Science.gov

Sample records for small open economy

  1. Growth and the Current Account in a Small Open Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benge, Matt; Wells, Graeme

    2002-01-01

    Offers a framework with which to analyze growth in a small economy with perfect capital mobility. Produces a diagrammatic representation of steady states that differs from the usual closed-economy Solow-Swan diagram. Uses the diagrams to compare open economy steady states with closed ones. Illustrate the possibility of endogenous income growth.…

  2. Growth and the Current Account in a Small Open Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benge, Matt; Wells, Graeme

    2002-01-01

    Offers a framework with which to analyze growth in a small economy with perfect capital mobility. Produces a diagrammatic representation of steady states that differs from the usual closed-economy Solow-Swan diagram. Uses the diagrams to compare open economy steady states with closed ones. Illustrate the possibility of endogenous income growth.…

  3. Macroeconomics in an open economy.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R N

    1986-09-12

    The customary treatment of national economies as closed and self-contained must be substantially modified to allow for those economies that typically trade goods, services, and securities with other countries in increasing volume. Open economy macroeconomics is essential to understanding the major events of the U.S. economy over the past half dozen years. Both the sharp rise in the dollar and the unprecedentedly large U.S. trade deficit are linked to the U.S. budget deficit, as is the drop in the rate of inflation.

  4. The monetary approach to the balance of payments: The case of the oil-based, small, open, developing economies of Libya, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Buzakuk, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    This study explores the determinants of foreign reserves flow in light of the oil-based small open economies of Libya, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. The period of study encompasses the major oil price increases of the 1970s and early 1980s, which had led to the huge transfers of foreign exchanges towards these, among other, developing economies. The framework of analysis is basically a monetary approach to the balance of payments. This study is of both a theoretical and empirical nature. It utilizes the monetary forces in the domestic money market to derive a basic balance of payments (BOP) equation that explains the monetary nature of the balance of payments. The study found that the data from those countries support the monetary relationships as hypothesized by the monetary approach, especially the negative one-to-one relation between domestic credit (DC) and the BOP. Results from the simultaneous estimations of the BOP and DC reported better estimates than the single-equation model. Findings from the reaction function indicated that the monetary authorities of these oil-based economies were actively sterilizing the effect of foreign reserve flows. Findings supported the integrated market hypothesis in Kuwait and Libya, but not in the Saudi case.

  5. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  6. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  7. An analysis of macroeconomic fluctuations for a small open oil-based economy: The case of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abdulkarim, Bander B.

    The increasing fluctuations in the oil prices through the last decades have been transferred to the oil exporting countries. Thus, many oil exporting countries experienced significant changes in the economic activity due to changes in the oil markets. In light of this, oil exporting countries have attempted to implement a policy that would stabilize the fluctuations in the oil markets recognizing the adverse effects of such behavior on oil exporting countries, as well as oil importing countries. Saudi Arabia, as the largest oil-exporting country and a member of OPEC, takes the role of oil-markets stabilizer by behaving as the swing producer. This role has caused the global economic fluctuations to transfer into the domestic economy. In addition, Saudi Arabian government has adopted a fixed exchange rate currency regime. Although it has contributed to domestic price stabilizations, this policy has also exposed the country to global economic disturbances. The purpose of the study is to empirically investigate these aspects for Saudi Arabia. First, the effects of shocks originated in the international markets on the Saudi Arabian economy. Second, how the fixed exchange rate regimes influences the domestic macroeconomic variables. Third, to what extent the oil sector contributes to the non-oil domestic fluctuations. Finally, how the findings from the study can be explained by economic theory. In pursuing this, there are four economic theories that are considered to explain the causes of business cycles. These theories are Classical Theory, Keynesian Theory, Monetarist Theory, and the Real Business Cycles. In addition, a theoretical model is derived that is suitable for an oil-based economy. The model follows the set up of McCallum and Nelson (1999). Then, the empirical models of Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) and Error Correction Model (ECM) are implemented with three different specifications: Choleski Decomposition, Block Exogeneity and long-run Cointegration

  8. Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2009-01-01

    For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

  9. Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2009-01-01

    For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

  10. Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the "knowledge economy": the "learning economy", based on the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall; the "creative economy" based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the "open knowledge economy" based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably,…

  11. Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the "knowledge economy": the "learning economy", based on the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall; the "creative economy" based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the "open knowledge economy" based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably,…

  12. The Political Economy of "Open Regionalism" and Education in Small (and Micro) States: The Construction of the Caribbean Educational Policy Space in CARICOM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jules, Tavis D.

    2014-01-01

    In this era of amplified regionalisation, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean's (ECLAC) conceptualisation of 'open regionalism' is pertinent to examine the role of regional governance mechanisms in constructing what I call the "Caribbean Educational Policy Space." With the aid of a latent content analysis of…

  13. The Political Economy of "Open Regionalism" and Education in Small (and Micro) States: The Construction of the Caribbean Educational Policy Space in CARICOM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jules, Tavis D.

    2014-01-01

    In this era of amplified regionalisation, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean's (ECLAC) conceptualisation of 'open regionalism' is pertinent to examine the role of regional governance mechanisms in constructing what I call the "Caribbean Educational Policy Space." With the aid of a latent content analysis of…

  14. Landscape and flux theory of non-equilibrium open economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kun; Wang, Jin

    2017-09-01

    The economy is open and never in true equilibrium due to the exchanges with outside. However, most of the quantitative studies have been focused on the equilibrium economy. Despite of the recent efforts, it is still challenging to formulate a quantitative theory for uncovering the principles of non-equilibrium open economy. In this study, we developed a landscape and flux theory for non-equilibrium economy. We quantified the states of economy and identify the multi-stable states as the basins of attractions on the underlying landscape. We found the global driving force of the non-equilibrium economy is determined by both the underlying landscape gradient and the curl probability flux measuring the degree of non-equilibriumness through the detailed balance breaking. The non-equilibrium thermodynamics, the global stability, the optimal path and speed of the non-equilibrium economy can be formulated and quantified. In the conventional economy, the supply and demand usually has only one equilibrium. By considering nonlinear supply-demand dynamics, we found that both bi-stable states and limit cycle oscillations can emerge. By shifting the slope of demand curve, we can see how the bi-stability transforms to the limit cycle dynamics and vice versa. By parallel shifting the demand curve, we can also see how the monopoly, the competition, and the bistable monopoly and competition states emerge and transform to one other. We can also see how the mono-stable monopoly, the limit cycle and the mono-stable competition states emerge and transform to one another.

  15. Environmental and energy issues in an open economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Kyungsoo

    The environmental and energy consequences of globalization have become an important topic of debate. My dissertation examines the interaction between environmental and energy issues and international trade. Specifically, I investigate environmental regulations and policy in an open economy. In the first chapter, I analyze how an environmental tax on pollution from consumption affects trade flows and welfare in an open economy. In particular, I argue that the effect of an environmental tax on the direction of trade flows depends on who is directly burdened by the regulation (consumers or producers) regardless of who is the polluter. In the case of pollution generated by consumers, a tax on consumers who are the polluters tends to increase exports and reduce imports of dirty goods. This result is the opposite of the well-known effect arising from taxes on pollution-intensive industries. Stringent environmental regulations on pollution-intensive industries diminishes exports and increases imports of dirty industries. In terms of welfare, I show the importance of targeting the policy instrument to the correct source of pollution. Assuming pollution is caused by the consumption of a good, a production tax has a weak effect on increasing welfare through reducing pollution. Furthermore, welfare can fall if the production tax ratio is too high, leading to reduced national income. The second chapter is motivated by recent trends in the U.S. economy: increasing imports from China, decreasing energy consumption, and increasing output. There are two primary theoretical approaches related to the relationship between energy use in U.S. manufacturing and increasing imports from China: Heckscher-Ohlin (H-O) trade theory and the Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH). These two frameworks generate opposite predictions about the relationship between these trends. H-O theory suggests that with increased Chinese import penetration, U.S. manufacturing should move toward more energy

  16. The Management of Managers: Challenges in a Small Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, John; Boxall, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the findings of a study of the management of senior managers. The aim is to describe the ways in which firms in a small economy, such as New Zealand, manage their managers and analyse how they deal with the strategic challenges that are involved. Design/methodology/approach: The study applies the…

  17. The Management of Managers: Challenges in a Small Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, John; Boxall, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the findings of a study of the management of senior managers. The aim is to describe the ways in which firms in a small economy, such as New Zealand, manage their managers and analyse how they deal with the strategic challenges that are involved. Design/methodology/approach: The study applies the…

  18. Open Education and the Creative Economy: Global Perspectives and Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tze-Chang

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is to deal the issues of open education, creative economies, higher education. It also compares the performances in these aspects among different countries. The conception of the "creative economy" develops within the context of "global neoliberalism" and "knowledge economy." These three notions are…

  19. Open Education and the Creative Economy: Global Perspectives and Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tze-Chang

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is to deal the issues of open education, creative economies, higher education. It also compares the performances in these aspects among different countries. The conception of the "creative economy" develops within the context of "global neoliberalism" and "knowledge economy." These three notions are…

  20. Statistical Physics of Economic Systems: a Survey for Open Economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yong; Chen, Xun

    2012-05-01

    We extend the theoretical framework of an independent economy developed by Tao [Phys. Rev. E 82 (2010) 036118] so as to include multiple economies. Since the starting point of our framework is on the basis of the theory of the competitive markets of traditional economics, this framework shall be suitable for any free market. Our study shows that integration of world economies can decrease trade friction among economic systems, but may also cause a global economic crisis whenever economy disequilibrium occurs in any one of these economic systems.

  1. The small-world of economy: a speculative proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corso, G.; Lucena, L. S.; Thomé, Z. D.

    2003-06-01

    Using the small-world approach we suggest a network model for the economy. Our basic assumption is that the economic agents prefer to make business with the big business. This assumption makes the preferential attachment the main mechanism for the evolution of the economic network. We hypothesize that the connectivity of the economic network should reflect the wealth distribution of the society which is considered to be an exponential truncated power law. The objective of this paper is to model qualitatively the wealth distribution of a society using concepts based on evolving network. Several alternatives of evolving networks are discussed in an economic context.

  2. A preliminary analysis of adaptive responding under open and closed economies.

    PubMed

    Roane, Henry S; Call, Nathan A; Falcomata, Terry S

    2005-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated the effects of open and closed economies on the adaptive behavior of 2 individuals with developmental disabilities. Across both types of economy, progressive-ratio (PR) schedules were used in which the number of responses required to obtain reinforcement increased as the session progressed. In closed-economy sessions, participants were able to obtain reinforcement only through interaction with the PR schedule requirements (i.e., more work resulted in more reinforcer access). In open-economy sessions, participants obtained reinforcers by responding on the PR schedule and were given supplemental (free) access to the reinforcers after completion of the session. In general, more responding was associated with the closed economy.

  3. A Preliminary Analysis of Adaptive Responding under Open and Closed Economies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated the effects of open and closed economies on the adaptive behavior of 2 individuals with developmental disabilities. Across both types of economy, progressive-ratio (PR) schedules were used in which the number of responses required to obtain reinforcement increased as the session progressed. In closed-economy sessions, participants were able to obtain reinforcement only through interaction with the PR schedule requirements (i.e., more work resulted in more reinforcer access). In open-economy sessions, participants obtained reinforcers by responding on the PR schedule and were given supplemental (free) access to the reinforcers after completion of the session. In general, more responding was associated with the closed economy. PMID:16270843

  4. Foreign Direct Investment and Trade Openness: The Case of Developing Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liargovas, Panagiotis G.; Skandalis, Konstantinos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of trade openness for attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows, using a sample of 36 developing economies for the period 1990-2008. It provides a direct test of causality between FDI inflows, trade openness and other key variables in developing regions of the world: Latin America, Asia, Africa, CIS…

  5. Foreign Direct Investment and Trade Openness: The Case of Developing Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liargovas, Panagiotis G.; Skandalis, Konstantinos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of trade openness for attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows, using a sample of 36 developing economies for the period 1990-2008. It provides a direct test of causality between FDI inflows, trade openness and other key variables in developing regions of the world: Latin America, Asia, Africa, CIS…

  6. Open and continuous fermentation: products, conditions and bioprocess economy.

    PubMed

    Li, Teng; Chen, Xiang-bin; Chen, Jin-chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fermentation is the key to industrial biotechnology. Most fermentation processes are sensitive to microbial contamination and require an energy intensive sterilization process. The majority of microbial fermentations can only be conducted over a short period of time in a batch or fed-batch culture, further increasing energy consumption and process complexity, and these factors contribute to the high costs of bio-products. In an effort to make bio-products more economically competitive, increased attention has been paid to developing open (unsterile) and continuous processes. If well conducted, continuous fermentation processes will lead to the reduced cost of industrial bio-products. To achieve cost-efficient open and continuous fermentations, the feeding of raw materials and the removal of products must be conducted in a continuous manner without the risk of contamination, even under 'open' conditions. Factors such as the stability of the biological system as a whole during long cultivations, as well as the yield and productivity of the process, are also important. Microorganisms that grow under extreme conditions such as high or low pH, high osmotic pressure, and high or low temperature, as well as under conditions of mixed culturing, cell immobilization, and solid state cultivation, are of interest for developing open and continuous fermentation processes. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The Costs and Economies of Open and Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumble, Greville

    This book is designed to give planners of open and distance learning programs the technical information needed to determine the cost of programs and analyze the behavior of costs. The following are among the topics discussed: budgets; classification of resources (human resources, premises and accommodation, and equipment and furniture); a basic…

  8. The Costs and Economies of Open and Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumble, Greville

    This book is designed to give planners of open and distance learning programs the technical information needed to determine the cost of programs and analyze the behavior of costs. The following are among the topics discussed: budgets; classification of resources (human resources, premises and accommodation, and equipment and furniture); a basic…

  9. OER and the Value of Openness: Implications for the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge economy is marked by recent trends in technological advancement, globalisation and increasing knowledge intensity. Through new technologies like Open Educational Resources (OER), knowledge can be freely accessed by individuals around the world, blurring traditional notions of ownership and prompting a social transformation manifested…

  10. OER and the Value of Openness: Implications for the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge economy is marked by recent trends in technological advancement, globalisation and increasing knowledge intensity. Through new technologies like Open Educational Resources (OER), knowledge can be freely accessed by individuals around the world, blurring traditional notions of ownership and prompting a social transformation manifested…

  11. Veterinary Services in Belize: adapting organisational models to the needs of small economies.

    PubMed

    Góngora, V

    2003-08-01

    International trade in agricultural goods is governed by the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the 'SPS Agreement') of the World Trade Organization. Small economies, such as the economy of Belize, must have the necessary infrastructure in place to meet their obligations and exercise their rights under the SPS Agreement. In response to the shortcomings of a small economy, the Belize Government has established the Belize Agricultural Health Authority (BAHA) as its organisational model, to meet the challenges of providing Veterinary Services in this new millennium, as well as the demands of the international trade in animals and plants and their products. This model became operational in the year 2000 and has received national and international recognition as an appropriate model for small economies. The success of BAHA is due to strong political support and its dual public and private sector characteristics.

  12. Responding on concurrent-chains schedules in open and closed economies.

    PubMed Central

    LaFiette, M H; Fantino, E

    1989-01-01

    Pigeons' key pecks were reinforced according to concurrent-chains schedules of reinforcement. The programmed average time from the onset of the initial links to a terminal link entry was held constant across conditions while the value of variable-interval schedules in the terminal links was varied. Performance was assessed under two economic conditions: (a) an open economy in which session duration was limited to 1 hr and subjects were maintained at 80% of their free-feeding body weights with postsession food when necessary; and (b) a closed economy in which sessions were 23.5 hr long and no deprivation regimen was in effect. In all cases, the relative rate of responding in the initial links matched the reduction in overall delay to primary reinforcement correlated with entry into one terminal link relative to the reduction in delay correlated with entry into the other terminal link. Although the sum of responses made in the initial links and terminal links was found to increase, then decrease, as the rate of food presentation decreased in the closed economy, there was no consistent effect of overall rate of food presentation on total responding in the open economy. The choice data suggest that relative delay reduction predicts choice accurately, regardless of economic context. PMID:2723578

  13. Strengthening Our Economy Through Small Business Innovation Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Feingold, Russell D. [D-WI

    2009-01-08

    Senate - 01/08/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Small-business employment in 22 rich economies.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, John; Lane, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Opponents of health care reform in the United States have often argued that such reform will be detrimental to small and medium-sized enterprises. The authors review the most recent data from a sample of 22 rich countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), all of which, except the United States, have universal health care systems. By every measure of small-business employment, the United States has among the world's smallest small-business sectors (as a proportion of total national employment). These findings hold for self-employed workers and across all industry groups for which the Paris-based OECD publishes internationally comparable data, including manufacturing, computer-related services, and research and development.

  15. 29. Detail view of small triangular openings from opposite side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Detail view of small triangular openings from opposite side of wall. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  16. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  17. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, June Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01

    This report characterizes small commercial buildings by market segments, systems and end-uses; develops a framework for identifying demand response (DR) enabling technologies and communication means; and reports on the design and development of a low-cost OpenADR enabling technology that delivers demand reductions as a percentage of the total predicted building peak electric demand. The results show that small offices, restaurants and retail buildings are the major contributors making up over one third of the small commercial peak demand. The majority of the small commercial buildings in California are located in southern inland areas and the central valley. Single-zone packaged units with manual and programmable thermostat controls make up the majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for small commercial buildings with less than 200 kW peak electric demand. Fluorescent tubes with magnetic ballast and manual controls dominate this customer group's lighting systems. There are various ways, each with its pros and cons for a particular application, to communicate with these systems and three methods to enable automated DR in small commercial buildings using the Open Automated Demand Response (or OpenADR) communications infrastructure. Development of DR strategies must consider building characteristics, such as weather sensitivity and load variability, as well as system design (i.e. under-sizing, under-lighting, over-sizing, etc). Finally, field tests show that requesting demand reductions as a percentage of the total building predicted peak electric demand is feasible using the OpenADR infrastructure.

  18. 28. Detail view of small triangular openings (perhaps for ventilation) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Detail view of small triangular openings (perhaps for ventilation) in top of S wall in center bay of N room of mill. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  19. Limit of small exits in open Hamiltonian systems.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Jacobo; Sanjuán, Miguel A F

    2003-05-01

    The nature of open Hamiltonian systems is analyzed, when the size of the exits decreases and tends to zero. Fractal basins appear typically in open Hamiltonian systems, but we claim that in the limit of small exits, the invariant sets tend to fill up the whole phase space with the strong consequence that a new kind of basin appears, where the unpredictability grows indefinitely. This means that for finite, arbitrarily small accuracy, we can find uncertain basins, where any information about the future of the system is lost. This total indeterminism had only been reported in dissipative systems, in particular in the so-called intermingled riddled basins, as well as in the riddledlike basins. We show that this peculiar, behavior is a general feature of open Hamiltonian systems.

  20. The long-term effects of a token economy on safety performance in open-pit mining.

    PubMed

    Fox, D K; Hopkins, B L; Anger, W K

    1987-01-01

    A token economy that used trading stamps as tokens was instituted at two dangerous open-pit mines. Employees earned stamps for working without lost-time injuries, for being in work groups in which all other workers had no lost-time injuries, for not being involved in equipment-damaging accidents, for making adopted safety suggestions, and for unusual behavior which prevented an injury or accident. They lost stamp awards if they or other workers in their group were injured, caused equipment damage, or failed to report accidents or injuries. The stamps could be exchanged for a selection of thousands of items at redemption stores. Implementation of the token economy was followed by large reductions in the number of days lost from work because of injuries, the number of lost-time injuries, and the costs of accidents and injuries. The reductions in costs far exceeded the costs of operating the token economy. All improvements were maintained over several years.

  1. New Perspectives on the Rural Economy. Hearing on New Perspectives on the Rural Economy before the Subcommittee on Rural Economy and Family Farming of the Committee on Small Business. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Small Business.

    Testimony and prepared statements presented at a hearing before the Senate Subcommittee on Rural Economy and Family Farming focused on the concerns of rural small business. Witnesses included Senators from Montana, Illinois, New York, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa, and nine representatives of business, state government,…

  2. Pulsed Direct Current Electrospray: Enabling Systematic Analysis of Small Volume Sample by Boosting Sample Economy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhenwei; Xiong, Xingchuang; Guo, Chengan; Si, Xingyu; Zhao, Yaoyao; He, Muyi; Yang, Chengdui; Xu, Wei; Tang, Fei; Fang, Xiang; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2015-11-17

    We had developed pulsed direct current electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (pulsed-dc-ESI-MS) for systematically profiling and determining components in small volume sample. Pulsed-dc-ESI utilized constant high voltage to induce the generation of single polarity pulsed electrospray remotely. This method had significantly boosted the sample economy, so as to obtain several minutes MS signal duration from merely picoliter volume sample. The elongated MS signal duration enable us to collect abundant MS(2) information on interested components in a small volume sample for systematical analysis. This method had been successfully applied for single cell metabolomics analysis. We had obtained 2-D profile of metabolites (including exact mass and MS(2) data) from single plant and mammalian cell, concerning 1034 components and 656 components for Allium cepa and HeLa cells, respectively. Further identification had found 162 compounds and 28 different modification groups of 141 saccharides in a single Allium cepa cell, indicating pulsed-dc-ESI a powerful tool for small volume sample systematical analysis.

  3. Moving atoms and small molecules out of open containers.

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael L

    2013-03-21

    Density functional theory with the M05-2X exchange/correlation functional is used to study the barriers for expulsion of atoms and small molecules (N2, CO, H2, Ar, Kr, Xe, H2O) out of open fullerenes (I20) and related molecular containers (C40H20, [5]beltene, cucurbit[5]uril). The reactions are examples where dispersion plays a critical role in determining the barrier heights. Calculations are compared with experimental kinetic data for N2@I20, CO@I20, and Xe@cucurbit[5]uril (Xe@CB[5]). Comparing the four molecular containers, the activation barriers for escape of an atom or small molecule correlate with the binding energies. A new open-fullerene model container C40H20 (C40) was constructed from C60 with a constriction at both ends formed by five methylene groups around the rim. The activation barriers for escape of N2 and CO from the model container are similar to those from the I20 open-cage fullerene. In the case of H2O@C40, charge analysis reveals an interesting charge transfer at the transition state as the escaping guest is "squeezed" out of the host container.

  4. Developing Entrepreneurial Economies in Rural Regions: Lessons from Kentucky and Appalachia. Open Field Occasional Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurwitt, Rob; Kimel, Kris

    A 1996 workshop held in Harrodsburg, Kentucky, explored the challenge of creating an entrepreneurial economy in predominantly rural states such as Kentucky with little or no history of widespread entrepreneurial activity. Traditional approaches to economic development in such states, such as spending on relocation incentives for out-of-state…

  5. Staying Competitive. How Small and Mid-Sized Companies Are Meeting the Challenge of a Global Economy. Workforce Brief #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Terri; Kaufmann, Barbara

    Small and mid-sized businesses must change their production and service delivery methods if they are to remain competitive in a global economy. According to businesspersons, service providers, and employees who participated in 18 focus groups in 10 cities throughout the United States, businesses are being forced to change their ways of doing…

  6. The long-term effects of a token economy on safety performance in open-pit mining.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, D K; Hopkins, B L; Anger, W K

    1987-01-01

    A token economy that used trading stamps as tokens was instituted at two dangerous open-pit mines. Employees earned stamps for working without lost-time injuries, for being in work groups in which all other workers had no lost-time injuries, for not being involved in equipment-damaging accidents, for making adopted safety suggestions, and for unusual behavior which prevented an injury or accident. They lost stamp awards if they or other workers in their group were injured, caused equipment damage, or failed to report accidents or injuries. The stamps could be exchanged for a selection of thousands of items at redemption stores. Implementation of the token economy was followed by large reductions in the number of days lost from work because of injuries, the number of lost-time injuries, and the costs of accidents and injuries. The reductions in costs far exceeded the costs of operating the token economy. All improvements were maintained over several years. PMID:3667473

  7. Hagfish Houdinis: biomechanics and behavior of squeezing through small openings.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Calli R; Fudge, Douglas S

    2017-03-01

    Hagfishes are able to squeeze through small openings to gain entry to crevices, burrows, hagfish traps and carcasses, but little is known about how they do this, or what the limits of this ability are. The purpose of this study was to describe this ability, and to investigate possible mechanisms by which it is accomplished. We investigated the hypothesis that the passive movement of blood within a hagfish's flaccid subcutaneous sinus allows it to squeeze through narrow apertures that it would not be able to if it were turgid. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed videos of Atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa) and Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) moving through narrow apertures in the lab. We measured changes in body width as the animals moved through these openings and documented the behaviors associated with this ability. We found that hagfishes are able to pass through narrow slits that are less than one half the width of their bodies. Our results are consistent with the idea that a flaccid subcutaneous sinus allows hagfish to squeeze through narrow apertures by facilitating a rapid redistribution of venous blood. In addition, we describe nine distinct behaviors associated with this ability, including a form of non-undulatory locomotion also seen in snakes and lampreys. Our results illuminate a behavior that may be a critical component of the hagfish niche, as a result of its likely importance in feeding and avoiding predators. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Classification and function of small open reading frames.

    PubMed

    Couso, Juan-Pablo; Patraquim, Pedro

    2017-09-01

    Small open reading frames (smORFs) of 100 codons or fewer are usually - if arbitrarily - excluded from proteome annotations. Despite this, the genomes of many metazoans, including humans, contain millions of smORFs, some of which fulfil key physiological functions. Recently, the transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster was shown to contain thousands of smORFs of different classes that actively undergo translation, which produces peptides of mostly unknown function. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of smORFs in flies, mice and humans. We propose the existence of several functional classes of smORFs, ranging from inert DNA sequences to transcribed and translated cis-regulators of translation and peptides with a propensity to function as regulators of membrane-associated proteins, or as components of ancient protein complexes in the cytoplasm. We suggest that the different smORF classes could represent steps in gene, peptide and protein evolution. Our analysis introduces a distinction between different peptide-coding classes of smORFs in animal genomes, and highlights the role of model organisms for the study of small peptide biology in the context of development, physiology and human disease.

  9. Teaching Applied Macro in Emergent Economies: Lessons from Bahrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael S.; Epstein, Seth

    2013-01-01

    In this article we explore the challenges of adapting a standard introductory MBA course in applied macroeconomics to a student audience in a small open economy with a pegged currency. Our focus will be on the Kingdom of Bahrain, with reference to other countries in the Arabian Gulf region, where one would expect to use an open-economy theoretical…

  10. Teaching Applied Macro in Emergent Economies: Lessons from Bahrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael S.; Epstein, Seth

    2013-01-01

    In this article we explore the challenges of adapting a standard introductory MBA course in applied macroeconomics to a student audience in a small open economy with a pegged currency. Our focus will be on the Kingdom of Bahrain, with reference to other countries in the Arabian Gulf region, where one would expect to use an open-economy theoretical…

  11. Integrated spectral study of small angular diameter galactic open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clariá, J. J.; Ahumada, A. V.; Bica, E.; Pavani, D. B.; Parisi, M. C.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents flux-calibrated integrated spectra obtained at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina) for a sample of 9 Galactic open clusters of small angular diameter. The spectra cover the optical range (3800-6800 Å), with a resolution of ∼14 Å. With one exception (Ruprecht 158), the selected clusters are projected into the fourth Galactic quadrant (282o < l < 345o) near the Galactic plane (∣b∣ ≤ 9o). We performed simultaneous estimates of foreground interstellar reddening and age by comparing the continuum distribution and line strenghts of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known parameters. We thus provide spectroscopic information independent from that derived through color-magnitude diagram studies. We found three clusters (Collinder 249, NGC 4463 and Ruprecht 122) younger than ∼40 Myr, four moderately young ones (BH 92, Harvard 5, Hogg 14 and Pismis 23) with ages within 200-400 Myr, and two intermediate-age ones (Ruprecht 158 and ESO 065-SC07) with ages within 1.0-2.2 Gyr. The derived foreground E(B - V) color excesses vary from around 0.0 in Ruprecht 158 to ∼1.1 in Pismis 23. In general terms, the results obtained show good agreement with previous photometric results. In Ruprecht 158 and BH 92, however, some differences are found between the parameters here obtained and previous values in the literature. Individual spectra of some comparatively bright stars located in the fields of 5 out of the 9 clusters here studied, allowed us to evaluate their membership status. The current cluster sample complements that of 46 open clusters previously studied by our group in an effort to gather a spectral library with several clusters per age bin. The cluster spectral library that we have been building is an important tool to tie studies of resolved and unresolved stellar content.

  12. Computational discovery of small open reading frames in Bacillus lehensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin, Nurhafizhoh; Illias, Rosli Md.; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Bacillus lehensis is a Gram-positive and endospore-forming alkalitolerant bacterial strain. In recent years there has been increasing interest in alkaliphilic bacteria and their ability to grow under extreme conditions as well as their ability to serve various important functions in industrial biology especially enzyme production. Small open reading frames (sORFs) have emerged as important regulators in various biological roles such as tumor progression, hormone signalling and stress response. Over the past decade, many biocomputational tools have been developed to predict genes in bacterial genomes. In this study, three softwares were used to predict sORF (≤ 80 aa) in B. lehensis by using whole genome sequence. We used comparative analysis to identify the sORFs in B. lehensis that conserved across all other bacterial genomes. We extended the analysis by doing the homology analysis against protein database. This study established the sORFs in B. lehensis that are conserved across bacteria which might has important biological function which still remain elusive in biological field.

  13. Financial policy in a small open oil-exporting developing country: The case of Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmoor, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigates the role of financial policy in small open oil-exporting countries, taking Oman as a case study. The study focuses on the interest rate, inflationary financing, and the optimal exchange-rate peg question. Simulation of the macroeconomic model of the Omani economy showed that had the interest rate ceiling policy been removed, the country would have witnessed higher growth rates during the period in which the Eurodollar deposit rates were higher than the ceiling rate on local currency time deposits. The simulation results showed that credit-driven inflationary financing was self-defeating to the extent that the trade balance deteriorated by an amount more-or-less equivalent to the increase in government credit. Finally, an attempt was made to identify the optional exchange-rate peg for the country. The study compared three pegs: the U.S. dollar, the SDR, and an import-weighted basket. It found the SDR to be the most preferable peg. It provided the greatest stability in imported and domestic inflation.

  14. Impediments to global surveillance of infectious diseases: consequences of open reporting in a global economy.

    PubMed Central

    Cash, R. A.; Narasimhan, V.

    2000-01-01

    Globalization has led to an increase in the spread of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. International efforts are being launched to control their dissemination through global surveillance, a major hindrance to which is the failure of some countries to report outbreaks. Current guidelines and regulations on emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases do not sufficiently take into account the fact that when developing countries report outbreaks they often derive few benefits and suffer disproportionately heavy social and economic consequences. In order to facilitate full participation in global surveillance by developing countries there should be: better and more affordable diagnostic capabilities to allow for timely and accurate information to be delivered in an open and transparent fashion; accurate, less sensationalist news reporting of outbreaks of diseases; adherence by countries to international regulations, including those of the World Trade Organization and the International Health Regulations; financial support for countries that are economically damaged by the diseases in question. The article presents two cases--plague in India and cholera in Peru--that illuminate some of the limitations of current practices. Recommendations are made on measures that could be taken by WHO and the world community to make global surveillance acceptable. PMID:11143197

  15. Free float and stochastic volatility: the experience of a small open economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selçuk, Faruk

    2004-11-01

    Following a dramatic collapse of a fixed exchange rate based inflation stabilization program, Turkey moved into a free floating exchange rate system in February 2001. In this paper, an asymmetric stochastic volatility model of the foreign exchange rate in Turkey is estimated for the floating period. It is shown that there is a positive relation between the exchange return and its volatility. Particularly, an increase in the return at time t results in an increase in volatility at time t+1. However, the effect is asymmetric: a decrease in the exchange rate return at time t causes a relatively less decrease in volatility at time t+1. The results imply that a central bank with a volatility smoothing policy would be biased in viewing the shocks to the exchange rate in favor of appreciation. The bias would increase if the bank is also following an inflation targeting policy.

  16. Ten-year diameter and basal area growth of trees surrounding small group selection openings

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; Martin W. Ritchie; Celeste S. Abbott

    1996-01-01

    The effects of small openings in forest stands has interested silviculturists and ecologists for years. Interest generally has centered on the vegetation in the openings, not on that immediately outside of them. Quantitative information on the growth of trees adjacent to group-selection openings, although often mentioned in forestry textbooks as contributing to cost...

  17. Is Small Finally Becoming Beautiful? Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in the New Economy. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejonckheere, J.; Ramioul, M.; Van Hootegem, G.

    This report addresses small and medium-sized enterprises' (SMEs') role in the changing international division of labor and trade in information service activities. Chapter 2 describes the EMERGENCE project to map and measure eWork. Chapter 3 reviews literature that shows SMEs account for the overwhelming majority of companies and make a crucial…

  18. An open-source scheduler for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torgerson, Donovan; Straub, Jeremy; Mohammad, Atif; Korvald, Christoffer; Limesand, Dayln

    2013-05-01

    The limited power generation capability of a small satellite (e.g., a CubeSat) requires robust scheduling. A scheduling approach for small satellites which considers subsystem inter-dependency (where co-operation is required, desirable or prohibited), operational requirements and ground communication windows is presented. The paper considers what the optimal way of scheduled tasks for autonomous operation (required for scheduling when not in communication with ground controllers and desirable at all times during the mission) is. It compares a genetic algorithm-based approach, an exhaustive search-based approach and a heuristic-based approach. Performance maximization is considered (in light of both decision-making time and reducing activity time).

  19. Madisonville Community College: Training Small Manufacturers To Be Competitive in the Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    Madisonville Community College (MCC) is in Madisonville, Kentucky, a small town with a strong coal industry presence. Mine closings and layoffs in the 1980s prompted the region to reorient itself toward light industry and manufacturing, but the recession of the early 1990s and globalization led to closings of several of the largest employers. In…

  20. Madisonville Community College: Training Small Manufacturers To Be Competitive in the Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    Madisonville Community College (MCC) is in Madisonville, Kentucky, a small town with a strong coal industry presence. Mine closings and layoffs in the 1980s prompted the region to reorient itself toward light industry and manufacturing, but the recession of the early 1990s and globalization led to closings of several of the largest employers. In…

  1. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  2. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-05-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  3. Future Job Openings: Australia in the Knowledge Economy. Project 2000-02: Changing Skill Requirements in the Australian Labour Force in a Knowledge Economy. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Chandra; Burke, Gerald

    Forecasts of Australian labor market growth, net replacement needs, and net job openings to 2006 are presented using the nine-way grouping of occupations described by (Maglen and Shah, 1999). Analysis is based on classifying occupations by whether they are advantaged by globalization and technological change, relatively insulated, or vulnerable.…

  4. 76 FR 56879 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam.... ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/...

  5. 76 FR 17996 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

  6. 76 FR 46897 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam.... ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/...

  7. 76 FR 10942 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam.... ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/...

  8. 76 FR 22170 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam.... ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/...

  9. 76 FR 37200 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam.... ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/...

  10. 76 FR 17995 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed....C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed.... ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/...

  11. [Market economy, health economy?].

    PubMed

    De Wever, A

    2002-09-01

    After the definition of the economy and its different types, we have to stress the political economy which integrates pure economy and society. The economical science will gradually introduce the health economy of which the definition urges to seek for a better distribution between public and private means to do more and better for the public health. The market economy is different from the state economy. She is principally conducted by the supply and demand law. The consumer's behaviour in a competitive market has some characteristics which favour the balance of this market. The healthcare market put also a health supply and demand forward but not with the same values. The needs, the supply, the consumption and the consumer's behaviour are different in this particular market which quickly evolves and progressively goes closer to the market economy. Is the healthcare an economical good or duty? The choices' criteria and the priorities are changeable. The role of the valuation studies in health economy is to try to clarify them and to favour a better use of the limited resources to the unlimited needs.

  12. Role of University-Industry-Government Linkages in the Innovation Processes of a Small Catching-Up Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varblane, Urmas; Mets, Tonis; Ukrainski, Kadri

    2008-01-01

    During the transformation process from a command economy, the extraordinary statist university-industry-government (UIG) linkages model was replaced by an extreme version of laissez-faire relationships. A more modern interaction-based UIG model could be implemented only by changing the whole national innovation system of catching-up economies. The…

  13. Role of University-Industry-Government Linkages in the Innovation Processes of a Small Catching-Up Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varblane, Urmas; Mets, Tonis; Ukrainski, Kadri

    2008-01-01

    During the transformation process from a command economy, the extraordinary statist university-industry-government (UIG) linkages model was replaced by an extreme version of laissez-faire relationships. A more modern interaction-based UIG model could be implemented only by changing the whole national innovation system of catching-up economies. The…

  14. Numerical simulation of pressure fluctuation in 1000MW Francis turbine under small opening condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, R. Z.; Wang, H. G.; Yao, Y.; Shu, L. F.; Huang, Y. J.

    2012-11-01

    In order to study the cause of abnormal vibration in large Francis turbine under small opening condition, CFD method was adopted to analyze the flow filed and pressure fluctuation. Numerical simulation was performed on the commercial CFD code Ansys FLUENT 12, using DES method. After an effective validation of the computation result, the flow behaviour of internal flow field under small opening condition is analyzed. Pressure fluctuation in different working mode is obtained by unsteady CFD simulation, and results is compared to study its change. Radial force fluctuation is also analyzed. The result shows that the unstable flow under small opening condition leads to an increase of turbine instability in reverse pump mode, and is one possible reason of the abnormal oscillation.

  15. Risk of Small Bowel Obstruction After Robot-Assisted vs Open Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Stacy; Meyer, Christian P; Krasnova, Anna; Curnyn, Caitlin; Reznor, Gally; Kibel, Adam S; Lepor, Herbert; Trinh, Quoc-Dien

    2016-12-01

    Whereas open radical prostatectomy is performed extraperitoneally, minimally invasive radical prostatectomy is typically performed within the peritoneal cavity. Our objective was to determine whether minimally invasive radical prostatectomy is associated with an increased risk of small bowel obstruction compared with open radical prostatectomy. In the U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we identified 14,147 men found to have prostate cancer from 2000 to 2008 treated by open (n = 10,954) or minimally invasive (n = 3193) radical prostatectomy. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the impact of surgical approach on the diagnosis of small bowel obstruction, as well as the need for lysis of adhesions and exploratory laparotomy. During a median follow-up of 45 and 76 months, respectively, the cumulative incidence of small bowel obstruction was 3.7% for minimally invasive and 5.3% for open radical prostatectomy (p = 0.0005). Lysis of adhesions occurred in 1.1% of minimally invasive and 2.0% of open prostatectomy patients (p = 0.0003). On multivariable analysis, there was no significant difference between minimally invasive and open prostatectomy with respect to small bowel obstruction (HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.90, 1.52, p = 0.25) or lysis of adhesions (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.50, 1.40, p = 0.57). Limitations of the study include the retrospective design and use of administrative claims data. Relative to open radical prostatectomy, minimally invasive radical prostatectomy is not associated with an increased risk of postoperative small bowel obstruction and lysis of adhesions.

  16. Turbocharging of Small Internal Combustion Engine as a Means of Improving Engine/Application System Fuel Economy-Further Turbocharger Improvements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    D-AIlS 073 AERODYNE DALLAS TX F/S 21/7 A!!M, TURBOCHARGING OF SMALL INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AS A MEANS OF--ETC(U) UNLS IID APR 82 J R ARVIN DAAK70...AerodyneDallas FINAL REPORT CONTRACT NO. DAAK70-80-C-0146 TURBOCHARGING OF SMALL INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AS A MEANS OF IMPROVING ENGINE /APPLICATION...SMALL INTERNAL COMBUSTION 10/80 - 2/82 ENGINES AS A MEANS OF IMPROVING ENGINE/APPLICATIO_ SYSTEM FUEL ECONOMY-FURTHER TURBOCHARGER IMPROVE- 6. PERFORMING

  17. Development of seven hardwood species in small forest openings: 22-year results

    Treesearch

    R.L. Johnson; R.M. Krinard

    1983-01-01

    Small forest openings planted with seven leading commercial tree species were completely dominated by yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) that ave raged 90 feet tall after 22 years. Of the other planted species, swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii) was most shade tolerant while shumard oaks (Q. shumardii),...

  18. Laparoscopic versus open adhesiolysis for small bowel obstruction - a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic adhesiolysis is emerging as an alternative for open surgery in adhesive small bowel obstruction. Retrospective studies suggest that laparoscopic approach shortens hospital stay and reduces complications in these patients. However, no prospective, randomized, controlled trials comparing laparoscopy to open surgery have been published. Methods/Design This is a multicenter, prospective, open label, randomized, controlled trial comparing laparoscopic adhesiolysis to open surgery in patients with computed-tomography diagnosed adhesive small bowel obstruction that is not resolving with conservative management. The primary study endpoint is the length of postoperative hospital stay in days. Sample size was estimated based on preliminary retrospective cohort, which suggested that 102 patients would provide 80% power to detect a difference of 2.5 days in the length of postoperative hospital stay with significance level of 0.05. Secondary endpoints include passage of stool, commencement of enteral nutrition, 30-day mortality, complications, postoperative pain, and the length of sick leave. Tertiary endpoints consist of the rate of ventral hernia and the recurrence of small bowel obstruction during long-term follow-up. Long-term follow-up by letter or telephone interview will take place at 1, 5, and 10 years. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this trial is the first one aiming to provide level Ib evidence to assess the use of laparoscopy in the treatment of adhesive small bowel obstruction. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01867528. Date of registration May 26th 2013. PMID:25306234

  19. 75 FR 25317 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Issue Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Issue... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Issue Committee will be conducted... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small...

  20. 77 FR 8329 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

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  1. 75 FR 11999 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

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    2010-03-12

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  2. 75 FR 18957 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

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  5. 76 FR 22170 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

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  6. 75 FR 47348 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

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    2010-08-05

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  8. 77 FR 21157 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing... Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be held Tuesday, May...

  9. 76 FR 56880 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee...

  10. 76 FR 10942 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee...

  11. 76 FR 37893 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee...

  12. 75 FR 55405 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  13. 75 FR 62630 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted....S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  14. 76 FR 77893 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing... Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be held...

  15. 75 FR 39331 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  16. 77 FR 47166 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing... Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be held...

  17. 77 FR 40411 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small ] Business/Self-Employed Decreasing... Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be held Tuesday,...

  18. 76 FR 2193 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed... Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement will be...

  19. 75 FR 33893 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  20. 76 FR 46897 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed... of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee...

  1. 77 FR 61052 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing... Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be held...

  2. 77 FR 2610 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing... Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be held...

  3. 77 FR 20489 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing... Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be held Tuesday,...

  4. 75 FR 7539 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Project Committee will be conducted....C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  5. 77 FR 30591 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed... meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing... Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be held Tuesday,...

  6. Identification of small open reading frames in the Glaciozyma antarctica genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat-Sharani, Shuhaila; Bharudin, Izwan; Zainuddin, Nursyafiqi; Abdul-Murad, Abdul-Munir; Abu-Bakar, Farah-Diba; Najimuddin, Nazalan; Mahadi, Nor-Muhammad; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Glaciozyma antarctica is an obligate psychrophilic yeast that was isolated from Casey Research Station, Antarctica. The objective of this study was to identify small Open Reading Frames (sORFs) in the G. antarctica genome. Small ORFs have been found in other organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human and they have been known to partake in a diverse variety of functions. In this study, ORFs were searched from the existing G. antarctica genome annotations and this resulted 294 sORFs (of at most 100 amino acids) which represented 4% of the 7857 annotated ORFs. Several of these sORFs were validated by mapping to EST and transcriptome of G. antarctica.

  7. Breaking-bud pollination: a new pollination process in partially opened flowers by small bees.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Futa; Ohsawa, Takeshi A

    2015-09-01

    Plant-pollinator interactions have usually been researched in flowers that have fully opened. However, some pollinators can visit flowers before full opening and contribute to fruit and seed sets. In this paper, we researched the pollination biology of flowers just starting to open in four field experiments. We observed the insect visitors to Lycoris sanguinea var. sanguinea for 3 years at five sites. These observations revealed that only small bees, Lasioglossum japonicum, often entered through tiny spaces between the tepals of 'breaking buds' (i.e. partially opened flowers) and collected pollen. We hypothesized that they can pollinate this species at the breaking-bud stage, when the stigma is located near the anthers. To measure the pollination effect of small bees at the breaking-bud stage, we bagged several breaking buds after small bees had visited them and examined whether these buds were pollinated. In bagging experiments, 30% of the breaking buds set fruit and seeds. Fruit-set ratios of the breaking buds did not differ significantly from those of the fully opened flowers, which had been visited by several insect species. We also counted the pollen grain numbers on the body of L. japonicum and on the anthers of randomly-selected and manipulated flowers. These experiments revealed that all of the captured bees had some pollen of target plants and that L. japonicum collected most of the pollen grains at the breaking-bud stage. Our results showed that the new pollination process, breaking-bud pollination, happened in breaking buds by L. japonicum, although there is no evidence to reveal that this is the most effective pollination method for L. sanguinea var. sanguinea. In principle, this new pollination process can occur in other flowering plants and our results are a major contribution to studies of plant-pollinator interactions.

  8. Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) Design of a Small Animal Radiotherapy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, S.; Mackie, T. R.; Jeraj, R.

    2014-03-01

    Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) was initiated with the goal of facilitating medical research by developing medical technologies including both hardware and software on an open-source platform. Our first project was to develop an integrated imaging and radiotherapy device for small animals that includes computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and radiation therapy (RT) modalities for which technical specifications were defined in the first OSMD conference held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA in December 2011. This paper specifically focuses on the development of a small animal RT (micro-RT) system by designing a binary micro multileaf collimator (bmMLC) and a small animal treatment planning system (SATPS) to enable intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Both hardware and software projects are currently under development and their current progresses are described. After the development, both bmMLC and TPS will be validated and commissioned for a micro-RT system. Both hardware design and software development will be open-sourced after completion.

  9. 76 FR 63715 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Doc No: 2011-26405] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer... AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small...

  10. 76 FR 63716 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Doc No: 2011-26407] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer...: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self...

  11. 76 FR 2196 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed...: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll... Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free will be held Tuesday, February 22, 2011, at 9...

  12. First estimates of the fundamental parameters of the very small open cluster Ruprecht 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Parisi, M. C.; Ahumada, A. V.

    New CCD observations with the Washington C and T1 filters in the field of the open cluster Ruprecht 1 are presented. The cluster turned out to be very small, its linear radius being 2.6 +/- 0.2 pc. Ruprecht 1 is moderately reddened [E(B-V) = 0.25] and moderately young (~ 230 Myr). Heliocentric distances of 1.9 +/- 0.4 kpc and 1.5 +/- 0.3 kpc are determined for Z (metallicity) = 0.02 and 0.08, respectively, although evidence is presented favouring a solar metal content rather than a subsolar one. We compare the cluster properties with tose of known open clusters located within 1 kpc around it.

  13. Flood discharges of a small river into open coastal waters: Plume traits and material fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaston, Troy F.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Connolly, Rod M.

    2006-08-01

    The dynamics of plumes from large rivers are relatively well known. Many estuaries are small, however, and discharge directly onto exposed, open shorelines and presumably produce smaller plumes that may have different properties. Therefore this study measured traits of a small estuary on the Australian East Coast as a model system, focusing on (a) plume size, (b) distinctness of plume edges, and (c) imprints on the seafloor. Although plumes were found to be limited in spatial extent (ca. 1 km offshore × 2.4 km longshore) and were constrained near the shore by onshore winds, they exported high nutrient loads from an urbanised watershed. The small plumes were shallow (<2 m) and strongly buoyant, with sharp vertical and horizontal clines similar to much larger plumes. The edges of the plumes were highly distinct, clearly separating disparate water masses that trapped significantly higher amounts of nutrients inside the plume. Some particulate material exported from the estuary in the plumes reached the benthos of the nearshore zone, as evidenced by increases in copper concentrations in sediments under the plume. By contrast, the amount of land-sourced carbon delivered by small plumes to the seafloor was minor in comparison to larger inputs from marine sources (e.g. onshore advection of phytoplankton blooms or algae dislodged from reefs) that swamped any contribution from plumes. Overall, small plumes can be important in land-ocean coupling, but their zone of influence may be limited.

  14. 76 FR 6190 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee AGENCY... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Toll Free Project Committee will... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small...

  15. 77 FR 37102 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self- Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee AGENCY: Internal... Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing Non-Filers Project Committee will be conducted. The...) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/ Self-Employed Decreasing...

  16. Novel Vein Patterns in Arabidopsis Induced by Small Molecules1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The critical role of veins in transporting water, nutrients, and signals suggests that some key regulators of vein formation may be genetically redundant and, thus, undetectable by forward genetic screens. To identify such regulators, we screened more than 5000 structurally diverse small molecules for compounds that alter Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf vein patterns. Many compound-induced phenotypes were observed, including vein networks with an open reticulum; decreased or increased vein number and thickness; and misaligned, misshapen, or nonpolar vascular cells. Further characterization of several individual active compounds suggests that their targets include hormone cross talk, hormone-dependent transcription, and PIN-FORMED trafficking. PMID:26574596

  17. The Economics of Rural and Urban Small-Scale Industries in Sierra Leone. African Rural Economy Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedholm, Carl; Chuta, Enyinna

    Small-scale industry in Sierra Leone, Africa was examined in terms of: labor intensity; output generated per unit of capital; generation of positive economic profits by small-scale industry groups/processes; and seasonal and locational variations. Key analytical issues were the nature of small-scale industry supply and demand processes. Data were…

  18. The Economics of Rural and Urban Small-Scale Industries in Sierra Leone. African Rural Economy Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedholm, Carl; Chuta, Enyinna

    Small-scale industry in Sierra Leone, Africa was examined in terms of: labor intensity; output generated per unit of capital; generation of positive economic profits by small-scale industry groups/processes; and seasonal and locational variations. Key analytical issues were the nature of small-scale industry supply and demand processes. Data were…

  19. Case study of open-source enterprise resource planning implementation in a small business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, David L.; Staley, Jesse

    2012-02-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have been recognised as offering great benefit to some organisations, although they are expensive and problematic to implement. The cost and risk make well-developed proprietorial systems unaffordable to small businesses. Open-source software (OSS) has become a viable means of producing ERP system products. The question this paper addresses is the feasibility of OSS ERP systems for small businesses. A case is reported involving two efforts to implement freely distributed ERP software products in a small US make-to-order engineering firm. The case emphasises the potential of freely distributed ERP systems, as well as some of the hurdles involved in their implementation. The paper briefly reviews highlights of OSS ERP systems, with the primary focus on reporting the case experiences for efforts to implement ERPLite software and xTuple software. While both systems worked from a technical perspective, both failed due to economic factors. While these economic conditions led to imperfect results, the case demonstrates the feasibility of OSS ERP for small businesses. Both experiences are evaluated in terms of risk dimension.

  20. Sediment depositions upstream of open check dams: new elements from small scale models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piton, Guillaume; Le Guern, Jules; Carbonari, Costanza; Recking, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Torrent hazard mitigation remains a big issue in mountainous regions. In steep slope streams and especially in their fan part, torrential floods mainly result from abrupt and massive sediment deposits. To curtail such phenomenon, soil conservation measures as well as torrent control works have been undertaken for decades. Since the 1950s, open check dams complete other structural and non-structural measures in watershed scale mitigation plans1. They are often built to trap sediments near the fan apexes. The development of earthmoving machinery after the WWII facilitated the dredging operations of open check dams. Hundreds of these structures have thus been built for 60 years. Their design evolved with the improving comprehension of torrential hydraulics and sediment transport; however this kind of structure has a general tendency to trap most of the sediments supplied by the headwaters. Secondary effects as channel incision downstream of the traps often followed an open check dam creation. This sediment starvation trend tends to propagate to the main valley rivers and to disrupt past geomorphic equilibriums. Taking it into account and to diminish useless dredging operation, a better selectivity of sediment trapping must be sought in open check dams, i.e. optimal open check dams would trap sediments during dangerous floods and flush them during normal small floods. An accurate description of the hydraulic and deposition processes that occur in sediment traps is needed to optimize existing structures and to design best-adjusted new structures. A literature review2 showed that if design criteria exist for the structure itself, little information is available on the dynamic of the sediment depositions upstream of open check dams, i.e. what are the geomorphic patterns that occur during the deposition?, what are the relevant friction laws and sediment transport formula that better describe massive depositions in sediment traps?, what are the range of Froude and Shields

  1. The effects of wastewater discharges on the functioning of a small temporarily open/closed estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, Robynne A.; Stretch, Derek D.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2010-04-01

    Wastewater discharges affect the functioning of small temporarily open/closed estuaries (TOCEs) through two main mechanisms: (1) they can significantly change the water balance by altering the quantity of water inflows, and (2) they can significantly change the nutrient balance and hence the water quality. This study investigated the bio-physical responses of a typical, small TOCE on the east coast of South Africa, the Mhlanga Estuary. This estuary receives significant inflows of treated effluent from upstream wastewater treatment works. Water and nutrient budgets were used together with biological sampling to investigate changes in the functioning of the system. The increase in inflows due to the effluent discharges has significantly increased the mouth breaching frequency. Furthermore, when the mouth closes, the accumulation of nutrients leads to eutrophication and algal blooms. A grey water index, namely the proportion of effluent in the estuary and an indicator of the additional nutrient inputs into the estuary, reached high values (≳50%) during low flow regimes and when the mouth was closed. In these hyper-eutrophic conditions (DIN and DIP concentrations up to 457 μM and 100 μM respectively), field measurements showed that algal blooms occurred within about 14 days following closure of the mouth (chlorophyll-a concentrations up to 375 mg chl-a m -3). Water and nutrient balance simulations for alternative scenarios suggest that further increases in wastewater discharges would result in more frequent breaching events and longer open mouth conditions, but the occurrence of hyper-eutrophic conditions would initially intensify despite more frequent openings. The study indicates how water and nutrient balance simulations can be used in the planning and impact assessment of wastewater treatment facilities.

  2. "I've Never Heard of It Before": Awareness of Open Access at a Small Liberal Arts University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocken, Gregory J.; Wical, Stephanie H.

    2013-01-01

    Small colleges and universities, often late adopters of institutional repositories and open access initiatives, face challenges that have not fully been explored in the professional literature. In an effort to gauge the level of awareness of open access and institutional repositories at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire (UWEC), the authors of…

  3. "I've Never Heard of It Before": Awareness of Open Access at a Small Liberal Arts University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocken, Gregory J.; Wical, Stephanie H.

    2013-01-01

    Small colleges and universities, often late adopters of institutional repositories and open access initiatives, face challenges that have not fully been explored in the professional literature. In an effort to gauge the level of awareness of open access and institutional repositories at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire (UWEC), the authors of…

  4. Primary Open Angle Glaucoma is Associated with MR Biomarkers of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease.

    PubMed

    Mercieca, Karl; Cain, John; Hansen, Thomas; Steeples, Laura; Watkins, Amy; Spencer, Fiona; Jackson, Alan

    2016-02-29

    This prospective study tests the hypotheses that: 1) glaucoma is associated with evidence of cerebral small vessel disease; 2) that imaging biomarkers of cerebral small vessel disease in POAG and NTG will show different characteristics. 12 normal controls, 7 patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and 9 patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) were recruited. Ophthalmological clinical assessment and MR imaging of the brain were performed. MR imaging was used to quantify white matter lesion load, frequency of dilated perivascular spaces (PVS) and abnormalities in cerebral hydrodynamics. Patients with POAG had significantly greater white matter lesion load (p < 0.05), more PVS in the centrum semiovale (p < 0.05) and had higher overall PVS scores than controls (p < 0.05). In the POAG group, optic cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) was positively correlated with deep white matter hyperintensities (R(2) = 0.928, p < 0.01). Mean deviation on the Humphrey visual field assessment was negatively correlated with deep white matter lesion load (R(2) = -0.840, p < 0.01), total white matter lesion load (R(2) = -0.928, p < 0.01) and total PVS (R(2) = -0.820, p < 0.01). MR evidence of cerebral small vessel disease is strongly associated with a diagnosis of POAG and with the severity of abnormalities in CDR and visual field.

  5. Open-source, small-animal magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound system.

    PubMed

    Poorman, Megan E; Chaplin, Vandiver L; Wilkens, Ken; Dockery, Mary D; Giorgio, Todd D; Grissom, William A; Caskey, Charles F

    2016-01-01

    MR-guided focused ultrasound or high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgFUS/MRgHIFU) is a non-invasive therapeutic modality with many potential applications in areas such as cancer therapy, drug delivery, and blood-brain barrier opening. However, the large financial costs involved in developing preclinical MRgFUS systems represent a barrier to research groups interested in developing new techniques and applications. We aim to mitigate these challenges by detailing a validated, open-source preclinical MRgFUS system capable of delivering thermal and mechanical FUS in a quantifiable and repeatable manner under real-time MRI guidance. A hardware and software package was developed that includes closed-loop feedback controlled thermometry code and CAD drawings for a therapy table designed for a preclinical MRI scanner. For thermal treatments, the modular software uses a proportional integral derivative controller to maintain a precise focal temperature rise in the target given input from MR phase images obtained concurrently. The software computes the required voltage output and transmits it to a FUS transducer that is embedded in the delivery table within the magnet bore. The delivery table holds the FUS transducer, a small animal and its monitoring equipment, and a transmit/receive RF coil. The transducer is coupled to the animal via a water bath and is translatable in two dimensions from outside the magnet. The transducer is driven by a waveform generator and amplifier controlled by real-time software in Matlab. MR acoustic radiation force imaging is also implemented to confirm the position of the focus for mechanical and thermal treatments. The system was validated in tissue-mimicking phantoms and in vivo during murine tumor hyperthermia treatments. Sonications were successfully controlled over a range of temperatures and thermal doses for up to 20 min with minimal temperature overshoot. MR thermometry was validated with an optical temperature probe, and focus

  6. Greensboro Small Business Among Recipients of $1.9 Million from EPA to Support the Nations Green Economy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced almost $2 million to 19 small businesses nationwide to develop and commercialize technologies that tackle critical environmental problems. Bio-Adhesive Alliance, Inc. based in

  7. Freedom of Development for Industry and Consumers. Small Business and the Social Market Economy in the Federal Republic of Germany. Sonderdienst Special Report No. 1. Code No. 79. Q 6016.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Wilhelm; Breuer, Michael

    Small businesses have made a decisive contribution to the reconstruction and development of the German economy and society since World War II. The Federal Republic of Germany considers small-scale industry important and has granted tax relief and initiated a wide range of loan and guarantee programs for them. The Act against Restraints of…

  8. Assessment of guide vane self-excitation stability at small openings in pump flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nennemann, B.; Sallaberger, M.; Henggeler, U.; Gentner, C.; Parkinson, E.

    2012-11-01

    A parameter study of self-excited pump turbine guide vane instability at small openings using a combined CFD-1DOF approach shows that clear tendencies are difficult to obtain. Two types of boundary conditions can be used in the simulations: prescribed mass flow and prescribed pressure. Simulations with both show results that - for one specific operating condition - are consistent with a self-excited guide vane incident at a prototype pump turbine. However, over a larger range of reduced velocities, the tendencies obtained with the two boundary condition types are not always consistent. Pressure boundary conditions may be the more realistic option. Results then show that with increasing reduced velocity, guide vanes will eventually reach static instability or divergence. This may not be problematic. In contrast, passing through a zone of dynamic instability during operation should and can be avoided.

  9. Omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid in bipolar depression: report of a small open-label study.

    PubMed

    Osher, Yamima; Bersudsky, Yuly; Belmaker, R H

    2005-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested that consumption of cold water fish oils may have some protective function against depression. This proposition is supported by a series of biochemical and pharmacologic studies that have suggested that fatty acids may modulate neurotransmitter metabolism and cell signal trans-duction in humans and that abnormalities in fatty acid and eicosanoid metabolism may play a causal role in depression. Aware of the critical need for antidepression treatments that might not carry the risk of precipitating a manic episode in bipolar patients, we decided to conduct an open-label add-on trial of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in bipolar depression. Twelve bipolar I outpatients with depressive symptoms diagnosed by DSM-IV were treated with 1.5 to 2 g/day of the omega-3 fatty acid EPA for up to 6 months. The study was conducted between September 2001 and January 2003. Eight of the 10 patients who completed at least 1 month of follow-up achieved a 50% or greater reduction in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores within 1 month. No patients developed hypomania or manic symptoms. No significant side effects were reported. This study is limited both by the open-label design and by the small sample size. As in all previous reported studies, patients in this study were treated in an outpatient setting, so that the most severely depressed bipolar patients (requiring hospitalization) are not represented. Although the ultimate utility of omega-3 fatty acids in bipolar depression is still an open question, we believe that these initial results are encouraging, especially for mild to moderate bipolar depression, and justify the continuing exploration of its use.

  10. Reduction of hemodilution in small adults undergoing open heart surgery: a prospective, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, F; Corno, C; Franco, A; Giardina, G; Scandroglio, A M; Landoni, G; Crescenzi, G; Zangrillo, A

    2007-09-01

    Given that there is an association between the degree of hemodilution during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and postoperative complications, patients-outcome might be improved if the nadir hematocrit concentration is kept within an optimal range. Smaller patients are more likely to have a low hematocrit during CPB: this phenomenon may be related, at least partially, to the extreme hemodilution induced by a large fixed CPB priming volume. Forty patients with a body surface area (BSA) < 1.7 m2 undergoing open heart operations were randomized to either standard CPB with full prime volume (control group) or reduced prime extracorporeal circuit and vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) (study group). There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to baseline characteristics, body surface area, hematologic profile and operative data. Clinical outcomes were similar. Nadir hematocrit and hemoglobin on bypass were significantly lower in the control group (22 +/- 2.3 vs. 24 +/- 2.5%, p < 0.02 and 7.4 +/- 0.7 vs. 8 +/- 0.9 g/dl, p < 0.04, respectively). Postoperative chest tube drainage was significantly higher in the control group (272 +/- 253 vs. 139 +/- 84 ml, p < 0.04). There was no difference in blood transfusion in the two groups (0.5 +/- 1.14 vs. 1.0 +/- 1.77 units of packed red blood cells (PRBC), p = 0.29). Lowering CPB priming volume by means of using a small oxygenator and vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) resulted in a significant decrease of intraoperative hemodilution. This technique should be strongly considered for patients with a small BSA (<1.7 m2) undergoing open heart surgery.

  11. A comprehensive photometric study of dynamically evolved small van den Bergh-Hagen open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2016-12-01

    We present results from Johnson UBV, Kron-Cousins RI and Washington CT1T2 photometries for seven van den Bergh-Hagen (vdBH) open clusters, namely, vdBH 1, 10, 31, 72, 87, 92, and 118. The high-quality, multiband photometric data sets were used to trace the cluster stellar density radial profiles and to build colour-magnitude diagrams and colour-colour diagrams from which we estimated their structural parameters and fundamental astrophysical properties. The clusters in our sample cover a wide age range, from ˜60 Myr up to 2.8 Gyr, are of relatively small size (˜1-6 pc) and are placed at distances from the Sun which vary between 1.8 and 6.3 kpc, respectively. We also estimated lower limits for the cluster present-day masses as well as half-mass relaxation times (tr). The resulting values in combination with the structural parameter values suggest that the studied clusters are in advanced stages of their internal dynamical evolution (age/tr ˜ 20-320), possibly in the typical phase of those tidally filled with mass segregation in their core regions. Compared to open clusters in the solar neighbourhood, the seven vdBH clusters are within more massive (˜80-380 M⊙), with higher concentration parameter values (c ˜ 0.75-1.15) and dynamically evolved ones.

  12. Small-molecule 3D Structure Prediction Using Open Crystallography Data

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Peter; Baldi, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the 3D structures of small molecules is a common problem in chemoinformatics. Even the best methods are inaccurate for complex molecules, and there is a large gap in accuracy between proprietary and free algorithms. Previous work presented COSMOS, a novel, data-driven algorithm that uses knowledge of known structures from the Cambridge Structural Database, and demonstrated performance that was competitive with proprietary algorithms. However, dependence on the Cambridge Structural Database prevented its widespread use. Here we present an updated version of the COSMOS structure predictor, complete with a free structure library derived from open data sources. We demonstrate that COSMOS performs better than other freely-available methods, with a mean RMSD of 1.16 Å and 1.68 Å for organic and metal-organic structures, and a mean prediction time of 60 ms per molecule. This is a 17% and 20% reduction in RMSD compared to the free predictor provided by Open Babel, and ten times faster. The ChemDB webportal provides a COSMOS prediction webserver, as well as downloadable copies of the COSMOS executable and the library of molecular substructures. PMID:24261562

  13. Small-molecule 3D structure prediction using open crystallography data.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Peter; Baldi, Pierre

    2013-12-23

    Predicting the 3D structures of small molecules is a common problem in chemoinformatics. Even the best methods are inaccurate for complex molecules, and there is a large gap in accuracy between proprietary and free algorithms. Previous work presented COSMOS, a novel data-driven algorithm that uses knowledge of known structures from the Cambridge Structural Database and demonstrates performance that was competitive with proprietary algorithms. However, dependence on the Cambridge Structural Database prevented its widespread use. Here, we present an updated version of the COSMOS structure predictor, complete with a free structure library derived from open data sources. We demonstrate that COSMOS performs better than other freely available methods, with a mean RMSD of 1.16 and 1.68 Å for organic and metal-organic structures, respectively, and a mean prediction time of 60 ms per molecule. This is a 17% and 20% reduction, respectively, in RMSD compared to the free predictor provided by Open Babel, and it is 10 times faster. The ChemDB Web portal provides a COSMOS prediction Web server, as well as downloadable copies of the COSMOS executable and library of molecular substructures.

  14. Small-Bowel Obstruction Secondary to Adhesions After Open or Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Smolarek, Sebastian; Shalaby, Mostafa; Paolo Angelucci, Giulio; Missori, Giulia; Capuano, Ilaria; Franceschilli, Luana; Quaresima, Silvia; Di Lorenzo, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Small-bowel obstruction (SBO) is a common surgical emergency that occurs in 9% of patients after abdominal surgery. Up to 73% are caused by peritoneal adhesions. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the rate of SBOs between patients who underwent laparoscopic (LPS) and those who had open (OPS) colorectal surgery. The secondary reasons were to evaluate the rate of adhesive SBO in a cohort of patients who underwent a range of colorectal resections and to assess risk factors for the development of SBO. Method: This was a retrospective observational cohort study. Data were analyzed from a prospectively collected database and cross checked with operating theater records and hospital patient management systems. Results: During the study period, 707 patients underwent colorectal resection, 350 of whom (49.5%) were male. Median follow-up was 48.3 months. Of the patients included, 178 (25.2%) underwent LPS, whereas 529 (74.8%) had OPS. SBO occurred in 72 patients (10.2%): 20 (11.2%) in the LPS group and 52 (9.8%) in the OPS group [P = .16; hazards ratio (HR) 1.4 95% CI 0.82–2.48] within the study period. Conversion to an open procedure was associated with increased risk of SBO (P = .039; HR 2.82; 95% CI 0.78–8.51). Stoma formation was an independent risk factor for development of SBO (P = .049; HR, 0.63; 95% CI 0.39–1.03). The presence of an incisional hernia in the OPS group was associated with SBO (P = .0003; HR, 2.85; 95% CI 1.44–5.283). There was no difference in SBO between different types of procedures: right colon, left colon, and rectal surgery. Patients who developed early small-bowel obstruction (ESBO) were more often treated surgically compared to late SBO (P = .0001). Conclusion: The use of laparoscopy does not influence the rate of SBO, but conversion from laparoscopic to open surgery is associated with an increased risk of SBO. Stoma formation is associated with a 2-fold increase in SBO. Development of ESBO is

  15. Openings

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  16. TWS1, a Novel Small Protein, Regulates Various Aspects of Seed and Plant Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Guyon, Virginie; Remoué, Carine; Magnani, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Small proteins have long been overlooked due to their poor annotation and the experimental challenges they pose. However, in recent years, their role in various processes has started to emerge, opening new research avenues. Here, we present the isolation and characterization of two allelic mutants, twisted seed1-1 (tws1-1) and tws1-2, which exhibit an array of developmental and biochemical phenotypes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. We have identified AT5G01075 as the subtending gene encoding a small protein of 81 amino acids localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. TWS1 is strongly expressed in seeds, where it regulates both embryo development and accumulation of storage compounds. TWS1 loss-of-function seeds exhibit increased starch, sucrose, and protein accumulation at the detriment of fatty acids. TWS1 is also expressed in vegetative and reproductive tissues, where it is responsible for proper epidermal cell morphology and overall plant growth. At the cellular level, TWS1 is responsible for cuticle deposition on epidermal cells and organization of the endomembrane system. Finally, we show that TWS1 is a single-copy gene in Arabidopsis, and it is specifically conserved among angiosperms. PMID:27613850

  17. High Performance Open Loop Control of Scanning with a Small Cylindrical Cantilever Beam.

    PubMed

    Kundrat, Matthew J; Reinhall, Per G; Lee, Cameron M; Seibel, Eric J

    2011-04-11

    The steady state response motion of a base excited cantilever beam with circular cross-section excited by a unidirectional displacement will fall along a straight line. However, achieving straight-line motion with a real cantilever beam of circular cross-section is difficult to accomplish. This is due to the fact that nonlinear effects, small deviations from circularity, asymmetric boundary conditions, and actuator cross coupling can induce whirling. The vast majority of previous work on cantilever beam whirling has focused on the effects of system nonlinearities. We show that whirling is a much broader problem in the design of resonant beam scanners in that the onset of whirling does not depend on large amplitude of motion. Rather, whirling is the norm in real systems due to small system asymmetries and actuator cross coupling. It is therefore necessary to control the growth of the whirling motion when a unidirectional beam motion is desired. We have developed a novel technique to identify the two eigen directions of the beam. Base excitation generated by virtual electrodes along these orthogonal eigen axes of the cantilever beam system generates tip vibration without whirl. This leads to accurate open loop control of the motion of the beam through the combined actuation of two pairs of orthogonally placed actuator electrodes.

  18. Protein-based open sandwich immuno-PCR for sensitive detection of small biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Sharif; Dong, Jinhua; Hara, Yuko; Morizane, Yoshihito; Shibasaki, Futoshi; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Open sandwich (OS) immunoassay utilizes antigen-dependent stabilization of an antibody variable region to quantify various antigens, enabling noncompetitive detection of small molecules with a broad working range. For further improvement of its sensitivity, OS Immuno-PCR was attempted with recombinant fusion proteins. The maltose binding protein-fused heavy chain variable region (MBP-V(H)) of an antibody that recognizes the C-terminal fragment of human osteocalcin (bone Gla protein, BGP), a biomarker for bone-related diseases, was immobilized onto microplate wells, and the antigen together with streptavidin (SA)-fused light chain variable region of the same antibody (SA-V(L)) was added and incubated. The amount of immobilized SA-V(L) was quantified by tethered biotinylated DNA, which was used to estimate the amount of antigen by realtime PCR. When BGP C-terminal peptide was detected, the limit of detection was 100 fg/mL, which was superior than that of our previously reported phage-based OS Immuno-PCR. The developed OS Immuno-PCR system will be useful for the detection of small molecule biomarkers for disease prevention.

  19. Tools for Inspecting and Sampling Waste in Underground Radioactive Storage Tanks with Small Access Riser Openings

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, T.A.

    1998-12-17

    Underground storage tanks with 2 inches to 3 inches diameter access ports at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site have been used to store radioactive solvents and sludge. In order to close these tanks, the contents of the tanks need to first be quantified in terms of volume and chemical and radioactive characteristics. To provide information on the volume of waste contained within the tanks, a small remote inspection system was needed. This inspection system was designed to provide lighting and provide pan and tilt capabilities in an inexpensive package with zoom abilities and color video. This system also needed to be utilized inside of a plastic tent built over the access port to contain any contamination exiting from the port. This system had to be build to travel into the small port opening, through the riser pipe, into the tank evacuated space, and out of the riser pipe and access port with no possibility of being caught and blocking the access riser. Long thin plates were found in many access riser pipes that blocked the inspection system from penetrating into the tank interiors. Retrieval tools to clear the plates from the tanks using developed sampling devices while providing safe containment for the samples. This paper will discuss the inspection systems, tools for clearing access pipes, and solvent sampling tools developed to evaluate the tank contents of the underground solvent storage tanks.

  20. Cyberscience and the Knowledge-Based Economy. Open Access and Trade Publishing: From Contradiction to Compatibility with Non-Exclusive Copyright Licensing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armbruster, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Open source, open content and open access are set to fundamentally alter the conditions of knowledge production and distribution. Open source, open content and open access are also the most tangible result of the shift towards e-science and digital networking. Yet, widespread misperceptions exist about the impact of this shift on knowledge…

  1. Cyberscience and the Knowledge-Based Economy. Open Access and Trade Publishing: From Contradiction to Compatibility with Non-Exclusive Copyright Licensing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armbruster, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Open source, open content and open access are set to fundamentally alter the conditions of knowledge production and distribution. Open source, open content and open access are also the most tangible result of the shift towards e-science and digital networking. Yet, widespread misperceptions exist about the impact of this shift on knowledge…

  2. The Education Challenges Facing Small Nation States in the Increasingly Competitive Global Economy of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacchus, Mohammed Kazim

    2008-01-01

    Publication of this piece is intended as a tribute to the late Professor M. Kazim Bacchus who passed away in March 2007. The paper provides a general discussion concerning the social and educational challenges faced by small nation states in an age characterised by globalisation. The analysis first identifies some of the basic features of small…

  3. Primary Open Angle Glaucoma is Associated with MR Biomarkers of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mercieca, Karl; Cain, John; Hansen, Thomas; Steeples, Laura; Watkins, Amy; Spencer, Fiona; Jackson, Alan

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study tests the hypotheses that: 1) glaucoma is associated with evidence of cerebral small vessel disease; 2) that imaging biomarkers of cerebral small vessel disease in POAG and NTG will show different characteristics. 12 normal controls, 7 patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and 9 patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) were recruited. Ophthalmological clinical assessment and MR imaging of the brain were performed. MR imaging was used to quantify white matter lesion load, frequency of dilated perivascular spaces (PVS) and abnormalities in cerebral hydrodynamics. Patients with POAG had significantly greater white matter lesion load (p < 0.05), more PVS in the centrum semiovale (p < 0.05) and had higher overall PVS scores than controls (p < 0.05). In the POAG group, optic cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) was positively correlated with deep white matter hyperintensities (R2 = 0.928, p < 0.01). Mean deviation on the Humphrey visual field assessment was negatively correlated with deep white matter lesion load (R2 = −0.840, p < 0.01), total white matter lesion load (R2 = −0.928, p < 0.01) and total PVS (R2 = −0.820, p < 0.01). MR evidence of cerebral small vessel disease is strongly associated with a diagnosis of POAG and with the severity of abnormalities in CDR and visual field. PMID:26923106

  4. Tentative Study on Performance of Darriues-Type Hydroturbine Operated in Small Open Water Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, D.; Moriyama, R.; Nakashima, K.; Watanabe, S.; Okuma, K.; Furukawa, A.

    2014-03-01

    The development of small hydropower is one of the realistic and preferable utilizations of renewable energy, but the extra-low head hydropower less than 2 m is almost undeveloped yet for some reasons. The authors have developed several types of Darrieus-type hydro-turbine system, and among them, the Darrieus-turbine with a wear and a nozzle installed upstream of turbine is so far in success to obtain more output power, i.e. more shaft torque, by gathering all water into the turbine. However, there can several cases exist, in which installing the wear covering all the flow channel width is unrealistic. Then, in the present study, the hydraulic performances of Darrieus-type hydro-turbine with the inlet nozzle is investigated, putting alone in a small open channel without upstream wear. In the experiment, the five-bladed Darrieus-type runner with the pitch-circle diameter of 300 mm and the blade span of 300 mm is vertically installed in the open channel with the width of 1,200 mm. The effectiveness of the shape of the inlet nozzle is also examined using two types of two-dimensional symmetric nozzle, the straight line nozzle (SL nozzle) with the converging angle of 45 degrees and the half diameter curved nozzle (HD nozzle) whose radius is a half diameter of runner pitch circle. Inlet and outlet nozzle widths are in common for the both nozzles, which are 540 mm and 240 mm respectively. All the experiments are carried out under the conditions with constant flow rate and downstream water level, and performances are evaluated by measured output torque and the measured head difference between the water levels upstream and downstream of the turbine. As a result, it is found that the output power is remarkably increased by installing the inlet nozzle, and the turbine with SL nozzle produces larger power than that with HD nozzle. However, the peak efficiency is deteriorated in both cases. The speed ratio defined by the rotor speed divided by the downstream water velocity at

  5. Fish population size and movement patterns in a small intermittently open South African estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukey, J. R.; Booth, A. J.; Froneman, P. W.

    2006-03-01

    The population size and movement patterns of small fish (>50 mm SL) in a small intermittently open estuary (Grant's Valley estuary: 33°40'12.1″S, 26°42'12.6″E) situated on the south-east Cape coast of South Africa were examined during the closed phase over the period May and August 2004. The estuary was subdivided into four discrete areas and the fish within each area sampled using a 30 m seine net (15 mm mesh). Fish captured were marked by fin clipping according to the area of capture. Fish population size was estimated by using three methods: the Schnabel estimator, the Hilborn estimator, and a derived estimator. A total of 12 species was captured and marked during the study. The total number of fish in the estuary was estimated at ca. 12 000 individuals (11 219-13 311). Marine-breeding species ( Rhabdosargus holubi, Monodactylus falciformis, and two mullet species) numerically dominated the ichthyofauna, possibly as a result of their effective use of overtopping events, when seawater washes over the sandbar, to enter the estuary during the closed mouth phase. The two mullet species, Myxus capensis and Liza richardsonii, and the Cape stumpnose, R. holubi moved extensively throughout the estuary, while the remaining species exhibited restricted movement patterns possibly due to the preference for refuge and foraging areas associated with reed beds. The observed movement patterns of individual fish species appeared to be associated with both foraging behaviour and habitat selection.

  6. Prediction of "s" Characteristics of a Pump-Turbine with Small Opening Based on V2F Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jintao; Liu, Shuhong; Wu, Yulin; Sun, Yuekun; Zuo, Zhigang

    The characteristic of a pump-turbine during the whole starting or stopping period couldn't be calculated accurately by CFD method and most of turbulence models were found inaccurate in the calculation of small opening condition, so a proper turbulence model was needed for the further study of pump-turbine. V2F model which was valid to the solid wall and SST k-ω model were used to calculate the pump-turbine with two openings that one was a small opening and the other was large opening. Results showed that V2F model can be used to simulate characteristics of pump-turbine in the whole opening range and the SST k-ω model can be used only for large openings. Results of V2F model are accuracy and it realizes the real flow in the near wall region. Results of V2F model can obtain small vortexes and some complex flow phenomenon and they are much different from results of SST k-ω model. The V2F model might be used to simulate the starting or stopping period of a pump-turbine.

  7. Mining antimicrobial peptides from small open reading frames in Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongzhong; Zhuang, Yu; Liu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Though being able to encode various kinds of bioactive peptides, small open reading frames (sORFs) are poorly annotated in many genomic data. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of sORFs in encoding antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the basal chordate model Ciona intestinalis. About 4.8 m genomic sequence was first retrieved for sORFs mining by the program sORF finder, then the sORFs were translated into amino acid sequences for AMP prediction via CAMP server, and thereafter, ten putative AMPs were selected for expression and antimicrobial activity validation. In total, over 180 peptides deduced from the sORFs were predicted to be AMPs. Among the ten tested peptides, six were found to have significant expressed sequence tag matches, providing strong evidence for gene expression; five were proved to be active against the bacterial strains. These results indicate that many sORFs in C. intestinalis genome contain AMP information. This work can serve as an important initial step to investigate the role of sORFs in the innate defense of C. intestinalis.

  8. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful.

  9. Small Open Reading Frames, Non-Coding RNAs and Repetitive Elements in Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Julia; Tsoy, Olga V.; Thalmann, Sebastian; Čuklina, Jelena; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

    2016-01-01

    Small open reading frames (sORFs) and genes for non-coding RNAs are poorly investigated components of most genomes. Our analysis of 1391 ORFs recently annotated in the soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 revealed that 78% of them contain less than 80 codons. Twenty-one of these sORFs are conserved in or outside Alphaproteobacteria and most of them are similar to genes found in transposable elements, in line with their broad distribution. Stabilizing selection was demonstrated for sORFs with proteomic evidence and bll1319_ISGA which is conserved at the nucleotide level in 16 alphaproteobacterial species, 79 species from other taxa and 49 other Proteobacteria. Further we used Northern blot hybridization to validate ten small RNAs (BjsR1 to BjsR10) belonging to new RNA families. We found that BjsR1 and BjsR3 have homologs outside the genus Bradyrhizobium, and BjsR5, BjsR6, BjsR7, and BjsR10 have up to four imperfect copies in Bradyrhizobium genomes. BjsR8, BjsR9, and BjsR10 are present exclusively in nodules, while the other sRNAs are also expressed in liquid cultures. We also found that the level of BjsR4 decreases after exposure to tellurite and iron, and this down-regulation contributes to survival under high iron conditions. Analysis of additional small RNAs overlapping with 3’-UTRs revealed two new repetitive elements named Br-REP1 and Br-REP2. These REP elements may play roles in the genomic plasticity and gene regulation and could be useful for strain identification by PCR-fingerprinting. Furthermore, we studied two potential toxin genes in the symbiotic island and confirmed toxicity of the yhaV homolog bll1687 but not of the newly annotated higB homolog blr0229_ISGA in E. coli. Finally, we revealed transcription interference resulting in an antisense RNA complementary to blr1853, a gene induced in symbiosis. The presented results expand our knowledge on sORFs, non-coding RNAs and repetitive elements in B. japonicum and related bacteria. PMID

  10. Integrated spectral properties of 22 small angular diameter galactic open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    2007-10-01

    Aims:Flux-calibrated integrated spectra of a sample of 22 Galactic open clusters of small angular diameter are presented. With one exception (ESO 429-SC2), all objects have Galactic longitudes in the range 208° < l < 33°. The spectra cover the range ≈3600-6800 Å, with a resolution of ≈14 Å. The properties of the present cluster sample are compared with those of well-studied clusters located in two 90° sectors, centred at l = 257° and l = 347°. The dissolution rate of Galactic open clusters in these two sectors is examined. Methods: Using the equivalent widths of the Balmer lines and comparing line intensities and continuum distribution of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known properties, we derive both foreground reddening values and ages. Thus, we provide information independent of that determined through colour-magnitude diagrams. Results: The derived E(B-V) values for the whole sample vary from 0.0 in ESO 445-SC74 to 1.90 in Pismis 24, while the ages range from ~3 Myr (NGC 6604 and BH 151) to ~3.5 Gyr (Ruprecht 2). For six clusters (Dolidze 34, ESO 429-SC2, ESO 445-SC74, Ruprecht 2, BH 151 and Hogg 9) the foreground E(B-V) colour excesses and ages are determined for the first time. The results obtained for the remaining clusters show, in general terms, good agreement with previous photometric results. Conclusions: The age and reddening distributions of the present sample match those of known clusters in the two selected Galactic sectors. The present results would favour a major dissolution rate of star clusters in these two sectors. Two new solar-metallicity templates are defined corresponding to the age groups of (4-5) Myr and 30 Myr among those of Piatti et al. (2002, MNRAS, 335, 233). The Piatti et al. templates of 20 Myr and (3-4) Gyr are here redefined. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y T

  11. The effectiveness of small scale Photovoltaic (PV) systems design and cost analysis simulation on Saudi Arabian Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almansour, Faris Abdullah

    -Tariff PV system using HOMER. The result of the simulation has been discussed, analyzed, and plotted. We also give evidence in the thesis how useful the small PV systems can be as oppose to the larger scale system that must deal with location issues.

  12. Small-Scale Interstellar Structure Toward the Open Cluster CHI Persei-Fuse II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Friedman, Scott

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the physical conditions of gas along sight lines toward 6 stars in the core Chi Persei open cluster. These sight lines traverse gas in both the Orion and Perseus spiral arms of the Galaxy, at distances of 500 and 2000 pc, respectively. The stars have angular separations ranging from 45 to 280 arcsec; 60 arcsec corresponds to linear distances of 0.15 and 0.6 pc in the two arms. Thus, abundance variations in these observations would constitute evidence for small-scale variations in the properties of the interstellar medium. Ground-based Na I observations at high resolution (approx. 15 km/sec) toward 172 stars (including the 6 in this study) in the double open cluster h and Chi Persei have revealed complex spatial variation. These variations are especially evident in the gas at velocities of -40 and -55 km/sec, corresponding to the Perseus spiral arm. 21 cm observations of HI emission using the Low Resolution DRAO Survey, with a 12-arcmin beam, also show variations. Averaging the Na I apparent optical depth profiles of neighboring sight lines in order to mimic such a beam size reduces the variation, as compared to the individual Na I measurements, but still show variations larger than seen in the 21 cm profiles. Na I is not the dominant ionization state of Na in the interstellar medium. Thus, it is possible that the variations seen really trace physical structures in the interstellar medium, or they may simply result from variations in the radiation field seen by the gas, or be due to some other environmental circumstance. To distinguish among these possibilities in the present study we obtained FUSE spectra toward the 6 targets in order to measure the molecular hydrogen absorption profiles along these sight lines. The higher J states of H2 are populated by the ambient W radiation field, and thus can provide insight into the environment affecting the gas. If both the high and low J states reveal absorption line profiles with

  13. 75 FR 4140 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... customer service at the Internal Revenue Service. DATES: The meeting will be held Thursday, February 25... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Small Business/Self Employed Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An...

  14. Expression and strain variation of the novel “Small Open Reading Frame” 3 (smorf) multigene family in Babesia bovis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small open reading frame (smorf) genes comprise the second largest Babesia bovis multigene family. All known 44 variant smorf genes are located in close chromosomal proximity to ves1 genes, which encode proteins that mediate cytoadhesion and contribute to immune evasion. In this study, we characte...

  15. Plant community development after 28 years in small group-selection openings

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; Phillip E. Reynolds

    1999-01-01

    Thirty openings, 9, 18, and 27 meters in diameter, were created by group-selection harvest on a high quality site in northern California in 1963. In 1991, or 28 years after site preparation, the plant community in the openings had stabilized at 55 species. A major shift was from annuals to perennials. New seedlings of ponderosa and sugar pine were able to become...

  16. Impact of Top Management Team on Firm Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Adopting Commercial Open-Source Enterprise Resource Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereola, Sandra J.; Wier, Benson; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2012-01-01

    Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily…

  17. Impact of Top Management Team on Firm Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Adopting Commercial Open-Source Enterprise Resource Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereola, Sandra J.; Wier, Benson; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2012-01-01

    Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily…

  18. Overall Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that they provide. So, to project employment, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) starts by projecting the gross domestic product (GDP) for 2018. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the…

  19. Overall Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that these workers provide. So, to project employment, BLS starts by estimating the components of gross domestic product (GDP) for 2020. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the size--in…

  20. Integral indicatrix of light scattering from {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} spherical particles in the region of small angles

    SciTech Connect

    Lopatin, V.N.; Shapovalov, K.A.

    1995-05-01

    The integral indicatrix of light scattering from a {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} spherical particle is studied as a function of the phase shift. It is shown analytically in the WKB approximation and numerically on the basis of the Mie theory and the WKB approximation that the dependence of the integral indicatrix on the phase shift is similar to that for the factor of light scattering efficiency. Asymptotic expressions for the integral indicatrix are obtained for large diffraction parameters in the limiting cases of small and large phase shifts in the region of small angles. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Open Transcranial Resection of Small (<35 mm) Meningiomas of the Anterior Midline Skull Base in Current Microsurgical Practice.

    PubMed

    Della Puppa, Alessandro; d'Avella, Elena; Rossetto, Marta; Volpin, Francesco; Rustemi, Oriela; Gioffrè, Giorgio; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Rolma, Giuseppe; Scienza, Renato

    2015-09-01

    Despite technical surgical advance, the ultimate management of midline anterior skull base meningiomas remains to be defined. Open transcranial surgery is usually the first treatment option for large meningiomas, while less invasive techniques such as endoscopic surgery or radiosurgery might represent an alternative to open microsurgery for smaller lesions. The aim of our study is to investigate the outcome of open transcranial microsurgery in the resection of small (<35 mm) meningiomas of the midline anterior cranial base. Clinical and surgical data from 43 patients affected by small midline anterior skull base meningiomas operated via an open transcranial approach were retrospectively reviewed. The tumor diameter on its major axis ranged from 12 to 35 mm, with a mean diameter of 28 mm. Gross total resection (Simpson grades I-II) was achieved in 100% of cases through a pterional approach. Postoperative overall morbidity was 9%. It was 3% among patients <70 years. No mortality was reported. Postoperative visual outcome was significantly associated with preoperative visual performance (P = 0.02), but not with preoperative optic nerve compression as detected by magnetic resonance imaging (P = 0.116). Age >70 years was associated with postoperative visual impairment, although not significantly (P = 0.06). Visual function was preserved or improved in 95% of cases, in 100% of patients <70 years, and in 71% of patients with preoperative visual impairment. In our experience, open transcranial surgery proved safe and effective for midline anterior skull base meningiomas smaller than 35 mm in all patients <70 years and in patients >70 years without preoperative visual deficit. Our data are consistent with the literature. Conversely, the standard of treatment for the subgroup of patients >70 years with preoperative visual deficit has not yet been defined. This specific subgroup of patients offers a topic for further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Outcomes of Opening Wedge Osteotomy to Correct Angular Deformity in Small Finger Clinodactyly

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Samantha L.; Goldfarb, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the outcomes and complications in a series of children with clinodactyly treated with opening wedge osteotomy of the abnormal phalanx. Methods We performed a retrospective review of all children with clinodactyly treated at our institution with opening wedge osteotomy of the abnormal middle phalanx between 2003 and 2013. Patients with concomitant pathology or prior surgery in the affected finger were excluded. Pre and postoperative clinical angle, radiographic angle, digital range of motion, and pain were compared, and complications were recorded. Results Thirteen digits in 9 patients were included. All had greater than 20° of preoperative clinical angulation (mean 36°). Mean age at the time of surgery was 11 years and mean duration of follow-up was 25 months (12–43 months). All digits had significant improvement (mean 32°) in clinical and radiographic angles after surgery. This improvement was maintained at final follow-up in 12 digits. Six patients had pain preoperatively and no patient had pain postoperatively. One digit had a recurrent deformity at final follow-up, and 3 digits developed stiffness at the distal interphalangeal joint. Conclusions Opening wedge osteotomy is an effective treatment for angulation in children with clinodactyly. We counsel families regarding the risk of distal interphalangeal joint stiffness. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV PMID:25754787

  3. Arthroscopic proximal versus open subpectoral biceps tenodesis with arthroscopic repair of small- or medium-sized rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Yi, Young; Lee, Jong-Myoung; Kwon, Seok Hyun; Kim, Jeong-Woo

    2016-12-01

    The study was aimed to compare arthroscopic proximal biceps tenodesis and open subpectoral biceps tenodesis in repair of small or medium rotator cuff tears. Eighty-five patients underwent biceps tenodesis with arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear, and 66 patients were followed for median of 26.8 (18-42) months with ultrasonography were reviewed. The arthroscopic biceps tenodesis group included 34 cases, and the open subpectoral biceps group included 32 cases. Patients were evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and constant scores. Rotator cuff repair and fixation of the biceps tendon were assessed by ultrasonography. Fixation failure and degree of deformity were evaluated by the pain in the bicipital groove and biceps apex distance (BAD). VAS score and tenderness at the bicipital groove decreased significantly in the open subpectoral group at 3 months postoperative. In both groups, the range of motion, ASES score, and constant score increased significantly (P < 0.05). Rotator cuff retear occurred in three cases (8.8 %) in the arthroscopic group and two cases in the open subpectoral group (6.2 %). There was no significant difference in BAD between the two groups. There was no difference between open subpectoral tenodesis and arthroscopic proximal tenodesis at the time of the final follow-up; however, open subpectoral tenodesis showed encouraging results at 3-month follow-up. This early result of subpectoral tenodesis was related to removing most part of biceps tendinitis and using intra-bicipital groove tenodesis technique. III.

  4. Oscillations in Rational Economies

    PubMed Central

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    Economic (business) cycles are some of the most noted features of market economies, also ranked among the most serious of economic problems. Despite long historical persistence, the nature and the origin of business cycles remain controversial. In this paper we investigate the problem of the nature of business cycles from the positions of the market systems viewed as complex systems of many interacting market agents. We show that the development of cyclic instabilities in these settings can be traced down to just two fundamental factors – the competition of market agents for market shares in the settings of an open market, and the depression of market caused by accumulation of durable overproduced commodities on the market. These findings present the problem of business cycles in a new light as a systemic property of efficient market systems emerging directly from the free market competition itself, and existing in market economies at a very fundamental level. PMID:24505319

  5. Oscillations in rational economies.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    Economic (business) cycles are some of the most noted features of market economies, also ranked among the most serious of economic problems. Despite long historical persistence, the nature and the origin of business cycles remain controversial. In this paper we investigate the problem of the nature of business cycles from the positions of the market systems viewed as complex systems of many interacting market agents. We show that the development of cyclic instabilities in these settings can be traced down to just two fundamental factors - the competition of market agents for market shares in the settings of an open market, and the depression of market caused by accumulation of durable overproduced commodities on the market. These findings present the problem of business cycles in a new light as a systemic property of efficient market systems emerging directly from the free market competition itself, and existing in market economies at a very fundamental level.

  6. Haemorrhagic necrosis of small intestine and acute pancreatitis following open-heart surgery

    PubMed Central

    Horton, E. H.; Murthy, S. K.; Seal, R. M. E.

    1968-01-01

    Five cases of haemorrhagic necrosis of the small intestine occurring after valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass are described. In one case, in addition to the above, there was an unusual complication, namely acute pancreatitis. The possible causes are discussed. The importance of hypotension before, during, or after bypass, or in the post-operative phase, is stressed. Images PMID:5664708

  7. MetaLIMS, a simple open-source laboratory information management system for small metagenomic labs

    PubMed Central

    Gaultier, Nicolas Paul Eugène; Miller, Dana; Purbojati, Rikky Wenang; Lauro, Federico M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: As the cost of sequencing continues to fall, smaller groups increasingly initiate and manage larger sequencing projects and take on the complexity of data storage for high volumes of samples. This has created a need for low-cost laboratory information management systems (LIMS) that contain flexible fields to accommodate the unique nature of individual labs. Many labs do not have a dedicated information technology position, so LIMS must also be easy to setup and maintain with minimal technical proficiency. Findings: MetaLIMS is a free and open-source web-based application available via GitHub. The focus of MetaLIMS is to store sample metadata prior to sequencing and analysis pipelines. Initially designed for environmental metagenomics labs, in addition to storing generic sample collection information and DNA/RNA processing information, the user can also add fields specific to the user's lab. MetaLIMS can also produce a basic sequencing submission form compatible with the proprietary Clarity LIMS system used by some sequencing facilities. To help ease the technical burden associated with web deployment, MetaLIMS options the use of commercial web hosting combined with MetaLIMS bash scripts for ease of setup. Conclusions: MetaLIMS overcomes key challenges common in LIMS by giving labs access to a low-cost and open-source tool that also has the flexibility to meet individual lab needs and an option for easy deployment. By making the web application open source and hosting it on GitHub, we hope to encourage the community to build upon MetaLIMS, making it more robust and tailored to the needs of more researchers. PMID:28430964

  8. MetaLIMS, a simple open-source laboratory information management system for small metagenomic labs.

    PubMed

    Heinle, Cassie Elizabeth; Gaultier, Nicolas Paul Eugène; Miller, Dana; Purbojati, Rikky Wenang; Lauro, Federico M

    2017-06-01

    As the cost of sequencing continues to fall, smaller groups increasingly initiate and manage larger sequencing projects and take on the complexity of data storage for high volumes of samples. This has created a need for low-cost laboratory information management systems (LIMS) that contain flexible fields to accommodate the unique nature of individual labs. Many labs do not have a dedicated information technology position, so LIMS must also be easy to setup and maintain with minimal technical proficiency. MetaLIMS is a free and open-source web-based application available via GitHub. The focus of MetaLIMS is to store sample metadata prior to sequencing and analysis pipelines. Initially designed for environmental metagenomics labs, in addition to storing generic sample collection information and DNA/RNA processing information, the user can also add fields specific to the user's lab. MetaLIMS can also produce a basic sequencing submission form compatible with the proprietary Clarity LIMS system used by some sequencing facilities. To help ease the technical burden associated with web deployment, MetaLIMS options the use of commercial web hosting combined with MetaLIMS bash scripts for ease of setup. MetaLIMS overcomes key challenges common in LIMS by giving labs access to a low-cost and open-source tool that also has the flexibility to meet individual lab needs and an option for easy deployment. By making the web application open source and hosting it on GitHub, we hope to encourage the community to build upon MetaLIMS, making it more robust and tailored to the needs of more researchers.

  9. Explosive events in connection with small scale flux emergence in open field regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galsgaard, Klaus; Moreno-Insertis, Fernando, , Prof

    In recent years observations have shown that the emergence of new magnetic flux from the convection zone into the open field regions in the corona may generate spectacular jet phenomena. A smaller number of jets seem to end their near steady state phase in one or more spectacular eruptions where material is accelerated away from the solar surface reaching fairly high velocities. To investigate the jet phenomena, we have conducted a number of numerical MHD experiments that investigate the general interaction between an emerging bipolar flux region and the open coronal magnetic field. Under the correct conditions, this generates a well defined jet phase and the model explains many of the general characteristics of the typical Eiffel tower jets. Towards the end phase of the jet, the remains of the emerged flux system may experience some violent eruptions. This talk will discuss the general characteristics of these eruptions, aiming at providing an explanation to why they occur, and how they develop in general. These jets and eruptions may be what is taking place in some of the so-called breakout models described in a number of recent observational papers.

  10. Goggatomy: A Method for Opening Small Cuticular Compartments in Arthropods for Physiological Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Alan R.; Raccuglia, Davide; Scholte, Jon; Sivan-Loukianova, Elena; Barwacz, Christopher A.; Armstrong, Steven R.; Guymon, C. Allan; Nitabach, Michael N.; Eberl, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Most sense organs of arthropods are ensconced in small exoskeletal compartments that hinder direct access to plasma membranes. We have developed a method for exposing live sensory and supporting cells in such structures. The technique uses a viscous light cured resin to embed and support the structure, which is then sliced with a sharp blade. We term the procedure a “goggatomy,” from the Khoisan word for a bug, gogga. To demonstrate the utility of the method we show that it can be used to expose the auditory chordotonal organs in the second antennal segment and the olfactory receptor neurons in the third antennal segment of Drosophila melanogaster, preserving the transduction machinery. The procedure can also be used on other small arthropods, like mosquitoes and mites to expose a variety of cells. PMID:27695420

  11. Goggatomy: A Method for Opening Small Cuticular Compartments in Arthropods for Physiological Experiments.

    PubMed

    Kay, Alan R; Raccuglia, Davide; Scholte, Jon; Sivan-Loukianova, Elena; Barwacz, Christopher A; Armstrong, Steven R; Guymon, C Allan; Nitabach, Michael N; Eberl, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    Most sense organs of arthropods are ensconced in small exoskeletal compartments that hinder direct access to plasma membranes. We have developed a method for exposing live sensory and supporting cells in such structures. The technique uses a viscous light cured resin to embed and support the structure, which is then sliced with a sharp blade. We term the procedure a "goggatomy," from the Khoisan word for a bug, gogga. To demonstrate the utility of the method we show that it can be used to expose the auditory chordotonal organs in the second antennal segment and the olfactory receptor neurons in the third antennal segment of Drosophila melanogaster, preserving the transduction machinery. The procedure can also be used on other small arthropods, like mosquitoes and mites to expose a variety of cells.

  12. Fueling Open-Source Drug Discovery: 177 Small-Molecule Leads against Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Ballell, Lluís; Bates, Robert H; Young, Rob J; Alvarez-Gomez, Daniel; Alvarez-Ruiz, Emilio; Barroso, Vanessa; Blanco, Delia; Crespo, Benigno; Escribano, Jaime; González, Rubén; Lozano, Sonia; Huss, Sophie; Santos-Villarejo, Angel; Martín-Plaza, José Julio; Mendoza, Alfonso; Rebollo-Lopez, María José; Remuiñan-Blanco, Modesto; Lavandera, José Luis; Pérez-Herran, Esther; Gamo-Benito, Francisco Javier; García-Bustos, José Francisco; Barros, David; Castro, Julia P; Cammack, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of fuelling open-source, translational, early-stage drug discovery activities, the results of the recently completed antimycobacterial phenotypic screening campaign against Mycobacterium bovis BCG with hit confirmation in M. tuberculosis H37Rv were made publicly accessible. A set of 177 potent non-cytotoxic H37Rv hits was identified and will be made available to maximize the potential impact of the compounds toward a chemical genetics/proteomics exercise, while at the same time providing a plethora of potential starting points for new synthetic lead-generation activities. Two additional drug-discovery-relevant datasets are included: a) a drug-like property analysis reflecting the latest lead-like guidelines and b) an early lead-generation package of the most promising hits within the clusters identified. PMID:23307663

  13. The Economy of the Arab Maghrib Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-09

    TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) THE ECONOMY OF THE ARAB MAGHRIB UNION (UNCL) 12. PERSONAL...be released for open publication until it has been cleared by the appropriate militar- service or government agency. THE ECONOMY OF THE ARAB MAGHRIB...Chedly Khedimi, LTC, FA TITLE: The Economy of the Arab Maghrib Union FORMAT: Individual Study Project DATE: 9 April 1991 PAGES: 21 CLASSIFICATION

  14. A comparison of methods for estimating open-water evaporation in small wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, Jason R.; Stannard, David I.

    2010-01-01

    We compared evaporation measurements from a floating pan, land pan, chamber, and the Priestley-Taylor (PT) equation. Floating pan, land pan, and meteorological data were collected from June 6 to July 21, 2005, at a small wetland in the Canadian River alluvium in central Oklahoma, USA. Evaporation measured with the floating pan compared favorably to 12 h chamber measurements. Differences between chamber and floating pan rates ranged from −0.2 to 0.3 mm, mean of 0.1 mm. The difference between chamber and land pan rates ranged from 0.8 to 2.0 mm, mean of 1.5 mm. The mean chamber-to-floating pan ratio was 0.97 and the mean chamber-to-land pan ratio was 0.73. The chamber-to-floating pan ratio of 0.97 indicates the use of a floating pan to measure evaporation in small limited-fetch water bodies is an appropriate and accurate method for the site investigated. One-sided Paired t-Tests indicate daily floating pan rates were significantly less than land pan and PT rates. A two-sided Paired t-Test indicated there was no significant difference between land pan and PT values. The PT equation tends to overestimate evaporation during times when the air is of low drying power and tends to underestimate as drying power increases.

  15. High-resolution small field-of-view magnetic resonance image acquisition system using a small planar coil and a pneumatic manipulator in an open MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Miki, Kohei; Masamune, Ken

    2015-10-01

    Low-field open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used for performing image-guided neurosurgical procedures. Intraoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images are useful for tracking brain shifts and verifying residual tumors. However, it is difficult to precisely determine the boundary of the brain tumors and normal brain tissues because the MR image resolution is low, especially when using a low-field open MRI scanner. To overcome this problem, a high-resolution MR image acquisition system was developed and tested. An MR-compatible manipulator with pneumatic actuators containing an MR signal receiver with a small radiofrequency (RF) coil was developed. The manipulator had five degrees of freedom for position and orientation control of the RF coil. An 8-mm planar RF coil with resistance and inductance of 2.04 [Formula: see text] and 1.00 [Formula: see text] was attached to the MR signal receiver at the distal end of the probe. MR images of phantom test devices were acquired using the MR signal receiver and normal head coil for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) testing. The SNR of MR images acquired using the MR signal receiver was 8.0 times greater than that of MR images acquired using the normal head coil. The RF coil was moved by the manipulator, and local MR images of a phantom with a 2-mm grid were acquired using the MR signal receiver. A wide field-of-view MR image was generated from a montage of local MR images. A small field-of-view RF system with a pneumatic manipulator was integrated in a low-field MRI scanner to allow acquisition of both wide field-of-view and high-resolution MR images. This system is promising for image-guided neurosurgery as it may allow brain tumors to be observed more clearly and removed precisely.

  16. Multicopter-based small format aerial photography using free and open source photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Robert Matthew

    A process is described to convert aerial photographs from flat images to 3D point clouds and then convert into height maps to be used as pseudo digital elevation models for surface modeling. All software used in the process is either free or open source. The process uses a DJI Phanton multicoper and two Canon Point and Shoot digital cameras. One camera is unaltered, and a second camera is modified to produce infrared images. A DJI Phantom FC-40 multicopter is used as the aerial platform to carry the cameras. Multiple paths are described to convert from still images (or video to still images) to N-view matches, followed by sparse point clouds then dense point clouds. Point clouds are distinct 3D points charted in an XYZ coordinate system. The dense point clouds can be converted into 3D models for viewing and analysis. A height map is extracted from the point cloud and surface images (in raster format) are created and then used in QGIS or ArcMap as pseudo digital elevation models for surface modeling. Finally, the digital elevation models are evaluated in comparison to similar LIDAR images. Keywords: Passive Remote Sensing; LIDAR; Spatial Resolution.

  17. Blood flow response in small intestinal loops at different depths during negative pressure wound therapy of the open abdomen.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, Sandra; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2013-08-01

    High closure rates of the open abdomen have been reported following negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, the method has occasionally been associated with increased development of intestinal fistulae. We have previously shown that the application of NPWT to the open abdomen causes a decrease in microvascular blood flow in the small intestinal loop and the omentum adjacent to the visceral protective layer of the dressing. In this study we investigate whether the negative pressure affects only small intestinal loops lying directly below the dressing or if it also affects small intestinal loops that are not in direct contact with the dressing. Six pigs underwent midline incision and application of NPWT to the open abdomen. The microvascular blood flow was measured in four intestinal loops at different depths from the visceral protective layer, at two different locations: beneath the dressing and at the anterior abdominal wall, before and after the application of NPWT of -50, -70, -100, -120, -150 and -170 mmHg, using laser Doppler velocimetry. Negative pressures between -50 and -170 mmHg caused a significant decrease in the microvascular blood flow in the intestinal loops in direct contact with the visceral protective layer. A slight, but significant, decrease in blood flow was also seen in the intestinal loops lying beneath these loops. The decrease in microvascular blood flow increased with the amount of negative pressure applied. No difference in blood flow was seen in the intestinal loops lying deeper in the abdominal cavity. A decrease in blood flow was seen in the upper two intestinal loops located apically and anteriorly, but not in the lower two, indicating that this is a local effect and that pressure decreases with distance from the source. A long-term decrease in blood flow in the intestinal wall may induce ischaemia and secondary necrosis in the intestinal wall, which could promote the development of intestinal fistulae. We believe that NPWT of

  18. Small Heat Shock Proteins Can Release Light Dependence of Tobacco Seed during Germination1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyun Jo; Park, Soo Min; Kim, Keun Pill; Suh, Mi Chung; Lee, Mi Ok; Lee, Seong-Kon; Xinli, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) function as ATP-independent molecular chaperones, and although the production and function of sHSPs have often been described under heat stress, the expression and function of sHSPs in fundamental developmental processes, such as pollen and seed development, have also been confirmed. Seed germination involves the breaking of dormancy and the resumption of embryo growth that accompany global changes in transcription, translation, and metabolism. In many plants, germination is triggered simply by imbibition of water; however, different seeds require different conditions in addition to water. For small-seeded plants, like Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), light is an important regulator of seed germination. The facts that sHSPs accumulate during seed development, sHSPs interact with various client proteins, and seed germination accompanies synthesis and/or activation of diverse proteins led us to investigate the role of sHSPs in seed germination, especially in the context of light dependence. In this study, we have built transgenic tobacco plants that ectopically express sHSP, and the effect was germination of the seeds in the dark. Administering heat shock to the seeds also resulted in the alleviation of light dependence during seed germination. Subcellular localization of ectopically expressed sHSP was mainly observed in the cytoplasm, whereas heat shock-induced sHSPs were transported to the nucleus. We hypothesize that ectopically expressed sHSPs in the cytoplasm led the status of cytoplasmic proteins involved in seed germination to function during germination without additional stimulus and that heat shock can be another signal that induces seed germination. PMID:25604531

  19. Small-scale open ocean currents have large effects on wind wave heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Gille, Sarah T.; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Rocha, Cesar B.; Rascle, Nicolas; Chapron, Bertrand; Gula, Jonathan; Molemaker, Jeroen

    2017-06-01

    Tidal currents and large-scale oceanic currents are known to modify ocean wave properties, causing extreme sea states that are a hazard to navigation. Recent advances in the understanding and modeling capability of open ocean currents have revealed the ubiquitous presence of eddies, fronts, and filaments at scales 10-100 km. Based on realistic numerical models, we show that these structures can be the main source of variability in significant wave heights at scales less than 200 km, including important variations down to 10 km. Model results are consistent with wave height variations along satellite altimeter tracks, resolved at scales larger than 50 km. The spectrum of significant wave heights is found to be of the order of 70>>2/>(g2>>2>) times the current spectrum, where >> is the spatially averaged significant wave height, >> is the energy-averaged period, and g is the gravity acceleration. This variability induced by currents has been largely overlooked in spite of its relevance for extreme wave heights and remote sensing.Plain Language SummaryWe show that the variations in currents at scales 10 to 100 km are the main source of variations in wave heights at the same scales. Our work uses a combination of realistic numerical models for currents and waves and data from the Jason-3 and SARAL/AltiKa satellites. This finding will be of interest for the investigation of extreme wave heights, remote sensing, and air-sea interactions. As an immediate application, the present results will help constrain the error budget of the up-coming satellite missions, in particular the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, and decide how the data will have to be processed to arrive at accurate sea level and wave measurements. It will also help in the analysis of wave measurements by the CFOSAT satellite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20979681','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20979681"><span>Nuclides <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide <span class="hlt">economy</span> is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope <span class="hlt">Economy</span>' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope <span class="hlt">economy</span>' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide <span class="hlt">economy</span> and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28493862','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28493862"><span>FIMTrack: An <span class="hlt">open</span> source tracking and locomotion analysis software for <span class="hlt">small</span> animals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Risse, Benjamin; Berh, Dimitri; Otto, Nils; Klämbt, Christian; Jiang, Xiaoyi</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Imaging and analyzing the locomotion behavior of <span class="hlt">small</span> animals such as Drosophila larvae or C. elegans worms has become an integral subject of biological research. In the past we have introduced FIM, a novel imaging system feasible to extract high contrast images. This system in combination with the associated tracking software FIMTrack is already used by many groups all over the world. However, so far there has not been an in-depth discussion of the technical aspects. Here we elaborate on the implementation details of FIMTrack and give an in-depth explanation of the used algorithms. Among others, the software offers several tracking strategies to cover a wide range of different model organisms, locomotion types, and camera properties. Furthermore, the software facilitates stimuli-based analysis in combination with built-in manual tracking and correction functionalities. All features are integrated in an easy-to-use graphical user interface. To demonstrate the potential of FIMTrack we provide an evaluation of its accuracy using manually labeled data. The source code is available under the GNU GPLv3 at https://github.com/i-git/FIMTrack and pre-compiled binaries for Windows and Mac are available at http://fim.uni-muenster.de.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5493163','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5493163"><span>Does <span class="hlt">small</span> equal predatory? Analysis of publication charges and transparency of editorial policies in Croatian <span class="hlt">open</span> access journals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stojanovski, Jadranka; Marušić, Ana</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Introduction We approach the problem of "predatory" journals and publishers from the perspective of <span class="hlt">small</span> scientific communities and <span class="hlt">small</span> journals that may sometimes be perceived as "predatory". Among other characteristics of "predatory" journals two most relevant are their business model and the quality of the editorial work. Materials and methods We analysed 444 Croatian <span class="hlt">open</span> access (OA) journals in the Hrčak (portal of Croatian scientific journals) digital journal repository for the presence of article processing charges as a business model and the transparency of editorial policies. Results The majority of journals do not charge authors or require submission or article processing charges, which clearly distinguishes them from “predatory” journals. Almost all Hrčak OA journals have publicly available information on editorial boards, including full names and affiliations, and detailed contact information for the editorial office at the Hrčak website. The journal names are unique and cannot be easily confused with another journal or intend to mislead about the journal’s origin. While most journals provide information on peer review process, many do not provide guidelines for reviewers or other editorial and publication ethics standards. Conclusion In order to clearly differentiate themselves from predatory journals, it is not enough for journals from <span class="hlt">small</span> research communities to operate on non-commercial bases, but also to have transparent editorial policies. PMID:28694721</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28694721','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28694721"><span>Does <span class="hlt">small</span> equal predatory? Analysis of publication charges and transparency of editorial policies in Croatian <span class="hlt">open</span> access journals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stojanovski, Jadranka; Marušić, Ana</p> <p>2017-06-15</p> <p>We approach the problem of "predatory" journals and publishers from the perspective of <span class="hlt">small</span> scientific communities and <span class="hlt">small</span> journals that may sometimes be perceived as "predatory". Among other characteristics of "predatory" journals two most relevant are their business model and the quality of the editorial work. We analysed 444 Croatian <span class="hlt">open</span> access (OA) journals in the Hrčak (portal of Croatian scientific journals) digital journal repository for the presence of article processing charges as a business model and the transparency of editorial policies. The majority of journals do not charge authors or require submission or article processing charges, which clearly distinguishes them from "predatory" journals. Almost all Hrčak OA journals have publicly available information on editorial boards, including full names and affiliations, and detailed contact information for the editorial office at the Hrčak website. The journal names are unique and cannot be easily confused with another journal or intend to mislead about the journal's origin. While most journals provide information on peer review process, many do not provide guidelines for reviewers or other editorial and publication ethics standards. In order to clearly differentiate themselves from predatory journals, it is not enough for journals from <span class="hlt">small</span> research communities to operate on non-commercial bases, but also to have transparent editorial policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..NES.C1003M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..NES.C1003M"><span>Implementing ILDs and Assessment in <span class="hlt">Small</span>-enrollment, Calculus-based Physics Classes -- Lessons, Observations and <span class="hlt">Open</span> Questions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mason-McCaffrey, Deborah</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>At Salem State, we offer a Physics minor, but most of our teaching load is support courses for other science majors and a lab sequence which satisfies the University's core education requirement. In three years of using assessments and ILDs in <span class="hlt">small</span>-enrollment calculus-based Physics classes, there has been a significant implementation learning curve, there are encouraging results, a few cautions, and still some <span class="hlt">open</span> questions to report. ILDs can be highly effective teaching tools. They do require significant advance preparation as well as a safe environment for student participation. Motivating students to do their best on assessment pre- and post-tests can also be difficult. Strategies for motivating assessment performance, experiments using clickers to encourage participation in ILDs, and modifying and developing home-grown ILDs are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=token+AND+economy&pg=2&id=EJ377578','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=token+AND+economy&pg=2&id=EJ377578"><span>Practical Token <span class="hlt">Economies</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Blackerby, W. F.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The article discusses special considerations in applying standard token <span class="hlt">economy</span> techniques to behavior change with the head injured with examples of token <span class="hlt">economies</span> at three rehabilitation facilities. (DB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4529205','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4529205"><span>Comparison of Porcine <span class="hlt">Small</span> Intestinal Submucosa versus Polypropylene in <span class="hlt">Open</span> Inguinal Hernia Repair: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nie, Xin; Xiao, Dongdong; Wang, Wenyue; Song, Zhicheng; Yang, Zhi; Chen, Yuanwen; Gu, Yan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare porcine <span class="hlt">small</span> intestinal submucosa (SIS) with polypropylene in <span class="hlt">open</span> inguinal hernia repair. Method Electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were used to compare patient outcomes for the two groups via meta-analysis. Result A total of 3 randomized controlled trials encompassing 200 patients were included in the meta-analysis. There was no significant difference in recurrence (P = 0.16), hematomas (P = 0.06), postoperative pain within 30 days (P = 0.45), or postoperative pain after 1 year (P = 0.12) between the 2 groups. The incidence of discomfort was significantly lower (P = 0.0006) in the SIS group. However, the SIS group experienced a significantly higher incidence of seroma (P = 0.03). Conclusions Compared to polypropylene, using SIS in <span class="hlt">open</span> inguinal hernia repair is associated with a lower incidence of discomfort and a higher incidence of seroma. However, well-designed larger RCT studies with a longer follow-up period are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26252895</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..APRB15007H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..APRB15007H"><span>Antimatter <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, Norm</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>The Antimatter <span class="hlt">Economy</span> will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22620907','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22620907"><span>Design and assessment of a novel SPECT system for desktop <span class="hlt">open</span>-gantry imaging of <span class="hlt">small</span> animals: A simulation study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zeraatkar, Navid; Farahani, Mohammad Hossein; Rahmim, Arman; Sarkar, Saeed; Ay, Mohammad Reza</p> <p>2016-05-15</p> <p>Purpose: Given increasing efforts in biomedical research utilizing molecular imaging methods, development of dedicated high-performance <span class="hlt">small</span>-animal SPECT systems has been growing rapidly in the last decade. In the present work, we propose and assess an alternative concept for SPECT imaging enabling desktop <span class="hlt">open</span>-gantry imaging of <span class="hlt">small</span> animals. Methods: The system, PERSPECT, consists of an imaging desk, with a set of tilted detector and pinhole collimator placed beneath it. The object to be imaged is simply placed on the desk. Monte Carlo (MC) and analytical simulations were utilized to accurately model and evaluate the proposed concept and design. Furthermore, a dedicated image reconstruction algorithm, finite-aperture-based circular projections (FABCP), was developed and validated for the system, enabling more accurate modeling of the system and higher quality reconstructed images. Image quality was quantified as a function of different tilt angles in the acquisition and number of iterations in the reconstruction algorithm. Furthermore, more complex phantoms including Derenzo, Defrise, and mouse whole body were simulated and studied. Results: The sensitivity of the PERSPECT was 207 cps/MBq. It was quantitatively demonstrated that for a tilt angle of 30°, comparable image qualities were obtained in terms of normalized squared error, contrast, uniformity, noise, and spatial resolution measurements, the latter at ∼0.6 mm. Furthermore, quantitative analyses demonstrated that 3 iterations of FABCP image reconstruction (16 subsets/iteration) led to optimally reconstructed images. Conclusions: The PERSPECT, using a novel imaging protocol, can achieve comparable image quality performance in comparison with a conventional pinhole SPECT with the same configuration. The dedicated FABCP algorithm, which was developed for reconstruction of data from the PERSPECT system, can produce high quality images for <span class="hlt">small</span>-animal imaging via accurate modeling of the system as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23787313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23787313"><span>Performance evaluation of a novel <span class="hlt">open</span> trickling filter for the post-treatment of anaerobic effluents from <span class="hlt">small</span> communities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vieira, P C; von Sperling, M; Nogueira, L C M; Assis, B F S</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the work is to evaluate the performance of an innovative design of a trickling filter for <span class="hlt">small</span> population sizes, which has been implemented for the post-treatment of sanitary effluent from a UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor. The unit, named <span class="hlt">open</span> trickling filter (OTF), operates with no side walls, no perforated bottom slab and no secondary settler. The OTF packing was 3.5 m high, composed of crushed stone, with a fixed distribution system made of channels with V-notch weirs. The OTF was operated with mean surface hydraulic loading rates of 4.1 and 9.3 m³ m⁻² d⁻¹, corresponding to population equivalents of approximately 250 and 550 inhabitants, respectively. For the surface hydraulic loading rate of 4.1 m³ m⁻² d⁻¹, the median removal efficiencies obtained by the OTF and overall system (UASB + OTF) were, respectively, 24 and 83% for total suspended solids (TSS), 44 and 79% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 42 and 82% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 40 and 40% for N-ammonia. For the surface hydraulic loading rate of 9.3 m³ m⁻² d⁻¹, the median removal efficiencies obtained by the OTF and global system (UASB + OTF) were 14 and 76% for TSS, 28 and 76% for COD, 25 and 86% for BOD, 15 and 15% for N-ammonia. Considering the great simplicity, no mechanization and <span class="hlt">small</span> footprint of the system, these results can be considered satisfactory, suggesting that the OTF is suitable for <span class="hlt">small</span> communities, especially in developing countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28686253','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28686253"><span>Predictive models of gas sorption in a metal-organic framework with <span class="hlt">open</span>-metal sites and <span class="hlt">small</span> pore sizes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A; Franz, Douglas M; Guo, Zhiyong; Chen, Banglin; Space, Brian</p> <p>2017-07-19</p> <p>Simulations of CO2 and H2 sorption were performed in UTSA-20, a metal-organic framework (MOF) having zyg topology and composed of Cu(2+) ions coordinated to 3,3',3'',5,5',5''-benzene-1,3,5-triyl-hexabenzoate (BHB) linkers. Previous experimental studies have shown that this MOF displays remarkable CO2 sorption properties and exhibits one of the highest gravimetric H2 uptakes at 77 K/1.0 atm (2.9 wt%) [Z. Guo, et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2011, 50, 3178-3181]. For both sorbates, the simulations were executed with the inclusion of explicit many-body polarization interactions, which was necessary to reproduce sorption onto the <span class="hlt">open</span>-metal sites. Non-polarizable potentials were also utilized for simulations of CO2 sorption as a control. The simulated excess sorption isotherms for both CO2 and H2 are in very good agreement with the corresponding experimental data over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, thus demonstrating the accuracy and predictive power of the polarizable potentials used herein. The theoretical isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst) values are also in good agreement with the newly reported experimental Qst values for the respective sorbates in UTSA-20. Sorption onto the more positively charged Cu(2+) ion of the [Cu2(O2CR)4] cluster was observed for both CO2 and H2. However, a binding site with energetics comparable to that for an <span class="hlt">open</span>-metal site was also discovered for both sorbates. A radial distribution function (g(r)) analysis about the preferential Cu(2+) ions for CO2 and H2 revealed that both sorbates display different trends for the relative occupancy about such sites upon increasing/decreasing the pressure in the MOF. Overall, this study provides insights into the CO2 and H2 sorption mechanisms in this MOF containing <span class="hlt">open</span>-metal sites and <span class="hlt">small</span> pore sizes for the first time through a classical polarizable force field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21436683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21436683"><span>Efficacy of <span class="hlt">small</span> doses of ketamine with morphine to decrease procedural pain responses during <span class="hlt">open</span> wound care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arroyo-Novoa, Carmen Mabel; Figueroa-Ramos, Milagros I; Miaskowski, Christine; Padilla, Geraldine; Paul, Steven M; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Pablo; Stotts, Nancy A; Puntillo, Kathleen A</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in pain intensity, pain quality, physiological measures, and adverse effects when patients received morphine with saline (MS) compared with morphine and a <span class="hlt">small</span> dose of ketamine (MK) before an <span class="hlt">open</span> wound care procedure (WCP). A randomized, cross-over design was used to determine whether the addition of a <span class="hlt">small</span> dose of ketamine would potentiate morphine's analgesic effects and decrease WCP pain intensity. Patients were randomized to receive either 0.1 mg/kg of morphine (8 mg maximum) plus saline intravenously (IV) or 0.05 mg/kg of morphine (4 mg maximum) plus ketamine 0.25 mg/kg IV before the WCP. Patients were crossed-over to receive the alternate treatment during the next WCP. Eleven male patients participated in the study. Mean rank of pain intensity during WCP-MK was significantly less than during WCP-MS (P=0.005). Mean±standard error of mean pain intensity during the WCP-MK was 3.09±0.99, whereas it was 6.82±0.92 during the WCP-MS. However, 91% of the patients had adverse effects (eg, strange sensations, hallucinations, blurred vision) with MK versus 0% with MS. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher during the WCP-MK. Ketamine with morphine significantly reduced procedural wound pain intensity during WCP. Adverse effects and higher diastolic BP occurred with MK. Further research is warranted to determine the optimal analgesic dose of ketamine or if the addition of a benzodiazepine would mitigate the psychotomimetic effects of ketamine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcAau.106..120D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcAau.106..120D"><span>Computational study of the effect of using <span class="hlt">open</span> isogrids on the natural frequencies of a <span class="hlt">small</span> satellite structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dawood, Sarmad Daood Salman; Inayatullah, Othman b.; Samin, Razali b.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A structure for a hypothetical <span class="hlt">small</span> satellite was developed, based on concepts taken from actual satellites currently in orbit. Parts of the design were modified by applying the <span class="hlt">open</span> isogrid technique, which ensures a stiffness close to that of non-isogrid parts but with lower mass. The aim of the current work was to study the variation of the natural frequencies of the structure as a result of the implementation of the isogrid technique, with the results of the study giving the team enough confidence in implementing isogrids in the design during future downstream vibrational analyses (random, response spectrum, shock,…etc.). Due to resource and time constraints, no physical testing was possible, so finite element simulation was the only practical method available to investigate the variation. Hence, to ensure a reasonable level of confidence in the results, two models were analyzed for each case, non-isogrid and isogrid, using ANSYS and MSC.NASTRAN, and the results between the two solvers were compared and consolidated to arrive at specific values for each case. The results from the analyses indicated that the natural frequencies calculated for the isogrid case were higher than those for the non-isogrid case, due to the reduced mass of the isogrid structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17660205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17660205"><span>sMOL Explorer: an <span class="hlt">open</span> source, web-enabled database and exploration tool for <span class="hlt">Small</span> MOLecules datasets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ingsriswang, Supawadee; Pacharawongsakda, Eakasit</p> <p>2007-09-15</p> <p>sMOL Explorer is a 2D ligand-based computational tool that provides three major functionalities: data management, information retrieval and extraction and statistical analysis and data mining through Web interface. With sMOL Explorer, users can create personal databases by adding each <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule via a drawing interface or uploading the data files from internal and external projects into the sMOL database. Then, the database can be browsed and queried with textual and structural similarity search. The molecule can also be submitted to search against external public databases including PubChem, KEGG, DrugBank and eMolecules. Moreover, users can easily access a variety of data mining tools from Weka and R packages to perform analysis including (1) finding the frequent substructure, (2) clustering the molecular fingerprints, (3) identifying and removing irrelevant attributes from the data and (4) building the classification model of biological activity. sMOL Explorer is an <span class="hlt">Open</span> Source project and is freely available to all interested users at http://www.biotec.or.th/ISL/SMOL/.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-02-03/pdf/2011-2334.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-02-03/pdf/2011-2334.pdf"><span>76 FR 6189 - <span class="hlt">Open</span> Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-02-03</p> <p>... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business/ Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner... Panel <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business/Self Employed Correspondence Exam Practitioner Engagement Project Committee will...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/219096','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/219096"><span>Energy efficiency in the US <span class="hlt">economy</span> technical report four: Analysis of energy-efficiency investment decisions by <span class="hlt">small</span> and medium-sized manufacturers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>This report highlights the results of a comprehensive analysis of investment decisions regarding energy-efficiency measures at <span class="hlt">small</span> and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The analysis is based primarily on the experiences of companies participating in the US Department of Energy`s Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4251509','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4251509"><span>Resource Use in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Island States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krausmann, Fridolin; Richter, Regina; Eisenmenger, Nina</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Iceland and Trinidad and Tobago are <span class="hlt">small</span> <span class="hlt">open</span>, high-income island <span class="hlt">economies</span> with very specific resource-use patterns. This article presents a material flow analysis (MFA) for the two countries covering a time period of nearly five decades. Both countries have a narrow domestic resource base, their <span class="hlt">economy</span> being largely based on the exploitation of one or two key resources for export production. In the case of Trinidad and Tobago, the physical <span class="hlt">economy</span> is dominated by oil and natural gas extraction and petrochemical industries, whereas Iceland's <span class="hlt">economy</span> for centuries has been based on fisheries. More recently, abundant hydropower and geothermal heat were the basis for the establishment of large export-oriented metal processing industries, which fully depend on imported raw materials and make use of domestic renewable electricity. Both countries are highly dependent on these natural resources and vulnerable to overexploitation and price developments. We show how the export-oriented industries lead to high and growing levels of per capita material and energy use and carbon dioxide emissions resulting from large amounts of processing wastes and energy consumption in production processes. The example of <span class="hlt">small</span> <span class="hlt">open</span> <span class="hlt">economies</span> with an industrial production system focused on few, but abundant, key resources and of comparatively low complexity provides interesting insights of how resource endowment paired with availability or absence of infrastructure and specific institutional arrangements drives domestic resource-use patterns. This also contributes to a better understanding and interpretation of MFA indicators, such as domestic material consumption. PMID:25505367</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Digital+AND+economy&pg=2&id=EJ623482','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Digital+AND+economy&pg=2&id=EJ623482"><span>Understanding the New <span class="hlt">Economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Morrell, Louis R.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new <span class="hlt">economy</span> is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital <span class="hlt">economy</span> can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14577308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14577308"><span>[<span class="hlt">Economy</span> class syndrome].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morio, Hiroshi</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Economy</span> class syndrome is venous thromboembolism following air travel. This syndrome was firstly reported in 1946, and many cases have been reported since 1990s. Low air pressure and low humidity in the aircraft cabin may contribute to the mechanism of this syndrome. Risk factors for venous thrombosis in the plane were old age, <span class="hlt">small</span> height, obesity, hormonal therapy, malignancy, smoking, pregnancy or recent parturition, recent trauma or operation, chronic disease and history of venous thrombosis. In Japan, the feminine gender is also risk factor though reason was not well known. For prophylaxis, adequate fluid intake and leg exercise are recommended to all passengers. For passengers with high risk, prophylactic measures such as compression stockings, aspirin or low molecular weight heparin should be considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1222/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1222/"><span>Potential Effects of a Scenario Earthquake on the <span class="hlt">Economy</span> of Southern California: <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business Exposure and Sensitivity Analysis to a Magnitude 7.8 Earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sherrouse, Benson C.; Hester, David J.; Wein, Anne M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and various partners from the public and private sectors and academia, meant to improve Southern California's resiliency to natural hazards (Jones and others, 2007). In support of the MHDP objectives, the ShakeOut Scenario was developed. It describes a magnitude 7.8 (M7.8) earthquake along the southernmost 300 kilometers (200 miles) of the San Andreas Fault, identified by geoscientists as a plausible event that will cause moderate to strong shaking over much of the eight-county (Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura) Southern California region. This report contains an exposure and sensitivity analysis of <span class="hlt">small</span> businesses in terms of labor and employment statistics. Exposure is measured as the absolute counts of labor market variables anticipated to experience each level of Instrumental Intensity (a proxy measure of damage). Sensitivity is the percentage of the exposure of each business establishment size category to each Instrumental Intensity level. The analysis concerns the direct effect of the earthquake on <span class="hlt">small</span> businesses. The analysis is inspired by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) report that analyzed the labor market losses (exposure) of a M6.9 earthquake on the Hayward fault by overlaying geocoded labor market data on Instrumental Intensity values. The method used here is influenced by the ZIP-code-level data provided by the California Employment Development Department (CA EDD), which requires the assignment of Instrumental Intensities to ZIP codes. The ZIP-code-level labor market data includes the number of business establishments, employees, and quarterly payroll categorized by business establishment size.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335692&keyword=power+AND+system&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335692&keyword=power+AND+system&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>A <span class="hlt">small</span>, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground-mobile and aerial emission sampling from <span class="hlt">open</span> area sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from <span class="hlt">open</span> area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications including tethered balloons ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335692&keyword=Energy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91088391&CFTOKEN=77893510','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335692&keyword=Energy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91088391&CFTOKEN=77893510"><span>A <span class="hlt">small</span>, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground-mobile and aerial emission sampling from <span class="hlt">open</span> area sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from <span class="hlt">open</span> area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications including tethered balloons ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA579717','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA579717"><span>An Analysis of <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Business Concerns and Naval <span class="hlt">Open</span> Architecture: Options to Facilitate <span class="hlt">Small</span>-Business Participation in the Department of the Navy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>within the Department of the Navy (DON) has been built on a foundation that Naval <span class="hlt">Open</span> Architecture ( NOA ) will provide an increase in competition, a...achieving these benefits. There have been mixed reviews of NOA and there is research to suggest that there are barriers to SBC participation in the DON...market. Through NOA the DON would like to foster an environment that encourages the SBC to participate in the competition for DON Contracts thus</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15864548','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15864548"><span><span class="hlt">Open</span> Bankart repair with suture anchors for traumatic recurrent anterior shoulder instability: comparison of results between <span class="hlt">small</span> and large Bankart lesions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lai, Davy; Ma, Hsiao-Li; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Tain-Hsiung; Wu, Jiunn-Jer</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This retrospective study was to demonstrate the clinical outcome of <span class="hlt">open</span> Bankart repair with suture anchors for recurrent anterior shoulder instability, and to compare surgical results of <span class="hlt">small</span> (<3 clock units) and large (>3 clock units) Bankart lesions. With an average follow-up of 55.6 months (2-8 years), there were 82 patients (60 right, 22 left shoulders) with the mean age of 27 years accepting <span class="hlt">open</span> Bankart repair with suture anchors and capsular shift procedure by the same team. According to surgical findings, these patients were grouped into <span class="hlt">small</span> (<3 clock units) and large (>3 clock units) Bankart lesions. Subjective outcomes were recorded according to the Bankart scoring system of Rowe. Rowe scores averaged 85.9+/-12.9 (range 25-100). The patients, 92-7 %, had objectively excellent or good results. Twenty nine patients (35.4%) had <span class="hlt">small</span> Bankart lesions and 53 patients had large Bankart lesions. The Rowe scores in <span class="hlt">small</span> Bankart lesions were better than that in large Bankart lesions (93.5+/-6.8 vs. 81.8+/-13.6, Wilcoxon rank sum test, P<0.001). Mean scores of stability (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P=0.043), motion (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P=0.037), and function (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P<0.001) in <span class="hlt">small</span> lesions also had superior outcomes than in large lesions. Four patients (4.9%) got fair results and two (2.4%) patients got poor results at the end of follow-up. The average loss of external rotation is 10 degrees . <span class="hlt">Open</span> Bankart repair with the aid of suture anchors still got satisfactory results in the treatment of traumatic recurrent anterior instability of the shoulder. The size of the Bankart lesion was a factor affecting surgical outcome. <span class="hlt">Small</span> Bankart lesions usually got better results than large Bankart lesions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/534508','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/534508"><span>Growing a market <span class="hlt">economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.</p> <p>1997-09-01</p> <p>This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise <span class="hlt">economy</span> to a market <span class="hlt">economy</span>. The emphasis is on growing a market <span class="hlt">economy</span> starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition <span class="hlt">economies</span>. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.154...31Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.154...31Z"><span>A <span class="hlt">small</span>, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground-mobile and aerial emission sampling from <span class="hlt">open</span> area sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Xiaochi; Aurell, Johanna; Mitchell, William; Tabor, Dennis; Gullett, Brian</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from <span class="hlt">open</span> area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and time-integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications such as vehicles, tethered balloons (aerostats) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to determine emission factors. The system is particularly applicable to <span class="hlt">open</span> area sources, such as forest fires, due to its light weight (3.5 kg), compact size (6.75 L), and internal power supply. The sensor system, termed "Kolibri", consists of sensors measuring CO2 and CO, and samplers for particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Kolibri is controlled by a microcontroller which can record and transfer data in real time through a radio module. Selection of the sensors was based on laboratory testing for accuracy, response delay and recovery, cross-sensitivity, and precision. The Kolibri was compared against rack-mounted continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMs) and another mobile sampling instrument (the "Flyer") that has been used in over ten <span class="hlt">open</span> area pollutant sampling events. Our results showed that the time series of CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations measured by the Kolibri agreed well with those from the CEMs and the Flyer, with a laboratory-tested percentage error of 4.9%, 3%, and 5.8%, respectively. The VOC emission factors obtained using the Kolibri were consistent with existing literature values that relate concentration to modified combustion efficiency. The potential effect of rotor downwash on particle sampling was investigated in an indoor laboratory and the preliminary results suggested that its influence is minimal. Field application of the Kolibri sampling <span class="hlt">open</span> detonation plumes indicated that the CO and CO2 sensors responded dynamically and their concentrations co-varied with emission transients. The Kolibri system can be applied to various challenging <span class="hlt">open</span> area scenarios such as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=commonwealth+AND+independent+AND+states&pg=2&id=EJ786935','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=commonwealth+AND+independent+AND+states&pg=2&id=EJ786935"><span>Development Challenges and Opportunities Confronting <span class="hlt">Economies</span> in Transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Estes, Richard J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>"<span class="hlt">Economies</span> in Transition" (hereafter EIT or EITs) are countries in the process of shifting from "command" to "more <span class="hlt">open</span>", liberalized, free market economic systems. In addition to achieving major structural adjustments to their <span class="hlt">economies</span>, the transformational process requires the introduction of a high degree of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED470508.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED470508.pdf"><span>Economic <span class="hlt">Openness</span> and the Marginalization of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Family Farmers: Aligning Curriculum To Meet the Needs of Rural Adolescents in Brazil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moore, Audrey-Marie Schuh</p> <p></p> <p>Economic liberalization and the rise of global competition have increased the importance of agricultural, technical, and business skills for <span class="hlt">small</span> farmers in Brazil. However, many rural farmers are unable to attend agricultural technical schools due to low educational attainment. The first section of this paper discusses the impact that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27490139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27490139"><span>An Azulene-Containing Low Bandgap <span class="hlt">Small</span> Molecule for Organic Photovoltaics with High <span class="hlt">Open</span>-Circuit Voltage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Yao; Zhu, Youqin; Yang, Daobin; Zhao, Suling; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Lin; Wu, Jianglin; Huang, Yan; Xu, Zheng; Lu, Zhiyun</p> <p>2016-10-04</p> <p>A simple azulene-containing squaraine dye (AzUSQ) showing bandgap of 1.38 eV and hole mobility up to 1.25×10(-4)  cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) was synthesized. With its low bandgap, an organic photovoltaic (OPV) device based on it has been made that exhibits an impressive <span class="hlt">open</span>-circuit voltages (Voc ) of 0.80 V. Hence, azulene might be a promising structural unit to construct OPV materials with simultaneous low bandgap, high hole mobility and high Voc .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4326755','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4326755"><span>The Exosome and Trans-Acting <span class="hlt">Small</span> Interfering RNAs Regulate Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis during Arabidopsis Inflorescence Stem Development1[<span class="hlt">OPEN</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lam, Patricia; Zhao, Lifang; Eveleigh, Nathan; Yu, Yu; Chen, Xuemei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The primary aerial surfaces of land plants are covered with a cuticle, a protective layer composed of the cutin polyester matrix and cuticular waxes. Previously, we discovered a unique mechanism of regulating cuticular wax biosynthesis during Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stem elongation that involves ECERIFERUM7 (CER7), a core subunit of the exosome. Because loss-of-function mutations in CER7 result in reduced expression of the wax biosynthetic gene CER3, we proposed that CER7 is involved in degrading a messenger RNA encoding a CER3 repressor. To identify this putative repressor, we performed a cer7 suppressor screen that resulted in the isolation of the posttranscriptional gene-silencing components RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE1 and SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3, indicating that <span class="hlt">small</span> RNAs regulate CER3 expression. To establish the identity of the effector RNA species and determine whether these RNAs control CER3 transcript levels directly, we cloned additional genes identified in our suppressor screen and performed next-generation sequencing of <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA populations that differentially accumulate in the cer7 mutant in comparison with the wild type. Our results demonstrate that the trans-acting <span class="hlt">small</span> interfering RNA class of <span class="hlt">small</span> RNAs are the effector molecules involved in direct silencing of CER3 and that the expression of five additional genes (EARLY RESPONSE TO DEHYDRATION14, AUXIN RESISTANT1, a translation initiation factor SUI1 family protein, and two genes of unknown function) is controlled by both CER7 and trans-acting <span class="hlt">small</span> interfering RNAs. PMID:25502190</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1024296','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1024296"><span>Predicting Individual Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel <span class="hlt">economies</span> based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA266288','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA266288"><span>Defense and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>AD A 66 28 o’py 9of 27 copiesII AD-A266 288-co, .o,,,, I IDA PAPER P-28 10I * DEFENSE AND THE <span class="hlt">ECONOMY</span> David R. Graham An-Jen Tai Barbara A...TYPE AND DATES COVERED January 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Defense and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span> C-MDA 903 89C 0003i...Fomr 298 (Rev 2-4g) 3Preserked by ANSI Sid, Z39- 2I0 I I I IDA PAPER P-2810() 3 DEFENSE AND THE <span class="hlt">ECONOMY</span> I I David R. Graham An-Jen Tai Barbara A</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AcAau..61.1066K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AcAau..61.1066K"><span>Policy model for space <span class="hlt">economy</span> infrastructure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Komerath, Narayanan; Nally, James; Zilin Tang, Elizabeth</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Extraterrestrial infrastructure is key to the development of a space <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Means for accelerating transition from today's isolated projects to a broad-based <span class="hlt">economy</span> are considered. A large system integration approach is proposed. The beginnings of an economic simulation model are presented, along with examples of how interactions and coordination bring down costs. A global organization focused on space infrastructure and economic expansion is proposed to plan, coordinate, fund and implement infrastructure construction. This entity also <span class="hlt">opens</span> a way to raise low-cost capital and solve the legal and public policy issues of access to extraterrestrial resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/nutrientpollution/effects-economy','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/nutrientpollution/effects-economy"><span>The Effects: <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Nutrient pollution has diverse and far-reaching effects on the U.S. <span class="hlt">economy</span>, impacting tourism, property values, commercial fishing, recreational businesses and many other sectors that depend on clean water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhyW...22g..21R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhyW...22g..21R"><span>Observing the <span class="hlt">economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosenbaum, Stan</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>In "The (unfortunate) complexity of the <span class="hlt">economy</span>" (April pp28-32) Jean-Philippe Bouchaud presents clear evidence that traditional assumptions of rational markets have to be abandoned. The old investor slogan "buy on promise, sell on rumour" quickly magnifies a downturn into a crisis, which triggers two questions. If physics-based models are applied (beyond understanding and prediction) to actual market decisions, does this make the <span class="hlt">economy</span> more or less stable? And, is this cause for stronger regulation?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24793019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24793019"><span>A reliable, low-cost picture archiving and communications system for <span class="hlt">small</span> and medium veterinary practices built using <span class="hlt">open</span>-source technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iotti, Bryan; Valazza, Alberto</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) are the most needed system in a modern hospital. As an integral part of the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard, they are charged with the responsibility for secure storage and accessibility of the diagnostic imaging data. These machines need to offer high performance, stability, and security while proving reliable and ergonomic in the day-to-day and long-term storage and retrieval of the data they safeguard. This paper reports the experience of the authors in developing and installing a compact and low-cost solution based on <span class="hlt">open</span>-source technologies in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for the University of Torino, Italy, during the course of the summer of 2012. The PACS server was built on low-cost x86-based hardware and uses an <span class="hlt">open</span> source operating system derived from Oracle <span class="hlt">Open</span>Solaris (Oracle Corporation, Redwood City, CA, USA) to host the DCM4CHEE PACS DICOM server (DCM4CHEE, http://www.dcm4che.org ). This solution features very high data security and an ergonomic interface to provide easy access to a large amount of imaging data. The system has been in active use for almost 2 years now and has proven to be a scalable, cost-effective solution for practices ranging from <span class="hlt">small</span> to very large, where the use of different hardware combinations allows scaling to the different deployments, while the use of paravirtualization allows increased security and easy migrations and upgrades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Tectp.450....1A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Tectp.450....1A"><span>Importance of <span class="hlt">small</span>-block rotations in damage zones along transcurrent faults. Evidence from the Chuquicamata <span class="hlt">open</span> pit, Northern Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Astudillo, N.; Roperch, P.; Townley, B.; Arriagada, C.; Maksaev, V.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Chuquicamata, in northern Chile, is one of the largest porphyry copper deposits in the world; the western side of its orebody is bounded by a major longitudinal fault, the West fault. We report paleomagnetic results from surface sites and drill cores from different geological units at Chuquicamata, especially within the late Eocene Fiesta granodiorite of the western block of the West fault. Characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRM) were determined after detailed thermal or alternating field demagnetization. Soft components carried by multidomain magnetite crystals in the Fiesta granodiorite were removed by AF demagnetization at 10-20 mT. The ChRMs, not demagnetized by alternating fields up to 100 mT, have unblocking temperatures above 580 °C with ~ 75% of the magnetization removed in the temperature range of 580-590 °C. Optical and SEM mineralogical observations, and microprobe data indicate the occurrence of multidomain magnetite formed during a late magmatic stage of alteration coeval with strong oxidation of primary titanomagnetite and formation of ilmenite, hematite, pseudobrookite, and rutile. The characteristic directions have negative inclinations and declinations (330° to 230°); strongly deflected from the expected Eocene direction. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), with degree up to 1.4, is carried by multidomain magnetite. AMS ellipsoids have subvertical foliations with azimuth varying strongly from N280° to N20°. We show that both the ChRMs and the AMS fabrics record the same apparent relative rotations between sites. Although the AMS anisotropy is high, there is no evidence for a solid-state deformation and the apparent rotation of the magnetic fabric is interpreted to be the consequence of <span class="hlt">small</span>-block rotation. The apparent large (> 100°) counterclockwise rotations of <span class="hlt">small</span> blocks within the Fiesta granodiorite suggest a wide damaged zone related to sinistral displacement along the West fault. This interpretation is consistent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPRS..125..174P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPRS..125..174P"><span>Assessing the impacts of canopy <span class="hlt">openness</span> and flight parameters on detecting a sub-canopy tropical invasive plant using a <span class="hlt">small</span> unmanned aerial system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perroy, Ryan L.; Sullivan, Timo; Stephenson, Nathan</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Small</span> unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) have great potential to facilitate the early detection and management of invasive plants. Here we show how very high-resolution optical imagery, collected from <span class="hlt">small</span> consumer-grade multirotor UAS platform at altitudes of 30-120 m above ground level (agl), can be used to detect individual miconia (Miconia calvescens) plants in a highly invaded tropical rainforest environment on the island of Hawai'i. The central aim of this research was to determine how overstory vegetation cover, imagery resolution, and camera look-angle impact the aerial detection of known individual miconia plants. For our finest resolution imagery (1.37 cm ground sampling distance collected at 30 m agl), we obtained a 100% detection rate for sub-canopy plants with above-crown <span class="hlt">openness</span> values >40% and a 69% detection rate for those with >20% <span class="hlt">openness</span>. We were unable to detect any plants with <10% above crown <span class="hlt">openness</span>. Detection rates progressively declined with coarser spatial resolution imagery, ending in a 0% detection rate for the 120 m agl flights (ground sampling distance of 5.31 cm). The addition of forward-looking oblique imagery improved detection rates for plants below overstory vegetation, though this effect decreased with increasing flight altitude. While dense overstory canopy cover, limited flight times, and visual line of sight regulations present formidable obstacles for detecting miconia and other invasive plant species, we show that sUAS platforms carrying optical sensors can be an effective component of an integrated management plan within challenging subcanopy forest environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://edg.epa.gov/metadata/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7BE87A4099-3793-47D7-A687-969577FFE4F4%7D','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://edg.epa.gov/metadata/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7BE87A4099-3793-47D7-A687-969577FFE4F4%7D"><span>www.Fuel<span class="hlt">Economy</span>.gov</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Fuel<span class="hlt">Economy</span>.gov provides comprehensive information about vehicles' fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>. The official U.S. government site for fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> information, it is operated by the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency. The site provides access to general information, widgets to help car buyers, and fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> datasets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=microenterprise&pg=3&id=EJ537194','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=microenterprise&pg=3&id=EJ537194"><span>Supporting Innovation in Developing and Transitional <span class="hlt">Economies</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Robinson, Simon</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Examines the impact of innovative entrepreneurship and the needs of developing and transitional <span class="hlt">economies</span>. Outlines the operation of the European Commission's Business and Innovation Centres. Suggests that innovation must be viewed as a major issue in all enterprises and that greater recognition be given to the role of innovative <span class="hlt">small</span> and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=role+AND+supporting+AND+small+AND+business&pg=2&id=EJ537194','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=role+AND+supporting+AND+small+AND+business&pg=2&id=EJ537194"><span>Supporting Innovation in Developing and Transitional <span class="hlt">Economies</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Robinson, Simon</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Examines the impact of innovative entrepreneurship and the needs of developing and transitional <span class="hlt">economies</span>. Outlines the operation of the European Commission's Business and Innovation Centres. Suggests that innovation must be viewed as a major issue in all enterprises and that greater recognition be given to the role of innovative <span class="hlt">small</span> and…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7075268','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7075268"><span>Managers and minerals in a monarchy: The political <span class="hlt">economy</span> of mining in Jordan, 1970-1989</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Piro, T.J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates why developing states that profess to follow free market principles continue to intervene in their <span class="hlt">economies</span>. The study investigates the extent to which the state in Jordan has penetrated its most potentially productive economic sector - the extractive mineral industry (phosphates, potash, fertilizers, cement, and the refining of oil). The study examined Jordan's [<span class="hlt">open</span> quotes]Big 5[close quotes] companies: the Jordan Cement Factories Company, the Jordan Phosphate Mines Company, the Jordan Petroleum Refinery Company, the Arab Potash Company, and the Jordan Fertilizer Industries Company. This examination sought to reveal the political factors that give rise to an interventionist state and that sustain intervention over time. The study discusses the political nature of building a national <span class="hlt">economy</span> in a society with limited resources and in which certain groups and classes are favored over others. In Jordan the absence of a real entrepreneurial class or vibrant private sector prompted the state to enter the <span class="hlt">economy</span> in order to construct its economic infrastructure. This is evidenced in the establishment of Jordan's extractive minerals companies. Through its links to these companies, the state crafted an <span class="hlt">economy</span> in which the role of labor is weak and economic power is still situated within the organs of the state. Centralized authority within the kingdom and the various policy networks linking the state to industry make it difficult for the state to withdraw from the <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Regional and international factors reinforce this tendency. A review of these companies' activities from 1970 to 1989 reveals the political contours of state capitalism and demonstrates why the private sector has not taken hold in many <span class="hlt">small</span> developing nations. This study analyzes the institutional environment in which public officials act. The study concludes that the state's room to maneuver within the political arena and the <span class="hlt">economy</span> is quite substantial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1727b0020S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1727b0020S"><span>Environmental issues elimination through circular <span class="hlt">economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular <span class="hlt">economy</span> deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular <span class="hlt">economy</span> practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular <span class="hlt">economy</span> in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular <span class="hlt">economy</span> operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are <span class="hlt">open</span> to environmental innovations in future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22591209','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22591209"><span>Environmental issues elimination through circular <span class="hlt">economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Špirková, M. Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.</p> <p>2016-04-21</p> <p>Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular <span class="hlt">economy</span> deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular <span class="hlt">economy</span> practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular <span class="hlt">economy</span> in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular <span class="hlt">economy</span> operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are <span class="hlt">open</span> to environmental innovations in future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2880393','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2880393"><span>The <span class="hlt">economies</span> of synthesis†</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Newhouse, Timothy</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In this tutorial review the <span class="hlt">economies</span> of synthesis are analysed from both detailed and macroscopic perspectives, using case-studies from complex molecule synthesis. Atom, step, and redox <span class="hlt">economy</span> are more than philosophical constructs, but rather guidelines, which enable the synthetic chemist to design and execute an efficient synthesis. Students entering the field of synthesis might find this tutorial helpful for understanding the subtle differences between these economic principles and also see real-world situations where such principles are put into practice. PMID:19847337</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5510769','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5510769"><span>Identification of very <span class="hlt">small</span> <span class="hlt">open</span> reading frames in the genomes of Holmes Jungle virus, Ord River virus, and Wongabel virus of the genus Hapavirus, family Rhabdoviridae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gubala, Aneta; Walsh, Susan; McAllister, Jane; Weir, Richard; Davis, Steven; Melville, Lorna; Mitchell, Ian; Bulach, Dieter; Gauci, Penny; Skvortsov, Alex; Boyle, David</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Viruses of the family Rhabdoviridae infect a broad range of hosts from a variety of ecological and geographical niches, including vertebrates, arthropods, and plants. The arthropod-transmitted members of this family display considerable genetic diversity and remarkable genomic flexibility that enable coding for various accessory proteins in different locations of the genome. Here, we describe the genome of Holmes Jungle virus, isolated from Culex annulirostris mosquitoes collected in northern Australia, and make detailed comparisons with the closely related Ord River and Wongabel viruses, with a focus on identifying very <span class="hlt">small</span> <span class="hlt">open</span> reading frames (smORFs) in their genomes. This is the first systematic prediction of smORFs in rhabdoviruses, emphasising the intricacy of the rhabdovirus genome and the knowledge gaps. We speculate that these smORFs may be of importance to the life cycle of the virus in the arthropod vector. PMID:28747815</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27613516','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27613516"><span>Influence of light and plant size on the reproduction and growth of <span class="hlt">small</span> palm tree species: Comparing two methods for measuring canopy <span class="hlt">openness</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amadeu, Luã S N; Sampaio, Mauricio B; Dos Santos, Flavio A M</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The reproduction and growth of large palms are influenced by many factors, including light and plant size, but few studies have examined smaller species (up to 2 m tall). We examined the effect of incident light and individual size on growth rates, the probability of reproduction, and the number of inflorescences of three <span class="hlt">small</span> palm species and compared two methods for estimating canopy <span class="hlt">openness</span>. We measured canopy <span class="hlt">openness</span> above the crowns of 132 adult plants and in the centers of 72 subplots (10 × 10 m) where individuals were sampled. We also recorded individual size and the number of leaves and inflorescences produced in two years. Reproductive individuals of Butia paraguayensis tend to occur in illuminated microhabitats. Reproduction of Acrocomia emensis was correlated with stem diameter, but not with light. Reproduction was inversely related to individual size and light in Syagrus petraea, probably because this clonal palm invests heavily in sexual reproduction during its younger stages and clonal activity in older stages and may be adapted to the low-light conditions of the woodland understory. Growth was not predicted by light or individual size. Stronger correlations were found when incident light was measured directly above the crown, as opposed to the subplot center. The influences of light on reproduction are dependent on plant life histories, even among related and sympatric species. Light measurements directly above individual crowns provide better understanding of the reproductive effort rather than in subplot center. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940029057&hterms=Economy&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DEconomy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940029057&hterms=Economy&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DEconomy"><span>Airline Safety and <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and <span class="hlt">economy</span> in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED077311.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED077311.pdf"><span>Costs and Potential <span class="hlt">Economies</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bottomley, J. A.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>The University of Bradford was designated as the target for research directed toward identifying potential <span class="hlt">economies</span> in the teaching of students under alternative sets of assumptions, in order that action may be taken to secure a more economic use of resources in the higher education sector. Part one looks generally at the nature of university…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940029057&hterms=economy&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Deconomy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940029057&hterms=economy&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Deconomy"><span>Airline Safety and <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and <span class="hlt">economy</span> in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=financing+AND+development+AND+system+AND+future&pg=3&id=ED451331','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=financing+AND+development+AND+system+AND+future&pg=3&id=ED451331"><span>Education and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hollenbeck, Kevin M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The relationship between education and the United States (U.S.) <span class="hlt">economy</span> was explored to identify research needed to inform employment policy in the future. Special attention was paid to the following topics: the state of education in the U.S.; key problems in grades K-12 that must be addressed; student achievement; inequity; costs of special…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Space+AND+Race&pg=3&id=EJ859531','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Space+AND+Race&pg=3&id=EJ859531"><span>Fueling the Green <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Elder, James</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The Obama administration, along with many others, has placed a high priority on accelerating the nation's transition to a cleaner, greener <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Transforming the nation's economic, energy, and environmental systems to become more sustainable will require a level of expertise, innovation, and cooperation unseen since the 1940s war effort. Public…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Deep+AND+Web+AND+structure&id=ED545491','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Deep+AND+Web+AND+structure&id=ED545491"><span><span class="hlt">Economy</span> of Command</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Medeiros, David Peter</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This dissertation proposes a principle of "<span class="hlt">economy</span> of command", arguing that it provides a simple and natural explanation for some well-known properties of human language syntax. The focus is on the abstract combinatorial system that constructs the hierarchical structure of linguistic expressions, with long-distance dependencies…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Recovery+AND+workers&pg=2&id=EJ974877','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Recovery+AND+workers&pg=2&id=EJ974877"><span>The College <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carnevale, Anthony P.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>As the United States grinds its way through a halting economic recovery, one thing has become abundantly clear: The recession of 2007 continues to reshape the <span class="hlt">economy</span> in significant and permanent ways. Perhaps the most profound change is the accelerating disappearance of good-paying jobs that require only a high-school education or less. That…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Green+AND+movement&pg=2&id=EJ859531','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Green+AND+movement&pg=2&id=EJ859531"><span>Fueling the Green <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Elder, James</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The Obama administration, along with many others, has placed a high priority on accelerating the nation's transition to a cleaner, greener <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Transforming the nation's economic, energy, and environmental systems to become more sustainable will require a level of expertise, innovation, and cooperation unseen since the 1940s war effort. Public…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED299066.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED299066.pdf"><span>Alaska's <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: What's Ahead?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's <span class="hlt">economy</span> is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Equal+AND+pay+AND+Higher+AND+Education&pg=3&id=EJ954829','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Equal+AND+pay+AND+Higher+AND+Education&pg=3&id=EJ954829"><span>Equality and <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brink, Chris</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The two big events in higher education during 2010 were the implementation of the Equality Act, and the introduction of a new dispensation on fees and funding. The former is intended to promote equality, the latter is premised on the need for <span class="hlt">economy</span>. In this article, the author focuses on the effect of the latter on the former. He considers this…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=growing+AND+middle+AND+class&pg=4&id=EJ974877','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=growing+AND+middle+AND+class&pg=4&id=EJ974877"><span>The College <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carnevale, Anthony P.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>As the United States grinds its way through a halting economic recovery, one thing has become abundantly clear: The recession of 2007 continues to reshape the <span class="hlt">economy</span> in significant and permanent ways. Perhaps the most profound change is the accelerating disappearance of good-paying jobs that require only a high-school education or less. That…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=operant+AND+conditioning&pg=7&id=ED042304','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=operant+AND+conditioning&pg=7&id=ED042304"><span>Operant Conditioning - Token <span class="hlt">Economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.</p> <p></p> <p>Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=token+AND+economy&pg=6&id=ED042304','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=token+AND+economy&pg=6&id=ED042304"><span>Operant Conditioning - Token <span class="hlt">Economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.</p> <p></p> <p>Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=token+AND+economy&pg=5&id=EJ079094','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=token+AND+economy&pg=5&id=EJ079094"><span>Token <span class="hlt">Economies</span> in Rehabilitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walls, Richard T.; Nicholas, Heather</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Behavior modification has become a widely known practice in rehabilitation during the past decade. A medium of exchange or token is typically used to facilitate transactions and can be traded for backup reinforcers later on. This review of the use of token <span class="hlt">economies</span> focuses on groups of individuals usually considered target rehabilitation…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1421402','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1421402"><span>All-arthroscopic versus mini-<span class="hlt">open</span> repair of <span class="hlt">small</span> or moderate-sized rotator cuff tears: A protocol for a randomized trial [NCT00128076</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>MacDermid, Joy C; Holtby, Richard; Razmjou, Helen; Bryant, Dianne</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Background Rotator cuff tears are the most common source of shoulder pain and disability. Only poor quality studies have compared mini-<span class="hlt">open</span> to arthroscopic repair, leaving surgeons with inadequate evidence to support optimal, minimally-invasive repair. Methods/Design This randomized, multi-centre, national trial will determine whether an arthroscopic or mini-<span class="hlt">open</span> repair provides better quality of life for patients with <span class="hlt">small</span> or moderate-sized rotator cuff tears. A national consensus meeting of investigators in the Joint Orthopaedic Initiative for National Trials of the Shoulder (JOINTS Canada) identified this question as the top priority for shoulder surgeons across Canada. The primary outcome measure is a valid quality-of-life scale (Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC)) that addresses 5 domains of health affected by rotator cuff disease. Secondary outcomes will assess rotator cuff functionality (ROM, strength, Constant score), secondary dimensions of health (general health status (SF-12) and work limitations), and repair integrity (MRI). Outcomes are measured at baseline, at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months post-operatively by blinded research assistants and musculoskeletal radiologists. Patients (n = 250) with <span class="hlt">small</span> or medium-sized cuff tears identified by clinical examination and MRI who meet eligibility criteria will be recruited. This sample size will provide 80% power to statistically detect a clinically important difference of 20% in WORC scores between procedures after controlling for baseline WORC score (α = 0.05). A central methods centre will manage randomization, data management, and monitoring under supervision of experienced epidemiologists. Surgeons will participate in either conventional or expertise-based designs according to defined criteria to avoid biases from differential surgeon expertise. Mini-<span class="hlt">open</span> or all-arthroscopic repair procedures will be performed according to a standardized protocol. Central Adjudication (of cases), Trial Oversight</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V41B2798E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V41B2798E"><span>Componentry of pyroclastic fall deposits from 2008-2012 <span class="hlt">small</span> explosive eruptions at Kilauea summit crater: insights into the dynamics of an <span class="hlt">open</span> basaltic lava column</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eychenne, J.; Houghton, B. F.; Swanson, D.; Orr, T. R.; Carey, R. J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Eruptive activity began at Kilauea volcano's summit in March 2008 after 25 years of repose, when a <span class="hlt">small</span> explosive event <span class="hlt">opened</span> a 35-m-wide vent on the south wall of Halema`uma`u crater, initiating an eruptive period that extends to the time of writing. The activity has been characterized by: 1) a vigorous outgassing, 2) an unevenly intense spattering of the free surface at the top of the lava column (background activity), and 3) the occurrence of <span class="hlt">small</span> explosive events consistently triggered by conduit-wall and/or rim collapses. A daily sampling of the pyroclasts ejected from the vent has been organized by the Hawaii Volcano Observatory since 2008. The componentry analyses of samples collected prior to and following different events from 2008 to 2012 allow us to distinguish consistent classes of juvenile particles according to their vesicularity, crystallinity and morphology. The abundances of these different classes vary from background- to explosion-samples, revealing consistent contrasting degassing and fragmentation processes before the disruption of the lava free surface by the rockfalls, and during and soon after the explosive events. These results, for samples collected in 2011-2012 combined with geophysical and visual datasets, give insights into the dynamics of the lava column and particularly into the behavior of the top of the column responding to outgassing and external disruption of the free surface-equilibrium state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=economic+AND+market&pg=6&id=EJ838691','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=economic+AND+market&pg=6&id=EJ838691"><span>The Knowledge <span class="hlt">Economy</span> and Higher Education: Rankings and Classifications, Research Metrics and Learning Outcomes Measures as a System for Regulating the Value of Knowledge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marginson, Simon</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the global knowledge <span class="hlt">economy</span> (the k-<span class="hlt">economy</span>), comprised by (1) <span class="hlt">open</span> source knowledge flows and (2) commercial markets in intellectual property and knowledge-intensive goods. Like all <span class="hlt">economy</span> the global knowledge <span class="hlt">economy</span> is a site of production. It is also social and cultural, taking the form of a one-world community mediated…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Knowledge+AND+Economy&pg=4&id=EJ838691','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Knowledge+AND+Economy&pg=4&id=EJ838691"><span>The Knowledge <span class="hlt">Economy</span> and Higher Education: Rankings and Classifications, Research Metrics and Learning Outcomes Measures as a System for Regulating the Value of Knowledge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marginson, Simon</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the global knowledge <span class="hlt">economy</span> (the k-<span class="hlt">economy</span>), comprised by (1) <span class="hlt">open</span> source knowledge flows and (2) commercial markets in intellectual property and knowledge-intensive goods. Like all <span class="hlt">economy</span> the global knowledge <span class="hlt">economy</span> is a site of production. It is also social and cultural, taking the form of a one-world community mediated…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Economy&pg=2&id=EJ1053759','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Economy&pg=2&id=EJ1053759"><span>Popular Education in Solidarity <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity <span class="hlt">economy</span> in experiences of solidarity <span class="hlt">economy</span> enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this <span class="hlt">economy</span>, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Economy&pg=6&id=EJ901112','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Economy&pg=6&id=EJ901112"><span>Knowledge <span class="hlt">Economy</span> and Research Innovation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bastalich, Wendy</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The "knowledge <span class="hlt">economy</span>" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political <span class="hlt">economy</span>, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge <span class="hlt">economy</span>" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Economy+AND+social&id=EJ901112','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Economy+AND+social&id=EJ901112"><span>Knowledge <span class="hlt">Economy</span> and Research Innovation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bastalich, Wendy</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The "knowledge <span class="hlt">economy</span>" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political <span class="hlt">economy</span>, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge <span class="hlt">economy</span>" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Economy+AND+social&pg=7&id=EJ1053759','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Economy+AND+social&pg=7&id=EJ1053759"><span>Popular Education in Solidarity <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity <span class="hlt">economy</span> in experiences of solidarity <span class="hlt">economy</span> enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this <span class="hlt">economy</span>, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7041137','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7041137"><span>Political <span class="hlt">economy</span> of oil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Banks, F.E.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A nontechnical discussion of the political <span class="hlt">economy</span> of the world oil market is intended to inform the beginning student as well as serve as a reference book. Beginning with definitions and an explanation of units, the text covers the world <span class="hlt">economy</span>, oil supply, oil prices, oil consumption and non-oil energy materials supplies, oil companies, macroeconomics, and the market in an effort to relate both macro- and microeconomic phenomena. Professor Banks feels that population is the most crucial factor in economics today, followed by nonfuel minerals and energy; the technical problems pertaining to energy, however, can be managed if the first two are faced and dealt with. He thinks the outlook is good for replacing oil with other energy sources. 143 references, 23 figures, 26 tables. (DKC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvB..83p5311S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvB..83p5311S"><span>Influence of the indium tin oxide/organic interface on <span class="hlt">open</span>-circuit voltage, recombination, and cell degradation in organic <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecule solar cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schäfer, Stefan; Petersen, Andreas; Wagner, Thomas A.; Kniprath, Rolf; Lingenfelser, Dominic; Zen, Achmad; Kirchartz, Thomas; Zimmermann, Birger; Würfel, Uli; Feng, Xianjin; Mayer, Thomas</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>In this paper we investigate the performance and stability of <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecule organic solar cells with respect to the indium tin oxide (ITO)/organic interface. Different zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc)/fullerene (C60) cell architectures with and without ITO O2-plasma treatment are compared and tested with respect to their degradation behavior under illumination in inert atmosphere. Photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS and XPS) shows that the O2-plasma treatment increases the ITO work function from 4.3 eV up to 5.6 eV. We find that both the increased ITO work function as well as the introduction of an electron blocking layer between ITO and the mixed donor/acceptor layer increases the <span class="hlt">open</span>-circuit voltage Voc by more than 200 mV. For both cases our continuum approach device simulation quantitatively relates the increase of Voc to a reduced contact recombination and thus a reduced dark current. For cells built on ozone treated ITO we find a fast cell degradation caused by the UV part of the AM 1.5 spectrum. We identify the degradation, which manifests itself in a decrease of Voc of up to 25%, as a partial reversion of the plasma induced ITO work function increase. Additionally, we demonstrate that the degradation can be reduced by structural changes in the cell architecture, leading to improved cell stability. We present a comprehensive study of the recombination at the ITO/organic interface and its influence on the <span class="hlt">open</span>-circuit voltage and the cell stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24966687','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24966687"><span>Nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in advanced non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer: a multicenter, randomized, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label Phase II study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Babu, K Govind; Prabhash, Kumar; Vaid, Ashok K; Sirohi, Bhawna; Diwakar, Ravi B; Rao, Raghunadha; Kar, Madhuchanda; Malhotra, Hemant; Nag, Shona; Goswami, Chanchal; Raina, Vinod; Mohan, Ravi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy (docetaxel and carboplatin) versus chemotherapy alone in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer. This multicenter, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, Phase II study randomized 110 patients to receive nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy (nimotuzumab group) or chemotherapy alone (control group), and comprised concomitant, maintenance, and follow-up phases. Nimotuzumab 200 mg was administered once weekly for 13 weeks during the first two phases with four cycles of chemotherapy and docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) and carboplatin (area under the curve 5 mg/mL*min) every 3 weeks for a maximum of four cycles during the concomitant phase. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (sum of complete response and partial response). Secondary endpoints, ie, overall survival and progression-free survival, were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Efficacy was evaluated on the intent-to-treat and efficacy-evaluable sets. Safety was assessed from adverse event and serious adverse event data. The objective response rate was significantly higher in the nimotuzumab group than in the control group in the intent-to-treat population (54% versus 34.5%; P=0.04). A complete response and partial response were achieved in 3.6% and 50% of patients, respectively, in the nimotuzumab group, and in 4% and 30.9% of patients, respectively, in the control group. No significant differences in median progression-free survival and overall survival were observed. Safety profiles were comparable between the two groups. Nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy significantly improved the objective response rate as compared with chemotherapy alone. The combination was safe and well tolerated in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4063861','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4063861"><span>Nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in advanced non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer: a multicenter, randomized, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label Phase II study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Babu, K Govind; Prabhash, Kumar; Vaid, Ashok K; Sirohi, Bhawna; Diwakar, Ravi B; Rao, Raghunadha; Kar, Madhuchanda; Malhotra, Hemant; Nag, Shona; Goswami, Chanchal; Raina, Vinod; Mohan, Ravi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy (docetaxel and carboplatin) versus chemotherapy alone in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer. Methods This multicenter, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, Phase II study randomized 110 patients to receive nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy (nimotuzumab group) or chemotherapy alone (control group), and comprised concomitant, maintenance, and follow-up phases. Nimotuzumab 200 mg was administered once weekly for 13 weeks during the first two phases with four cycles of chemotherapy and docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and carboplatin (area under the curve 5 mg/mL*min) every 3 weeks for a maximum of four cycles during the concomitant phase. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (sum of complete response and partial response). Secondary endpoints, ie, overall survival and progression-free survival, were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Efficacy was evaluated on the intent-to-treat and efficacy-evaluable sets. Safety was assessed from adverse event and serious adverse event data. Results The objective response rate was significantly higher in the nimotuzumab group than in the control group in the intent-to-treat population (54% versus 34.5%; P=0.04). A complete response and partial response were achieved in 3.6% and 50% of patients, respectively, in the nimotuzumab group, and in 4% and 30.9% of patients, respectively, in the control group. No significant differences in median progression-free survival and overall survival were observed. Safety profiles were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion Nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy significantly improved the objective response rate as compared with chemotherapy alone. The combination was safe and well tolerated in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer. PMID:24966687</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28102611','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28102611"><span>Realizing <span class="hlt">Small</span> Energy Loss of 0.55 eV, High <span class="hlt">Open</span>-Circuit Voltage >1 V and High Efficiency >10% in Fullerene-Free Polymer Solar Cells via Energy Driver.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheng, Pei; Zhang, Mingyu; Lau, Tsz-Ki; Wu, Yao; Jia, Boyu; Wang, Jiayu; Yan, Cenqi; Qin, Meng; Lu, Xinhui; Zhan, Xiaowei</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>A new, easy, and efficient approach is reported to enhance the driving force for charge transfer, break tradeoff between <span class="hlt">open</span>-circuit voltage and short-circuit current, and simultaneously achieve very <span class="hlt">small</span> energy loss (0.55 eV), very high <span class="hlt">open</span>-circuit voltage (>1 V), and very high efficiency (>10%) in fullerene-free organic solar cells via an energy driver. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvE..82d6104T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvE..82d6104T"><span>Comparison between response dynamics in transition <span class="hlt">economies</span> and developed <span class="hlt">economies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvatić, Davor; Bajić, Slavica Cosović; Pehlivanović, Bećo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>In developed <span class="hlt">economies</span>, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed <span class="hlt">economies</span> to European transition <span class="hlt">economies</span> and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition <span class="hlt">economies</span> develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition <span class="hlt">economies</span> and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed <span class="hlt">economy</span> counterparts, almost all transition <span class="hlt">economy</span> indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter γ characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition <span class="hlt">economies</span>. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed <span class="hlt">economies</span>, γ experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition <span class="hlt">economies</span>, γ experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27261153','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27261153"><span>Restricted ADP movement in cardiomyocytes: Cytosolic diffusion obstacles are complemented with a <span class="hlt">small</span> number of <span class="hlt">open</span> mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simson, Päivo; Jepihhina, Natalja; Laasmaa, Martin; Peterson, Pearu; Birkedal, Rikke; Vendelin, Marko</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Adequate intracellular energy transfer is crucial for proper cardiac function. In energy starved failing hearts, partial restoration of energy transfer can rescue mechanical performance. There are two types of diffusion obstacles that interfere with energy transfer from mitochondria to ATPases: mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) with voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) permeable to <span class="hlt">small</span> hydrophilic molecules and cytoplasmatic diffusion barriers grouping ATP-producers and -consumers. So far, there is no method developed to clearly distinguish the contributions of cytoplasmatic barriers and MOM to the overall diffusion restriction. Furthermore, the number of <span class="hlt">open</span> VDACs in vivo remains unknown. The aim of this work was to establish the partitioning of intracellular diffusion obstacles in cardiomyocytes. We studied the response of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation of permeabilized rat cardiomyocytes to changes in extracellular ADP by recording 3D image stacks of NADH autofluorescence. Using cell-specific mathematical models, we determined the permeability of MOM and cytoplasmatic barriers. We found that only ~2% of VDACs are accessible to cytosolic ADP and cytoplasmatic diffusion barriers reduce the apparent diffusion coefficient by 6-10×. In cardiomyocytes, diffusion barriers in the cytoplasm and by the MOM restrict ADP/ATP diffusion to similar extents suggesting a major role of both barriers in energy transfer and other intracellular processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24332241','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24332241"><span>Ibrutinib as initial therapy for elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or <span class="hlt">small</span> lymphocytic lymphoma: an <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, multicentre, phase 1b/2 trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Brien, Susan; Furman, Richard R; Coutre, Steven E; Sharman, Jeff P; Burger, Jan A; Blum, Kristie A; Grant, Barbara; Richards, Donald A; Coleman, Morton; Wierda, William G; Jones, Jeffrey A; Zhao, Weiqiang; Heerema, Nyla A; Johnson, Amy J; Izumi, Raquel; Hamdy, Ahmed; Chang, Betty Y; Graef, Thorsten; Clow, Fong; Buggy, Joseph J; James, Danelle F; Byrd, John C</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Chemoimmunotherapy has led to improved numbers of patients achieving disease response, and longer overall survival in young patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; however, its application in elderly patients has been restricted by substantial myelosuppression and infection. We aimed to assess safety and activity of ibrutinib, an orally administered covalent inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), in treatment-naive patients aged 65 years and older with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. In our <span class="hlt">open</span>-label phase 1b/2 trial, we enrolled previously untreated patients at clinical sites in the USA. Eligible patients were aged at least 65 years, and had symptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or <span class="hlt">small</span> lymphocytic lymphoma requiring therapy. Patients received 28 day cycles of once-daily ibrutinib 420 mg or ibrutinib 840 mg. The 840 mg dose was discontinued after enrolment had begun because comparable activity of the doses has been shown. The primary endpoint was the safety of the dose-fixed regimen in terms of frequency and severity of adverse events for all patients who received treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01105247. Between May 20, 2010, and Dec 18, 2012, we enrolled 29 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and two patients with <span class="hlt">small</span> lymphocytic lymphoma. Median age was 71 years (range 65-84), and 23 (74%) patients were at least 70 years old. Toxicity was mainly of mild-to-moderate severity (grade 1-2). 21 (68%) patients had diarrhoea (grade 1 in 14 [45%] patients, grade 2 in three [10%] patients, and grade 3 in four [13%] patients). 15 (48%) patients developed nausea (grade 1 in 12 [39%] patients and grade 2 in three [10%] patients). Ten (32%) patients developed fatigue (grade 1 in five [16%] patients, grade 2 in four [13%] patients, and grade 3 in one [3%] patient). Three (10%) patients developed grade 3 infections, although no grade 4 or 5 infections occurred. One patient developed grade 3 neutropenia, and one</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14521102','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14521102"><span>The real new <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farrell, Diana</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new <span class="hlt">economy</span>--the real new <span class="hlt">economy</span>--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale <span class="hlt">economies</span>--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/925180','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/925180"><span>Fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of hybrid fuel cell vehicles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ahluwalia, R.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The potential improvement in fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> with hybridization is <span class="hlt">small</span> but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1133094','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1133094"><span>The Methanol <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Olah, George; Prakash, G. K.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The Methanol <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO<sub>2</sub> capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO<sub>2</sub> and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO<sub>2</sub> and H<sub>2</sub>, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5957344','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5957344"><span>Research fuels local <span class="hlt">economies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bosisio, M. )</p> <p>1990-04-01</p> <p>Research from US DOA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has resulted in a number of new products, alternative crops, and an increase in planted acreage of crops due to pest control by pheromones. Superslurper, produced from cornstarch, was found to absorb 1400 times its weight in moisture. This material is being used in fuel filters to remove water in fuel tanks and pumps. There is a growing market for these filters; superslurpers also are used in body powders, diapers, absorbent soft goods, batteries, soil additives, and in medical and recreational coldpacks. Local <span class="hlt">economies</span> have benefited as a direct result of ARS efforts.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA530407','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA530407"><span>Defense Spending and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-02-04</p> <p>DEFENSE SPENDING AND THE <span class="hlt">ECONOMY</span> Statement of Alice M. Rivlin, Director Congressional Budget Office Before the Committee on Armed Services U.S. House...and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span> 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...keeping the unemployment rate high and the <span class="hlt">economy</span> operating below capacity at least through 1984. The CBO forecast projects a continued significant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5768585','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5768585"><span>Oil and the British <span class="hlt">economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Atkinson, F.; Hall, S.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Despite the 1976 discovery of North Sea oil, the British <span class="hlt">economy</span> has floundered in the early 1980s. To uncover the reasons behind this predicament, the authors examine the North Sea oil sector, show the impact of its recent development on the British <span class="hlt">economy</span>, and analyze the automatic responses of an <span class="hlt">economy</span> to the development of such a new sector, the ''Kay debate,'' and the experience of six other countries with oil and the manufacturing industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24614643','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24614643"><span>Monte Carlo simulation of <span class="hlt">small</span> <span class="hlt">Open</span>PET prototype with (11)C beam irradiation: effects of secondary particles on in-beam imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Kinouchi, Shoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadma, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga</p> <p>2014-04-07</p> <p>In-beam positron emission tomography (PET) can enable visualization of an irradiated field using positron emitters (β+ decay). In particle therapies, many kinds of secondary particles are produced by nuclear interactions, which affect PET imaging. Our purpose in this work was to evaluate effects of secondary particles on in-beam PET imaging using the Monte Carlo simulation code, Geant4, by reproducing an experiment with a <span class="hlt">small</span> <span class="hlt">Open</span>PET prototype in which a PMMA phantom was irradiated by a (11)C beam. The number of incident particles to the detectors and their spectra, background coincidence for the PET scan, and reconstructed images were evaluated for three periods, spill-time (beam irradiation), pause-time (accelerating the particles) and beam-off time (duration after the final spill). For spill-time, we tested a background reduction technique in which coincidence events correlated with the accelerator radiofrequency were discarded (RF gated) that has been proposed in the literature. Also, background generation processes were identified. For spill-time, most background coincidences were caused by prompt gamma rays, and only 1.4% of the total coincidences generated β+ signals. Differently, for pause-time and beam-off time, more than 75% of the total coincidence events were signals. Using these coincidence events, we failed to reconstruct images during the spill-time, but we obtained successful reconstructions for the pause-time and beam-off time, which was consistent with the experimental results. From the simulation, we found that the absence of materials in the beam line and using the RF gated technique improved the signal-to-noise ratio for the spill-time. From an additional simulation with range shifter-less irradiation and the RF gated technique, we showed the feasibility of image reconstruction during the spill-time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1215416-high-open-circuit-voltage-small-molecule-dts-fbtth-icba-bulk-heterojunction-solar-cells-morphology-excited-state-dynamics-photovoltaic-performance','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1215416-high-open-circuit-voltage-small-molecule-dts-fbtth-icba-bulk-heterojunction-solar-cells-morphology-excited-state-dynamics-photovoltaic-performance"><span>High <span class="hlt">open</span>-circuit voltage <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecule p-DTS(FBTTh 2 )2.ICBA bulk heterojunction solar cells – morphology, excited-state dynamics, and photovoltaic performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Ko Kyaw, Aung Ko; Gehrig, Dominik; Zhang, Jie; ...</p> <p>2014-11-27</p> <p>The photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using the solution-processable <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule donor 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 in combination with indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA) as an acceptor is systematically optimized by altering the processing conditions. A high <span class="hlt">open</span>-circuit voltage of 1 V, more than 0.2 V higher than that of a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM blend, is achieved. However, the power conversion efficiency remains around 5% and thus is lower than ~8% previously reported for p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM. Transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy over a wide spectral (Vis-NIR) and dynamic (fs to μs) range in combination with multivariate curve resolution analysis of the TA data reveals thatmore » generation of free charges is more efficient in the blend with PC70BM as an acceptor. In contrast, blends with ICBA create more coulombically bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states, which recombine on the sub-nanosecond timescale by geminate recombination. Furthermore, the ns to μs charge carrier dynamics in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:ICBA blends are only weakly intensity dependent implying a significant contribution of recombination from long-lived CT states and trapped charges, while those in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM decay via an intensity-dependent recombination mechanism indicating that spatially separated (free) charge carriers are observed, which can be extracted as photocurrent from the device.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25882778','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25882778"><span>Randomized, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label trial evaluating the preventive effect of tetracycline on afatinib induced-skin toxicities in non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arrieta, Oscar; Vega-González, María Teresa; López-Macías, Diego; Martínez-Hernández, Jorge Negueb; Bacon-Fonseca, Ludwing; Macedo-Pérez, Eleazar Omar; Ramírez-Tirado, Laura Alejandra; Flores-Estrada, Diana; de la Garza-Salazar, Jaime</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Afatinib has shown long progression free survival and improvement in quality of life in advanced Non-<span class="hlt">Small</span> Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients. Although afatinib causes acneiform rash, it can be manageable. Tetracyclines are usually used to treat it; nonetheless, there is no trial that evaluates their prophylactic efficacy on afatinib induced-skin toxicities (AIST). This <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, randomized, controlled trial assessed the preventive effect of tetracycline for reducing afatinib-skin toxicities in NSCLC patients receiving afatinib 40 mg/day. Patients were randomly assigned to receive pre-emptive treatment with tetracycline 250 mg every 12h for 4 weeks or not. Reactive treatment in both groups included general dermatological recommendations such as use of skin moisturizers, sunscreen and topical steroids, according to toxicity severity. All patients were blindly monitored for skin toxicities by an expert dermatologist at the start of treatment with afatinib (day 0), weeks 2 and 4 of treatment. The protocol is registered on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01880515). We included 90 patients, no differences were found in clinical and dermatological baseline characteristics. Rash incidence of any grade, and grade ≥2 was less frequent in the pre-emptive arm vs. the control arm (44.5 vs. 75.6%, RR 0.4 [95% CI 0.17-0.99], p=0.046 and 15.6 vs. 35.6%, RR 0.35 [95% CI, 0.12-0.91], p=0.030, respectively). No difference was found in paronychia, xerosis, mucositis, folliculitis, and skin fissure. No adverse event was associated with tetracycline. Neither rash nor pre-emptive tetracycline impacted on response rate, progression-free or overall survivals. Pre-emptive tetracycline was well tolerated and reduced the rash incidence and severity associated with afatinib in more than 60%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PMB....59.1623H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PMB....59.1623H"><span>Monte Carlo simulation of <span class="hlt">small</span> <span class="hlt">Open</span>PET prototype with 11C beam irradiation: effects of secondary particles on in-beam imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Kinouchi, Shoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadma, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>In-beam positron emission tomography (PET) can enable visualization of an irradiated field using positron emitters (β+ decay). In particle therapies, many kinds of secondary particles are produced by nuclear interactions, which affect PET imaging. Our purpose in this work was to evaluate effects of secondary particles on in-beam PET imaging using the Monte Carlo simulation code, Geant4, by reproducing an experiment with a <span class="hlt">small</span> <span class="hlt">Open</span>PET prototype in which a PMMA phantom was irradiated by a 11C beam. The number of incident particles to the detectors and their spectra, background coincidence for the PET scan, and reconstructed images were evaluated for three periods, spill-time (beam irradiation), pause-time (accelerating the particles) and beam-off time (duration after the final spill). For spill-time, we tested a background reduction technique in which coincidence events correlated with the accelerator radiofrequency were discarded (RF gated) that has been proposed in the literature. Also, background generation processes were identified. For spill-time, most background coincidences were caused by prompt gamma rays, and only 1.4% of the total coincidences generated β+ signals. Differently, for pause-time and beam-off time, more than 75% of the total coincidence events were signals. Using these coincidence events, we failed to reconstruct images during the spill-time, but we obtained successful reconstructions for the pause-time and beam-off time, which was consistent with the experimental results. From the simulation, we found that the absence of materials in the beam line and using the RF gated technique improved the signal-to-noise ratio for the spill-time. From an additional simulation with range shifter-less irradiation and the RF gated technique, we showed the feasibility of image reconstruction during the spill-time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMB....61.1875H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMB....61.1875H"><span>Washout rate in rat brain irradiated by a 11C beam after acetazolamide loading using a <span class="hlt">small</span> single-ring <span class="hlt">Open</span>PET prototype</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Nakajima, Yasunori; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Yamaya, Taiga</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In dose verification techniques of particle therapies based on in-beam positron emission tomography (PET), the causes of washout of positron emitters by physiological effects should be clarified to correct washout for accurate verification. As well, the quantitative washout rate has a potential usefulness as a diagnostic index which should be explored. Therefore, we measured washout rates of rat brain after vasodilator acetazolamide loading to investigate the possible effects of blood flow on washout. Six rat brains were irradiated by a radioisotope 11C beam and time activity curves on the whole brains were obtained with a <span class="hlt">small</span> single-ring <span class="hlt">Open</span>PET prototype. Then, washout rates were calculated with the Mizuno model, where two washout rates (k 2m and k 2s ) were assumed, and a two-compartment model including efflux from tissue to blood (k 2) and influx (k 3) and efflux (k 4) between the two tissue compartments. Before the irradiations, we used laser-Doppler flowmetry to confirm that acetazolamide increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) of a rat. We compared means of k 2m , k 2s and k 2, k 3 and k 4 without acetazolamide loading (Rest) and with acetazolamide loading (ACZ). For all k values, ACZ values were lower than Rest values. In other words, though CBF increased, washout rates were decreased. This may be attributed to the implanted 11C reacting to form 11CO2. Because acetazolamide increased the concentration of CO2 in brain, suppressed diffusion of 11CO2 and decomposition of 11CO2 into ions were prevented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=developing+AND+budget+AND+company&id=EJ705091','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=developing+AND+budget+AND+company&id=EJ705091"><span><span class="hlt">Open</span> Access Alternatives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tenopir, Carol</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Open</span> access publishing is a hot topic today. But <span class="hlt">open</span> access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. <span class="hlt">Open</span> access publishing is especially attractive to companies and <span class="hlt">small</span> colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12884672','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12884672"><span>Thriving locally in the global <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kanter, Rosabeth Moss</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>More and more <span class="hlt">small</span> and midsize companies are joining corporate giants in striving to exploit international growth markets. At the same time, civic leaders worry about their communities' economic future in light of the impact of global forces on the operation and survival of business. How can communities retain local vitality yet still link their business to the global <span class="hlt">economy</span>? Harvard professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter addresses that question in this classic HBR article, orginally published in 1995. To avoid a clash between international economic interests and local political interests, globalizing business must learn how to be responsive to the communities in which they operate, Kanter says. And communities must determine how to create a civic culture that will attract and retain footloose companies. The author surveyed five U.S. regions with direct connections to the global <span class="hlt">economy</span>--Boston, Cleveland, Miami, Seattle, and the Spartanburg-Greenville region of South Carolina--to determine their business and civic leader's strategies for improving their constituent's quality of life. She identified ways in which the global <span class="hlt">economy</span> can work locally by capitalizing on the resources that distinguish one place from another. Kanter argues that regions can invest in capabilities that connect their local populations to the global <span class="hlt">economy</span> in one of three ways: as thinkers, makers, or traders. She points to the Spartanburg-Greenville region as a good example of a world-class makers, with its exceptional blue-collar workforce that has attracted more than 200 companies from 18 countries. The history of the economic development of this region is a lesson for those seeking to understand how to achieve world-class status and bring local residents into the world <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4134524','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4134524"><span>Ibrutinib as initial therapy for elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or <span class="hlt">small</span> lymphocytic lymphoma: an <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, multicentre, phase 1b/2 trial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>O’Brien, Susan; Furman, Richard R; Coutre, Steven E; Sharman, Jeff P; Burger, Jan A; Blum, Kristie A; Grant, Barbara; Richards, Donald A; Coleman, Morton; Wierda, William G; Jones, Jeffrey A; Zhao, Weiqiang; Heerema, Nyla A; Johnson, Amy J; Izumi, Raquel; Hamdy, Ahmed; Chang, Betty Y; Graef, Thorsten; Clow, Fong; Buggy, Joseph J; James, Danelle F; Byrd, John C</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Summary Background Chemoimmunotherapy has led to improved numbers of patients achieving disease response, and longer overall survival in young patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; however, its application in elderly patients has been restricted by substantial myelosuppression and infection. We aimed to assess safety and activity of ibrutinib, an orally administered covalent inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), in treatment-naive patients aged 65 years and older with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Methods In our <span class="hlt">open</span>-label phase 1b/2 trial, we enrolled previously untreated patients at clinical sites in the USA. Eligible patients were aged at least 65 years, and had symptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or <span class="hlt">small</span> lymphocytic lymphoma requiring therapy. Patients received 28 day cycles of once-daily ibrutinib 420 mg or ibrutinib 840 mg. The 840 mg dose was discontinued after enrolment had begun because comparable activity of the doses has been shown. The primary endpoint was the safety of the dose-fixed regimen in terms of frequency and severity of adverse events for all patients who received treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01105247. Findings Between May 20, 2010, and Dec 18, 2012, we enrolled 29 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and two patients with <span class="hlt">small</span> lymphocytic lymphoma. Median age was 71 years (range 65–84), and 23 (74%) patients were at least 70 years old. Toxicity was mainly of mild-to-moderate severity (grade 1–2). 21 (68%) patients had diarrhoea (grade 1 in 14 [45%] patients, grade 2 in three [10%] patients, and grade 3 in four [13%] patients). 15 (48%) patients developed nausea (grade 1 in 12 [39%] patients and grade 2 in three [10%] patients). Ten (32%) patients developed fatigue (grade 1 in five [16%] patients, grade 2 in four [13%] patients, and grade 3 in one [3%] patient). Three (10%) patients developed grade 3 infections, although no grade 4 or 5 infections occurred. One patient</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28501140','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28501140"><span>Alectinib versus crizotinib in patients with ALK-positive non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer (J-ALEX): an <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, randomised phase 3 trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hida, Toyoaki; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Kondo, Masashi; Kim, Young Hak; Azuma, Koichi; Seto, Takashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Nishio, Makoto; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Imamura, Fumio; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Watanabe, Satoshi; Goto, Koichi; Satouchi, Miyako; Kozuki, Toshiyuki; Shukuya, Takehito; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Asakawa, Takashi; Asabe, Ryoichi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Tamura, Tomohide</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Alectinib, a potent, highly selective, CNS-active inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), showed promising efficacy and tolerability in the single-arm phase 1/2 AF-001JP trial in Japanese patients with ALK-positive non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer. Given those promising results, we did a phase 3 trial to directly compare the efficacy and safety of alectinib and crizotinib. J-ALEX was a randomised, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, phase 3 trial that recruited ALK inhibitor-naive Japanese patients with ALK-positive non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer, who were chemotherapy-naive or had received one previous chemotherapy regimen, from 41 study sites in Japan. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via an interactive web response system using a permuted-block method stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, treatment line, and disease stage to receive oral alectinib 300 mg twice daily or crizotinib 250 mg twice daily until progressive disease, unacceptable toxicity, death, or withdrawal. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival assessed by an independent review facility. The efficacy analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population, and safety analyses were done in all patients who received at least one dose of the study drug. The study is ongoing and patient recruitment is closed. This study is registered with the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center (number JapicCTI-132316). Between Nov 18, 2013, and Aug 4, 2015, 207 patients were recruited and assigned to the alectinib (n=103) or crizotinib (n=104) groups. At data cutoff for the second interim analysis, 24 patients in the alectinib group had discontinued treatment compared with 61 in the crizotinib group, mostly due to lack of efficacy or adverse events. At the second interim analysis (data cutoff date Dec 3, 2015), an independent data monitoring committee determined that the primary endpoint of the study had been met (hazard ratio 0·34 [99·7% CI 0·17-0·71], stratified log-rank p<0·0001) and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA486562','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA486562"><span>The North Korean <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: Leverage and Policy Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-08-26</p> <p>States and South Korea. The DPRK has embarked on a program of limited economic reforms that include allowing <span class="hlt">open</span> markets , allowing prices to better...reflect market values, reducing dependence on rationing of essential commodities, trimming centralized control over factory operations, and <span class="hlt">opening</span> areas...rapid growth and trade liberalization to China, Thailand, Malaysia and other Asian nations. The “Stalinist” North Korean <span class="hlt">economy</span> can be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=grows+AND+market&pg=7&id=ED566290','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=grows+AND+market&pg=7&id=ED566290"><span><span class="hlt">Economy</span>, Academy, and Community College Faculty: A Mission Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Richardson, Mary Melissa</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In the face of 21st century economic challenges, community colleges must contend with complex pressures on their mission. The dueling missions of academic transfer and workforce preparation must sustain and grow the American <span class="hlt">economy</span> in a global market and simultaneously meet the promise to community college students--<span class="hlt">open</span> access to quality higher…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=effects+AND+economy+AND+academic&pg=5&id=ED566290','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=effects+AND+economy+AND+academic&pg=5&id=ED566290"><span><span class="hlt">Economy</span>, Academy, and Community College Faculty: A Mission Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Richardson, Mary Melissa</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In the face of 21st century economic challenges, community colleges must contend with complex pressures on their mission. The dueling missions of academic transfer and workforce preparation must sustain and grow the American <span class="hlt">economy</span> in a global market and simultaneously meet the promise to community college students--<span class="hlt">open</span> access to quality higher…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007LNCS.4886..239T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007LNCS.4886..239T"><span>Virtual <span class="hlt">Economies</span>: Threats and Risks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thorpe, Christopher; Hammer, Jessica; Camp, Jean; Callas, Jon; Bond, Mike</p> <p></p> <p>In virtual <span class="hlt">economies</span>, human and computer players produce goods and services, hold assets, and trade them with other in-game entities, in the same way that people and corporations participate in "real-world" <span class="hlt">economies</span>. As the border between virtual worlds and the real world grows more and more permeable, privacy and security in virtual worlds matter more and more.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27816061','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27816061"><span>Political <span class="hlt">economy</span> challenges in nutrition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balarajan, Yarlini; Reich, Michael R</p> <p>2016-11-05</p> <p>Historically, implementing nutrition policy has confronted persistent obstacles, with many of these obstacles arising from political <span class="hlt">economy</span> sources. While there has been increased global policy attention to improving nutrition in recent years, the difficulty of translating this policy momentum into results remains. We present key political <span class="hlt">economy</span> themes emanating from the political <span class="hlt">economy</span> of nutrition literature. Together, these interrelated themes create a complex web of obstacles to moving nutrition policy forward. From these themes, we frame six political <span class="hlt">economy</span> challenges facing the implementation of nutrition policy today. Building awareness of the broader political and economic issues that shape nutrition actions and adopting a more systematic approach to political <span class="hlt">economy</span> analysis may help to mitigate these challenges. Improving nutrition will require managing the political <span class="hlt">economy</span> challenges that persist in the nutrition field at global, national and subnational levels. We argue that a "mindshift" is required to build greater awareness of the broader political <span class="hlt">economy</span> factors shaping the global nutrition landscape; and to embed systematic political <span class="hlt">economy</span> analysis into the work of stakeholders navigating this field. This mindshift may help to improve the political feasibility of efforts to reform nutrition policy and implementation-and ensure that historical legacies do not continue to shape the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/fueleconomy/fuel-economy-testing-and-data','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/fueleconomy/fuel-economy-testing-and-data"><span>Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Testing and Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA’s Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> pages provide information on current standards and how federal agencies work to enforce those laws, testing for national Corporate Average Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> or CAFE standards, and what you can do to reduce your own vehicle emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=token+AND+economy&pg=4&id=EJ105598','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=token+AND+economy&pg=4&id=EJ105598"><span>Why Classroom Token <span class="hlt">Economies</span> Fail</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Drabman, Ronald S.; Tucker, Richard D.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The reasons for clinical failures of classroom token <span class="hlt">economies</span> are divided into three groups: (1) Problems associated with the token program itself, (2) Problems associated with the teacher, and (3) Problems associated with the specific population on which the classroom token <span class="hlt">economy</span> is used. Each of these problem areas is discussed. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED507823.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED507823.pdf"><span>Can Education Save the <span class="hlt">Economy</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Van Noy, Michelle; Zeidenberg, Matthew</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The recent global economic downturn is causing U.S. workers and employers to look to the educational system for skills that will allow them to thrive when the <span class="hlt">economy</span> recovers. Education alone cannot save the <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Much larger forces are at work, such as international equity and debt markets, the banking crisis, and the deflation of consumer …</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5006181','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5006181"><span>Dabrafenib in BRAF V600E–Mutant Advanced Non-<span class="hlt">Small</span> Cell Lung Cancer: an <span class="hlt">Open</span>-label, Single arm, Multicenter, Phase 2 Trial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Planchard, David; Kim, Tae Min; Mazieres, Julien; Quoix, Elisabeth; Riely, Gregory; Barlesi, Fabrice; Souquet, Pierre-John; Smit, Egbert F.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Kelly, Ronan J.; Cho, B. C.; Socinski, Mark A.; Pandite, Lini; Nase, Christine; Ma, Bo; D’Amelio, Anthony; Mookerjee, Bijoyesh; Curtis, C. Martin; Johnson, Bruce E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Activating BRAF V600E mutations are found in approximately 1–2% of adenocarcinomas of the lung offering an opportunity to test targeted therapy for this disease. Dabrafenib is an oral selective inhibitor of the BRAF kinase. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical activity of dabrafenib in patients with advanced BRAF V600E-mutant non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods In this phase 2, multicenter, nonrandomized, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label study of previously treated and untreated patients with stage IV, metastatic NSCLC and BRAF V600E mutation, we evaluated the antitumor activity and safety of oral dabrafenib (150 mg twice daily). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed overall response rate (ORR) in patients receiving ≥ 1 dose of study drug. Safety analysis was performed on the all-treated population (all previously treated and untreated patients receiving ≥ 1 dose of study drug). The study is ongoing but not enrolling participants in this cohort. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01336634. Findings Between August 2011 and February 2014 a total of 84 previously treated and untreated patients were enrolled. Investigator-assessed ORR for 78 pretreated patients was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23·1 to 44·9). Independent review committee assessment of ORR was consistent with investigator-based assessment. Four of the six previously untreated patients had an objective response. One patient died on study due to intracranial hemorrhage that was considered by the investigator to be due to study drug. Serious adverse events were reported in 35 (42%) of 84 patients. The most frequent grade 3 or higher adverse events were cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (10 [12%] of 84 patients), asthenia (4 [5%] of 84 patients), and basal cell carcinoma (4 [5%] of 84 patients). Interpretation This is, to our knowledge, the first prospective trial focusing on BRAF V600E-mutant NSCLC to show clinical activity of a BRAF inhibitor. The</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27979383','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27979383"><span>Atezolizumab versus docetaxel in patients with previously treated non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer (OAK): a phase 3, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, multicentre randomised controlled trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rittmeyer, Achim; Barlesi, Fabrice; Waterkamp, Daniel; Park, Keunchil; Ciardiello, Fortunato; von Pawel, Joachim; Gadgeel, Shirish M; Hida, Toyoaki; Kowalski, Dariusz M; Dols, Manuel Cobo; Cortinovis, Diego L; Leach, Joseph; Polikoff, Jonathan; Barrios, Carlos; Kabbinavar, Fairooz; Frontera, Osvaldo Arén; De Marinis, Filippo; Turna, Hande; Lee, Jong-Seok; Ballinger, Marcus; Kowanetz, Marcin; He, Pei; Chen, Daniel S; Sandler, Alan; Gandara, David R</p> <p>2017-01-21</p> <p>Atezolizumab is a humanised antiprogrammed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibody that inhibits PD-L1 and programmed death-1 (PD-1) and PD-L1 and B7-1 interactions, reinvigorating anticancer immunity. We assessed its efficacy and safety versus docetaxel in previously treated patients with non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer. We did a randomised, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, phase 3 trial (OAK) in 194 academic or community oncology centres in 31 countries. We enrolled patients who had squamous or non-squamous non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer, were 18 years or older, had measurable disease per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Patients had received one to two previous cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens (one or more platinum based combination therapies) for stage IIIB or IV non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer. Patients with a history of autoimmune disease and those who had received previous treatments with docetaxel, CD137 agonists, anti-CTLA4, or therapies targeting the PD-L1 and PD-1 pathway were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to intravenously receive either atezolizumab 1200 mg or docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks by permuted block randomisation (block size of eight) via an interactive voice or web response system. Coprimary endpoints were overall survival in the intention-to-treat (ITT) and PD-L1-expression population TC1/2/3 or IC1/2/3 (≥1% PD-L1 on tumour cells or tumour-infiltrating immune cells). The primary efficacy analysis was done in the first 850 of 1225 enrolled patients. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02008227. Between March 11, 2014, and April 29, 2015, 1225 patients were recruited. In the primary population, 425 patients were randomly assigned to receive atezolizumab and 425 patients were assigned to receive docetaxel. Overall survival was significantly longer with atezolizumab in the ITT and PD-L1-expression populations. In the ITT population, overall</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12285413','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12285413"><span>Fertility and the <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Becker, G S</p> <p>1992-08-01</p> <p>Fertility and the <span class="hlt">economy</span> is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects fertility in the next. Malthusian and neoclassical models do not capture the current model of modern <span class="hlt">economies</span> with rising income/capita and human and physical capital, extensive involvement of married women in the labor force, and declining fertility to very low levels. In spite of the present advances in firm knowledge about the relationships between fertility and economic and social variables, there is still much greater ignorance of the interactions. The Malthusian utility function that says fertility rises and falls with income did hold up to 2 centuries of scrutiny, and the Malthusian inclusion of the shifting tastes in his analysis could be translated in the modern context to include price of children. The inclusion of net cost has significant consequences, i.e., rural fertility can be higher because the cost of rearing when children contribute work to maintaining the farm is lower than in the city. An income tax deduction for children in the US reduces cost. Economic growth raises the cost of children due the time spent on child care becoming more valuable. The modern context has changed from Malthusian time, and the cost of education, training, and medical care is relevant. The implication is that a rise in income could reduce the demand for children when</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/762792','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/762792"><span>Whole System Carbon Exchange of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Stands of Pinus Ponderosa Growing at Different CO{sub 2} concentrations in <span class="hlt">open</span> top chambers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ball, J. Timothy; Ross, Peter D.; Picone, John B.; Eichelmann, Hillar Y.; Ross, Gregory N.</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>Functional understanding of the carbon cycle from the molecular to the global level is a high scientific priority requiring explanation of the relationship between fluxes at different spatial and temporal scales. We describe methods used to convert an <span class="hlt">open</span> top chamber into both closed and <span class="hlt">open</span> flow gas exchange systems utilized to measure such fluxes. The systems described consist of temporary modifications to an <span class="hlt">open</span> top chamber, and are put in place for several days on one or several <span class="hlt">open</span> top chambers. In the closed system approach, a chamber is quickly sealed for a short, predetermined time interval, the change in gas concentrations is measured, then the chamber is unsealed and ventilated. In the <span class="hlt">open</span> flow system approach, airflow into the <span class="hlt">open</span> top chamber is measured by trace gas injection, and the air stream concentration of CO{sub 2} and water vapor is measured before and after injection into the chamber. The closed chamber approach can resolve smaller fluxes, but causes transient increases in chamber air temperature, and has a high labor requirement. The <span class="hlt">open</span> flow approach reduces the deviation of measuring conditions from ambient, may be semi-automated (requiring less labor), allows a more frequent sampling interval, but cannot resolve low fluxes well. Data demonstrating the capabilities of these systems show that, in <span class="hlt">open</span> canopies of ponderosa pine, scaling fluxes from leaves to whole canopies is well approximated from summation of leaf P{sub s} rates. Flux measurements obtained from these systems can be a valuable contribution to our understanding whole system material fluxes, and challenge our understanding of ecosystem carbon budgets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25505367','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25505367"><span>Resource Use in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Island States: Material Flows in Iceland and Trinidad and Tobago, 1961-2008.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krausmann, Fridolin; Richter, Regina; Eisenmenger, Nina</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Iceland and Trinidad and Tobago are <span class="hlt">small</span> <span class="hlt">open</span>, high-income island <span class="hlt">economies</span> with very specific resource-use patterns. This article presents a material flow analysis (MFA) for the two countries covering a time period of nearly five decades. Both countries have a narrow domestic resource base, their <span class="hlt">economy</span> being largely based on the exploitation of one or two key resources for export production. In the case of Trinidad and Tobago, the physical <span class="hlt">economy</span> is dominated by oil and natural gas extraction and petrochemical industries, whereas Iceland's <span class="hlt">economy</span> for centuries has been based on fisheries. More recently, abundant hydropower and geothermal heat were the basis for the establishment of large export-oriented metal processing industries, which fully depend on imported raw materials and make use of domestic renewable electricity. Both countries are highly dependent on these natural resources and vulnerable to overexploitation and price developments. We show how the export-oriented industries lead to high and growing levels of per capita material and energy use and carbon dioxide emissions resulting from large amounts of processing wastes and energy consumption in production processes. The example of <span class="hlt">small</span> <span class="hlt">open</span> <span class="hlt">economies</span> with an industrial production system focused on few, but abundant, key resources and of comparatively low complexity provides interesting insights of how resource endowment paired with availability or absence of infrastructure and specific institutional arrangements drives domestic resource-use patterns. This also contributes to a better understanding and interpretation of MFA indicators, such as domestic material consumption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1120311.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1120311.pdf"><span>Learning for Development from within and beyond the Reef: Early Implementations of <span class="hlt">Open</span> Distance Learning and Use of <span class="hlt">Open</span> Educational Resources (OER) for the Teaching of English in a <span class="hlt">Small</span> Island State</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kruse Vaái, Emma</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The following article examines the beginnings of <span class="hlt">open</span> distance learning and use of OER by the National University of Samoa Faculty of Education to address an identified national need for more teachers and to improve their quality. It highlights related challenges in the training of teachers and how different and new modes of learning are not…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTB...47.3194R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTB...47.3194R"><span>Digitalizing the Circular <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reuter, Markus A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Metallurgy is a key enabler of a circular <span class="hlt">economy</span> (CE), its digitalization is the metallurgical Internet of Things (m-IoT). In short: Metallurgy is at the heart of a CE, as metals all have strong intrinsic recycling potentials. Process metallurgy, as a key enabler for a CE, will help much to deliver its goals. The first-principles models of process engineering help quantify the resource efficiency (RE) of the CE system, connecting all stakeholders via digitalization. This provides well-argued and first-principles environmental information to empower a tax paying consumer society, policy, legislators, and environmentalists. It provides the details of capital expenditure and operational expenditure estimates. Through this path, the opportunities and limits of a CE, recycling, and its technology can be estimated. The true boundaries of sustainability can be determined in addition to the techno-economic evaluation of RE. The integration of metallurgical reactor technology and systems digitally, not only on one site but linking different sites globally via hardware, is the basis for describing CE systems as dynamic feedback control loops, i.e., the m-IoT. It is the linkage of the global carrier metallurgical processing system infrastructure that maximizes the recovery of all minor and technology elements in its associated refining metallurgical infrastructure. This will be illustrated through the following: (1) System optimization models for multimetal metallurgical processing. These map large-scale m-IoT systems linked to computer-aided design tools of the original equipment manufacturers and then establish a recycling index through the quantification of RE. (2) Reactor optimization and industrial system solutions to realize the "CE (within a) Corporation—CEC," realizing the CE of society. (3) Real-time measurement of ore and scrap properties in intelligent plant structures, linked to the modeling, simulation, and optimization of industrial extractive process</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=broadcast+AND+design&pg=4&id=ED114105','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=broadcast+AND+design&pg=4&id=ED114105"><span>The <span class="hlt">Open</span> University <span class="hlt">Opens</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tunstall, Jeremy, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>Conceived by the British Labor Government in the 1960's the <span class="hlt">Open</span> University was viewed as a way to extend higher education to Britain's working class, but enrollment figures in classes that represent traditional academic disciplines show that the student population is predominantly middle class. Bringing education into the home presents numerous…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA490094','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA490094"><span>NAFTA and the Mexican <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-11-04</p> <p>their social and economic environment. The study states that NAFTA accelerated the transition of Mexico to a liberalized <span class="hlt">economy</span> but did not create the...Trade Agreement (NAFTA), in effect since January 1994, plays a very strong role in the bilateral economic relationship between Mexico and the United...health issues. The effects of NAFTA on Mexico and the state of the Mexican <span class="hlt">economy</span> have important impacts on U.S. economic and political interests. As</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA530715','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA530715"><span>Defense Spending and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1983-12-07</p> <p>DEFENSE SPENDING AND THE <span class="hlt">ECONOMY</span> Rudolph G. Penner Director Congressional Budget Office Before the Task Force on Economic Policy and Growth...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Spending and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span> 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Administration budgets have proposed even more defense spending and less nondefense spending than provided in the resolution. Additional emphasis on defense</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=profitability&id=EJ1069962','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=profitability&id=EJ1069962"><span>For a Political <span class="hlt">Economy</span> of Massive <span class="hlt">Open</span> Online Courses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hall, Richard</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In understanding the changes that are impacting the global higher education sector, developing a critique of the relationships between technology and technological innovation, new managerialism and financialisation, and the impact of the secular crisis of global capitalism is critical. Moreover, it is important to critique these changes…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=practices+AND+sociability&id=EJ1069962','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=practices+AND+sociability&id=EJ1069962"><span>For a Political <span class="hlt">Economy</span> of Massive <span class="hlt">Open</span> Online Courses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hall, Richard</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In understanding the changes that are impacting the global higher education sector, developing a critique of the relationships between technology and technological innovation, new managerialism and financialisation, and the impact of the secular crisis of global capitalism is critical. Moreover, it is important to critique these changes…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ909878.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ909878.pdf"><span>Designing Corporate Training in Developing <span class="hlt">Economies</span> Using <span class="hlt">Open</span> Educational Resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Geith, Chris; Vignare, Karen; Bourquin, Leslie D.; Thiagarajan, Deepa</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Food Safety Knowledge Network (FSKN) is a collaboration between Michigan State University, the Global Food Safety Initiative of the Consumer Goods Forum, and other food industry and public sector partners. FSKN's goal is to help strengthen the food industry's response to the complex food safety knowledge and training challenges that affect…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA539258','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA539258"><span>Implementation of an <span class="hlt">Open</span>-Loop Rule-Based Control Strategy for a Hybrid-Electric Propulsion System On a <span class="hlt">Small</span> RPA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>ix List of Figures Figure 1: Series hybrid configuration [12... Electromotive Force (V) Um Electric Motor <span class="hlt">Open</span> Circuit Voltage (V) u Clutch Displacement Angle (rad) Vbat Battery Voltage (V) Vd Cylinder Displacement...of three areas: series hybrid, parallel hybrid, and the power-split hybrid. A great number of these designs incorporate the gasoline internal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4795964','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4795964"><span>Older Runners Retain Youthful Running <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Despite Biomechanical Differences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Beck, Owen N.; Kipp, Shalaya; Roby, Jaclyn M.; Grabowski, Alena M.; Kram, Rodger; Ortega, Justus D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose Sixty-five years of age typically marks the onset of impaired walking <span class="hlt">economy</span>. However, running <span class="hlt">economy</span> has not been assessed beyond the age of 65 years. Furthermore, a critical determinant of running <span class="hlt">economy</span> is the spring-like storage and return of elastic energy from the leg during stance, which is related to leg stiffness. Therefore, we investigated whether runners over the age of 65 years retain youthful running <span class="hlt">economy</span> and/or leg stiffness across running speeds. Methods Fifteen young and fifteen older runners ran on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.01, 2.46, and 2.91 m·s−1. We measured their rates of metabolic energy consumption (i.e. metabolic power), ground reaction forces, and stride kinematics. Results There were only <span class="hlt">small</span> differences in running <span class="hlt">economy</span> between young and older runners across the range of speeds. Statistically, the older runners consumed 2–9% less metabolic energy than the young runners across speeds (p=0.012). Also, the leg stiffness of older runners was 10–20% lower than that of young runners across the range of speeds (p=0.002) and in contrast to the younger runners, the leg stiffness of older runners decreased with speed (p<0.001). Conclusion Runners beyond 65 years of age maintain youthful running <span class="hlt">economy</span> despite biomechanical differences. It may be that vigorous exercise, such as running, prevents the age related deterioration of muscular efficiency, and therefore may make everyday activities easier. PMID:26587844</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26587844','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26587844"><span>Older Runners Retain Youthful Running <span class="hlt">Economy</span> despite Biomechanical Differences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beck, Owen N; Kipp, Shalaya; Roby, Jaclyn M; Grabowski, Alena M; Kram, Rodger; Ortega, Justus D</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Sixty-five years of age typically marks the onset of impaired walking <span class="hlt">economy</span>. However, running <span class="hlt">economy</span> has not been assessed beyond the age of 65 yr. Furthermore, a critical determinant of running <span class="hlt">economy</span> is the spring-like storage and return of elastic energy from the leg during stance, which is related to leg stiffness. Therefore, we investigated whether runners older than 65 yr retain youthful running <span class="hlt">economy</span> and/or leg stiffness across running speeds. Fifteen young and 15 older runners ran on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.01, 2.46, and 2.91 m·s(-1). We measured their rates of metabolic energy consumption (i.e., metabolic power), ground reaction forces, and stride kinematics. There were only <span class="hlt">small</span> differences in running <span class="hlt">economy</span> between young and older runners across the range of speeds. Statistically, the older runners consumed 2% to 9% less metabolic energy than the young runners across speeds (P = 0.012). Also, the leg stiffness of older runners was 10% to 20% lower than that of young runners across the range of speeds (P = 0.002), and in contrast to the younger runners, the leg stiffness of older runners decreased with speed (P < 0.001). Runners beyond 65 yr of age maintain youthful running <span class="hlt">economy</span> despite biomechanical differences. It may be that vigorous exercise, such as running, prevents the age related deterioration of muscular efficiency and, therefore, may make everyday activities easier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1001644','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1001644"><span>Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-<span class="hlt">Economy</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-<span class="hlt">economy</span> models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-<span class="hlt">economy</span> models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-<span class="hlt">economy</span> models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain <span class="hlt">open</span>, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARG28004G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARG28004G"><span>The Knowledge <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gonçalves, Bruno; Perra, Nicola; Ciulla, Fabio; Zhang, Qian; Vespignani, Alessandro</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Although the study of scientific and citation networks is well developed, the way in which ideas and concepts flow between scientific groups scattered around the world is still an <span class="hlt">open</span> problem. We take a first step in this direction by using the citation patterns over the course of decades to shed light on how areas and fields in the general area of physics have evolved both temporally and geographically. By geocoding the affiliations associated with each article published by the APS journals to the country level, and by borrowing concepts from the field of economics and international trade we can explore how ideas produced in one country are exported, through citations, to other countries. An objective way of ranking countries based on their contributions to the overall scientific effort is also proposed as well as a map of how the different subfields of Physics are related to each other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27269741','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27269741"><span>Nivolumab alone and nivolumab plus ipilimumab in recurrent <span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer (CheckMate 032): a multicentre, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, phase 1/2 trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Antonia, Scott J; López-Martin, José A; Bendell, Johanna; Ott, Patrick A; Taylor, Matthew; Eder, Joseph Paul; Jäger, Dirk; Pietanza, M Catherine; Le, Dung T; de Braud, Filippo; Morse, Michael A; Ascierto, Paolo A; Horn, Leora; Amin, Asim; Pillai, Rathi N; Evans, Jeffry; Chau, Ian; Bono, Petri; Atmaca, Akin; Sharma, Padmanee; Harbison, Christopher T; Lin, Chen-Sheng; Christensen, Olaf; Calvo, Emiliano</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Treatments for <span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer (SCLC) after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy are limited. We assessed safety and activity of nivolumab and nivolumab plus ipilimumab in patients with SCLC who progressed after one or more previous regimens. The SCLC cohort of this phase 1/2 multicentre, multi-arm, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label trial was conducted at 23 sites (academic centres and hospitals) in six countries. Eligible patients were 18 years of age or older, had limited-stage or extensive-stage SCLC, and had disease progression after at least one previous platinum-containing regimen. Patients received nivolumab (3 mg/kg bodyweight intravenously) every 2 weeks (given until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity), or nivolumab plus ipilimumab (1 mg/kg plus 1 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg plus 3 mg/kg, or 3 mg/kg plus 1 mg/kg, intravenously) every 3 weeks for four cycles, followed by nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Patients were either assigned to nivolumab monotherapy or assessed in a dose-escalating safety phase for the nivolumab/ipilimumab combination beginning at nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg. Depending on tolerability, patients were then assigned to nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg or nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg. The primary endpoint was objective response by investigator assessment. All analyses included patients who were enrolled at least 90 days before database lock. This trial is ongoing; here, we report an interim analysis of the SCLC cohort. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01928394. Between Nov 18, 2013, and July 28, 2015, 216 patients were enrolled and treated (98 with nivolumab 3 mg/kg, three with nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg, 61 with nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg, and 54 with nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg). At database lock on Nov 6, 2015, median follow-up for patients continuing in the study (including those who had died or discontinued treatment) was 198·5 days (IQR 163</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26970723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26970723"><span>Atezolizumab versus docetaxel for patients with previously treated non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer (POPLAR): a multicentre, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, phase 2 randomised controlled trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fehrenbacher, Louis; Spira, Alexander; Ballinger, Marcus; Kowanetz, Marcin; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Mazieres, Julien; Park, Keunchil; Smith, David; Artal-Cortes, Angel; Lewanski, Conrad; Braiteh, Fadi; Waterkamp, Daniel; He, Pei; Zou, Wei; Chen, Daniel S; Yi, Jing; Sandler, Alan; Rittmeyer, Achim</p> <p>2016-04-30</p> <p>Outcomes are poor for patients with previously treated, advanced or metastatic non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody atezolizumab is clinically active against cancer, including NSCLC, especially cancers expressing PD-L1 on tumour cells, tumour-infiltrating immune cells, or both. We assessed efficacy and safety of atezolizumab versus docetaxel in previously treated NSCLC, analysed by PD-L1 expression levels on tumour cells and tumour-infiltrating immune cells and in the intention-to-treat population. In this <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, phase 2 randomised controlled trial, patients with NSCLC who progressed on post-platinum chemotherapy were recruited in 61 academic medical centres and community oncology practices across 13 countries in Europe and North America. Key inclusion criteria were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1, measurable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors version 1.1 (RECIST v1.1), and adequate haematological and end-organ function. Patients were stratified by PD-L1 tumour-infiltrating immune cell status, histology, and previous lines of therapy, and randomly assigned (1:1) by permuted block randomisation (with a block size of four) using an interactive voice or web system to receive intravenous atezolizumab 1200 mg or docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) once every 3 weeks. Baseline PD-L1 expression was scored by immunohistochemistry in tumour cells (as percentage of PD-L1-expressing tumour cells TC3≥50%, TC2≥5% and <50%, TC1≥1% and <5%, and TC0<1%) and tumour-infiltrating immune cells (as percentage of tumour area: IC3≥10%, IC2≥5% and <10%, IC1≥1% and <5%, and IC0<1%). The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population and PD-L1 subgroups at 173 deaths. Biomarkers were assessed in an exploratory analysis. We assessed safety in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ECSS..125...10T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ECSS..125...10T"><span>Influence of habitat structure and mouth dynamics on avifauna of intermittently-<span class="hlt">open</span> estuaries: A study of four <span class="hlt">small</span> South African estuaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Terörde, Anja I.; Turpie, Jane K.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Habitat composition was a major factor in determining waterbird species composition and abundance, particularly the area of floodplain and vegetated channel in four intermittently <span class="hlt">open</span> estuaries (IOEs) in the warm-temperate coastal biogeographical region of South Africa. Average bird densities on the four estuaries varied from 0.5 to 4.2 birds per hectare, and community composition differed significantly between estuaries. However, the considerable variation in abundance of macrophytes did not have a detectable effect on waterbirds. Under closed mouth conditions, piscivorous birds dominated the avifauna. Each estuary's avifauna responded differently in terms of changes in feeding guild composition when the mouth <span class="hlt">opened</span>. Bird abundance changed immediately after breaching, but not consistently. Diversity was significantly higher under <span class="hlt">open</span>-mouth conditions for three of the four estuaries, and species composition was significantly different from that under closed-mouth conditions at all four estuaries. Changes in mouth dynamics as a result of climate change, water abstraction and artificial breaching could lead to significant changes in estuarine fauna.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol6-sec537-9.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol6-sec537-9.pdf"><span>49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> values and average fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> values and average fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... <span class="hlt">ECONOMY</span> REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> values and average fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>. (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol6-sec537-9.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol6-sec537-9.pdf"><span>49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> values and average fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> values and average fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... <span class="hlt">ECONOMY</span> REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> values and average fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>. (a) Vehicle...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol6-sec537-9.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol6-sec537-9.pdf"><span>49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> values and average fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> values and average fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... <span class="hlt">ECONOMY</span> REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> values and average fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>. (a) Vehicle...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol6-sec537-9.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol6-sec537-9.pdf"><span>49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> values and average fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> values and average fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... <span class="hlt">ECONOMY</span> REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> values and average fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>. (a) Vehicle...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol6-sec537-9.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol6-sec537-9.pdf"><span>49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> values and average fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> values and average fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... <span class="hlt">ECONOMY</span> REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> values and average fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>. (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1219249','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1219249"><span>Model Year 2012 Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide: EPA Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1219994','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1219994"><span>Model Year 2013 Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide: EPA Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1334391','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1334391"><span>Model Year 2017 Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide: EPA Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1218869','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1218869"><span>Model Year 2011 Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide: EPA Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>The Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983175','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983175"><span>The symbolic <span class="hlt">economy</span> of drugs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lentacker, Antoine</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic <span class="hlt">economy</span> of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic <span class="hlt">economy</span>, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the <span class="hlt">economy</span> of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic <span class="hlt">economy</span> is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the <span class="hlt">economy</span> of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSMTE..04.3401B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSMTE..04.3401B"><span>Statistical mechanics of complex <span class="hlt">economies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bardoscia, Marco; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In the pursuit of ever increasing efficiency and growth, our <span class="hlt">economies</span> have evolved to remarkable degrees of complexity, with nested production processes feeding each other in order to create products of greater sophistication from less sophisticated ones, down to raw materials. The engine of such an expansion have been competitive markets that, according to general equilibrium theory (GET), achieve efficient allocations under specific conditions. We study large random <span class="hlt">economies</span> within the GET framework, as templates of complex <span class="hlt">economies</span>, and we find that a non-trivial phase transition occurs: the <span class="hlt">economy</span> freezes in a state where all production processes collapse when either the number of primary goods or the number of available technologies fall below a critical threshold. As in other examples of phase transitions in large random systems, this is an unintended consequence of the growth in complexity. Our findings suggest that the Industrial Revolution can be regarded as a sharp transition between different phases, but also imply that well developed <span class="hlt">economies</span> can collapse if too many intermediate goods are introduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35..656T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35..656T"><span>Dynamic systems of regional <span class="hlt">economy</span> management optimization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.</p> <p></p> <p> enterprises taxes, etc. What purposes are the specified methods applied to? The regional companies management and their reforming. One of the major directions - transformation of the enterprises into the viable industrial companies, an effective economic structures formation. In this connection, the technology of financial streams management allows to solve another important problem. The created (or reorganized) structure can be checked up in various economic modes even before practical realization of the project. The received data can be applied to an indicative plans substantiation and control over their performance. They can be used at negotiations with the enterprises heads, which are spent for interests of a regional industrial policy. Such approach can become base for concrete (as figures, plans and schemes) coordination of long-term investment priorities of the largest firms and companies, their production programs coordination, the mutual markets formation and the cooperation communications stabilization, payment chains, the social and economic development programs creation. It <span class="hlt">opens</span> opportunities for the regional branches, enterprises, the major economic centers coordinated management. An effective planning of price pools, investment programs, the control over tax revenues and financial streams becomes possible. All this are necessary elements of a regional authorities economic policy. The offered approach considerably surpasses by it's efficiency auditor, "paper" or traditional computer technology. Bulky computer centers are not capable to cope with the given class problems. At the same time the <span class="hlt">small</span> mobile commissions of experts "armed" with modern intellectual technologies, are capable to solve rather scale analytical problems. On the basis of the offered methods can be generated means of automation of the regional industrial complex development management. They are focused on concrete objects of various scale: territorial complexes, branches, groups of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/948545','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/948545"><span>Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p> fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> with increasing restriction. However, the level of restriction required to cause a substantial (10-15%) decrease in fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> (such as that cited in the literature) was so severe that the vehicle was almost undrivable. Acceleration performance on all vehicles was improved with a clean air filter. Once it was determined how severe the restriction had to be to affect the carbureted vehicle fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>, the 2007 Buick Lucerne was retested in a similar manner. We were not able to achieve the level of restriction that was achieved with the 1972 Pontiac with the Lucerne. The Lucerne's air filter box would not hold the filter in place under such severe conditions. (It is believed that this testing exceeded the design limits of the air box.) Tests were conducted at a lower restriction level (although still considerably more severe than the initial clogged filter testing), allowing the air filter to stay seated in the air box, and no significant change was observed in the Lucerne's fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> or the AFR over the HFET cycle. Closed-loop control in modern fuel injected vehicle applications is sophisticated enough to keep a clogged air filter from affecting the vehicle fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>. However for older, <span class="hlt">open</span>-loop, carbureted vehicles, a clogged air filter can affect the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>. For the vehicle tested, the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> with a new air filter improved as much as 14% over that with a severely clogged filter (in which the filter was so clogged that drivability was impacted). Under a more typical state of clog, the improvement with a new filter ranged from 2 to 6%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4424032','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4424032"><span>The Barley Powdery Mildew Candidate Secreted Effector Protein CSEP0105 Inhibits the Chaperone Activity of a <span class="hlt">Small</span> Heat Shock Protein1[<span class="hlt">OPEN</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim; Pedersen, Carsten; Schultz-Larsen, Torsten; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Thordal-Christensen, Hans</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Pathogens secrete effector proteins to establish a successful interaction with their host. Here, we describe two barley (Hordeum vulgare) powdery mildew candidate secreted effector proteins, CSEP0105 and CSEP0162, which contribute to pathogen success and appear to be required during or after haustorial formation. Silencing of either CSEP using host-induced gene silencing significantly reduced the fungal haustorial formation rate. Interestingly, both CSEPs interact with the barley <span class="hlt">small</span> heat shock proteins, Hsp16.9 and Hsp17.5, in a yeast two-hybrid assay. <span class="hlt">Small</span> heat shock proteins are known to stabilize several intracellular proteins, including defense-related signaling components, through their chaperone activity. CSEP0105 and CSEP0162 localized to the cytosol and the nucleus of barley epidermal cells, whereas Hsp16.9 and Hsp17.5 are cytosolic. Intriguingly, only those specific CSEPs changed localization and became restricted to the cytosol when coexpressed with Hsp16.9 and Hsp17.5, confirming the CSEP-<span class="hlt">small</span> heat shock protein interaction. As predicted, Hsp16.9 showed chaperone activity, as it could prevent the aggregation of Escherichia coli proteins during thermal stress. Remarkably, CSEP0105 compromised this activity. These data suggest that CSEP0105 promotes virulence by interfering with the chaperone activity of a barley <span class="hlt">small</span> heat shock protein essential for defense and stress responses. PMID:25770154</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/134105','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/134105"><span>A single gene for juvenile and middle-age onset <span class="hlt">open</span>-angle glaucomas confined within a <span class="hlt">small</span> interval on chromosome 1q</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Raymond, V.; Dumont, M.; Plante, M.</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>Primary <span class="hlt">open</span>-angle glaucoma (POAG) encompasses a complex of ocular disease entities characterized by an optic neuropathy causing progressive loss of the visual fields and usually associated with elevated intraocular pressure. POAG can be subdivided into two groups according to age of onset: (1) the more prevalent middle to late-age onset chronic <span class="hlt">open</span>-angle glaucoma (COAG) diagnosed after age 40 and (2) the less common form, juvenile <span class="hlt">open</span>-angle glaucoma (JOAG), which occurs between 3 years of age and early adulthood. Susceptibility to either COAG or JOAG has been found to be inherited. We studied 141 members of a huge multigeneration French Canadian family affected with an autosomal dominant form of POAG. Both JOAG and COAG were diagnosed in 43 patients. To first position the disease gene, AFM microsatellites markers specific to chromosome 1q21-q31 were selected since linkage of JOAG to this region was recently demonstrated in two Caucasian families. Tight linkage was observed between the JOAG/COAG phenotype and 7 microsatellite markers on chromosome 1q23-q25; a maximum lod score of 6.62 at {theta}=0 was obtained with AFM278ye5. Using a recombination mapping strategy based on a unique founder effect, a characteristic JOAG/COAG haplotype spanning 12 cM was next recognized between loci D1S196 and D1S212. Two key recombination events in affected patients further confined the disease locus within a 5 cM interval between loci D1S445 and D1S452/D1S210. These results are the first to demonstrate that JOAG and one adult form of POAG map at a single locus on chromosome 1q23-q25. They also provide members of this family with a new diagnostic tool to identify the at-risk individuals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1311426','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1311426"><span>Overjustification effects in token <span class="hlt">economies</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fisher, E B</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>This study tested the relevance to clinical token <span class="hlt">economies</span> of the overjustification hypothesis that tangible reward interferes with intrinsic interest in target behaviors and causes such behaviors to be less probable following a period of reinforcement than preceding such a period. The study was carried out in an ongoing token <span class="hlt">economy</span> for chronic psychiatric patients. Alternated over an 8-week period were weeks of token and no-token reward for one of the program's target behaviors, toothbrushing. Two different amounts of token reward were employed in order to examine whether reward magnitude might influence the presence or extent of overjustification effects. Little evidence was found for the presence of overjustification effects in token <span class="hlt">economies</span>. However, maintenance of toothbrushing was greater in no-token weeks following weeks of low amounts of token reward than in no-token weeks following weeks of higher amounts of reward. The importance of such complex functional relationships is discussed. PMID:511808</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998RaPC...52..607Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998RaPC...52..607Z"><span>Radiation processing and market <span class="hlt">economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zagórski, Z. P.</p> <p>1998-06-01</p> <p>In the system of totalitarian <span class="hlt">economy</span>, regulated by bureaucracy, the real value of equipment, materials and services is almost completely unknown, what makes impossible the comparison of different technologies, eliminates competition, disturbs research and development. With introduction of market <span class="hlt">economy</span> in Central and Eastern Europe, the radiation processing has lost doubtful support, becoming an independent business, subject to laws of free market <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Only the most valuable objects of processing have survived that test. At the top of the list are: radiation sterilization of medical equipment and radiation induced crosslinking of polymers, polyethylene in particular. New elements of competition has entered the scene, as well as questions of international regulations and standards have appeared.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22086328','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22086328"><span>Assessment of density functional theory for bonds formed between rare gases and <span class="hlt">open</span>-shell atoms: a computational study of <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules containing He, Ar, Kr and Xe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bertolus, Marjorie; Major, Mohamed; Brenner, Valérie</p> <p>2012-01-14</p> <p>The validity of the description of the DFT approximations currently implemented in plane wave DFT codes (LDA, GGA, meta-GGA, hybrid, GGA + empirical dispersion correction) for interactions between rare gases and <span class="hlt">open</span>-shell atoms which form materials is poorly known. We have performed a first assessment of the accuracy of these functionals for the description of the bonds formed by helium, argon, krypton and xenon with various <span class="hlt">open</span>-shell atoms. This evaluation has been done on model molecular systems for which precise experimental data are available and reference post-Hartree-Fock calculations (CCSD(T) using large basis sets) are feasible. The results show that when the rare gas atom shares density with the neighbouring atoms, the GGA functionals yield good geometries and qualitatively correct binding energies, even if these are quite significantly overestimated. The use of hybrid functionals enables us to obtain good geometries and satisfactory binding energies. For compounds in which the rare gas atom forms weak dispersive-like bonding, the accuracy yielded by the various functionals is not as good. No functional gives satisfactory binding energies for all the compounds investigated. Several GGA and hybrid functionals yield correct geometries, even if some isomers are not obtained. One GGA functional (PBE) yields qualitatively correct results for the compounds of the three rare gases and several hybrid functionals give satisfactory energies for He compounds. The addition of an empirical dispersive correction improves the results on association compounds, but several isomers are not found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28461431','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28461431"><span>Political <span class="hlt">economies</span> and environmental futures for the sharing <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frenken, Koen</p> <p>2017-06-13</p> <p>The sudden rise of the sharing <span class="hlt">economy</span> has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing <span class="hlt">economy</span> as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing <span class="hlt">economy</span> can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models. I shortly discuss some of the environmental impacts of online sharing platforms and then articulate three possible futures of the sharing <span class="hlt">economy</span>: a capitalist future cumulating in monopolistic super-platforms allowing for seamless services, a state-led future that shifts taxation from labour to capital and redistributes the gains of sharing from winners to losers, and a citizen-led future based on cooperatively owned platforms under democratic control. The nature and size of the social and environmental impacts are expected to differ greatly in each of the three scenarios.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5415647','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5415647"><span>Political <span class="hlt">economies</span> and environmental futures for the sharing <span class="hlt">economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The sudden rise of the sharing <span class="hlt">economy</span> has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing <span class="hlt">economy</span> as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing <span class="hlt">economy</span> can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models. I shortly discuss some of the environmental impacts of online sharing platforms and then articulate three possible futures of the sharing <span class="hlt">economy</span>: a capitalist future cumulating in monopolistic super-platforms allowing for seamless services, a state-led future that shifts taxation from labour to capital and redistributes the gains of sharing from winners to losers, and a citizen-led future based on cooperatively owned platforms under democratic control. The nature and size of the social and environmental impacts are expected to differ greatly in each of the three scenarios. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Material demand reduction’. PMID:28461431</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RSPTA.37560367F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RSPTA.37560367F"><span>Political <span class="hlt">economies</span> and environmental futures for the sharing <span class="hlt">economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frenken, Koen</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>The sudden rise of the sharing <span class="hlt">economy</span> has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing <span class="hlt">economy</span> as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing <span class="hlt">economy</span> can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models. I shortly discuss some of the environmental impacts of online sharing platforms and then articulate three possible futures of the sharing <span class="hlt">economy</span>: a capitalist future cumulating in monopolistic super-platforms allowing for seamless services, a state-led future that shifts taxation from labour to capital and redistributes the gains of sharing from winners to losers, and a citizen-led future based on cooperatively owned platforms under democratic control. The nature and size of the social and environmental impacts are expected to differ greatly in each of the three scenarios. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4514745','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4514745"><span>Predicted Shifts in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Mammal Distributions and Biodiversity in the Altered Future Environment of Alaska: An <span class="hlt">Open</span> Access Data and Machine Learning Perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baltensperger, A. P.; Huettmann, F.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Climate change is acting to reallocate biomes, shift the distribution of species, and alter community assemblages in Alaska. Predictions regarding how these changes will affect the biodiversity and interspecific relationships of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals are necessary to pro-actively inform conservation planning. We used a set of online occurrence records and machine learning methods to create bioclimatic envelope models for 17 species of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals (rodents and shrews) across Alaska. Models formed the basis for sets of species-specific distribution maps for 2010 and were projected forward using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A2 scenario to predict distributions of the same species for 2100. We found that distributions of cold-climate, northern, and interior <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal species experienced large decreases in area while shifting northward, upward in elevation, and inland across the state. In contrast, many southern and continental species expanded throughout Alaska, and also moved down-slope and toward the coast. Statewide community assemblages remained constant for 15 of the 17 species, but distributional shifts resulted in novel species assemblages in several regions. Overall biodiversity patterns were similar for both time frames, but followed general species distribution movement trends. Biodiversity losses occurred in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and Seward Peninsula while the Beaufort Coastal Plain and western Brooks Range experienced modest gains in species richness as distributions shifted to form novel assemblages. Quantitative species distribution and biodiversity change projections should help land managers to develop adaptive strategies for conserving dispersal corridors, <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal biodiversity, and ecosystem functionality into the future. PMID:26207828</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26207828','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26207828"><span>Predicted Shifts in <span class="hlt">Small</span> Mammal Distributions and Biodiversity in the Altered Future Environment of Alaska: An <span class="hlt">Open</span> Access Data and Machine Learning Perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baltensperger, A P; Huettmann, F</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Climate change is acting to reallocate biomes, shift the distribution of species, and alter community assemblages in Alaska. Predictions regarding how these changes will affect the biodiversity and interspecific relationships of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals are necessary to pro-actively inform conservation planning. We used a set of online occurrence records and machine learning methods to create bioclimatic envelope models for 17 species of <span class="hlt">small</span> mammals (rodents and shrews) across Alaska. Models formed the basis for sets of species-specific distribution maps for 2010 and were projected forward using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A2 scenario to predict distributions of the same species for 2100. We found that distributions of cold-climate, northern, and interior <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal species experienced large decreases in area while shifting northward, upward in elevation, and inland across the state. In contrast, many southern and continental species expanded throughout Alaska, and also moved down-slope and toward the coast. Statewide community assemblages remained constant for 15 of the 17 species, but distributional shifts resulted in novel species assemblages in several regions. Overall biodiversity patterns were similar for both time frames, but followed general species distribution movement trends. Biodiversity losses occurred in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and Seward Peninsula while the Beaufort Coastal Plain and western Brooks Range experienced modest gains in species richness as distributions shifted to form novel assemblages. Quantitative species distribution and biodiversity change projections should help land managers to develop adaptive strategies for conserving dispersal corridors, <span class="hlt">small</span> mammal biodiversity, and ecosystem functionality into the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5291019','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5291019"><span>The Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein EMB2654 Is Essential for Trans-Splicing of a Chloroplast <span class="hlt">Small</span> Ribosomal Subunit Transcript1[<span class="hlt">OPEN</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sanglard, Lilian Vincis Pereira; Bussell, John D.; Howell, Katharine A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We report the partial complementation and subsequent comparative molecular analysis of two nonviable mutants impaired in chloroplast translation, one (emb2394) lacking the RPL6 protein, and the other (emb2654) carrying a mutation in a gene encoding a P-class pentatricopeptide repeat protein. We show that EMB2654 is required for the trans-splicing of the plastid rps12 transcript and that therefore the emb2654 mutant lacks Rps12 protein and fails to assemble the <span class="hlt">small</span> subunit of the plastid ribosome, explaining the loss of plastid translation and consequent embryo-lethal phenotype. Predictions of the EMB2654 binding site match a <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA “footprint” located on the 5′ half of the trans-spliced intron that is almost absent in the partially complemented mutant. EMB2654 binds sequence specifically to this target sequence in vitro. Altered patterns in nuclease-protected <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA fragments in emb2654 show that EMB2654 binding must be an early step in, or prior to, the formation of a large protein-RNA complex covering the free ends of the two rps12 intron halves. PMID:28011633</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568501','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568501"><span>Comprehensive Annotation of Physcomitrella patens <span class="hlt">Small</span> RNA Loci Reveals That the Heterochromatic Short Interfering RNA Pathway Is Largely Conserved in Land Plants[<span class="hlt">OPEN</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Coruh, Ceyda; Cho, Sung Hyun; Shahid, Saima; Liu, Qikun; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Axtell, Michael J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Many plant <span class="hlt">small</span> RNAs are sequence-specific negative regulators of target mRNAs and/or chromatin. In angiosperms, the two most abundant endogenous <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA populations are usually 21-nucleotide microRNAs (miRNAs) and 24-nucleotide heterochromatic short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Heterochromatic siRNAs are derived from repetitive regions and reinforce DNA methylation at targeted loci. The existence and extent of heterochromatic siRNAs in other land plant lineages has been unclear. Using <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) of the moss Physcomitrella patens, we identified 1090 loci that produce mostly 23- to 24-nucleotide siRNAs. These loci are mostly in intergenic regions with dense DNA methylation. Accumulation of siRNAs from these loci depends upon P. patens homologs of DICER-LIKE3 (DCL3), RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE2, and the largest subunit of DNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE IV, with the largest subunit of a Pol V homolog contributing to expression at a smaller subset of the loci. A MINIMAL DICER-LIKE (mDCL) gene, which lacks the N-terminal helicase domain typical of DCL proteins, is specifically required for 23-nucleotide siRNA accumulation. We conclude that heterochromatic siRNAs, and their biogenesis pathways, are largely identical between angiosperms and P. patens, with the notable exception of the P. patens-specific use of mDCL to produce 23-nucleotide siRNAs. PMID:26209555</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22864790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22864790"><span>Consistently lower narcotics consumption after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for early stage non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer when compared to <span class="hlt">open</span> surgery: a one-year follow-up study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fang, Hsin-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Yi; Wang, Yao-Ching; Wang, Pin-Hui; Shieh, Shwn-Huey; Chien, Chun-Ru</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is possibly associated with reduced acute pain and narcotics consumption when compared to <span class="hlt">open</span> surgery, but little is known about the long-term effect. The goal of our study was to evaluate whether narcotics consumption is consistently lower after VATS for early stage non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as compared to <span class="hlt">open</span> surgery, during one-year follow-up. This nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted using data relating to cancer registry and national compulsory comprehensive claims in Taiwan. Our study cases were those newly diagnosed with clinical Stage I NSCLC, who underwent primary lung resection in the year 2007. The date of the admission during which index surgery was performed was used as the index date. We compared the use of narcotics, between the VATS and <span class="hlt">open</span> surgery groups, over a period of one year following the index date. We defined narcotics as either Level 1 or 2 drugs as regulated in Taiwan. We also used an equiananalgesic dose chart to convert drug consumption into a uniform narcotics equivalent dose. Chi-square and t-tests were used for statistical analysis. We identified 329 cases (114 for VATS and 215 for <span class="hlt">open</span> surgery). These two groups were balanced for most clinical variables. VATS was associated with lower narcotics consumption during the index admission (mean equivalent dose of intravenous morphine: 54.6 vs 71.4 mg) and this trend extended to the period covering the 2nd to 12th month after index date (73.8 vs 149.5mg). Narcotics consumption is consistently lower after VATS for early stage NSCLC, as compared to <span class="hlt">open</span> surgery. Further prospective studies would be of great value in validating this finding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Smith%2c+AND+Adam&pg=4&id=EJ528493','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Smith%2c+AND+Adam&pg=4&id=EJ528493"><span>Murphy's Moral <span class="hlt">Economy</span> of Labor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Masters, Roger D.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral <span class="hlt">Economy</span> of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=forms+AND+entrepreneurship&pg=4&id=EJ695864','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=forms+AND+entrepreneurship&pg=4&id=EJ695864"><span>Enterprise Skills for the <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Galloway, Laura; Anderson, Maggie; Brown, Wendy; Wilson, Laura</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Purpose ? In response to the emergence of an enterprise <span class="hlt">economy</span>, government claims that building an enterprise culture is vital. Correspondingly, provision of entrepreneurship education in higher education has expanded. The paper aims to assess the potential of entrepreneurship education to develop skills, and of whether students perceive them as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Marx%2c+AND+Karl&pg=4&id=EJ528493','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Marx%2c+AND+Karl&pg=4&id=EJ528493"><span>Murphy's Moral <span class="hlt">Economy</span> of Labor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Masters, Roger D.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral <span class="hlt">Economy</span> of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=production+AND+line&pg=3&id=EJ795464','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=production+AND+line&pg=3&id=EJ795464"><span>Schools for a Knowledge <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>MacDonald, Gerard</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>English schools have always been involved with the <span class="hlt">economy</span> of their time, but it was not until the mid-nineteenth century that schooling for the poor became primarily an adjunct of industry, rather than of the Church. This industrial style of education, preparation for the production line, still informs the school system, though Britain is no…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Whaling&pg=3&id=ED349132','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Whaling&pg=3&id=ED349132"><span>Adventures in the Alaska <span class="hlt">Economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jackstadt, Steve; Huskey, Lee</p> <p></p> <p>This publication was developed to increase students' understanding of basic economic concepts and the historical development of Alaska's <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Comics depict major historical events as they occurred, but specific characters are fictionalized. Each of nine episodes is accompanied by several pages of explanatory text, which enlarges on the episode…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sea+AND+ice&pg=3&id=ED349132','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sea+AND+ice&pg=3&id=ED349132"><span>Adventures in the Alaska <span class="hlt">Economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jackstadt, Steve; Huskey, Lee</p> <p></p> <p>This publication was developed to increase students' understanding of basic economic concepts and the historical development of Alaska's <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Comics depict major historical events as they occurred, but specific characters are fictionalized. Each of nine episodes is accompanied by several pages of explanatory text, which enlarges on the episode…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3279N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3279N"><span>Landscape and zonal features of the formation of producing <span class="hlt">economy</span> in Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p> there was a cattle breeding economic and cultural type of producing <span class="hlt">economy</span> with a simplified system of natural and anthropogenic and anthropogenic landscapes involving a maximum of 4-5 natural and economic systems. In the forest-steppe zone a significant part of the population was settled in the valley landscapes. The basis of the <span class="hlt">economy</span> was pastoral and house cattle breeding with a predominance of beef cattle and pigs and hoe-mattock agriculture, which was only possible in the floodplain landscape complexes. In the areas of permanent settlements long grazing in one place led to the complete destruction of vegetation. The forced reduction of the agricultural land areas led to significant ecologic crisis. In the forest zone, along with hunters, fishermen and gatherers there appear the first tribes, who already engaged in the forest cattle breeding. First, they raised pigs and then <span class="hlt">small</span> and beef cattle, while hunting and fishing were of subordinate nature. Pastures were situated mainly in floodplains and lakeside lowlands which had more <span class="hlt">open</span> spaces. It is the extensive <span class="hlt">economy</span> of that time that can be associated with the deforestation of flood plains of rivers and lakes and the emergence of meadows. There arises a natural-economic system with floodplain cattle-breeding (agricultural geo-systems of pasture type with floodplain meadows and woodlands), which existed for a long time. In all landscape zones the character of the relationship between men and the landscape was determined by the nature of producing activity, as well as natural features of "accommodating" landscape. The formation of nature use systems and settlement patterns strictly depend on the local landscape structure. In all earlier historical periods in similar landscape (zonal) conditions the settlers had the same type of <span class="hlt">economy</span>, thus forming the same types of natural and economic systems and similar anthropogenically transformed landscapes. The dramatic change in the nature use occurs with the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28260621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28260621"><span>Differential regulation of hepatitis B virus core protein expression and genome replication by a <span class="hlt">small</span> upstream <span class="hlt">open</span> reading frame and naturally occurring mutations in the precore region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zong, Li; Qin, Yanli; Jia, Haodi; Ye, Lei; Wang, Yongxiang; Zhang, Jiming; Wands, Jack R; Tong, Shuping; Li, Jisu</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcribes two subsets of 3.5-kb RNAs: precore RNA for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) expression, and pregenomic RNA for core and P protein translation as well as genome replication. HBeAg expression could be prevented by mutations in the precore region, while an upstream <span class="hlt">open</span> reading frame (uORF) has been proposed as a negative regulator of core protein translation. We employed replication competent HBV DNA constructs and transient transfection experiments in Huh7 cells to verify the uORF effect and to explore the alternative function of precore RNA. Optimized Kozak sequence for the uORF or extra ATG codons as present in some HBV genotypes reduced core protein expression. G1896A nonsense mutation promoted more efficient core protein expression than mutated precore ATG, while a +1 frameshift mutation was ineffective. In conclusion, various HBeAg-negative precore mutations and mutations affecting uORF differentially regulate core protein expression and genome replication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1216316','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1216316"><span>Model Year 2007 Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide: EPA Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>The Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1220455','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1220455"><span>Model Year 2014 Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide: EPA Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1218178','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1218178"><span>Model Year 2010 Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide: EPA Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-10-14</p> <p>The Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1228816','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1228816"><span>Model Year 2016 Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide: EPA Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1220456','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1220456"><span>Model Year 2015 Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide: EPA Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1216160','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1216160"><span>Model Year 2006 Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide: EPA Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>The Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1216472','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1216472"><span>Model Year 2009 Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide: EPA Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>The Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1216423','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1216423"><span>Model Year 2008 Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide: EPA Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>The Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1216152','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1216152"><span>Model Year 2005 Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide: EPA Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>The Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=industrial+AND+maintenance+AND+management&pg=3&id=EJ065827','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=industrial+AND+maintenance+AND+management&pg=3&id=EJ065827"><span>Possible Areas for <span class="hlt">Economy</span> in Plant Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tonigan, Richard</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Identifies a number of techniques that can help keep down the cost of operating plant management programs. Discussed are administrative <span class="hlt">economies</span>, purchasing <span class="hlt">economies</span>, manpower savings, maintenance saving, and cost-benefit analysis. (Author/DN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7093113','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7093113"><span>Scale <span class="hlt">economies</span> in rail transit systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Savage, I.</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>The research uses Federal Transit Administration Section 15 data to investigate the operating costs of 13 heavy-rail and 13 light-rail urban mass transit systems for the period 1985-91. A Cobb-Douglas technology is used to investigate various types of <span class="hlt">economies</span> of scale. The principal findings are: (1) Adding additional passenges to an existing network and schedule of services involves zero marginal cost for heavy-rail systems, and <span class="hlt">small</span> additional costs for light-rail systems. (2) Adding additional trains, and passengers, to an existing network leads to a less than proportionate increase in costs. (3) An expanded route network results in mild increases in unit costs for the large heavy-rail systems. The smaller light-rail systems display reduced unit costs with an expanded network. The research suggests that the minimum efficient scale for rail operation is approximately 25 route miles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21636108','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21636108"><span>Virtual phosphorus ore requirement of Japanese <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matsubae, Kazuyo; Kajiyama, Jun; Hiraki, Takehito; Nagasaka, Tetsuya</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Phosphorus is indispensable for agricultural production. Hence, the consumption of imported food indirectly implies the import of phosphorus resources. The global consumption of agricultural products depends on a <span class="hlt">small</span> number of ore-producing countries. For sustainable management of phosphorus resources, the global supply and demand network should be clarified. In this study, we propose the virtual phosphorus ore requirement as a new indicator of the direct and indirect phosphorus requirements for our society. The virtual phosphorus ore requirement indicates the direct and indirect demands for phosphorus ore transformed into agricultural products and fertilizer. In this study, the virtual phosphorus ore requirement was evaluated for the Japanese <span class="hlt">economy</span> in 2005. Importantly, the results show that our society requires twice as much phosphorus ore as the domestic demand for fertilizer production. The phosphorus contained in "eaten" agricultural products was only 12% of virtual phosphorus ore requirement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=money+AND+sites&pg=3&id=EJ857666','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=money+AND+sites&pg=3&id=EJ857666"><span>Educators Assess "<span class="hlt">Open</span> Content" Movement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Trotter, Andrew</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This article discusses the <span class="hlt">open</span>-content movement in education. A <span class="hlt">small</span> but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "<span class="hlt">open</span>," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The <span class="hlt">open</span>-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=free+AND+money&pg=5&id=EJ857666','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=free+AND+money&pg=5&id=EJ857666"><span>Educators Assess "<span class="hlt">Open</span> Content" Movement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Trotter, Andrew</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This article discusses the <span class="hlt">open</span>-content movement in education. A <span class="hlt">small</span> but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "<span class="hlt">open</span>," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The <span class="hlt">open</span>-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Climate+AND+Spain&pg=2&id=EJ663210','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Climate+AND+Spain&pg=2&id=EJ663210"><span>Digital <span class="hlt">Economy</span> and Management in Spain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Explains the digital <span class="hlt">economy</span> and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital <span class="hlt">economy</span>, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital <span class="hlt">economy</span> in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=service+AND+dog&pg=5&id=ED315101','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=service+AND+dog&pg=5&id=ED315101"><span>Serving Business in an Information <span class="hlt">Economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>The Bookmark, 1988</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The 23 articles in this theme issue focus on various aspects of library services to business in an information <span class="hlt">economy</span>: "Serving Business in an Information <span class="hlt">Economy</span>" (C. Bain); "New York's Resurging <span class="hlt">Economy</span> and State Economic Development Information" (R. G. Paolino); "Department of Economic Development Library: Services to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=electronic+AND+commerce+OR+e-commerce+OR+e-business&pg=7&id=EJ663210','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=electronic+AND+commerce+OR+e-commerce+OR+e-business&pg=7&id=EJ663210"><span>Digital <span class="hlt">Economy</span> and Management in Spain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Explains the digital <span class="hlt">economy</span> and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital <span class="hlt">economy</span>, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital <span class="hlt">economy</span> in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://edg.epa.gov/metadata/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7B88D11FAE-70E3-484A-9EF9-9B0E60D530BA%7D','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://edg.epa.gov/metadata/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7B88D11FAE-70E3-484A-9EF9-9B0E60D530BA%7D"><span>Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Label and CAFE Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Engine and Vehicle Compliance Certification and Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Inventory contains measured emissions and fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> compliance information for light duty vehicles. Data is collected by EPA to certify compliance with the applicable fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) and The Energy Independent Security Act of 2007</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED302470.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED302470.pdf"><span>Teaching Economics in the Mini-<span class="hlt">Economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.</p> <p></p> <p>This booklet produced by the State of Indiana introduces elementary teachers to economic concepts appropriate to the elementary curriculum and explains how to use mini-<span class="hlt">economy</span> activities to teach these concepts. Chapter 1 describes how the mini-<span class="hlt">economy</span> works, while chapter 2 introduces basic economic vocabulary and discusses market <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Ideas…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=service+AND+dogs&pg=5&id=ED315101','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=service+AND+dogs&pg=5&id=ED315101"><span>Serving Business in an Information <span class="hlt">Economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>The Bookmark, 1988</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The 23 articles in this theme issue focus on various aspects of library services to business in an information <span class="hlt">economy</span>: "Serving Business in an Information <span class="hlt">Economy</span>" (C. Bain); "New York's Resurging <span class="hlt">Economy</span> and State Economic Development Information" (R. G. Paolino); "Department of Economic Development Library: Services to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12347369','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12347369"><span>[Immigration in the world <span class="hlt">economy</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sassen, S</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>"Immigration is at least partly an outcome of the actions of the governments and major private economic actors of the developed countries. The case of Japan is of interest here because it allows us to capture the intersection of economic internationalization and immigration in its inception.... This paper argues that [Japan's] new immigration is part of the globalisation of [its] <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Japan is a major presence in a regional Asian economic system where it is the leading investor, foreign aid donor, and exporter of consumer goods (including cultural products). The new immigration to Japan is not unrelated to these processes of internationalization. Internationalization provides a context within which bridges are built with the countries of origin of potential emigrants and internationalization contributes to make the Japanese <span class="hlt">economy</span> more porous, particularly so in the case of large cities." (EXCERPT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-08-02/pdf/2013-18547.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-08-02/pdf/2013-18547.pdf"><span>78 FR 46799 - Use of Market <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Input Prices in Nonmarket <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Proceedings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-08-02</p> <p>... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 RIN 0625-XC001 Use of Market <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Input Prices in... (``NME'') producer pays to a market <span class="hlt">economy</span> supplier when a factor of production is purchased from a market <span class="hlt">economy</span> supplier and paid for in market <span class="hlt">economy</span> currency, in the calculation of normal value (``NV...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1112159','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1112159"><span>Characterization of the Tupaia Rhabdovirus Genome Reveals a Long <span class="hlt">Open</span> Reading Frame Overlapping with P and a Novel Gene Encoding a <span class="hlt">Small</span> Hydrophobic Protein</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Springfeld, Christoph; Darai, Gholamreza; Cattaneo, Roberto</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Rhabdoviruses are negative-stranded RNA viruses of the order Mononegavirales and have been isolated from vertebrates, insects, and plants. Members of the genus Lyssavirus cause the invariably fatal disease rabies, and a member of the genus Vesiculovirus, Chandipura virus, has recently been associated with acute encephalitis in children. We present here the complete genome sequence and transcription map of a rhabdovirus isolated from cultivated cells of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue from a moribund tree shrew. The negative-strand genome of tupaia rhabdovirus is composed of 11,440 nucleotides and encodes six genes that are separated by one or two intergenic nucleotides. In addition to the typical rhabdovirus genes in the order N-P-M-G-L, a gene encoding a <span class="hlt">small</span> hydrophobic putative type I transmembrane protein of approximately 11 kDa was identified between the M and G genes, and the corresponding transcript was detected in infected cells. Similar to some Vesiculoviruses and many Paramyxovirinae, the P gene has a second overlapping reading frame that can be accessed by ribosomal choice and encodes a protein of 26 kDa, predicted to be the largest C protein of these virus families. Phylogenetic analyses of the tupaia rhabdovirus N and L genes show that the virus is distantly related to the Vesiculoviruses, Ephemeroviruses, and the recently characterized Flanders virus and Oita virus and further extends the sequence territory occupied by animal rhabdoviruses. PMID:15890917</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4825120','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4825120"><span>Arabidopsis <span class="hlt">Small</span> Rubber Particle Protein Homolog SRPs Play Dual Roles as Positive Factors for Tissue Growth and Development and in Drought Stress Responses1[<span class="hlt">OPEN</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Eun Yu; Park, Ki Youl; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Lipid droplets (LDs) act as repositories for fatty acids and sterols, which are used for various cellular processes such as energy production and membrane and hormone synthesis. LD-associated proteins play important roles in seed development and germination, but their functions in postgermination growth are not well understood. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains three SRP homologs (SRP1, SRP2, and SRP3) that share sequence identities with <span class="hlt">small</span> rubber particle proteins of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In this report, the possible cellular roles of SRPs in postgermination growth and the drought tolerance response were investigated. Arabidopsis SRPs appeared to be LD-associated proteins and displayed polymerization properties in vivo and in vitro. SRP-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S:SRP1, 35S:SRP2, and 35S:SRP3) exhibited higher vegetative and reproductive growth and markedly better tolerance to drought stress than wild-type Arabidopsis. In addition, constitutive over-expression of SRPs resulted in increased numbers of large LDs in postgermination seedlings. In contrast, single (srp1, 35S:SRP2-RNAi, and srp3) and triple (35S:SRP2-RNAi/srp1srp3) loss-of-function mutant lines exhibited the opposite phenotypes. Our results suggest that Arabidopsis SRPs play dual roles as positive factors in postgermination growth and the drought stress tolerance response. The possible relationships between LD-associated proteins and the drought stress response are discussed. PMID:26903535</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3504672','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3504672"><span>Transcriptomic profiling of the oyster pathogen Vibrio splendidus <span class="hlt">opens</span> a window on the evolutionary dynamics of the <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA repertoire in the Vibrio genus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Toffano-Nioche, Claire; Nguyen, An N.; Kuchly, Claire; Ott, Alban; Gautheret, Daniel; Bouloc, Philippe; Jacq, Annick</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Work in recent years has led to the recognition of the importance of <span class="hlt">small</span> regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) in bacterial regulation networks. New high-throughput sequencing technologies are paving the way to the exploration of an expanding sRNA world in nonmodel bacteria. In the Vibrio genus, compared to the enterobacteriaceae, still a limited number of sRNAs have been characterized, mostly in Vibrio cholerae, where they have been shown to be important for virulence, as well as in Vibrio harveyi. In addition, genome-wide approaches in V. cholerae have led to the discovery of hundreds of potential new sRNAs. Vibrio splendidus is an oyster pathogen that has been recently associated with massive mortality episodes in the French oyster growing industry. Here, we report the first RNA-seq study in a Vibrio outside of the V. cholerae species. We have uncovered hundreds of candidate regulatory RNAs, be it cis-regulatory elements, antisense RNAs, and trans-encoded sRNAs. Conservation studies showed the majority of them to be specific to V. splendidus. However, several novel sRNAs, previously unidentified, are also present in V. cholerae. Finally, we identified 28 trans sRNAs that are conserved in all the Vibrio genus species for which a complete genome sequence is available, possibly forming a Vibrio “sRNA core.” PMID:23097430</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23097430','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23097430"><span>Transcriptomic profiling of the oyster pathogen Vibrio splendidus <span class="hlt">opens</span> a window on the evolutionary dynamics of the <span class="hlt">small</span> RNA repertoire in the Vibrio genus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Toffano-Nioche, Claire; Nguyen, An N; Kuchly, Claire; Ott, Alban; Gautheret, Daniel; Bouloc, Philippe; Jacq, Annick</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Work in recent years has led to the recognition of the importance of <span class="hlt">small</span> regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) in bacterial regulation networks. New high-throughput sequencing technologies are paving the way to the exploration of an expanding sRNA world in nonmodel bacteria. In the Vibrio genus, compared to the enterobacteriaceae, still a limited number of sRNAs have been characterized, mostly in Vibrio cholerae, where they have been shown to be important for virulence, as well as in Vibrio harveyi. In addition, genome-wide approaches in V. cholerae have led to the discovery of hundreds of potential new sRNAs. Vibrio splendidus is an oyster pathogen that has been recently associated with massive mortality episodes in the French oyster growing industry. Here, we report the first RNA-seq study in a Vibrio outside of the V. cholerae species. We have uncovered hundreds of candidate regulatory RNAs, be it cis-regulatory elements, antisense RNAs, and trans-encoded sRNAs. Conservation studies showed the majority of them to be specific to V. splendidus. However, several novel sRNAs, previously unidentified, are also present in V. cholerae. Finally, we identified 28 trans sRNAs that are conserved in all the Vibrio genus species for which a complete genome sequence is available, possibly forming a Vibrio "sRNA core."</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23466202','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23466202"><span>Preparation and characterization of <span class="hlt">open</span>-tubular capillary column modified with graphene oxide nanosheets for the separation of <span class="hlt">small</span> organic molecules.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Yin-Yin; Niu, Xiao-Ying; Dong, Ya-Lei; Zhang, Hui-Ge; Li, Xi; Chen, Hong-Li; Chen, Xing-Guo</p> <p>2013-04-05</p> <p>A novel coated capillary was prepared by immobilizing graphene oxide (GO) on the fused-silica capillary (75 μm i.d.) which was derivatized by 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APTMS). The bare capillary, APTMS modified capillary (NH2-capillary) and GO coated capillary (GO-capillary) were characterized by streaming potentials (SPs), fluorescence microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicated that the capillary was successfully modified with GO sheets via covalent bonding and electrostatic effect. Compared with bare capillary, greater separation efficiency was achieved by GO-capillary column as a result of the increasing interactions between the <span class="hlt">small</span> organic molecules and the inner wall of the GO-capillary column originated from the π-π electrostatic stacking. For three consecutive runs, the intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) of migration time and peak areas were 0.6-4.3% and 2.8-9.3%, respectively. The inter-day relative standard deviations of migration time and peak areas were 0.2-8.3% and 4.5-9.6%. Additionally, one GO-capillary column could be used for more than 100 runs with no observable changes on the separation efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5240739','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5240739"><span>Orosomucoid Proteins Interact with the <span class="hlt">Small</span> Subunit of Serine Palmitoyltransferase and Contribute to Sphingolipid Homeostasis and Stress Responses in Arabidopsis[<span class="hlt">OPEN</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Jian; Yin, Jian; Rong, Chan; Li, Kai-En; Wu, Jian-Xin; Huang, Li-Qun; Zeng, Hong-Yun; Sahu, Sunil Kumar; Yao, Nan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), a pyridoxyl-5′-phosphate-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. In humans and yeast, orosomucoid proteins (ORMs) negatively regulate SPT and thus play an important role in maintaining sphingolipid levels. Despite the importance of sphingoid intermediates as bioactive molecules, the regulation of sphingolipid biosynthesis through SPT is not well understood in plants. Here, we identified and characterized the Arabidopsis thaliana ORMs, ORM1 and ORM2. Loss of function of both ORM1 and ORM2 (orm1 amiR-ORM2) stimulated de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis, leading to strong sphingolipid accumulation, especially of long-chain bases and ceramides. Yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays confirmed that ORM1 and ORM2 physically interact with the <span class="hlt">small</span> subunit of SPT (ssSPT), indicating that ORMs inhibit ssSPT function. We found that orm1 amiR-ORM2 plants exhibited an early-senescence phenotype accompanied by H2O2 production at the cell wall and in mitochondria, active vesicular trafficking, and formation of cell wall appositions. Strikingly, the orm1 amiR-ORM2 plants showed increased expression of genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress and defenses and also had enhanced resistance to oxidative stress and pathogen infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that ORMs interact with SPT to regulate sphingolipid homeostasis and play a pivotal role in environmental stress tolerance in plants. PMID:27923879</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12179026','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12179026"><span>Political <span class="hlt">economy</span> of population growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mehta, S; Mehta, H S</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Tracing the origin of political <span class="hlt">economy</span> as a class-science, this paper focuses on the political <span class="hlt">economy</span> of population growth. Exposing the limitations of Malthusian ideas and their invalidity even for the capitalist <span class="hlt">economies</span>, it discusses the subsequent revival of the Malthusian model during the period of de-colonization and the misinterpretation of the relationship between population growth and development in the developing and developed countries. Taking India, China, and Japan as some case studies, the paper examines the relationship between birth rate levels and some correlates. It elaborates on the Indian experience, emphasizing the association of population growth with poverty and unemployment and lays bare some of the hidden causes of these phenomena. The authors examine some interstate variations in India and identify constraints and prospects of the existing population policy. The paper proposes outlines of a democratic population policy as an integral part of India's development strategy which should recognize human beings not simply as consumers but also as producers of material values. It pleads for 1) restructuring of property relations; 2) bringing down the mortality rates and raising of the literacy levels, especially among females; and 3) improving nutritional levels, as prerequisites for bringing down birth rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=IFRS&pg=2&id=EJ944262','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=IFRS&pg=2&id=EJ944262"><span>PWC <span class="hlt">Opens</span> up</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weinstein, Margery</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Coming up with the latest and greatest learning curriculum for employees year after year can be overwhelming--especially if one works for a <span class="hlt">small</span> or mid-size company with minimal resources. Fortunately, there is a burgeoning trend that three-time No. 1 Top 125er PwC is helping to "<span class="hlt">open</span>" up. In creating PwC <span class="hlt">Open</span> University, the professional…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=IFRS&pg=2&id=EJ944262','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=IFRS&pg=2&id=EJ944262"><span>PWC <span class="hlt">Opens</span> up</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weinstein, Margery</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Coming up with the latest and greatest learning curriculum for employees year after year can be overwhelming--especially if one works for a <span class="hlt">small</span> or mid-size company with minimal resources. Fortunately, there is a burgeoning trend that three-time No. 1 Top 125er PwC is helping to "<span class="hlt">open</span>" up. In creating PwC <span class="hlt">Open</span> University, the professional…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5047077','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5047077"><span>Class I and II <span class="hlt">Small</span> Heat Shock Proteins Together with HSP101 Protect Protein Translation Factors during Heat Stress1[<span class="hlt">OPEN</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Basha, Eman; Fowler, Mary E.; Kim, Minsoo; Bordowitz, Juliana; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The ubiquitous <span class="hlt">small</span> heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are well documented to act in vitro as molecular chaperones to prevent the irreversible aggregation of heat-sensitive proteins. However, the in vivo activities of sHSPs remain unclear. To investigate the two most abundant classes of plant cytosolic sHSPs (class I [CI] and class II [CII]), RNA interference (RNAi) and overexpression lines were created in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and shown to have reduced and enhanced tolerance, respectively, to extreme heat stress. Affinity purification of CI and CII sHSPs from heat-stressed seedlings recovered eukaryotic translation elongation factor (eEF) 1B (α-, β-, and γ-subunits) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (three isoforms), although the association with CI sHSPs was stronger and additional proteins involved in translation were recovered with CI sHSPs. eEF1B subunits became partially insoluble during heat stress and, in the CI and CII RNAi lines, showed reduced recovery to the soluble cell fraction after heat stress, which was also dependent on HSP101. Furthermore, after heat stress, CI sHSPs showed increased retention in the insoluble fraction in the CII RNAi line and vice versa. Immunolocalization revealed that both CI and CII sHSPs were present in cytosolic foci, some of which colocalized with HSP101 and with eEF1Bγ and eEF1Bβ. Thus, CI and CII sHSPs have both unique and overlapping functions and act either directly or indirectly to protect specific translation factors in cytosolic stress granules. PMID:27474115</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5291034','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5291034"><span>Constitutive Expression of Arabidopsis <span class="hlt">SMALL</span> AUXIN UP RNA19 (SAUR19) in Tomato Confers Auxin-Independent Hypocotyl Elongation1[<span class="hlt">OPEN</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Spartz, Angela K.; Miller, Nathan D.; Wu, Guosheng</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA or auxin) mediates the elongation growth of shoot tissues by promoting cell expansion. According to the acid growth theory proposed in the 1970s, auxin activates plasma membrane H+-ATPases (PM H+-ATPases) to facilitate cell expansion by both loosening the cell wall through acidification and promoting solute uptake. Mechanistically, however, this process is poorly understood. Recent findings in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have demonstrated that auxin-induced <span class="hlt">SMALL</span> AUXIN UP RNA (SAUR) genes promote elongation growth and play a key role in PM H+-ATPase activation by inhibiting PP2C.D family protein phosphatases. Here, we extend these findings by demonstrating that SAUR proteins also inhibit tomato PP2C.D family phosphatases and that AtSAUR19 overexpression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) confers the same suite of phenotypes as previously reported for Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we employ a custom image-based method for measuring hypocotyl segment elongation with high resolution and a method for measuring cell wall mechanical properties, to add mechanistic details to the emerging description of auxin-mediated cell expansion. We find that constitutive expression of GFP-AtSAUR19 bypasses the normal requirement of auxin for elongation growth by increasing the mechanical extensibility of excised hypocotyl segments. In contrast, hypocotyl segments overexpressing a PP2C.D phosphatase are specifically impaired in auxin-mediated elongation. The time courses of auxin-induced SAUR expression and auxin-dependent elongation growth were closely correlated. These findings indicate that induction of SAUR expression is sufficient to elicit auxin-mediated expansion growth by activating PM H+-ATPases to facilitate apoplast acidification and mechanical wall loosening. PMID:27999086</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9601509','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9601509"><span>Cell-to-cell movement of turnip crinkle virus is controlled by two <span class="hlt">small</span> <span class="hlt">open</span> reading frames that function in trans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, W Z; Qu, F; Morris, T J</p> <p>1998-05-10</p> <p>Previous studies on turnip crinkle virus (TCV) have suggested that the two <span class="hlt">small</span>, centrally located ORFs, conserved in all Carmoviruses, are both required for cell-to-cell movement (Hacker et al., 1992). We now demonstrate that the cell-to-cell movement of TCV is mediated by in trans complementation of the two proteins. First, both of the putative movement proteins (MPs p8 and p9) were shown to be translated in vitro from transcripts representing the 1.7-kb subgenomic RNA. Western blot analysis, using antisera prepared against GST fusion proteins of both genes, was then used to show that the p8 but not the p9 protein accumulated to detectable levels in particulate fractions of infected cells. Cell-to-cell movement of various MP mutants in Arabidopsis was evaluated by in situ hybridization of inoculated leaves. Changes in either of the two MP genes resulted in failure of the mutants to move cell-to-cell. Coat protein was found to be unnecessary for cell-to-cell movement. Complementation of cell-to-cell movement by co-inoculating p8-defective mutants with a p9-defective mutant resulted in delayed systemic infection. In contrast, efficient cell-to-cell movement was achieved when the MP mutants were inoculated into transgenic plants expressing the corresponding functional gene(s). These experiments provide further evidence that both MP genes encoded by Carmoviruses must function in trans in the same cell in order to mediate cell-to-cell movement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.V12A..05W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.V12A..05W"><span><span class="hlt">Open</span>-system degassing, gas fluxing, and the growth and entrainment of olivine during <span class="hlt">small</span> volume mafic eruptions: A case study of Volcan Jorullo, central Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wallace, P. J.; Johnson, E. R.; Delgado Granados, H.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Olivine-hosted melt inclusions from mafic arc volcanoes commonly contain highly variable H2O and CO2 contents that are best explained by olivine crystallization over a wide range of depths during ascent and degassing. An excellent example of this is found in deposits from the 1759-1774 eruption of Jorullo volcano in the subduction-related Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Jorullo's earliest lavas are primitive (9.3 wt% MgO, Fo86-91 olivine), and lava compositions evolved over time as a result of crystal fractionation (Luhr and Carmichael, 1985). We analyzed melt inclusions in Mg-rich olivine from a 5-meter-thick proximal ash fall sequence. Melt inclusions from the basal tephra have variable H2O (<1-5.2 wt%) and CO2 (44-900 ppm), corresponding to crystallization pressures of <100 bars to 4.2 kb. This indicates that olivine crystallized over a range of depths extending from the mid-crust to very shallow levels beneath the volcano. Relations between H2O and incompatible K, Ti, and P, and comparison to experimental phase equilibria demonstrates that olivine crystallization is driven primarily by the effects of H2O loss from the melt during ascent. A puzzling feature of the H2O and CO2 data at Jorullo and other mafic arc volcanoes is that CO2 concentrations do not decrease as rapidly with degassing as is predicted by degassing models. A likely explanation involves <span class="hlt">open</span>-system degassing in which relatively CO2-rich vapor fluxes upwards through the conduit. This vapor is probably released by crystallizing and degassing magma at greater depths within the system. Melt inclusions from the upper part of the tephra section at Jorullo have lower H2O (0.2-1.4 wt%) than inclusions from the basal tephra and no detectable CO2, suggesting shallow crystallization of degassed magma toward the end of the violent-Strombolian-style eruptions. The change in olivine crystallization depths over time probably results from evolution of the conduit system. During the early, pre-eruption stage, as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12279754','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12279754"><span>Population and the Colombian <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanders, T G</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian <span class="hlt">economy</span> was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the <span class="hlt">economy</span> must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28746955','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28746955"><span>[Strength and weaknesses of the German digital health <span class="hlt">economy</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leppert, Florian; Gerlach, Jan; Ostwald, Dennis A; Greiner, Wolfgang</p> <p>2017-07-26</p> <p>There are high expectations from digitalization of health care, ehealth and telemedicine. Nevertheless, the diffusion of these services falls short of expectations. This study analyses the strength and weaknesses of the German digital health <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Thereby, we specially focus on <span class="hlt">small</span> and medium-sized enterprises (SME). The study is based on a literature review, interviews of experts and a workshop. The digital health <span class="hlt">economy</span> is influenced by a heterogeneous environment with both promotive and obstructive factors. One of the largest weaknesses results from a lack of business models. There is a lack of possibilities of reimbursement by the Statutory Health Insurance (SHI). In addition, private users only have a <span class="hlt">small</span> willingness to pay for digital services. The large number of regulations makes the implementation even harder, especially for SMEs. Thus, the current environment hampers fast diffusion of digital services in the German health care market. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=open+AND+data&pg=3&id=EJ792139','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=open+AND+data&pg=3&id=EJ792139"><span><span class="hlt">Open</span> Content in <span class="hlt">Open</span> Context</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of <span class="hlt">Open</span> Context, a new <span class="hlt">open</span> access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. <span class="hlt">Open</span> Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=open+AND+systems+AND+theory&pg=7&id=EJ318537','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=open+AND+systems+AND+theory&pg=7&id=EJ318537"><span>How "<span class="hlt">Open</span>" is <span class="hlt">Open</span> Learning?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moisey, Susan D.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The roots of the <span class="hlt">open</span> learning system approach to education are explored and the relationship between its goals and the succeeding models/methodologies are examined in the context of <span class="hlt">open</span> and closed systems theories. An <span class="hlt">open</span> systems orientation to learning system development is recommended. (MSE)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPS...152..233A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPS...152..233A"><span>Fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.</p> <p></p> <p>The potential improvement in fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> with hybridization is <span class="hlt">small</span> but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22043922','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22043922"><span>Equilibrium in a Production <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chiarolla, Maria B.; Haussmann, Ulrich G.</p> <p>2011-06-15</p> <p>Consider a closed production-consumption <span class="hlt">economy</span> with multiple agents and multiple resources. The resources are used to produce the consumption good. The agents derive utility from holding resources as well as consuming the good produced. They aim to maximize their utility while the manager of the production facility aims to maximize profits. With the aid of a representative agent (who has a multivariable utility function) it is shown that an Arrow-Debreu equilibrium exists. In so doing we establish technical results that will be used to solve the stochastic dynamic problem (a case with infinite dimensional commodity space so the General Equilibrium Theory does not apply) elsewhere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18459287','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18459287"><span>Bolivia's <span class="hlt">economy</span>--an update.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weisbrot, Mark; Sandoval, Luis</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This report looks at Bolivia's main economic indicators over the past year (mid-2006 to mid-2007), noting improvements in growth, fiscal balances, balance of payments, and international reserves. These improvements were largely due to government policies and choices, such as increased hydrocarbons royalties and control over the hydrocarbons sector, and have allowed the government to embark on a number of programs targeting the poor and landless. The report also notes that Bolivia faces many challenges: expansion of land reform, more rapid growth and poverty reduction, the reduction of regional and demographic disparities, and an accelerated diversification of the <span class="hlt">economy</span> away from hydrocarbons and minerals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=teaching+AND+learning+AND+economy&pg=2&id=EJ792138','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=teaching+AND+learning+AND+economy&pg=2&id=EJ792138"><span>The Economics of <span class="hlt">Open</span> Educational Resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Casserly, Catherine M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article examines from an economic perspective the ways in which <span class="hlt">Open</span> Educational Resources (OER) can be linked to economic growth, equality of access to knowledge, and the improvement of teaching and learning. In leading <span class="hlt">economies</span>, technology and knowledge are the critical factors of economic growth, which is a significant shift from the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED450058.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED450058.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Open</span> File: New Modalities for Educational Aid.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Buchert, Lene, Ed.; Epskamp, Kees, Ed.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This journal focuses on comparative education and has four major sections. The "Viewpoint/Controversy" section contains one article: "Is the Globalization of the <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Creating Values for a New Civilization?" (Koichiro Matsuura). The "<span class="hlt">Open</span> File: Rethinking Educational Aid" section contains the following articles:…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=disruptive+AND+innovation&pg=5&id=EJ792138','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=disruptive+AND+innovation&pg=5&id=EJ792138"><span>The Economics of <span class="hlt">Open</span> Educational Resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Casserly, Catherine M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article examines from an economic perspective the ways in which <span class="hlt">Open</span> Educational Resources (OER) can be linked to economic growth, equality of access to knowledge, and the improvement of teaching and learning. In leading <span class="hlt">economies</span>, technology and knowledge are the critical factors of economic growth, which is a significant shift from the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/18654','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/18654"><span>Wildlife <span class="hlt">openings</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>William M. Healy</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Openings</span> provide important feeding areas for forest wildlife because herbaceous vegetation grows much more abundantly in the <span class="hlt">open</span> than beneath a forest canopy. Herbage (grasses and forbs) is generally more nutritious and digestible than woody plant growth. Herbage is important in the diet of deer, especially in late winter and early spring. Voles and rabbits use...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=open+AND+access&id=ED535791','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=open+AND+access&id=ED535791"><span><span class="hlt">Open</span> Access</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Suber, Peter</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "<span class="hlt">open</span> access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. <span class="hlt">Open</span> access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=open+AND+access&id=ED535791','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=open+AND+access&id=ED535791"><span><span class="hlt">Open</span> Access</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Suber, Peter</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "<span class="hlt">open</span> access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. <span class="hlt">Open</span> access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90469&keyword=rubber&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90510584&CFTOKEN=84221162','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90469&keyword=rubber&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90510584&CFTOKEN=84221162"><span>TIRES, <span class="hlt">OPEN</span> BURNING</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The chapter describes available information on the health effects from <span class="hlt">open</span> burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90469&keyword=rubber&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90469&keyword=rubber&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>TIRES, <span class="hlt">OPEN</span> BURNING</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The chapter describes available information on the health effects from <span class="hlt">open</span> burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4803893','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4803893"><span>Health Information <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: Literature Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ebrahimi, Kamal; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: Health Information <span class="hlt">Economy</span> (HIE) is one of the broader, more complex, and challenging and yet important topics in the field of health science that requires the identification of its dimensions for planning and policy making. The aim of this study was to determine HIE concept dimensions. Methods: This paper presents a systematic methodology for analyzing the trends of HIE. For this purpose, the main keywords of this area were identified and searched in the databases and from among 4775 retrieved sources, 12 sources were studied in the field of HIE. Results: Information <span class="hlt">Economy</span> (IE) in the world has passed behind four paradigms that involve the information evaluation perspective, the information technology perspective, the asymmetric information perspective and information value perspective. In this research, the fourth perspective in the HIE was analyzed. The main findings of this research were categorized in three major groups, including the flow of information process in the field of health (production. collection, processing and dissemination), and information applications in the same field (education, research, health industry, policy, legislation, and decision-making) and the underlying fields. Conclusion: According to the findings, HIE has already developed a theoretical and conceptual gap that due to its importance in the next decade would be one of the research approaches to health science. PMID:26153182</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26153182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26153182"><span>Health Information <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: Literature Review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ebrahimi, Kamal; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz</p> <p>2015-04-19</p> <p>Health Information <span class="hlt">Economy</span> (HIE) is one of the broader, more complex, and challenging and yet important topics in the field of health science that requires the identification of its dimensions for planning and policy making. The aim of this study was to determine HIE concept dimensions. This paper presents a systematic methodology for analyzing the trends of HIE. For this purpose, the main keywords of this area were identified and searched in the databases and from among 4775 retrieved sources, 12 sources were studied in the field of HIE. Information <span class="hlt">Economy</span> (IE) in the world has passed behind four paradigms that involve the information evaluation perspective, the information technology perspective, the asymmetric information perspective and information value perspective. In this research, the fourth perspective in the HIE was analyzed. The main findings of this research were categorized in three major groups, including the flow of information process in the field of health (production. collection, processing and dissemination), and information applications in the same field (education, research, health industry, policy, legislation, and decision-making) and the underlying fields. According to the findings, HIE has already developed a theoretical and conceptual gap that due to its importance in the next decade would be one of the research approaches to health science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28468330','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28468330"><span><span class="hlt">Open</span>SHS: <span class="hlt">Open</span> Smart Home Simulator.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alshammari, Nasser; Alshammari, Talal; Sedky, Mohamed; Champion, Justin; Bauer, Carolin</p> <p>2017-05-02</p> <p>This paper develops a new hybrid, <span class="hlt">open</span>-source, cross-platform 3D smart home simulator, <span class="hlt">Open</span>SHS, for dataset generation. <span class="hlt">Open</span>SHS offers an opportunity for researchers in the field of the Internet of Things (IoT) and machine learning to test and evaluate their models. Following a hybrid approach, <span class="hlt">Open</span>SHS combines advantages from both interactive and model-based approaches. This approach reduces the time and efforts required to generate simulated smart home datasets. We have designed a replication algorithm for extending and expanding a dataset. A <span class="hlt">small</span> sample dataset produced, by <span class="hlt">Open</span>SHS, can be extended without affecting the logical order of the events. The replication provides a solution for generating large representative smart home datasets. We have built an extensible library of smart devices that facilitates the simulation of current and future smart home environments. Our tool divides the dataset generation process into three distinct phases: first design: the researcher designs the initial virtual environment by building the home, importing smart devices and creating contexts; second, simulation: the participant simulates his/her context-specific events; and third, aggregation: the researcher applies the replication algorithm to generate the final dataset. We conducted a study to assess the ease of use of our tool on the System Usability Scale (SUS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5469526','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5469526"><span><span class="hlt">Open</span>SHS: <span class="hlt">Open</span> Smart Home Simulator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Alshammari, Nasser; Alshammari, Talal; Sedky, Mohamed; Champion, Justin; Bauer, Carolin</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This paper develops a new hybrid, <span class="hlt">open</span>-source, cross-platform 3D smart home simulator, <span class="hlt">Open</span>SHS, for dataset generation. <span class="hlt">Open</span>SHS offers an opportunity for researchers in the field of the Internet of Things (IoT) and machine learning to test and evaluate their models. Following a hybrid approach, <span class="hlt">Open</span>SHS combines advantages from both interactive and model-based approaches. This approach reduces the time and efforts required to generate simulated smart home datasets. We have designed a replication algorithm for extending and expanding a dataset. A <span class="hlt">small</span> sample dataset produced, by <span class="hlt">Open</span>SHS, can be extended without affecting the logical order of the events. The replication provides a solution for generating large representative smart home datasets. We have built an extensible library of smart devices that facilitates the simulation of current and future smart home environments. Our tool divides the dataset generation process into three distinct phases: first design: the researcher designs the initial virtual environment by building the home, importing smart devices and creating contexts; second, simulation: the participant simulates his/her context-specific events; and third, aggregation: the researcher applies the replication algorithm to generate the final dataset. We conducted a study to assess the ease of use of our tool on the System Usability Scale (SUS). PMID:28468330</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16960850','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16960850"><span>Does the <span class="hlt">economy</span> affect teenage substance use?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arkes, Jeremy</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This research examines how teenage drug and alcohol use responds to changes in the <span class="hlt">economy</span>. In contrast to the recent literature confirming pro-cyclical alcohol use among adults, this research offers strong evidence that a weaker <span class="hlt">economy</span> leads to greater teenage marijuana and hard-drug use and some evidence that a weaker <span class="hlt">economy</span> also leads to higher teenage alcohol use. The findings are based on logistic models with state and year fixed effects, using teenagers from the NLSY-1997. The evidence also indicates that teenagers are more likely to sell drugs in weaker <span class="hlt">economies</span>. This suggests one mechanism for counter-cyclical drug use - that access to illicit drugs is easier when the <span class="hlt">economy</span> is weaker. These results also suggest that the strengthening <span class="hlt">economy</span> in the 1990s mitigated what would otherwise have been much larger increases in teenage drug use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/enforcement/economy-home-improvement-inc-information-sheet','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/enforcement/economy-home-improvement-inc-information-sheet"><span><span class="hlt">Economy</span> Home Improvement, Inc. Information Sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Economy</span> Home Improvement, Inc. (the Company) is located in Lexington, Kentucky. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Lexington, Kentucky.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/building-green-economies-tribal-lands','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/building-green-economies-tribal-lands"><span>Building Green <span class="hlt">Economies</span> on Tribal Lands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Division of Energy and Mineral Development (DEMD) is assisting tribes in strengthening and diversifying their <span class="hlt">economies</span> by utilizing the power generated from renewable resources on tribal reservations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED224888.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED224888.pdf"><span>The State of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business: A Report of the President. Together with the Annual Report on <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business and Competition of the <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business Administration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>This volume consists of a report of the President concerning the state of <span class="hlt">small</span> businesses as well as the U.S. <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business Administration annual report on <span class="hlt">small</span> business and competition. Addressed in the President's report are the following issues: the role of <span class="hlt">small</span> business in the <span class="hlt">economy</span>; the foundations of <span class="hlt">small</span> business policy; and problems…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED129969.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED129969.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Small</span> Business Among Koreans in Los Angeles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bonacich, Edna; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to describe the character of <span class="hlt">small</span> business among Koreans in Los Angeles, to examine the means by which Koreans are able to enter <span class="hlt">small</span> business in an <span class="hlt">economy</span> which clearly is moving in the opposite direction, and to consider why it is that immigrant <span class="hlt">small</span> business should flourish within monopoly capitalism. Korean…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ssi..book..165S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ssi..book..165S"><span>CIO in a Service <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sorenson, Paul G.</p> <p></p> <p>The role of the Chief Information Officer (CIO) has evolved considerably since its inception in the 1980s. This paper begins with a brief review of the evolution of this role and sets the stage for future change brought about by the rise of the service <span class="hlt">economy</span>. The enterprise of the future is then characterized based on an important global study by IBM. Using this characterization, the future challenges for CIOs in areas such as strategic planning, governance and operations management of information technology services are assessed from the perspectives of the four major elements of a service system (technology, people, organization and shared information). The paper concludes with a summary of the important findings, pointing to the challenge that CIOs of the future must be the leaders in their organizations in the delivery of smarter, on-demand service systems to smarter customers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/727881','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/727881"><span>Results of a token <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fullerton, D T; Cayner, J J; McLaughlin-Reidel, T</p> <p>1978-12-01</p> <p>A token <span class="hlt">economy</span> for chronic psychiatric patients (average hospital stay of ten years) is reported. One hundred seventy-four patients were treated. Follow-up data were obtained on 173 patients who had been discharged from the hospital for an average of three years at the time of follow-up. One hundred twenty-five patients completed the program, which featured a graduated method for shaping behavior (functional levels). Ninety-one of the 125 patients who completed the program and were living in the community were employed. The program was most effective with patients who had been in the hospital for less than ten years and had an IQ above 80.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED481333.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED481333.pdf"><span>Training in Toronto's "New <span class="hlt">Economy</span>"=La formation dans la "nouvelle" <span class="hlt">economie</span> de Toronto.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Community Perspectives Series, 2002</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This Community Perspectives Series document includes statements about the new <span class="hlt">economy</span> in Toronto made by four participants in a March 2001 forum. The new <span class="hlt">economy</span> was defined by the moderator as "an <span class="hlt">economy</span> that emphasizes knowledge and technical processes put to the production of goods and other outputs so that an individual's knowledge is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warren+AND+buffet&id=EJ864765','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=warren+AND+buffet&id=EJ864765"><span>Child Care and the New <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: Part I--Three Pillars of the New <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Neugebauer, Roger</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Late in 2008, when it was becoming apparent that the economic downturn was not a simple blip but a serious recession, Warren Buffet confidently predicted that the American <span class="hlt">economy</span> would bounce back and be as strong as ever. However, he observed, "the <span class="hlt">economy</span> that emerges will not be the same <span class="hlt">economy</span> that entered the downturn." Since then, one…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20737742','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20737742"><span>The global household: toward a feminist postcapitalist international political <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Safri, Maliha; Graham, Julie</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this article is to introduce a new category into international political <span class="hlt">economy</span>-the global household-and to begin to widen the focus of international political <span class="hlt">economy</span> to include nonmarket transactions and noncapitalist production. As an economic institution composed of transnational extended families and codwellers (including international migrants and family members left behind in countries of origin), the global household is engaged in coordinating international migration, sending and receiving billions of dollars in remittances, and organizing and conducting market- and non-market-oriented production on an international scale. We first trace the discursive antecedents of the global household concept to theories of the household as a site of noncapitalist production and to feminist ethnographies of transnational families. In order to demonstrate the potential significance and effect of this newly recognized institution, we estimate the aggregate population of global households, the size and distribution of remittances, and the magnitude and sectoral scope of global household production. We then examine the implications of the global household concept for three areas of inquiry: globalization, economic development, and the household politics of economic transformation. Finally, we briefly explore the possibilities for research and activism <span class="hlt">opened</span> up by a feminist, postcapitalist international political <span class="hlt">economy</span> centered on the global household.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JPS...129..255R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JPS...129..255R"><span>Roadmap towards a sustainable hydrogen <span class="hlt">economy</span> in Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramírez-Salgado, Joel; Estrada-Martínez, Arquímedes</p> <p></p> <p>The fast developing of fuel cell (FC) technologies has <span class="hlt">open</span> a window to alternative energy sources such as natural gas, methanol, ethanol, or hydrogen. This paper outlines the prospects for a hydrogen <span class="hlt">economy</span> in Mexico. If we consider a hydrogen <span class="hlt">economy</span> in Mexico in the near future and if all the national energy could be produced by hydrogen, the country will require 46.5 million tons per year. By 2010, it would have approximately 3300 automobiles with fuel cells. In the initial phase of a "hydrogen <span class="hlt">economy</span>", hydrogen could be produced from the current competitive fossil fuels. Hydrogen is a unique fuel with unmatched properties. In the Mexican hydrogen industry, we do not know yet how many tons of hydrogen per year are produced for the different uses of chemical production, oil refining, metal treating or electrical applications. At this moment, hydrogen national resources are 837.7 million tons, which reverts a huge potential in hydrocarbon resources. Hydrogen costs from natural gas are about three times the cost of the feedstock, thus US 6 feedstock gas would result in the hydrogen costing US 18 per million of Btu, which is equivalent to gasoline costing about US$ 2 per gallon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4548375','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4548375"><span>The impact of non-hilar clamping <span class="hlt">open</span> partial technique performed for the treatment of patients with <span class="hlt">small</span> renal masses with lower R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry scores on renal functions during the early postoperative period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Atılgan, Doğan; Kılıç, Şahin; Gençten, Yusuf; Uluocak, Nihat; Fırat, Fatih; Kölükçü, Engin; Parlaktaş, Bekir Süha</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective: Herein, the impact of off-clamp <span class="hlt">open</span> partial nephrectomy on early postoperative period renal functions were evaluated in patients with low RENAL nephrometry scoring <span class="hlt">small</span> renal masses. Material and methods: Twenty-three patients (12 women, and 11 men) who had undergone non-hilar clamping <span class="hlt">open</span> partial nephrectomy in our clinic between the years 2010, and 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. Mean age, body mass index (BMI), operative time, blood loss, renal nephrometry score, mean hospital stay, pre-, and postoperative serum creatinine (Cr), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the patients were assessed. Results: Mean age, BMI, tumor size, and preoperative renal nephrometry scores were 56.09±10.49 years (36–70 yrs), 24.81±2.44 kg/m2, 3.68±1.125 cm, and 6.41±1.77 pts, respectively. Mean operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and hospital stay were detected as 139.14±33.60 min, 274.9±77.02 mL, and 4.27±1.12 days, respectively. Preoperative mean serum Cr, and GFR levels were 0.804±0.216 mg/dL, and 93.97±25.83 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Postoperative 1. day mean serum Cr, and GFR levels were 0.896±0.25 mg/dL, and 85.94±28.85 mL/min/1,73 m2, while corresponding 3. month-values were 0.81±0.205 mg/dL, and 93.59±21.00 mL/dk/1.73 m2, respectively. A statistically significant difference was not found between preoperative, and postoperative 3. month- serum Cr, and GFR levels. However, postoperative 3. month-serum Cr, and GFR levels were lower than corresponding values estimated on postoperative 1. day (p<0.016). Conclusion: One of the important considerations in partial nephrectomy is to preserve renal functions. Therefore, non-hilar clamping <span class="hlt">open</span> partial nephrectomy should be taken into consideration for surgeons unexperienced especially in laparoscopic surgery with its lower morbidity, and complication rates. PMID:26328158</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=China+AND+government+AND+incentives&id=ED460052','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=China+AND+government+AND+incentives&id=ED460052"><span>China and the Knowledge <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: Seizing the 21st Century. WBI Development Studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dahlman, Carl J.; Aubert, Jean-Eric</p> <p></p> <p>For a large part of the last two millennia, China was the world's largest and most advanced <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Then it missed the Industrial Revolution and stagnated. Only after <span class="hlt">opening</span> to the outside world in 1979 was China's economic performance again impressive. At the turn of the 21st century, China faces daunting internal challenges compounded by the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=foreign+AND+direct+AND+Investment&pg=7&id=ED308309','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=foreign+AND+direct+AND+Investment&pg=7&id=ED308309"><span>The Meaning of Foreign Investment in the Chinese <span class="hlt">Economy</span>. Training Discussion Paper No. 39.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Castro, Claudio de Moura</p> <p></p> <p>As the Chinese <span class="hlt">economy</span> <span class="hlt">opens</span> up to the outside world, the decision to engage in joint ventures with foreign capital is among the most important national policies. Significant direct consequences of joint ventures are the influx of foreign capital, expanding exports, and employment creation. However, the great importance of joint ventures lies in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22An+economy%22+AND+Knowledge&pg=6&id=ED441536','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22An+economy%22+AND+Knowledge&pg=6&id=ED441536"><span>Learning.Now: Skills for an Information <span class="hlt">Economy</span>. Symposium (North Carolina, December 1998).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rosenfeld, Stuart A., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This book provides new insights and innovative ideas that may aid governments and educational institutions in developing programs and policy frameworks for their education and training enterprises. It consists of an <span class="hlt">opening</span> synthesis, followed by papers presented at the December 1998 "learning.now/Skills for an Information <span class="hlt">Economy</span>" symposium. Part…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=chinese+AND+exports&pg=2&id=ED308309','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=chinese+AND+exports&pg=2&id=ED308309"><span>The Meaning of Foreign Investment in the Chinese <span class="hlt">Economy</span>. Training Discussion Paper No. 39.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Castro, Claudio de Moura</p> <p></p> <p>As the Chinese <span class="hlt">economy</span> <span class="hlt">opens</span> up to the outside world, the decision to engage in joint ventures with foreign capital is among the most important national policies. Significant direct consequences of joint ventures are the influx of foreign capital, expanding exports, and employment creation. However, the great importance of joint ventures lies in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Market+AND+global+AND+Bt&id=ED460052','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Market+AND+global+AND+Bt&id=ED460052"><span>China and the Knowledge <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: Seizing the 21st Century. WBI Development Studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dahlman, Carl J.; Aubert, Jean-Eric</p> <p></p> <p>For a large part of the last two millennia, China was the world's largest and most advanced <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Then it missed the Industrial Revolution and stagnated. Only after <span class="hlt">opening</span> to the outside world in 1979 was China's economic performance again impressive. At the turn of the 21st century, China faces daunting internal challenges compounded by the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED534397.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED534397.pdf"><span>The Token <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: Reducing the Disruptive and Off-Task Behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chevalier, Nicole Taylor</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates the effects of a token <span class="hlt">economy</span> as an intervention to reduce disruptive and off-task behavior of third grade students in an <span class="hlt">open</span> concept setting. The intervention combines the use of a token reinforcement with a raffle style drawing. The students receive tokens on an intermittent reinforcement schedule for being on-task,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED227986.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED227986.pdf"><span>Marketing the Uniqueness of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Towns. <span class="hlt">Small</span> Town Strategy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas</p> <p></p> <p>A <span class="hlt">small</span> town can strengthen its local <span class="hlt">economy</span> as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=evaluation+AND+NEE&id=EJ900931','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=evaluation+AND+NEE&id=EJ900931"><span>Political Capital in a Market <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the <span class="hlt">economy</span> in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://edg.epa.gov/metadata/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7B3B6AB8D8-5613-4FFF-A6FF-3A8E689C93FE%7D','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://edg.epa.gov/metadata/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7B3B6AB8D8-5613-4FFF-A6FF-3A8E689C93FE%7D"><span>Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Label and CAFE Data Inventory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Label and CAFE Data asset contains measured summary fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> estimates and test data for light-duty vehicle manufacturers by model for certification as required under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA) and The Energy Independent Security Act of 2007 (EISA) to collect vehicle fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> estimates for the creation of <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Labels and for the calculation of Corporate Average Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> (CAFE). Manufacturers submit data on an annual basis, or as needed to document vehicle model changes.The EPA performs targeted fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> confirmatory tests on approximately 15% of vehicles submitted for validation. Confirmatory data on vehicles is associated with its corresponding submission data to verify the accuracy of manufacturer submissions beyond standard business rules. Submitted data comes in XML format or as documents, with the majority of submissions being sent in XML, and includes descriptive information on the vehicle itself, fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> information, and the manufacturer's testing approach. This data may contain proprietary information (CBI) such as information on estimated sales or other data elements indicated by the submitter as confidential. CBI data is not publically available; however, within the EPA data can accessed under the restrictions of the Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) CBI policy [RCS Link]. Datasets are segmented by vehicle model/manufacturer and/or year with corresponding fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>, te</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Economy&pg=5&id=EJ913358','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Economy&pg=5&id=EJ913358"><span>Getting Tenure in a Down <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shaw, Darla; Maidment, Fred</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Academic tenure is now under attack. A down <span class="hlt">economy</span> has placed greater pressure on institutions making tenure more difficult to obtain. Nineteen tips for gaining tenure in a down <span class="hlt">economy</span> are presented along with several justifications for tenure and why tenure is important for the preservation of the academy and the freedom to research and teach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ964089.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ964089.pdf"><span>Manufacturing Careers, Skilled Workers and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Martino, Lisa</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In order to jumpstart the <span class="hlt">economy</span>, "Made in the U.S.A." needs to be synonymous with in-demand, high-quality products sold throughout the world. Recognizing the importance of the manufacturing industry and its connection to a healthy <span class="hlt">economy</span>, President Obama addressed Carnegie Mellon University and launched the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fossil+AND+fuel&pg=6&id=EJ740899','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fossil+AND+fuel&pg=6&id=EJ740899"><span>The Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Economy</span> as a Technological Bluff</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vanderburg, Willem H.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The hydrogen <span class="hlt">economy</span> is a technological bluff in its implied assurance that, despite the accelerating pace at which we are depleting the remaining half of our fossil fuels, our energy future is secure. Elementary thermodynamic considerations are developed to show that a hydrogen <span class="hlt">economy</span> is about as feasible as a perpetual motion machine. Hydrogen…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6650E..02R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6650E..02R"><span>The solar-hydrogen <span class="hlt">economy</span>: an analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reynolds, Warren D.</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>The 20th Century was the age of the Petroleum <span class="hlt">Economy</span> while the 21st Century is certainly the age of the Solar-Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Economy</span>. The global Solar-Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Economy</span> that is now emerging follows a different logic. Under this new economic paradigm, new machines and methods are once again being developed while companies are restructuring. The Petroleum <span class="hlt">Economy</span> will be briefly explored in relation to oil consumption, Hubbert's curve, and oil reserves with emphasis on the "oil crash". Concerns and criticisms about the Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Economy</span> will be addressed by debunking some of the "hydrogen myths". There are three major driving factors for the establishment of the Solar-Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Economy</span>, i.e. the environment, the <span class="hlt">economy</span> with the coming "oil crash", and national security. The New Energy decentralization pathway has developed many progressive features, e.g., reducing the dependence on oil, reducing the air pollution and CO II. The technical and economic aspects of the various Solar-Hydrogen energy options and combinations will be analyzed. A proposed 24-hour/day 200 MWe solar-hydrogen power plant for the U.S. with selected energy options will be discussed. There are fast emerging Solar Hydrogen energy infrastructures in the U.S., Europe, Japan and China. Some of the major infrastructure projects in the transportation and energy sectors will be discussed. The current and projected growth in the Solar-Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Economy</span> through 2045 will be given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=economy&pg=7&id=EJ913358','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=economy&pg=7&id=EJ913358"><span>Getting Tenure in a Down <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shaw, Darla; Maidment, Fred</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Academic tenure is now under attack. A down <span class="hlt">economy</span> has placed greater pressure on institutions making tenure more difficult to obtain. Nineteen tips for gaining tenure in a down <span class="hlt">economy</span> are presented along with several justifications for tenure and why tenure is important for the preservation of the academy and the freedom to research and teach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=effectiveness+AND+monetary+AND+policy&pg=3&id=ED162931','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=effectiveness+AND+monetary+AND+policy&pg=3&id=ED162931"><span>Government and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span>--Stabilization Policies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Popkin, John W.</p> <p></p> <p>This document describes the operation of public and private sector mechanisms which work to keep the Canadian <span class="hlt">economy</span> stable. Part I discusses the many sources of instability in the Canadian <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Instability is measured primarily in fluctuations in aggregate income or gross national product. Two important contributors to economic fluctuations…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=monetary+AND+policy+AND+effectiveness&pg=3&id=ED162931','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=monetary+AND+policy+AND+effectiveness&pg=3&id=ED162931"><span>Government and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span>--Stabilization Policies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Popkin, John W.</p> <p></p> <p>This document describes the operation of public and private sector mechanisms which work to keep the Canadian <span class="hlt">economy</span> stable. Part I discusses the many sources of instability in the Canadian <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Instability is measured primarily in fluctuations in aggregate income or gross national product. Two important contributors to economic fluctuations…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=monetary+AND+policy&pg=4&id=EJ1047230','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=monetary+AND+policy&pg=4&id=EJ1047230"><span>Knowledge Production in a Cooperative <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cottey, Alan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Knowledge here means something similar to but broader than science--it is reliable but not necessarily as systematic or explicit. A cooperative <span class="hlt">economy</span> is contrasted with the competitive <span class="hlt">economy</span> that has dominated political thinking almost everywhere for about half a century - the neo-liberal period. It is argued that the neo-liberal ideology and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Marsden&pg=7&id=EJ423605','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Marsden&pg=7&id=EJ423605"><span>Towards the Political <span class="hlt">Economy</span> of Pluriactivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marsden, Terry</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Explores theoretical concerns of political <span class="hlt">economy</span> approaches in agriculture and links these to farm pluriactivity. Focuses on relevance of debates concerning labor commoditization and uneven development, suggesting recognition of pluriactivity for broader understanding of political <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Recommends broader approach for understanding economic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=capital+AND+market+AND+research&pg=2&id=EJ900931','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=capital+AND+market+AND+research&pg=2&id=EJ900931"><span>Political Capital in a Market <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the <span class="hlt">economy</span> in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Knowledge+AND+Economy&pg=2&id=EJ924464','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Knowledge+AND+Economy&pg=2&id=EJ924464"><span>"Developing" the Self in the Knowledge <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marshall, James D.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The term "knowledge <span class="hlt">economy</span>", like the term "globalisation", has become a catchword in political and educational debate over the last decade or so, especially in debates upon educational policy where the role of education in preparing young people to take their part in the Knowledge <span class="hlt">Economy</span> is often seen as paramount over other traditional…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=microeconomics+AND+behavior&pg=3&id=ED245328','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=microeconomics+AND+behavior&pg=3&id=ED245328"><span>Alternative Perspectives on the Political <span class="hlt">Economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Foster, William</p> <p></p> <p>This paper investigates certain dimensions of the term "political <span class="hlt">economy</span>" with specific reference to its application in analyzing educational organizations. The first section reviews classical and modern formulations of political <span class="hlt">economy</span> to show how modern political economists operate within a received paradigm embodying five basic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Profitable+AND+market&id=EJ643979','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Profitable+AND+market&id=EJ643979"><span>Price Discrimination, <span class="hlt">Economies</span> of Scale, and Profits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Park, Donghyun</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Demonstrates that it is possible for <span class="hlt">economies</span> of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by <span class="hlt">economies</span> of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22regional+development%22&pg=4&id=EJ795450','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22regional+development%22&pg=4&id=EJ795450"><span>Higher Education, Development and the Learning <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Peters, Michael A.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This article reviews the claims for the new <span class="hlt">economy</span> as necessary background to analyzing changes in knowledge production and the role of the university in the so-called learning <span class="hlt">economy</span>. The article develops an argument for "knowledge networks" as a basis for the university to promote regional development at home and international development…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Economy+AND+social&pg=5&id=EJ1047230','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Economy+AND+social&pg=5&id=EJ1047230"><span>Knowledge Production in a Cooperative <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cottey, Alan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Knowledge here means something similar to but broader than science--it is reliable but not necessarily as systematic or explicit. A cooperative <span class="hlt">economy</span> is contrasted with the competitive <span class="hlt">economy</span> that has dominated political thinking almost everywhere for about half a century - the neo-liberal period. It is argued that the neo-liberal ideology and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED449942.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED449942.pdf"><span>The Rural <span class="hlt">Economy</span> in a New Century.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Johnson, Thomas G.</p> <p></p> <p>Technological change, globalization, and localization have changed rural <span class="hlt">economies</span>. They have increased labor productivity, reducing the importance of labor costs in location decisions; decreased the importance of distance; increased the importance of <span class="hlt">economies</span> of scale; and increased the role of local conditions and choices in determining…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED329793.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED329793.pdf"><span>Indicators of Education and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hoachlander, E. Gareth; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Eighteen indicators represent important considerations for discussions about education and the <span class="hlt">economy</span> and strategies for public policy. They describe major aspects of the <span class="hlt">economy</span>, the demand for labor, and levels for human capital. The indicators are the following: (1) shifts in sectors' relative share of gross national product and the labor…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=energy+AND+fuels&pg=4&id=EJ740899','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=energy+AND+fuels&pg=4&id=EJ740899"><span>The Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Economy</span> as a Technological Bluff</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vanderburg, Willem H.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The hydrogen <span class="hlt">economy</span> is a technological bluff in its implied assurance that, despite the accelerating pace at which we are depleting the remaining half of our fossil fuels, our energy future is secure. Elementary thermodynamic considerations are developed to show that a hydrogen <span class="hlt">economy</span> is about as feasible as a perpetual motion machine. Hydrogen…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=token+AND+economy&pg=4&id=EJ441380','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=token+AND+economy&pg=4&id=EJ441380"><span>Guidelines for Establishing and Maintaining Token <span class="hlt">Economies</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Myles, Brenda Smith; And Others</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The following stages in planning a token <span class="hlt">economy</span> with students having behavior problems are discussed: (1) identifying target behaviors; (2) specifying and selecting reinforcers; (3) identifying token types and schedules; (4) planning token distribution and redemption; (5) initiating and implementing the token <span class="hlt">economy</span> system; and (6) planning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ232220.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ232220.pdf"><span>Using Classroom Token <span class="hlt">Economies</span> as Instructional Devices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Minner, Sam; Knutson, Richard</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The use of a token <span class="hlt">economy</span> in teaching special needs students is outlined. Steps in establishing a token <span class="hlt">economy</span> are presented and activities, such as the use of charge cards and a classroom bank, which help develop related skills are discussed. (PHR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED090081.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED090081.pdf"><span>Politics Between <span class="hlt">Economy</span> and Culture. Introductory Statement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rokkan, Stein</p> <p></p> <p>The introductory statement to the plenary session of the Ninth World Congress of the International Political Science Association announces the first of two major themes, politics between <span class="hlt">economy</span> and culture. This theme is described as investigating the culture-<span class="hlt">economy</span> dialectic at all levels of politics -- global, territorial, national, community,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=price+AND+discrimination&pg=2&id=EJ643979','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=price+AND+discrimination&pg=2&id=EJ643979"><span>Price Discrimination, <span class="hlt">Economies</span> of Scale, and Profits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Park, Donghyun</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Demonstrates that it is possible for <span class="hlt">economies</span> of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by <span class="hlt">economies</span> of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=international+AND+economy+AND+news&pg=4&id=EJ795450','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=international+AND+economy+AND+news&pg=4&id=EJ795450"><span>Higher Education, Development and the Learning <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Peters, Michael A.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This article reviews the claims for the new <span class="hlt">economy</span> as necessary background to analyzing changes in knowledge production and the role of the university in the so-called learning <span class="hlt">economy</span>. The article develops an argument for "knowledge networks" as a basis for the university to promote regional development at home and international development…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol30-sec600-113-78.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol30-sec600-113-78.pdf"><span>40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> calculations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL <span class="hlt">ECONOMY</span> AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> and Carbon-Related... <span class="hlt">economy</span> calculations. The calculations of vehicle fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> values require the weighted...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036647','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036647"><span>Chapter 11. Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: The Case for Market Failure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Greene, David L; German, John; Delucchi, Mark A</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The efficiency of energy using durable goods, from automobiles to home air conditioners, is not only a key determinant of <span class="hlt">economy</span>-wide energy use but also of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, climate change and energy insecurity. Energy analysts have long noted that consumers appear to have high implicit discount rates for future fuel savings when choosing among energy using durable goods (Howarth and Sanstad, 1995). In modeling consumers choices of appliances, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has used discount rates of 30 percent for heating systems, 69 percent for choice of refrigerator and up to 111 percent for choice of water heater (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1996). Several explanations have been offered for this widespread phenomenon, including asymmetric information, bounded rationality and transaction costs. This chapter argues that uncertainty combined with loss aversion by consumers is sufficient to explain the failure to adopt cost effective energy efficiency improvements in the market for automotive fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span>, although other market failures appear to be present as well. Understanding how markets for energy efficiency function is crucial to formulating effective energy policies (see Pizer, 2006). Fischer et al., (2004), for example, demonstrated that if consumers fully value the discounted present value of future fuel savings, fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> standards are largely redundant and produce <span class="hlt">small</span> welfare losses. However, if consumers value only the first three years of fuel savings, then fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> standards can significantly increase consumer welfare. The nature of any market failure that might be present in the market for energy efficiency would also affect the relative efficacy of energy taxes versus regulatory standards (CBO, 2003). If markets function efficiently, energy taxes would generally be more efficient than regulatory standards in increasing energy efficiency and reducing energy use. If markets are decidedly inefficient, standards would likely be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27252281','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27252281"><span>The Informal <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: Recent Trends, Future Directions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Martha Alter</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Informal employment represents more than half of nonagricultural employment in most developing regions, contributes to the overall <span class="hlt">economy</span>, and provides pathways to reduction of poverty and inequality. Support to the informal <span class="hlt">economy</span> should include the expansion of occupational health and safety to include informal workers, based on an analysis of their work places and work risks. The paper presents main schools of thought and argues for a holistic understanding of the different segments of the informal work force and for policies and interventions tailored to the needs and constraints of these different segments. The paper recommends a policy approach which seeks to extend social protection, including occupational health and safety services, to informal workers, and to increase the productivity of informal enterprises and informal workers through an enabling environment and support services. The paper calls for a new paradigm of a hybrid <span class="hlt">economy</span> which would value and integrate the informal <span class="hlt">economy</span> alongside the formal <span class="hlt">economies</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19833811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19833811"><span><span class="hlt">Economy</span> of running: beyond the measurement of oxygen uptake.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fletcher, Jared R; Esau, Shane P; Macintosh, Brian R</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to compare running <span class="hlt">economy</span> across three submaximal speeds expressed as both oxygen cost (mlxkg(-1)xkm(-1)) and the energy required to cover a given distance (kcalxkg(-1)xkm(-1)) in a group of trained male distance runners. It was hypothesized that expressing running <span class="hlt">economy</span> in terms of caloric unit cost would be more sensitive to changes in speed than oxygen cost by accounting for differences associated with substrate utilization. Sixteen highly trained male distance runners [maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)) 66.5 +/- 5.6 mlxkg(-1)xmin(-1), body mass 67.9 +/- 7.3 kg, height 177.6 +/- 7.0 cm, age 24.6 +/- 5.0 yr] ran on a motorized treadmill for 5 min with a gradient of 0% at speeds corresponding to 75%, 85%, and 95% of speed at lactate threshold with 5-min rest between stages. Oxygen uptake was measured via <span class="hlt">open</span>-circuit calorimetry. Average oxygen cost was 221 +/- 19, 217 +/- 15, and 221 +/- 13 mlxkg(-1)xkm(-1), respectively. Caloric unit cost was 1.05 +/- 0.09, 1.07 +/- 0.08, and 1.11 +/- 0.07 kcalxkg(-1)xkm(-1) at the three trial speeds, respectively. There was no difference in oxygen cost with respect to speed (P = 0.657); however, caloric unit cost significantly increased with speed (P < 0.001). It was concluded that expression of running <span class="hlt">economy</span> in terms of caloric unit cost is more sensitive to changes in speed and is a more valuable expression of running <span class="hlt">economy</span> than oxygen uptake, even when normalized per distance traveled.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27095179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27095179"><span>Effects of the charge-transfer reorganization energy on the <span class="hlt">open</span>-circuit voltage in <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecular bilayer organic photovoltaic devices: comparison of the influence of deposition rates of the donor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Chih-Chien; Su, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Wen-Chang</p> <p>2016-05-14</p> <p>The theoretical maximum of <span class="hlt">open</span>-circuit voltage (VOC) of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices has yet to be determined, and its origin remains debated. Here, we demonstrate that VOC of <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecule OPV devices can be improved by controlling the deposition rate of a donor without changing the interfacial energy gap at the donor/acceptor interface. The measurement of external quantum efficiency and electroluminescence spectra facilitates the observation of the existence of charge transfer (CT) states. A simplified approach by reusing the reciprocity relationship for obtaining the properties of the CT states is proposed without introducing complex techniques. We compare experimental and fitting results and propose that reorganization energy is the primary factor in determining VOC instead of either the CT energy or electronic coupling term in bilayer OPV devices. Atomic force microscopy images indicate a weak molecular aggregation when a higher deposition rate is used. The results of temperature-dependent measurements suggest the importance of molecular stacking for the CT properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27592746','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27592746"><span>Photovoltaic <span class="hlt">Small</span> Molecules of TPA(FxBT-T-Cz)3: Tuning <span class="hlt">Open</span>-Circuit Voltage over 1.0 V for Their Organic Solar Cells by Increasing Fluorine Substitution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Qiong; Duan, Linrui; Tao, Qiang; Peng, Wenhong; Chen, Jianhua; Tan, Hua; Yang, Renqiang; Zhu, Weiguo</p> <p>2016-11-09</p> <p>To simultaneously improve both <span class="hlt">open</span>-circuit voltage (Voc) and short-circuit current density (Jsc) for organic solar cells, a novel D(A-π-Ar)3 type of photovoltaic <span class="hlt">small</span> molecules of TPA(FxBT-T-3Cz)3 was designed and synthesized, which contain central triphenylamine (TPA), terminal carbazole (Cz), armed fluorine-substituted benzothiadiazole (FxBT, where x = 1 or 2), and bridged thiophene (T) units. A narrowed ultraviolet-visible absorption and a decreasing highest occupied molecular orbital energy level were observed from TPA(F1BT-T-3Cz)3 to TPA(F2BT-T-3Cz)3 with increasing fluorine substitution. However, the TPA(F2BT-T-3Cz)3/PC71BM-based solar devices showed a rising Voc of 1.01 V and an enhanced Jsc of 10.84 mA cm(-2) as well as a comparable power conversion efficiency of 4.81% in comparison to the TPA(F1BT-T-3Cz)3/PC71BM-based devices. Furthermore, in comparison to the parent TPA(BT-T-3Cz)3 molecule without fluorine substitution, the fluorine-substituted TPA(FxBT-T-3Cz)3 molecules exhibited significantly incremental Voc and Jsc values in their bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, owing to fluorine incorporation in the electron-deficient benzothiadiazole unit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1918339A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1918339A"><span>Iceland as a demonstrator for a transition to low carbon <span class="hlt">economy</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asbjornsson, Einar Jon; Stefansson, Hlynur; Finger, David Christian</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The energy supply in Iceland is quite unique, about 85% of the total primary energy is coming from renewable resources. Nevertheless, the ecological footprint of an average Icelander is with 6.5 worlds, one of the highest worldwide and the energy consumption per capita is about 7 times higher than the European average. Recent developments have shown that there is a great potential to reduce the footprint and develop towards low carbon <span class="hlt">economy</span>. With its <span class="hlt">small</span> population, well educated and governed society and clear system boundaries to the outside world, Iceland is a good research laboratory and an ideal demonstrator for a transition towards a low carbon <span class="hlt">economy</span>. This presentation will outline how several innovative research projects at Reykjavik University could lead Iceland towards a sustainable and low carbon <span class="hlt">economy</span>. The presentations will conclude with a visionary outlook how Iceland can become a demonstration nation towards a prosperous, low carbon and sustainable <span class="hlt">economy</span>, helping stabilize global warming at an acceptable level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27932068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27932068"><span>Rovalpituzumab tesirine, a DLL3-targeted antibody-drug conjugate, in recurrent <span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer: a first-in-human, first-in-class, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, phase 1 study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rudin, Charles M; Pietanza, M Catherine; Bauer, Todd M; Ready, Neal; Morgensztern, Daniel; Glisson, Bonnie S; Byers, Lauren A; Johnson, Melissa L; Burris, Howard A; Robert, Francisco; Han, Tae H; Bheddah, Sheila; Theiss, Noah; Watson, Sky; Mathur, Deepan; Vennapusa, Bharathi; Zayed, Hany; Lally, Satwant; Strickland, Donald K; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Dylla, Scott J; Peng, Stanford L; Spigel, David R</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Rovalpituzumab tesirine is a first-in-class antibody-drug conjugate directed against delta-like protein 3 (DLL3), a novel target identified in tumour-initiating cells and expressed in more than 80% of patients with <span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer. We aimed to assess the safety and activity of rovalpituzumab tesirine in patients who progressed after one or more previous regimen. We conducted a phase 1 <span class="hlt">open</span>-label study at ten cancer centres in the USA. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and had histologically or cytologically confirmed <span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer or large-cell neuroendocrine tumours with progressive measurable disease (according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST], version 1.1) previously treated with one or two chemotherapeutic regimens, including a platinum-based regimen. We assigned patients to dose-escalation or expansion cohorts, ranging from 0·05 mg/kg to 0·8 mg/kg rovalpituzumab tesirine intravenously every 3 weeks or every 6 weeks, followed by investigation of the dose schedules 0·3 mg/kg and 0·4 mg/kg every 6 weeks and 0·2 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Primary objectives were to assess the safety of rovalpituzumab tesirine, including the maximum tolerated dose and dose-limiting toxic effects. The primary activity endpoint was objective response by intention-to-treat analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01901653. The study is closed to enrolment; this report focuses on the cohort with <span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer. Between July 22, 2013, and Aug 10, 2015, 82 patients were enrolled, including 74 patients with <span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer and eight with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, all of whom received at least one dose of rovalpituzumab tesirine. Dose-limiting toxic effects of rovalpituzumab tesirine occurred at a dose of 0·8 mg/kg every 3 weeks, including grade 4 thrombocytopenia (in two of two patients at that dose level) and grade 4 liver function test abnormalities (in one patient). The most</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA486728','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA486728"><span>It’s the <span class="hlt">Economy</span> that Matters Most</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-05-07</p> <p><span class="hlt">economy</span>. This paper explains why the <span class="hlt">economy</span> must be an integral element of a future National Security Strategy, and offers some domestic and foreign policy recommendations to enable and protect an adaptive, responsive <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245119','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/245119"><span>The <span class="hlt">economy</span> of solar energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Scheer, H. |</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>Solar energy is often regarded as environmentally-friendly, but, at the same time as not economical. A global economical view shows, however, that renewable energies can bring about substantial economic and social benefits today, even before their wide market introduction has begun. They are a basic economic innovation for durably overcoming the ever increasing risk innate in the current economic development: they provide new jobs in industry, crafts, and agriculture; a long-term reduction of administrative and health costs; reduced subsidies, increased foreign exchange assets for national <span class="hlt">economies</span>; reduced military expenses to secure the energy supply structure; and preservation of agriculture on a sustainable basis. In the medium- and long-term, they are a precondition for reducing operation and management costs of the energy supply system. On the basis of a completely new tax system - the entropy tax - solar energy can become the trigger of a new economic dynamics which remains within the ecological limits of growth. 27 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26024057','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26024057"><span>Quantifying the vitamin D <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Vitamin D enters the body through multiple routes and in a variety of chemical forms. Utilization varies with input, demand, and genetics. Vitamin D and its metabolites are carried in the blood on a Gc protein that has three principal alleles with differing binding affinities and ethnic prevalences. Three major metabolites are produced, which act via two routes, endocrine and autocrine/paracrine, and in two compartments, extracellular and intracellular. Metabolic consumption is influenced by physiological controls, noxious stimuli, and tissue demand. When administered as a supplement, varying dosing schedules produce major differences in serum metabolite profiles. To understand vitamin D's role in human physiology, it is necessary both to identify the foregoing entities, mechanisms, and pathways and, specifically, to quantify them. This review was performed to delineate the principal entities and transitions involved in the vitamin D <span class="hlt">economy</span>, summarize the status of present knowledge of the applicable rates and masses, draw inferences about functions that are implicit in these quantifications, and point out implications for the determination of adequacy. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10234068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10234068"><span>Financing pharmaceuticals in transition <span class="hlt">economies</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kanavos, P</p> <p>1999-06-01</p> <p>This paper (a) provides a methodological taxonomy of pricing, financing, reimbursement, and cost containment methodologies for pharmaceuticals; (b) analyzes complex agency relationships and the health versus industrial policy tradeoff; (c) pinpoints financing measures to balance safety and effectiveness of medicines and their affordability by publicly funded systems in transition; and (d) highlights viable options for policy-makers for the financing of pharmaceuticals in transition. Three categories of measures and their implications for pharmaceutical policy cost containing are analyzed: supply-side measures, targeting manufacturers, proxy demand-side measures, targeting physicians and pharmacists, and demand-side measures, targeting patients. In pursuing supply side measures, we explore free pricing for pharmaceuticals, direct price controls, cost-plus and cost pricing, average pricing and international price comparisons, profit control, reference pricing, the introduction of a fourth hurdle, positive and negative lists, and other price control measures. The analysis of proxy-demand measures includes budgets for physicians, generic policies, practice guidelines, monitoring the authorizing behavior of physicians, and disease management schemes. Demand-side measures explore the effectiveness of patient co-payments, the impact of allowing products over-the-counter and health promotion programs. Global policies should operate simultaneously on the supply, the proxy demand, and the demand-side. Policy-making needs to have a continuous long-term planning. The importation of policies into transition <span class="hlt">economy</span> may require extensive and expensive adaptation, and/or lead to sub-optimal policy outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10181589','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10181589"><span>Welcome to the experience <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pine, B J; Gilmore, J H</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>First there was agriculture, then manufactured goods, and eventually services. Each change represented a step up in economic value--a way for producers to distinguish their products from increasingly undifferentiated competitive offerings. Now, as services are in their turn becoming commoditized, companies are looking for the next higher value in an economic offering. Leading-edge companies are finding that it lies in staging experiences. To reach this higher level of competition, companies will have to learn how to design, sell, and deliver experiences that customers will readily pay for. An experience occurs when a company uses services as the stage--and goods as props--for engaging individuals in a way that creates a memorable event. And while experiences have always been at the heart of the entertainment business, any company stages an experience when it engages customers in a personal, memorable way. The lessons of pioneering experience providers, including the Walt Disney Company, can help companies learn how to compete in the experience <span class="hlt">economy</span>. The authors offer five design principles that drive the creation of memorable experiences. First, create a consistent theme, one that resonates throughout the entire experience. Second, layer the theme with positive cues--for example, easy-to-follow signs. Third, eliminate negative cues, those visual or aural messages that distract or contradict the theme. Fourth, offer memorabilia that commemorate the experience for the user. Finally, engage all five senses--through sights, sounds, and so on--to heighten the experience and thus make it more memorable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12315094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12315094"><span>Paraguay: population and the <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanders, T G</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Paraguay's political conflicts and development experiences have been accompanied by compensatory population movements; however, economic and population policies of the past are not adequate to address the current economic challenges. The principal structural problem is dependence on international commodity prices. Since late 1984, the international prices for soya and cotton have declined more than 50%; these 2 products account for 83% of official exports. The external debt has grown significantly in the past 5 years and is increasingly difficult to service. A major problem the government faces in servicing the debt and maintaining economic growth is its inability to get control of foreign exchange. Much of Paraguay's external trade is contraband, with the dollars passing into the black market. As a result of the illegal <span class="hlt">economy</span>, government earnings have been insufficient to cover expenses. Unemployment stands at 12% because of general economic decline, cuts in government expenditure, and the reduction of investment in hydroelectricity. Occupation of new land, the classic solution by the Paraguayan peasantry, is no longer a viable option since all land is now utilized. About 20-25% of Paraguayans live outside the country, expecially in Argentina. In 1986, a commission drafted an Adjustment Plan that recommended a devaluation of the official gurani rate, tax increases, higher tariffs for public services, and incentives to invest in priority areas; however, this plan has not been implemented to date.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24478718','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24478718"><span>Exercise <span class="hlt">economy</span> in skiing and running.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise <span class="hlt">economy</span> exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise <span class="hlt">economy</span> in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in the study. Exercise <span class="hlt">economy</span> and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise <span class="hlt">economy</span> between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise <span class="hlt">economy</span> and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46), body mass (r = -0.09-0.46) and body height (r = 0.11-0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise <span class="hlt">economy</span> could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise <span class="hlt">economy</span> between highly trained subjects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3900875','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3900875"><span>Exercise <span class="hlt">economy</span> in skiing and running</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise <span class="hlt">economy</span> exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise <span class="hlt">economy</span> in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated in the study. Exercise <span class="hlt">economy</span> and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise <span class="hlt">economy</span> between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise <span class="hlt">economy</span> and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00–0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03–0.46), body mass (r = −0.09–0.46) and body height (r = 0.11–0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise <span class="hlt">economy</span> could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise <span class="hlt">economy</span> between highly trained subjects. PMID:24478718</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Birth+AND+records&pg=6&id=EJ135760','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Birth+AND+records&pg=6&id=EJ135760"><span><span class="hlt">Open</span> Adoption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Baran, Annette; And Others</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Adult adoptees are increasingly challenging the practice of sealing their birth records. The authors examine the historical roots of adoptive practices in this country and suggest that the time has come for <span class="hlt">open</span> adoption to gain acceptance as an alternative. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10182339','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10182339"><span><span class="hlt">Opening</span> remarks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hildebrand, S.G.</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>Included in this paper are the <span class="hlt">opening</span> remarks of S.G. Hildebrand, from Environmental Science Division, ORNL, to a conference on water resources and water resource issues. Wetlands are the focus of this talk, with an emphasis on conservation and land use to conserve wetland functions and values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060020068','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060020068"><span><span class="hlt">Opening</span> Remarks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldin, Daniel S.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In these <span class="hlt">opening</span> remarks to a symposium reflecting on forty years of U.S. Human Spaceflight, NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, reviews the impact that Alan Shepard had on him personally, to NASA, and to the whole idea of manned spaceflight. Mr Goldin cites Shepard as an example of the past and future of manned spaceflight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/6761','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/6761"><span><span class="hlt">Opening</span> Address</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>John T. Shannon</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>I am glad to be here today to help <span class="hlt">open</span> the symposium on Arkansas' forests. It is gratifying to see so many forestry leaders in attendance. I am particulary pleased to welcome my brother, State Forester from Oklahoma, Roger Davis; and representatives of the State Foresters from Tennessee and Louisiana.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA508752','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA508752"><span>Policy and Purpose: The <span class="hlt">Economy</span> of Deterrence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Schwartz.indd 11 2/2/09 2:29:38 PM Policy and Purpose The <span class="hlt">Economy</span> of Deterrence Norton A. Schwartz, General, USAF Timothy R. Kirk, Lieutenant...00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Policy and Purpose. The <span class="hlt">Economy</span> of Deterrence 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...article concludes with an assessment of the <span class="hlt">economy</span> of deterrence policy within the theory framework as we examine the implications for US Air</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3489134','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3489134"><span><span class="hlt">Economies</span> of Size in Production Agriculture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Duffy, Michael</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Economies</span> of size refer to the ability of a farm to lower costs of production by increasing production. Agriculture production displays an L-shaped average cost curve where costs are lower initially but reach a point where no further gains are achieved. Spreading fixed costs, bulk purchases, and marketing power are cited as reasons for <span class="hlt">economies</span> of size. Labor-reducing technologies may be the primary reason. Most studies do not include the external costs from prophylactic antibiotic use, impact on rural communities, and environmental damage associated with large-scale production. These can contribute to the <span class="hlt">economies</span> of size. PMID:23144676</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17234329','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17234329"><span>Environmental protection, the <span class="hlt">economy</span>, and jobs: national and regional analyses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bezdek, Roger H; Wendling, Robert M; Diperna, Paula</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The relationship between environmental protection (EP), the <span class="hlt">economy</span>, and jobs has been an issue of harsh contention for decades. Does EP harm the <span class="hlt">economy</span> and destroy jobs or facilitate economic growth and create jobs? We address this issue by summarizing the results of the Jobs and the Environment Initiative, research funded by nonprofit foundations to quantify the relationship between EP, the <span class="hlt">economy</span>, and jobs. We estimate the size of the US environmental industry and the numbers of environment-related jobs at the national level and in the states of Florida, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, and Wisconsin. This is the first time that such comprehensive, detailed estimates have been developed. Our major finding is that, contrary to conventional wisdom, EP, economic growth, and jobs creation are complementary and compatible: investments in EP create jobs and displace jobs, but the net effect on employment is positive. Second, environment protection has grown rapidly to become a major sales-generating, job-creating industry--$300 billion/year and 5 million jobs in 2003. Third, most of the 5 million jobs created are standard jobs for accountants, engineers, computer analysts, clerks, factory workers, etc., and the classic environmental job (environmental engineer, ecologist, etc.) constitutes only a <span class="hlt">small</span> portion of the jobs created. Most of the persons employed in the jobs created may not even realize that they owe their livelihood to protecting the environment. Fourth, at the state level, the relationship between environmental policies and economic/job growth is positive, not negative. States can have strong <span class="hlt">economies</span> and simultaneously protect the environment. Finally, environmental jobs are concentrated in manufacturing and professional, information, scientific, and technical services, and are thus disproportionately the types of jobs all states seek to attract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27614872','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27614872"><span>Necitumumab plus Gemcitabine and Cisplatin as First-Line Therapy in Patients with Stage IV EGFR- Expressing Squamous Non-<span class="hlt">Small</span>-Cell Lung Cancer: German Subgroup Data from an <span class="hlt">Open</span>-Label, Randomized Controlled Phase 3 Study (SQUIRE).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reck, Martin; Thomas, Michael; Kropf-Sanchen, Cornelia; Mezger, Jörg; Socinski, Mark A; Depenbrock, Henrik; Soldatenkova, Victoria; Brown, Jacqueline; Krause, Thomas; Thatcher, Nick</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In the SQUIRE study, adding the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) IgG1 antibody necitumumab to first-line gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC + N) in advanced squamous non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer (sqNSCLC) significantly improved overall survival (OS); the safety profile was acceptable. We explored data for the German subpopulation (N = 96) of SQUIRE patients with EGFR-expressing tumors. Patients with stage IV sqNSCLC were randomized 1:1 to up to 6 cycles of <span class="hlt">open</span>-label GC + N or GC alone. GC + N patients with no progression continued on necitumumab monotherapy until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. The primary endpoint was OS; the secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), safety and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D, Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS)). The 96 German SQUIRE patients with EGFR-expressing tumors (GC + N 42, GC 54) received a median of 4 GC cycles; the GC + N patients received 5 cycles of necitumumab. Adding necitumumab was associated with 41% risk reduction of death (hazard ratio (HR) 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.94, p = 0.026) and 44% risk reduction of progression (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.33-0.95, p = 0.029). Adverse events typically associated with EGFR antibody treatment (including rash, hypomagnesemia) were more common with GC + N. The time to deterioration of the EQ-5D and LCSS scores showed no notable differences between the treatment arms, except for appetite loss (delayed for GC + N). The survival benefit from adding necitumumab to first-line GC was more pronounced in the German SQUIRE subpopulation with EGFR-expressing tumors than in the overall (intention-to-treat) population; toxicity was manageable and consistent with the overall population. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27080216','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27080216"><span>Dabrafenib in patients with BRAF(V600E)-positive advanced non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer: a single-arm, multicentre, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, phase 2 trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Planchard, David; Kim, Tae Min; Mazieres, Julien; Quoix, Elisabeth; Riely, Gregory; Barlesi, Fabrice; Souquet, Pierre-Jean; Smit, Egbert F; Groen, Harry J M; Kelly, Ronan J; Cho, B C; Socinski, Mark A; Pandite, Lini; Nase, Christine; Ma, Bo; D'Amelio, Anthony; Mookerjee, Bijoyesh; Curtis, C Martin; Johnson, Bruce E</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Activating BRAF(V600E) (Val600Glu) mutations are found in about 1-2% of lung adenocarcinomas, which might provide an opportunity for targeted treatment in these patients. Dabrafenib is an oral selective inhibitor of BRAF kinase. We did a trial to assess the clinical activity of dabrafenib in patients with advanced non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) positive for the BRAF(V600E) mutation. In this phase 2, multicentre, non-randomised, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label study, we enrolled previously treated and untreated patients with stage IV metastatic BRAF(V600E)-positive NSCLC. Patients received oral dabrafenib 150 mg twice daily. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed overall response, which was assessed in patients who had received at least one dose of dabrafenib; safety was also assessed in this population. The study is ongoing but not enrolling patients in this cohort. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01336634. Between Aug 3, 2011, and Feb 25, 2014, 84 patients were enrolled, six of whom had not previously received systemic treatment for NSCLC. 26 of the 78 previously treated patients achieved an investigator-assessed overall response (33% [95% CI 23-45]). Four of the six previously untreated patients had an objective response. One patient died from an intracranial haemorrhage that was judged by the investigator to be due to the study drug. Serious adverse events were reported in 35 (42%) of 84 patients. The most frequent grade 3 or worse adverse events were cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma in ten (12%), asthenia in four (5%), and basal-cell carcinoma in four (5%). Dabrafenib showed clinical activity in BRAF(V600E)-positive NSCLC. Our findings suggest that dabrafenib could represent a treatment option for a population of patients with limited therapeutic options. GlaxoSmithKline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26828788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26828788"><span>Bevacizumab beyond disease progression after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in advanced nonsquamous non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer (West Japan Oncology Group 5910L): An <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, randomized, phase 2 trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Takeda, Masayuki; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Seto, Takashi; Hayashi, Hidetoshi; Azuma, Koichi; Okada, Morihito; Sugawara, Shunichi; Daga, Haruko; Hirashima, Tomonori; Yonesaka, Kimio; Urata, Yoshiko; Murakami, Haruyasu; Saito, Haruhiro; Kubo, Akihito; Sawa, Toshiyuki; Miyahara, Eiji; Nogami, Naoyuki; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Okamoto, Isamu</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Bevacizumab combined with platinum-based chemotherapy has been established as a standard treatment option in the first-line setting for advanced nonsquamous non-<span class="hlt">small</span> cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there has been no evidence to support the use of bevacizumab beyond disease progression in such patients. West Japan Oncology Group 5910L was designed as a multicenter, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, randomized, phase 2 trial of docetaxel versus docetaxel plus bevacizumab every 3 weeks for patients with recurrent or metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC whose disease had progressed after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus a platinum-based doublet. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). One hundred patients were randomly assigned to receive docetaxel (n = 50) or docetaxel plus bevacizumab (n = 50), and this yielded median PFS times of 3.4 and 4.4 months, respectively, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.71 and a stratified log-rank P value of .058, which met the predefined criterion for statistical significance (P < .2). The median overall survival also tended to be longer in the docetaxel plus bevacizumab group (13.1 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.6-21.4 months) versus the docetaxel group (11.0 months; 95% CI, 7.6-16.1 months) with an HR of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.46-1.19; stratified log-rank P = .11). No unexpected or severe adverse events were recorded. Further evaluation of bevacizumab beyond disease progression is warranted for patients with advanced NSCLC whose disease has progressed after treatment with bevacizumab plus a platinum-based doublet. © 2016 American Cancer Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27197024','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27197024"><span>Historical Improvement in Speed Skating <span class="hlt">Economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Noordhof, Dionne A; van Tok, Elmy; Joosten, Florentine S J G M; Hettinga, Florentina J; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Foster, Carl; de Koning, Jos J</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Half the improvement in 1500-m speed-skating world records can be explained by technological innovations and the other half by athletic improvement. It is hypothesized that improved skating <span class="hlt">economy</span> is accountable for much of the athletic improvement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/clean-air-act-overview/clean-air-act-and-economy','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/clean-air-act-overview/clean-air-act-and-economy"><span>The Clean Air Act and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Since 1970, cleaner air and a growing <span class="hlt">economy</span> have gone hand in hand. The Act has created market opportunities that have helped to inspire innovation in cleaner technologies for which the United States has become a global market leader.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/e3','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/e3"><span>E3: <span class="hlt">Economy</span>, Energy and Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>E3 is a technical assistance framework helping communities, manufacturers, and manufacturing supply chains adapt and thrive in today's green <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Find information on pollution prevention, sustainable business practices, and energy efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930080771','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930080771"><span>Traffic airships with special reference to <span class="hlt">economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leyensetter, Walther</p> <p>1921-01-01</p> <p>The first part of this report details the efficiency and <span class="hlt">economy</span> of airship travel, while the second part presents methods of economic efficiency with regards to construction, cost of upkeep and operation, and the establishment of airship lines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..SES.CD008G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..SES.CD008G"><span>Transportation Fuels and the Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gabbard, Alex</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>An energy analysis of transportation fuels is performed for comparing automobiles and fuels currently in the marketplace as real world benchmarks projected as "hydrogen <span class="hlt">economy</span>" requirements. Comparisons are made for ideal case average energy values at Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) at 20°C, 1 atmosphere with no loses. "Real world" benchmarks currently in the marketplace illuminate the challenges to be met if an equivalent "hydrogen <span class="hlt">economy</span>" is to become reality. The idea of a "hydrogen <span class="hlt">economy</span>" is that, at some time in the future, world energy needs will be supplied in part or totally from hydrogen; in part as compared to the current "petroleum <span class="hlt">economy</span>" that is the source of most of the world's transportation fuels and only a portion of total energy use, or hydrogen as the source of all energy consumption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AcAau..57..372C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AcAau..57..372C"><span>Power from space and the hydrogen <span class="hlt">economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chapman, Philip K.; Haynes, William E.</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>Recent discoveries of methane hydrates under the Arctic permafrost and on continental shelves have revealed an immense energy resource. This has two major implications for the Solar Power Satellite (SPS). First, the SPS will not be built unless it can produce electricity at a price competitive with that generated using methane from hydrates (perhaps with sequestration of carbon dioxide). Second, steam reformation of methane is much cheaper than water electrolysis as a source of hydrogen, so there is little role for the SPS (or any other electric power technology) in the proposed hydrogen <span class="hlt">economy</span>. On the other hand, an <span class="hlt">economy</span> based on methane-electric hybrid vehicles offers advantages quite comparable to the hydrogen <span class="hlt">economy</span>, without its technical problems and immense capital requirements. The methane <span class="hlt">economy</span> also offers a transitional path to increasing direct use of electricity in transportation, a development that could create a major market for the SPS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Rate+AND+Displacement&pg=4&id=EJ559165','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Rate+AND+Displacement&pg=4&id=EJ559165"><span>Worker Displacement in an Expanding <span class="hlt">Economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hipple, Steven</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>As the <span class="hlt">economy</span> grew in the mid-1900s, job loss declined and the rate of reemployment rose. Job losses that did occur were more widely dispersed across industries and occupations than in earlier years. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19119226','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19119226"><span><span class="hlt">Opening</span> education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Marshall S</p> <p>2009-01-02</p> <p>Spurred by the publication of Massachusetts Institute of Technology <span class="hlt">Open</span>CourseWare in 2002, the <span class="hlt">open</span> educational resources (OER) movement, which has rapidly expanded and captured the imagination and energy of millions of creators and users throughout the world, now faces many opportunities and substantial challenges as it moves to become an integral part of the world's educational environment. The confluence of the Web and a spirit of sharing intellectual property have fueled a worldwide movement to make knowledge and education materials <span class="hlt">open</span> to all for use. OER are content (courses, books, lesson plans, articles, etc.), tools (virtual laboratories, simulations, and games), and software that support learning and educational practice. OER are free on the Web, and most have licenses that allow copyright holders to retain ownership while providing specified rights for use in original and modified forms. At the least, OER have helped to level the distribution of knowledge across the world. A second promise of OER is to help transform educational practices. This article explores the history of and promises and challenges for OER.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA114682','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA114682"><span>Policy Simulation of the International Coffee <span class="hlt">Economy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>roastings ACCUS Dwmmy variable for United States apparent green coffee roastings DCUS Dummy variable for extremes in United States coffee roasting ...AD-AI1N 682 DEPARTMENT OF STATE. WASHINGTON DC OFFICE OF EXTERNAL-ETC F/8 5/3 POLICY SIMULATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COFFEE <span class="hlt">ECONOMY</span>.(U) 1981 W C...POLICY SIMULATION OF T=E INTERNATIONAL COFFEE <span class="hlt">ECONOMY</span>: FINAL REPORT by Walter C. Labys* This final report describes the completed research of the coffee</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992sctm.rept.....L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992sctm.rept.....L"><span><span class="hlt">Small</span>-crack test methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Larsen, James M.; Allison, John E.</p> <p></p> <p>This book contains chapters on fracture mechanics parameters for <span class="hlt">small</span> fatigue cracks, monitoring <span class="hlt">small</span>-crack growth by the replication method, measurement of <span class="hlt">small</span> cracks by photomicroscopy (experiments and analysis), and experimental mechanics of microcracks. Other topics discussed are the real-time measurement of <span class="hlt">small-crack-opening</span> behavior using an interferometric strain/displacement gage; direct current electrical potential measurement of the growth of <span class="hlt">small</span> cracks; an ultrasonic method for the measurement of the size and <span class="hlt">opening</span> behavior of <span class="hlt">small</span> fatigue cracks; and the simulation of short crack and other low closure loading conditions, utilizing constant K(max) Delta-K-decreasing fatigue crack growth procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6754677','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6754677"><span>The token <span class="hlt">economy</span>: a decade later.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kazdin, A E</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>In the last decade, the token <span class="hlt">economy</span> has been extended widely across populations and behaviors in treatment, rehabilitation, educational, and community settings. Outcome research has expanded as well to include large-scale program evaluations and comparative and combined treatment studies of the token <span class="hlt">economy</span>. In a previous review (Kazdin & Bootzin, 1972), several obstacles were identified for the effective application of the token <span class="hlt">economy</span>. These included identifying procedures to enhance program efficacy, to train staff, to overcome client resistance, and to promote long-term maintenance and transfer of training. The present paper discusses recent advances in research and reviews progress on the major issues identified previously. New issues have become salient in the last decade that pertain to the extension of the token <span class="hlt">economy</span> to institutional settings. The demands for maintaining the integrity of treatment, the ability to integrate token <span class="hlt">economies</span> within existing institutional constraints, and the disseminability of the procedures on a large scale are major issues that may dictate the future of the token <span class="hlt">economy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000srrt.conf...53R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000srrt.conf...53R"><span>Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rohwer, Christopher J.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>"Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar <span class="hlt">Economy</span>" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar <span class="hlt">economy</span>. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space <span class="hlt">economy</span> and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space <span class="hlt">economy</span>. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new <span class="hlt">economy</span>. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar <span class="hlt">economy</span> should therefore be founded on this same principle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26045340','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26045340"><span>Necitumumab plus gemcitabine and cisplatin versus gemcitabine and cisplatin alone as first-line therapy in patients with stage IV squamous non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer (SQUIRE): an <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, randomised, controlled phase 3 trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thatcher, Nick; Hirsch, Fred R; Luft, Alexander V; Szczesna, Aleksandra; Ciuleanu, Tudor E; Dediu, Mircea; Ramlau, Rodryg; Galiulin, Rinat K; Bálint, Beatrix; Losonczy, György; Kazarnowicz, Andrzej; Park, Keunchil; Schumann, Christian; Reck, Martin; Depenbrock, Henrik; Nanda, Shivani; Kruljac-Letunic, Anamarija; Kurek, Raffael; Paz-Ares, Luis; Socinski, Mark A</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Necitumumab is a second-generation, recombinant, human immunoglobulin G1 EGFR antibody. In this study, we aimed to compare treatment with necitumumab plus gemcitabine and cisplatin versus gemcitabine and cisplatin alone in patients with previously untreated stage IV squamous non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer. We did this <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, randomised phase 3 study at 184 investigative sites in 26 countries. Patients aged 18 years or older with histologically or cytologically confirmed stage IV squamous non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-2 and adequate organ function and who had not received previous chemotherapy for their disease were eligible for inclusion. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned centrally 1:1 to a maximum of six 3-week cycles of gemcitabine and cisplastin chemotherapy with or without necitumumab according to a block randomisation scheme (block size of four) by a telephone-based interactive voice response system or interactive web response system. Chemotherapy was gemcitabine 1250 mg/m(2) administered intravenously over 30 min on days 1 and 8 of a 3-week cycle and cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) administered intravenously over 120 min on day 1 of a 3-week cycle. Necitumumab 800 mg, administered intravenously over a minimum of 50 min on days 1 and 8, was continued after the end of chemotherapy until disease progression or intolerable toxic side-effects occurred. Randomisation was stratified by ECOG performance status and geographical region. Neither physicians nor patients were masked to group assignment because of the expected occurrence of acne-like rash--a class effect of EGFR antibodies--that would have unmasked most patients and investigators to treatment. The primary endpoint was overall survival, analysed by intention to treat. We report the final clinical analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00981058. Between Jan 7, 2010, and Feb 22, 2012, we enrolled 1093 patients</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1096760.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1096760.pdf"><span>Institutions of Higher Education as Engines of <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Green, Rodney D.; Venkatachalam, Padma</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Universities today exert an ever-increasing stimulus to <span class="hlt">small</span> business development, contributing to national and local economic development as the general <span class="hlt">economy</span> becomes increasingly knowledge-based. The transition to a knowledge-based <span class="hlt">economy</span>, coupled with the passage of the Bayh-Dole Act in 1980, has resulted in stronger university-industry…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/small-fiber-neuropathy','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/small-fiber-neuropathy"><span>Genetics Home Reference: <span class="hlt">small</span> fiber neuropathy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Home Health Conditions <span class="hlt">small</span> fiber neuropathy <span class="hlt">small</span> fiber neuropathy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF <span class="hlt">Open</span> All Close All Description <span class="hlt">Small</span> fiber neuropathy is a condition characterized by severe pain attacks ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ESASP.505..565R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ESASP.505..565R"><span><span class="hlt">Opening</span> the Dutch <span class="hlt">Open</span> Telescope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rutten, R. J.; de Wijn, A. G.; Sütterlin, P.; Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Hammerschlag, R. H.</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>We hope to "<span class="hlt">open</span> the DOT" to the international solar physics community as a facility for high-resolution tomography of the solar atmosphere. Our aim is to do so combining peer-review time allocation with service-mode operation in a "hands-on-telescope" education program bringing students to La Palma to assist in the observing and processing. The largest step needed is considerable speedup of the DOT speckle processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1012097','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1012097"><span><span class="hlt">Open</span> University</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>None</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'<span class="hlt">Open</span> University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6304295','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6304295"><span>Theory and evidence for using the <span class="hlt">economy</span>-of-scale law in power plant economics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Phung, D.L.</p> <p>1987-05-01</p> <p>This report compiles theory and evidence for the use of the <span class="hlt">economy</span>-of-scale law in energy economics, particularly in the estimation of capital costs for coal-fired and nuclear power plants. The <span class="hlt">economy</span>-of-scale law is widely used in its simplest form: cost is directly proportional to capacity raised to an exponent. An additive constant is an important component that is not generally taken into account. Also, the <span class="hlt">economy</span> of scale is perforce valid only over a limited size range. The majority of engineering studies have estimated an <span class="hlt">economy</span> of scale exponent of 0.7 to 0.9 for coal-fired plants and an exponent of 0.4 to 0.6 for nuclear plants in the capacity ranges of 400 to 1000 MWe. However, the majority of econometric analyses found little or no <span class="hlt">economy</span> of scale for coal-fired plants and only a slight <span class="hlt">economy</span> of scale for nuclear plants. This disparity is explained by the fact that economists have included regulatory and time-related costs in addition to the direct and indirect costs used by the engineers. Regulatory and time-related costs have become an increasingly larger portion of total costs during the last decade. In addition, these costs appeared to have either a very <span class="hlt">small</span> <span class="hlt">economy</span> of scale or to be increasing as the size of the power plant increased. We conclude that gains in <span class="hlt">economy</span> of scale can only be made by reducing regulatory and time-related costs through design standardization and regulatory stability, in combination with more favorable economic conditions. 59 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol29-sec600-113-93.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol29-sec600-113-93.pdf"><span>40 CFR 600.113-93 - Fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> calculations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> calculations. 600.113-93... FUEL <span class="hlt">ECONOMY</span> AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-93 Fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> calculations....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol29-sec600-113-88.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol29-sec600-113-88.pdf"><span>40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> calculations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL <span class="hlt">ECONOMY</span> AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-88 Fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> calculations....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol29-sec600-113-78.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol29-sec600-113-78.pdf"><span>40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> calculations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL <span class="hlt">ECONOMY</span> AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-78 Fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> calculations....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=translation&pg=7&id=EJ1111967','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=translation&pg=7&id=EJ1111967"><span>Translation, the Knowledge <span class="hlt">Economy</span>, and Crossing Boundaries in Contemporary Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chen, Yun-Shiuan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Significant developments in the global <span class="hlt">economy</span> and information technology have been accompanied by a transformation in the nature and process of knowledge production and dissemination. Concepts such as the knowledge <span class="hlt">economy</span> or creative <span class="hlt">economy</span> have been formulated to accommodate the new and complex developments in knowledge, creativity, <span class="hlt">economy</span>,…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol33-sec1066-840.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol33-sec1066-840.pdf"><span>40 CFR 1066.840 - Highway fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> test procedure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Highway fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> test procedure... Highway fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> test procedure. This section describes the procedure for the highway fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> test (HFET). This test involves emission sampling and fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> measurement for certain vehicles as...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol30-sec600-113-88.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol30-sec600-113-88.pdf"><span>40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> calculations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel <span class="hlt">economy</span> calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL <span class="hlt">ECONOMY</span> AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel <span class="hlt">Economy</span> and Carbon-Related... <span class="hlt">economy</span> calculations. The Administrator will use the calculation procedure set forth in this paragraph...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Economy+AND+social&pg=3&id=EJ1111967','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Economy+AND+social&pg=3&id=EJ1111967"><span>Translation, the Knowledge <span class="hlt">Economy</span>, and Crossing Boundaries in Contemporary Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chen, Yun-Shiuan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Significant developments in the global <span class="hlt">economy</span> and information technology have been accompanied by a transformation in the nature and process of knowledge production and dissemination. Concepts such as the knowledge <span class="hlt">economy</span> or creative <span class="hlt">economy</span> have been formulated to accommodate the new and complex developments in knowledge, creativity, <span class="hlt">economy</span>,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=population+AND+economic+AND+activity&pg=6&id=EJ745401','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=population+AND+economic+AND+activity&pg=6&id=EJ745401"><span>The Configuration of Local Economic Power and Civic Participation in the Global <span class="hlt">Economy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Blanchard, Troy; Mathews, Todd L.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this paper the authors test the hypothesis that local economic concentration is associated with decreased levels of civic participation. They define economic concentration as a social context in which a <span class="hlt">small</span> number of corporate establishments or industries dominate a local <span class="hlt">economy</span>. They argue that economic concentration leads to a monolithic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881568','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881568"><span>Geothermal <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Elizabeth Battocletti</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Small</span> businesses are the cornerstone of the American <span class="hlt">economy</span>. Over 22 million <span class="hlt">small</span> businesses account for approximately 99% of employers, employ about half of the private sector workforce, and are responsible for about two-thirds of net new jobs. Many <span class="hlt">small</span> businesses fared better than the Fortune 500 in 2001. Non-farm proprietors income rose 2.4% in 2001 while corporate profits declined 7.2%. Yet not all is rosy for <span class="hlt">small</span> businesses, particularly new ones. One-third close within two years of <span class="hlt">opening</span>. From 1989 to 1992, almost half closed within four years; only 39.5% were still <span class="hlt">open</span> after six years. Why do some new businesses thrive and some fail? What helps a new business succeed? Industry knowledge, business and financial planning, and good management. <span class="hlt">Small</span> geothermal businesses are no different. Low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources exist throughout the western United States, the majority not yet tapped. A recent survey of ten western states identified more than 9,000 thermal wells and springs, over 900 low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas, and hundreds of direct-use sites. Many opportunities exist for geothermal entrepreneurs to develop many of these sites into thriving <span class="hlt">small</span> businesses. The ''Geothermal <span class="hlt">Small</span> Business Workbook'' (''Workbook'') was written to give geothermal entrepreneurs, <span class="hlt">small</span> businesses, and developers the tools they need to understand geothermal applications--both direct use and <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale power generation--and to write a business and financing plan. The Workbook will: Provide background, market, and regulatory data for direct use and <span class="hlt">small</span>-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; Refer you to several sources of useful information including owners of existing geothermal businesses, trade associations, and other organizations; Break down the complicated and sometimes tedious process of writing a business plan into five easy steps; Lead you--the geothermal entrepreneur, <span class="hlt">small</span> company, or</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21744082','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21744082"><span>Updated survival analysis in patients with stage IIIB or IV non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer receiving BLP25 liposome vaccine (L-BLP25): phase IIB randomized, multicenter, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Butts, Charles; Maksymiuk, Andrew; Goss, Glenwood; Soulières, Denis; Marshall, Ernie; Cormier, Yvon; Ellis, Peter M; Price, Allan; Sawhney, Ravinder; Beier, Frank; Falk, Martin; Murray, Nevin</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>To present an updated survival analysis of an <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, parallel-group, phase IIB trial of BLP25 liposome vaccine (L-BLP25) in patients with stage IIIB or IV non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients were randomized to either L-BLP25 plus best supportive care (BSC) or BSC alone. Patients in the L-BLP25 arm received subcutaneous vaccinations of L-BLP25 930 μg weekly for 8 weeks, followed by maintenance vaccinations at 6-week intervals. Median survival time was 4.2 months longer in patients receiving L-BLP25 plus BSC (n = 88) than in those receiving BSC alone (n = 83; 17.2 months vs. 13.0 months, respectively; hazard ratio [HR] 0.745, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.533-1.042). The 3-year survival rate was 31% in patients receiving L-BLP25 plus BSC and 17% in those receiving BSC (P = 0.035). In the stratified subset of patients with stage IIIB loco-regional (LR) disease, median survival time was 17.3 months longer in patients receiving L-BLP25 plus BSC (n = 35) than in those receiving BSC (n = 30; 30.6 months vs. 13.3 months, respectively; HR 0.548, 95% CI 0.301-0.999). In this subgroup, 3-year survival was 49% in patients receiving L-BLP25 plus BSC and 27% in those receiving BSC (P = 0.070). Confirming the initial results, further follow-up continues to show that survival time for patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC was longer with L-BLP25 plus BSC compared with BSC alone, with the greatest difference seen in patients with stage IIIB LR disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215416','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215416"><span>High <span class="hlt">open</span>-circuit voltage <span class="hlt">small</span>-molecule p-DTS(FBTTh <sub>2</sub> )<sub>2</sub>.ICBA bulk heterojunction solar cells – morphology, excited-state dynamics, and photovoltaic performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ko Kyaw, Aung Ko; Gehrig, Dominik; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Ye; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Laquai, Frédéric; Nguyen, Thuc -Quyen</p> <p>2014-11-27</p> <p>The photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using the solution-processable <span class="hlt">small</span> molecule donor 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (p-DTS(FBTTh<sub>2</sub>)<sub>2</sub> in combination with indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA) as an acceptor is systematically optimized by altering the processing conditions. A high <span class="hlt">open</span>-circuit voltage of 1 V, more than 0.2 V higher than that of a p-DTS(FBTTh<sub>2</sub>)<sub>2</sub>:PC<sub>70</sub>BM blend, is achieved. However, the power conversion efficiency remains around 5% and thus is lower than ~8% previously reported for p-DTS(FBTTh<sub>2</sub>)<sub>2</sub>:PC<sub>70</sub>BM. Transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy over a wide spectral (Vis-NIR) and dynamic (fs to μs) range in combination with multivariate curve resolution analysis of the TA data reveals that generation of free charges is more efficient in the blend with PC<sub>70</sub>BM as an acceptor. In contrast, blends with ICBA create more coulombically bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states, which recombine on the sub-nanosecond timescale by geminate recombination. Furthermore, the ns to μs charge carrier dynamics in p-DTS(FBTTh<sub>2</sub>)<sub>2</sub>:ICBA blends are only weakly intensity dependent implying a significant contribution of recombination from long-lived CT states and trapped charges, while those in p-DTS(FBTTh<sub>2</sub>)<sub>2</sub>:PC<sub>70</sub>BM decay via an intensity-dependent recombination mechanism indicating that spatially separated (free) charge carriers are observed, which can be extracted as photocurrent from the device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26105600','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26105600"><span>First-line erlotinib versus gemcitabine/cisplatin in patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer: analyses from the phase III, randomized, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, ENSURE study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Y-L; Zhou, C; Liam, C-K; Wu, G; Liu, X; Zhong, Z; Lu, S; Cheng, Y; Han, B; Chen, L; Huang, C; Qin, S; Zhu, Y; Pan, H; Liang, H; Li, E; Jiang, G; How, S H; Fernando, M C L; Zhang, Y; Xia, F; Zuo, Y</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The phase III, randomized, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label ENSURE study (NCT01342965) evaluated first-line erlotinib versus gemcitabine/cisplatin (GP) in patients from China, Malaysia and the Philippines with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients ≥18 years old with histologically/cytologically confirmed stage IIIB/IV EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2 were randomized 1:1 to receive erlotinib (oral; 150 mg once daily until progression/unacceptable toxicity) or GP [G 1250 mg/m(2) i.v. days 1 and 8 (3-weekly cycle); P 75 mg/m(2) i.v. day 1, (3-weekly cycle) for up to four cycles]. Primary end point: investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). Other end points include objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety. A total of 217 patients were randomized: 110 to erlotinib and 107 to GP. Investigator-assessed median PFS was 11.0 months versus 5.5 months, erlotinib versus GP, respectively [hazard ratio (HR), 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.51; log-rank P < 0.0001]. Independent Review Committee-assessed median PFS was consistent (HR, 0.42). Median OS was 26.3 versus 25.5 months, erlotinib versus GP, respectively (HR, 0.91, 95% CI 0.63-1.31; log-rank P = .607). ORR was 62.7% for erlotinib and 33.6% for GP. Treatment-related serious adverse events (AEs) occurred in 2.7% versus 10.6% of erlotinib and GP patients, respectively. The most common grade ≥3 AEs were rash (6.4%) with erlotinib, and neutropenia (25.0%), leukopenia (14.4%), and anemia (12.5%) with GP. These analyses demonstrate that first-line erlotinib provides a statistically significant improvement in PFS versus GP in Asian patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC (NCT01342965). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27267608','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27267608"><span>Pembrolizumab for patients with melanoma or non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer and untreated brain metastases: early analysis of a non-randomised, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, phase 2 trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goldberg, Sarah B; Gettinger, Scott N; Mahajan, Amit; Chiang, Anne C; Herbst, Roy S; Sznol, Mario; Tsiouris, Apostolos John; Cohen, Justine; Vortmeyer, Alexander; Jilaveanu, Lucia; Yu, James; Hegde, Upendra; Speaker, Stephanie; Madura, Matthew; Ralabate, Amanda; Rivera, Angel; Rowen, Elin; Gerrish, Heather; Yao, Xiaopan; Chiang, Veronica; Kluger, Harriet M</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Immunotherapy targeting the PD-1 axis has activity in several tumour types. We aimed to establish the activity and safety of the PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab in patients with untreated brain metastases from melanoma or non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this non-randomised, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, phase 2 trial, we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with melanoma or NSCLC with untreated brain metastases from the Yale Cancer Center. Patients had at least one untreated or progressive brain metastasis between 5 and 20 mm in diameter without associated neurological symptoms or the need for corticosteroids. Patients with NSCLC had tumour tissue positive for PD-L1 expression; this was not required for patients with melanoma. Patients were given 10 mg/kg pembrolizumab every 2 weeks until progression. The primary endpoint was brain metastasis response assessed in all treated patients. The trial is ongoing and here we present an early analysis. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02085070. Between March 31, 2014, and May 31, 2015, we screened 52 patients with untreated or progressive brain metastases (18 with melanoma, 34 with NSCLC), and enrolled 36 (18 with melanoma, 18 with NSCLC). A brain metastasis response was achieved in four (22%; 95% CI 7-48) of 18 patients with melanoma and six (33%; 14-59) of 18 patients with NSCLC. Responses were durable, with all but one patient with NSCLC who responded showing an ongoing response at the time of data analysis on June 30, 2015. Treatment-related serious and grade 3-4 adverse events were grade 3 elevated aminotransferases (n=1 [6%]) in the melanoma cohort, and grade 3 colitis (n=1 [6%]), grade 3 pneumonitis (n=1 [6%]), grade 3 fatigue (n=1 [6%]), grade 4 hyperkalemia (n=1 [6%]), and grade 2 acute kidney injury (n=1 [6%]) in the NSCLC cohort. Clinically significant neurological adverse events included transient grade 3 cognitive dysfunction and grade 1-2 seizures (n=3 [17%]) in the melanoma cohort</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28126333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28126333"><span>First-line ceritinib versus platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced ALK-rearranged non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer (ASCEND-4): a randomised, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, phase 3 study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soria, Jean-Charles; Tan, Daniel S W; Chiari, Rita; Wu, Yi-Long; Paz-Ares, Luis; Wolf, Juergen; Geater, Sarayut L; Orlov, Sergey; Cortinovis, Diego; Yu, Chong-Jen; Hochmair, Maximillian; Cortot, Alexis B; Tsai, Chun-Ming; Moro-Sibilot, Denis; Campelo, Rosario G; McCulloch, Tracey; Sen, Paramita; Dugan, Margaret; Pantano, Serafino; Branle, Fabrice; Massacesi, Cristian; de Castro, Gilberto</p> <p>2017-03-04</p> <p>The efficacy of ceritinib in patients with untreated anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-<span class="hlt">small</span>-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is not known. We assessed the efficacy and safety of ceritinib versus platinum-based chemotherapy in these patients. This randomised, <span class="hlt">open</span>-label, phase 3 study in untreated patients with stage IIIB/IV ALK-rearranged non-squamous NSCLC was done in 134 centres across 28 countries. Eligible patients were assigned via interactive response technology to oral ceritinib 750 mg/day or platinum-based chemotherapy ([cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) or carboplatin AUC 5-6 plus pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2)] every 3 weeks for four cycles followed by maintenance pemetrexed); randomisation was stratified by World Health Organization performance status (0 vs 1-2), previous neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy, and presence of brain metastases as per investigator's assessment at screening. Investigators and patients were not masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was blinded independent review committee assessed progression-free survival, based on all randomly assigned patients (the full analysis set). Efficacy analyses were done based on the full analysis set. All safety analyses were done based on the safety set, which included all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01828099. Between Aug 19, 2013, and May 11, 2015, 376 patients were randomly assigned to ceritinib (n=189) or chemotherapy (n=187). Median progression-free survival (as assessed by blinded independent review committee) was 16·6 months (95% CI 12·6-27·2) in the ceritinib group and 8·1 months (5·8-11·1) in the chemotherapy group (hazard ratio 0·55 [95% CI 0·42-0·73]; p<0·00001). The most common adverse events were diarrhoea (in 160 [85%] of 189 patients), nausea (130 [69%]), vomiting (125 [66%]), and an increase in alanine aminotransferase (114 [60%]) in the ceritinib group and nausea (in 97 [55%] of 175</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10165264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10165264"><span><span class="hlt">Economies</span> of scale and scope as an explanation of merger and output diversification activities in the health maintenance organization industry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Given, R S</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>This paper tests for the existence and magnitude of <span class="hlt">economies</span> of scale and scope as possible explanations for the recent observed trends in increasing health maintenance organization (HMO) scale (through merger and acquisition) and scope (through greater participation in public enrollee markets) using firm level data from a sample of California HMOs for the time period 1986-1992. The results suggest that <span class="hlt">economies</span> of scale provide a strong justification for mergers only in the case of relatively <span class="hlt">small</span> HMOs (i.e. those with fewer than 115,000 enrollees), and <span class="hlt">economies</span> of scope do not explain the increasing HMO enrollment of public enrollees.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+economy%22&pg=6&id=ED518339','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+economy%22&pg=6&id=ED518339"><span>Education and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: Boosting California's <span class="hlt">Economy</span> by Improving High School Graduation Rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Building on its previous work examining education and the <span class="hlt">economy</span>, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the <span class="hlt">economies</span> of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+economy%22&pg=5&id=ED518287','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+economy%22&pg=5&id=ED518287"><span>Education and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: Boosting North Carolina's <span class="hlt">Economy</span> by Improving High School Graduation Rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Building on its previous work examining education and the <span class="hlt">economy</span>, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the <span class="hlt">economies</span> of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+economy%22&pg=6&id=ED518338','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+economy%22&pg=6&id=ED518338"><span>Education and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: Boosting Idaho's <span class="hlt">Economy</span> by Improving High School Graduation Rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Building on its previous work examining education and the <span class="hlt">economy</span>, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the <span class="hlt">economies</span> of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+economy%22&pg=6&id=ED518337','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+economy%22&pg=6&id=ED518337"><span>Education and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: Boosting Arizona's <span class="hlt">Economy</span> by Improving High School Graduation Rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Building on its previous work examining education and the <span class="hlt">economy</span>, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the <span class="hlt">economies</span> of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+economy%22&pg=6&id=ED518328','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+economy%22&pg=6&id=ED518328"><span>Education and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: Boosting Kansas' <span class="hlt">Economy</span> by Improving High School Graduation Rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Building on its previous work examining education and the <span class="hlt">economy</span>, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the <span class="hlt">economies</span> of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+economy%22&pg=4&id=ED518277','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+economy%22&pg=4&id=ED518277"><span>Education and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: Boosting Texas's <span class="hlt">Economy</span> by Improving High School Graduation Rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Building on its previous work examining education and the <span class="hlt">economy</span>, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the <span class="hlt">economies</span> of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+economy%22&pg=6&id=ED518335','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+economy%22&pg=6&id=ED518335"><span>Education and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: Boosting Iowa's <span class="hlt">Economy</span> by Improving High School Graduation Rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Building on its previous work examining education and the <span class="hlt">economy</span>, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the <span class="hlt">economies</span> of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+economy%22&pg=6&id=ED518334','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+economy%22&pg=6&id=ED518334"><span>Education and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: Boosting Hawaii's <span class="hlt">Economy</span> by Improving High School Graduation Rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Building on its previous work examining education and the <span class="hlt">economy</span>, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the <span class="hlt">economies</span> of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+economy%22&pg=5&id=ED518294','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+economy%22&pg=5&id=ED518294"><span>Education and the <span class="hlt">Economy</span>: Boosting Pennsylvania's <span class="hlt">Economy</span> by Improving High School Graduation Rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Building on its previous work examining education and the <span class="hlt">economy</span>, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the <span class="hlt">economies</span> of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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