity losses occurred in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and Seward Peninsula while the Beaufort Coastal Plain and western Brooks Range experienced modest gains in species richness as distributions shifted to form novel assemblages. Quantitative species distribution and biodiversity change projections should help land managers to develop adaptive strategies for conserving dispersal corridors, small mammal biodiversity, and ecosystem functionality into the future. PMID:26207828

  17. mRNA and Small RNA Transcriptomes Reveal Insights into Dynamic Homoeolog Regulation of Allopolyploid Heterosis in Nascent Hexaploid Wheat[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Aili; Liu, Dengcai; Wu, Jun; Zhao, Xubo; Hao, Ming; Geng, Shuaifeng; Yan, Jun; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Lianquan; Wu, Junyan; Yin, Lingjie; Zhang, Rongzhi; Wu, Liang; Zheng, Youliang; Mao, Long

    2014-01-01

    Nascent allohexaploid wheat may represent the initial genetic state of common wheat (Triticum aestivum), which arose as a hybrid between Triticum turgidum (AABB) and Aegilops tauschii (DD) and by chromosome doubling and outcompeted its parents in growth vigor and adaptability. To better understand the molecular basis for this success, we performed mRNA and small RNA transcriptome analyses in nascent allohexaploid wheat and its following generations, their progenitors, and the natural allohexaploid cultivar Chinese Spring, with the assistance of recently published A and D genome sequences. We found that nonadditively expressed protein-coding genes were rare but relevant to growth vigor. Moreover, a high proportion of protein-coding genes exhibited parental expression level dominance, with genes for which the total homoeolog expression level in the progeny was similar to that in T. turgidum potentially participating in development and those with similar expression to that in Ae. tauschii involved in adaptation. In addition, a high proportion of microRNAs showed nonadditive expression upon polyploidization, potentially leading to differential expression of important target genes. Furthermore, increased small interfering RNA density was observed for transposable element–associated D homoeologs in the allohexaploid progeny, which may account for biased repression of D homoeologs. Together, our data provide insights into small RNA–mediated dynamic homoeolog regulation mechanisms that may contribute to heterosis in nascent hexaploid wheat. PMID:24838975

  18. Comprehensive Annotation of Physcomitrella patens Small RNA Loci Reveals That the Heterochromatic Short Interfering RNA Pathway Is Largely Conserved in Land Plants[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Coruh, Ceyda; Cho, Sung Hyun; Shahid, Saima; Liu, Qikun; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Axtell, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Many plant small RNAs are sequence-specific negative regulators of target mRNAs and/or chromatin. In angiosperms, the two most abundant endogenous small RNA populations are usually 21-nucleotide microRNAs (miRNAs) and 24-nucleotide heterochromatic short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Heterochromatic siRNAs are derived from repetitive regions and reinforce DNA methylation at targeted loci. The existence and extent of heterochromatic siRNAs in other land plant lineages has been unclear. Using small RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) of the moss Physcomitrella patens, we identified 1090 loci that produce mostly 23- to 24-nucleotide siRNAs. These loci are mostly in intergenic regions with dense DNA methylation. Accumulation of siRNAs from these loci depends upon P. patens homologs of DICER-LIKE3 (DCL3), RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE2, and the largest subunit of DNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE IV, with the largest subunit of a Pol V homolog contributing to expression at a smaller subset of the loci. A MINIMAL DICER-LIKE (mDCL) gene, which lacks the N-terminal helicase domain typical of DCL proteins, is specifically required for 23-nucleotide siRNA accumulation. We conclude that heterochromatic siRNAs, and their biogenesis pathways, are largely identical between angiosperms and P. patens, with the notable exception of the P. patens-specific use of mDCL to produce 23-nucleotide siRNAs. PMID:26209555

  19. Bolivia's economy--an update.

    PubMed

    Weisbrot, Mark; Sandoval, Luis

    2008-01-01

    This report looks at Bolivia's main economic indicators over the past year (mid-2006 to mid-2007), noting improvements in growth, fiscal balances, balance of payments, and international reserves. These improvements were largely due to government policies and choices, such as increased hydrocarbons royalties and control over the hydrocarbons sector, and have allowed the government to embark on a number of programs targeting the poor and landless. The report also notes that Bolivia faces many challenges: expansion of land reform, more rapid growth and poverty reduction, the reduction of regional and demographic disparities, and an accelerated diversification of the economy away from hydrocarbons and minerals. PMID:18459287

  20. Supergroups and economies of scale.

    PubMed

    Schlossberg, Steven

    2009-02-01

    With the changing environment for medical practice, physician practice models will continue to evolve. These "supergoups'' create economies of scale, but their advantage is not only in the traditional economic sense. Practices with enough size are able to better meet the challenges of medical practice with increasing regulatory demands, explosion of clinical knowledge, quality and information technology initiatives, and an increasingly tight labor market. Smaller practices can adapt some of these strategies selectively. Depending on the topic, smaller practices should think differently about how to approach the challenges of practice.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: small fiber neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions small fiber neuropathy small fiber neuropathy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Small fiber neuropathy is a condition characterized by severe pain attacks ...

  2. Health Information Economy: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Kamal; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Health Information Economy (HIE) is one of the broader, more complex, and challenging and yet important topics in the field of health science that requires the identification of its dimensions for planning and policy making. The aim of this study was to determine HIE concept dimensions. Methods: This paper presents a systematic methodology for analyzing the trends of HIE. For this purpose, the main keywords of this area were identified and searched in the databases and from among 4775 retrieved sources, 12 sources were studied in the field of HIE. Results: Information Economy (IE) in the world has passed behind four paradigms that involve the information evaluation perspective, the information technology perspective, the asymmetric information perspective and information value perspective. In this research, the fourth perspective in the HIE was analyzed. The main findings of this research were categorized in three major groups, including the flow of information process in the field of health (production. collection, processing and dissemination), and information applications in the same field (education, research, health industry, policy, legislation, and decision-making) and the underlying fields. Conclusion: According to the findings, HIE has already developed a theoretical and conceptual gap that due to its importance in the next decade would be one of the research approaches to health science. PMID:26153182

  3. Proteogenomic Discovery of a Small, Novel Protein in Yeast Reveals a Strategy for the Detection of Unannotated Short Open Reading Frames.

    PubMed

    Yagoub, Daniel; Tay, Aidan P; Chen, Zhiliang; Hamey, Joshua J; Cai, Curtis; Chia, Samantha Z; Hart-Smith, Gene; Wilkins, Marc R

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, proteomic data have contributed to genome annotation efforts, most notably in humans and mice, and spawned a field termed "proteogenomics". Yeast, in contrast with higher eukaryotes, has a small genome, which has lent itself to simpler ORF prediction. Despite this, continual advances in mass spectrometry suggest that proteomics should be able to improve genome annotation even in this well-characterized species. Here we applied a proteogenomics workflow to yeast to identify novel protein-coding genes. Specific databases were generated, from intergenic regions of the genome, which were then queried with MS/MS data. This suggested the existence of several putative novel ORFs of <100 codons, one of which we chose to validate. Synthetic peptides, RNA-Seq analysis, and evidence of evolutionary conservation allowed for the unequivocal definition of a new protein of 78 amino acids encoded on chromosome X, which we dub YJR107C-A. It encodes a new type of domain, which ab initio modeling suggests as predominantly α-helical. We show that this gene is nonessential for growth; however, deletion increases sensitivity to osmotic stress. Finally, from the above discovery process, we discuss a generalizable strategy for the identification of short ORFs and small proteins, many of which are likely to be undiscovered. PMID:26554900

  4. Small RNA Derived from the Virulence Modulating Region of the Potato spindle tuber viroid Silences callose synthase Genes of Tomato Plants[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj; Brosseau, Chantal; Giguère, Tamara; Sano, Teruo; Moffett, Peter; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) callose synthase genes CalS11-like and CalS12-like encode proteins that are essential for the formation of callose, a major component of pollen mother cell walls; these enzymes also function in callose formation during pathogen infection. This article describes the targeting of these callose synthase mRNAs by a small RNA derived from the virulence modulating region of two Potato spindle tuber viroid variants. More specifically, viroid infection of tomato plants resulted in the suppression of the target mRNAs up to 1.5-fold, depending on the viroid variant used and the gene targeted. The targeting of these mRNAs by RNA silencing was validated by artificial microRNA experiments in a transient expression system and by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Viroid mutants incapable of targeting callose synthase mRNAs failed to induce typical infection phenotypes, whereas a chimeric viroid obtained by swapping the virulence modulating regions of a mild and a severe variant of Potato spindle tuber viroid greatly affected the accumulation of viroids and the severity of disease symptoms. These data provide evidence of the silencing of multiple genes by a single small RNA derived from a viroid. PMID:26290537

  5. Does the economy affect teenage substance use?

    PubMed

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    This research examines how teenage drug and alcohol use responds to changes in the economy. In contrast to the recent literature confirming pro-cyclical alcohol use among adults, this research offers strong evidence that a weaker economy leads to greater teenage marijuana and hard-drug use and some evidence that a weaker economy also leads to higher teenage alcohol use. The findings are based on logistic models with state and year fixed effects, using teenagers from the NLSY-1997. The evidence also indicates that teenagers are more likely to sell drugs in weaker economies. This suggests one mechanism for counter-cyclical drug use - that access to illicit drugs is easier when the economy is weaker. These results also suggest that the strengthening economy in the 1990s mitigated what would otherwise have been much larger increases in teenage drug use.

  6. Automobile Fuel Economy and Traffic Congestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Feng

    An analytical model for automobile fuel consumption based on vehicle parameters and traffic characteristics is developed in this thesis. This model is based on two approximations: (1) an engine map approximation, and (2) a tractive energy approximation. This model is the first comprehensive attempt to predict fuel economy without having to go through a second-by-second measurements, simulation or a regression procedure. A computer spreadsheet program based on this model has been created. It can be used to calculate the fuel economy of any motor vehicle in any driving pattern, based on public-available vehicle parameters, with absolute error typically less than +/-5%. Several applications of this model are presented: (1) calculating the fuel economy of motor vehicles in 7 different driving cycles, (2) determining the relationship between fuel economy and vehicle average velocity, (3) determining the vehicle optimal fuel efficiency speed, (4) discussing the effect of traffic smoothness on fuel economy, (5) discussing how driving behaviors affect fuel economy, (6) discussing the effect of highway speed limit on fuel economy, (7) discussing the maximum possible fuel economy for ordinary cars, and finally, (8) discussing the impact of vehicle parameters on fuel economy.

  7. Additive effects on lubricant fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, S.; Moore, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Bench and engine tests were used to determine the effects of typical lubricating oil components on the fuel economy performance of energy conserving oils. The bench studies identified negative fuel economy effects of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates and positive effects of overbased sulfonates. The Sequence VI dynamometer test quantified viscometric influences on fuel economy; results indicated that SAE 5W-30 oils are not always more fuel efficient than 10W-30 analogs, and that viscosity index improver type has a large impact on fuel economy. These effects were integrated with additive effects on other formulation criteria to design an overall system.

  8. The Meaning of Foreign Investment in the Chinese Economy. Training Discussion Paper No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Claudio de Moura

    As the Chinese economy opens up to the outside world, the decision to engage in joint ventures with foreign capital is among the most important national policies. Significant direct consequences of joint ventures are the influx of foreign capital, expanding exports, and employment creation. However, the great importance of joint ventures lies in…

  9. The Token Economy: Reducing the Disruptive and Off-Task Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Nicole Taylor

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a token economy as an intervention to reduce disruptive and off-task behavior of third grade students in an open concept setting. The intervention combines the use of a token reinforcement with a raffle style drawing. The students receive tokens on an intermittent reinforcement schedule for being on-task,…

  10. China and the Knowledge Economy: Seizing the 21st Century. WBI Development Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlman, Carl J.; Aubert, Jean-Eric

    For a large part of the last two millennia, China was the world's largest and most advanced economy. Then it missed the Industrial Revolution and stagnated. Only after opening to the outside world in 1979 was China's economic performance again impressive. At the turn of the 21st century, China faces daunting internal challenges compounded by the…

  11. CIO in a Service Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, Paul G.

    The role of the Chief Information Officer (CIO) has evolved considerably since its inception in the 1980s. This paper begins with a brief review of the evolution of this role and sets the stage for future change brought about by the rise of the service economy. The enterprise of the future is then characterized based on an important global study by IBM. Using this characterization, the future challenges for CIOs in areas such as strategic planning, governance and operations management of information technology services are assessed from the perspectives of the four major elements of a service system (technology, people, organization and shared information). The paper concludes with a summary of the important findings, pointing to the challenge that CIOs of the future must be the leaders in their organizations in the delivery of smarter, on-demand service systems to smarter customers.

  12. The global household: toward a feminist postcapitalist international political economy.

    PubMed

    Safri, Maliha; Graham, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to introduce a new category into international political economy-the global household-and to begin to widen the focus of international political economy to include nonmarket transactions and noncapitalist production. As an economic institution composed of transnational extended families and codwellers (including international migrants and family members left behind in countries of origin), the global household is engaged in coordinating international migration, sending and receiving billions of dollars in remittances, and organizing and conducting market- and non-market-oriented production on an international scale. We first trace the discursive antecedents of the global household concept to theories of the household as a site of noncapitalist production and to feminist ethnographies of transnational families. In order to demonstrate the potential significance and effect of this newly recognized institution, we estimate the aggregate population of global households, the size and distribution of remittances, and the magnitude and sectoral scope of global household production. We then examine the implications of the global household concept for three areas of inquiry: globalization, economic development, and the household politics of economic transformation. Finally, we briefly explore the possibilities for research and activism opened up by a feminist, postcapitalist international political economy centered on the global household.

  13. Arabidopsis Small Rubber Particle Protein Homolog SRPs Play Dual Roles as Positive Factors for Tissue Growth and Development and in Drought Stress Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Yu; Park, Ki Youl; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) act as repositories for fatty acids and sterols, which are used for various cellular processes such as energy production and membrane and hormone synthesis. LD-associated proteins play important roles in seed development and germination, but their functions in postgermination growth are not well understood. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains three SRP homologs (SRP1, SRP2, and SRP3) that share sequence identities with small rubber particle proteins of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In this report, the possible cellular roles of SRPs in postgermination growth and the drought tolerance response were investigated. Arabidopsis SRPs appeared to be LD-associated proteins and displayed polymerization properties in vivo and in vitro. SRP-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S:SRP1, 35S:SRP2, and 35S:SRP3) exhibited higher vegetative and reproductive growth and markedly better tolerance to drought stress than wild-type Arabidopsis. In addition, constitutive over-expression of SRPs resulted in increased numbers of large LDs in postgermination seedlings. In contrast, single (srp1, 35S:SRP2-RNAi, and srp3) and triple (35S:SRP2-RNAi/srp1srp3) loss-of-function mutant lines exhibited the opposite phenotypes. Our results suggest that Arabidopsis SRPs play dual roles as positive factors in postgermination growth and the drought stress tolerance response. The possible relationships between LD-associated proteins and the drought stress response are discussed. PMID:26903535

  14. Characterization of the Tupaia Rhabdovirus Genome Reveals a Long Open Reading Frame Overlapping with P and a Novel Gene Encoding a Small Hydrophobic Protein

    PubMed Central

    Springfeld, Christoph; Darai, Gholamreza; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Rhabdoviruses are negative-stranded RNA viruses of the order Mononegavirales and have been isolated from vertebrates, insects, and plants. Members of the genus Lyssavirus cause the invariably fatal disease rabies, and a member of the genus Vesiculovirus, Chandipura virus, has recently been associated with acute encephalitis in children. We present here the complete genome sequence and transcription map of a rhabdovirus isolated from cultivated cells of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue from a moribund tree shrew. The negative-strand genome of tupaia rhabdovirus is composed of 11,440 nucleotides and encodes six genes that are separated by one or two intergenic nucleotides. In addition to the typical rhabdovirus genes in the order N-P-M-G-L, a gene encoding a small hydrophobic putative type I transmembrane protein of approximately 11 kDa was identified between the M and G genes, and the corresponding transcript was detected in infected cells. Similar to some Vesiculoviruses and many Paramyxovirinae, the P gene has a second overlapping reading frame that can be accessed by ribosomal choice and encodes a protein of 26 kDa, predicted to be the largest C protein of these virus families. Phylogenetic analyses of the tupaia rhabdovirus N and L genes show that the virus is distantly related to the Vesiculoviruses, Ephemeroviruses, and the recently characterized Flanders virus and Oita virus and further extends the sequence territory occupied by animal rhabdoviruses. PMID:15890917

  15. Characterization of the Tupaia rhabdovirus genome reveals a long open reading frame overlapping with P and a novel gene encoding a small hydrophobic protein.

    PubMed

    Springfeld, Christoph; Darai, Gholamreza; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2005-06-01

    Rhabdoviruses are negative-stranded RNA viruses of the order Mononegavirales and have been isolated from vertebrates, insects, and plants. Members of the genus Lyssavirus cause the invariably fatal disease rabies, and a member of the genus Vesiculovirus, Chandipura virus, has recently been associated with acute encephalitis in children. We present here the complete genome sequence and transcription map of a rhabdovirus isolated from cultivated cells of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue from a moribund tree shrew. The negative-strand genome of tupaia rhabdovirus is composed of 11,440 nucleotides and encodes six genes that are separated by one or two intergenic nucleotides. In addition to the typical rhabdovirus genes in the order N-P-M-G-L, a gene encoding a small hydrophobic putative type I transmembrane protein of approximately 11 kDa was identified between the M and G genes, and the corresponding transcript was detected in infected cells. Similar to some Vesiculoviruses and many Paramyxovirinae, the P gene has a second overlapping reading frame that can be accessed by ribosomal choice and encodes a protein of 26 kDa, predicted to be the largest C protein of these virus families. Phylogenetic analyses of the tupaia rhabdovirus N and L genes show that the virus is distantly related to the Vesiculoviruses, Ephemeroviruses, and the recently characterized Flanders virus and Oita virus and further extends the sequence territory occupied by animal rhabdoviruses.

  16. Training in Toronto's "New Economy"=La formation dans la "nouvelle" economie de Toronto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Perspectives Series, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This Community Perspectives Series document includes statements about the new economy in Toronto made by four participants in a March 2001 forum. The new economy was defined by the moderator as "an economy that emphasizes knowledge and technical processes put to the production of goods and other outputs so that an individual's knowledge is viewed…

  17. Child Care and the New Economy: Part I--Three Pillars of the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Late in 2008, when it was becoming apparent that the economic downturn was not a simple blip but a serious recession, Warren Buffet confidently predicted that the American economy would bounce back and be as strong as ever. However, he observed, "the economy that emerges will not be the same economy that entered the downturn." Since then, one…

  18. Geothermal Small Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2003-05-01

    Small businesses are the cornerstone of the American economy. Over 22 million small businesses account for approximately 99% of employers, employ about half of the private sector workforce, and are responsible for about two-thirds of net new jobs. Many small businesses fared better than the Fortune 500 in 2001. Non-farm proprietors income rose 2.4% in 2001 while corporate profits declined 7.2%. Yet not all is rosy for small businesses, particularly new ones. One-third close within two years of opening. From 1989 to 1992, almost half closed within four years; only 39.5% were still open after six years. Why do some new businesses thrive and some fail? What helps a new business succeed? Industry knowledge, business and financial planning, and good management. Small geothermal businesses are no different. Low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources exist throughout the western United States, the majority not yet tapped. A recent survey of ten western states identified more than 9,000 thermal wells and springs, over 900 low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas, and hundreds of direct-use sites. Many opportunities exist for geothermal entrepreneurs to develop many of these sites into thriving small businesses. The ''Geothermal Small Business Workbook'' (''Workbook'') was written to give geothermal entrepreneurs, small businesses, and developers the tools they need to understand geothermal applications--both direct use and small-scale power generation--and to write a business and financing plan. The Workbook will: Provide background, market, and regulatory data for direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; Refer you to several sources of useful information including owners of existing geothermal businesses, trade associations, and other organizations; Break down the complicated and sometimes tedious process of writing a business plan into five easy steps; Lead you--the geothermal entrepreneur, small company, or

  19. Class I and II Small Heat Shock Proteins Together with HSP101 Protect Protein Translation Factors during Heat Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Eman; Fowler, Mary E.; Kim, Minsoo; Bordowitz, Juliana; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are well documented to act in vitro as molecular chaperones to prevent the irreversible aggregation of heat-sensitive proteins. However, the in vivo activities of sHSPs remain unclear. To investigate the two most abundant classes of plant cytosolic sHSPs (class I [CI] and class II [CII]), RNA interference (RNAi) and overexpression lines were created in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and shown to have reduced and enhanced tolerance, respectively, to extreme heat stress. Affinity purification of CI and CII sHSPs from heat-stressed seedlings recovered eukaryotic translation elongation factor (eEF) 1B (α-, β-, and γ-subunits) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (three isoforms), although the association with CI sHSPs was stronger and additional proteins involved in translation were recovered with CI sHSPs. eEF1B subunits became partially insoluble during heat stress and, in the CI and CII RNAi lines, showed reduced recovery to the soluble cell fraction after heat stress, which was also dependent on HSP101. Furthermore, after heat stress, CI sHSPs showed increased retention in the insoluble fraction in the CII RNAi line and vice versa. Immunolocalization revealed that both CI and CII sHSPs were present in cytosolic foci, some of which colocalized with HSP101 and with eEF1Bγ and eEF1Bβ. Thus, CI and CII sHSPs have both unique and overlapping functions and act either directly or indirectly to protect specific translation factors in cytosolic stress granules. PMID:27474115

  20. Analyzing the Information Economy: Tools and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sherman

    1986-01-01

    Examines methodologies underlying studies which measure the information economy and considers their applicability and limitations for analyzing policy issues concerning libraries and library networks. Two studies provide major focus for discussion: Porat's "The Information Economy: Definition and Measurement" and Machlup's "Production and…

  1. Indicators of Education and the Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoachlander, E. Gareth; And Others

    Eighteen indicators represent important considerations for discussions about education and the economy and strategies for public policy. They describe major aspects of the economy, the demand for labor, and levels for human capital. The indicators are the following: (1) shifts in sectors' relative share of gross national product and the labor…

  2. Manufacturing Careers, Skilled Workers and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In order to jumpstart the economy, "Made in the U.S.A." needs to be synonymous with in-demand, high-quality products sold throughout the world. Recognizing the importance of the manufacturing industry and its connection to a healthy economy, President Obama addressed Carnegie Mellon University and launched the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership…

  3. Knowledge Production in a Cooperative Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottey, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge here means something similar to but broader than science--it is reliable but not necessarily as systematic or explicit. A cooperative economy is contrasted with the competitive economy that has dominated political thinking almost everywhere for about half a century - the neo-liberal period. It is argued that the neo-liberal ideology and…

  4. Getting Tenure in a Down Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Darla; Maidment, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Academic tenure is now under attack. A down economy has placed greater pressure on institutions making tenure more difficult to obtain. Nineteen tips for gaining tenure in a down economy are presented along with several justifications for tenure and why tenure is important for the preservation of the academy and the freedom to research and teach.

  5. "Developing" the Self in the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, James D.

    2008-01-01

    The term "knowledge economy", like the term "globalisation", has become a catchword in political and educational debate over the last decade or so, especially in debates upon educational policy where the role of education in preparing young people to take their part in the Knowledge Economy is often seen as paramount over other traditional…

  6. Government and the Economy--Stabilization Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkin, John W.

    This document describes the operation of public and private sector mechanisms which work to keep the Canadian economy stable. Part I discusses the many sources of instability in the Canadian economy. Instability is measured primarily in fluctuations in aggregate income or gross national product. Two important contributors to economic fluctuations…

  7. Higher Education, Development and the Learning Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the claims for the new economy as necessary background to analyzing changes in knowledge production and the role of the university in the so-called learning economy. The article develops an argument for "knowledge networks" as a basis for the university to promote regional development at home and international development…

  8. The Hydrogen Economy as a Technological Bluff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is a technological bluff in its implied assurance that, despite the accelerating pace at which we are depleting the remaining half of our fossil fuels, our energy future is secure. Elementary thermodynamic considerations are developed to show that a hydrogen economy is about as feasible as a perpetual motion machine. Hydrogen…

  9. Work in the Knowledge-Driven Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    The knowledge-driven economy has become a "given," yet there is disagreement over what it entails and who is helped or harmed. The aging of the work force, disappearance of unskilled jobs, and changes in business and social organization suggest that the social, economic, and infrastructural problems of the knowledge economy will not solve…

  10. Price Discrimination, Economies of Scale, and Profits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Donghyun

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)

  11. Political Capital in a Market Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

  12. Critical Mass: Education and the Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Warren H.

    1984-01-01

    Underscores the importance of strategic planning and management in higher education in the future, emphasizing the need to develop the intellectual capital necessary to implement planning and management systems to tighten the relationship between education and the economy. Discusses selected facts about the economy and the challenges facing…

  13. The Rural Economy in a New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas G.

    Technological change, globalization, and localization have changed rural economies. They have increased labor productivity, reducing the importance of labor costs in location decisions; decreased the importance of distance; increased the importance of economies of scale; and increased the role of local conditions and choices in determining…

  14. Using Classroom Token Economies as Instructional Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minner, Sam; Knutson, Richard

    1980-01-01

    The use of a token economy in teaching special needs students is outlined. Steps in establishing a token economy are presented and activities, such as the use of charge cards and a classroom bank, which help develop related skills are discussed. (PHR)

  15. Guidelines for Establishing and Maintaining Token Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, Brenda Smith; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The following stages in planning a token economy with students having behavior problems are discussed: (1) identifying target behaviors; (2) specifying and selecting reinforcers; (3) identifying token types and schedules; (4) planning token distribution and redemption; (5) initiating and implementing the token economy system; and (6) planning…

  16. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy to create…

  17. The Informal Economy: Recent Trends, Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Martha Alter

    2016-08-01

    Informal employment represents more than half of nonagricultural employment in most developing regions, contributes to the overall economy, and provides pathways to reduction of poverty and inequality. Support to the informal economy should include the expansion of occupational health and safety to include informal workers, based on an analysis of their work places and work risks. The paper presents main schools of thought and argues for a holistic understanding of the different segments of the informal work force and for policies and interventions tailored to the needs and constraints of these different segments. The paper recommends a policy approach which seeks to extend social protection, including occupational health and safety services, to informal workers, and to increase the productivity of informal enterprises and informal workers through an enabling environment and support services. The paper calls for a new paradigm of a hybrid economy which would value and integrate the informal economy alongside the formal economies.

  18. 40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related... economy calculations. The calculations of vehicle fuel economy values require the weighted...

  19. Institutions of Higher Education as Engines of Small Business Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Rodney D.; Venkatachalam, Padma

    2005-01-01

    Universities today exert an ever-increasing stimulus to small business development, contributing to national and local economic development as the general economy becomes increasingly knowledge-based. The transition to a knowledge-based economy, coupled with the passage of the Bayh-Dole Act in 1980, has resulted in stronger university-industry…

  20. Welcome to the experience economy.

    PubMed

    Pine, B J; Gilmore, J H

    1998-01-01

    First there was agriculture, then manufactured goods, and eventually services. Each change represented a step up in economic value--a way for producers to distinguish their products from increasingly undifferentiated competitive offerings. Now, as services are in their turn becoming commoditized, companies are looking for the next higher value in an economic offering. Leading-edge companies are finding that it lies in staging experiences. To reach this higher level of competition, companies will have to learn how to design, sell, and deliver experiences that customers will readily pay for. An experience occurs when a company uses services as the stage--and goods as props--for engaging individuals in a way that creates a memorable event. And while experiences have always been at the heart of the entertainment business, any company stages an experience when it engages customers in a personal, memorable way. The lessons of pioneering experience providers, including the Walt Disney Company, can help companies learn how to compete in the experience economy. The authors offer five design principles that drive the creation of memorable experiences. First, create a consistent theme, one that resonates throughout the entire experience. Second, layer the theme with positive cues--for example, easy-to-follow signs. Third, eliminate negative cues, those visual or aural messages that distract or contradict the theme. Fourth, offer memorabilia that commemorate the experience for the user. Finally, engage all five senses--through sights, sounds, and so on--to heighten the experience and thus make it more memorable.

  1. Quantifying the vitamin D economy.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D enters the body through multiple routes and in a variety of chemical forms. Utilization varies with input, demand, and genetics. Vitamin D and its metabolites are carried in the blood on a Gc protein that has three principal alleles with differing binding affinities and ethnic prevalences. Three major metabolites are produced, which act via two routes, endocrine and autocrine/paracrine, and in two compartments, extracellular and intracellular. Metabolic consumption is influenced by physiological controls, noxious stimuli, and tissue demand. When administered as a supplement, varying dosing schedules produce major differences in serum metabolite profiles. To understand vitamin D's role in human physiology, it is necessary both to identify the foregoing entities, mechanisms, and pathways and, specifically, to quantify them. This review was performed to delineate the principal entities and transitions involved in the vitamin D economy, summarize the status of present knowledge of the applicable rates and masses, draw inferences about functions that are implicit in these quantifications, and point out implications for the determination of adequacy. PMID:26024057

  2. Quantifying the vitamin D economy.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D enters the body through multiple routes and in a variety of chemical forms. Utilization varies with input, demand, and genetics. Vitamin D and its metabolites are carried in the blood on a Gc protein that has three principal alleles with differing binding affinities and ethnic prevalences. Three major metabolites are produced, which act via two routes, endocrine and autocrine/paracrine, and in two compartments, extracellular and intracellular. Metabolic consumption is influenced by physiological controls, noxious stimuli, and tissue demand. When administered as a supplement, varying dosing schedules produce major differences in serum metabolite profiles. To understand vitamin D's role in human physiology, it is necessary both to identify the foregoing entities, mechanisms, and pathways and, specifically, to quantify them. This review was performed to delineate the principal entities and transitions involved in the vitamin D economy, summarize the status of present knowledge of the applicable rates and masses, draw inferences about functions that are implicit in these quantifications, and point out implications for the determination of adequacy.

  3. Paraguay: population and the economy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1986-01-01

    Paraguay's political conflicts and development experiences have been accompanied by compensatory population movements; however, economic and population policies of the past are not adequate to address the current economic challenges. The principal structural problem is dependence on international commodity prices. Since late 1984, the international prices for soya and cotton have declined more than 50%; these 2 products account for 83% of official exports. The external debt has grown significantly in the past 5 years and is increasingly difficult to service. A major problem the government faces in servicing the debt and maintaining economic growth is its inability to get control of foreign exchange. Much of Paraguay's external trade is contraband, with the dollars passing into the black market. As a result of the illegal economy, government earnings have been insufficient to cover expenses. Unemployment stands at 12% because of general economic decline, cuts in government expenditure, and the reduction of investment in hydroelectricity. Occupation of new land, the classic solution by the Paraguayan peasantry, is no longer a viable option since all land is now utilized. About 20-25% of Paraguayans live outside the country, expecially in Argentina. In 1986, a commission drafted an Adjustment Plan that recommended a devaluation of the official gurani rate, tax increases, higher tariffs for public services, and incentives to invest in priority areas; however, this plan has not been implemented to date. PMID:12315094

  4. Exercise economy in skiing and running.

    PubMed

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46), body mass (r = -0.09-0.46) and body height (r = 0.11-0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  5. Exercise economy in skiing and running

    PubMed Central

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00–0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03–0.46), body mass (r = −0.09–0.46) and body height (r = 0.11–0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects. PMID:24478718

  6. Economies of Size in Production Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Economies of size refer to the ability of a farm to lower costs of production by increasing production. Agriculture production displays an L-shaped average cost curve where costs are lower initially but reach a point where no further gains are achieved. Spreading fixed costs, bulk purchases, and marketing power are cited as reasons for economies of size. Labor-reducing technologies may be the primary reason. Most studies do not include the external costs from prophylactic antibiotic use, impact on rural communities, and environmental damage associated with large-scale production. These can contribute to the economies of size.

  7. Environmental protection, the economy, and jobs: national and regional analyses.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, Roger H; Wendling, Robert M; Diperna, Paula

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between environmental protection (EP), the economy, and jobs has been an issue of harsh contention for decades. Does EP harm the economy and destroy jobs or facilitate economic growth and create jobs? We address this issue by summarizing the results of the Jobs and the Environment Initiative, research funded by nonprofit foundations to quantify the relationship between EP, the economy, and jobs. We estimate the size of the US environmental industry and the numbers of environment-related jobs at the national level and in the states of Florida, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, and Wisconsin. This is the first time that such comprehensive, detailed estimates have been developed. Our major finding is that, contrary to conventional wisdom, EP, economic growth, and jobs creation are complementary and compatible: investments in EP create jobs and displace jobs, but the net effect on employment is positive. Second, environment protection has grown rapidly to become a major sales-generating, job-creating industry--$300 billion/year and 5 million jobs in 2003. Third, most of the 5 million jobs created are standard jobs for accountants, engineers, computer analysts, clerks, factory workers, etc., and the classic environmental job (environmental engineer, ecologist, etc.) constitutes only a small portion of the jobs created. Most of the persons employed in the jobs created may not even realize that they owe their livelihood to protecting the environment. Fourth, at the state level, the relationship between environmental policies and economic/job growth is positive, not negative. States can have strong economies and simultaneously protect the environment. Finally, environmental jobs are concentrated in manufacturing and professional, information, scientific, and technical services, and are thus disproportionately the types of jobs all states seek to attract.

  8. Welcome to the experience economy.

    PubMed

    Pine, B J; Gilmore, J H

    1998-01-01

    First there was agriculture, then manufactured goods, and eventually services. Each change represented a step up in economic value--a way for producers to distinguish their products from increasingly undifferentiated competitive offerings. Now, as services are in their turn becoming commoditized, companies are looking for the next higher value in an economic offering. Leading-edge companies are finding that it lies in staging experiences. To reach this higher level of competition, companies will have to learn how to design, sell, and deliver experiences that customers will readily pay for. An experience occurs when a company uses services as the stage--and goods as props--for engaging individuals in a way that creates a memorable event. And while experiences have always been at the heart of the entertainment business, any company stages an experience when it engages customers in a personal, memorable way. The lessons of pioneering experience providers, including the Walt Disney Company, can help companies learn how to compete in the experience economy. The authors offer five design principles that drive the creation of memorable experiences. First, create a consistent theme, one that resonates throughout the entire experience. Second, layer the theme with positive cues--for example, easy-to-follow signs. Third, eliminate negative cues, those visual or aural messages that distract or contradict the theme. Fourth, offer memorabilia that commemorate the experience for the user. Finally, engage all five senses--through sights, sounds, and so on--to heighten the experience and thus make it more memorable. PMID:10181589

  9. Esophagectomy - open

    MedlinePlus

    Trans-hiatal esophagectomy; Trans-thoracic esophagectomy; En bloc esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - open; Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy, Blunt esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - open; Cancer of the esophagus - esophagectomy - open

  10. Traffic airships with special reference to economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leyensetter, Walther

    1921-01-01

    The first part of this report details the efficiency and economy of airship travel, while the second part presents methods of economic efficiency with regards to construction, cost of upkeep and operation, and the establishment of airship lines.

  11. Fuel economy of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.; Kumar, R.

    On the basis of on-road energy consumption, fuel economy (FE) of hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles is projected to be 2.5-2.7 times the fuel economy of the conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) on the same platforms. Even with a less efficient but higher power density 0.6 V per cell than the base case 0.7 V per cell at the rated power point, the hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are projected to offer essentially the same fuel economy multiplier. The key to obtaining high fuel economy as measured on standardized urban and highway drive schedules lies in maintaining high efficiency of the fuel cell (FC) system at low loads. To achieve this, besides a high performance fuel cell stack, low parasitic losses in the air management system (i.e., turndown and part load efficiencies of the compressor-expander module) are critical.

  12. Power from space and the hydrogen economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Philip K.; Haynes, William E.

    2005-07-01

    Recent discoveries of methane hydrates under the Arctic permafrost and on continental shelves have revealed an immense energy resource. This has two major implications for the Solar Power Satellite (SPS). First, the SPS will not be built unless it can produce electricity at a price competitive with that generated using methane from hydrates (perhaps with sequestration of carbon dioxide). Second, steam reformation of methane is much cheaper than water electrolysis as a source of hydrogen, so there is little role for the SPS (or any other electric power technology) in the proposed hydrogen economy. On the other hand, an economy based on methane-electric hybrid vehicles offers advantages quite comparable to the hydrogen economy, without its technical problems and immense capital requirements. The methane economy also offers a transitional path to increasing direct use of electricity in transportation, a development that could create a major market for the SPS.

  13. Concern for Economy Reflected in Resolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Journal, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The 21 resolutions approved at the American Vocational Association (AVA) New Orleans Convention reflected: concern about the economy, the single State agency concept for administering funds, more resources for research, and support for the adoption of the metric system. (EA)

  14. Transportation Fuels and the Hydrogen Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbard, Alex

    2004-11-01

    An energy analysis of transportation fuels is performed for comparing automobiles and fuels currently in the marketplace as real world benchmarks projected as "hydrogen economy" requirements. Comparisons are made for ideal case average energy values at Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) at 20°C, 1 atmosphere with no loses. "Real world" benchmarks currently in the marketplace illuminate the challenges to be met if an equivalent "hydrogen economy" is to become reality. The idea of a "hydrogen economy" is that, at some time in the future, world energy needs will be supplied in part or totally from hydrogen; in part as compared to the current "petroleum economy" that is the source of most of the world's transportation fuels and only a portion of total energy use, or hydrogen as the source of all energy consumption.

  15. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  16. The token economy: a decade later.

    PubMed Central

    Kazdin, A E

    1982-01-01

    In the last decade, the token economy has been extended widely across populations and behaviors in treatment, rehabilitation, educational, and community settings. Outcome research has expanded as well to include large-scale program evaluations and comparative and combined treatment studies of the token economy. In a previous review (Kazdin & Bootzin, 1972), several obstacles were identified for the effective application of the token economy. These included identifying procedures to enhance program efficacy, to train staff, to overcome client resistance, and to promote long-term maintenance and transfer of training. The present paper discusses recent advances in research and reviews progress on the major issues identified previously. New issues have become salient in the last decade that pertain to the extension of the token economy to institutional settings. The demands for maintaining the integrity of treatment, the ability to integrate token economies within existing institutional constraints, and the disseminability of the procedures on a large scale are major issues that may dictate the future of the token economy. PMID:6754677

  17. PWC Opens up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2011-01-01

    Coming up with the latest and greatest learning curriculum for employees year after year can be overwhelming--especially if one works for a small or mid-size company with minimal resources. Fortunately, there is a burgeoning trend that three-time No. 1 Top 125er PwC is helping to "open" up. In creating PwC Open University, the professional…

  18. Small molecules based on thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione for high open-circuit voltage (VOC) organic photovoltaics: effect of different positions of alkyl substitution on molecular packing and photovoltaic performance.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Suk; Shin, Tae Joo; Jo, Won Ho

    2014-11-26

    Two different thienopyrroledione (TPD)-based small molecules (SMs) with different alkyl substitution positions were synthesized, and their photovoltaic properties are measured and compared to examine the effect of the alkyl substitution position on their optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties. The use of TPD as an electron-accepting unit in conjugated SMs effectively lowers the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels of the conjugated SMs and leads to high open-circuit voltage (VOC). The two SMs with n-hexyl group substituted at different positions exhibit almost identical optical and electrochemical properties in the pristine state. However, the crystallographic and morphological characteristics of the two SMs are significantly different, because they are blended with PC71BM. The SM in which n-alkyl groups are substituted at the central accepting unit exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.0% with VOC=0.94 V, which is among the highest PCE values of TPD-based SM devices, whereas the SM with n-alkyl groups being substituted at the chain ends shows a moderate PCE value of 3.1%.

  19. HIV and the moral economy of survival in an East African City.

    PubMed

    Prince, Ruth

    2012-12-01

    Based on fieldwork in the city of Kisumu, Kenya, the article examines the survival of HIV-positive people on antiretroviral (ARV) medicines and situates this within broader moral economies of their lives-in matters of food, hunger, social relationships, and networks of care, including NGOs. Through locating survival at the level of individual adherence to medication, ARV programs medicalize it. Yet their focus on the intimate relation between medicine and food also opens up spaces in which the material conditions of life can be articulated. The article follows these spaces, from the clinic to the economy of NGO interventions and community-based groups, paying attention to how hunger and material needs are visible in some spaces and invisible in others, and to how people have learned to articulate their "needs." In this economy, HIV identities accrue moral and economic value, as through them people become visible to the flow of funds and the distribution of goods organized by NGOs.

  20. The Configuration of Local Economic Power and Civic Participation in the Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Troy; Mathews, Todd L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the authors test the hypothesis that local economic concentration is associated with decreased levels of civic participation. They define economic concentration as a social context in which a small number of corporate establishments or industries dominate a local economy. They argue that economic concentration leads to a monolithic…

  1. Small Schools and Savings: Affordable New Construction, Renovation and Remodeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Education Association, New York, NY.

    "Small Schools and Savings" rebuts the presumption that capital costs of school planning and construction render small schools uncompetitively expensive. Specific options are outlined that can help small schools be cost effective. The false logic of borrowing economies-of-scale arguments from the factory model and applying them to building schools…

  2. The Role of Agriculture in Turkish Economy at the Beginning of the European Union Accession Negotiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanrivermis, Harun; Bulbul, Mehmet

    In this study, Turkish economy and importance of agriculture in the economy on the way of accession negotiations to the European Union (EU) are discussed. Compliance with EU norms based on macroeconomic indicators is evaluated. Turkish economy exhibits the characteristics of a developing economy based on per capita income, economic growth, employment, income distribution, foreign trade volume and economic structure. Long-term economic growth rate of Turkey is quite low and it is negatively affected by economic crises. Income distribution among the households and the regions (both of the geographical and rural-urban regions) is imbalanced. Income per capita is about ¼ of an average developed country and the economy is still characterized by a high degree of dualism in the economic sectors, regions as well as social segments. Economy suffers from trade deficit and the level of agricultural import has almost reached to agricultural export`s level in 2004. From the point of view of all socio-economic indicators, the contribution of agricultural production to domestic economy is essential in terms of employment, contributing to national income and export earnings. The enterprise size is relatively small, duality in socio-economic structure is common, population is high, productivity level is low, costs are high and competition power of some sub-sectors is low in Turkish agricultural sector. Small family farms are the main unit of crops and livestock production and household members provide most of the labor requirements of the farms. Turkey launched a radical change in agricultural policy instead of unsustainable and costly system of support policies including input subsidies and support prices and issued a policy paper for 2006-2010 in line with the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU. Reevaluation of the agricultural policies is needed in order to minimize the regional development differences and to control the migration from rural areas to cities.

  3. The Air Transportation Policy of Small States: Meeting the Challenges of Globalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniou, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The air transport policies of small states are currently at a crossroad. Policy makers in these countries are facing a difficult dilemma: either follow the general trend of liberalization and pay the high cost of the resulting restructuring or maintain the existing regulatory and ownership structures at the risk of isolation thus undermining the viability and sustainability of their air transport sector and their economies in general. This paper proposes to explore the broad issues raised by this difficult dilemma, to outline its special significance in the context of small states and to delineate the options opened to the economic policymakers; in these states. After a brief note on the method of research, we sketch the main elements of the international air transport industry in which the airlines of small states are called upon to act. We then propose to review the main features of the analytical framework of this debate as it pertains to the special circumstances of these states. Then we focus on the challenges facing the airlines of Small States, while the next section proposes a number of the alternative policy options open to the policy makers in these states. The main conclusions are drawn in the final section.

  4. Translation, the Knowledge Economy, and Crossing Boundaries in Contemporary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yun-Shiuan

    2016-01-01

    Significant developments in the global economy and information technology have been accompanied by a transformation in the nature and process of knowledge production and dissemination. Concepts such as the knowledge economy or creative economy have been formulated to accommodate the new and complex developments in knowledge, creativity, economy,…

  5. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-88 Fuel economy calculations....

  6. 40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-78 Fuel economy calculations....

  7. Economies of scale and scope as an explanation of merger and output diversification activities in the health maintenance organization industry.

    PubMed

    Given, R S

    1996-12-01

    This paper tests for the existence and magnitude of economies of scale and scope as possible explanations for the recent observed trends in increasing health maintenance organization (HMO) scale (through merger and acquisition) and scope (through greater participation in public enrollee markets) using firm level data from a sample of California HMOs for the time period 1986-1992. The results suggest that economies of scale provide a strong justification for mergers only in the case of relatively small HMOs (i.e. those with fewer than 115,000 enrollees), and economies of scope do not explain the increasing HMO enrollment of public enrollees.

  8. Open File: New Modalities for Educational Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchert, Lene, Ed.; Epskamp, Kees, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal focuses on comparative education and has four major sections. The "Viewpoint/Controversy" section contains one article: "Is the Globalization of the Economy Creating Values for a New Civilization?" (Koichiro Matsuura). The "Open File: Rethinking Educational Aid" section contains the following articles: "From Project to Programme to…

  9. 78 FR 46799 - Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings, 77 FR 38553 (June 28, 2012) (``Proposed..., 71 FR 61716 (October 19, 2006). \\3\\ See Countervailing Duty Investigation of Coated Free Sheet Paper... Republic of China; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 63 FR 63834, 63838 (Nov....

  10. Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuokkanen, Rauna

    2011-01-01

    The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

  11. Youth and the New Economy=Les jeunes et la nouvelle economie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Perspectives Series, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This Community Perspective Series document includes statements about young people in the new economy of Toronto made by three participants in the October 2000 annual general meeting of the Toronto Training Board. "A Hitchhiker's Guide to the New Economy" (Olivia Chow) suggests that training programs available to young people are fragmented and…

  12. Green Skills for Green Economy: Case of the Environmental Education Role in Kazakhstan's Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlimbetova, Gaini; Zhylbaev, Zhanbol; Syrymbetova, Lyailya; ?liyeva, Aiman

    2016-01-01

    The research on situation with developing "green skills" in conditions of transition to "green economy" is analysed in this article. Kazakhstan like many other states has been going through transition to "green economy" since 2013. Economic reforms have made an impact on the system of environmental education. The…

  13. Education and the Economy: Boosting Kentucky's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  14. Education and the Economy: Boosting North Carolina's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  15. Education and the Economy: Boosting Idaho's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  16. Education and the Economy: Boosting Wyoming's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  17. Education and the Economy: Boosting Virginia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  18. Education and the Economy: Boosting Oregon's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  19. Education and the Economy: Boosting Florida's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  20. Education and the Economy: Boosting Michigan's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  1. Education and the Economy: Boosting New Mexico's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  2. Education and the Economy: Boosting New Hampshire's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  3. Education and the Economy: Boosting the Nation's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  4. Education and the Economy: Boosting Iowa's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  5. Education and the Economy: Boosting Minnesota's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  6. Education and the Economy: Boosting Illinois's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  7. Education and the Economy: Boosting Oklahoma's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  8. Education and the Economy: Boosting Montana's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  9. Education and the Economy: Boosting New York's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  10. Education and the Economy: Boosting Connecticut's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  11. Education and the Economy: Boosting Colorado's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  12. Education and the Economy: Boosting Alabama's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  13. Education and the Economy: Boosting Maryland's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  14. Education and the Economy: Boosting the District of Columbia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  15. Education and the Economy: Boosting Nevada's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  16. Education and the Economy: Boosting Wisconsin's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  17. Education and the Economy: Boosting Ohio's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  18. Education and the Economy: Boosting North Dakota's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  19. Education and the Economy: Boosting Georgia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  20. Education and the Economy: Boosting West Virginia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  1. Education and the Economy: Boosting Texas's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  2. Education and the Economy: Boosting Utah's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  3. Education and the Economy: Boosting Indiana's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  4. Education and the Economy: Boosting South Dakota's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  5. Education and the Economy: Boosting Louisiana's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  6. Education and the Economy: Boosting New Jersey's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  7. Education and the Economy: Boosting Maine's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  8. Education and the Economy: Boosting Arizona's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  9. Education and the Economy: Boosting Hawaii's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  10. Education and the Economy: Boosting Delaware's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  11. Education and the Economy: Boosting Massachusetts' Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  12. Education and the Economy: Boosting Kansas' Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  13. Education and the Economy: Boosting Missouri's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  14. Education and the Economy: Boosting Nebraska's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  15. Education and the Economy: Boosting Alaska's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  16. Education and the Economy: Boosting South Carolina's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  17. Education and the Economy: Boosting Vermont's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  18. Education and the Economy: Boosting Pennsylvania's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  19. Education and the Economy: Boosting Rhode Island's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  20. Education and the Economy: Boosting Washington's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  1. Education and the Economy: Boosting Mississippi's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  2. Education and the Economy: Boosting Arkansas' Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  3. Education and the Economy: Boosting California's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  4. Education and the Economy: Boosting Tennessee's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  5. An entropic framework for modeling economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caticha, Ariel; Golan, Amos

    2014-08-01

    We develop an information-theoretic framework for economic modeling. This framework is based on principles of entropic inference that are designed for reasoning on the basis of incomplete information. We take the point of view of an external observer who has access to limited information about broad macroscopic economic features. We view this framework as complementary to more traditional methods. The economy is modeled as a collection of agents about whom we make no assumptions of rationality (in the sense of maximizing utility or profit). States of statistical equilibrium are introduced as those macrostates that maximize entropy subject to the relevant information codified into constraints. The basic assumption is that this information refers to supply and demand and is expressed in the form of the expected values of certain quantities (such as inputs, resources, goods, production functions, utility functions and budgets). The notion of economic entropy is introduced. It provides a measure of the uniformity of the distribution of goods and resources. It captures both the welfare state of the economy as well as the characteristics of the market (say, monopolistic, concentrated or competitive). Prices, which turn out to be the Lagrange multipliers, are endogenously generated by the economy. Further studies include the equilibrium between two economies and the conditions for stability. As an example, the case of the nonlinear economy that arises from linear production and utility functions is treated in some detail.

  6. Cost and design study of modular small hydro plants. Volume 4. Siphon penstock model test report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, L.

    1984-06-01

    A small hydro plant with a penstock and pump-as-turbine (PAT) unit was constructed and tested in the laboratory to evaluate the performance of the model under certain operating conditions and obtain information which may be used in the design of a prototype hydro plant. The tests performed on the model included normal start-up, steady run and shutdown operations, vacuum filling tests, a study of air bubble behavior, and surging observed in the intake leg of the siphon. Tests were repeated for a second configuration with an exaggerated siphon lift, but with the same head. In both configurations, plant operations were investigated with the butterfly valve open and closed. The simulation with the valve open was of particular interest because of the potential economies of a prototype without a valve.

  7. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  8. Automotive fuel economy and emissions program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Baisley, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental data were generated to support an assessment of the relationship between automobile fuel economy and emissions control systems. Tests were made at both the engine and vehicle levels. Detailed investigations were made on cold-start emissions devices, exhaust gas recirculation systems, and air injection reactor systems. Based on the results of engine tests, an alternative emission control system and modified control strategy were implemented and tested in the vehicle. With the same fuel economy and NOx emissions as the stock vehicle, the modified vehicle reduced HC and CO emissions by about 20 percent. By removing the NOx emissions constraint, the modified vehicle demonstrated about 12 percent better fuel economy than the stock vehicle.

  9. Educating nurses for the knowledge economy.

    PubMed

    Myrick, Florence

    2005-01-01

    When discussing the education of nurses for the knowledge economy it must be assumed that nursing is influenced by multiple factors reflective of the broader society in which it exists. These factors include civil society, social justice, and the public sector, all of which converge to shape nursing education and ultimately nursing practice. Over the past decade in particular, these factors have been greatly affected by what may be described as the hegemonic influences of the knowledge economy and the philosophical assumptions on which it is based, influences that are impacting directly on how the health system is evolving. The author posits, therefore, that it is incumbent on faculty to educate future nurses for the knowledge economy and to provide them with appropriate tools with which to meet the many challenges that confront them today and will invariably continue to confront them in the coming decades.

  10. Sanitary engineering and water economy in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Krul, W. F. J. M.

    1957-01-01

    The author deals with a wide variety of aspects of water economy and the development of water resources, relating them to the sanitary engineering problems they give rise to. Among those aspects are the balance between available resources and water needs for various purposes; accumulation and storage of surface and ground water, and methods of replenishing ground water supplies; pollution and purification; and organizational measures to deal with the urgent problems raised by the heavy demands on the world's water supply as a result of both increased population and the increased need for agricultural and industrial development. The author considers that at the national level over-all plans for developing the water economy of countries might well be drawn up by national water boards and that the economy of inter-State river basins should receive international study. In such work the United Nations and its specialized agencies might be of assistance. PMID:13472427

  11. The food industry and provincial economies.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Greg; Li, Duo

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the food industry for the Zhejiang provincial economy and for provincial economies generally. It is suggested that the strong ties between the food industry and provincial economies in China means that the food industry can be a key influence in the economic development of regional China. Moreover, the geographically diffuse nature of the food industry in China gives the industry a strategic significance in countering regional inequality within and between provinces, a by-product of China's rapid growth over the past 25 years. For these reasons, change in the food industry, whether it has its origins in the introduction of western fast foods, or in environmental, technological or economic trends, not only assumes significance for the health of the Chinese people (as other papers presented to the International Cuisine and Health Workshop at Hangzhou have pointed out), but also for the wealth of the nation and the way that wealth is distributed. PMID:15228984

  12. Intrinsic reinforcers in a classroom token economy.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, T F; Malaby, J

    1972-01-01

    An inexpensive, easily managed token economy was used in a normal classroom for one academic year, and data were collected for the entire academic performance in spelling, language, handwriting, and math for that year. During a baseline period, assignment completion was variable. The introduction of a token economy with a point exchange every five days increased assignment completion and decreased variability of performance. An application of a token economy that had a point exchange averaging four days was accompanied by an assignment completion rate that approximated 100%. A reinforcement contingency for which quiet behavior rather than for assignment completion was eased quiet behavior was accompanied by a marked diminution of assignment completion. A reintroduction of the token reinforcement for assignment completion system increased assignment completion again. PMID:16795348

  13. Intrinsic reinforcers in a classroom token economy.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, T F; Malaby, J

    1972-01-01

    An inexpensive, easily managed token economy was used in a normal classroom for one academic year, and data were collected for the entire academic performance in spelling, language, handwriting, and math for that year. During a baseline period, assignment completion was variable. The introduction of a token economy with a point exchange every five days increased assignment completion and decreased variability of performance. An application of a token economy that had a point exchange averaging four days was accompanied by an assignment completion rate that approximated 100%. A reinforcement contingency for which quiet behavior rather than for assignment completion was eased quiet behavior was accompanied by a marked diminution of assignment completion. A reintroduction of the token reinforcement for assignment completion system increased assignment completion again.

  14. The correlation between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake: cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships in highly trained distance runners.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Andrew J; Ingham, Stephen A; Atkinson, Greg; Folland, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    A positive relationship between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) has been postulated in trained athletes, but previous evidence is equivocal and could have been confounded by statistical artefacts. Whether this relationship is preserved in response to running training (changes in running economy and V̇O2max) has yet to be explored. This study examined the relationships of (i) running economy and V̇O2max between runners, and (ii) the changes in running economy and V̇O2max that occur within runners in response to habitual training. 168 trained distance runners (males, n = 98, V̇O2max 73.0 ± 6.3 mL∙kg-1∙min-1; females, n = 70, V̇O2max 65.2 ± 5.9 mL kg-1∙min-1) performed a discontinuous submaximal running test to determine running economy (kcal∙km-1). A continuous incremental treadmill running test to volitional exhaustion was used to determine V̇O2max 54 participants (males, n = 27; females, n = 27) also completed at least one follow up assessment. Partial correlation analysis revealed small positive relationships between running economy and V̇O2max (males r = 0.26, females r = 0.25; P<0.006), in addition to moderate positive relationships between the changes in running economy and V̇O2max in response to habitual training (r = 0.35; P<0.001). In conclusion, the current investigation demonstrates that only a small to moderate relationship exists between running economy and V̇O2max in highly trained distance runners. With >85% of the variance in these parameters unexplained by this relationship, these findings reaffirm that running economy and V̇O2max are primarily determined independently.

  15. The Correlation between Running Economy and Maximal Oxygen Uptake: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Relationships in Highly Trained Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Andrew J.; Ingham, Stephen A.; Atkinson, Greg; Folland, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    A positive relationship between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) has been postulated in trained athletes, but previous evidence is equivocal and could have been confounded by statistical artefacts. Whether this relationship is preserved in response to running training (changes in running economy and V̇O2max) has yet to be explored. This study examined the relationships of (i) running economy and V̇O2max between runners, and (ii) the changes in running economy and V̇O2max that occur within runners in response to habitual training. 168 trained distance runners (males, n = 98, V̇O2max 73.0 ± 6.3 mL∙kg-1∙min-1; females, n = 70, V̇O2max 65.2 ± 5.9 mL kg-1∙min-1) performed a discontinuous submaximal running test to determine running economy (kcal∙km-1). A continuous incremental treadmill running test to volitional exhaustion was used to determine V̇O2max 54 participants (males, n = 27; females, n = 27) also completed at least one follow up assessment. Partial correlation analysis revealed small positive relationships between running economy and V̇O2max (males r = 0.26, females r = 0.25; P<0.006), in addition to moderate positive relationships between the changes in running economy and V̇O2max in response to habitual training (r = 0.35; P<0.001). In conclusion, the current investigation demonstrates that only a small to moderate relationship exists between running economy and V̇O2max in highly trained distance runners. With >85% of the variance in these parameters unexplained by this relationship, these findings reaffirm that running economy and V̇O2max are primarily determined independently. PMID:25849090

  16. Burma: the political economy of violence.

    PubMed

    Brown, C

    1999-09-01

    Protracted conflict and violence in Burma have been conducive to the growth of the opium industry, Burma's single financial success in recent years of economic crisis and authoritarian rule. This in turn has fed violence and subsequent humanitarian crisis. This paper argues that the underlying political economy of the conflict has been overlooked, while conflict itself has been treated as a peripheral factor in questions of 'development', and further that the opium dynamic is a vital factor in continued violence and vulnerability for non-combatants in the region. A political economy approach, identifying the beneficiaries of violence, will offer a more holistic and effective approach to the protracted crisis.

  17. An inquiry into the household economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuelson, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The value of the time which people devote to each activity of their lives is compared with the money they spend on the activity. After tax wage rates are used to value an individual's time. The enormous size of the household economy and the fact that for most activities the value of the consumer's time devoted to an activity exceeds the money expenditures on the activity, suggest that there are many opportunities for productivity improvements in the household economy which have been overlooked in most traditional thinking on productivity.

  18. Burma: the political economy of violence.

    PubMed

    Brown, C

    1999-09-01

    Protracted conflict and violence in Burma have been conducive to the growth of the opium industry, Burma's single financial success in recent years of economic crisis and authoritarian rule. This in turn has fed violence and subsequent humanitarian crisis. This paper argues that the underlying political economy of the conflict has been overlooked, while conflict itself has been treated as a peripheral factor in questions of 'development', and further that the opium dynamic is a vital factor in continued violence and vulnerability for non-combatants in the region. A political economy approach, identifying the beneficiaries of violence, will offer a more holistic and effective approach to the protracted crisis. PMID:10509057

  19. Divvy Economies Based On (An Abstract) Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Dennis G.

    2004-04-01

    The Leontief Input-Output economic system can provide a model for a one-parameter family of economic systems based on an abstract temperature T. In particular, given a normalized input-output matrix R and taking R= R(1), a family of economic systems R(1/T)=R(α) is developed that represents heating (T>1) and cooling (T<1) of the economy relative to T=1. .The economy for a given value of T represents the solution of a constrained maximum entropy problem.

  20. When does inequality freeze an economy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerico, João Pedro; Landes, François P.; Marsili, Matteo; Pérez Castillo, Isaac; Volpati, Valerio

    2016-07-01

    Inequality and its consequences are the subject of intense recent debate. Using a simplified model of the economy, we address the relation between inequality and liquidity, the latter understood as the frequency of economic exchanges. Assuming a Pareto distribution of wealth for the agents, that is consistent with empirical findings, we find an inverse relation between wealth inequality and overall liquidity. We show that an increase in the inequality of wealth results in an even sharper concentration of the liquid financial resources. This leads to a congestion of the flow of goods and the arrest of the economy when the Pareto exponent reaches one.

  1. A strategic approach to a green economy.

    PubMed

    Trumka, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    The crash has happened and we face dual market failures: climate change and the greatest economic crisis of our lifetimes. American labor believes that we must have a strategic approach to greening the economy centered on domestic investment in new technologies, the creation of good jobs, and leading a shared international response to both these issues. The nay-sayers are the same financial and industrial interests that advised the world economy into chaos. Their advice to us is more of the same: no rules, no regulations, free markets, and free trade. But now is the time for real change.

  2. Remuneration differences in the emerging economies of China and India.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Erhua Iris; Lu, Zhao; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Tian; Papola, T S; Pais, Jesim; Sahu, Partha Pratim

    2010-10-01

    Emerging economies by definition tend to be less dependent on expatriate skills and labour than lower-income countries, yet remuneration (pay plus benefits) differences between expatriate and local workers persist in them to some degree. According to relative deprivation theory, economic development paradoxically elevates the salience of relatively small gaps in remuneration. We therefore expected workers to report injustice and demotivation regarding relative remuneration, despite the closing of remuneration gaps between expatriate and local workers due to the economic development of recent years. To explore that possibility, 482 skilled professionals from a variety of sectors and organizations in two emerging economies, India (n = 233, response rate = 54%) and China (n = 249, response rate = 58%), participated in the research. International salaries were greater than local salaries by a factor of 2.73:1 in India and 1.90:1 in China; these mean ratios bordered on intolerable in the India sample and were largely tolerable among the sample from China. In both countries, differently remunerated workers differed in their justice cognitions and their demotivation, with lowered motivation and fewer justice cognitions in the locally salaried, local workers. These differences were however more statistically significant between people working in India than in China. Insofar as the motivational and justice gaps persisted, the findings support relative deprivation theory. Insofar as the same gaps appear to be sharper in the country with the higher-not lower-mean remuneration differential, they do not. An in-country workshop with local experts who interpreted the findings (in India), and content analysis of the participants' recommendations (in China) jointly recommended linking remuneration to (i) workplace performance instead of (ii) economy-of-origin, to help promote (iii) fairness.

  3. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  4. The initiation of homeless youth into the street economy.

    PubMed

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S

    2009-04-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based organizations. All participated in structured interviews and 25% participated in qualitative interviews. Almost all HY had participated in the street (81%) and formal economies (69%). Five main factors simultaneously influenced initiation into the street economy: social control/bonds, barriers to the formal economy (e.g., homelessness, educational deficits, mental health problems, incarceration, stigma), tangible and social/emotional benefits of the street economy, severe economic need, and the active recruitment of HY into the street economy by others. Qualitative and quantitative data sources were congruent. Intervention efforts are needed at multiple levels of influence to promote HY's success in the formal economy.

  5. Income Inequality, Global Economy and the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheol-Sung; Nielsen, Francois; Alderson, Arthur S.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate interrelationship among income inequality, global economy and the role of the state using an unbalanced panel data set with 311 observations on 60 countries, dated from 1970 to 1994. The analysis proceeds in two stages. First, we test for effects on income inequality of variables characterizing the situation of a society in the…

  6. Apparel Graduate Course Focuses on Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnock, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Students at all levels of study must understand the impact and consequences of globalization. Because of technology innovations, integration of world economies through trade and cash flows, and the movement of people from one location to another, the world is becoming flatter. Based on this growing need to study globalization, a graduate course,…

  7. California Community Colleges: Vital to the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The California Community Colleges play an important role in boosting the state's economy by serving more than 2.3 million students a year. In fact, one out of three community college students in the U.S. is enrolled in a California community college, making it the nation's largest system of higher education. Their 112 colleges provide students…

  8. The Political Economy Program: An Informal Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    The political economy program at Williams College is described. This program is a joint major drawing upon the political science and economics departments and is designed to give those who enter public service, business or law a grasp of the governmental and economic environment within which they will have to operate. It also may give those who…

  9. Your Institution in a Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, William

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author offers his reflections on the American economy and its "slow, gradual, and tedious" recovery. What the American people are experiencing now is not one of the ordinary recessions that have been experienced since World War II. What they have seen is a bursting of a bubble in the credit markets and in financial…

  10. The New Economy/Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huey, John; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "Waking up to the New Economy" (Huey); "Service Is Everybody's Business" (Henkoff); "Government Learns Humility" (Norton); "The New Work Force Builds Itself" (Richman); "The Productivity Payoff Arrives" (Magnet); "America May Be More Productive than You Think"; "The Geography of an Emerging America" (Labich); and "Global--Or Just…

  11. Valid Knowledge: The Economy and the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    The future of Western universities as public institutions is the subject of extensive continuing debate, underpinned by the issue of what constitutes "valid knowledge". Where in the past only propositional knowledge codified by academics was considered valid, in the new economy enabled by information and communications technology, the procedural…

  12. Library Automation in a Difficult Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    The downturn in the economy has taken its toll on libraries. Even in the best of times, most libraries have to work with budgets that are barely adequate to support their essential activities. In these recent months, the recession has subtracted significant funds from the parent organizations of many libraries: city, county, and state governments;…

  13. Technology transfer to the broader economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, Gordon; Clark, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Approaches to the transfer of government-funded civil space technology to the broader commercial economy were addressed by Working Panel no. 4. Some of the problems related to current strategies for technology transfer and recommendations for new approaches are described in outline form.

  14. Educating for the Knowledge Economy? Critical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, Hugh, Ed.; Young, Michael, Ed.; Daniels, Harry, Ed.; Balarin, Maria, Ed.; Lowe, John, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The promise, embraced by governments around the world, is that the knowledge economy will provide knowledge workers with a degree of autonomy and permission to think which enables them to be creative and to attract high incomes. What credence should we give to this promise? The current economic crisis is provoking a reappraisal of both economic…

  15. What Does the Economy Bode for Fundraising?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourbon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    With the United States economy on a rollercoaster ride this year and words like "meltdown," "bailout," and "crisis" commonly used in recent weeks in connection with the financial markets, college and university administrators might find themselves becoming increasingly anxious about their fundraising plans. They needn't be, according to several…

  16. The Political Economy of National Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapstein, Ethan B.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a course offered on the political economy of national security. Discusses the objective of the course as the introduction of major economic issues associated with national security. Outlines lecture topics, course readings, and class format. Evaluates course weaknesses and strengths. Includes course assignments and requirements. (RW)

  17. Political economy of Clinton's ambitious energy program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldy, Joseph E.

    2016-10-01

    Hillary Clinton's campaign has stressed her continuity with Obama's energy policy on key aspects such as decarbonization of the US economy, technological innovation and global cooperation. However, policy reforms to deliver long-term climate goals might be out of reach in a highly divided Congress.

  18. Employment Policy in the Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eddy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This special issue on employment policy in the global economy looks at macroeconomic policies and employment, institutional requirements for full employment, the world trade system, foreign investment, the marginalism of Africa, productivity enhancing policies, influence of information and communication technology, industrialized countries, and…

  19. The "Celtic Tiger" and a Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Gerard M.; O'Sullivan, Eoin

    2006-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Ireland has proactively marketed its educated workforce, its favourable corporate tax rates, membership of the European common market, and other advantages, to multinational technology corporations. The resulting foreign direct investment in high-tech manufacturing operations has driven a booming Irish economy that has…

  20. Building New York City's Innovation Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Jim; Bowles, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Academic research institutions have long been important economic anchors for New York City. They provide thousands of jobs and serve as a magnet for talented students and faculty, who inject hundreds of millions of dollars into the local economy through federal research grants. Yet, even though New York's concentration of top-fight scientific…

  1. A Cooperative Home-School Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Belinda D.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes token economy systems for use with students with severe behavioral disorders, including systems extending from the classroom into home life. Techniques for soliciting parent participation, training parents, and maintaining the system are put forth. Variations on the system and a sample checklist are also included. (PB)

  2. Economies of scale in home care.

    PubMed

    Joffe, J

    1989-01-01

    Home care (HC) demonstration projects have assessed the results of an existing decentralized system rather than evaluate the consequences of changing the system. This paper examines the potential for improving HC cost performance through economies of scale and how these economies can be introduced into HC operations with expansion and consolidation of the market. Theoretical, empirical and policy issues discussed include: (a) specification of the elements of structural redesign of HC service programs focusing on the creation of joint services; (b) a critique of the current method of estimating the size of the market for long term care; (c) empirical measures of uneven HC market size and density with implications for the opportunity to apply economies of scale; (d) the major institutional obstacles to creating the requisite coordination for joint HC services and policy recommendations to overcome these obstacles; (e) housing settings for joint services; (f) HC practices embodying economies of scale in Sweden. Joint services are especially applicable in older northern cities with a high density and a large number of elderly persons. This delivery mode provides a cost savings logic for expanding and consolidating home care services.

  3. Labor and the Economy in 1973

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defina, Catherine C.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the economy in 1973 includes coverage of price controls and freezes; monetary and fiscal policy; unemployment collective bargaining (apparel, railroads, rubber, electrical equipment, postal, trucking, automobiles); strikes; legal developments (employment discrimination and legislation); union developments (indictment, farm ferment,…

  4. The Learning Region between Pedagogy and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Economic growth is stimulated through learning. In "the learning economies" of those European regions that chose to develop their human and intellectual capital wisely, benefits have been visible. But this is a one-dimensional outlook in a multi-dimensional world. A "Learning Region" is an entirely different entity, pooling and mobilising its…

  5. Economics of automobile fuel-economy standards

    SciTech Connect

    Kleit, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1978 the Federal government has mandated that new automobiles sold by major firms in the United States reach certain levels of average fuel efficiency. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards can generate implicit taxes and subsidies for various types of cars. They also can have an impact on market structure, creating regulatory economies of scope. CAFE standards may also act to increase the profits of firms in the automobile industry, either by preventing competition among firms constrained by the standards or by creating profit opportunities for firms not constrained by the standards. CAFE standards are shown to have had a significant effect on the price of new cars in model years 1983 through 1986, raising the price of fuel inefficient cars and lowering the price of fuel efficient cars. The gasoline savings resulting from the imposition of higher standards are computed, as well as the welfare loss they generate. It is concluded that automobile fuel economy standards can save gasoline,but only at a large loss to the economy. An empirical model of the political support for CAFE standards is developed and tested. It is shown that support for the standards comes from the one major domestic automobile company that would benefit from higher standards, as well as from those who in general prefer regulatory solutions to the free market.

  6. Economy's Troubles Could Hit Colleges Unusually Hard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2008-01-01

    Financial experts everywhere agree that the economy appears headed toward a recession. The question is how long it will last and how deep it will be. The last recession, in 2001, lasted less than a year. Most sectors, including higher education, shrugged it off. During lengthier downturns, colleges have often benefited from increased enrollments.…

  7. Towards a Political Economy of Educational Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Hans N.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the role of planning in the process of legitimating educational policy decisions. Review of the history of educational planning indicates how closely its origins and development have been linked with considerations of economic development. Suggests that planners probe further into the political economy of education as a basis for a…

  8. Universities, Regional Policy and the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; May, Tim

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the spatial clustering dimension of new information and communications technology (ICT)-driven economic activity based on knowledge industries and especially the tacit knowledge synergies to be achieved through networking in geographical space. The article first details the new knowledge economy, reviewing claims made for…

  9. The Socialist Market Economy and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yixian, Li

    2006-01-01

    The [Chinese Communist] Party's Fourteenth Congress unequivocally confirmed the building of a socialist market system. The Third Plenary Session of the Party's Twelfth Congress in 1984 propounding the market led to economic reforms and the advancing of the theory of a socialist market economy. It constitutes a deepened understanding of the…

  10. Trends in Alaska's People and Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda; Killorin, Mary; Martin, Stephanie

    This booklet provides data on Alaska's population, economy, health, education, government, and natural resources, including specific information on Alaska Natives. Since 1960, Alaska's population has tripled and become more diverse, more stable, older, less likely to be male or married, and more concentrated. About 69 percent of the population…

  11. The Political Economy of North American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John H., Ed.

    This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

  12. The Interorganizational Network as a Political Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, J. Kenneth

    1975-01-01

    The interorganizational network may be conceived as a political economy concerned with the distribution of two scarce resources--money and authority. Organizations pursue an adequate supply of these resources. Interactions and sentiments of organizations are dependent on their respective market positions and their power to affect the flow of…

  13. Reconsidering an Economy of Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayanagi, Mitsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    This article has an overall aim as follows: to develop an alternative understanding to a narrow view of education, and in particular teacher training--preparatory and continuing--in terms of economy, as well as the competencies needed for the teaching profession. It takes the view that such an alternative is or could be found in the ideas put…

  14. Essays on Industrial Organization and Political Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Odilon Roberto VG de a

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents three essays on industrial organization and political economy. In the first essay, I show how the attributes of a managerial workforce affect firms' placement decisions and wage offers, and managers' quit decisions. My OLG model features two division managers and a CEO, where each executive may be at a different point in his…

  15. Economies of Scale in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broomall, Lawrence W.; And Others

    Economics of scale for public colleges and universities in Virginia and 22 major public universities were determined by regression analysis. The institutions were analyzed in terms of the number of full-time equivalent students and costs. Results indicate that economies of scale are not necessarily a function of the type and size of a university.…

  16. Postsecondary Responses to a Changing Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charner, Ivan; Rolzinski, Catherine

    Postsecondary education's responses to economic change are discussed, based on 22 projects supported by the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE). After identifying common themes of the FIPSE "Education and Economy Alliance" projects, new directions for postsecondary education are considered, along with policy concerns.…

  17. Biotech Tradeoffs in the Rural Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttel, Frederick H.

    1987-01-01

    Synthesizes findings with personal estimates of likely impacts of biotechnology on nonmetropolitan economy, farming, public research institutions. Indicates biotechnology's benefit to rural America may come in expanded demand for raw materials although drawbacks may include declining farm numbers and displacement of rural workers in…

  18. Establishing and Balancing a Classroom Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center, David B.; Arnault, Lynne

    The paper presents a classroom token economy system for providing classroom structure, eliminating or controlling a variety of problem behaviors, and for demonstration and teaching purposes. The first section addresses income production (payment for productive work using classroom work periods as payment periods). A percentage method in paying for…

  19. A Home-School Token Economy Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Charles L.; Fairchild, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Presents a workable plan for all counselors who wish to establish cooperation and collaboration between parents and teachers concerning children's problems that involve achievement and misbehavior. A basic outline of how to implement a home-school token economy plan is presented with two case examples illustrating its use and effectiveness.…

  20. Small Wins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhatigan, James J.; Schuh, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Examines how it easy for people to overlook small successes when they are overwhelmed by and preoccupied with large projects and goals. Explores the concept of "small wins" in organizational theory, which have the potential to become a prominent part of institutional culture and impact organizational behavior and change. (GCP)

  1. Small Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    1999-01-01

    Presents a notion of small culture as an alternative to what has become the default notion of large culture in applied linguistics, social science, and popular usage. A small-culture view of English-language curriculum settings reveals mismatches between professional-academic and organizational cultures at the mezzo level of the institution. (VWL)

  2. China’s new-age small farms and their vertical integration: agribusiness or co-ops?

    PubMed

    Huang, Philip C C

    2011-01-01

    The future of Chinese agriculture lies not with large mechanized farms but with small capital-labor dual intensifying family farms for livestock-poultry-fish raising and vegetable-fruit cultivation. Chinese food consumption patterns have been changing from the old 8:1:1 pattern of 8 parts grain, 1 part meat, and 1 part vegetables to a 4:3:3 pattern, with a corresponding transformation in agricultural structure. Small family-farming is better suited for the new-age agriculture, including organic farming, than large-scale mechanized farming, because of the intensive, incremental, and variegated hand labor involved, not readily open to economies of scale, though compatible with economies of scope. It is also better suited to the realities of severe population pressure on land. But it requires vertical integration from cultivation to processing to marketing, albeit without horizontal integration for farming. It is against such a background that co-ops have arisen spontaneously for integrating small farms with processing and marketing. The Chinese government, however, has been supporting aggressively capitalistic agribusinesses as the preferred mode of vertical integration. At present, Chinese agriculture is poised at a crossroads, with the future organizational mode for vertical integration as yet uncertain.

  3. China’s new-age small farms and their vertical integration: agribusiness or co-ops?

    PubMed

    Huang, Philip C C

    2011-01-01

    The future of Chinese agriculture lies not with large mechanized farms but with small capital-labor dual intensifying family farms for livestock-poultry-fish raising and vegetable-fruit cultivation. Chinese food consumption patterns have been changing from the old 8:1:1 pattern of 8 parts grain, 1 part meat, and 1 part vegetables to a 4:3:3 pattern, with a corresponding transformation in agricultural structure. Small family-farming is better suited for the new-age agriculture, including organic farming, than large-scale mechanized farming, because of the intensive, incremental, and variegated hand labor involved, not readily open to economies of scale, though compatible with economies of scope. It is also better suited to the realities of severe population pressure on land. But it requires vertical integration from cultivation to processing to marketing, albeit without horizontal integration for farming. It is against such a background that co-ops have arisen spontaneously for integrating small farms with processing and marketing. The Chinese government, however, has been supporting aggressively capitalistic agribusinesses as the preferred mode of vertical integration. At present, Chinese agriculture is poised at a crossroads, with the future organizational mode for vertical integration as yet uncertain. PMID:21539027

  4. Abraham Lincoln and the global economy.

    PubMed

    Hormats, Robert D

    2003-08-01

    Abraham Lincoln would have well understood the challenges facing many modern emerging nations. In Lincoln's America, as in many developing nations today, sweeping economic change threatened older industries, traditional ways of living, and social and national cohesion by exposing economies and societies to new and powerful competitive forces. Yet even in the midst of the brutal and expensive American Civil war--and in part because of it--Lincoln and the Republican Congress enacted bold legislation that helped create a huge national market, a strong and unified economy governed by national institutions, and a rising middle class of businessmen and property owners. Figuring out how to maximize the benefits of globalization while minimizing its disruptions is a formidable challenge for policy makers. How do you expand opportunities for the talented and the lucky while making sure the rest of society doesn't fall behind? It may be helpful to look at the principles that informed the policies that Lincoln and the Republican Congress instituted after they came to power in 1861: Facilitate the upward mobility of low- and middle-income groups to give them a significant stake in the country. Emphasize the good of the national economy over regional interests. Affirm the need for sound government institutions to temper the dynamics of the free enterprise system. Tailor policies to the national situation. Realize that a period of turmoil may present a unique opportunity for reform. These principles drove the reforms that helped Americans cope with and benefit from rapid technological advances and the fast integration of the American economy in the nineteenth century. They may be instructive to today's policy makers who are struggling to help their own citizens integrate into the fast-changing global economy of the twenty-first century.

  5. Abraham Lincoln and the global economy.

    PubMed

    Hormats, Robert D

    2003-08-01

    Abraham Lincoln would have well understood the challenges facing many modern emerging nations. In Lincoln's America, as in many developing nations today, sweeping economic change threatened older industries, traditional ways of living, and social and national cohesion by exposing economies and societies to new and powerful competitive forces. Yet even in the midst of the brutal and expensive American Civil war--and in part because of it--Lincoln and the Republican Congress enacted bold legislation that helped create a huge national market, a strong and unified economy governed by national institutions, and a rising middle class of businessmen and property owners. Figuring out how to maximize the benefits of globalization while minimizing its disruptions is a formidable challenge for policy makers. How do you expand opportunities for the talented and the lucky while making sure the rest of society doesn't fall behind? It may be helpful to look at the principles that informed the policies that Lincoln and the Republican Congress instituted after they came to power in 1861: Facilitate the upward mobility of low- and middle-income groups to give them a significant stake in the country. Emphasize the good of the national economy over regional interests. Affirm the need for sound government institutions to temper the dynamics of the free enterprise system. Tailor policies to the national situation. Realize that a period of turmoil may present a unique opportunity for reform. These principles drove the reforms that helped Americans cope with and benefit from rapid technological advances and the fast integration of the American economy in the nineteenth century. They may be instructive to today's policy makers who are struggling to help their own citizens integrate into the fast-changing global economy of the twenty-first century. PMID:12884668

  6. Open Content in Open Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  7. Can small institutes address some problems facing biomedical researchers?

    PubMed Central

    Sheetz, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    At a time of historically low National Institutes of Health funding rates and many problems with the conduct of research (unfunded mandates, disgruntled reviewers, and rampant paranoia), there is a concern that biomedical research as a profession is waning in the United States (see ”Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws” by Alberts and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). However, it is wonderful to discover something new and to tackle tough puzzles. If we could focus more of our effort on discussing scientific problems and doing research, then we could be more productive and perhaps happier. One potential solution is to focus efforts on small thematic institutes in the university structure that can provide a stimulating and supportive environment for innovation and exploration. With an open-lab concept, there are economies of scale that can diminish paperwork and costs, while providing greater access to state-of-the-art equipment. Merging multiple disciplines around a common theme can catalyze innovation, and this enables individuals to develop new concepts without giving up the credit they deserve, because it is usually clear who did the work. Small institutes do not solve larger systemic problems but rather enable collective efforts to address the noisome aspects of the system and foster an innovative community effort to address scientific problems. PMID:25360047

  8. Can small institutes address some problems facing biomedical researchers?

    PubMed

    Sheetz, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    At a time of historically low National Institutes of Health funding rates and many problems with the conduct of research (unfunded mandates, disgruntled reviewers, and rampant paranoia), there is a concern that biomedical research as a profession is waning in the United States (see "Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws" by Alberts and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). However, it is wonderful to discover something new and to tackle tough puzzles. If we could focus more of our effort on discussing scientific problems and doing research, then we could be more productive and perhaps happier. One potential solution is to focus efforts on small thematic institutes in the university structure that can provide a stimulating and supportive environment for innovation and exploration. With an open-lab concept, there are economies of scale that can diminish paperwork and costs, while providing greater access to state-of-the-art equipment. Merging multiple disciplines around a common theme can catalyze innovation, and this enables individuals to develop new concepts without giving up the credit they deserve, because it is usually clear who did the work. Small institutes do not solve larger systemic problems but rather enable collective efforts to address the noisome aspects of the system and foster an innovative community effort to address scientific problems. PMID:25360047

  9. Can small institutes address some problems facing biomedical researchers?

    PubMed

    Sheetz, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    At a time of historically low National Institutes of Health funding rates and many problems with the conduct of research (unfunded mandates, disgruntled reviewers, and rampant paranoia), there is a concern that biomedical research as a profession is waning in the United States (see "Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws" by Alberts and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). However, it is wonderful to discover something new and to tackle tough puzzles. If we could focus more of our effort on discussing scientific problems and doing research, then we could be more productive and perhaps happier. One potential solution is to focus efforts on small thematic institutes in the university structure that can provide a stimulating and supportive environment for innovation and exploration. With an open-lab concept, there are economies of scale that can diminish paperwork and costs, while providing greater access to state-of-the-art equipment. Merging multiple disciplines around a common theme can catalyze innovation, and this enables individuals to develop new concepts without giving up the credit they deserve, because it is usually clear who did the work. Small institutes do not solve larger systemic problems but rather enable collective efforts to address the noisome aspects of the system and foster an innovative community effort to address scientific problems.

  10. Instabilities in large economies: aggregate volatility without idiosyncratic shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonart, Julius; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Landier, Augustin; Thesmar, David

    2014-10-01

    We study a dynamical model of interconnected firms which allows for certain market imperfections and frictions, restricted here to be myopic price forecasts and slow adjustment of production. Whereas the standard rational equilibrium is still formally a stationary solution of the dynamics, we show that this equilibrium becomes linearly unstable in a whole region of parameter space. When agents attempt to reach the optimal production target too quickly, coordination breaks down and the dynamics becomes chaotic. In the unstable, ‘turbulent’ phase, the aggregate volatility of the total output remains substantial even when the amplitude of idiosyncratic shocks goes to zero or when the size of the economy becomes large. In other words, crises become endogenous. This suggests an interesting resolution of the ‘small shocks, large business cycles’ puzzle.

  11. High open-circuit voltage small-molecule p-DTS(FBTTh 2 )2.ICBA bulk heterojunction solar cells – morphology, excited-state dynamics, and photovoltaic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ko Kyaw, Aung Ko; Gehrig, Dominik; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Ye; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Laquai, Frédéric; Nguyen, Thuc -Quyen

    2014-11-27

    The photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using the solution-processable small molecule donor 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 in combination with indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA) as an acceptor is systematically optimized by altering the processing conditions. A high open-circuit voltage of 1 V, more than 0.2 V higher than that of a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM blend, is achieved. However, the power conversion efficiency remains around 5% and thus is lower than ~8% previously reported for p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM. Transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy over a wide spectral (Vis-NIR) and dynamic (fs to μs) range in combination with multivariate curve resolution analysis of the TA data reveals that generation of free charges is more efficient in the blend with PC70BM as an acceptor. In contrast, blends with ICBA create more coulombically bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states, which recombine on the sub-nanosecond timescale by geminate recombination. Furthermore, the ns to μs charge carrier dynamics in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:ICBA blends are only weakly intensity dependent implying a significant contribution of recombination from long-lived CT states and trapped charges, while those in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM decay via an intensity-dependent recombination mechanism indicating that spatially separated (free) charge carriers are observed, which can be extracted as photocurrent from the device.

  12. An open-label phase 2 trial of dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with previously treated BRAF V600E–mutant metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Planchard, David; Besse, Benjamin; Groen, Harry J M; Souquet, Pierre-Jean; Quoix, Elisabeth; Baik, Christina S; Barlesi, Fabrice; Kim, Tae Min; Mazieres, Julien; Novello, Silvia; Rigas, James R; Upalawanna, Allison; D’Amelio, Anthony M; Zhang, Pingkuan; Mookerjee, Bijoyesh; Johnson, Bruce E

    2016-01-01

    Background BRAF mutations act as an oncogenic driver via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). BRAF inhibition has demonstrated antitumor activity in patients with BRAF V600E (Val600Glu)–mutant NSCLC. Dual MAPK pathway inhibition with BRAF and MEK inhibitors in BRAF V600E–mutant NSCLC may improve efficacy over BRAF-inhibitor monotherapy based on observations in BRAF V600–mutant melanoma. Methods In this phase 2, multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label study of patients with pretreated metastatic BRAF V600E–mutant NSCLC, antitumor activity and safety of oral dabrafenib (150 mg twice daily) plus oral trametinib (2 mg once daily) were evaluated. Adult patients (≥ 18 years) with documented progression following at least one prior platinum-based chemotherapy and no more than three prior systemic anticancer therapies were enrolled. Patients with prior BRAF or MEK inhibitor treatment were ineligible. Patients with brain metastases were permitted to enroll only if the lesions were asymptomatic, untreated (or stable > 3 weeks after local therapy if treated), and measured < 1 cm. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed overall response, which was assessed by intention-to-treat in the protocol-defined population (≥ second-line); safety was also assessed in this population. The study is ongoing but no longer recruiting patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01336634. Findings Fifty-seven patients previously treated with systemic chemotherapy for metastatic BRAF V600E–mutant NSCLC were enrolled. The investigator-assessed overall response was 63·2% (36 of 57; 95% CI 49·3–75·6). Serious adverse events were reported in 32 (56%) of 57 patients and included pyrexia (16%; 9 of 57), anemia (5%; 3 of 57), confusional state (4%; 2 of 57), decreased appetite (4%; 2 of 57), hemoptysis (4%; 2 of 57), hypercalcemia (4%; 2 of 57), nausea (4%; 2 of 57), and cutaneous squamous cell

  13. The Harris-Todaro model and economies of scale.

    PubMed

    Panagariya, A; Succar, P

    1986-04-01

    The authors attempt to reanalyze the Harris-Todaro migration model in the presence of economies of scale in the manufacturing sector, focusing on economies of scale that are external to a given firm but internal to the industry.

  14. Conical beams from open nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yahachi; Hamaguchi, Koji; Hata, Koichi; Uchida, Kunio; Tasaka, Yoshiharu; Ikazaki, Fumikazu; Yumura, Motoo; Kasuya, Atsuo; Nishina, Yuichiro

    1997-10-01

    Electron guns are indispensable devices that are widely used in household and industrial appliances. Field electron-emitting sources (which emit electrons by tunnelling effects in electric fields), with their small size, small energy spread, high current density and no requirement for heat, have distinct advantages over thermionic emitters. We have made a field electron emitter from hollow, open-ended carbon nanotubes.

  15. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... grams/mile values for HC, CO and CO2 for both the city fuel economy test and the highway fuel economy...) Calculate the weighted grams/mile values for the city fuel economy test for HC, CO, and CO2 as specified in... fuel economy test for HC, CO, and CO2 as specified in paragraph (b) of § 86.144 of this chapter....

  16. Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

  17. Small-Town School Boards: Arduous Challenges and Exemplary Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmuck, Patricia A.; Schmuck, Richard A.

    Small town school boards are made up of conscientious, hardworking, and caring citizens who face arduous economic challenges and difficult educational dilemmas. The changing economy of small towns has led to fewer professionals and business owners participating in boards of education, a rift between educators who are bureaucrats and board members…

  18. Measuring flood footprint of a regional economy - A case study for the UK flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of the urban economy and society is central to understanding the broad impacts of flooding and to identify cost-effective adaptation and mitigation measures. Assessments of the flooding impacts on cities have traditionally focused on the initial impact on people and assets. These initial estimates (so-called ';direct damage') are useful both in understanding the immediate implications of damage, and in marshalling the pools of capital and supplies required for re-building after an event. Since different economies as well as societies are coupled, especially under the current economic crisis, any small-scale damage may be multiplied and cascaded throughout wider economic systems and social networks. The direct and indirect damage is currently not evaluated well and could be captured by quantification of what we call the flood footprint. Flooding in one location can impact the whole UK economy. Neglecting these knock-on costs (i.e. the true footprint of the flood) means we might be ignoring the economic benefits and beneficiaries of flood risk management interventions. In 2007, for example, floods cost the economy about £3.2 bn directly, but the wider effect might actually add another 50% to 250% to that. Flood footprint is a measure of the exclusive total socioeconomic impact that is directly and indirectly caused by a flood event to the flooding region and wider economic systems and social networks. We adopt the UK 2012 flooding. An input-output basic dynamic inequalities (BDI) model is used to assess the impact of the floodings on the level of a Yorkshire economy, accounting for interactions between industries through demand and supply of intermediate consumption goods with a circular flow. After the disaster the economy will be unbalanced. The recovery process finishes when the economy is completely balance, i.e., when labour production capacity equals demands and production and all the variables reach pre-disaster levels. The analysis is carried out

  19. When Less Is More: The Role of Small (Really Small) Colleges in Today's Educational Marketplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Karen

    2008-01-01

    In his best-selling book, "Deep Economy," Bill McKibben comments on the benefits of "small" education. Smaller institutions, he argues, resemble farmers' markets--one gets wonderful and quality seasonal food from people he knows and trusts. But, one cannot get everything there that he may want precisely when he wants it. Given personal preferences…

  20. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  1. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  2. 42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Economy and efficiency. 440.370 Section 440.370...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and any... requirements and other economy and efficiency principles that would otherwise be applicable to the services...

  3. 48 CFR 17.502-2 - The Economy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Economy Act. 17.502-2... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Interagency Acquisitions 17.502-2 The Economy Act. (a) The Economy Act (31 U.S.C. 1535) authorizes agencies to enter into agreements to obtain supplies...

  4. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  5. 42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Economy and efficiency. 440.370 Section 440.370...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and any... requirements and other economy and efficiency principles that would otherwise be applicable to the services...

  6. 42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Economy and efficiency. 440.370 Section 440.370...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and any... requirements and other economy and efficiency principles that would otherwise be applicable to the services...

  7. 48 CFR 17.502-2 - The Economy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Economy Act. 17.502-2... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Interagency Acquisitions 17.502-2 The Economy Act. (a) The Economy Act (31 U.S.C. 1535) authorizes agencies to enter into agreements to obtain supplies...

  8. 48 CFR 17.502-2 - The Economy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Economy Act. 17.502-2... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Interagency Acquisitions 17.502-2 The Economy Act. (a) The Economy Act (31 U.S.C. 1535) authorizes agencies to enter into agreements to obtain supplies...

  9. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  10. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  11. 42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Economy and efficiency. 440.370 Section 440.370...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and any... requirements and other economy and efficiency principles that would otherwise be applicable to the services...

  12. The Structure and Future of the Information Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Michael D.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the United States economy and reviews National Income Accounting concepts and evidence about future of an information economy. It is concluded that information economy growth will be in products, not services, and that it will not continue at same rate it has in past. Thirty-six references are cited. (EJS)

  13. Analysis on Inclusion of Social Studies Economy Concepts in Coursebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Mustafa; Osmanoglu, Ahmet Emin

    2015-01-01

    Having an efficient and satisfactory economy education may enable an individual to actively participate in decision making process about economy-related issues. This is very important for democratic societies. This research aims to search methods and levels of teaching "economy" concepts prepared for Turkey 2005 Social Studies Program in…

  14. English and the Knowledge Economy: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on knowledge economy discourse and considers the appeal of this discourse to English educators. Knowledge economy discourse is defined as a mode of thought and expression that assumes a broad-based economy driven by innovation will soon emerge in the USA. This discourse, it is argued, offers English teachers solutions to some…

  15. 42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economy and efficiency. 440.370 Section 440.370...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and any... requirements and other economy and efficiency principles that would otherwise be applicable to the services...

  16. The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

  17. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  18. University and Business Relations: Connecting the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, J. Stanley

    2010-01-01

    It is commonplace to say that the modern economy is knowledge based but a moment's reflection points to the vacuity of this notion. For all economies are knowledge based and could not be otherwise. The question is rather how is one kind of knowledge based economy to be distinguished from another? This essay proposes that the answer may lie in…

  19. Opportunity Knocks: Training the Commonwealth's Workers for the New Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, John D.; Lynch, Lisa M.; Whitehead, Ralph, Jr.

    The current situation regarding training Massachusetts' workers for the new economy was reviewed. Special attention was paid to the following topics: Massachusetts and the skill-centered economy; opportunities for workforce system reform; skills demanded in the new economy; ways other states are building workers' skills; and the fragile setting…

  20. Discussion and Conclusion: A Global Perspective on the World Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hague, Douglas

    1983-01-01

    Important changes are taking place in the world economy which are not adequately dealt with by either Keynesian or monetarist theories. Too much emphasis placed on what is happening in the American and western European economies can blind us to important developments in such nonwestern economies as the OPEC nations. (IS)

  1. Globalisation, Knowledge and the Myth of the Magnet Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Phillip; Lauder, Hugh

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the dominant view of the changing relationship between education, jobs and rewards in the global knowledge economy. This asserts that the developed economies can resolve issues of individual aspirations, economic efficiency and social justice through the creation of a high-skills, high-wage "magnet" economy. Here the authors…

  2. Economies of Scale and Scope in Japanese Private Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Keiji; Cohn, Elchanan

    1997-01-01

    Employs a fixed-cost quadratic function to estimate multiple-output cost functions for 94 private universities in Japan for 1991. Outputs were undergraduate teaching, graduate teaching, and research. Results indicate ray economies of scale and both global and product-specific economies of scope. Product-specific economies of scale are shown for…

  3. [VOCs tax policy on China's economy development].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Xin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Hai-Lin; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, environmental tax was designed to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to explore the impacts of environmental tax (in forms of indirect tax) on the macro-economy development at both national and sector levels. Different levels of tax were simulated to find out the proper tax rate. It is found out that imposing environmental tax on high emission sectors can cause the emission decreased immediately and can lead to negative impacts on macro-economy indicators, such as GDP (gross domestic products), total investment, total product and the whole consumption etc. However, only the government income increased. In addition, the higher the tax rate is, the more pollutants can be reduced and the worse economic effects can be caused. Consequently, it is suggested that, the main controlling policies of VOCs abatement should be mandatory orders, and low environmental tax can be implemented as a supplementary.

  4. The token economy: an evaluative review1

    PubMed Central

    Kazdin, Alan E.; Bootzin, Richard R.

    1972-01-01

    Token economies have been applied in a wide range of settings. While there are several advantages to the use of this procedure, there are obstacles that may impede its implementation and therapeutic efficacy. These include: staff training, client resistance, circumvention of the contingencies, and non-responsiveness of subjects. Studies employing token programs with psychiatric patients, retardates, children in classroom settings, delinquents, and autistic children are reviewed. Although token economies are successful while in operation, the issue of generalization of behavior gains or resistance to extinction has not been given careful consideration. Inasmuch as generalization is perhaps the most crucial issue, several procedures are presented that are designed to facilitate maintenance of performance when reinforcement is withdrawn. Methodological suggestions for investigations on token reinforcement in applied settings are presented. PMID:16795358

  5. The token economy: an evaluative review.

    PubMed

    Kazdin, A E; Bootzin, R R

    1972-01-01

    Token economies have been applied in a wide range of settings. While there are several advantages to the use of this procedure, there are obstacles that may impede its implementation and therapeutic efficacy. These include: staff training, client resistance, circumvention of the contingencies, and non-responsiveness of subjects. Studies employing token programs with psychiatric patients, retardates, children in classroom settings, delinquents, and autistic children are reviewed. Although token economies are successful while in operation, the issue of generalization of behavior gains or resistance to extinction has not been given careful consideration. Inasmuch as generalization is perhaps the most crucial issue, several procedures are presented that are designed to facilitate maintenance of performance when reinforcement is withdrawn. Methodological suggestions for investigations on token reinforcement in applied settings are presented. PMID:16795358

  6. Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chantornvong, S.; McCargo, D.

    2001-01-01

    Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economy of tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns.


Keywords: anti-tobacco legislation; political economy; Thailand; transnational tobacco companies PMID:11226361

  7. The token economy: an evaluative review.

    PubMed

    Kazdin, A E; Bootzin, R R

    1972-01-01

    Token economies have been applied in a wide range of settings. While there are several advantages to the use of this procedure, there are obstacles that may impede its implementation and therapeutic efficacy. These include: staff training, client resistance, circumvention of the contingencies, and non-responsiveness of subjects. Studies employing token programs with psychiatric patients, retardates, children in classroom settings, delinquents, and autistic children are reviewed. Although token economies are successful while in operation, the issue of generalization of behavior gains or resistance to extinction has not been given careful consideration. Inasmuch as generalization is perhaps the most crucial issue, several procedures are presented that are designed to facilitate maintenance of performance when reinforcement is withdrawn. Methodological suggestions for investigations on token reinforcement in applied settings are presented.

  8. Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies.

    PubMed

    Raghupathy, Lakshmi; Chaturvedi, Ashish

    2013-09-01

    Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH&S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for "green economy".

  9. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  10. Characteristics of the Las Vegas/Clark County visitor economy

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a review of the Clark County visitor economy and the Clark County visitor. The review, undertaken in support of NWPO`s two objectives mentioned above, addressed a number of topics including performance of the Clark County visitor economy as a generator of employment, earnings and tax base; importance of the Clark County visitor economy to the Nevada economy as a whole; elements of the Clark County visitor economy outside the Las Vegas strip and downtown areas; current trends in the Clark County visitor industry; and indirect economic effects of Clark County casino/hotel purchases.

  11. 3 CFR - Making It Easier for America's Small Businesses and America's Exporters To Access Government...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 25, 2011, winning the future in the global economy will require a Government that wisely allocates... competitiveness, innovation, and job growth. If we are to thrive in the global economy, and make America the best... better serve small businesses and exporters. Among other things, agencies shall work together...

  12. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities for

  13. Use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy. One of the important requirements for Gen. IV High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) is passive safety. Currently all the HTGR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. [1] The decay heat first is transferred to core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. Similar concepts have been widely used in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs, advanced light water reactors like AP1000. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area. RVACS tends to be less expensive. However, it limits the largest achievable power level for modular HTGRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface). When the relative decay heat removal capability is reduced, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annual designs with internal reflector can mitigate this effect therefore further increase the power. Another way to increase power is to increase power density. However, it is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides safety, HTGRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor designs. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of HTGRs. Forsberg [2] pointed out other disadvantages of using RVACS such as conflicting functional requirements for the reactor vessel and scaling distortion for integral effect test of the system performance. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume based passive decay removal system, call Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove

  14. Effects of economy type and nicotine on the essential value of food in rats.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Rachel N; Dallery, Jesse

    2012-03-01

    The exponential demand equation proposed by Hursh and Silberberg (2008) provides an estimate of the essential value of a good as a function of price. The model predicts that essential value should remain constant across changes in the magnitude of a reinforcer, but may change as a function of motivational operations. In Experiment 1, rats' demand for food across a sequence of fixed-ratio schedules was assessed during open and closed economy conditions and across one- and two-pellet per reinforcer delivery conditions. The exponential equation was fitted to the relation between fixed-ratio size and the logarithm of the absolute number of reinforcers. Estimates of the rate of change in elasticity of food, the proposed measure of essential value, were compared across conditions. Essential value was equivalent across magnitudes during the closed economy, but showed a slight decrease across magnitudes during the open economy. Experiment 2 explored the behavioral mechanisms of nicotine's effects on consumption with the results from Experiment 1 serving as a within-subject frame of reference. The same subjects were administered nicotine via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps at a dose of 3 mg/kg/day and exposed to both the one- and two-pellet conditions under a closed economy. Although nicotine produced large decreases in demand, essential value was not significantly changed. The data from the present experiments provide further evidence for the adequacy of the exponential demand equation as a tool for quantifying the rate of change in elasticity of a good and for assessing behavioral mechanisms of drug action. PMID:22389525

  15. Effects of economy type and nicotine on the essential value of food in rats.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Rachel N; Dallery, Jesse

    2012-03-01

    The exponential demand equation proposed by Hursh and Silberberg (2008) provides an estimate of the essential value of a good as a function of price. The model predicts that essential value should remain constant across changes in the magnitude of a reinforcer, but may change as a function of motivational operations. In Experiment 1, rats' demand for food across a sequence of fixed-ratio schedules was assessed during open and closed economy conditions and across one- and two-pellet per reinforcer delivery conditions. The exponential equation was fitted to the relation between fixed-ratio size and the logarithm of the absolute number of reinforcers. Estimates of the rate of change in elasticity of food, the proposed measure of essential value, were compared across conditions. Essential value was equivalent across magnitudes during the closed economy, but showed a slight decrease across magnitudes during the open economy. Experiment 2 explored the behavioral mechanisms of nicotine's effects on consumption with the results from Experiment 1 serving as a within-subject frame of reference. The same subjects were administered nicotine via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps at a dose of 3 mg/kg/day and exposed to both the one- and two-pellet conditions under a closed economy. Although nicotine produced large decreases in demand, essential value was not significantly changed. The data from the present experiments provide further evidence for the adequacy of the exponential demand equation as a tool for quantifying the rate of change in elasticity of a good and for assessing behavioral mechanisms of drug action.

  16. Networked incubators. Hothouses of the new economy.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M T; Chesbrough, H W; Nohria, N; Sull, D N

    2000-01-01

    Business incubators such as Hotbank, CMGI, and Idealab! are a booming industry. Offering office space, funding, and basic services to start-ups, these organizations have become the hottest way to nurture and grow fledgling businesses. But are incubators a fleeting phenomenon born of an overheated stock market, or are they an important and lasting way of creating value and wealth in the new economy? The authors argue that one type of incubator, called a networked incubator, represents a fundamentally new and enduring organizational model uniquely suited to growing businesses in the Internet economy. It shares certain features with other incubators--mainly, it fosters a spirit of entrepreneurship and offers economies of scale. But its key distinguishing feature is its ability to give start-ups preferential access to a network of potential partners. Such incubators institutionalize their networking--they have systems in place to encourage networking, helping start-ups, for example, to meet with potential business allies. That doesn't mean incubatees get preferential treatment; it means only that they have built-in access to partnerships that might not have existed without the incubator. Even with this advantage, however, networked incubators can easily follow the road to ruin. To avoid failure, they must create a portfolio of companies and advisers that their incubatees can leverage. That can be done by strategically investing in portfolio firms and by enlisting a large set of business allies. It can also be done by establishing connections and relationships that are anchored more to the incubator than to particular individuals.

  17. Pakistan: social basis of the economy.

    PubMed

    Maloney, C

    1987-01-01

    Pakistan's gross domestic product (GDP) has grown at an average of 5.3%/year since 1950 and real per capita income has increased 3.7%/year over the past decade, despite a 3% annual population growth rate. Contributing to this dynamic economic growth have been migration, the construction of a new national economy following independence, controlled irrigation, foreign exchange availability, and an expectation on the part of the public of higher earnings and consumption. Despite these trends, the Pakistan economy is structurally weak and there have been rapid increases in both the domestic and foreign debt. Economic growth has been based largely on trading and soft services. Government departments are known for their corruption. This self-contradictory economic picture derives directly from the structure of Pakistani society, which is dominated by the elite of Punjab Province. Urbanization is increasing economic inequality in the society, and government taxation policies are biased toward big agriculture and industry. Pakistan's poor performance in education, social development, and family planning are expected to inhibit future economic development. Only 26% of Pakistanis are literate, reflecting the low social value placed on education. Even in urban areas, there is no evidence of a decline in fertility. This results from the psychological and economic need for children, women's limited roles, Islamic opposition to family planning, and inefficient government delivery of social services. Within a few years, population growth will magnify the structural weaknesses of the Pakistan economy. It is hoped that the dynamic nature of Panjabi values and behavior, especially of the new middle class, will lead to a redress of this situation.

  18. Soccer-specific endurance and running economy in soccer players with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kloyiam, Saichon; Breen, Sarah; Jakeman, Philip; Conway, Joe; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe running economy, soccer specific endurance, and selected kinematic running criteria in soccer players with cerebral palsy (SPCP) and to compare them with values of position-matched players without CP. Fourteen international, male soccer players with cerebral palsy completed the "Yo-Yo" intermittent recovery run level 1 (IRL-1) test to assess soccer-specific endurance and a submaximal running test on a treadmill to determine running economy. The mean IRL-1 distance covered by the SPCP of the Irish CP team was found to be 43-50% below the mean distance attained by position-matched soccer players without disability, while running economy was found to be within the range of that reported for able-bodied athletes. No relationship could be found between the level of CP-ISRA classification and soccer-specific endurance or running economy in this group of elite level SPCP. Though small in number, these data support a further examination of the relationship between CP classification and sport-specific performance. PMID:21914907

  19. Aspen: A microsimulation model of the economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.; Quint, T.; Arnold, T.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents, Aspen. Sandia National Laboratories is developing this new agent-based microeconomic simulation model of the U.S. economy. The model is notable because it allows a large number of individual economic agents to be modeled at a high level of detail and with a great degree of freedom. Some features of Aspen are (a) a sophisticated message-passing system that allows individual pairs of agents to communicate, (b) the use of genetic algorithms to simulate the learning of certain agents, and (c) a detailed financial sector that includes a banking system and a bond market. Results from runs of the model are also presented.

  20. VEEP - Vehicle Economy, Emissions, and Performance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    VEEP is a general-purpose discrete event simulation program being developed to study the performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions of a vehicle modeled as a collection of its separate components. It is written in SIMSCRIPT II.5. The purpose of this paper is to present the design methodology, describe the simulation model and its components, and summarize the preliminary results. Topics include chief programmer team concepts, the SDDL design language, program portability, user-oriented design, the program's user command syntax, the simulation procedure, and model validation.

  1. Health care reform and the new economy.

    PubMed

    Starr, P

    2000-01-01

    The objectives and assumptions of health care reform have changed repeatedly during the past century and may now be entering a new historical phase as a result of the "new economy" rooted in information technology. In a high-growth context, proponents of reform may no longer feel obliged to bundle expanded coverage with tighter cost containment. At the same time, the new digital environment may facilitate innovations intended to inform and expand consumer choice and to improve quality. The new environment elevates "transparency" to a guiding principle. Health informatics has long been peripheral to reform and must now become more central. PMID:11192407

  2. Small satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.; Dermott, S.

    1986-01-01

    Satellites smaller than Mimas (r = 195 km) are distinguished by irregular overall shapes and by rough limb topography. Material properties and impact cratering dominate the shaping of these objects. Long fragmentation histories can produce a variety of internal structures, but so far there is no direct evidence that any small satellite is an equilibrium ellipsoid made up of noncohesive gravitationally bound rubble. One many bodies that orbit close to their primary the tidal and rotational components of surface gravity strongly affect the directions of local g and thereby affect the redistribution of regolith by mass wasting. Downslope movement of regolith is extensive on Deimos, and is probably effective on many other small satellites. It is shown that in some cases observed patterns of downslope mass wasting cold produce useful constraints on the satellite's mean density. The diversity of features seen in the few high-resolution images of small satellites currently available suggests that these objects have undergone complex histories of cratering, fragmentation, and regolith evolution.

  3. The Knowledge Economy and Innovation: Certain Uncertainty and the Risk Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Fahey, Johannah; Kenway, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge economy is a dominant force in today's world, and innovation policy and national systems of innovation are central to it. In this article, we draw on different sociological and economic theories of risk to engage critically with innovation policy and national systems of innovation. Beck's understanding of a risk society, Schumpeter's…

  4. The Political Economy of Schooling. ESA845, The Economy of Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, John

    This volume, part of a series of mongraphs that explore the relationship between the economy and schooling, analyzes the economic influences contributing to current pressures for changes in secondary schooling in Australian society with particular attention to the long-term structural collapse of the full-time teenage labor market. After a brief…

  5. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL... under paragraph (c) of this section and has been determined and approved under 40 CFR part 600, the...)(1) of this section for which a fuel economy value approved under 40 CFR part 600, does not...

  6. Non-crisis economies must make adjustments too. World Economy survey.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    This article presents ¿The World Economy in 1999,¿ a report prepared by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). It was noted in the report that 39 developing countries had gross domestic product (GDP) per capita growth exceeding 3% in 1996, compared to just 13 countries in 1999. This indicates that 32 developing countries would suffer a decline in GDP per capita by the year 2000 as compared to 14 in 1996. In addition, slow growth has been recorded at just 2% in 1998 and 1999, with only continued growth in North America and Europe keeping the world economy going. Continued slow growth was expected for the year 2000. In terms of income, commodity prices have fallen in developing countries. Net transfer of financial resources from developing countries was almost $60 billion in 1998, compared to positive flows of about $35 billion in the first half of the 1990s. Overall, the brunt of world economic slow-down had been borne by the developing and transition economies. Thus, according to Mr. Nitin Desai, it is important that there is a coordinated policy response to crisis situations, rather than expecting the crisis economies to undertake the bulk of adjustment actions. There are advantages in coordination, which should include developing countries and the Group of Seven.

  7. [Environmental governance and the green economy].

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Pedro Roberto; Sinisgalli, Paulo Antonio de Almeida

    2012-06-01

    The Rio+20 Conference will mobilize the global community in 2012 to participate in a challenging debate on the global environmental reality and the existing modus operandi with respect to the broad and generic topics of development and the environment. One of the core themes of this meeting is the transition to a green economy in the context of sustainable development and the eradication of poverty. The issue of Global Environmental Governance will top the agenda of the Rio +20 discussions, with a view to promoting and accelerating the transition to sustainable societies. It presents, often in a controversial way, the creation of conditions to define new institutional spaces and shared decision-making processes. Before embarking on the discussion about what king of sustainability should be behind the Green Economy, and its applicability, the scope of this article is to ask readers to reflect on what should be the priority in the discussion on environmental governance This should be explained to the extent that there is a need to change the existing mechanisms of profoundly unequal exploitation of resources, which blocks progress in decision-making processes, as decisions of the few create a perverse logic of appropriation of natural resources and the non-resolution of social exclusion.

  8. How the economy affects teenage weight.

    PubMed

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2009-06-01

    Much research has focused on the proximate determinants of weight gain and obesity for adolescents, but not much information has emerged on identifying which adolescents might be at risk or on prevention. This research focuses on a distal determinant of teenage weight gain, namely changes in the economy, which may help identify geographical areas where adolescents may be at risk and may provide insights into the mechanisms by which adolescents gain weight. This study uses a nationally representative sample of individuals, between 15 and 18 years old from the 1997 US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, to estimate a model with state and year fixed effects to examine how within-state changes in the unemployment rate affect four teenage weight outcomes: an age- and gender-standardized percentile in the body-mass-index distribution and indicators for being overweight, obese, and underweight. I found statistically significant estimates, indicating that females gain weight in weaker economic periods and males gain weight in stronger economic periods. Possible causes for the contrasting results across gender include, among other things, differences in the responsiveness of labor market work to the economy and differences in the types of jobs generally occupied by female and male teenagers.

  9. Agrofuels capitalism: a view from political economy.

    PubMed

    White, Ben; Dasgupta, Anirban

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the global expansion of agrofuels feedstock production from a political economy perspective. It considers and dismisses the environmental and pro-poor developmental justifications attached to agrofuels. To local populations and direct producers, the specific destination of the crop as fuel, food, cosmetics or other final uses in faraway places is probably of less interest than the forms of (direct or indirect) appropriation of their land and the forms of their insertion or exclusion as producers in global commodity chains. Global demand for both agrofuels and food is stimulating new forms (or the resurgence of old forms) of corporate land grabbing and expropriation, and of incorporation of smallholders in contracted production. Drawing both on recent studies on agrofuels expansion and on the political economy literature on agrarian transition and capitalism in agriculture, this article raises the question whether "agrofuels capitalism" is in any way essentially different from other forms of capitalist agrarian monocrop production, and in turn whether the agrarian transitions involved require new tools of analysis.

  10. Population studies should reflect the criterion of productive forces and the viewpoint of a market-oriented economy.

    PubMed

    Peng, X

    1989-01-01

    This commentary is on the role of population studies in a market oriented economy which reflects Marxist theories on productive forces. Population development must not be viewed unidimensionally. Prior thinking focused on the mode of social production determining population development and vice versa. The assumption prevalent prior to 1978 was that there was no common pattern among different societies. This view was openly challenged in the 2nd national population science symposium in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. It was stated that population development is affected by production techniques in either capitalist or socialist countries. Further understanding of this relationship based on quantitative and qualitative research was required. Public ownership is the basis of a socialist economy. Marxist views were that populations in market or nonmarket economies are different, and population scholars need to study these relationships. There was a mistaken belief that a socialist economy was nonmarket oriented. Correcting the mistake meant taking into consideration migration, urbanization, employment, expenditure, and the relationship to reproduction, as well as rethinking the development patterns. When the price of the labor force differs from its value, the investment in population and population quality will be affected. This has led to rampant commercialization and higher school dropout rates. Short term interests predominate. The trend does not benefit the quality of the population or the promotion of social productive forces. Further examination is needed of the effects of urbanization on a planned market oriented economy with socialist public ownership. PMID:12316994

  11. The gift of health: Socialist medical practice and shifting material and moral economies in post-Soviet Cuba.

    PubMed

    Andaya, Elise

    2009-12-01

    Drawing on ethnographic data collected over 13 months of fieldwork in family doctor clinics in Havana from 2004 to 2005, I examine the shifting moral and material economies of Cuban socialist medical practice. In both official ideology and in daily practice, the moral economy of ideal socialist medicine is based on an ethos of reciprocal social exchange-that is, the gift-that informs not only doctors' relationships with the Cuban state and with individual patients but also the state's policies of international medical service to developing nations. The social and economic upheavals after the fall of t Soviet Union, however, have compelled both the state and individual doctors to operate in a new local and global economy. The gift remains the central metaphor of Cuban medical practice. Nonetheless, as ideologies and practices of gifting and reciprocity encounter an emerging market economy, gifts--whether on the level of the state policies of international humanism or in patient-doctor relations--are open to new significations that highlight the shifting material and moral economies of post-Soviet Cuba.

  12. [Applying nursing innovation from a knowledge economy perspective].

    PubMed

    Liao, Shu-Chen; Chang, Wen-Chung

    2011-08-01

    Knowledge is power and knowledge and creativity are keys to creating wealth the era of the knowledge-based economy epoch. Through innovation, knowledge can add value that can enhance knowledge-based industries. This article discusses the meaning of nursing innovation and knowledge economy from the perspective of knowledge-based economy in order to illustrate the process of nursing innovation and actual experiences applying patents and technology licenses. The authors hope this article will be referenced by nurses to enhance their understanding of the knowledge economy and nursing innovation in order to stimulate creative thinking.

  13. An Exploration of Open Innovation: An Environmental Scanning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elci, Nuray

    2009-01-01

    Globalization and direction toward a knowledge economy, along with an economic downturn, is creating a competitive environment that calls for corporations to become more innovative. As the business environment becomes more competitive and dynamic, corporations are looking for new ways of achieving innovation. Open innovation is one approach that…

  14. Emerging Issues in the Rural Economy of the South. Proceedings of a Regional Workshop (Birmingham, Alabama, January 13-14, 1986). SRDC Series No. 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.

    The papers in this monograph represent the collective comments of speakers at a January 1986 conference addressing emerging issues in the rural economy of the South. The opening paper suggests that prospects for rural southern economic development are tied to new business development, new agricultural products, automated traditional manufacturing,…

  15. Potential improvements in turbofan engine fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, R. W.; Gaffin, W. O.

    1976-01-01

    The method developed for initial evaluation of possible performance improvements in the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program, directed toward improving the fuel economy of turbofan engines, is outlined, and results of the evaluation of 100 candidate engine modifications are presented. The study indicates that fuel consumption improvements of as much as 5% may be possible in current JT3D, JT8D, and JT9D turbofan engines. Aerodynamic, thermodynamic, material, and structural advances are expected to yield fuel consumption improvements on the order of 10 to 15% in advanced turbofan engines, with the greatest improvement stemming from significantly higher cycle pressure ratios. Higher turbine temperature and fan bypass ratios are also expected to contribute to fuel conservation.

  16. Gendered Organizations in the New Economy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christine L.; Muller, Chandra; Kilanski, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Gender scholars draw on the “theory of gendered organizations” to explain persistent gender inequality in the workplace. This theory argues that gender inequality is built into work organizations in which jobs are characterized by long-term security, standardized career ladders and job descriptions, and management controlled evaluations. Over the past few decades, this basic organizational logic has been transformed. in the so-called new economy, work is increasingly characterized by job insecurity, teamwork, career maps, and networking. Using a case study of geoscientists in the oil and gas industry, we apply a gender lens to this evolving organization of work. This article extends Acker's theory of gendered organizations by identifying the mechanisms that reproduce gender inequality in the twenty-first-century workplace, and by suggesting appropriate policy approaches to remedy these disparities. PMID:25419048

  17. Environmental policy in economies in transition.

    PubMed

    Zylicz, T

    1999-01-01

    Considerable improvement in environmental pollution has been achieved, primarily due to targeted environmental policies rather than general economic developments. Some countries in central and eastern Europe have managed to reduce emissions even after the gross domestic product once again began to increase. Everywhere in the region, however, the cost-effectiveness of environmental spending is questionable. Most countries have established systems of earmarked resource and pollution taxes, which provide a sizable share in financing environmental investment. With stationary sources of pollution brought under increasingly effective control, the environmental problems in central and eastern Europe, and eventually in the newly independent states, will start to resemble those of developed market economies. As more activities become affected by environmental protection measures, cost-effectiveness considerations deserve increased attention.

  18. A Footprint Family extended MRIO model to support Europe's transition to a One Planet Economy.

    PubMed

    Galli, Alessandro; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, Ertug

    2013-09-01

    Currently, the European economy is using nearly three times the ecological assets that are locally available. This situation cannot be sustained indefinitely. Tools are needed that can help reverse the unsustainable trend. In 2010, an EC funded One Planet Economy Network: Europe (OPEN:EU) project was launched to develop the evidence and innovative practical tools that will allow policy-makers and civil society to identify policy interventions to transform Europe into a One Planet Economy, by 2050. Building on the premise that no indicator alone is able to comprehensively monitor (progress towards) sustainability, the project has drawn on the Ecological, Carbon and Water Footprints to define a Footprint Family suite of indicators, to track human pressure on the planet. An environmentally-extended multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model has then been developed to group the Footprint Family under a common framework and combine the indicators in the family with national economic accounts and trade statistics. Although unable to monitor the full spectrum of human pressures, once grouped within the MRIO model, the Footprint Family is able to assess the appropriation of ecological assets, GHG emissions as well as freshwater consumption and pollution associated with consumption of specific products and services within a specified country. Using MRIO models within the context of Footprint analyses also enables the Footprint Family to take into account full production chains with technologies specific to country of origin.

  19. Price and niche wars in a free-market economy of software agents.

    PubMed

    Kephart, J O; Hanson, J E; Sairamesh, J

    1998-01-01

    One scenario of the future of computation populates the Internet with vast numbers of software agents providing, trading, and using a rich variety of information goods and services in an open, free-market economy. An essential task in such an economy is the retailing or brokering of information: gathering it from the right producers and distributing it to the right consumers. This article investigates one crucial aspect of brokers' dynamical behavior, their price-setting mechanisms, in the context of a simple information-filtering economy. We consider only the simplest cases in which a broker sets its price and product parameters based solely on the system's current state, without explicit prediction of the future. Analytical and numerical results show that the system's dynamical behavior in such "myopic" cases is generally an unending cycle of disastrous competitive "wars" in price/product space. These in turn are directly attributable to the existence of multiple peaks in the brokers' profitability landscapes, a feature whose generality is likely to extend far beyond our model. PMID:9798272

  20. Open-Source Colorimeter

    PubMed Central

    Anzalone, Gerald C.; Glover, Alexandra G.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of what have historically been sophisticated research-related sensors and tools has limited their adoption to a relatively small group of well-funded researchers. This paper provides a methodology for applying an open-source approach to design and development of a colorimeter. A 3-D printable, open-source colorimeter utilizing only open-source hardware and software solutions and readily available discrete components is discussed and its performance compared to a commercial portable colorimeter. Performance is evaluated with commercial vials prepared for the closed reflux chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. This approach reduced the cost of reliable closed reflux COD by two orders of magnitude making it an economic alternative for the vast majority of potential users. The open-source colorimeter demonstrated good reproducibility and serves as a platform for further development and derivation of the design for other, similar purposes such as nephelometry. This approach promises unprecedented access to sophisticated instrumentation based on low-cost sensors by those most in need of it, under-developed and developing world laboratories. PMID:23604032