Science.gov

Sample records for small rna analysis

  1. psRNATarget: a plant small RNA target analysis server

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xinbin; Zhao, Patrick Xuechun

    2011-01-01

    Plant endogenous non-coding short small RNAs (20–24 nt), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and a subset of small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs), play important role in gene expression regulatory networks (GRNs). For example, many transcription factors and development-related genes have been reported as targets of these regulatory small RNAs. Although a number of miRNA target prediction algorithms and programs have been developed, most of them were designed for animal miRNAs which are significantly different from plant miRNAs in the target recognition process. These differences demand the development of separate plant miRNA (and ta-siRNA) target analysis tool(s). We present psRNATarget, a plant small RNA target analysis server, which features two important analysis functions: (i) reverse complementary matching between small RNA and target transcript using a proven scoring schema, and (ii) target-site accessibility evaluation by calculating unpaired energy (UPE) required to ‘open’ secondary structure around small RNA’s target site on mRNA. The psRNATarget incorporates recent discoveries in plant miRNA target recognition, e.g. it distinguishes translational and post-transcriptional inhibition, and it reports the number of small RNA/target site pairs that may affect small RNA binding activity to target transcript. The psRNATarget server is designed for high-throughput analysis of next-generation data with an efficient distributed computing back-end pipeline that runs on a Linux cluster. The server front-end integrates three simplified user-friendly interfaces to accept user-submitted or preloaded small RNAs and transcript sequences; and outputs a comprehensive list of small RNA/target pairs along with the online tools for batch downloading, key word searching and results sorting. The psRNATarget server is freely available at http://plantgrn.noble.org/psRNATarget/. PMID:21622958

  2. The UEA Small RNA Workbench: A Suite of Computational Tools for Small RNA Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mohorianu, Irina; Stocks, Matthew Benedict; Applegate, Christopher Steven; Folkes, Leighton; Moulton, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    RNA silencing (RNA interference, RNAi) is a complex, highly conserved mechanism mediated by short, typically 20-24 nt in length, noncoding RNAs known as small RNAs (sRNAs). They act as guides for the sequence-specific transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of target mRNAs and play a key role in the fine-tuning of biological processes such as growth, response to stresses, or defense mechanism.High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies are employed to capture the expression levels of sRNA populations. The processing of the resulting big data sets facilitated the computational analysis of the sRNA patterns of variation within biological samples such as time point experiments, tissue series or various treatments. Rapid technological advances enable larger experiments, often with biological replicates leading to a vast amount of raw data. As a result, in this fast-evolving field, the existing methods for sequence characterization and prediction of interaction (regulatory) networks periodically require adapting or in extreme cases, a complete redesign to cope with the data deluge. In addition, the presence of numerous tools focused only on particular steps of HTS analysis hinders the systematic parsing of the results and their interpretation.The UEA small RNA Workbench (v1-4), described in this chapter, provides a user-friendly, modular, interactive analysis in the form of a suite of computational tools designed to process and mine sRNA datasets for interesting characteristics that can be linked back to the observed phenotypes. First, we show how to preprocess the raw sequencing output and prepare it for downstream analysis. Then we review some quality checks that can be used as a first indication of sources of variability between samples. Next we show how the Workbench can provide a comparison of the effects of different normalization approaches on the distributions of expression, enhanced methods for the identification of differentially expressed

  3. DSAP: deep-sequencing small RNA analysis pipeline.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Jung; Liu, Yi-Chung; Lee, Chi-Ching; Lin, Wei-Chen; Gan, Richie Ruei-Chi; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Tang, Petrus

    2010-07-01

    DSAP is an automated multiple-task web service designed to provide a total solution to analyzing deep-sequencing small RNA datasets generated by next-generation sequencing technology. DSAP uses a tab-delimited file as an input format, which holds the unique sequence reads (tags) and their corresponding number of copies generated by the Solexa sequencing platform. The input data will go through four analysis steps in DSAP: (i) cleanup: removal of adaptors and poly-A/T/C/G/N nucleotides; (ii) clustering: grouping of cleaned sequence tags into unique sequence clusters; (iii) non-coding RNA (ncRNA) matching: sequence homology mapping against a transcribed sequence library from the ncRNA database Rfam (http://rfam.sanger.ac.uk/); and (iv) known miRNA matching: detection of known miRNAs in miRBase (http://www.mirbase.org/) based on sequence homology. The expression levels corresponding to matched ncRNAs and miRNAs are summarized in multi-color clickable bar charts linked to external databases. DSAP is also capable of displaying miRNA expression levels from different jobs using a log(2)-scaled color matrix. Furthermore, a cross-species comparative function is also provided to show the distribution of identified miRNAs in different species as deposited in miRBase. DSAP is available at http://dsap.cgu.edu.tw.

  4. Oasis: online analysis of small RNA deep sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Capece, Vincenzo; Garcia Vizcaino, Julio C; Vidal, Ramon; Rahman, Raza-Ur; Pena Centeno, Tonatiuh; Shomroni, Orr; Suberviola, Irantzu; Fischer, Andre; Bonn, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    Oasis is a web application that allows for the fast and flexible online analysis of small-RNA-seq (sRNA-seq) data. It was designed for the end user in the lab, providing an easy-to-use web frontend including video tutorials, demo data and best practice step-by-step guidelines on how to analyze sRNA-seq data. Oasis' exclusive selling points are a differential expression module that allows for the multivariate analysis of samples, a classification module for robust biomarker detection and an advanced programming interface that supports the batch submission of jobs. Both modules include the analysis of novel miRNAs, miRNA targets and functional analyses including GO and pathway enrichment. Oasis generates downloadable interactive web reports for easy visualization, exploration and analysis of data on a local system. Finally, Oasis' modular workflow enables for the rapid (re-) analysis of data. Oasis is implemented in Python, R, Java, PHP, C++ and JavaScript. It is freely available at http://oasis.dzne.de. stefan.bonn@dzne.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Small RNA sequencing for secondary metabolite analysis in Persicaria minor.

    PubMed

    Samad, Abdul Fatah A; Nazaruddin, Nazaruddin; Sajad, Muhammad; Jani, Jaeyres; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul; Zainal, Zamri; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2017-09-01

    Persicaria minor (kesum) is an important medicinal plant and commonly found in southeast countries; Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam. This plant is enriched with a variety of secondary metabolites (SMs), and among these SMs, terpenoids are in high abundance. Terpenoids are comprised of many valuable biomolecules which have well-established role in agriculture and pharmaceutical industry. In P. minor , for the first time, we have generated small RNAs data sets, which can be used as tool in deciphering their roles in terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. Fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum was used as elicitor to trigger SMs biosynthesis in P. minor. Raw reads and small RNA analysis data have already been deposited at GenBank under the accessions; SRX2645684 ( Fusarium -treated), SRX2645685 ( Fusarium -treated), SRX2645686 (mock-infected), and SRX2645687 (mock-infected).

  6. SPAR: small RNA-seq portal for analysis of sequencing experiments.

    PubMed

    Kuksa, Pavel P; Amlie-Wolf, Alexandre; Katanic, Živadin; Valladares, Otto; Wang, Li-San; Leung, Yuk Yee

    2018-05-04

    The introduction of new high-throughput small RNA sequencing protocols that generate large-scale genomics datasets along with increasing evidence of the significant regulatory roles of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have highlighted the urgent need for tools to analyze and interpret large amounts of small RNA sequencing data. However, it remains challenging to systematically and comprehensively discover and characterize sncRNA genes and specifically-processed sncRNA products from these datasets. To fill this gap, we present Small RNA-seq Portal for Analysis of sequencing expeRiments (SPAR), a user-friendly web server for interactive processing, analysis, annotation and visualization of small RNA sequencing data. SPAR supports sequencing data generated from various experimental protocols, including smRNA-seq, short total RNA sequencing, microRNA-seq, and single-cell small RNA-seq. Additionally, SPAR includes publicly available reference sncRNA datasets from our DASHR database and from ENCODE across 185 human tissues and cell types to produce highly informative small RNA annotations across all major small RNA types and other features such as co-localization with various genomic features, precursor transcript cleavage patterns, and conservation. SPAR allows the user to compare the input experiment against reference ENCODE/DASHR datasets. SPAR currently supports analyses of human (hg19, hg38) and mouse (mm10) sequencing data. SPAR is freely available at https://www.lisanwanglab.org/SPAR.

  7. PsRobot: a web-based plant small RNA meta-analysis toolbox.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hua-Jun; Ma, Ying-Ke; Chen, Tong; Wang, Meng; Wang, Xiu-Jie

    2012-07-01

    Small RNAs (smRNAs) in plants, mainly microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, play important roles in both transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation. The broad application of high-throughput sequencing technology has made routinely generation of bulk smRNA sequences in laboratories possible, thus has significantly increased the need for batch analysis tools. PsRobot is a web-based easy-to-use tool dedicated to the identification of smRNAs with stem-loop shaped precursors (such as microRNAs and short hairpin RNAs) and their target genes/transcripts. It performs fast analysis to identify smRNAs with stem-loop shaped precursors among batch input data and predicts their targets using a modified Smith-Waterman algorithm. PsRobot integrates the expression data of smRNAs in major plant smRNA biogenesis gene mutants and smRNA-associated protein complexes to give clues to the smRNA generation and functional processes. Besides improved specificity, the reliability of smRNA target prediction results can also be evaluated by mRNA cleavage (degradome) data. The cross species conservation statuses and the multiplicity of smRNA target sites are also provided. PsRobot is freely accessible at http://omicslab.genetics.ac.cn/psRobot/.

  8. Small RNA profiling and degradome analysis reveal regulation of microRNA in peanut embryogenesis and early pod development.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Shuzhen; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Xia, Han; Hou, Lei; Ju, Zheng; Zhang, Ye; Li, Changsheng; Wang, Xingjun

    2017-03-02

    As a typical geocarpic plant, peanut embryogenesis and pod development are complex processes involving many gene regulatory pathways and controlled by appropriate hormone level. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play indispensable roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Recently, identification and characterization of peanut miRNAs has been described. However, whether miRNAs participate in the regulation of peanut embryogenesis and pod development has yet to be explored. In this study, small RNA and degradome libraries from peanut early pod of different developmental stages were constructed and sequenced. A total of 70 known and 24 novel miRNA families were discovered. Among them, 16 miRNA families were legume-specific and 12 families were peanut-specific. 30 known and 10 novel miRNA families were differentially expressed during pod development. In addition, 115 target genes were identified for 47 miRNA families by degradome sequencing. Several new targets that might be specific to peanut were found and further validated by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5' cDNA ends (RLM 5'-RACE). Furthermore, we performed profiling analysis of intact and total transcripts of several target genes, demonstrating that SPL (miR156/157), NAC (miR164), PPRP (miR167 and miR1088), AP2 (miR172) and GRF (miR396) are actively modulated during early pod development, respectively. Large numbers of miRNAs and their related target genes were identified through deep sequencing. These findings provided new information on miRNA-mediated regulatory pathways in peanut pod, which will contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms that governing peanut embryo and early pod development.

  9. DRME: Count-based differential RNA methylation analysis at small sample size scenario.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lian; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Gao, Fan; Zhang, Yixin; Huang, Yufei; Chen, Runsheng; Meng, Jia

    2016-04-15

    Differential methylation, which concerns difference in the degree of epigenetic regulation via methylation between two conditions, has been formulated as a beta or beta-binomial distribution to address the within-group biological variability in sequencing data. However, a beta or beta-binomial model is usually difficult to infer at small sample size scenario with discrete reads count in sequencing data. On the other hand, as an emerging research field, RNA methylation has drawn more and more attention recently, and the differential analysis of RNA methylation is significantly different from that of DNA methylation due to the impact of transcriptional regulation. We developed DRME to better address the differential RNA methylation problem. The proposed model can effectively describe within-group biological variability at small sample size scenario and handles the impact of transcriptional regulation on RNA methylation. We tested the newly developed DRME algorithm on simulated and 4 MeRIP-Seq case-control studies and compared it with Fisher's exact test. It is in principle widely applicable to several other RNA-related data types as well, including RNA Bisulfite sequencing and PAR-CLIP. The code together with an MeRIP-Seq dataset is available online (https://github.com/lzcyzm/DRME) for evaluation and reproduction of the figures shown in this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ebbie: automated analysis and storage of small RNA cloning data using a dynamic web server

    PubMed Central

    Ebhardt, H Alexander; Wiese, Kay C; Unrau, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    Background DNA sequencing is used ubiquitously: from deciphering genomes[1] to determining the primary sequence of small RNAs (smRNAs) [2-5]. The cloning of smRNAs is currently the most conventional method to determine the actual sequence of these important regulators of gene expression. Typical smRNA cloning projects involve the sequencing of hundreds to thousands of smRNA clones that are delimited at their 5' and 3' ends by fixed sequence regions. These primers result from the biochemical protocol used to isolate and convert the smRNA into clonable PCR products. Recently we completed a smRNA cloning project involving tobacco plants, where analysis was required for ~700 smRNA sequences[6]. Finding no easily accessible research tool to enter and analyze smRNA sequences we developed Ebbie to assist us with our study. Results Ebbie is a semi-automated smRNA cloning data processing algorithm, which initially searches for any substring within a DNA sequencing text file, which is flanked by two constant strings. The substring, also termed smRNA or insert, is stored in a MySQL and BlastN database. These inserts are then compared using BlastN to locally installed databases allowing the rapid comparison of the insert to both the growing smRNA database and to other static sequence databases. Our laboratory used Ebbie to analyze scores of DNA sequencing data originating from an smRNA cloning project[6]. Through its built-in instant analysis of all inserts using BlastN, we were able to quickly identify 33 groups of smRNAs from ~700 database entries. This clustering allowed the easy identification of novel and highly expressed clusters of smRNAs. Ebbie is available under GNU GPL and currently implemented on Conclusion Ebbie was designed for medium sized smRNA cloning projects with about 1,000 database entries [6-8].Ebbie can be used for any type of sequence analysis where two constant primer regions flank a sequence of interest. The reliable storage of inserts, and their

  11. Analysis of RNA structure using small-angle X-ray scattering

    PubMed Central

    Cantara, William A.; Olson, Erik D.; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2016-01-01

    In addition to their role in correctly attaching specific amino acids to cognate tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) have been found to possess many alternative functions and often bind to and act on other nucleic acids. In contrast to the well-defined 3D structure of tRNA, the structures of many of the other RNAs recognized by aaRSs have not been solved. Despite advances in the use of X-ray crystallography (XRC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) for structural characterization of biomolecules, significant challenges to solving RNA structures still exist. Recently, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) has been increasingly employed to characterize the 3D structures of RNAs and RNA-protein complexes. SAXS is capable of providing low-resolution tertiary structure information under physiological conditions and with less intensive sample preparation and data analysis requirements than XRC, NMR and cryo-EM. In this article, we describe best practices involved in the process of RNA and RNA-protein sample preparation, SAXS data collection, data analysis, and structural model building. PMID:27777026

  12. tRNA-Derived Small RNA: A Novel Regulatory Small Non-Coding RNA.

    PubMed

    Li, Siqi; Xu, Zhengping; Sheng, Jinghao

    2018-05-10

    Deep analysis of next-generation sequencing data unveils numerous small non-coding RNAs with distinct functions. Recently, fragments derived from tRNA, named as tRNA-derived small RNA (tsRNA), have attracted broad attention. There are mainly two types of tsRNAs, including tRNA-derived stress-induced RNA (tiRNA) and tRNA-derived fragment (tRF), which differ in the cleavage position of the precursor or mature tRNA transcript. Emerging evidence has shown that tsRNAs are not merely tRNA degradation debris but have been recognized to play regulatory roles in many specific physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we summarize the biogeneses of various tsRNAs, present the emerging concepts regarding functions and mechanisms of action of tsRNAs, highlight the potential application of tsRNAs in human diseases, and put forward the current problems and future research directions.

  13. sRNAtoolboxVM: Small RNA Analysis in a Virtual Machine.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Martín, Cristina; Lebrón, Ricardo; Rueda, Antonio; Oliver, José L; Hackenberg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) data for small RNAs (noncoding RNA molecules that are 20-250 nucleotides in length) can now be routinely generated by minimally equipped wet laboratories; however, the bottleneck in HTS-based research has shifted now to the analysis of such huge amount of data. One of the reasons is that many analysis types require a Linux environment but computers, system administrators, and bioinformaticians suppose additional costs that often cannot be afforded by small to mid-sized groups or laboratories. Web servers are an alternative that can be used if the data is not subjected to privacy issues (what very often is an important issue with medical data). However, in any case they are less flexible than stand-alone programs limiting the number of workflows and analysis types that can be carried out.We show in this protocol how virtual machines can be used to overcome those problems and limitations. sRNAtoolboxVM is a virtual machine that can be executed on all common operating systems through virtualization programs like VirtualBox or VMware, providing the user with a high number of preinstalled programs like sRNAbench for small RNA analysis without the need to maintain additional servers and/or operating systems.

  14. Small RNA-Seq analysis reveals microRNA-regulation of the Imd pathway during Escherichia coli infection in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengjie; Shen, Li; Sun, Lianjie; Xu, Jiao; Jin, Ping; Chen, Liming; Ma, Fei

    2017-05-01

    Drosophila have served as a model for research on innate immunity for decades. However, knowledge of the post-transcriptional regulation of immune gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) remains rudimentary. In the present study, using small RNA-seq and bioinformatics analysis, we identified 67 differentially expressed miRNAs in Drosophila infected with Escherichia coli compared to injured flies at three time-points. Furthermore, we found that 21 of these miRNAs were potentially involved in the regulation of Imd pathway-related genes. Strikingly, based on UAS-miRNAs line screening and Dual-luciferase assay, we identified that miR-9a and miR-981 could both negatively regulate Drosophila antibacterial defenses and decrease the level of the antibacterial peptide, Diptericin. Taken together, these data support the involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of the Drosophila Imd pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of plant-derived miRNAs in animal small RNA datasets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants contain significant quantities of small RNAs (sRNAs) derived from various sRNA biogenesis pathways. Many of these sRNAs play regulatory roles in plants. Previous analysis revealed that numerous sRNAs in corn, rice and soybean seeds have high sequence similarity to animal genes. However, exogenous RNA is considered to be unstable within the gastrointestinal tract of many animals, thus limiting potential for any adverse effects from consumption of dietary RNA. A recent paper reported that putative plant miRNAs were detected in animal plasma and serum, presumably acquired through ingestion, and may have a functional impact in the consuming organisms. Results To address the question of how common this phenomenon could be, we searched for plant miRNAs sequences in public sRNA datasets from various tissues of mammals, chicken and insects. Our analyses revealed that plant miRNAs were present in the animal sRNA datasets, and significantly miR168 was extremely over-represented. Furthermore, all or nearly all (>96%) miR168 sequences were monocot derived for most datasets, including datasets for two insects reared on dicot plants in their respective experiments. To investigate if plant-derived miRNAs, including miR168, could accumulate and move systemically in insects, we conducted insect feeding studies for three insects including corn rootworm, which has been shown to be responsive to plant-produced long double-stranded RNAs. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that the observed plant miRNAs in animal sRNA datasets can originate in the process of sequencing, and that accumulation of plant miRNAs via dietary exposure is not universal in animals. PMID:22873950

  16. An Integrated Analysis of miRNA and mRNA Expressions in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lina; Huang, Yanyan; Zhu, Wangyu; Zhou, Shiquan; Zhou, Jihang; Zeng, Fang; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Yongkui; Yu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Using DNA microarrays, we generated both mRNA and miRNA expression data from 6 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and their matching normal control from adjacent tissues to identify potential miRNA markers for diagnostics. We demonstrated that hsa-miR-96 is significantly and consistently up-regulated in all 6 NSCLCs. We validated this result in an independent set of 35 paired tumors and their adjacent normal tissues, as well as their sera that are collected before surgical resection or chemotherapy, and the results suggested that hsa-miR-96 may play an important role in NSCLC development and has great potential to be used as a noninvasive marker for diagnosing NSCLC. We predicted potential miRNA target mRNAs based on different methods (TargetScan and miRanda). Further classification of miRNA regulated genes based on their relationship with miRNAs revealed that hsa-miR-96 and certain other miRNAs tend to down-regulate their target mRNAs in NSCLC development, which have expression levels permissive to direct interaction between miRNAs and their target mRNAs. In addition, we identified a significant correlation of miRNA regulation with genes coincide with high density of CpG islands, which suggests that miRNA may represent a primary regulatory mechanism governing basic cellular functions and cell differentiations, and such mechanism may be complementary to DNA methylation in repressing or activating gene expression. PMID:22046296

  17. Comparative Analysis of Argonaute-dependent Small RNA Pathways in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rui; Hotta, Ikuko; Denli, Ahmet M.; Hong, Pengyu; Perrimon, Norbert; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The specificity of RNAi pathways is determined by several classes of small RNAs, which include siRNAs, piRNAs, endo-siRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs). These small RNAs are invariably incorporated into large Argonaute (Ago)-containing effector complexes known as RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs), which they guide to silencing targets. Both genetic and biochemical strategies have yielded conserved molecular components of small RNA biogenesis and effector machineries. However, given the complexity of these pathways, there are likely to be additional components and regulators that remain to be uncovered. We have undertaken a comparative and comprehensive RNAi screen to identify genes that impact three major Ago-dependent small RNA pathways that operate in Drosophila S2 cells. We identify subsets of candidates that act positively or negatively in siRNA, endo-siRNA and miRNA pathways. Our studies indicate that many components are shared among all three Argonaute-dependent silencing pathways, though each is also impacted by discrete sets of genes. PMID:19026789

  18. A systems biology approach for miRNA-mRNA expression patterns analysis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Ali; Tavallaei, Mahmood; Hosseini, Sayed Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) is a prevalent and heterogeneous subtype of lung cancer accounting for 85 percent of patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small endogenous non-coding RNAs, incorporate into regulation of gene expression post-transcriptionally. Therefore, deregulation of miRNAs' expression has provided further layers of complexity to the molecular etiology and pathogenesis of different diseases and malignancies. Although, until now considerable number of studies has been carried out to illuminate this complexity in NSCLC, they have remained less effective in their goal due to lack of a holistic and integrative systems biology approach which considers all natural elaborations of miRNAs' function. It is able to reliably nominate most affected signaling pathways and therapeutic target genes by deregulated miRNAs during a particular pathological condition. Herein, we utilized a holistic systems biology approach, based on appropriate re-analyses of microarray datasets followed by reliable data filtering, to analyze integrative and combinatorial deregulated miRNA-mRNA interaction network in NSCLC, aiming to ascertain miRNA-dysregulated signaling pathway and potential therapeutic miRNAs and mRNAs which represent a lion' share during various aspects of NSCLC's pathogenesis. Our systems biology approach introduced and nominated 1) important deregulated miRNAs in NSCLCs compared with normal tissue 2) significant and confident deregulated mRNAs which were anti-correlatively targeted by deregulated miRNA in NSCLCs and 3) dysregulated signaling pathways in association with deregulated miRNA-mRNAs interactions in NSCLCs. These results introduce possible mechanism of function of deregulated miRNAs and mRNAs in NSCLC that could be used as potential therapeutic targets.

  19. Oasis 2: improved online analysis of small RNA-seq data.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Raza-Ur; Gautam, Abhivyakti; Bethune, Jörn; Sattar, Abdul; Fiosins, Maksims; Magruder, Daniel Sumner; Capece, Vincenzo; Shomroni, Orr; Bonn, Stefan

    2018-02-14

    Small RNA molecules play important roles in many biological processes and their dysregulation or dysfunction can cause disease. The current method of choice for genome-wide sRNA expression profiling is deep sequencing. Here we present Oasis 2, which is a new main release of the Oasis web application for the detection, differential expression, and classification of small RNAs in deep sequencing data. Compared to its predecessor Oasis, Oasis 2 features a novel and speed-optimized sRNA detection module that supports the identification of small RNAs in any organism with higher accuracy. Next to the improved detection of small RNAs in a target organism, the software now also recognizes potential cross-species miRNAs and viral and bacterial sRNAs in infected samples. In addition, novel miRNAs can now be queried and visualized interactively, providing essential information for over 700 high-quality miRNA predictions across 14 organisms. Robust biomarker signatures can now be obtained using the novel enhanced classification module. Oasis 2 enables biologists and medical researchers to rapidly analyze and query small RNA deep sequencing data with improved precision, recall, and speed, in an interactive and user-friendly environment. Oasis 2 is implemented in Java, J2EE, mysql, Python, R, PHP and JavaScript. It is freely available at https://oasis.dzne.de.

  20. Comparative analysis of the small RNA transcriptomes of Pinus contorta and Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Ryan D.; Aksay, Gozde; Dolgosheina, Elena; Ebhardt, H. Alexander; Magrini, Vincent; Mardis, Elaine R.; Sahinalp, S. Cenk; Unrau, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The diversity of microRNAs and small-interfering RNAs has been extensively explored within angiosperms by focusing on a few key organisms such as Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana. A deeper division of the plants is defined by the radiation of the angiosperms and gymnosperms, with the latter comprising the commercially important conifers. The conifers are expected to provide important information regarding the evolution of highly conserved small regulatory RNAs. Deep sequencing provides the means to characterize and quantitatively profile small RNAs in understudied organisms such as these. Pyrosequencing of small RNAs from O. sativa revealed, as expected, ∼21- and ∼24-nt RNAs. The former contained known microRNAs, and the latter largely comprised intergenic-derived sequences likely representing heterochromatin siRNAs. In contrast, sequences from Pinus contorta were dominated by 21-nt small RNAs. Using a novel sequence-based clustering algorithm, we identified sequences belonging to 18 highly conserved microRNA families in P. contorta as well as numerous clusters of conserved small RNAs of unknown function. Using multiple methods, including expressed sequence folding and machine learning algorithms, we found a further 53 candidate novel microRNA families, 51 appearing specific to the P. contorta library. In addition, alignment of small RNA sequences to the O. sativa genome revealed six perfectly conserved classes of small RNA that included chloroplast transcripts and specific types of genomic repeats. The conservation of microRNAs and other small RNAs between the conifers and the angiosperms indicates that important RNA silencing processes were highly developed in the earliest spermatophytes. Genomic mapping of all sequences to the O. sativa genome can be viewed at http://microrna.bcgsc.ca/cgi-bin/gbrowse/rice_build_3/. PMID:18323537

  1. Small molecules targeting viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Highly conserved noncoding RNA (ncRNA) elements in viral genomes and transcripts offer new opportunities to expand the repertoire of drug targets for the development of antiinfective therapy. Ligands binding to ncRNA architectures are able to affect interactions, structural stability or conformational changes and thereby block processes essential for viral replication. Proof of concept for targeting functional RNA by small molecule inhibitors has been demonstrated for multiple viruses with RNA genomes. Strategies to identify antiviral compounds as inhibitors of ncRNA are increasingly emphasizing consideration of drug-like properties of candidate molecules emerging from screening and ligand design. Recent efforts of antiviral lead discovery for RNA targets have provided drug-like small molecules that inhibit viral replication and include inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV), and influenza A virus. While target selectivity remains a challenge for the discovery of useful RNA-binding compounds, a better understanding is emerging of properties that define RNA targets amenable for inhibition by small molecule ligands. Insight from successful approaches of targeting viral ncRNA in HIV, HCV, SARS CoV, and influenza A will provide a basis for the future exploration of RNA targets for therapeutic intervention in other viral pathogens which create urgent, unmet medical needs. Viruses for which targeting ncRNA components in the genome or transcripts may be promising include insect-borne flaviviruses (Dengue, Zika, and West Nile) and filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg). WIREs RNA 2016, 7:726-743. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1373 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. psRNATarget: a plant small RNA target analysis server (2017 release).

    PubMed

    Dai, Xinbin; Zhuang, Zhaohong; Zhao, Patrick Xuechun

    2018-04-30

    Plant regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs), which include most microRNAs (miRNAs) and a subset of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), such as the phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs), play important roles in regulating gene expression. Although generated from genetically distinct biogenesis pathways, these regulatory sRNAs share the same mechanisms for post-translational gene silencing and translational inhibition. psRNATarget was developed to identify plant sRNA targets by (i) analyzing complementary matching between the sRNA sequence and target mRNA sequence using a predefined scoring schema and (ii) by evaluating target site accessibility. This update enhances its analytical performance by developing a new scoring schema that is capable of discovering miRNA-mRNA interactions at higher 'recall rates' without significantly increasing total prediction output. The scoring procedure is customizable for the users to search both canonical and non-canonical targets. This update also enables transmitting and analyzing 'big' data empowered by (a) the implementation of multi-threading chunked file uploading, which can be paused and resumed, using HTML5 APIs and (b) the allocation of significantly more computing nodes to its back-end Linux cluster. The updated psRNATarget server has clear, compelling and user-friendly interfaces that enhance user experiences and present data clearly and concisely. The psRNATarget is freely available at http://plantgrn.noble.org/psRNATarget/.

  3. Viral Small-RNA Analysis of Bombyx mori Larval Midgut during Persistent and Pathogenic Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Zografidis, Aris; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Kolliopoulou, Anna; Apostolou-Karampelis, Konstantinos; Head, Steven R; Deforce, Dieter; Smagghe, Guy; Swevers, Luc

    2015-11-01

    The lepidopteran innate immune response against RNA viruses remains poorly understood, while in other insects several studies have highlighted an essential role for the exo-RNAi pathway in combating viral infection. Here, by using deep-sequencing technology for viral small-RNA (vsRNA) assessment, we provide evidence that exo-RNAi is operative in the silkworm Bombyx mori against both persistent and pathogenic infection of B. mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) which is characterized by a segmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome. Further, we show that Dicer-2 predominantly targets viral dsRNA and produces 20-nucleotide (nt) vsRNAs, whereas an additional pathway is responsive to viral mRNA derived from segment 10. Importantly, vsRNA distributions, which define specific hot and cold spot profiles for each viral segment, to a considerable degree overlap between Dicer-2-related (19 to 21 nt) and Dicer-2-unrelated vsRNAs, suggesting a common origin for these profiles. We found a degenerate motif significantly enriched at the cut sites of vsRNAs of various lengths which link an unknown RNase to the origins of vsRNAs biogenesis and distribution. Accordingly, the indicated RNase activity may be an important early factor for the host's antiviral defense in Lepidoptera. This work contributes to the elucidation of the lepidopteran antiviral response against infection of segmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus (CPV; Reoviridae) and highlights the importance of viral small-RNA (vsRNA) analysis for getting insights into host-pathogen interactions. Three vsRNA pathways are implicated in antiviral defense. For dsRNA, two pathways are proposed, either based on Dicer-2 cleavage to generate 20-nucleotide vsRNAs or based on the activity of an uncharacterized endo-RNase that cleaves the viral RNA substrate at a degenerate motif. The analysis also indicates the existence of a degradation pathway that targets the positive strand of segment 10. Copyright © 2015, American

  4. Viral Small-RNA Analysis of Bombyx mori Larval Midgut during Persistent and Pathogenic Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Kolliopoulou, Anna; Apostolou-Karampelis, Konstantinos; Head, Steven R.; Deforce, Dieter; Smagghe, Guy; Swevers, Luc

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The lepidopteran innate immune response against RNA viruses remains poorly understood, while in other insects several studies have highlighted an essential role for the exo-RNAi pathway in combating viral infection. Here, by using deep-sequencing technology for viral small-RNA (vsRNA) assessment, we provide evidence that exo-RNAi is operative in the silkworm Bombyx mori against both persistent and pathogenic infection of B. mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) which is characterized by a segmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome. Further, we show that Dicer-2 predominantly targets viral dsRNA and produces 20-nucleotide (nt) vsRNAs, whereas an additional pathway is responsive to viral mRNA derived from segment 10. Importantly, vsRNA distributions, which define specific hot and cold spot profiles for each viral segment, to a considerable degree overlap between Dicer-2-related (19 to 21 nt) and Dicer-2-unrelated vsRNAs, suggesting a common origin for these profiles. We found a degenerate motif significantly enriched at the cut sites of vsRNAs of various lengths which link an unknown RNase to the origins of vsRNAs biogenesis and distribution. Accordingly, the indicated RNase activity may be an important early factor for the host's antiviral defense in Lepidoptera. IMPORTANCE This work contributes to the elucidation of the lepidopteran antiviral response against infection of segmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus (CPV; Reoviridae) and highlights the importance of viral small-RNA (vsRNA) analysis for getting insights into host-pathogen interactions. Three vsRNA pathways are implicated in antiviral defense. For dsRNA, two pathways are proposed, either based on Dicer-2 cleavage to generate 20-nucleotide vsRNAs or based on the activity of an uncharacterized endo-RNase that cleaves the viral RNA substrate at a degenerate motif. The analysis also indicates the existence of a degradation pathway that targets the positive strand of segment 10. PMID

  5. Comprehensive processing of high-throughput small RNA sequencing data including quality checking, normalization, and differential expression analysis using the UEA sRNA Workbench

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Matthew; Mohorianu, Irina; Stocks, Matthew; Applegate, Christopher; Dalmay, Tamas; Moulton, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Recently, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) has revealed compelling details about the small RNA (sRNA) population in eukaryotes. These 20 to 25 nt noncoding RNAs can influence gene expression by acting as guides for the sequence-specific regulatory mechanism known as RNA silencing. The increase in sequencing depth and number of samples per project enables a better understanding of the role sRNAs play by facilitating the study of expression patterns. However, the intricacy of the biological hypotheses coupled with a lack of appropriate tools often leads to inadequate mining of the available data and thus, an incomplete description of the biological mechanisms involved. To enable a comprehensive study of differential expression in sRNA data sets, we present a new interactive pipeline that guides researchers through the various stages of data preprocessing and analysis. This includes various tools, some of which we specifically developed for sRNA analysis, for quality checking and normalization of sRNA samples as well as tools for the detection of differentially expressed sRNAs and identification of the resulting expression patterns. The pipeline is available within the UEA sRNA Workbench, a user-friendly software package for the processing of sRNA data sets. We demonstrate the use of the pipeline on a H. sapiens data set; additional examples on a B. terrestris data set and on an A. thaliana data set are described in the Supplemental Information. A comparison with existing approaches is also included, which exemplifies some of the issues that need to be addressed for sRNA analysis and how the new pipeline may be used to do this. PMID:28289155

  6. Genome-wide Annotation, Identification, and Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Regulatory or Small RNA Gene Expression in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Ronan K; Weiss, Andy; Broach, William H; Wiemels, Richard E; Mogen, Austin B; Rice, Kelly C; Shaw, Lindsey N

    2016-02-09

    In Staphylococcus aureus, hundreds of small regulatory or small RNAs (sRNAs) have been identified, yet this class of molecule remains poorly understood and severely understudied. sRNA genes are typically absent from genome annotation files, and as a consequence, their existence is often overlooked, particularly in global transcriptomic studies. To facilitate improved detection and analysis of sRNAs in S. aureus, we generated updated GenBank files for three commonly used S. aureus strains (MRSA252, NCTC 8325, and USA300), in which we added annotations for >260 previously identified sRNAs. These files, the first to include genome-wide annotation of sRNAs in S. aureus, were then used as a foundation to identify novel sRNAs in the community-associated methicillin-resistant strain USA300. This analysis led to the discovery of 39 previously unidentified sRNAs. Investigating the genomic loci of the newly identified sRNAs revealed a surprising degree of inconsistency in genome annotation in S. aureus, which may be hindering the analysis and functional exploration of these elements. Finally, using our newly created annotation files as a reference, we perform a global analysis of sRNA gene expression in S. aureus and demonstrate that the newly identified tsr25 is the most highly upregulated sRNA in human serum. This study provides an invaluable resource to the S. aureus research community in the form of our newly generated annotation files, while at the same time presenting the first examination of differential sRNA expression in pathophysiologically relevant conditions. Despite a large number of studies identifying regulatory or small RNA (sRNA) genes in Staphylococcus aureus, their annotation is notably lacking in available genome files. In addition to this, there has been a considerable lack of cross-referencing in the wealth of studies identifying these elements, often leading to the same sRNA being identified multiple times and bearing multiple names. In this work

  7. Small RNA Analysis in Sindbis Virus Infected Human HEK293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dalmay, Tamas; Powell, Penny P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to the defence mechanism of RNA interference (RNAi) in plants and invertebrates, its role in the innate response to virus infection of mammals is a matter of debate. Since RNAi has a well-established role in controlling infection of the alphavirus Sindbis virus (SINV) in insects, we have used this virus to investigate the role of RNAi in SINV infection of human cells. Results SINV AR339 and TR339-GFP were adapted to grow in HEK293 cells. Deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) early in SINV infection (4 and 6 hpi) showed low abundance (0.8%) of viral sRNAs (vsRNAs), with no size, sequence or location specific patterns characteristic of Dicer products nor did they possess any discernible pattern to ascribe to a specific RNAi biogenesis pathway. This was supported by multiple variants for each sequence, and lack of hot spots along the viral genome sequence. The abundance of the best defined vsRNAs was below the limit of Northern blot detection. The adaptation of the virus to HEK293 cells showed little sequence changes compared to the reference; however, a SNP in E1 gene with a preference from G to C was found. Deep sequencing results showed little variation of expression of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) at 4 and 6 hpi compared to uninfected cells. Twelve miRNAs exhibiting some minor differential expression by sequencing, showed no difference in expression by Northern blot analysis. Conclusions We show that, unlike SINV infection of invertebrates, generation of Dicer-dependent svRNAs and change in expression of cellular miRNAs were not detected as part of the Human response to SINV. PMID:24391886

  8. Identification of potential tumor-educated platelets RNA biomarkers in non-small-cell lung cancer by integrated bioinformatical analysis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Linlin; Xie, Li; Song, Xingguo; Song, Xianrang

    2018-04-17

    Platelets have emerged as key players in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Tumor-educated platelet (TEP) RNA profile has the potential to diagnose non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of this study was to identify potential TEP RNA biomarkers for the diagnosis of NSCLC and to explore the mechanisms in alternations of TEP RNA profile. The RNA-seq datasets GSE68086 and GSE89843 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets (GEO DataSets). Then, the functional enrichment of the differentially expressed mRNAs was analyzed by the Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). The miRNAs which regulated the differential mRNAs and the target mRNAs of miRNAs were identified by miRanda and miRDB. Then, the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network was visualized via Cytoscape software. Twenty consistently altered mRNAs (2 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated) were identified from the two GSE datasets, and they were significantly enriched in several biological processes, including transport and establishment of localization. Twenty identical miRNAs were found between exosomal miRNA-seq dataset and 229 miRNAs that regulated 20 consistently differential mRNAs in platelets. We also analyzed 13 spliceosomal mRNAs and their miRNA predictions; there were 27 common miRNAs between 206 differential exosomal miRNAs and 338 miRNAs that regulated 13 distinct spliceosomal mRNAs. This study identified 20 potential TEP RNA biomarkers in NSCLC for diagnosis by integrated bioinformatical analysis, and alternations in TEP RNA profile may be related to the post-transcriptional regulation and the splicing metabolisms of spliceosome. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. RNA-Seq analysis uncovers non-coding small RNA system of Mycobacterium neoaurum in the metabolism of sterols to accumulate steroid intermediates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Zhu, Zhan-Tao; Tao, Xin-Yi; Wang, Feng-Qing; Wei, Dong-Zhi

    2016-04-25

    roles of noncoding small RNAs in the metabolism of sterols to produce steroid intermediates in Mn, further analysis of which will promote the better understanding about the molecular metabolism of these sRNA candidates and open a broad range of opportunities in the field.

  10. Hopf Bifurcation Analysis of a Gene Regulatory Network Mediated by Small Noncoding RNA with Time Delays and Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengxian; Liu, Haihong; Zhang, Tonghua; Yan, Fang

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a gene regulatory network mediated by small noncoding RNA involving two time delays and diffusion under the Neumann boundary conditions is studied. Choosing the sum of delays as the bifurcation parameter, the stability of the positive equilibrium and the existence of spatially homogeneous and spatially inhomogeneous periodic solutions are investigated by analyzing the corresponding characteristic equation. It is shown that the sum of delays can induce Hopf bifurcation and the diffusion incorporated into the system can effect the amplitude of periodic solutions. Furthermore, the spatially homogeneous periodic solution always exists and the spatially inhomogeneous periodic solution will arise when the diffusion coefficients of protein and mRNA are suitably small. Particularly, the small RNA diffusion coefficient is more robust and its effect on model is much less than protein and mRNA. Finally, the explicit formulae for determining the direction of Hopf bifurcation and the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are derived by employing the normal form theory and center manifold theorem for partial functional differential equations. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate our theoretical analysis.

  11. Deep sequencing and in silico analysis of small RNA library reveals novel miRNA from leaf Persicaria minor transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Samad, Abdul Fatah A; Nazaruddin, Nazaruddin; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul; Jani, Jaeyres; Zainal, Zamri; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2018-03-01

    In current era, majority of microRNA (miRNA) are being discovered through computational approaches which are more confined towards model plants. Here, for the first time, we have described the identification and characterization of novel miRNA in a non-model plant, Persicaria minor ( P . minor ) using computational approach. Unannotated sequences from deep sequencing were analyzed based on previous well-established parameters. Around 24 putative novel miRNAs were identified from 6,417,780 reads of the unannotated sequence which represented 11 unique putative miRNA sequences. PsRobot target prediction tool was deployed to identify the target transcripts of putative novel miRNAs. Most of the predicted target transcripts (mRNAs) were known to be involved in plant development and stress responses. Gene ontology showed that majority of the putative novel miRNA targets involved in cellular component (69.07%), followed by molecular function (30.08%) and biological process (0.85%). Out of 11 unique putative miRNAs, 7 miRNAs were validated through semi-quantitative PCR. These novel miRNAs discoveries in P . minor may develop and update the current public miRNA database.

  12. Genome-wide Annotation, Identification, and Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Regulatory or Small RNA Gene Expression in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Andy; Broach, William H.; Wiemels, Richard E.; Mogen, Austin B.; Rice, Kelly C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Staphylococcus aureus, hundreds of small regulatory or small RNAs (sRNAs) have been identified, yet this class of molecule remains poorly understood and severely understudied. sRNA genes are typically absent from genome annotation files, and as a consequence, their existence is often overlooked, particularly in global transcriptomic studies. To facilitate improved detection and analysis of sRNAs in S. aureus, we generated updated GenBank files for three commonly used S. aureus strains (MRSA252, NCTC 8325, and USA300), in which we added annotations for >260 previously identified sRNAs. These files, the first to include genome-wide annotation of sRNAs in S. aureus, were then used as a foundation to identify novel sRNAs in the community-associated methicillin-resistant strain USA300. This analysis led to the discovery of 39 previously unidentified sRNAs. Investigating the genomic loci of the newly identified sRNAs revealed a surprising degree of inconsistency in genome annotation in S. aureus, which may be hindering the analysis and functional exploration of these elements. Finally, using our newly created annotation files as a reference, we perform a global analysis of sRNA gene expression in S. aureus and demonstrate that the newly identified tsr25 is the most highly upregulated sRNA in human serum. This study provides an invaluable resource to the S. aureus research community in the form of our newly generated annotation files, while at the same time presenting the first examination of differential sRNA expression in pathophysiologically relevant conditions. PMID:26861020

  13. Functional and structural analysis of a highly-expressed Yersinia pestis small RNA following infection of cultured macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Nan; Hennelly, Scott P.; Stubben, Chris J.

    Non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) are found in practically all bacterial genomes and play important roles in regulating gene expression to impact bacterial metabolism, growth, and virulence. We performed transcriptomics analysis to identify sRNAs that are differentially expressed in Yersinia pestis that invaded the human macrophage cell line THP-1, compared to pathogens that remained extracellular in the presence of host. Using ultra high-throughput sequencing, we identified 37 novel and 143 previously known sRNAs in Y. pestis. In particular, the sRNA Ysr170 was highly expressed in intracellular Yersinia and exhibited a log2 fold change ~3.6 higher levels compared to extracellular bacteria. Wemore » found that knock-down of Ysr170 expression attenuated infection efficiency in cell culture and growth rate in response to different stressors. In addition, we applied selective 2’-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) analysis to determine the secondary structure of Ysr170 and observed structural changes resulting from interactions with the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamycin and the RNA chaperone Hfq. Interestingly, gentamicin stabilized helix 4 of Ysr170, which structurally resembles the native gentamicin 16S ribosomal binding site. Lastly, we modeled the tertiary structure of Ysr170 binding to gentamycin using RNA motif modeling. Integration of these experimental and structural methods can provide further insight into the design of small molecules that can inhibit function of sRNAs required for pathogen virulence.« less

  14. Functional and structural analysis of a highly-expressed Yersinia pestis small RNA following infection of cultured macrophages

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Nan; Hennelly, Scott P.; Stubben, Chris J.; ...

    2016-12-28

    Non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) are found in practically all bacterial genomes and play important roles in regulating gene expression to impact bacterial metabolism, growth, and virulence. We performed transcriptomics analysis to identify sRNAs that are differentially expressed in Yersinia pestis that invaded the human macrophage cell line THP-1, compared to pathogens that remained extracellular in the presence of host. Using ultra high-throughput sequencing, we identified 37 novel and 143 previously known sRNAs in Y. pestis. In particular, the sRNA Ysr170 was highly expressed in intracellular Yersinia and exhibited a log2 fold change ~3.6 higher levels compared to extracellular bacteria. Wemore » found that knock-down of Ysr170 expression attenuated infection efficiency in cell culture and growth rate in response to different stressors. In addition, we applied selective 2’-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) analysis to determine the secondary structure of Ysr170 and observed structural changes resulting from interactions with the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamycin and the RNA chaperone Hfq. Interestingly, gentamicin stabilized helix 4 of Ysr170, which structurally resembles the native gentamicin 16S ribosomal binding site. Lastly, we modeled the tertiary structure of Ysr170 binding to gentamycin using RNA motif modeling. Integration of these experimental and structural methods can provide further insight into the design of small molecules that can inhibit function of sRNAs required for pathogen virulence.« less

  15. The Complexity of Posttranscriptional Small RNA Regulatory Networks Revealed by In Silico Analysis of Gossypium arboreum L. Leaf, Flower and Boll Small Regulatory RNAs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongtao; Rashotte, Aaron M; Singh, Narendra K; Weaver, David B; Goertzen, Leslie R; Singh, Shree R; Locy, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and secondary small interfering RNAs (principally phased siRNAs or trans-acting siRNAs) are two distinct subfamilies of small RNAs (sRNAs) that are emerging as key regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression in plants. Both miRNAs and secondary-siRNAs (sec-siRNAs) are processed from longer RNA precursors by DICER-LIKE proteins (DCLs). Gossypium arboreum L., also known as tree cotton or Asian cotton, is a diploid, possibly ancestral relative of tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L., the predominant type of commercially grown cotton worldwide known as upland cotton. To understand the biological significance of these gene regulators in G. arboreum, a bioinformatics analysis was performed on G. arboreum small RNAs produced from G. arboreum leaf, flower, and boll tissues. Consequently, 263 miRNAs derived from 353 precursors, including 155 conserved miRNAs (cs-miRNAs) and 108 novel lineage-specific miRNAs (ls-miRNAs). Along with miRNAs, 2,033 miRNA variants (isomiRNAs) were identified as well. Those isomiRNAs with variation at the 3'-miRNA end were expressed at the highest levels, compared to other types of variants. In addition, 755 pha-siRNAs derived 319 pha-siRNA gene transcripts (PGTs) were identified, and the potential pha-siRNA initiators were predicted. Also, 2,251 non-phased siRNAs were found as well, of which 1,088 appeared to be produced by so-called cis- or trans-cleavage of the PGTs observed at positions differing from pha-siRNAs. Of those sRNAs, 148 miRNAs/isomiRNAs and 274 phased/non-phased siRNAs were differentially expressed in one or more pairs of tissues examined. Target analysis revealed that target genes for both miRNAs and pha-siRNAs are involved a broad range of metabolic and enzymatic activities. We demonstrate that secondary siRNA production could result from initial cleavage of precursors by both miRNAs or isomiRNAs, and that subsequently produced phased and unphased siRNAs could result that also serve as triggers of a second

  16. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationships among microsporidian isolates infecting silkworm, Bombyx mori using small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Nath, B Surendra; Gupta, S K; Bajpai, A K

    2012-12-01

    The life cycle, spore morphology, pathogenicity, tissue specificity, mode of transmission and small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene sequence analysis of the five new microsporidian isolates viz., NIWB-11bp, NIWB-12n, NIWB-13md, NIWB-14b and NIWB-15mb identified from the silkworm, Bombyx mori have been studied along with type species, NIK-1s_mys. The life cycle of the microsporidians identified exhibited the sequential developmental cycles that are similar to the general developmental cycle of the genus, Nosema. The spores showed considerable variations in their shape, length and width. The pathogenicity observed was dose-dependent and differed from each of the microsporidian isolates; the NIWB-15mb was found to be more virulent than other isolates. All of the microsporidians were found to infect most of the tissues examined and showed gonadal infection and transovarial transmission in the infected silkworms. SSU-rRNA sequence based phylogenetic tree placed NIWB-14b, NIWB-12n and NIWB-11bp in a separate branch along with other Nosema species and Nosema bombycis; while NIWB-15mb and NIWB-13md together formed another cluster along with other Nosema species. NIK-1s_mys revealed a signature sequence similar to standard type species, N. bombycis, indicating that NIK-1s_mys is similar to N. bombycis. Based on phylogenetic relationships, branch length information based on genetic distance and nucleotide differences, we conclude that the microsporidian isolates identified are distinctly different from the other known species and belonging to the genus, Nosema. This SSU-rRNA gene sequence analysis method is found to be more useful approach in detecting different and closely related microsporidians of this economically important domestic insect.

  17. Successful downstream application of the Paxgene Blood RNA system from small blood samples in paediatric patients for quantitative PCR analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carrol, Enitan D; Salway, Fiona; Pepper, Stuart D; Saunders, Emma; Mankhambo, Limangeni A; Ollier, William E; Hart, C Anthony; Day, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Background The challenge of gene expression studies is to reliably quantify levels of transcripts, but this is hindered by a number of factors including sample availability, handling and storage. The PAXgene™ Blood RNA System includes a stabilizing additive in a plastic evacuated tube, but requires 2.5 mL blood, which makes routine implementation impractical for paediatric use. The aim of this study was to modify the PAXgene™ Blood RNA System kit protocol for application to small, sick chidren, without compromising RNA integrity, and subsequently to perform quantitative analysis of ICAM and interleukin-6 gene expression. Aliquots of 0.86 mL PAXgene™ reagent were put into microtubes and 0.3 mL whole blood added to maintain the same recommended proportions as in the PAXgene™ evacuated tube system. RNA quality was assessed using the Agilent BioAnalyser 2100 and an in-house TaqMan™ assay which measures GAPDH transcript integrity by determining 3' to 5' ratios. qPCR analysis was performed on an additional panel of 7 housekeeping genes. Three reference genes (HPRT1, YWHAZ and GAPDH) were identified using the GeNORM algorithm, which were subsequently used to normalising target gene expression levels. ICAM-1 and IL-6 gene expression were measured in 87 Malawian children with invasive pneumococcal disease. Results Total RNA yield was between 1,114 and 2,950 ng and the BioAnalyser 2100 demonstrated discernible 18s and 28s bands. The cycle threshold values obtained for the seven housekeeping genes were between 15 and 30 and showed good consistency. Median relative ICAM and IL-6 gene expression were significantly reduced in non-survivors compared to survivors (ICAM: 3.56 vs 4.41, p = 0.04, and IL-6: 2.16 vs 6.73, p = 0.02). Conclusion We have successfully modified the PAXgene™ blood collection system for use in small children and demonstrated preservation of RNA integrity and successful quantitative real-time PCR analysis. PMID:17850649

  18. YM500: a small RNA sequencing (smRNA-seq) database for microRNA research

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei-Chung; Chung, I-Fang; Huang, Tse-Shun; Chang, Shih-Ting; Sun, Hsing-Jen; Tsai, Cheng-Fong; Liang, Muh-Lii; Wong, Tai-Tong; Wang, Hsei-Wei

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs ∼22 nt in length that are involved in the regulation of a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Advances in high-throughput small RNA sequencing (smRNA-seq), one of the next-generation sequencing applications, have reshaped the miRNA research landscape. In this study, we established an integrative database, the YM500 (http://ngs.ym.edu.tw/ym500/), containing analysis pipelines and analysis results for 609 human and mice smRNA-seq results, including public data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and some private sources. YM500 collects analysis results for miRNA quantification, for isomiR identification (incl. RNA editing), for arm switching discovery, and, more importantly, for novel miRNA predictions. Wetlab validation on >100 miRNAs confirmed high correlation between miRNA profiling and RT-qPCR results (R = 0.84). This database allows researchers to search these four different types of analysis results via our interactive web interface. YM500 allows researchers to define the criteria of isomiRs, and also integrates the information of dbSNP to help researchers distinguish isomiRs from SNPs. A user-friendly interface is provided to integrate miRNA-related information and existing evidence from hundreds of sequencing datasets. The identified novel miRNAs and isomiRs hold the potential for both basic research and biotech applications. PMID:23203880

  19. RNA sequencing and pathway analysis identify tumor necrosis factor alpha driven small proline-rich protein dysregulation in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Vijay R; Gonzalez, Joseph R; Cooper, Sarah E; Barham, Henry P; Anderson, Catherine B; Larson, Eric D; Cool, Carlyne D; Diller, John D; Jones, Kenneth; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2017-09-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous inflammatory disorder in which many pathways contribute to end-organ disease. Small proline-rich proteins (SPRR) are polypeptides that have recently been shown to contribute to epithelial biomechanical properties relevant in T-helper type 2 inflammation. There is evidence that genetic polymorphism in SPRR genes may predict the development of asthma in children with atopy and, correlatively, that expression of SPRRs is increased under allergic conditions, which leads to epithelial barrier dysfunction in atopic disease. RNAs from uncinate tissue specimens from patients with CRS and control subjects were compared by RNA sequencing by using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (n = 4 each), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (n = 15). A separate cohort of archived sinus tissue was examined by immunohistochemistry (n = 19). A statistically significant increase of SPRR expression in CRS sinus tissue was identified that was not a result of atopic presence. SPRR1 and SPRR2A expressions were markedly increased in patients with CRS (p < 0.01) on RNA sequencing, with confirmation by using real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry of archived surgical samples demonstrated staining of SPRR proteins within squamous epithelium of both groups. Pathway analysis indicated tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha as a master regulator of the SPRR gene products. Expression of SPRR1 and of SPRR2A is increased in mucosal samples from patients with CRS and appeared as a downstream result of TNF alpha modulation, which possibly resulted in epithelial barrier dysfunction.

  20. Analysis of RDR1/RDR2/RDR6-independent small RNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana improves MIRNA annotations and reveals unexplained types of short interfering RNA loci.

    PubMed

    Polydore, Seth; Axtell, Michael J

    2018-06-01

    Plant small RNAs (sRNAs) modulate key physiological mechanisms through post-transcriptional and transcriptional silencing of gene expression. Small RNAs fall into two major categories: those are reliant on RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) for biogenesis and those that are not. Known RDR1/2/6-dependent sRNAs include phased and repeat-associated short interfering RNAs, while known RDR1/2/6-independent sRNAs are primarily microRNAs (miRNA) and other hairpin-derived sRNAs. In this study we produced and analyzed sRNA-seq libraries from rdr1/rdr2/rdr6 triple mutant plants. We found 58 previously annotated miRNA loci that were reliant on RDR1, -2, or -6 function, casting doubt on their classification. We also found 38 RDR1/2/6-independent sRNA loci that are not MIRNAs or otherwise hairpin-derived, and did not fit into other known paradigms for sRNA biogenesis. These 38 sRNA-producing loci have as-yet-undescribed biogenesis mechanisms, and are frequently located in the vicinity of protein-coding genes. Altogether, our analysis suggests that these 38 loci represent one or more undescribed types of sRNA in Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARASITES BASED ON THE SMALL SUBUNIT RIBOSOMAL RNA GENE LOCUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Biologic data support the presence of multiple species in the genus Cryptosporidium, but
    a recent analysis of the available genetic data has suggested that there is insufficient evidence for species differentiation. In order to resolve the controversy in the taxono...

  2. Therapeutic opportunities of small interfering RNA.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Bhoomika R; Patel, Mayur M; Soni, Mithil K; Bhadada, Shraddha V

    2009-08-01

    Formation of small interfering RNA (siRNA) occurs in two steps involving binding of the RNA nucleases to a large double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and its cleavage into fragments called siRNA. In the second step, these siRNAs join a multinuclease complex, which degrades the homologous single-stranded mRNAs. The delivery of siRNA involves viral- and non-viral-mediated delivery systems; the approaches for chemical modifications have also been developed. It has various therapeutic applications for disorders like cardiovascular diseases, central nervous system (CNS) disorders, cancer, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatic disorders, etc. The present review gives an overview of the applications of siRNA and their potential for treating many hitherto untreatable diseases.

  3. A Systemic Small RNA Signaling System in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byung-Chun; Kragler, Friedrich; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Haywood, Valerie; Archer-Evans, Sarah; Lee, Young Moo; Lough, Tony J.; Lucas, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Systemic translocation of RNA exerts non-cell-autonomous control over plant development and defense. Long-distance delivery of mRNA has been proven, but transport of small interfering RNA and microRNA remains to be demonstrated. Analyses performed on phloem sap collected from a range of plants identified populations of small RNA species. The dynamic nature of this population was reflected in its response to growth conditions and viral infection. The authenticity of these phloem small RNA molecules was confirmed by bioinformatic analysis; potential targets for a set of phloem small RNA species were identified. Heterografting studies, using spontaneously silencing coat protein (CP) plant lines, also established that transgene-derived siRNA move in the long-distance phloem and initiate CP gene silencing in the scion. Biochemical analysis of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem sap led to the characterization of C. maxima Phloem SMALL RNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (CmPSRP1), a unique component of the protein machinery probably involved in small RNA trafficking. Equivalently sized small RNA binding proteins were detected in phloem sap from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and lupin (Lupinus albus). PSRP1 binds selectively to 25-nucleotide single-stranded RNA species. Microinjection studies provided direct evidence that PSRP1 could mediate the cell-to-cell trafficking of 25-nucleotide single-stranded, but not double-stranded, RNA molecules. The potential role played by PSRP1 in long-distance transmission of silencing signals is discussed with respect to the pathways and mechanisms used by plants to exert systemic control over developmental and physiological processes. PMID:15258266

  4. Small RNA analysis in Petunia hybrida identifies unusual tissue-specific expression patterns of conserved miRNAs and of a 24mer RNA

    PubMed Central

    Tedder, Philip; Zubko, Elena; Westhead, David R.; Meyer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Two pools of small RNAs were cloned from inflorescences of Petunia hybrida using a 5′-ligation dependent and a 5′-ligation independent approach. The two libraries were integrated into a public website that allows the screening of individual sequences against 359,769 unique clones. The library contains 15 clones with 100% identity and 53 clones with one mismatch to miRNAs described for other plant species. For two conserved miRNAs, miR159 and miR390, we find clear differences in tissue-specific distribution, compared with other species. This shows that evolutionary conservation of miRNA sequences does not necessarily include a conservation of the miRNA expression profile. Almost 60% of all clones in the database are 24-nucleotide clones. In accordance with the role of 24mers in marking repetitive regions, we find them distributed across retroviral and transposable element sequences but other 24mers map to promoter regions and to different transcript regions. For one target region we observe tissue-specific variation of matching 24mers, which demonstrates that, as for 21mers, 24mer concentrations are not necessarily identical in different tissues. Asymmetric distribution of a putative novel miRNA in the two libraries suggests that the cloning method can be selective for the representation of certain small RNAs in a collection. PMID:19369427

  5. Small RNA sorting: matchmaking for Argonautes

    PubMed Central

    Czech, Benjamin; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Small RNAs directly or indirectly impact nearly every biological process in eukaryotic cells. To perform their myriad roles, not only must precise small RNA species be generated, but they must also be loaded into specific effector complexes called RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). Argonaute proteins form the core of RISCs and different members of this large family have specific expression patterns, protein binding partners and biochemical capabilities. In this Review, we explore the mechanisms that pair specific small RNA strands with their partner proteins, with an eye towards the substantial progress that has been recently made in understanding the sorting of the major small RNA classes — microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) — in plants and animals. PMID:21116305

  6. Argonaute: The executor of small RNA function.

    PubMed

    Azlan, Azali; Dzaki, Najat; Azzam, Ghows

    2016-08-20

    The discovery of small non-coding RNAs - microRNA (miRNA), short interfering RNA (siRNA) and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) - represents one of the most exciting frontiers in biology specifically on the mechanism of gene regulation. In order to execute their functions, these small RNAs require physical interactions with their protein partners, the Argonaute (AGO) family proteins. Over the years, numerous studies have made tremendous progress on understanding the roles of AGO in gene silencing in various organisms. In this review, we summarize recent progress of AGO-mediated gene silencing and other cellular processes in which AGO proteins have been implicated with a particular focus on progress made in flies, humans and other model organisms as compliment. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Small RNA-seq analysis in response to methyl jasmonate and abscisic acid treatment in Persicaria minor.

    PubMed

    Nazaruddin, Nazaruddin; Samad, Abdul Fatah A; Sajad, Muhammad; Jani, Jaeyres; Zainal, Zamri; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2017-06-01

    Persicaria minor (Kesum) is an important medicinal plant with high level of secondary metabolite contents, especially, terpenoids and flavonoids. Previous studies have revealed that application of exogenous phytohormone could increase secondary metabolite contents of the plant. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that play important regulatory roles in various biological processes. In order to explore the possible role of miRNA in the regulation of these phytohormones signaling pathway and uncovering their potential correlation, we, for the first time, have generated the smallRNA library of Kesum plant. The library was developed in response to methyl jasmonate (MJ) and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment by using next-generation sequencing technology. Raw reads have been deposited to SRA database with the accession numbers, SRX2655642 and SRX2655643 (MJ-treated), SRXSRX2655644 and SRX2655645 (ABA-treated) and SRX2655646and SRX2655647 (Control).

  8. Conservation of small RNA pathways in platypus.

    PubMed

    Murchison, Elizabeth P; Kheradpour, Pouya; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hodges, Emily; Xuan, Zhenyu; Kellis, Manolis; Grützner, Frank; Stark, Alexander; Hannon, Gregory J

    2008-06-01

    Small RNA pathways play evolutionarily conserved roles in gene regulation and defense from parasitic nucleic acids. The character and expression patterns of small RNAs show conservation throughout animal lineages, but specific animal clades also show variations on these recurring themes, including species-specific small RNAs. The monotremes, with only platypus and four species of echidna as extant members, represent the basal branch of the mammalian lineage. Here, we examine the small RNA pathways of monotremes by deep sequencing of six platypus and echidna tissues. We find that highly conserved microRNA species display their signature tissue-specific expression patterns. In addition, we find a large rapidly evolving cluster of microRNAs on platypus chromosome X1, which is unique to monotremes. Platypus and echidna testes contain a robust Piwi-interacting (piRNA) system, which appears to be participating in ongoing transposon defense.

  9. Conservation of small RNA pathways in platypus

    PubMed Central

    Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Kheradpour, Pouya; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hodges, Emily; Xuan, Zhenyu; Kellis, Manolis; Grützner, Frank; Stark, Alexander; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    Small RNA pathways play evolutionarily conserved roles in gene regulation and defense from parasitic nucleic acids. The character and expression patterns of small RNAs show conservation throughout animal lineages, but specific animal clades also show variations on these recurring themes, including species-specific small RNAs. The monotremes, with only platypus and four species of echidna as extant members, represent the basal branch of the mammalian lineage. Here, we examine the small RNA pathways of monotremes by deep sequencing of six platypus and echidna tissues. We find that highly conserved microRNA species display their signature tissue-specific expression patterns. In addition, we find a large rapidly evolving cluster of microRNAs on platypus chromosome X1, which is unique to monotremes. Platypus and echidna testes contain a robust Piwi-interacting (piRNA) system, which appears to be participating in ongoing transposon defense. PMID:18463306

  10. Massive Analysis of Rice Small RNAs: Mechanistic Implications of Regulated MicroRNAs and Variants for Differential Target RNA Cleavage[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Dong-Hoon; Park, Sunhee; Zhai, Jixian; Gurazada, Sai Guna Ranjan; De Paoli, Emanuele; Meyers, Blake C.; Green, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    Small RNAs have a variety of important roles in plant development, stress responses, and other processes. They exert their influence by guiding mRNA cleavage, translational repression, and chromatin modification. To identify previously unknown rice (Oryza sativa) microRNAs (miRNAs) and those regulated by environmental stress, 62 small RNA libraries were constructed from rice plants and used for deep sequencing with Illumina technology. The libraries represent several tissues from control plants and plants subjected to different environmental stress treatments. More than 94 million genome-matched reads were obtained, resulting in more than 16 million distinct small RNA sequences. This allowed an evaluation of ~400 annotated miRNAs with current criteria and the finding that among these, ~150 had small interfering RNA–like characteristics. Seventy-six new miRNAs were found, and miRNAs regulated in response to water stress, nutrient stress, or temperature stress were identified. Among the new examples of miRNA regulation were members of the same miRNA family that were differentially regulated in different organs and had distinct sequences Some of these distinct family members result in differential target cleavage and provide new insight about how an agriculturally important rice phenotype could be regulated in the panicle. This high-resolution analysis of rice miRNAs should be relevant to plant miRNAs in general, particularly in the Poaceae. PMID:22158467

  11. Small RNA biology is systems biology.

    PubMed

    Jost, Daniel; Nowojewski, Andrzej; Levine, Erel

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade small regulatory RNA (srRNA) emerged as central players in the regulation of gene expression in all kingdoms of life. Multiple pathways for srRNA biogenesis and diverse mechanisms of gene regulation may indicate that srRNA regulation evolved independently multiple times. However, small RNA pathways share numerous properties, including the ability of a single srRNA to regulate multiple targets. Some of the mechanisms of gene regulation by srRNAs have significant effect on the abundance of free srRNAs that are ready to interact with new targets. This results in indirect interactions among seemingly unrelated genes, as well as in a crosstalk between different srRNA pathways. Here we briefly review and compare the major srRNA pathways, and argue that the impact of srRNA is always at the system level. We demonstrate how a simple mathematical model can ease the discussion of governing principles. To demonstrate these points we review a few examples from bacteria and animals.

  12. USDA Potato Small RNA Database

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are now understood to be involved in gene regulation, function and development. High throughput sequencing (HTS) of sRNAs generates large data sets for analyzing the abundance, source and roles for specific sRNAs. These sRNAs result from transcript degradation as well as specific ...

  13. QNB: differential RNA methylation analysis for count-based small-sample sequencing data with a quad-negative binomial model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lian; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Huang, Yufei; Meng, Jia

    2017-08-31

    As a newly emerged research area, RNA epigenetics has drawn increasing attention recently for the participation of RNA methylation and other modifications in a number of crucial biological processes. Thanks to high throughput sequencing techniques, such as, MeRIP-Seq, transcriptome-wide RNA methylation profile is now available in the form of count-based data, with which it is often of interests to study the dynamics at epitranscriptomic layer. However, the sample size of RNA methylation experiment is usually very small due to its costs; and additionally, there usually exist a large number of genes whose methylation level cannot be accurately estimated due to their low expression level, making differential RNA methylation analysis a difficult task. We present QNB, a statistical approach for differential RNA methylation analysis with count-based small-sample sequencing data. Compared with previous approaches such as DRME model based on a statistical test covering the IP samples only with 2 negative binomial distributions, QNB is based on 4 independent negative binomial distributions with their variances and means linked by local regressions, and in the way, the input control samples are also properly taken care of. In addition, different from DRME approach, which relies only the input control sample only for estimating the background, QNB uses a more robust estimator for gene expression by combining information from both input and IP samples, which could largely improve the testing performance for very lowly expressed genes. QNB showed improved performance on both simulated and real MeRIP-Seq datasets when compared with competing algorithms. And the QNB model is also applicable to other datasets related RNA modifications, including but not limited to RNA bisulfite sequencing, m 1 A-Seq, Par-CLIP, RIP-Seq, etc.

  14. Comparative analysis among the small RNA populations of source, sink and conductive tissues in two different plant-virus pathosystems.

    PubMed

    Herranz, Mari Carmen; Navarro, Jose Antonio; Sommen, Evelien; Pallas, Vicente

    2015-02-22

    In plants, RNA silencing plays a fundamental role as defence mechanism against viruses. During last years deep-sequencing technology has allowed to analyze the sRNA profile of a large variety of virus-infected tissues. Nevertheless, the majority of these studies have been restricted to a unique tissue and no comparative analysis between phloem and source/sink tissues has been conducted. In the present work, we compared the sRNA populations of source, sink and conductive (phloem) tissues in two different plant virus pathosystems. We chose two cucurbit species infected with two viruses very different in genome organization and replication strategy; Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV). Our findings showed, in both systems, an increase of the 21-nt total sRNAs together with a decrease of those with a size of 24-nt in all the infected tissues, except for the phloem where the ratio of 21/24-nt sRNA species remained constant. Comparing the vsRNAs, both PNRSV- and MNSV-infected plants share the same vsRNA size distribution in all the analyzed tissues. Similar accumulation levels of sense and antisense vsRNAs were observed in both systems except for roots that showed a prevalence of (+) vsRNAs in both pathosystems. Additionally, the presence of overrepresented discrete sites along the viral genome, hot spots, were identified and validated by stem-loop RT-PCR. Despite that in PNRSV-infected plants the presence of vsRNAs was scarce both viruses modulated the host sRNA profile. We compare for the first time the sRNA profile of four different tissues, including source, sink and conductive (phloem) tissues, in two plant-virus pathosystems. Our results indicate that antiviral silencing machinery in melon and cucumber acts mainly through DCL4. Upon infection, the total sRNA pattern in phloem remains unchanged in contrast to the rest of the analyzed tissues indicating a certain tissue-tropism to this polulation. Independently of the

  15. Analysis of GD2/GM2 synthase mRNA as a biomarker for small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin-Chi; Brown, Andrew B; Cheung, Irene Y; Cheung, Nai-Kong V; Kris, Mark G; Krug, Lee M

    2010-02-01

    GD2/GM2 synthase is a key enzyme in the synthesis of GD2 and GM2 gangliosides found on the surface of neuroblastoma and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cells. In neuroblastoma, persistent levels of GD2/GM2 synthase RNA in bone marrow (BM) following therapy portend poorer progression-free and overall survival. We conducted this study to determine if GD2/GM2 synthase RNA could be detected in SCLC cell lines and human tissues, and whether mRNA transcript levels corresponded with disease status. Initially, a pilot study enrolled patients with SCLC to determine the rate of GD2 expression at various points in the patients' disease course. Peripheral blood (PB), bone marrow and tumor tissues were used to measure GD2/GM2 synthase levels. In addition, SCLC cell lines were analyzed for GD2/GM2 synthase expression. Based on data from that initial analysis, a prospective trial was developed enrolling patients with newly diagnosed SCLC and following them serially. GD2/GM2 synthase transcript was determined by a sensitive quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay and normalized to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Six SCLC cell lines were assayed for expression of GD2/GM2 synthase, and high expression was detected in all. GD2/GM2 synthase transcript levels were obtained from tumor tissue, BM, or PB of 29 patients in the pilot study. 6/10 (60%) tumor tissues or BM samples were positive (median 332.7 units; range 13-2323 units); 8/19 (42%) untreated patients were GD2/GM2 synthase positive in their PB prior to beginning therapy (median 10.2; range 5.1-32.2); 3/4 (75%) patients who were first tested when they developed recurrent disease were positive in their PB (median 16.1; range 8.5-19.9). The fourth patient had an initial value of 2.0 (negative), which increased to 8.4 (positive) within 1 month without treatment. Seven of 12 patients with baseline positive GD2/GM2 synthase values had post-treatment levels measured, all of which were

  16. Small RNA populations revealed by blocking rRNA fragments in Drosophila melanogaster reproductive tissues

    PubMed Central

    Dalmay, Tamas

    2018-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a complex and highly conserved regulatory mechanism mediated via small RNAs (sRNAs). Recent technical advances in high throughput sequencing have enabled an increasingly detailed analysis of sRNA abundances and profiles in specific body parts and tissues. This enables investigations of the localized roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). However, variation in the proportions of non-coding RNAs in the samples being compared can hinder these analyses. Specific tissues may vary significantly in the proportions of fragments of longer non-coding RNAs (such as ribosomal RNA or transfer RNA) present, potentially reflecting tissue-specific differences in biological functions. For example, in Drosophila, some tissues contain a highly abundant 30nt rRNA fragment (the 2S rRNA) as well as abundant 5’ and 3’ terminal rRNA fragments. These can pose difficulties for the construction of sRNA libraries as they can swamp the sequencing space and obscure sRNA abundances. Here we addressed this problem and present a modified “rRNA blocking” protocol for the construction of high-definition (HD) adapter sRNA libraries, in D. melanogaster reproductive tissues. The results showed that 2S rRNAs targeted by blocking oligos were reduced from >80% to < 0.01% total reads. In addition, the use of multiple rRNA blocking oligos to bind the most abundant rRNA fragments allowed us to reveal the underlying sRNA populations at increased resolution. Side-by-side comparisons of sequencing libraries of blocked and non-blocked samples revealed that rRNA blocking did not change the miRNA populations present, but instead enhanced their abundances. We suggest that this rRNA blocking procedure offers the potential to improve the in-depth analysis of differentially expressed sRNAs within and across different tissues. PMID:29474379

  17. Polymers in Small-Interfering RNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Singha, Kaushik; Namgung, Ran

    2011-01-01

    This review will cover the current strategies that are being adopted to efficiently deliver small interfering RNA using nonviral vectors, including the use of polymers such as polyethylenimine, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), polypeptides, chitosan, cyclodextrin, dendrimers, and polymers-containing different nanoparticles. The article will provide a brief and concise account of underlying principle of these polymeric vectors and their structural and functional modifications which were intended to serve different purposes to affect efficient therapeutic outcome of small-interfering RNA delivery. The modifications of these polymeric vectors will be discussed with reference to stimuli-responsiveness, target specific delivery, and incorporation of nanoconstructs such as carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles, and silica nanoparticles. The emergence of small-interfering RNA as the potential therapeutic agent and its mode of action will also be mentioned in a nutshell. PMID:21749290

  18. Comparative Analysis of Fruit Ripening-Related miRNAs and Their Targets in Blueberry Using Small RNA and Degradome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yanming; Zhai, Lulu; Li, Xuyan; Xue, Yu; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Pengjie; Cao, Chunmei; Li, Hongxue; Cui, Yuhai; Bian, Shaomin

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in the regulation of fruit development and ripening. Blueberry is an important small berry fruit crop with economical and nutritional value. However, nothing is known about the miRNAs and their targets involved in blueberry fruit ripening. In this study, using high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs, 84 known miRNAs belonging to 28 families and 16 novel miRNAs were identified in white fruit (WF) and blue fruit (BF) libraries, which represent fruit ripening onset and in progress, respectively. Among them, 41 miRNAs were shown to be differentially expressed during fruit maturation, and 16 miRNAs representing 16 families were further chosen to validate the sRNA sequencing data by stem-loop qRT-PCR. Meanwhile, 178 targets were identified for 41 known and 7 novel miRNAs in WF and BF libraries using degradome sequencing, and targets of miR160 were validated using RLM-RACE (RNA Ligase-Mediated (RLM)-Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends) approach. Moreover, the expression patterns of 6 miRNAs and their targets were examined during fruit development and ripening. Finally, integrative analysis of miRNAs and their targets revealed a complex miRNA-mRNA regulatory network involving a wide variety of biological processes. The findings will facilitate future investigations of the miRNA-mediated mechanisms that regulate fruit development and ripening in blueberry. PMID:29257112

  19. Genome-Wide Small RNA Analysis of Soybean Reveals Auxin-Responsive microRNAs that are Differentially Expressed in Response to Salt Stress in Root Apex

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhengxi; Wang, Youning; Mou, Fupeng; Tian, Yinping; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Senlei; Jiang, Qiong; Li, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Root growth and the architecture of the root system in Arabidopsis are largely determined by root meristematic activity. Legume roots show strong developmental plasticity in response to both abiotic and biotic stimuli, including symbiotic rhizobia. However, a global analysis of gene regulation in the root meristem of soybean plants is lacking. In this study, we performed a global analysis of the small RNA transcriptome of root tips from soybean seedlings grown under normal and salt stress conditions. In total, 71 miRNA candidates, including known and novel variants of 59 miRNA families, were identified. We found 66 salt-responsive miRNAs in the soybean root meristem; among them, 22 are novel miRNAs. Interestingly, we found auxin-responsive cis-elements in the promoters of many salt-responsive miRNAs, implying that these miRNAs may be regulated by auxin and auxin signaling plays a key role in regulating the plasticity of the miRNAome and root development in soybean. A functional analysis of miR399, a salt-responsive miRNA in the root meristem, indicates the crucial role of this miRNA in modulating soybean root developmental plasticity. Our data provide novel insight into the miRNAome-mediated regulatory mechanism in soybean root growth under salt stress. PMID:26834773

  20. Analysis of aberrant pre-messenger RNA splicing resulting from mutations in ATP8B1 and efficient in vitro rescue by adapted U1 small nuclear RNA.

    PubMed

    van der Woerd, Wendy L; Mulder, Johanna; Pagani, Franco; Beuers, Ulrich; Houwen, Roderick H J; van de Graaf, Stan F J

    2015-04-01

    ATP8B1 deficiency is a severe autosomal recessive liver disease resulting from mutations in the ATP8B1 gene characterized by a continuous phenotypical spectrum from intermittent (benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis; BRIC) to progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC). Current therapeutic options are insufficient, and elucidating the molecular consequences of mutations could lead to personalized mutation-specific therapies. We investigated the effect on pre-messenger RNA splicing of 14 ATP8B1 mutations at exon-intron boundaries using an in vitro minigene system. Eleven mutations, mostly associated with a PFIC phenotype, resulted in aberrant splicing and a complete absence of correctly spliced product. In contrast, three mutations led to partially correct splicing and were associated with a BRIC phenotype. These findings indicate an inverse correlation between the level of correctly spliced product and disease severity. Expression of modified U1 small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) complementary to the splice donor sites strongly improved or completely rescued splicing for several ATP8B1 mutations located at donor, as well as acceptor, splice sites. In one case, we also evaluated exon-specific U1 snRNAs that, by targeting nonconserved intronic sequences, might reduce possible off-target events. Although very effective in correcting exon skipping, they also induced retention of the short downstream intron. We systematically characterized the molecular consequences of 14 ATP8B1 mutations at exon-intron boundaries associated with ATP8B1 deficiency and found that the majority resulted in total exon skipping. The amount of correctly spliced product inversely correlated with disease severity. Compensatory modified U1 snRNAs, complementary to mutated donor splice sites, were able to improve exon definition very efficiently and could be a novel therapeutic strategy in ATP8B1 deficiency as well as other genetic diseases. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study

  1. viRome: an R package for the visualization and analysis of viral small RNA sequence datasets.

    PubMed

    Watson, Mick; Schnettler, Esther; Kohl, Alain

    2013-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is known to play an important part in defence against viruses in a range of species. Second-generation sequencing technologies allow us to assay these systems and the small RNAs that play a key role with unprecedented depth. However, scientists need access to tools that can condense, analyse and display the resulting data. Here, we present viRome, a package for R that takes aligned sequence data and produces a range of essential plots and reports. viRome is released under the BSD license as a package for R available for both Windows and Linux http://virome.sf.net. Additional information and a tutorial is available on the ARK-Genomics website: http://www.ark-genomics.org/bioinformatics/virome. mick.watson@roslin.ed.ac.uk.

  2. Evidence for plant-derived xenomiRs based on a large-scale analysis of public small RNA sequencing data from human samples.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Liu, Yuanning; Zhang, Ning; Hu, Menghan; Zhang, Hao; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of studies have reported the presence of plant miRNAs in human samples, which resulted in a hypothesis asserting the existence of plant-derived exogenous microRNA (xenomiR). However, this hypothesis is not widely accepted in the scientific community due to possible sample contamination and the small sample size with lack of rigorous statistical analysis. This study provides a systematic statistical test that can validate (or invalidate) the plant-derived xenomiR hypothesis by analyzing 388 small RNA sequencing data from human samples in 11 types of body fluids/tissues. A total of 166 types of plant miRNAs were found in at least one human sample, of which 14 plant miRNAs represented more than 80% of the total plant miRNAs abundance in human samples. Plant miRNA profiles were characterized to be tissue-specific in different human samples. Meanwhile, the plant miRNAs identified from microbiome have an insignificant abundance compared to those from humans, while plant miRNA profiles in human samples were significantly different from those in plants, suggesting that sample contamination is an unlikely reason for all the plant miRNAs detected in human samples. This study also provides a set of testable synthetic miRNAs with isotopes that can be detected in situ after being fed to animals.

  3. Covalent small-molecule-RNA complex formation enables cellular profiling of small-molecule-RNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lirui; Disney, Matthew D

    2013-09-16

    Won't let you go! A strategy is described to design small molecules that react with their cellular RNA targets. This approach not only improves the activity of compounds targeting RNA in cell culture by a factor of about 2500 but also enables cell-wide profiling of its RNA targets. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Minireview: The Roles of Small RNA Pathways in Reproductive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Buchold, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of small noncoding RNA, including P-element-induced wimpy testis-interacting RNA, small interfering RNA, and microRNA, has energized research in reproductive medicine. In the two decades since the identification of small RNA, first in Caenorhabditis elegans and then in other animals, scientists in many disciplines have made significant progress in elucidating their biology. A powerful battery of tools, including knockout mice and small RNA mimics and antagonists, has facilitated investigation into the functional roles and therapeutic potential of these small RNA pathways. Current data indicate that small RNA play significant roles in normal development and physiology and pathological conditions of the reproductive tracts of females and males. Biologically plausible mRNA targets for these microRNA are aggressively being discovered. The next phase of research will focus on elucidating the clinical utility of small RNA-selective agonists and antagonists. PMID:21546411

  5. Sensitivity of Small RNA-Based Detection of Plant Viruses.

    PubMed

    Santala, Johanna; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2018-01-01

    Plants recognize unrelated viruses by the antiviral defense system called RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi processes double-stranded viral RNA into small RNAs (sRNAs) of 21-24 nucleotides, the reassembly of which into longer strands in silico allows virus identification by comparison with the sequences available in databases. The aim of this study was to compare the virus detection sensitivity of sRNA-based virus diagnosis with the established virus species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Viruses propagated in tobacco plants included three engineered, infectious clones of Potato virus A (PVA), each carrying a different marker gene, and an infectious clone of Potato virus Y (PVY). Total RNA (containing sRNA) was isolated and subjected to reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-RT-PCR) and sRNA deep-sequencing at different concentrations. RNA extracted from various crop plants was included in the reactions to normalize RNA concentrations. Targeted detection of selected viruses showed a similar threshold for the sRNA and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analyses. The detection limit for PVY and PVA by RT-qPCR in this study was 3 and 1.5 fg of viral RNA, respectively, in 50 ng of total RNA per PCR reaction. When knowledge was available about the viruses likely present in the samples, sRNA-based virus detection was 10 times more sensitive than RT-RT-PCR. The advantage of sRNA analysis is the detection of all tested viruses without the need for virus-specific primers or probes.

  6. quenched-smFISH: Counting small RNA in Pathogenic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Douglas; Li, Nan; Micheva-Viteva, Sofiya; Munsky, Brian; Hong-Geller, Elizabeth; Werner, James

    2014-03-01

    Here, we present a modification to single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization, quenched smFISH (q-smFISH), that enables quantitative detection and analysis of small RNA (sRNA) expressed in bacteria. We show that short nucleic acid targets can be detected when the background of unbound singly dye-labeled DNA oligomers is reduced through hybridization with a set of complementary DNA oligomers labeled with a fluorescence quencher. Exploiting an automated, multi-color wide-field microscope and GPU-accelerated data analysis package, we analyzed the statistics of sRNA expression in thousands of individual Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis bacteria before and during a simulated infection. Before infection, we find only a small fraction of either bacteria express the small RNAs YSR35 or YSP8. The copy numbers of these RNA are increased during simulated infection, suggesting a role in pathogenesis. The ability to directly quantify expression level changes of sRNA in single cells as a function of external stimuli provides key information on the role of sRNA in bacterial regulatory networks.

  7. Isolation of Exosome-Like Nanoparticles and Analysis of MicroRNAs Derived from Coconut Water Based on Small RNA High-Throughput Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhehao; Yu, Siran; Li, Min; Gui, Xin; Li, Ping

    2018-03-21

    In this study, the presence of microRNAs in coconut water was identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the results of high-throughput small RNA sequencing. In addition, the differences in microRNA content between immature and mature coconut water were compared. A total of 47 known microRNAs belonging to 25 families and 14 new microRNAs were identified in coconut endosperm. Through analysis using a target gene prediction software, potential microRNA target genes were identified in the human genome. Real-time PCR showed that the level of most microRNAs was higher in mature coconut water than in immature coconut water. Then, exosome-like nanoparticles were isolated from coconut water. After ultracentrifugation, some particle structures were seen in coconut water samples using 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate fluorescence staining. Subsequent scanning electron microscopy observation and dynamic light scattering analysis also revealed some exosome-like nanoparticles in coconut water, and the mean diameters of the particles detected by the two methods were 13.16 and 59.72 nm, respectively. In conclusion, there are extracellular microRNAs in coconut water, and their levels are higher in mature coconut water than in immature coconut water. Some exosome-like nanoparticles were isolated from coconut water, and the diameter of these particles was smaller than that of animal-derived exosomes.

  8. Transcriptome and Small RNA Deep Sequencing Reveals Deregulation of miRNA Biogenesis in Human Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Lynette M.; Kivinen, Virpi; Liu, Yuexin; Annala, Matti; Cogdell, David; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Chang-Gong; Sawaya, Raymond; Yli-Harja, Olli; Shmulevich, Ilya; Fuller, Gregory N.; Zhang, Wei; Nykter, Matti

    2013-01-01

    Altered expression of oncogenic and tumor-suppressing microRNAs (miRNAs) is widely associated with tumorigenesis. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying these alterations are poorly understood. We sought to shed light on the deregulation of miRNA biogenesis promoting the aberrant miRNA expression profiles identified in these tumors. Using sequencing technology to perform both whole-transcriptome and small RNA sequencing of glioma patient samples, we examined precursor and mature miRNAs to directly evaluate the miRNA maturation process, and interrogated expression profiles for genes involved in the major steps of miRNA biogenesis. We found that ratios of mature to precursor forms of a large number of miRNAs increased with the progression from normal brain to low-grade and then to high-grade gliomas. The expression levels of genes involved in each of the three major steps of miRNA biogenesis (nuclear processing, nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, and cytoplasmic processing) were systematically altered in glioma tissues. Survival analysis of an independent data set demonstrated that the alteration of genes involved in miRNA maturation correlates with survival in glioma patients. Direct quantification of miRNA maturation with deep sequencing demonstrated that deregulation of the miRNA biogenesis pathway is a hallmark for glioma genesis and progression. PMID:23007860

  9. SearchSmallRNA: a graphical interface tool for the assemblage of viral genomes using small RNA libraries data.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Roberto R S; Vaslin, Maite F S

    2014-03-07

    Next-generation parallel sequencing (NGS) allows the identification of viral pathogens by sequencing the small RNAs of infected hosts. Thus, viral genomes may be assembled from host immune response products without prior virus enrichment, amplification or purification. However, mapping of the vast information obtained presents a bioinformatics challenge. In order to by pass the need of line command and basic bioinformatics knowledge, we develop a mapping software with a graphical interface to the assemblage of viral genomes from small RNA dataset obtained by NGS. SearchSmallRNA was developed in JAVA language version 7 using NetBeans IDE 7.1 software. The program also allows the analysis of the viral small interfering RNAs (vsRNAs) profile; providing an overview of the size distribution and other features of the vsRNAs produced in infected cells. The program performs comparisons between each read sequenced present in a library and a chosen reference genome. Reads showing Hamming distances smaller or equal to an allowed mismatched will be selected as positives and used to the assemblage of a long nucleotide genome sequence. In order to validate the software, distinct analysis using NGS dataset obtained from HIV and two plant viruses were used to reconstruct viral whole genomes. SearchSmallRNA program was able to reconstructed viral genomes using NGS of small RNA dataset with high degree of reliability so it will be a valuable tool for viruses sequencing and discovery. It is accessible and free to all research communities and has the advantage to have an easy-to-use graphical interface. SearchSmallRNA was written in Java and is freely available at http://www.microbiologia.ufrj.br/ssrna/.

  10. SearchSmallRNA: a graphical interface tool for the assemblage of viral genomes using small RNA libraries data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Next-generation parallel sequencing (NGS) allows the identification of viral pathogens by sequencing the small RNAs of infected hosts. Thus, viral genomes may be assembled from host immune response products without prior virus enrichment, amplification or purification. However, mapping of the vast information obtained presents a bioinformatics challenge. Methods In order to by pass the need of line command and basic bioinformatics knowledge, we develop a mapping software with a graphical interface to the assemblage of viral genomes from small RNA dataset obtained by NGS. SearchSmallRNA was developed in JAVA language version 7 using NetBeans IDE 7.1 software. The program also allows the analysis of the viral small interfering RNAs (vsRNAs) profile; providing an overview of the size distribution and other features of the vsRNAs produced in infected cells. Results The program performs comparisons between each read sequenced present in a library and a chosen reference genome. Reads showing Hamming distances smaller or equal to an allowed mismatched will be selected as positives and used to the assemblage of a long nucleotide genome sequence. In order to validate the software, distinct analysis using NGS dataset obtained from HIV and two plant viruses were used to reconstruct viral whole genomes. Conclusions SearchSmallRNA program was able to reconstructed viral genomes using NGS of small RNA dataset with high degree of reliability so it will be a valuable tool for viruses sequencing and discovery. It is accessible and free to all research communities and has the advantage to have an easy-to-use graphical interface. Availability and implementation SearchSmallRNA was written in Java and is freely available at http://www.microbiologia.ufrj.br/ssrna/. PMID:24607237

  11. Box C/D small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) U60 regulates intracellular cholesterol trafficking.

    PubMed

    Brandis, Katrina A; Gale, Sarah; Jinn, Sarah; Langmade, Stephen J; Dudley-Rucker, Nicole; Jiang, Hui; Sidhu, Rohini; Ren, Aileen; Goldberg, Anna; Schaffer, Jean E; Ory, Daniel S

    2013-12-13

    Mobilization of plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol to the endoplasmic reticulum is essential for cellular cholesterol homeostasis. The mechanisms regulating this retrograde, intermembrane cholesterol transfer are not well understood. Because mutant cells with defects in PM to endoplasmic reticulum cholesterol trafficking can be isolated on the basis of resistance to amphotericin B, we conducted an amphotericin B loss-of-function screen in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using insertional mutagenesis to identify genes that regulate this trafficking mechanism. Mutant line A1 displayed reduced cholesteryl ester formation from PM-derived cholesterol and increased de novo cholesterol synthesis, indicating a deficiency in retrograde cholesterol transport. Genotypic analysis revealed that the A1 cell line contained one disrupted allele of the U60 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) host gene, resulting in haploinsufficiency of the box C/D snoRNA U60. Complementation and mutational studies revealed the U60 snoRNA to be the essential feature from this locus that affects cholesterol trafficking. Lack of alteration in predicted U60-mediated site-directed methylation of 28 S rRNA in the A1 mutant suggests that the U60 snoRNA modulates cholesterol trafficking by a mechanism that is independent of this canonical function. Our study adds to a growing body of evidence for participation of small noncoding RNAs in cholesterol homeostasis and is the first to implicate a snoRNA in this cellular function.

  12. Compilation of small ribosomal subunit RNA structures.

    PubMed Central

    Neefs, J M; Van de Peer, Y; De Rijk, P; Chapelle, S; De Wachter, R

    1993-01-01

    The database on small ribosomal subunit RNA structure contained 1804 nucleotide sequences on April 23, 1993. This number comprises 365 eukaryotic, 65 archaeal, 1260 bacterial, 30 plastidial, and 84 mitochondrial sequences. These are stored in the form of an alignment in order to facilitate the use of the database as input for comparative studies on higher-order structure and for reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. The elements of the postulated secondary structure for each molecule are indicated by special symbols. The database is available on-line directly from the authors by ftp and can also be obtained from the EMBL nucleotide sequence library by electronic mail, ftp, and on CD ROM disk. PMID:8332525

  13. Transcriptome-Wide Analysis of UTRs in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Reveals Cancer-Related Genes with SNV-Induced Changes on RNA Secondary Structure and miRNA Target Sites

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Peter; Tang, Xiaojia; Kalari, Krishna R.; Gorodkin, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Traditional mutation assessment methods generally focus on predicting disruptive changes in protein-coding regions rather than non-coding regulatory regions like untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs. The UTRs, however, are known to have many sequence and structural motifs that can regulate translational and transcriptional efficiency and stability of mRNAs through interaction with RNA-binding proteins and other non-coding RNAs like microRNAs (miRNAs). In a recent study, transcriptomes of tumor cells harboring mutant and wild-type KRAS (V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) genes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been sequenced to identify single nucleotide variations (SNVs). About 40% of the total SNVs (73,717) identified were mapped to UTRs, but omitted in the previous analysis. To meet this obvious demand for analysis of the UTRs, we designed a comprehensive pipeline to predict the effect of SNVs on two major regulatory elements, secondary structure and miRNA target sites. Out of 29,290 SNVs in 6462 genes, we predict 472 SNVs (in 408 genes) affecting local RNA secondary structure, 490 SNVs (in 447 genes) affecting miRNA target sites and 48 that do both. Together these disruptive SNVs were present in 803 different genes, out of which 188 (23.4%) were previously known to be cancer-associated. Notably, this ratio is significantly higher (one-sided Fisher's exact test p-value = 0.032) than the ratio (20.8%) of known cancer-associated genes (n = 1347) in our initial data set (n = 6462). Network analysis shows that the genes harboring disruptive SNVs were involved in molecular mechanisms of cancer, and the signaling pathways of LPS-stimulated MAPK, IL-6, iNOS, EIF2 and mTOR. In conclusion, we have found hundreds of SNVs which are highly disruptive with respect to changes in the secondary structure and miRNA target sites within UTRs. These changes hold the potential to alter the expression of known cancer genes or genes

  14. Transcriptome-wide analysis of UTRs in non-small cell lung cancer reveals cancer-related genes with SNV-induced changes on RNA secondary structure and miRNA target sites.

    PubMed

    Sabarinathan, Radhakrishnan; Wenzel, Anne; Novotny, Peter; Tang, Xiaojia; Kalari, Krishna R; Gorodkin, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Traditional mutation assessment methods generally focus on predicting disruptive changes in protein-coding regions rather than non-coding regulatory regions like untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs. The UTRs, however, are known to have many sequence and structural motifs that can regulate translational and transcriptional efficiency and stability of mRNAs through interaction with RNA-binding proteins and other non-coding RNAs like microRNAs (miRNAs). In a recent study, transcriptomes of tumor cells harboring mutant and wild-type KRAS (V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) genes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been sequenced to identify single nucleotide variations (SNVs). About 40% of the total SNVs (73,717) identified were mapped to UTRs, but omitted in the previous analysis. To meet this obvious demand for analysis of the UTRs, we designed a comprehensive pipeline to predict the effect of SNVs on two major regulatory elements, secondary structure and miRNA target sites. Out of 29,290 SNVs in 6462 genes, we predict 472 SNVs (in 408 genes) affecting local RNA secondary structure, 490 SNVs (in 447 genes) affecting miRNA target sites and 48 that do both. Together these disruptive SNVs were present in 803 different genes, out of which 188 (23.4%) were previously known to be cancer-associated. Notably, this ratio is significantly higher (one-sided Fisher's exact test p-value = 0.032) than the ratio (20.8%) of known cancer-associated genes (n = 1347) in our initial data set (n = 6462). Network analysis shows that the genes harboring disruptive SNVs were involved in molecular mechanisms of cancer, and the signaling pathways of LPS-stimulated MAPK, IL-6, iNOS, EIF2 and mTOR. In conclusion, we have found hundreds of SNVs which are highly disruptive with respect to changes in the secondary structure and miRNA target sites within UTRs. These changes hold the potential to alter the expression of known cancer genes or genes

  15. Recent advances in developing small molecules targeting RNA.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lirui; Disney, Matthew D

    2012-01-20

    RNAs are underexploited targets for small molecule drugs or chemical probes of function. This may be due, in part, to a fundamental lack of understanding of the types of small molecules that bind RNA specifically and the types of RNA motifs that specifically bind small molecules. In this review, we describe recent advances in the development and design of small molecules that bind to RNA and modulate function that aim to fill this void.

  16. omiRas: a Web server for differential expression analysis of miRNAs derived from small RNA-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sören; Rycak, Lukas; Winter, Peter; Kahl, Günter; Koch, Ina; Rotter, Björn

    2013-10-15

    Small RNA deep sequencing is widely used to characterize non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) differentially expressed between two conditions, e.g. healthy and diseased individuals and to reveal insights into molecular mechanisms underlying condition-specific phenotypic traits. The ncRNAome is composed of a multitude of RNAs, such as transfer RNA, small nucleolar RNA and microRNA (miRNA), to name few. Here we present omiRas, a Web server for the annotation, comparison and visualization of interaction networks of ncRNAs derived from next-generation sequencing experiments of two different conditions. The Web tool allows the user to submit raw sequencing data and results are presented as: (i) static annotation results including length distribution, mapping statistics, alignments and quantification tables for each library as well as lists of differentially expressed ncRNAs between conditions and (ii) an interactive network visualization of user-selected miRNAs and their target genes based on the combination of several miRNA-mRNA interaction databases. The omiRas Web server is implemented in Python, PostgreSQL, R and can be accessed at: http://tools.genxpro.net/omiras/.

  17. SMMRNA: a database of small molecule modulators of RNA

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ankita; Sonam, Surabhi; Gouri, Isha; Loharch, Saurabh; Sharma, Deepak K.; Parkesh, Raman

    2014-01-01

    We have developed SMMRNA, an interactive database, available at http://www.smmrna.org, with special focus on small molecule ligands targeting RNA. Currently, SMMRNA consists of ∼770 unique ligands along with structural images of RNA molecules. Each ligand in the SMMRNA contains information such as Kd, Ki, IC50, ΔTm, molecular weight (MW), hydrogen donor and acceptor count, XlogP, number of rotatable bonds, number of aromatic rings and 2D and 3D structures. These parameters can be explored using text search, advanced search, substructure and similarity-based analysis tools that are embedded in SMMRNA. A structure editor is provided for 3D visualization of ligands. Advance analysis can be performed using substructure and OpenBabel-based chemical similarity fingerprints. Upload facility for both RNA and ligands is also provided. The physicochemical properties of the ligands were further examined using OpenBabel descriptors, hierarchical clustering, binning partition and multidimensional scaling. We have also generated a 3D conformation database of ligands to support the structure and ligand-based screening. SMMRNA provides comprehensive resource for further design, development and refinement of small molecule modulators for selective targeting of RNA molecules. PMID:24163098

  18. Small molecule chemical probes of microRNA function.

    PubMed

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Vummidi, Balayeshwanth R; Disney, Matthew D

    2015-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that control protein expression. Aberrant miRNA expression has been linked to various human diseases, and thus miRNAs have been explored as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. Although it is challenging to target RNA with small molecules in general, there have been successful campaigns that have identified small molecule modulators of miRNA function by targeting various pathways. For example, small molecules that modulate transcription and target nuclease processing sites in miRNA precursors have been identified. Herein, we describe challenges in developing chemical probes that target miRNAs and highlight aspects of miRNA cellular biology elucidated by using small molecule chemical probes. We expect that this area will expand dramatically in the near future as progress is made in understanding small molecule recognition of RNA. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Small Molecule Chemical Probes of MicroRNA Function

    PubMed Central

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Vummidi, Balayeshwanth R.; Disney, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that control protein expression. Aberrant miRNA expression has been linked to various human diseases, and thus miRNAs have been explored as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. Although it is challenging to target RNA with small molecules in general, there have been successful campaigns that have identified small molecule modulators of miRNA function by targeting various pathways. For example, small molecules that modulate transcription and target nuclease processing sites in miRNA precursors have been identified. Herein, we describe challenges in developing chemical probes that target miRNAs and highlight aspects of miRNA cellular biology elucidated by using small molecule chemical probes. We expect that this area will expand dramatically in the near future as strides are made to understand small molecule recognition of RNA from a fundamental perspective. PMID:25500006

  20. Transcription boundaries of U1 small nuclear RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kunkel, G R; Pederson, T

    1985-01-01

    Transcription-proximal stages of U1 small nuclear RNA biosynthesis were studied by 32P labeling of nascent chains in isolated HeLa cell nuclei. Labeled RNA was hybridized to nitrocellulose-immobilized, single-stranded M13 DNA clones corresponding to regions within or flanking a human U1 RNA gene. Transcription of U1 RNA was inhibited by greater than 95% by alpha-amanitin at 1 microgram/ml, consistent with previous evidence that it is synthesized by RNA polymerase II. No hybridization to DNA immediately adjacent to the 5' end of mature U1 RNA (-6 to -105 nucleotides) was detected, indicating that, like all studied polymerase II initiation, transcription of U1 RNA starts at or very near the cap site. However, in contrast to previously described transcription units for mRNA, in which equimolar transcription occurs for hundreds or thousands of nucleotides beyond the mature 3' end of the mRNA, labeled U1 RNA hybridization dropped off sharply within a very short region (approximately 60 nucleotides) immediately downstream from the 3' end of mature U1 RNA. Also in contrast to pre-mRNA, which is assembled into ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles while still nascent RNA chains, the U1 RNA transcribed in isolated nuclei did not form RNP complexes by the criterion of reaction with a monoclonal antibody for the small nuclear RNP Sm proteins. This suggests that, unlike pre-mRNA-RNP particle formation, U1 small nuclear RNP assembly does not occur until after the completion of transcription. These results show that, despite their common synthesis by RNA polymerase II, mRNA and U1 small nuclear RNA differ markedly both in their extents of 3' processing and their temporal patterns of RNP assembly. Images PMID:2942763

  1. Genetic and Functional Diversification of Small RNA Pathways in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Adam M; Kasschau, Kristin D; Lellis, Andrew D; Zilberman, Daniel; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2004-01-01

    Multicellular eukaryotes produce small RNA molecules (approximately 21–24 nucleotides) of two general types, microRNA (miRNA) and short interfering RNA (siRNA). They collectively function as sequence-specific guides to silence or regulate genes, transposons, and viruses and to modify chromatin and genome structure. Formation or activity of small RNAs requires factors belonging to gene families that encode DICER (or DICER-LIKE [DCL]) and ARGONAUTE proteins and, in the case of some siRNAs, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) proteins. Unlike many animals, plants encode multiple DCL and RDR proteins. Using a series of insertion mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, unique functions for three DCL proteins in miRNA (DCL1), endogenous siRNA (DCL3), and viral siRNA (DCL2) biogenesis were identified. One RDR protein (RDR2) was required for all endogenous siRNAs analyzed. The loss of endogenous siRNA in dcl3 and rdr2 mutants was associated with loss of heterochromatic marks and increased transcript accumulation at some loci. Defects in siRNA-generation activity in response to turnip crinkle virus in dcl2 mutant plants correlated with increased virus susceptibility. We conclude that proliferation and diversification of DCL and RDR genes during evolution of plants contributed to specialization of small RNA-directed pathways for development, chromatin structure, and defense. PMID:15024409

  2. miRge - A Multiplexed Method of Processing Small RNA-Seq Data to Determine MicroRNA Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jason R.; Gupta, Simone; Weng, Lien-Chun; Ashton, John M.; Cornish, Toby C.; Pandey, Akhilesh; Halushka, Marc K.

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA RNA-seq for microRNAs (miRNAs) is a rapidly developing field where opportunities still exist to create better bioinformatics tools to process these large datasets and generate new, useful analyses. We built miRge to be a fast, smart small RNA-seq solution to process samples in a highly multiplexed fashion. miRge employs a Bayesian alignment approach, whereby reads are sequentially aligned against customized mature miRNA, hairpin miRNA, noncoding RNA and mRNA sequence libraries. miRNAs are summarized at the level of raw reads in addition to reads per million (RPM). Reads for all other RNA species (tRNA, rRNA, snoRNA, mRNA) are provided, which is useful for identifying potential contaminants and optimizing small RNA purification strategies. miRge was designed to optimally identify miRNA isomiRs and employs an entropy based statistical measurement to identify differential production of isomiRs. This allowed us to identify decreasing entropy in isomiRs as stem cells mature into retinal pigment epithelial cells. Conversely, we show that pancreatic tumor miRNAs have similar entropy to matched normal pancreatic tissues. In a head-to-head comparison with other miRNA analysis tools (miRExpress 2.0, sRNAbench, omiRAs, miRDeep2, Chimira, UEA small RNA Workbench), miRge was faster (4 to 32-fold) and was among the top-two methods in maximally aligning miRNAs reads per sample. Moreover, miRge has no inherent limits to its multiplexing. miRge was capable of simultaneously analyzing 100 small RNA-Seq samples in 52 minutes, providing an integrated analysis of miRNA expression across all samples. As miRge was designed for analysis of single as well as multiple samples, miRge is an ideal tool for high and low-throughput users. miRge is freely available at http://atlas.pathology.jhu.edu/baras/miRge.html. PMID:26571139

  3. Targeting RNA in mammalian systems with small molecules.

    PubMed

    Donlic, Anita; Hargrove, Amanda E

    2018-05-03

    The recognition of RNA functions beyond canonical protein synthesis has challenged the central dogma of molecular biology. Indeed, RNA is now known to directly regulate many important cellular processes, including transcription, splicing, translation, and epigenetic modifications. The misregulation of these processes in disease has led to an appreciation of RNA as a therapeutic target. This potential was first recognized in bacteria and viruses, but discoveries of new RNA classes following the sequencing of the human genome have invigorated exploration of its disease-related functions in mammals. As stable structure formation is evolving as a hallmark of mammalian RNAs, the prospect of utilizing small molecules to specifically probe the function of RNA structural domains and their interactions is gaining increased recognition. To date, researchers have discovered bioactive small molecules that modulate phenotypes by binding to expanded repeats, microRNAs, G-quadruplex structures, and RNA splice sites in neurological disorders, cancers, and other diseases. The lessons learned from achieving these successes both call for additional studies and encourage exploration of the plethora of mammalian RNAs whose precise mechanisms of action remain to be elucidated. Efforts toward understanding fundamental principles of small molecule-RNA recognition combined with advances in methodology development should pave the way toward targeting emerging RNA classes such as long noncoding RNAs. Together, these endeavors can unlock the full potential of small molecule-based probing of RNA-regulated processes and enable us to discover new biology and underexplored avenues for therapeutic intervention in human disease. This article is categorized under: RNA Methods > RNA Analyses In Vitro and In Silico RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > Small Molecule-RNA Interactions RNA in Disease and Development > RNA in Disease. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Global Analysis of Small RNA Dynamics during Seed Development of Picea glauca and Arabidopsis thaliana Populations Reveals Insights on their Evolutionary Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.

    2017-01-01

    While DNA methylation carries genetic signals and is instrumental in the evolution of organismal complexity, small RNAs (sRNAs), ~18–24 ribonucleotide (nt) sequences, are crucial mediators of methylation as well as gene silencing. However, scant study deals with sRNA evolution via featuring their expression dynamics coupled with species of different evolutionary time. Here we report an atlas of sRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs, single-stranded sRNAs) produced over time at seed-set of two major spermatophytes represented by populations of Picea glauca and Arabidopsis thaliana with different seed-set duration. We applied diverse profiling methods to examine sRNA and miRNA features, including size distribution, sequence conservation and reproduction-specific regulation, as well as to predict their putative targets. The top 27 most abundant miRNAs were highly overlapped between the two species (e.g., miR166,−319 and−396), but in P. glauca, they were less abundant and significantly less correlated with seed-set phases. The most abundant sRNAs in libraries were deeply conserved miRNAs in the plant kingdom for Arabidopsis but long sRNAs (24-nt) for P. glauca. We also found significant difference in normalized expression between populations for population-specific sRNAs but not for lineage-specific ones. Moreover, lineage-specific sRNAs were enriched in the 21-nt size class. This pattern is consistent in both species and alludes to a specific type of sRNAs (e.g., miRNA, tasiRNA) being selected for. In addition, we deemed 24 and 9 sRNAs in P. glauca and Arabidopsis, respectively, as sRNA candidates targeting known adaptive genes. Temperature had significant influence on selected gene and miRNA expression at seed development in both species. This study increases our integrated understanding of sRNA evolution and its potential link to genomic architecture (e.g., sRNA derivation from genome and sRNA-mediated genomic events) and organismal complexity (e.g., association between

  5. Using small RNA deep sequencing data to detect siRNA duplexes induced by plant viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes are produced in plants during virus infection, which are short (usually 21 to 24-base pair) double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) with several overhanging nucleotides on the 5' end and 3' end. The investigation of the siRNA duplexes is useful to better understand the R...

  6. Detection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) by mass spectrometry procedures in doping controls.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Walpurgis, Katja; Delahaut, Philippe; Kohler, Maxie; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Uncovering manipulation of athletic performance via small interfering (si)RNA is an emerging field in sports drug testing. Due to the potential to principally knock down every target gene in the organism by means of the RNA interference pathway, this facet of gene doping has become a realistic scenario. In the present study, two distinct model siRNAs comprising 21 nucleotides were designed as double strands which were perfect counterparts to a sequence of the respective messenger RNA coding the muscle regulator myostatin of Rattus norvegicus. Several modified nucleotides were introduced in both the sense and the antisense strand comprising phosphothioates, 2'-O-methylation, 2'-fluoro-nucleotides, locked nucleic acids and a cholesterol tag at the 3'-end. The model siRNAs were applied to rats at 1 mg/kg (i.v.) and blood as well as urine samples were collected. After isolation of the RNA by means of a RNA purification kit, the target analytes were detected by liquid chromatography - high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Analytes were detected as modified nucleotides after alkaline hydrolysis, as intact oligonucleotide strands (top-down) and by means of denaturing SDS-PAGE analysis. The gel-separated siRNA was further subjected to in-gel hydrolysis with different RNases and subsequent identification of the fragments by untargeted LC-HRMS analysis (bottom-up, 'experimental RNomics'). Combining the results of all approaches, the identification of several 3'-truncated urinary metabolites was accomplished and target analytes were detected up to 24 h after a single administration. Simultaneously collected blood samples yielded no promising results. The methods were validated and found fit-for-purpose for doping controls. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Gene silencing in primary and metastatic tumors by small interfering RNA delivery in mice: quantitative analysis using melanoma cells expressing firefly and sea pansy luciferases.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Kobayashi, Naoki; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2005-07-20

    Silencing of oncogenes or other genes contributing to tumor malignancy or progression by RNA interference (RNAi) offers a promising approach to treating tumor patients. To achieve RNAi-based tumor therapy, a small interfering RNA (siRNA) or siRNA-expressing vector needs to be delivered to tumor cells, but little information about its in vivo delivery has been reported. In this study, we examined whether the expression of the target gene in tumor cells can be suppressed by the delivery of RNAi effectors to primary and metastatic tumor cells. To quantitatively evaluate the RNAi effects in tumor cells, mouse melanoma B16-BL6 cells were stably transfected with both firefly (a model target gene) and sea pansy (an internal standard gene) luciferase genes to obtain B16-BL6/dual Luc cells. The target gene expression in subcutaneous primary tumors of B16-BL6/dual Luc cells was significantly suppressed by direct injection of the RNAi effectors followed by electroporation. The expression in metastatic hepatic tumors was also significantly reduced by an intravenous injection of either RNAi effector by the hydrodynamics-based procedure. These results indicate that the both RNAi effectors have a potential to silence target gene in tumor cells in vivo when successfully delivered to tumor cells.

  8. Small molecule alteration of RNA sequence in cells and animals.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lirui; Luo, Yiling; Ja, William W; Disney, Matthew D

    2017-10-18

    RNA regulation and maintenance are critical for proper cell function. Small molecules that specifically alter RNA sequence would be exceptionally useful as probes of RNA structure and function or as potential therapeutics. Here, we demonstrate a photochemical approach for altering the trinucleotide expanded repeat causative of myotonic muscular dystrophy type 1 (DM1), r(CUG) exp . The small molecule, 2H-4-Ru, binds to r(CUG) exp and converts guanosine residues to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine upon photochemical irradiation. We demonstrate targeted modification upon irradiation in cell culture and in Drosophila larvae provided a diet containing 2H-4-Ru. Our results highlight a general chemical biology approach for altering RNA sequence in vivo by using small molecules and photochemistry. Furthermore, these studies show that addition of 8-oxo-G lesions into RNA 3' untranslated regions does not affect its steady state levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of in vivo regulation kinetics of small non-coding RNA in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Jingyi

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in regulating gene expression through a variety of mechanisms. As one of the most common strategies, sRNA induced target messenger RNA (mRNA) includes two major steps: target search by base-pairing interactions with the and downstream execution by modulating translation or the stability of the mRNA. Here we describe a new imaging and analysis platform based on super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, which enabled the first in vivo kinetic measurement of sRNA-mediated gene regulation. Specifically, this platform was used to investigate a sugar-phosphate stress-induced bacterial sRNA that induces the degradation of target mRNAs. The data reveal that the sRNA binds to a primary target mRNA in a reversible and dynamic fashion, and that formation of the sRNA-mRNA complexes is the rate-limiting step, dictating the overall efficiency of regulation in vivo; whereas the downstream co-degradation of sRNA-mRNA complex can kinetically compete with the fast complex disassembly. Examination of a secondary target of this sRNA indicated that differences in the target search kinetics contribute to setting the regulation priority among different target mRNAs. This super-resolution imaging and analysis approach provides a conceptual framework that can be generalized to other sRNA systems and other target search processes.

  10. Conifers have a unique small RNA silencing signature

    PubMed Central

    Dolgosheina, Elena V.; Morin, Ryan D.; Aksay, Gozde; Sahinalp, S. Cenk; Magrini, Vincent; Mardis, Elaine R.; Mattsson, Jim; Unrau, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Plants produce small RNAs to negatively regulate genes, viral nucleic acids, and repetitive elements at either the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level in a process that is referred to as RNA silencing. While RNA silencing has been extensively studied across the different phyla of the animal kingdom (e.g., mouse, fly, worm), similar studies in the plant kingdom have focused primarily on angiosperms, thus limiting evolutionary studies of RNA silencing in plants. Here we report on an unexpected phylogenetic difference in the size distribution of small RNAs among the vascular plants. By extracting total RNA from freshly growing shoot tissue, we conducted a survey of small RNAs in 24 vascular plant species. We find that conifers, which radiated from the other seed-bearing plants ∼260 million years ago, fail to produce significant amounts of 24-nucleotide (nt) RNAs that are known to guide DNA methylation and heterochromatin formation in angiosperms. Instead, they synthesize a diverse population of small RNAs that are exactly 21-nt long. This finding was confirmed by high-throughput sequencing of the small RNA sequences from a conifer, Pinus contorta. A conifer EST search revealed the presence of a novel Dicer-like (DCL) family, which may be responsible for the observed change in small RNA expression. No evidence for DCL3, an enzyme that matures 24-nt RNAs in angiosperms, was found. We hypothesize that the diverse class of 21-nt RNAs found in conifers may help to maintain organization of their unusually large genomes. PMID:18566193

  11. Conifers have a unique small RNA silencing signature.

    PubMed

    Dolgosheina, Elena V; Morin, Ryan D; Aksay, Gozde; Sahinalp, S Cenk; Magrini, Vincent; Mardis, Elaine R; Mattsson, Jim; Unrau, Peter J

    2008-08-01

    Plants produce small RNAs to negatively regulate genes, viral nucleic acids, and repetitive elements at either the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level in a process that is referred to as RNA silencing. While RNA silencing has been extensively studied across the different phyla of the animal kingdom (e.g., mouse, fly, worm), similar studies in the plant kingdom have focused primarily on angiosperms, thus limiting evolutionary studies of RNA silencing in plants. Here we report on an unexpected phylogenetic difference in the size distribution of small RNAs among the vascular plants. By extracting total RNA from freshly growing shoot tissue, we conducted a survey of small RNAs in 24 vascular plant species. We find that conifers, which radiated from the other seed-bearing plants approximately 260 million years ago, fail to produce significant amounts of 24-nucleotide (nt) RNAs that are known to guide DNA methylation and heterochromatin formation in angiosperms. Instead, they synthesize a diverse population of small RNAs that are exactly 21-nt long. This finding was confirmed by high-throughput sequencing of the small RNA sequences from a conifer, Pinus contorta. A conifer EST search revealed the presence of a novel Dicer-like (DCL) family, which may be responsible for the observed change in small RNA expression. No evidence for DCL3, an enzyme that matures 24-nt RNAs in angiosperms, was found. We hypothesize that the diverse class of 21-nt RNAs found in conifers may help to maintain organization of their unusually large genomes.

  12. Improving Small Interfering RNA Delivery In Vivo Through Lipid Conjugation.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Maire F; Khvorova, Anastasia

    2018-05-10

    RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutics are approaching clinical approval for genetically defined diseases. Current clinical success is a result of significant innovations in the development of chemical architectures that support sustained, multi-month efficacy in vivo following a single administration. Conjugate-mediated delivery has established itself as the most promising platform for safe and targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery. Lipophilic conjugates represent a major class of modifications that improve siRNA pharmacokinetics and enable efficacy in a broad range of tissues. Here, we review current literature and define key features and limitations of this approach for in vivo modulation of gene expression.

  13. Preparation of highly multiplexed small RNA sequencing libraries.

    PubMed

    Persson, Helena; Søkilde, Rolf; Pirona, Anna Chiara; Rovira, Carlos

    2017-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~22-nucleotide-long small non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of protein-coding genes by base pairing to partially complementary target sites, preferentially located in the 3´ untranslated region (UTR) of target mRNAs. The expression and function of miRNAs have been extensively studied in human disease, as well as the possibility of using these molecules as biomarkers for prognostication and treatment guidance. To identify and validate miRNAs as biomarkers, their expression must be screened in large collections of patient samples. Here, we develop a scalable protocol for the rapid and economical preparation of a large number of small RNA sequencing libraries using dual indexing for multiplexing. Combined with the use of off-the-shelf reagents, more samples can be sequenced simultaneously on large-scale sequencing platforms at a considerably lower cost per sample. Sample preparation is simplified by pooling libraries prior to gel purification, which allows for the selection of a narrow size range while minimizing sample variation. A comparison with publicly available data from benchmarking of miRNA analysis platforms showed that this method captures absolute and differential expression as effectively as commercially available alternatives.

  14. Mimicry technology: suppressing small RNA activity in plants.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Somoza, Ignacio; Manavella, Pablo Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Small RNA suppression constitutes one of the major difficulties for a full molecular characterization of their specific roles in plants. Taking advantage of the latest insights into the new post-biogenesis layer of regulation in microRNA (miRNA) activity, it is possible to overcome the above-mentioned limitation (Nat Genet 39:1033-1037, 2007). We engineered the IPS1 non-coding RNA to bear a complementary sequence to a given miRNA family, resulting in specific sequestration of RISC complexes. MIMIC technology allows for the constitutive release of all of the potential targets of a miRNA family as well as tissue-specific and inducible suppression of its activity.

  15. Small RNA-based prediction of hybrid performance in maize.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Felix; Thiemann, Alexander; Schrag, Tobias A; Rybka, Dominika; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Frisch, Matthias; Scholten, Stefan

    2018-05-21

    Small RNA (sRNA) sequences are known to have a broad impact on gene regulation by various mechanisms. Their performance for the prediction of hybrid traits has not yet been analyzed. Our objective was to analyze the relation of parental sRNA expression with the performance of their hybrids, to develop a sRNA-based prediction approach, and to compare it to more common SNP and mRNA transcript based predictions using a factorial mating scheme of a maize hybrid breeding program. Correlation of genomic differences and messenger RNA (mRNA) or sRNA expression differences between parental lines with hybrid performance of their hybrids revealed that sRNAs showed an inverse relationship in contrast to the other two data types. We associated differences for SNPs, mRNA and sRNA expression between parental inbred lines with the performance of their hybrid combinations and developed two prediction approaches using distance measures based on associated markers. Cross-validations revealed parental differences in sRNA expression to be strong predictors for hybrid performance for grain yield in maize, comparable to genomic and mRNA data. The integration of both positively and negatively associated markers in the prediction approaches enhanced the prediction accurary. The associated sRNAs belong predominantly to the canonical size classes of 22- and 24-nt that show specific genomic mapping characteristics. Expression profiles of sRNA are a promising alternative to SNPs or mRNA expression profiles for hybrid prediction, especially for plant species without reference genome or transcriptome information. The characteristics of the sRNAs we identified suggest that association studies based on breeding populations facilitate the identification of sRNAs involved in hybrid performance.

  16. Functional Nanostructures for Effective Delivery of Small Interfering RNA Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Cheol Am; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2014-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has proved to be a powerful tool for target-specific gene silencing via RNA interference (RNAi). Its ability to control targeted gene expression gives new hope to gene therapy as a treatment for cancers and genetic diseases. However, siRNA shows poor pharmacological properties, such as low serum stability, off-targeting, and innate immune responses, which present a significant challenge for clinical applications. In addition, siRNA cannot cross the cell membrane for RNAi activity because of its anionic property and stiff structure. Therefore, the development of a safe, stable, and efficient system for the delivery of siRNA therapeutics into the cytoplasm of targeted cells is crucial. Several nanoparticle platforms for siRNA delivery have been developed to overcome the major hurdles facing the therapeutic uses of siRNA. This review covers a broad spectrum of non-viral siRNA delivery systems developed for enhanced cellular uptake and targeted gene silencing in vitro and in vivo and discusses their characteristics and opportunities for clinical applications of therapeutic siRNA. PMID:25285170

  17. Terminator oligo blocking efficiently eliminates rRNA from Drosophila small RNA sequencing libraries.

    PubMed

    Wickersheim, Michelle L; Blumenstiel, Justin P

    2013-11-01

    A large number of methods are available to deplete ribosomal RNA reads from high-throughput RNA sequencing experiments. Such methods are critical for sequencing Drosophila small RNAs between 20 and 30 nucleotides because size selection is not typically sufficient to exclude the highly abundant class of 30 nucleotide 2S rRNA. Here we demonstrate that pre-annealing terminator oligos complimentary to Drosophila 2S rRNA prior to 5' adapter ligation and reverse transcription efficiently depletes 2S rRNA sequences from the sequencing reaction in a simple and inexpensive way. This depletion is highly specific and is achieved with minimal perturbation of miRNA and piRNA profiles.

  18. Peptides Used in the Delivery of Small Noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an endogenous process in which small noncoding RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), post-transcriptionally regulate gene expressions. In general, siRNA and miRNA/miRNA mimics are similar in nature and activity except their origin and specificity. Although both siRNAs and miRNAs have been extensively studied as novel therapeutics for a wide range of diseases, the large molecular weight, anionic surface charges, instability in blood circulation, and intracellular trafficking to the RISC after cellular uptake have hindered the translation of these RNAs from bench to clinic. As a result, a great variety of delivery systems have been investigated for safe and effective delivery of small noncoding RNAs. Among these systems, peptides, especially cationic peptides, have emerged as a promising type of carrier due to their inherent ability to condense negatively charged RNAs, ease of synthesis, controllable size, and tunable structure. In this review, we will focus on three major types of cationic peptides, including poly(l-lysine) (PLL), protamine, and cell penetrating peptides (CPP), as well as peptide targeting ligands that have been extensively used in RNA delivery. The delivery strategies, applications, and limitations of these cationic peptides in siRNA/miRNA delivery will be discussed. PMID:25157701

  19. A small RNA activates CFA synthase by isoform-specific mRNA stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Kathrin Sophie; Papenfort, Kai; Fekete, Agnes; Vogel, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Small RNAs use a diversity of well-characterized mechanisms to repress mRNAs, but how they activate gene expression at the mRNA level remains not well understood. The predominant activation mechanism of Hfq-associated small RNAs has been translational control whereby base pairing with the target prevents the formation of an intrinsic inhibitory structure in the mRNA and promotes translation initiation. Here, we report a translation-independent mechanism whereby the small RNA RydC selectively activates the longer of two isoforms of cfa mRNA (encoding cyclopropane fatty acid synthase) in Salmonella enterica. Target activation is achieved through seed pairing of the pseudoknot-exposed, conserved 5′ end of RydC to an upstream region of the cfa mRNA. The seed pairing stabilizes the messenger, likely by interfering directly with RNase E-mediated decay in the 5′ untranslated region. Intriguingly, this mechanism is generic such that the activation is equally achieved by seed pairing of unrelated small RNAs, suggesting that this mechanism may be utilized in the design of RNA-controlled synthetic circuits. Physiologically, RydC is the first small RNA known to regulate membrane stability. PMID:24141880

  20. A small RNA activates CFA synthase by isoform-specific mRNA stabilization.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Kathrin Sophie; Papenfort, Kai; Fekete, Agnes; Vogel, Jörg

    2013-11-13

    Small RNAs use a diversity of well-characterized mechanisms to repress mRNAs, but how they activate gene expression at the mRNA level remains not well understood. The predominant activation mechanism of Hfq-associated small RNAs has been translational control whereby base pairing with the target prevents the formation of an intrinsic inhibitory structure in the mRNA and promotes translation initiation. Here, we report a translation-independent mechanism whereby the small RNA RydC selectively activates the longer of two isoforms of cfa mRNA (encoding cyclopropane fatty acid synthase) in Salmonella enterica. Target activation is achieved through seed pairing of the pseudoknot-exposed, conserved 5' end of RydC to an upstream region of the cfa mRNA. The seed pairing stabilizes the messenger, likely by interfering directly with RNase E-mediated decay in the 5' untranslated region. Intriguingly, this mechanism is generic such that the activation is equally achieved by seed pairing of unrelated small RNAs, suggesting that this mechanism may be utilized in the design of RNA-controlled synthetic circuits. Physiologically, RydC is the first small RNA known to regulate membrane stability.

  1. Defining RNA-Small Molecule Affinity Landscapes Enables Design of a Small Molecule Inhibitor of an Oncogenic Noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Luo, Yiling; Tran, Tuan; Haniff, Hafeez S; Nakai, Yoshio; Fallahi, Mohammad; Martinez, Gustavo J; Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Disney, Matthew D

    2017-03-22

    RNA drug targets are pervasive in cells, but methods to design small molecules that target them are sparse. Herein, we report a general approach to score the affinity and selectivity of RNA motif-small molecule interactions identified via selection. Named High Throughput Structure-Activity Relationships Through Sequencing (HiT-StARTS), HiT-StARTS is statistical in nature and compares input nucleic acid sequences to selected library members that bind a ligand via high throughput sequencing. The approach allowed facile definition of the fitness landscape of hundreds of thousands of RNA motif-small molecule binding partners. These results were mined against folded RNAs in the human transcriptome and identified an avid interaction between a small molecule and the Dicer nuclease-processing site in the oncogenic microRNA (miR)-18a hairpin precursor, which is a member of the miR-17-92 cluster. Application of the small molecule, Targapremir-18a, to prostate cancer cells inhibited production of miR-18a from the cluster, de-repressed serine/threonine protein kinase 4 protein (STK4), and triggered apoptosis. Profiling the cellular targets of Targapremir-18a via Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull Down (Chem-CLIP), a covalent small molecule-RNA cellular profiling approach, and other studies showed specific binding of the compound to the miR-18a precursor, revealing broadly applicable factors that govern small molecule drugging of noncoding RNAs.

  2. Design of a small molecule against an oncogenic noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Cameron, Michael D; Haga, Christopher L; Rosenberg, Laura H; Lafitte, Marie; Duckett, Derek R; Phinney, Donald G; Disney, Matthew D

    2016-05-24

    The design of precision, preclinical therapeutics from sequence is difficult, but advances in this area, particularly those focused on rational design, could quickly transform the sequence of disease-causing gene products into lead modalities. Herein, we describe the use of Inforna, a computational approach that enables the rational design of small molecules targeting RNA to quickly provide a potent modulator of oncogenic microRNA-96 (miR-96). We mined the secondary structure of primary microRNA-96 (pri-miR-96) hairpin precursor against a database of RNA motif-small molecule interactions, which identified modules that bound RNA motifs nearby and in the Drosha processing site. Precise linking of these modules together provided Targaprimir-96 (3), which selectively modulates miR-96 production in cancer cells and triggers apoptosis. Importantly, the compound is ineffective on healthy breast cells, and exogenous overexpression of pri-miR-96 reduced compound potency in breast cancer cells. Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull-Down (Chem-CLIP), a small-molecule RNA target validation approach, shows that 3 directly engages pri-miR-96 in breast cancer cells. In vivo, 3 has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and decreases tumor burden in a mouse model of triple-negative breast cancer. Thus, rational design can quickly produce precision, in vivo bioactive lead small molecules against hard-to-treat cancers by targeting oncogenic noncoding RNAs, advancing a disease-to-gene-to-drug paradigm.

  3. Design of a small molecule against an oncogenic noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Cameron, Michael D.; Haga, Christopher L.; Rosenberg, Laura H.; Lafitte, Marie; Duckett, Derek R.; Phinney, Donald G.; Disney, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    The design of precision, preclinical therapeutics from sequence is difficult, but advances in this area, particularly those focused on rational design, could quickly transform the sequence of disease-causing gene products into lead modalities. Herein, we describe the use of Inforna, a computational approach that enables the rational design of small molecules targeting RNA to quickly provide a potent modulator of oncogenic microRNA-96 (miR-96). We mined the secondary structure of primary microRNA-96 (pri-miR-96) hairpin precursor against a database of RNA motif–small molecule interactions, which identified modules that bound RNA motifs nearby and in the Drosha processing site. Precise linking of these modules together provided Targaprimir-96 (3), which selectively modulates miR-96 production in cancer cells and triggers apoptosis. Importantly, the compound is ineffective on healthy breast cells, and exogenous overexpression of pri-miR-96 reduced compound potency in breast cancer cells. Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull-Down (Chem-CLIP), a small-molecule RNA target validation approach, shows that 3 directly engages pri-miR-96 in breast cancer cells. In vivo, 3 has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and decreases tumor burden in a mouse model of triple-negative breast cancer. Thus, rational design can quickly produce precision, in vivo bioactive lead small molecules against hard-to-treat cancers by targeting oncogenic noncoding RNAs, advancing a disease-to-gene-to-drug paradigm. PMID:27170187

  4. Human tRNA-derived small RNAs in the global regulation of RNA silencing

    PubMed Central

    Haussecker, Dirk; Huang, Yong; Lau, Ashley; Parameswaran, Poornima; Fire, Andrew Z.; Kay, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Competition between mammalian RNAi-related gene silencing pathways is well documented. It is therefore important to identify all classes of small RNAs to determine their relationship with RNAi and how they affect each other functionally. Here, we identify two types of 5′-phosphate, 3′-hydroxylated human tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs). tsRNAs differ from microRNAs in being essentially restricted to the cytoplasm and in associating with Argonaute proteins, but not MOV10. The first type belongs to a previously predicted Dicer-dependent class of small RNAs that we find can modestly down-regulate target genes in trans. The 5′ end of type II tsRNA was generated by RNaseZ cleavage downstream from a tRNA gene, while the 3′ end resulted from transcription termination by RNA polymerase III. Consistent with their preferential association with the nonslicing Argonautes 3 and 4, canonical gene silencing activity was not observed for type II tsRNAs. The addition, however, of an oligonucleotide that was sense to the reporter gene, but antisense to an overexpressed version of the type II tsRNA, triggered robust, >80% gene silencing. This correlated with the redirection of the thus reconstituted fully duplexed double-stranded RNA into Argonaute 2, whereas Argonautes 3 and 4 were skewed toward less structured small RNAs, particularly single-strand RNAs. We observed that the modulation of tsRNA levels had minor effects on the abundance of microRNAs, but more pronounced changes in the silencing activities of both microRNAs and siRNAs. These findings support that tsRNAs are involved in the global control of small RNA silencing through differential Argonaute association, suggesting that small RNA-mediated gene regulation may be even more finely regulated than previously realized. PMID:20181738

  5. Exosomal miRNA Analysis in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients' Plasma Through qPCR: A Feasible Liquid Biopsy Tool.

    PubMed

    Giallombardo, Marco; Chacártegui Borrás, Jorge; Castiglia, Marta; Van Der Steen, Nele; Mertens, Inge; Pauwels, Patrick; Peeters, Marc; Rolfo, Christian

    2016-05-27

    The discovery of alterations in the EGFR and ALK genes, amongst others, in NSCLC has driven the development of targeted-drug therapy using selective tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). To optimize the use of these TKIs, the discovery of new biomarkers for early detection and disease progression is mandatory. These plasma-isolated exosomes can be used as a non-invasive and repeatable way for the detection and follow-up of these biomarkers. One ml of plasma from 12 NSCLC patients, with different mutations and treatments (and 6 healthy donors as controls), were used as exosome sources. After RNAse treatment, in order to degrade circulating miRNAs, the exosomes were isolated with a commercial kit and resuspended in specific buffers for further analysis. The exosomes were characterized by western blotting for ALIX and TSG101 and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, the standard techniques to obtain biochemical and dimensional data of these nanovesicles. Total RNA extraction was performed with a high yield commercial kit. Due to the limited miRNA-content in exosomes, we decided to perform retro-transcription PCR using an individual assay for each selected miRNA. A panel of miRNAs (30b, 30c, 103, 122, 195, 203, 221, 222), all correlated with NSCLC disease, were analyzed taking advantage of the remarkable sensitivity and specificity of Real-Time PCR analysis; mir-1228-3p was used as endogenous control and data were processed according to the formula 2(-) (ΔΔct) (13). Control values were used as baseline and results are shown in logarithmic scale.

  6. Small RNA sequencing and functional characterization reveals microRNA-143 tumor suppressor activity in liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Ugras, Stacy; Brill, Elliott; Jacobsen, Anders; Hafner, Markus; Socci, Nicholas D.; DeCarolis, Penelope L.; Khanin, Raya; O'Connor, Rachael; Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Taylor, Barry S.; Sheridan, Robert; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Viale, Agnes; Crago, Aimee; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Sander, Chris; Tuschl, Thomas; Singer, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Liposarcoma remains the most common mesenchymal cancer, with a mortality rate of 60% among patients with this disease. To address the present lack of therapeutic options, we embarked upon a study of microRNA (miRNA) expression alterations associated with liposarcomagenesis with the goal of exploiting differentially expressed miRNAs and the gene products they regulate as potential therapeutic targets. MicroRNA expression was profiled in samples of normal adipose tissue, well-differentiated liposarcoma, and dedifferentiated liposarcoma by both deep sequencing of small RNA libraries and hybridization-based Agilent microarrays. The expression profiles discriminated liposarcoma from normal adipose tissue and well-differentiated from dedifferentiated disease. We defined over 40 miRNAs that were dysregulated in dedifferentiated liposarcomas in both the sequencing and the microarray analysis. The upregulated miRNAs included two cancer-associated species (miR-21, miR-26a), and the downregulated miRNAs included two species that were highly abundant in adipose tissue (miR-143, miR-145). Restoring miR-143 expression in dedifferentiated liposarcoma cells inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and decreased expression of BCL2, TOP2A, PRC1, and PLK1. The downregulation of PRC1 and its docking partner PLK1 suggests that miR-143 inhibits cytokinesis in these cells. In support of this idea, treatment with a PLK1 inhibitor potently induced G2/M growth arrest and apoptosis in liposarcoma cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-143 re-expression vectors or selective agents directed at miR-143 or its targets may have therapeutic value in dedifferentiated liposarcoma. PMID:21693658

  7. The Spot 42 RNA: A regulatory small RNA with roles in the central metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bækkedal, Cecilie; Haugen, Peik

    2015-01-01

    The Spot 42 RNA is a 109 nucleotide long (in Escherichia coli) noncoding small regulatory RNA (sRNA) encoded by the spf (spot fourty-two) gene. spf is found in gamma-proteobacteria and the majority of experimental work on Spot 42 RNA has been performed using E. coli, and recently Aliivibrio salmonicida. In the cell Spot 42 RNA plays essential roles as a regulator in carbohydrate metabolism and uptake, and its expression is activated by glucose, and inhibited by the cAMP-CRP complex. Here we summarize the current knowledge on Spot 42, and present the natural distribution of spf, show family-specific secondary structural features of Spot 42, and link highly conserved structural regions to mRNA target binding. PMID:26327359

  8. The Spot 42 RNA: A regulatory small RNA with roles in the central metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bækkedal, Cecilie; Haugen, Peik

    2015-01-01

    The Spot 42 RNA is a 109 nucleotide long (in Escherichia coli) noncoding small regulatory RNA (sRNA) encoded by the spf (spot fourty-two) gene. spf is found in gamma-proteobacteria and the majority of experimental work on Spot 42 RNA has been performed using E. coli, and recently Aliivibrio salmonicida. In the cell Spot 42 RNA plays essential roles as a regulator in carbohydrate metabolism and uptake, and its expression is activated by glucose, and inhibited by the cAMP-CRP complex. Here we summarize the current knowledge on Spot 42, and present the natural distribution of spf, show family-specific secondary structural features of Spot 42, and link highly conserved structural regions to mRNA target binding.

  9. Artificial small RNA for sequence specific cleavage of target RNA through RNase III endonuclease Dicer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yali; Liu, Li; Zhan, Yonghao; Zhuang, Chengle; Lin, Junhao; Chen, Mingwei; Li, Jianfa; Cai, Zhiming; Huang, Weiren; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 system uses a guide RNA which functions in conjunction with Cas9 proteins to target a DNA and cleaves double-strand DNA. This phenomenon raises a question whether an artificial small RNA (asRNA), composed of a Dicer–binding RNA element and an antisense RNA, could also be used to induce Dicer to process and degrade a specific RNA. If so, we could develop a new method which is named DICERi for gene silencing or RNA editing. To prove the feasibility of asRNA, we selected MALAT-1 as target and used Hela and MDA-MB-231 cells as experimental models. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the introduction of asRNA decreased the relative expression level of target gene significantly. Next, we analyzed cell proliferation using CCK-8 and EdU staining assays, and then cell migration using wound scratch and Transwell invasion assays. We found that cell proliferation and cell migration were both suppressed remarkably after asRNA was expressed in Hela and MDA-MB-231 cells. Cell apoptosis was also detected through Hoechst staining and ELISA assays and the data indicated that he numbers of apoptotic cell in experimental groups significantly increased compared with negative controls. In order to prove that the gene silencing effects were caused by Dicer, we co-transfected shRNA silencing Dicer and asRNA. The relative expression levels of Dicer and MALAT-1 were both detected and the results indicated that when the cleavage role of Dicer was silenced, the relative expression level of MALAT-1 was not affected after the introduction of asRNA. All the above results demonstrated that these devices directed by Dicer effectively excised target RNA and repressed the target genes, thus causing phenotypic changes. Our works adds a new dimension to gene regulating technologies and may have broad applications in construction of gene circuits. PMID:27231846

  10. Artificial small RNA for sequence specific cleavage of target RNA through RNase III endonuclease Dicer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Liu, Yuchen; Liu, Yali; Liu, Li; Zhan, Yonghao; Zhuang, Chengle; Lin, Junhao; Chen, Mingwei; Li, Jianfa; Cai, Zhiming; Huang, Weiren; Zhang, Yong

    2016-08-23

    CRISPR-Cas9 system uses a guide RNA which functions in conjunction with Cas9 proteins to target a DNA and cleaves double-strand DNA. This phenomenon raises a question whether an artificial small RNA (asRNA), composed of a Dicer-binding RNA element and an antisense RNA, could also be used to induce Dicer to process and degrade a specific RNA. If so, we could develop a new method which is named DICERi for gene silencing or RNA editing. To prove the feasibility of asRNA, we selected MALAT-1 as target and used Hela and MDA-MB-231 cells as experimental models. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the introduction of asRNA decreased the relative expression level of target gene significantly. Next, we analyzed cell proliferation using CCK-8 and EdU staining assays, and then cell migration using wound scratch and Transwell invasion assays. We found that cell proliferation and cell migration were both suppressed remarkably after asRNA was expressed in Hela and MDA-MB-231 cells. Cell apoptosis was also detected through Hoechst staining and ELISA assays and the data indicated that he numbers of apoptotic cell in experimental groups significantly increased compared with negative controls. In order to prove that the gene silencing effects were caused by Dicer, we co-transfected shRNA silencing Dicer and asRNA. The relative expression levels of Dicer and MALAT-1 were both detected and the results indicated that when the cleavage role of Dicer was silenced, the relative expression level of MALAT-1 was not affected after the introduction of asRNA. All the above results demonstrated that these devices directed by Dicer effectively excised target RNA and repressed the target genes, thus causing phenotypic changes. Our works adds a new dimension to gene regulating technologies and may have broad applications in construction of gene circuits.

  11. Regulatory interactions between long noncoding RNA LINC00968 and miR-9-3p in non-small cell lung cancer: A bioinformatic analysis based on miRNA microarray, GEO and TCGA.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Yao; Chen, Wen-Jie; Shang, Jun; Chen, Gang; Li, Shi-Kang

    2018-06-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to mediate carcinogenesis in various types of cancer. However, the regulatory role of lncRNA LINC00968 in lung adenocarcinoma remains unclear. The microRNA (miRNA) expression in LINC00968-overexpressing human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells was detected using miRNA microarray analysis. miR-9-3p was selected for further analysis, and its expression was verified in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. In addition, the regulatory axis of LINC00968 was validated using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Results of the GEO database indicated miR-9-3p expression in lung adenocarcinoma was significantly higher compared with normal tissues. Functional enrichment analyses of the target genes of miR-9-3p indicated protein binding and the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway were the most enriched Gene Ontology and KEGG terms, respectively. Combining target genes with the correlated genes of LINC00968 and miR-9-3p, 120 objective genes were obtained, which were used to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Cyclin A2 (CCNA2) was identified to have a vital role in the PPI network. Significant correlations were detected between LINC00968, miR-9-3p and CCNA2 in lung adenocarcinoma. The LINC00968/miR-9-3p/CCNA2 regulatory axis provides a new foundation for further evaluating the regulatory mechanisms of LINC00968 in lung adenocarcinoma.

  12. Small Molecule Targeted Recruitment of a Nuclease to RNA.

    PubMed

    Costales, Matthew G; Matsumoto, Yasumasa; Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Disney, Matthew D

    2018-06-06

    The choreography between RNA synthesis and degradation is a key determinant in biology. Engineered systems such as CRISPR have been developed to rid a cell of RNAs. Here, we show that a small molecule can recruit a nuclease to a specific transcript, triggering its destruction. A small molecule that selectively binds the oncogenic microRNA(miR)-96 hairpin precursor was appended with a short 2'-5' poly(A) oligonucleotide. The conjugate locally activated endogenous, latent ribonuclease (RNase L), which selectively cleaved the miR-96 precursor in cancer cells in a catalytic and sub-stoichiometric fashion. Silencing miR-96 derepressed pro-apoptotic FOXO1 transcription factor, triggering apoptosis in breast cancer, but not healthy breast, cells. These results demonstrate that small molecules can be programmed to selectively cleave RNA via nuclease recruitment and has broad implications.

  13. Small RNA profiling of Dengue virus-mosquito interactions implicates the PIWI RNA pathway in anti-viral defense

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Small RNA (sRNA) regulatory pathways (SRRPs) are important to anti-viral defence in mosquitoes. To identify critical features of the virus infection process in Dengue serotype 2 (DENV2)-infected Ae. aegypti, we deep-sequenced small non-coding RNAs. Triplicate biological replicates were used so that rigorous statistical metrics could be applied. Results In addition to virus-derived siRNAs (20-23 nts) previously reported for other arbovirus-infected mosquitoes, we show that PIWI pathway sRNAs (piRNAs) (24-30 nts) and unusually small RNAs (usRNAs) (13-19 nts) are produced in DENV-infected mosquitoes. We demonstrate that a major catalytic enzyme of the siRNA pathway, Argonaute 2 (Ago2), co-migrates with a ~1 megadalton complex in adults prior to bloodfeeding. sRNAs were cloned and sequenced from Ago2 immunoprecipitations. Viral sRNA patterns change over the course of infection. Host sRNAs were mapped to the published aedine transcriptome and subjected to analysis using edgeR (Bioconductor). We found that sRNA profiles are altered early in DENV2 infection, and mRNA targets from mitochondrial, transcription/translation, and transport functional categories are affected. Moreover, small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as tRNAs, spliceosomal U RNAs, and snoRNAs are highly enriched in DENV-infected samples at 2 and 4 dpi. Conclusions These data implicate the PIWI pathway in anti-viral defense. Changes to host sRNA profiles indicate that specific cellular processes are affected during DENV infection, such as mitochondrial function and ncRNA levels. Together, these data provide important progress in understanding the DENV2 infection process in Ae. aegypti. PMID:21356105

  14. U14 small nucleolar RNA makes multiple contacts with the pre-ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, J P; Tollervey, D

    1997-06-01

    The small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) U14 has two regions of extended primary sequence complementarity to the 18S rRNA. The 3' region (domain B) shows the consensus structure for the methylation guide class of snoRNAs, whereas base-pairing between the 5' region (domain A) and the 18S rRNA sequence is required for the formation of functional ribosomes. Between domains A and B lies another essential region (domain Y). Here we report that yeast U14 can be cross-linked in vivo to the pre-rRNA; cross-linking is detected exclusively with the 35S primary transcript. Many nucleotides in U14 that lie outside of domains A and B are cross-linked to the pre-rRNA; in particular the essential domain Y region is cross-linked at several sites. U14 is, therefore, in far more extensive contact with the pre-rRNA than predicted from simple base-pairing models. Moreover, U14 can be cross-linked to other small RNA species. The functional interactions made by U14 during ribosome synthesis are likely to be very complex.

  15. Colored petri net modeling of small interfering RNA-mediated messenger RNA degradation.

    PubMed

    Nickaeen, Niloofar; Moein, Shiva; Heidary, Zarifeh; Ghaisari, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of biological systems is an attractive way for studying complex biological systems and their behaviors. Petri Nets, due to their ability to model systems with various levels of qualitative information, have been wildly used in modeling biological systems in which enough qualitative data may not be at disposal. These nets have been used to answer questions regarding the dynamics of different cell behaviors including the translation process. In one stage of the translation process, the RNA sequence may be degraded. In the process of degradation of RNA sequence, small-noncoding RNA molecules known as small interfering RNA (siRNA) match the target RNA sequence. As a result of this matching, the target RNA sequence is destroyed. In this context, the process of matching and destruction is modeled using Colored Petri Nets (CPNs). The model is constructed using CPNs which allow tokens to have a value or type on them. Thus, CPN is a suitable tool to model string structures in which each element of the string has a different type. Using CPNs, long RNA, and siRNA strings are modeled with a finite set of colors. The model is simulated via CPN Tools. A CPN model of the matching between RNA and siRNA strings is constructed in CPN Tools environment. In previous studies, a network of stoichiometric equations was modeled. However, in this particular study, we modeled the mechanism behind the silencing process. Modeling this kind of mechanisms provides us with a tool to examine the effects of different factors such as mutation or drugs on the process.

  16. Total Extracellular Small RNA Profiles from Plasma, Saliva, and Urine of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Yeri, Ashish; Courtright, Amanda; Reiman, Rebecca; Carlson, Elizabeth; Beecroft, Taylor; Janss, Alex; Siniard, Ashley; Richholt, Ryan; Balak, Chris; Rozowsky, Joel; Kitchen, Robert; Hutchins, Elizabeth; Winarta, Joseph; McCoy, Roger; Anastasi, Matthew; Kim, Seungchan; Huentelman, Matthew; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall

    2017-01-01

    Interest in circulating RNAs for monitoring and diagnosing human health has grown significantly. There are few datasets describing baseline expression levels for total cell-free circulating RNA from healthy control subjects. In this study, total extracellular RNA (exRNA) was isolated and sequenced from 183 plasma samples, 204 urine samples and 46 saliva samples from 55 male college athletes ages 18–25 years. Many participants provided more than one sample, allowing us to investigate variability in an individual’s exRNA expression levels over time. Here we provide a systematic analysis of small exRNAs present in each biofluid, as well as an analysis of exogenous RNAs. The small RNA profile of each biofluid is distinct. We find that a large number of RNA fragments in plasma (63%) and urine (54%) have sequences that are assigned to YRNA and tRNA fragments respectively. Surprisingly, while many miRNAs can be detected, there are few miRNAs that are consistently detected in all samples from a single biofluid, and profiles of miRNA are different for each biofluid. Not unexpectedly, saliva samples have high levels of exogenous sequence that can be traced to bacteria. These data significantly contribute to the current number of sequenced exRNA samples from normal healthy individuals. PMID:28303895

  17. Common ground: small RNA programming and chromatin modifications.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Erwan; Allshire, Robin C

    2011-06-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms regulate genome structure and expression profiles in eukaryotes. RNA interference (RNAi) and other small RNA-based chromatin-modifying activities can act to reset the epigenetic landscape at defined chromatin domains. Centromeric heterochromatin assembly is a RNAi-dependent process in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and provides a paradigm for detailed examination of such epigenetic processes. Here we review recent progress in understanding the mechanisms that underpin RNAi-mediated heterochromatin formation in S. pombe. We discuss recent analyses of the events that trigger RNAi and manipulations which uncouple RNAi and chromatin modification. Finally we provide an overview of similar molecular machineries across species where related small RNA pathways appear to drive the epigenetic reprogramming in germ cells and/or during early development in metazoans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. U6 small nuclear RNA is transcribed by RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed Central

    Kunkel, G R; Maser, R L; Calvet, J P; Pederson, T

    1986-01-01

    A DNA fragment homologous to U6 small nuclear RNA was isolated from a human genomic library and sequenced. The immediate 5'-flanking region of the U6 DNA clone had significant homology with a potential mouse U6 gene, including a "TATA box" at a position 26-29 nucleotides upstream from the transcription start site. Although this sequence element is characteristic of RNA polymerase II promoters, the U6 gene also contained a polymerase III "box A" intragenic control region and a typical run of five thymines at the 3' terminus (noncoding strand). The human U6 DNA clone was accurately transcribed in a HeLa cell S100 extract lacking polymerase II activity. U6 RNA transcription in the S100 extract was resistant to alpha-amanitin at 1 microgram/ml but was completely inhibited at 200 micrograms/ml. A comparison of fingerprints of the in vitro transcript and of U6 RNA synthesized in vivo revealed sequence congruence. U6 RNA synthesis in isolated HeLa cell nuclei also displayed low sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, in contrast to U1 and U2 RNA transcription, which was inhibited greater than 90% at 1 microgram/ml. In addition, U6 RNA synthesized in isolated nuclei was efficiently immunoprecipitated by an antibody against the La antigen, a protein known to bind most other RNA polymerase III transcripts. These results establish that, in contrast to the polymerase II-directed transcription of mammalian genes for U1-U5 small nuclear RNAs, human U6 RNA is transcribed by RNA polymerase III. Images PMID:3464970

  19. The LncRNA Connectivity Map: Using LncRNA Signatures to Connect Small Molecules, LncRNAs, and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haixiu; Shang, Desi; Xu, Yanjun; Zhang, Chunlong; Feng, Li; Sun, Zeguo; Shi, Xinrui; Zhang, Yunpeng; Han, Junwei; Su, Fei; Li, Chunquan; Li, Xia

    2017-07-27

    Well characterized the connections among diseases, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and drugs are important for elucidating the key roles of lncRNAs in biological mechanisms in various biological states. In this study, we constructed a database called LNCmap (LncRNA Connectivity Map), available at http://www.bio-bigdata.com/LNCmap/ , to establish the correlations among diseases, physiological processes, and the action of small molecule therapeutics by attempting to describe all biological states in terms of lncRNA signatures. By reannotating the microarray data from the Connectivity Map database, the LNCmap obtained 237 lncRNA signatures of 5916 instances corresponding to 1262 small molecular drugs. We provided a user-friendly interface for the convenient browsing, retrieval and download of the database, including detailed information and the associations of drugs and corresponding affected lncRNAs. Additionally, we developed two enrichment analysis methods for users to identify candidate drugs for a particular disease by inputting the corresponding lncRNA expression profiles or an associated lncRNA list and then comparing them to the lncRNA signatures in our database. Overall, LNCmap could significantly improve our understanding of the biological roles of lncRNAs and provide a unique resource to reveal the connections among drugs, lncRNAs and diseases.

  20. Small RNA profiling in two Brassica napus cultivars identifies microRNAs with oil production- and development-correlated expression and new small RNA classes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying-Tao; Wang, Meng; Fu, San-Xiong; Yang, Wei-Cai; Qi, Cun-Kou; Wang, Xiu-Jie

    2012-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs are important regulators of plant development and seed formation, yet their population and abundance in the oil crop Brassica napus are still not well understood, especially at different developmental stages and among cultivars with varied seed oil contents. Here, we systematically analyzed the small RNA expression profiles of Brassica napus seeds at early embryonic developmental stages in high-oil-content and low-oil-content B. napus cultivars, both cultured in two environments. A total of 50 conserved miRNAs and 9 new miRNAs were identified, together with some new miRNA targets. Expression analysis revealed some miRNAs with varied expression levels in different seed oil content cultivars or at different embryonic developmental stages. A large number of 23-nucleotide small RNAs with specific nucleotide composition preferences were also identified, which may present new classes of functional small RNAs.

  1. Development of small RNA delivery systems for lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yu; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2015-03-06

    RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful tool for studying target identification and holds promise for the development of therapeutic gene silencing. Recent advances in RNAi delivery and target selection provide remarkable opportunities for translational medical research. The induction of RNAi relies on small silencing RNAs, which affect specific messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation. Two types of small RNA molecules, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), have a central function in RNAi technology. The success of RNAi-based therapeutic delivery may be dependent upon uncovering a delivery route, sophisticated delivery carriers, and nucleic acid modifications. Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, for which novel therapeutic strategies are critically needed. Recently, we have reported a novel platform (PnkRNA™ and nkRNA®) to promote naked RNAi approaches through inhalation without delivery vehicles in lung cancer xenograft models. We suggest that a new class of RNAi therapeutic agent and local drug delivery system could also offer a promising RNAi-based strategy for clinical applications in cancer therapy. In this article, we show recent strategies for an RNAi delivery system and suggest the possible clinical usefulness of RNAi-based therapeutics for lung cancer treatment.

  2. Computational Prediction of miRNA Genes from Small RNA Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wenjing; Friedländer, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing now for the first time allows researchers to gage the depth and variation of entire transcriptomes. However, now as rare transcripts can be detected that are present in cells at single copies, more advanced computational tools are needed to accurately annotate and profile them. microRNAs (miRNAs) are 22 nucleotide small RNAs (sRNAs) that post-transcriptionally reduce the output of protein coding genes. They have established roles in numerous biological processes, including cancers and other diseases. During miRNA biogenesis, the sRNAs are sequentially cleaved from precursor molecules that have a characteristic hairpin RNA structure. The vast majority of new miRNA genes that are discovered are mined from small RNA sequencing (sRNA-seq), which can detect more than a billion RNAs in a single run. However, given that many of the detected RNAs are degradation products from all types of transcripts, the accurate identification of miRNAs remain a non-trivial computational problem. Here, we review the tools available to predict animal miRNAs from sRNA sequencing data. We present tools for generalist and specialist use cases, including prediction from massively pooled data or in species without reference genome. We also present wet-lab methods used to validate predicted miRNAs, and approaches to computationally benchmark prediction accuracy. For each tool, we reference validation experiments and benchmarking efforts. Last, we discuss the future of the field. PMID:25674563

  3. Analysis of RNA binding by the dengue virus NS5 RNA capping enzyme.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Brittney R; Saeedi, Bejan J; Campagnola, Grace; Geiss, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Flaviviruses are small, capped positive sense RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Dengue virus and other related flaviviruses have evolved RNA capping enzymes to form the viral RNA cap structure that protects the viral genome and directs efficient viral polyprotein translation. The N-terminal domain of NS5 possesses the methyltransferase and guanylyltransferase activities necessary for forming mature RNA cap structures. The mechanism for flavivirus guanylyltransferase activity is currently unknown, and how the capping enzyme binds its diphosphorylated RNA substrate is important for deciphering how the flavivirus guanylyltransferase functions. In this report we examine how flavivirus NS5 N-terminal capping enzymes bind to the 5' end of the viral RNA using a fluorescence polarization-based RNA binding assay. We observed that the K(D) for RNA binding is approximately 200 nM Dengue, Yellow Fever, and West Nile virus capping enzymes. Removal of one or both of the 5' phosphates reduces binding affinity, indicating that the terminal phosphates contribute significantly to binding. RNA binding affinity is negatively affected by the presence of GTP or ATP and positively affected by S-adensyl methoninine (SAM). Structural superpositioning of the dengue virus capping enzyme with the Vaccinia virus VP39 protein bound to RNA suggests how the flavivirus capping enzyme may bind RNA, and mutagenesis analysis of residues in the putative RNA binding site demonstrate that several basic residues are critical for RNA binding. Several mutants show differential binding to 5' di-, mono-, and un-phosphorylated RNAs. The mode of RNA binding appears similar to that found with other methyltransferase enzymes, and a discussion of diphosphorylated RNA binding is presented.

  4. Adenylylation of small RNA sequencing adapters using the TS2126 RNA ligase I.

    PubMed

    Lama, Lodoe; Ryan, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Many high-throughput small RNA next-generation sequencing protocols use 5' preadenylylated DNA oligonucleotide adapters during cDNA library preparation. Preadenylylation of the DNA adapter's 5' end frees from ATP-dependence the ligation of the adapter to RNA collections, thereby avoiding ATP-dependent side reactions. However, preadenylylation of the DNA adapters can be costly and difficult. The currently available method for chemical adenylylation of DNA adapters is inefficient and uses techniques not typically practiced in laboratories profiling cellular RNA expression. An alternative enzymatic method using a commercial RNA ligase was recently introduced, but this enzyme works best as a stoichiometric adenylylating reagent rather than a catalyst and can therefore prove costly when several variant adapters are needed or during scale-up or high-throughput adenylylation procedures. Here, we describe a simple, scalable, and highly efficient method for the 5' adenylylation of DNA oligonucleotides using the thermostable RNA ligase 1 from bacteriophage TS2126. Adapters with 3' blocking groups are adenylylated at >95% yield at catalytic enzyme-to-adapter ratios and need not be gel purified before ligation to RNA acceptors. Experimental conditions are also reported that enable DNA adapters with free 3' ends to be 5' adenylylated at >90% efficiency. © 2015 Lama and Ryan; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  5. Evolution and Protein Packaging of Small Molecule RNA Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Jolene L.; Baksh, Michael M.; Fiedler, Jason D.; Brown, Steven D.; Kussrow, Amanda; Bornhop, Darryl J.; Ordoukhanian, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    A high-affinity RNA aptamer (Kd = 50 nM) was efficiently identified by SELEX against a heteroaryl dihydropyrimidine structure, chosen as a representative drug-like molecule with no cross reactivity with mammalian or bacterial cells. This aptamer, its weaker-binding variants, and a known aptamer against theophylline were each embedded in a longer RNA sequence that was encapsidated inside a virus-like particle by a convenient expression technique. These nucleoprotein particles were shown by backscattering interferometry to bind to the small-molecule ligands with affinities similar to those of the free (non-encapsidated) aptamers. The system therefore comprises a general approach to the production and sequestration of functional RNA molecules, characterized by a convenient label-free analytical technique. PMID:21899290

  6. Small Cofactors May Assist Protein Emergence from RNA World: Clues from RNA-Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2011-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that at an early stage in the evolution of life an RNA world arose, in which RNAs both served as the genetic material and catalyzed diverse biochemical reactions. Then, proteins have gradually replaced RNAs because of their superior catalytic properties in catalysis over time. Therefore, it is important to investigate how primitive functional proteins emerged from RNA world, which can shed light on the evolutionary pathway of life from RNA world to the modern world. In this work, we proposed that the emergence of most primitive functional proteins are assisted by the early primitive nucleotide cofactors, while only a minority are induced directly by RNAs based on the analysis of RNA-protein complexes. Furthermore, the present findings have significant implication for exploring the composition of primitive RNA, i.e., adenine base as principal building blocks. PMID:21789260

  7. Using small RNA (sRNA) deep sequencing to understand global virus distribution in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small RNAs (sRNAs), a class of regulatory RNAs, have been used to serve as the specificity determinants of suppressing gene expression in plants and animals. Next generation sequencing (NGS) uncovered the sRNA landscape in most organisms including their associated microbes. In the current study, w...

  8. An endogenous small interfering RNA pathway in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Czech, Benjamin; Malone, Colin D.; Zhou, Rui; Stark, Alexander; Schlingeheyde, Catherine; Dus, Monica; Perrimon, Norbert; Kellis, Manolis; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Hannon, Gregory J.; Brennecke, Julius

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila endogenous small RNAs are categorized according to their mechanisms of biogenesis and the Argonaute protein to which they bind. MicroRNAs are a class of ubiquitously expressed RNAs of ~22 nucleotides in length, which arise from structured precursors through the action of Drosha–Pasha and Dicer-1–Loquacious complexes1–7. These join Argonaute-1 to regulate gene expression8,9. A second endogenous small RNA class, the Piwi-interacting RNAs, bind Piwi proteins and suppress transposons10,11. Piwi-interacting RNAs are restricted to the gonad, and at least a subset of these arises by Piwi-catalysed cleavage of single-stranded RNAs12,13. Here we show that Drosophila generates a third small RNA class, endogenous small interfering RNAs, in both gonadal and somatic tissues. Production of these RNAs requires Dicer-2, but a subset depends preferentially on Loquacious1,4,5 rather than the canonical Dicer-2 partner, R2D2 (ref. 14). Endogenous small interfering RNAs arise both from convergent transcription units and from structured genomic loci in a tissue-specific fashion. They predominantly join Argonaute-2 and have the capacity, as a class, to target both protein-coding genes and mobile elements. These observations expand the repertoire of small RNAs in Drosophila, adding a class that blurs distinctions based on known biogenesis mechanisms and functional roles. PMID:18463631

  9. Evaluation of commercially available small RNASeq library preparation kits using low input RNA.

    PubMed

    Yeri, Ashish; Courtright, Amanda; Danielson, Kirsty; Hutchins, Elizabeth; Alsop, Eric; Carlson, Elizabeth; Hsieh, Michael; Ziegler, Olivia; Das, Avash; Shah, Ravi V; Rozowsky, Joel; Das, Saumya; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall

    2018-05-05

    Evolving interest in comprehensively profiling the full range of small RNAs present in small tissue biopsies and in circulating biofluids, and how the profile differs with disease, has launched small RNA sequencing (RNASeq) into more frequent use. However, known biases associated with small RNASeq, compounded by low RNA inputs, have been both a significant concern and a hurdle to widespread adoption. As RNASeq is becoming a viable choice for the discovery of small RNAs in low input samples and more labs are employing it, there should be benchmark datasets to test and evaluate the performance of new sequencing protocols and operators. In a recent publication from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Pine et al., 2018, the investigators used a commercially available set of three tissues and tested performance across labs and platforms. In this paper, we further tested the performance of low RNA input in three commonly used and commercially available RNASeq library preparation kits; NEB Next, NEXTFlex, and TruSeq small RNA library preparation. We evaluated the performance of the kits at two different sites, using three different tissues (brain, liver, and placenta) with high (1 μg) and low RNA (10 ng) input from tissue samples, or 5.0, 3.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, and 0.2 ml starting volumes of plasma. As there has been a lack of robust validation platforms for differentially expressed miRNAs, we also compared low input RNASeq data with their expression profiles on three different platforms (Abcam Fireplex, HTG EdgeSeq, and Qiagen miRNome). The concordance of RNASeq results on these three platforms was dependent on the RNA expression level; the higher the expression, the better the reproducibility. The results provide an extensive analysis of small RNASeq kit performance using low RNA input, and replication of these data on three downstream technologies.

  10. Examining small molecule: HIV RNA interactions using arrayed imaging reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaimayo, Wanaruk; Miller, Benjamin L.

    2014-03-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has been the subject of intense research for more than three decades as it causes an uncurable disease: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, AIDS. In the pursuit of a medical treatment, RNAtargeted small molecules are emerging as promising targets. In order to understand the binding kinetics of small molecules and HIV RNA, association (ka) and dissociation (kd) kinetic constants must be obtained, ideally for a large number of sequences to assess selectivity. We have developed Aqueous Array Imaged Reflectometry (Aq-AIR) to address this challenge. Using a simple light interference phenomenon, Aq-AIR provides real-time high-throughput multiplex capabilities to detect binding of targets to surface-immobilized probes in a label-free microarray format. The second generation of Aq-AIR consisting of high-sensitivity CCD camera and 12-μL flow cell was fabricated. The system performance was assessed by real-time detection of MBNL1-(CUG)10 and neomycin B - HIV RNA bindings. The results establish this second-generation Aq-AIR to be able to examine small molecules binding to RNA sequences specific to HIV.

  11. Circ-UBR5: An exonic circular RNA and novel small nuclear RNA involved in RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Qin, Meilin; Wei, Gang; Sun, Xiaomeng

    2018-06-24

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are class of non-coding RNAs formed by back-splicing events as loops, and could be found in all types of organisms. They play important and diverse roles in cell development, growth, and tumorigenesis, but functions of the majority of circRNAs remain enigmatic. Particularly functional phenotypes of great majority of circRNAs are not obvious. Here we randomly selected a circRNA circ-UBR5, which has no obvious functional phenotype in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells from our previous research findings, to explore its potential function in cells. Differential expression of circ-UBR5 was detected in paired samples of tumorous tissues and adjacent nontumorous tissues from 59 patients with NSCLC by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCRs). Results showed circ-UBR5 expression was significantly downregulated in NSCLC tissues (p < 0.001) and was correlated with tumor differentiation (p = 0.00126), suggesting circ-UBR5 might serve as an index of NSCLC differentiation. Our findings indicated circ-UBR5 could bind splicing regulatory factor QKI, KH domain containing RNA binding (QKI) and NOVA alternative splicing regulator 1 (NOVA1) and U1 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) in the nucleus, revealing circ-UBR5 might be a novel snRNA involved in RNA splicing regulatory process. Moreover, we first presented a highly efficient strategy for finding specific circRNA binding proteins using Human Protein Microarray (Huprot™ Protoarray). Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Global small RNA chaperone Hfq and regulatory small RNAs are important virulence regulators in Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Quan; McNally, R Ryan; Sundin, George W

    2013-04-01

    Hfq is a global small RNA (sRNA) chaperone that interacts with Hfq-regulated sRNAs and functions in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. In this work, we identified Hfq to be a virulence regulator in the Gram-negative fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Deletion of hfq in E. amylovora Ea1189 significantly reduced bacterial virulence in both immature pear fruits and apple shoots. Analysis of virulence determinants in strain Ea1189Δhfq showed that Hfq exerts pleiotropic regulation of amylovoran exopolysaccharide production, biofilm formation, motility, and the type III secretion system (T3SS). Further characterization of biofilm regulation by Hfq demonstrated that Hfq limits bacterial attachment to solid surfaces while promoting biofilm maturation. Characterization of T3SS regulation by Hfq revealed that Hfq positively regulates the translocation and secretion of the major type III effector DspE and negatively controls the secretion of the putative translocator HrpK and the type III effector Eop1. Lastly, 10 Hfq-regulated sRNAs were identified using a computational method, and two of these sRNAs, RprA and RyhA, were found to be required for the full virulence of E. amylovora.

  13. Global Small RNA Chaperone Hfq and Regulatory Small RNAs Are Important Virulence Regulators in Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Quan; McNally, R. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Hfq is a global small RNA (sRNA) chaperone that interacts with Hfq-regulated sRNAs and functions in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. In this work, we identified Hfq to be a virulence regulator in the Gram-negative fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Deletion of hfq in E. amylovora Ea1189 significantly reduced bacterial virulence in both immature pear fruits and apple shoots. Analysis of virulence determinants in strain Ea1189Δhfq showed that Hfq exerts pleiotropic regulation of amylovoran exopolysaccharide production, biofilm formation, motility, and the type III secretion system (T3SS). Further characterization of biofilm regulation by Hfq demonstrated that Hfq limits bacterial attachment to solid surfaces while promoting biofilm maturation. Characterization of T3SS regulation by Hfq revealed that Hfq positively regulates the translocation and secretion of the major type III effector DspE and negatively controls the secretion of the putative translocator HrpK and the type III effector Eop1. Lastly, 10 Hfq-regulated sRNAs were identified using a computational method, and two of these sRNAs, RprA and RyhA, were found to be required for the full virulence of E. amylovora. PMID:23378513

  14. Nuclear Retention Elements of U3 Small Nucleolar RNA

    PubMed Central

    Speckmann, Wayne; Narayanan, Aarthi; Terns, Rebecca; Terns, Michael P.

    1999-01-01

    The processing and methylation of precursor rRNA is mediated by the box C/D small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). These snoRNAs differ from most cellular RNAs in that they are not exported to the cytoplasm. Instead, these RNAs are actively retained in the nucleus where they assemble with proteins into mature small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles and are targeted to their intranuclear site of action, the nucleolus. In this study, we have identified the cis-acting sequences responsible for the nuclear retention of U3 box C/D snoRNA by analyzing the nucleocytoplasmic distributions of an extensive panel of U3 RNA variants after injection of the RNAs into Xenopus oocyte nuclei. Our data indicate the importance of two conserved sequence motifs in retaining U3 RNA in the nucleus. The first motif is comprised of the conserved box C′ and box D sequences that characterize the box C/D family. The second motif contains conserved box sequences B and C. Either motif is sufficient for nuclear retention, but disruption of both motifs leads to mislocalization of the RNAs to the cytoplasm. Variant RNAs that are not retained also lack 5′ cap hypermethylation and fail to associate with fibrillarin. Furthermore, our results indicate that nuclear retention of U3 RNA does not simply reflect its nucleolar localization. A fragment of U3 containing the box B/C motif is not localized to nucleoli but retained in coiled bodies. Thus, nuclear retention and nucleolar localization are distinct processes with differing sequence requirements. PMID:10567566

  15. Novel microRNA-like viral small regulatory RNAs arising during human hepatitis A virus infection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiandong; Sun, Jing; Wang, Bin; Wu, Meini; Zhang, Jing; Duan, Zhiqing; Wang, Haixuan; Hu, Ningzhu; Hu, Yunzhang

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), including host miRNAs and viral miRNAs, play vital roles in regulating host-virus interactions. DNA viruses encode miRNAs that regulate the viral life cycle. However, it is generally believed that cytoplasmic RNA viruses do not encode miRNAs, owing to inaccessible cellular miRNA processing machinery. Here, we provide a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identification of miRNAs that were derived from hepatitis A virus (HAV; Hu/China/H2/1982), which is a typical cytoplasmic RNA virus. Using deep-sequencing and in silico approaches, we identified 2 novel virally encoded miRNAs, named hav-miR-1-5p and hav-miR-2-5p. Both of the novel virally encoded miRNAs were clearly detected in infected cells. Analysis of Dicer enzyme silencing demonstrated that HAV-derived miRNA biogenesis is Dicer dependent. Furthermore, we confirmed that HAV mature miRNAs were generated from viral miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs) in host cells. Notably, naturally derived HAV miRNAs were biologically and functionally active and induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Genomic location analysis revealed novel miRNAs located in the coding region of the viral genome. Overall, our results show that HAV naturally generates functional miRNA-like small regulatory RNAs during infection. This is the first report of miRNAs derived from the coding region of genomic RNA of a cytoplasmic RNA virus. These observations demonstrate that a cytoplasmic RNA virus can naturally generate functional miRNAs, as DNA viruses do. These findings also contribute to improved understanding of host-RNA virus interactions mediated by RNA virus-derived miRNAs. © FASEB.

  16. The small RNA complement of adult Schistosoma haematobium.

    PubMed

    Stroehlein, Andreas J; Young, Neil D; Korhonen, Pasi K; Hall, Ross S; Jex, Aaron R; Webster, Bonnie L; Rollinson, David; Brindley, Paul J; Gasser, Robin B

    2018-05-01

    Blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma cause schistosomiasis-a neglected tropical disease (NTD) that affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Studies of schistosome genomes have improved our understanding of the molecular biology of flatworms, but most of them have focused largely on protein-coding genes. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been explored in selected schistosome species and are suggested to play essential roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes, and in modulating flatworm-host interactions. However, genome-wide small RNA data are currently lacking for key schistosomes including Schistosoma haematobium-the causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis of humans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other sncRNAs of male and female adults of S. haematobium and small RNA transcription levels were explored by deep sequencing, genome mapping and detailed bioinformatic analyses. In total, 89 transcribed miRNAs were identified in S. haematobium-a similar complement to those reported for the congeners S. mansoni and S. japonicum. Of these miRNAs, 34 were novel, with no homologs in other schistosomes. Most miRNAs (n = 64) exhibited sex-biased transcription, suggestive of roles in sexual differentiation, pairing of adult worms and reproductive processes. Of the sncRNAs that were not miRNAs, some related to the spliceosome (n = 21), biogenesis of other RNAs (n = 3) or ribozyme functions (n = 16), whereas most others (n = 3798) were novel ('orphans') with unknown functions. This study provides the first genome-wide sncRNA resource for S. haematobium, extending earlier studies of schistosomes. The present work should facilitate the future curation and experimental validation of sncRNA functions in schistosomes to enhance our understanding of post-transcriptional gene regulation and of the roles that sncRNAs play in schistosome reproduction, development and parasite-host cross-talk.

  17. Structural features of microRNA (miRNA) precursors and their relevance to miRNA biogenesis and small interfering RNA/short hairpin RNA design.

    PubMed

    Krol, Jacek; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Wilczynska, Urszula; Drath, Maria; Jasinska, Anna; Kaczynska, Danuta; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J

    2004-10-01

    We have established the structures of 10 human microRNA (miRNA) precursors using biochemical methods. Eight of these structures turned out to be different from those that were computer-predicted. The differences localized in the terminal loop region and at the opposite side of the precursor hairpin stem. We have analyzed the features of these structures from the perspectives of miRNA biogenesis and active strand selection. We demonstrated the different thermodynamic stability profiles for pre-miRNA hairpins harboring miRNAs at their 5'- and 3'-sides and discussed their functional implications. Our results showed that miRNA prediction based on predicted precursor structures may give ambiguous results, and the success rate is significantly higher for the experimentally determined structures. On the other hand, the differences between the predicted and experimentally determined structures did not affect the stability of termini produced through "conceptual dicing." This result confirms the value of thermodynamic analysis based on mfold as a predictor of strand section by RNAi-induced silencing complex (RISC).

  18. Therapeutic implications of small interfering RNA in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Raghunathan, Suchi; Patel, Bhoomika M

    2013-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) place a heavy burden on the economies of low- and middle-income countries. Comprehensive action requires combining approaches that seek to reduce the risks throughout the entire population with strategies that target individuals at high risk or with established disease. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) as a functional mediator for regulation of gene expression has been evaluated for potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart failure etc. The present review attempts have been made to provide a brief outline of the current understanding of the mechanism of RNAi and the delivery system and describe the therapeutic application of siRNAs and their potential for treating CVDs which are taking a heavy toll on human life. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  19. Identification of novel proteins associated with yeast snR30 small nucleolar RNA

    PubMed Central

    Lemay, Vincent; Hossain, Ahmed; Osheim, Yvonne N.; Beyer, Ann L.; Dragon, François

    2011-01-01

    H/ACA small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs) that guide pseudouridylation reactions are comprised of one small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) and four common proteins (Cbf5, Gar1, Nhp2 and Nop10). Unlike other H/ACA snoRNPs, snR30 is essential for the early processing reactions that lead to the production of 18S ribosomal RNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To determine whether snR30 RNP contains specific proteins that contribute to its unique functional properties, we devised an affinity purification strategy using TAP-tagged Gar1 and an RNA aptamer inserted in snR30 snoRNA to selectively purify the RNP. Northern blotting and pCp labeling experiments showed that S1-tagged snR30 snoRNA can be selectively purified with streptavidin beads. Protein analysis revealed that aptamer-tagged snR30 RNA was associated with the four H/ACA proteins and a number of additional proteins: Nop6, ribosomal proteins S9 and S18 and histones H2B and H4. Using antibodies raised against Nop6 we show that endogenous Nop6 localizes to the nucleolus and that it cosediments with snR30 snoRNA in sucrose density gradients. We demonstrate through primer extension experiments that snR30 snoRNA is required for cleavages at site A0, A1 and A2, and that the absence of Nop6 decreases the efficiency of cleavage at site A2. Finally, electron microscopy analyses of chromatin spreads from cells depleted of snR30 snoRNA show that it is required for SSU processome assembly. PMID:21893585

  20. Unusual RNA plant virus integration in the soybean genome leads to the production of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Guilherme Cordenonsi; de Oliveira, Luiz Felipe Valter; de Morais, Guilherme Loss; Abdelnor, Ricardo Vilela; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima; Waterhouse, Peter M; Farinelli, Laurent; Margis, Rogerio

    2016-05-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is known to be a major force in genome evolution. The acquisition of genes from viruses by eukaryotic genomes is a well-studied example of HGT, including rare cases of non-retroviral RNA virus integration. The present study describes the integration of cucumber mosaic virus RNA-1 into soybean genome. After an initial metatranscriptomic analysis of small RNAs derived from soybean, the de novo assembly resulted a 3029-nt contig homologous to RNA-1. The integration of this sequence in the soybean genome was confirmed by DNA deep sequencing. The locus where the integration occurred harbors the full RNA-1 sequence followed by the partial sequence of an endogenous mRNA and another sequence of RNA-1 as an inverted repeat and allowing the formation of a hairpin structure. This region recombined into a retrotransposon located inside an exon of a soybean gene. The nucleotide similarity of the integrated sequence compared to other Cucumber mosaic virus sequences indicates that the integration event occurred recently. We described a rare event of non-retroviral RNA virus integration in soybean that leads to the production of a double-stranded RNA in a similar fashion to virus resistance RNAi plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. mirRICH, a simple method to enrich the small RNA fraction from over-dried RNA pellets.

    PubMed

    Choi, Cheolwon; Yoon, Seulgi; Moon, Hyesu; Bae, Yun-Ui; Kim, Chae-Bin; Diskul-Na-Ayudthaya, Penchatr; Ngu, Trinh Van; Munir, Javaria; Han, JaeWook; Park, Se Bin; Moon, Jong-Seok; Song, Sujung; Ryu, Seongho

    2018-04-11

    Techniques to isolate the small RNA fraction (<200nt) by column-based methods are commercially available. However, their use is limited because of the relatively high cost. We found that large RNA molecules, including mRNAs and rRNAs, are aggregated together in the presence of salts when RNA pellets are over-dried. Moreover, once RNA pellets are over-dried, large RNA molecules are barely soluble again during the elution process, whereas small RNA molecules (<100nt) can be eluted. We therefore modified the acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform (AGPC)-based RNA extraction protocol by skipping the 70% ethanol washing step and over-drying the RNA pellet for 1 hour at room temperature. We named this novel small RNA isolation method "mirRICH." The quality of the small RNA sequences was validated by electrophoresis, next-generation sequencing, and quantitative PCR, and the findings support that our newly developed column-free method can successfully and efficiently isolate small RNAs from over-dried RNA pellets.

  2. Quantitative Characteristics of Gene Regulation by Small RNA

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Erel; Zhang, Zhongge; Kuhlman, Thomas; Hwa, Terence

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of small RNAs (sRNAs) have been shown to regulate critical pathways in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In bacteria, regulation by trans-encoded sRNAs is predominantly found in the coordination of intricate stress responses. The mechanisms by which sRNAs modulate expression of its targets are diverse. In common to most is the possibility that interference with the translation of mRNA targets may also alter the abundance of functional sRNAs. Aiming to understand the unique role played by sRNAs in gene regulation, we studied examples from two distinct classes of bacterial sRNAs in Escherichia coli using a quantitative approach combining experiment and theory. Our results demonstrate that sRNA provides a novel mode of gene regulation, with characteristics distinct from those of protein-mediated gene regulation. These include a threshold-linear response with a tunable threshold, a robust noise resistance characteristic, and a built-in capability for hierarchical cross-talk. Knowledge of these special features of sRNA-mediated regulation may be crucial toward understanding the subtle functions that sRNAs can play in coordinating various stress-relief pathways. Our results may also help guide the design of synthetic genetic circuits that have properties difficult to attain with protein regulators alone. PMID:17713988

  3. Engineering a Functional Small RNA Negative Autoregulation Network with Model-Guided Design.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chelsea Y; Takahashi, Melissa K; Zhang, Yan; Lucks, Julius B

    2018-05-22

    RNA regulators are powerful components of the synthetic biology toolbox. Here, we expand the repertoire of synthetic gene networks built from these regulators by constructing a transcriptional negative autoregulation (NAR) network out of small RNAs (sRNAs). NAR network motifs are core motifs of natural genetic networks, and are known for reducing network response time and steady state signal. Here we use cell-free transcription-translation (TX-TL) reactions and a computational model to design and prototype sRNA NAR constructs. Using parameter sensitivity analysis, we design a simple set of experiments that allow us to accurately predict NAR function in TX-TL. We transfer successful network designs into Escherichia coli and show that our sRNA transcriptional network reduces both network response time and steady-state gene expression. This work broadens our ability to construct increasingly sophisticated RNA genetic networks with predictable function.

  4. Non-small cell lung carcinoma therapy using mTOR-siRNA.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Hirochika; Sakakibara, Kenji; Kunimitsu, Tamo; Matsuoka, Hiroyasu; Kato, Kaori; Oyachi, Noboru; Dobashi, Yoh; Matsumoto, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    Molecular targeting agents play important roles in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapy. Published studies have investigated new drugs categorized as molecular targeting agents that inhibit the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). We focused on a small interfering RNA (siRNA) that specifically inhibits mTOR and has fewer side effects. To evaluate the antitumor effects of the siRNA, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration were assessed. In the study group, the siRNA was transfected into NSCLC cells. The number of cells present after 6 days of culture was counted to determine changes in cell proliferation. The level of apoptosis was evaluated by the detection of DNA-histone complexes in the cytoplasmic fraction using an absorption spectrometer. Changes in migration were evaluated by calculating the number of cells that passed through a specific filter using a commercial chemotaxis assay kit. mTOR-siRNA transfection inhibited cell proliferation as indicated by 37.3% (p = 0.034) decrease in the number of cells compared with the control cells. Analysis of the level of apoptosis in NSCLC cells revealed 16.7% (p = 0.016) increase following mTOR-siRNA transfection, and mTOR-siRNA transfection significantly inhibited cell migration by 39.2% (p = 0.0001). We confirmed that mTOR-siRNA induces apoptosis and inhibits the proliferation and migration of NSCLC cells in vitro. Further studies using mTOR-siRNA may aid in the development of an alternative therapy that maximizes the antineoplastic effect of mTOR inhibition.

  5. Small RNA profiling of low biomass samples: identification and removal of contaminants.

    PubMed

    Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Yusuf, Dilmurat; Kaysen, Anne; Etheridge, Alton; Fritz, Joëlle V; May, Patrick; de Beaufort, Carine; Upadhyaya, Bimal B; Ghosal, Anubrata; Galas, David J; Wilmes, Paul

    2018-05-14

    Sequencing-based analyses of low-biomass samples are known to be prone to misinterpretation due to the potential presence of contaminating molecules derived from laboratory reagents and environments. DNA contamination has been previously reported, yet contamination with RNA is usually considered to be very unlikely due to its inherent instability. Small RNAs (sRNAs) identified in tissues and bodily fluids, such as blood plasma, have implications for physiology and pathology, and therefore the potential to act as disease biomarkers. Thus, the possibility for RNA contaminants demands careful evaluation. Herein, we report on the presence of small RNA (sRNA) contaminants in widely used microRNA extraction kits and propose an approach for their depletion. We sequenced sRNAs extracted from human plasma samples and detected important levels of non-human (exogenous) sequences whose source could be traced to the microRNA extraction columns through a careful qPCR-based analysis of several laboratory reagents. Furthermore, we also detected the presence of artefactual sequences related to these contaminants in a range of published datasets, thereby arguing in particular for a re-evaluation of reports suggesting the presence of exogenous RNAs of microbial and dietary origin in blood plasma. To avoid artefacts in future experiments, we also devise several protocols for the removal of contaminant RNAs, define minimal amounts of starting material for artefact-free analyses, and confirm the reduction of contaminant levels for identification of bona fide sequences using 'ultra-clean' extraction kits. This is the first report on the presence of RNA molecules as contaminants in RNA extraction kits. The described protocols should be applied in the future to avoid confounding sRNA studies.

  6. Non-small cell lung carcinoma therapy using mTOR-siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Hirochika; Sakakibara, Kenji; Kunimitsu, Tamo; Matsuoka, Hiroyasu; Kato, Kaori; Oyachi, Noboru; Dobashi, Yoh; Matsumoto, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    Molecular targeting agents play important roles in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapy. Published studies have investigated new drugs categorized as molecular targeting agents that inhibit the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). We focused on a small interfering RNA (siRNA) that specifically inhibits mTOR and has fewer side effects. To evaluate the antitumor effects of the siRNA, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration were assessed. In the study group, the siRNA was transfected into NSCLC cells. The number of cells present after 6 days of culture was counted to determine changes in cell proliferation. The level of apoptosis was evaluated by the detection of DNA-histone complexes in the cytoplasmic fraction using an absorption spectrometer. Changes in migration were evaluated by calculating the number of cells that passed through a specific filter using a commercial chemotaxis assay kit. mTOR-siRNA transfection inhibited cell proliferation as indicated by 37.3% (p = 0.034) decrease in the number of cells compared with the control cells. Analysis of the level of apoptosis in NSCLC cells revealed 16.7% (p = 0.016) increase following mTOR-siRNA transfection, and mTOR-siRNA transfection significantly inhibited cell migration by 39.2% (p = 0.0001). We confirmed that mTOR-siRNA induces apoptosis and inhibits the proliferation and migration of NSCLC cells in vitro. Further studies using mTOR-siRNA may aid in the development of an alternative therapy that maximizes the antineoplastic effect of mTOR inhibition. PMID:22400071

  7. Genome-wide analysis of the regulatory function mediated by the small regulatory psm-mec RNA of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Gordon Y C; Villaruz, Amer E; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Duong, Anthony C; Yeh, Anthony J; Nguyen, Thuan H; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Queck, S Y; Otto, M

    2014-07-01

    Several methicillin resistance (SCCmec) clusters characteristic of hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains harbor the psm-mec locus. In addition to encoding the cytolysin, phenol-soluble modulin (PSM)-mec, this locus has been attributed gene regulatory functions. Here we employed genome-wide transcriptional profiling to define the regulatory function of the psm-mec locus. The immune evasion factor protein A emerged as the primary conserved and strongly regulated target of psm-mec, an effect we show is mediated by the psm-mec RNA. Furthermore, the psm-mec locus exerted regulatory effects that were more moderate in extent. For example, expression of PSM-mec limited expression of mecA, thereby decreasing methicillin resistance. Our study shows that the psm-mec locus has a rare dual regulatory RNA and encoded cytolysin function. Furthermore, our findings reveal a specific mechanism underscoring the recently emerging concept that S. aureus strains balance pronounced virulence and high expression of antibiotic resistance. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. An effective method for adenoviral-mediated delivery of small interfering RNA into mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Forte, Amalia; Napolitano, Marco A; Cipollaro, Marilena; Giordano, Antonio; Cascino, Antonino; Galderisi, Umberto

    2007-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promise as a main actor of cell-based therapeutic strategies, due to their intrinsic ability to differentiate along different mesenchymal cell lineages, able to repair the diseased or injured tissue in which they are localized. The application of MSCs in therapies requires an in depth knowledge of their biology and of the molecular mechanisms leading to MSC multilineage differentiation. The knockdown of target genes through small interfering RNA (siRNA) carried by adenoviruses (Ad) represents a valid tool for the study of the role of specific molecules in cell biology. Unfortunately, MSCs are poorly transfected by conventional Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors. We set up a method to obtain a very efficient transduction of rat MSCs with low doses of unmodified Ad5, carrying the siRNA targeted against the mRNA coding for Rb2/p130 (Ad-siRNA-Rb2), which plays a fundamental role in cell differentiation. This method allowed a 95% transduction rate of Ad-siRNA in MSC, along with a siRNA-mediated 85% decrease of Rb2/p130 mRNA and a 70% decrease of Rb2/p130 protein 48 h after transduction with 50 multiplicities of infection (MOIs) of Ad5. The effect on Rb2/p130 protein persisted 15 days after transduction. Finally, Ad-siRNA did not compromise the viability of transduced MSCs neither induced any cell cycle modification. The effective Ad-siRNA-Rb2 we constructed, together with the efficient method of delivery in MSCs we set up, will allow an in depth analysis of the role of Rb2/p130 in MSC biology and multilineage differentiation.

  9. Identification of the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network of small cell osteosarcoma based on RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lin; Liao, Yedan; Shen, Lida; Hu, Fengdi; Yu, Sunlin; Zhou, Yonghong; Zhang, Ya; Yang, Yihao; Li, Dongqi; Ren, Minyan; Yuan, Zhongqin; Yang, Zuozhang

    2017-06-27

    Small cell osteosarcoma (SCO) is a rare subtype of osteosarcoma characterized by highly aggressive progression and a poor prognosis. The miRNA and mRNA expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained in 3 patients with SCO and 10 healthy individuals using high-throughput RNA-sequencing. We identified 37 dysregulated miRNAs and 1636 dysregulated mRNAs in patients with SCO compared to the healthy controls. Specifically, the 37 dysregulated miRNAs consisted of 27 up-regulated miRNAs and 10 down-regulated miRNAs; the 1636 dysregulated mRNAs consisted of 555 up-regulated mRNAs and 1081 down-regulated mRNAs. The target-genes of miRNAs were predicted, and 1334 negative correlations between miRNAs and mRNAs were used to construct an miRNA-mRNA regulatory network. Dysregulated genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to cancer, mTOR signaling and cell cycle signaling. Specifically, hsa-miR-26b-5p, hsa-miR-221-3p and hsa-miR-125b-2-3p were significantly dysregulated miRNAs and exhibited a high degree of connectivity with target genes. Overall, the expression of dysregulated genes in tumor tissues and peripheral blood samples of patients with SCO measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction corroborated with our bioinformatics analyses based on the expression profiles of PBMCs from patients with SCO. Thus, hsa-miR-26b-5p, hsa-miR-221-3p and hsa-miR-125b-2-3p may be involved in SCO tumorigenesis.

  10. Plasma RNA integrity analysis: methodology and validation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Blenda C K; Lo, Y M Dennis

    2006-09-01

    The detection of cell-free RNA in plasma and serum of human subjects has found increasing applications in the field of medical diagnostics. However, many questions regarding the biology of circulating RNA remain to be addressed. One issue concerns the molecular nature of these circulating RNA species. We have recently developed a simple and quantitative method to investigate the integrity of plasma RNA. Our results have suggested that cell-free RNA in plasma is generally present as fragmented molecules instead of intact transcripts, with a predominance of 5' fragments. In this article, we summarize the basic principles in the experimental design for plasma RNA integrity analysis and highlight some of the important technical considerations for this type of investigation.

  11. New therapeutic opportunities for Hepatitis C based on small RNA

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qiu-Wei; Henry, Scot D; Scholte, Bob J; Tilanus, Hugo W; Janssen, Harry LA; van der Laan, Luc JW

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major causes of chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and liver cancer and is therefore, the most common indication for liver transplantation. Conventional antiviral drugs such as pegylated interferon-alpha, taken in combination with ribavirin, represent a milestone in the therapy of this disease. However, due to different viral and host factors, clinical success can be achieved only in approximately half of patients, making urgent the requirement of exploiting alternative approaches for HCV therapy. Fortunately, recent advances in the understanding of HCV viral replication and host cell interactions have opened new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. The most recent technologies, such as small interference RNA mediated gene-silencing, anti-sense oligonucleotides (ASO), or viral vector based gene delivery systems, have paved the way to develop novel therapeutic modalities for HCV. In this review, we outline the application of these technologies in the context of HCV therapy. In particular, we will focus on the newly defined role of cellular microRNA (miR-122) in viral replication and discuss its potential for HCV molecular therapy. PMID:17724797

  12. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-based functional micro- and nanostructures for efficient and selective gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Hyeon; Chung, Bong Hyun; Park, Tae Gwan; Nam, Yoon Sung; Mok, Hyejung

    2012-07-17

    Because of RNA's ability to encode structure and functional information, researchers have fabricated diverse geometric structures from this polymer at the micro- and nanoscale. With their tunable structures, rigidity, and biocompatibility, novel two-dimensional and three-dimensional RNA structures can serve as a fundamental platform for biomedical applications, including engineered tissues, biosensors, and drug delivery vehicles. The discovery of the potential of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) has underscored the applications of RNA-based micro- and nanostructures in medicine. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA), synthetic double-stranded RNA consisting of approximately 21 base pairs, suppresses problematic target genes in a sequence-specific manner via inherent RNA interference (RNAi) processing. As a result, siRNA offers a potential strategy for treatment of many human diseases. However, due to inefficient delivery to cells and off-target effects, the clinical application of therapeutic siRNA has been very challenging. To address these issues, researchers have studied a variety of nanocarrier systems for siRNA delivery. In this Account, we describe several strategies for efficient siRNA delivery and selective gene silencing. We took advantage of facile chemical conjugation and complementary hybridization to design novel siRNA-based micro- and nanostructures. Using chemical crosslinkers and hydrophobic/hydrophilic polymers at the end of siRNA, we produced various RNA-based structures, including siRNA block copolymers, micelles, linear siRNA homopolymers, and microhydrogels. Because of their increased charge density and flexibility compared with conventional siRNA, these micro- and nanostructures can form polyelectrolyte complexes with poorly charged and biocompatible cationic carriers that are both more condensed and more homogenous than the complexes formed in other carrier systems. In addition, the fabricated siRNA-based structures are linked by cleavable disulfide

  13. Systematical analysis of lncRNA-mRNA competing endogenous RNA network in breast cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shunheng; Wang, Lihong; Yang, Qian; Liu, Haizhou; Meng, Qianqian; Jiang, Leiming; Wang, Shuyuan; Jiang, Wei

    2018-06-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common solid tumors in women involving multiple subtypes. However, the mechanism for subtypes of breast cancer is still complicated and unclear. Recently, several studies indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) could act as sponges to compete miRNAs with mRNAs, participating in various biological processes. We concentrated on the competing interactions between lncRNAs and mRNAs in four subtypes of breast cancer (basal-like, HER2+, luminal A and luminal B), and analyzed the impacts of competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) on each subtype systematically. We constructed four breast cancer subtype-related lncRNA-mRNA ceRNA networks by integrating the miRNA target information and the expression data of lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs. We constructed the ceRNA network for each breast cancer subtype. Functional analysis revealed that the subtype-related ceRNA networks were enriched in cancer-related pathways in KEGG, such as pathways in cancer, miRNAs in cancer, and PI3k-Akt signaling pathway. In addition, we found three common lncRNAs across the four subtype-related ceRNA networks, NEAT1, OPI5-AS1 and AC008124.1, which played specific roles in each subtype through competing with diverse mRNAs. Finally, the potential drugs for treatment of basal-like subtype could be predicted through reversing the differentially expressed lncRNA in the ceRNA network. This study provided a novel perspective of lncRNA-involved ceRNA network to dissect the molecular mechanism for breast cancer.

  14. Small nuclear RNA U2 is base-paired to heterogeneous nuclear RNA.

    PubMed

    Calvet, J P; Meyer, L M; Pederson, T

    1982-07-30

    Eukaryotic cells contain a set of low molecular weight nuclear RNA's. One of the more abundant of these is termed U2 RNA. The possibility that U2 RNA is hydrogen-bonded to complementary sequences in other nuclear RNA's was investigated. Cultured human (HeLa) cells were treated with a psoralen derivative that cross-links RNA chains that are base-paired with one another. High molecular weight heterogeneous nuclear RNA was isolated under denaturing conditions, and the psoralen cross-links were reversed. Electrophoresis of the released RNA and hybridization with a human cloned U2 DNA probe revealed that U2 is hydrogen-bonded to complementary sequences in heterogeneous nuclear RNA in vivo. In contrast, U2 RNA is not base-paired with nucleolar RNA, which contains the precursors of ribosomal RNA. The results suggest that U2 RNA participates in messenger RNA processing in the nucleus.

  15. RNA sequencing uncovers antisense RNAs and novel small RNAs in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Le Rhun, Anaïs; Beer, Yan Yan; Reimegård, Johan; Chylinski, Krzysztof; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus pyogenes is a human pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild to life-threatening infections. During the infectious process, the temporal and spatial expression of pathogenicity factors is tightly controlled by a complex network of protein and RNA regulators acting in response to various environmental signals. Here, we focus on the class of small RNA regulators (sRNAs) and present the first complete analysis of sRNA sequencing data in S. pyogenes. In the SF370 clinical isolate (M1 serotype), we identified 197 and 428 putative regulatory RNAs by visual inspection and bioinformatics screening of the sequencing data, respectively. Only 35 from the 197 candidates identified by visual screening were assigned a predicted function (T-boxes, ribosomal protein leaders, characterized riboswitches or sRNAs), indicating how little is known about sRNA regulation in S. pyogenes. By comparing our list of predicted sRNAs with previous S. pyogenes sRNA screens using bioinformatics or microarrays, 92 novel sRNAs were revealed, including antisense RNAs that are for the first time shown to be expressed in this pathogen. We experimentally validated the expression of 30 novel sRNAs and antisense RNAs. We show that the expression profile of 9 sRNAs including 2 predicted regulatory elements is affected by the endoribonucleases RNase III and/or RNase Y, highlighting the critical role of these enzymes in sRNA regulation. PMID:26580233

  16. RNA sequencing uncovers antisense RNAs and novel small RNAs in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Le Rhun, Anaïs; Beer, Yan Yan; Reimegård, Johan; Chylinski, Krzysztof; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a human pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild to life-threatening infections. During the infectious process, the temporal and spatial expression of pathogenicity factors is tightly controlled by a complex network of protein and RNA regulators acting in response to various environmental signals. Here, we focus on the class of small RNA regulators (sRNAs) and present the first complete analysis of sRNA sequencing data in S. pyogenes. In the SF370 clinical isolate (M1 serotype), we identified 197 and 428 putative regulatory RNAs by visual inspection and bioinformatics screening of the sequencing data, respectively. Only 35 from the 197 candidates identified by visual screening were assigned a predicted function (T-boxes, ribosomal protein leaders, characterized riboswitches or sRNAs), indicating how little is known about sRNA regulation in S. pyogenes. By comparing our list of predicted sRNAs with previous S. pyogenes sRNA screens using bioinformatics or microarrays, 92 novel sRNAs were revealed, including antisense RNAs that are for the first time shown to be expressed in this pathogen. We experimentally validated the expression of 30 novel sRNAs and antisense RNAs. We show that the expression profile of 9 sRNAs including 2 predicted regulatory elements is affected by the endoribonucleases RNase III and/or RNase Y, highlighting the critical role of these enzymes in sRNA regulation.

  17. RNA-induced silencing complex-bound small interfering RNA is a determinant of RNA interference-mediated gene silencing in mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Jones, Jeffrey; Kang, Jing; Card, Ananda; Krimm, Michael; Hancock, Paula; Pei, Yi; Ason, Brandon; Payson, Elmer; Dubinina, Natalya; Cancilla, Mark; Stroh, Mark; Burchard, Julja; Sachs, Alan B; Hochman, Jerome H; Flanagan, W Michael; Kuklin, Nelly A

    2011-06-01

    Deeper knowledge of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) concepts for RNA therapeutics is important to streamline the drug development process and for rigorous selection of best performing drug candidates. Here we characterized the PK/PD relationship for small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting luciferase by examining siRNA concentration in plasma and liver, the temporal RNA-induced silencing complex binding profiles, mRNA reduction, and protein inhibition measured by noninvasive bioluminescent imaging. A dose-dependent and time-related decrease in bioluminescence was detected over 25 days after a single treatment of a lipid nanoparticle-formulated siRNA targeting luciferase messenger RNA. A direct relationship was observed between the degree of in vivo mRNA and protein reduction and the Argonaute2 (Ago2)-bound siRNA fraction but not with the total amount of siRNA found in the liver, suggesting that the Ago2-siRNA complex is the key determinant of target inhibition. These observations were confirmed for an additional siRNA that targets endogenously expressed Sjögren syndrome antigen B (Ssb) mRNA, indicating that our observations are not limited to a transgenic mouse system. Our data provide detailed information of the temporal regulation of siRNA liver delivery, Ago2 loading, mRNA reduction, and protein inhibition that are essential for the rapid and cost-effective clinical development of siRNAs therapeutics.

  18. Unravelling the complexity of microRNA-mediated gene regulation in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) using high-throughput small RNA profiling.

    PubMed

    Asha, Srinivasan; Sreekumar, Sweda; Soniya, E V

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of high-throughput small RNA deep sequencing data, in combination with black pepper transcriptome sequences revealed microRNA-mediated gene regulation in black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.). Black pepper is an important spice crop and its berries are used worldwide as a natural food additive that contributes unique flavour to foods. In the present study to characterize microRNAs from black pepper, we generated a small RNA library from black pepper leaf and sequenced it by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. MicroRNAs belonging to a total of 303 conserved miRNA families were identified from the sRNAome data. Subsequent analysis from recently sequenced black pepper transcriptome confirmed precursor sequences of 50 conserved miRNAs and four potential novel miRNA candidates. Stem-loop qRT-PCR experiments demonstrated differential expression of eight conserved miRNAs in black pepper. Computational analysis of targets of the miRNAs showed 223 potential black pepper unigene targets that encode diverse transcription factors and enzymes involved in plant development, disease resistance, metabolic and signalling pathways. RLM-RACE experiments further mapped miRNA-mediated cleavage at five of the mRNA targets. In addition, miRNA isoforms corresponding to 18 miRNA families were also identified from black pepper. This study presents the first large-scale identification of microRNAs from black pepper and provides the foundation for the future studies of miRNA-mediated gene regulation of stress responses and diverse metabolic processes in black pepper.

  19. Elucidating the Small Regulatory RNA Repertoire of the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Based on Whole Genome and Small RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hardip; Forêt, Sylvain; Karlsen, Bård Ove; Jørgensen, Tor Erik; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Cnidarians harbor a variety of small regulatory RNAs that include microRNAs (miRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), but detailed information is limited. Here, we report the identification and expression of novel miRNAs and putative piRNAs, as well as their genomic loci, in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. We generated a draft assembly of the A. viridis genome with putative size of 313 Mb that appeared to be composed of about 36% repeats, including known transposable elements. We detected approximately equal fractions of DNA transposons and retrotransposons. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries constructed from A. viridis adults sampled at a natural CO2 gradient off Vulcano Island, Italy, identified 70 distinct miRNAs. Eight were homologous to previously reported miRNAs in cnidarians, whereas 62 appeared novel. Nine miRNAs were recognized as differentially expressed along the natural seawater pH gradient. We found a highly abundant and diverse population of piRNAs, with a substantial fraction showing ping–pong signatures. We identified nearly 22% putative piRNAs potentially targeting transposable elements within the A. viridis genome. The A. viridis genome appeared similar in size to that of other hexacorals with a very high divergence of transposable elements resembling that of the sea anemone genus Exaiptasia. The genome encodes and expresses a high number of small regulatory RNAs, which include novel miRNAs and piRNAs. Differentially expressed small RNAs along the seawater pH gradient indicated regulatory gene responses to environmental stressors. PMID:29385567

  20. Small RNA-mediated regulation in bacteria: A growing palette of diverse mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Tanmay; Srivastava, Shubhangi

    2018-05-20

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) in bacteria have evolved with diverse mechanisms to balance their target gene expression in response to changes in the environment. Accumulating studies on bacterial regulatory processes firmly established that sRNAs modulate their target gene expression generally at the posttranscriptional level. Identification of large number of sRNAs by advanced technologies, like deep sequencing, tilling microarray, indicates the existence of a plethora of distinctive sRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms in bacteria. Types of the novel mechanisms are increasing with the discovery of new sRNAs. Complementary base pairing between sRNAs and target RNAs assisted by RNA chaperones like Hfq and ProQ, in many occasions, to regulate the cognate gene expression is prevalent in sRNA mechanisms. sRNAs, in most studied cases, can directly base pair with target mRNA to remodel its expression. Base pairing can happen either in the untranslated regions or in the coding regions of mRNA to activate/repress its translation. sRNAs also act as target mimic to titrate away different regulatory RNAs from its target. Other mechanism includes the sequestration of regulatory proteins, especially transcription factors, by sRNAs. Numerous sRNAs, following analogous mechanism, are widespread in bacteria, and thus, has drawn immense attention for the development of RNA-based technologies. Nevertheless, typical sRNA mechanisms are also discovered to be confined in some bacteria. Analysis of the sRNA mechanisms unravels their existence in both the single step processes and the complex regulatory networks with a global effect on cell physiology. This review deals with the diverse array of mechanisms, which sRNAs follow to maintain bacterial lifestyle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery mediates ATP-dependent RISC loading of small RNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Shintaro; Kobayashi, Maki; Yoda, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Yuriko; Katsuma, Susumu; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Tomari, Yukihide

    2010-07-30

    Small silencing RNAs--small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or microRNAs (miRNAs)--direct posttranscriptional gene silencing of their mRNA targets as guides for the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Both siRNAs and miRNAs are born double stranded. Surprisingly, loading these small RNA duplexes into Argonaute proteins, the core components of RISC, requires ATP, whereas separating the two small RNA strands within Argonaute does not. Here we show that the Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery is required to load small RNA duplexes into Argonaute proteins, but not for subsequent strand separation or target cleavage. We envision that the chaperone machinery uses ATP and mediates a conformational opening of Ago proteins so that they can receive bulky small RNA duplexes. Our data suggest that the chaperone machinery may serve as the driving force for the RISC assembly pathway. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Deep sequencing of Salmonella RNA associated with heterologous Hfq proteins in vivo reveals small RNAs as a major target class and identifies RNA processing phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Sittka, Alexandra; Sharma, Cynthia M; Rolle, Katarzyna; Vogel, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial Sm-like protein, Hfq, is a key factor for the stability and function of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in Escherichia coli. Homologues of this protein have been predicted in many distantly related organisms yet their functional conservation as sRNA-binding proteins has not entirely been clear. To address this, we expressed in Salmonella the Hfq proteins of two eubacteria (Neisseria meningitides, Aquifex aeolicus) and an archaeon (Methanocaldococcus jannaschii), and analyzed the associated RNA by deep sequencing. This in vivo approach identified endogenous Salmonella sRNAs as a major target of the foreign Hfq proteins. New Salmonella sRNA species were also identified, and some of these accumulated specifically in the presence of a foreign Hfq protein. In addition, we observed specific RNA processing defects, e.g., suppression of precursor processing of SraH sRNA by Methanocaldococcus Hfq, or aberrant accumulation of extracytoplasmic target mRNAs of the Salmonella GcvB, MicA or RybB sRNAs. Taken together, our study provides evidence of a conserved inherent sRNA-binding property of Hfq, which may facilitate the lateral transmission of regulatory sRNAs among distantly related species. It also suggests that the expression of heterologous RNA-binding proteins combined with deep sequencing analysis of RNA ligands can be used as a molecular tool to dissect individual steps of RNA metabolism in vivo.

  3. Antiviral Effects of Small Interfering RNA Simultaneously Inducing RNA Interference and Type 1 Interferon in Coxsackievirus Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jeonghyun; Ko, Ara; Jun, Eun Jung; Won, Minah; Kim, Yoo Kyum; Ju, Eun-Seon

    2012-01-01

    Antiviral therapeutics are currently unavailable for treatment of coxsackievirus B3, which can cause life-threatening myocarditis. A modified small interfering RNA (siRNA) containing 5′-triphosphate, 3p-siRNA, was shown to induce RNA interference and interferon activation. We aimed to develop a potent antiviral treatment using CVB3-specific 3p-siRNA and to understand its underlying mechanisms. Virus-specific 3p-siRNA was superior to both conventional virus-specific siRNA with an empty hydroxyl group at the 5′ end (OH-siRNA) and nonspecific 3p-siRNA in decreasing viral replication and subsequent cytotoxicity. A single administration of 3p-siRNA dramatically attenuated virus-associated pathological symptoms in mice with no signs of toxicity, and their body weights eventually reached the normal range. Myocardial inflammation and fibrosis were rare, and virus production was greatly reduced. A nonspecific 3p-siRNA showed relatively less protective effect under identical conditions, and a virus-specific OH-siRNA showed no protective effects. We confirmed that virus-specific 3p-siRNA simultaneously activated target-specific gene silencing and type I interferon signaling. We provide a clear proof of concept that coxsackievirus B3-specific 3p-siRNA has 2 distinct modes of action, which significantly enhance antiviral activities with minimal organ damage. This is the first direct demonstration of improved antiviral effects with an immunostimulatory virus-specific siRNA in coxsackievirus myocarditis, and this method could be applied to many virus-related diseases. PMID:22508300

  4. Methods to enable the design of bioactive small molecules targeting RNA

    PubMed Central

    Disney, Matthew D.; Yildirim, Ilyas; Childs-Disney, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    RNA is an immensely important target for small molecule therapeutics or chemical probes of function. However, methods that identify, annotate, and optimize RNA-small molecule interactions that could enable the design of compounds that modulate RNA function are in their infancies. This review describes recent approaches that have been developed to understand and optimize RNA motif-small molecule interactions, including Structure-Activity Relationships Through Sequencing (StARTS), quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), chemical similarity searching, structure-based design and docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Case studies described include the design of small molecules targeting RNA expansions, the bacterial A-site, viral RNAs, and telomerase RNA. These approaches can be combined to afford a synergistic method to exploit the myriad of RNA targets in the transcriptome. PMID:24357181

  5. Methods to enable the design of bioactive small molecules targeting RNA.

    PubMed

    Disney, Matthew D; Yildirim, Ilyas; Childs-Disney, Jessica L

    2014-02-21

    RNA is an immensely important target for small molecule therapeutics or chemical probes of function. However, methods that identify, annotate, and optimize RNA-small molecule interactions that could enable the design of compounds that modulate RNA function are in their infancies. This review describes recent approaches that have been developed to understand and optimize RNA motif-small molecule interactions, including structure-activity relationships through sequencing (StARTS), quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), chemical similarity searching, structure-based design and docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Case studies described include the design of small molecules targeting RNA expansions, the bacterial A-site, viral RNAs, and telomerase RNA. These approaches can be combined to afford a synergistic method to exploit the myriad of RNA targets in the transcriptome.

  6. Deletion of Cytoplasmic Double-Stranded RNA Sensors Does Not Uncover Viral Small Interfering RNA Production in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Susan; Tholen, Lotte E; Overheul, Gijs J; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; van Rij, Ronald P

    2017-01-01

    Antiviral immunity in insects and plants is mediated by the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in which viral long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is processed into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by Dicer enzymes. Although this pathway is evolutionarily conserved, its involvement in antiviral defense in mammals is the subject of debate. In vertebrates, recognition of viral RNA induces a sophisticated type I interferon (IFN)-based immune response, and it has been proposed that this response masks or inhibits antiviral RNAi. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed viral small RNA production in differentiated cells deficient in the cytoplasmic RNA sensors RIG-I and MDA5. We did not detect 22-nucleotide (nt) viral siRNAs upon infection with three different positive-sense RNA viruses. Our data suggest that the depletion of cytoplasmic RIG-I-like sensors is not sufficient to uncover viral siRNAs in differentiated cells. IMPORTANCE The contribution of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in antiviral immunity in vertebrates has been widely debated. It has been proposed that RNAi possesses antiviral activity in mammalian systems but that its antiviral effect is masked by the potent antiviral interferon response in differentiated mammalian cells. In this study, we show that inactivation of the interferon response is not sufficient to uncover antiviral activity of RNAi in human epithelial cells infected with three wild-type positive-sense RNA viruses.

  7. Computational Analysis of Mouse piRNA Sequence and Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Betel, Doron; Sheridan, Robert; Marks, Debora S; Sander, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The recent discovery of a new class of 30-nucleotide long RNAs in mammalian testes, called PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA), with similarities to microRNAs and repeat-associated small interfering RNAs (rasiRNAs), has raised puzzling questions regarding their biogenesis and function. We report a comparative analysis of currently available piRNA sequence data from the pachytene stage of mouse spermatogenesis that sheds light on their sequence diversity and mechanism of biogenesis. We conclude that (i) there are at least four times as many piRNAs in mouse testes than currently known; (ii) piRNAs, which originate from long precursor transcripts, are generated by quasi-random enzymatic processing that is guided by a weak sequence signature at the piRNA 5′ends resulting in a large number of distinct sequences; and (iii) many of the piRNA clusters contain inverted repeats segments capable of forming double-strand RNA fold-back segments that may initiate piRNA processing analogous to transposon silencing. PMID:17997596

  8. RNAstructure: software for RNA secondary structure prediction and analysis.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Jessica S; Mathews, David H

    2010-03-15

    To understand an RNA sequence's mechanism of action, the structure must be known. Furthermore, target RNA structure is an important consideration in the design of small interfering RNAs and antisense DNA oligonucleotides. RNA secondary structure prediction, using thermodynamics, can be used to develop hypotheses about the structure of an RNA sequence. RNAstructure is a software package for RNA secondary structure prediction and analysis. It uses thermodynamics and utilizes the most recent set of nearest neighbor parameters from the Turner group. It includes methods for secondary structure prediction (using several algorithms), prediction of base pair probabilities, bimolecular structure prediction, and prediction of a structure common to two sequences. This contribution describes new extensions to the package, including a library of C++ classes for incorporation into other programs, a user-friendly graphical user interface written in JAVA, and new Unix-style text interfaces. The original graphical user interface for Microsoft Windows is still maintained. The extensions to RNAstructure serve to make RNA secondary structure prediction user-friendly. The package is available for download from the Mathews lab homepage at http://rna.urmc.rochester.edu/RNAstructure.html.

  9. Upregulation of Long Noncoding RNA Small Nucleolar RNA Host Gene 18 Promotes Radioresistance of Glioma by Repressing Semaphorin 5A

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Rong; Department of Radiation Oncology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian; Yao, Qiwei

    Purpose: Although increasing evidence has shown that long noncoding RNAs play an important regulatory role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression, little is known about the role of small nucleolar RNA host gene 18 (SNHG18) in cancer. The goal of this study was to investigate the expression of SNHG18 and its clinical significance in glioma. Methods and Materials: Differences in the lncRNA expression profile between M059K and M059J cells were assessed by lncRNA expression microarray analysis. The expression and localization of SNHG18 in glioma cells or tissues was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH),more » respectively. the clinical associations of SNHG18 in glioma was evaluated by qRT-PCR, ISH and immunohistochemistry. The role of SNHG18 in glioma radiosensitivity was evaluated by colony formation assays, immunofluorescence, Western blot and tumor growth inhibition study. Results: The present study investigated the clinical associations of SNHG18 and its role in glioma. Our results showed that the expression of SNHG18 was remarkably upregulated in clinical glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues. SNHG18 expression was associated with the clinical tumor grade and correlated negatively with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation. In addition, knockdown of SNHG18 with short hairpin RNA suppressed the radioresistance of glioma cells, and transgenic expression of SNHG18 had the opposite effect. Furthermore, xenograft tumors grown from cells with SNHG18 deletion were more radiosensitive than tumors grown from control cells. Further studies revealed that SNHG18 promotes radioresistance by inhibiting semaphorin 5A and that inhibition of semaphorin 5A expression abrogated the radiosensitizing effect caused by SNHG18 deletion. Conclusions: Our findings provide new insights into the role of SNHG18 in glioma and suggest its potential as a target for glioma therapy.« less

  10. smallWig: parallel compression of RNA-seq WIG files.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiying; Weissman, Tsachy; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2016-01-15

    We developed a new lossless compression method for WIG data, named smallWig, offering the best known compression rates for RNA-seq data and featuring random access functionalities that enable visualization, summary statistics analysis and fast queries from the compressed files. Our approach results in order of magnitude improvements compared with bigWig and ensures compression rates only a fraction of those produced by cWig. The key features of the smallWig algorithm are statistical data analysis and a combination of source coding methods that ensure high flexibility and make the algorithm suitable for different applications. Furthermore, for general-purpose file compression, the compression rate of smallWig approaches the empirical entropy of the tested WIG data. For compression with random query features, smallWig uses a simple block-based compression scheme that introduces only a minor overhead in the compression rate. For archival or storage space-sensitive applications, the method relies on context mixing techniques that lead to further improvements of the compression rate. Implementations of smallWig can be executed in parallel on different sets of chromosomes using multiple processors, thereby enabling desirable scaling for future transcriptome Big Data platforms. The development of next-generation sequencing technologies has led to a dramatic decrease in the cost of DNA/RNA sequencing and expression profiling. RNA-seq has emerged as an important and inexpensive technology that provides information about whole transcriptomes of various species and organisms, as well as different organs and cellular communities. The vast volume of data generated by RNA-seq experiments has significantly increased data storage costs and communication bandwidth requirements. Current compression tools for RNA-seq data such as bigWig and cWig either use general-purpose compressors (gzip) or suboptimal compression schemes that leave significant room for improvement. To substantiate

  11. Modeling bias and variation in the stochastic processes of small RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Etheridge, Alton; Sakhanenko, Nikita; Galas, David

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The use of RNA-seq as the preferred method for the discovery and validation of small RNA biomarkers has been hindered by high quantitative variability and biased sequence counts. In this paper we develop a statistical model for sequence counts that accounts for ligase bias and stochastic variation in sequence counts. This model implies a linear quadratic relation between the mean and variance of sequence counts. Using a large number of sequencing datasets, we demonstrate how one can use the generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) distributional regression framework to calculate and apply empirical correction factors for ligase bias. Bias correction could remove more than 40% of the bias for miRNAs. Empirical bias correction factors appear to be nearly constant over at least one and up to four orders of magnitude of total RNA input and independent of sample composition. Using synthetic mixes of known composition, we show that the GAMLSS approach can analyze differential expression with greater accuracy, higher sensitivity and specificity than six existing algorithms (DESeq2, edgeR, EBSeq, limma, DSS, voom) for the analysis of small RNA-seq data. PMID:28369495

  12. Rapid evolution of RNA editing sites in a small non-essential plastid gene

    PubMed Central

    Fiebig, Andreas; Stegemann, Sandra; Bock, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Chloroplast RNA editing proceeds by C-to-U transitions at highly specific sites. Here, we provide a phylogenetic analysis of RNA editing in a small plastid gene, petL, encoding subunit VI of the cytochrome b6f complex. Analyzing representatives from most major groups of seed plants, we find an unexpectedly high frequency and dynamics of RNA editing. High-frequency editing has previously been observed in plastid ndh genes, which are remarkable in that their mutational inactivation does not produce an obvious mutant phenotype. In order to test the idea that reduced functional constraints allow for more flexible evolution of RNA editing sites, we have created petL knockout plants by tobacco chloroplast transformation. We find that, in the higher plant tobacco, targeted inactivation of petL does not impair plant growth under a variety of conditions markedly contrasting the important role of petL in photosynthesis in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Together with a low number of editing sites in plastid genes that are essential to gene expression and photosynthetic activity, these data suggest that RNA editing sites may evolve more readily in those genes whose transitory loss of function can be tolerated. Accumulated evidence for this ‘relative neutrality hypothesis for the evolution of plastid editing sites’ is discussed. PMID:15240834

  13. Targets of small interfering RNA restriction during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong; Lobritz, Michael A; Roth, Justin; Abreha, Measho; Nelson, Kenneth N; Nankya, Immaculate; Moore-Dudley, Dawn M; Abraha, Awet; Gerson, Stanton L; Arts, Eric J

    2008-03-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been shown to effectively inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in vitro. The mechanism(s) for this inhibition is poorly understood, as siRNAs may interact with multiple HIV-1 RNA species during different steps of the retroviral life cycle. To define susceptible HIV-1 RNA species, siRNAs were first designed to specifically inhibit two divergent primary HIV-1 isolates via env and gag gene targets. A self-inactivating lentiviral vector harboring these target sequences confirmed that siRNA cannot degrade incoming genomic RNA. Disruption of the incoming core structure by rhesus macaque TRIM5alpha did, however, provide siRNA-RNA-induced silencing complex access to HIV-1 genomic RNA and promoted degradation. In the absence of accelerated core disruption, only newly transcribed HIV-1 mRNA in the cytoplasm is sensitive to siRNA degradation. Inhibitors of HIV-1 mRNA nuclear export, such as leptomycin B and camptothecin, blocked siRNA restriction. All HIV-1 RNA regions and transcripts found 5' of the target sequence, including multiply spliced HIV-1 RNA, were degraded by unidirectional 3'-to-5' siRNA amplification and spreading. In contrast, HIV-1 RNA 3' of the target sequence was not susceptible to siRNA. Even in the presence of siRNA, full-length HIV-1 RNA is still encapsidated into newly assembled viruses. These findings suggest that siRNA can target only a relatively "naked" cytoplasmic HIV-1 RNA despite the involvement of viral RNA at nearly every step in the retroviral life cycle. Protection of HIV-1 RNA within the core following virus entry, during encapsidation/virus assembly, or within the nucleus may reflect virus evolution in response to siRNA, TRIM5alpha, or other host restriction factors.

  14. Microarray pathway analysis indicated that mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase and insulin growth factor 1 signaling pathways were inhibited by small interfering RNA against AT-rich interactive domain 1A in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ye; Bao, Wei; Sang, Zhengyu; Yang, Yongbing; Lu, Meng; Xi, Xiaowei

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) are frequently observed in endometrial cancer (EC) but the molecular mechanisms linking the genetic changes remain to be fully understood. The present study aimed to elucidate the influence of ARID1A mutations on signaling pathways. Missense, synonymous and nonsense heterozygous ARID1A mutations in the EC HEC-1-A cell line were verified by Sanger sequencing. Mutated ARID1A small interfering RNA was transfected into HEC-1-A cells. Biochemical microarray analysis revealed 13 upregulated pathways, 17 downregulated pathways, 14 significantly affected disease states and functions, 662 upstream and 512 downstream genes in mutated ARID1A-depleted HEC-1-A cells, among which the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) signaling pathways were the 2 most downregulated pathways. Furthermore, the forkhead box protein O1 pathway was upregulated, while the IGF1 receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit b pathways were downregulated. Carcinoma tumorigenesis, tumor cell mitosis and tumor cell death were significantly upregulated disease states and functions, while cell proliferation and tumor growth were significantly downregulated. The results of the present study suggested that ARID1A may be a potential prognostic and therapeutic molecular drug target for the prevention of EC progression. PMID:29399196

  15. RNA polymerase V-dependent small RNAs in Arabidopsis originate from small, intergenic loci including most SINE repeats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzuu-fen; Gurazada, Sai Guna Ranjan; Zhai, Jixian; Li, Shengben; Simon, Stacey A; Matzke, Marjori A; Chen, Xuemei; Meyers, Blake C

    2012-07-01

    In plants, heterochromatin is maintained by a small RNA-based gene silencing mechanism known as RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). RdDM requires the non-redundant functions of two plant-specific DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RNAP), RNAP IV and RNAP V. RNAP IV plays a major role in siRNA biogenesis, while RNAP V may recruit DNA methylation machinery to target endogenous loci for silencing. Although small RNA-generating regions that are dependent on both RNAP IV and RNAP V have been identified previously, the genomic loci targeted by RNAP V for siRNA accumulation and silencing have not been described extensively. To characterize the RNAP V-dependent, heterochromatic siRNA-generating regions in the Arabidopsis genome, we deeply sequenced the small RNA populations of wild-type and RNAP V null mutant (nrpe1) plants. Our results showed that RNAP V-dependent siRNA-generating loci are associated predominately with short repetitive sequences in intergenic regions. Suppression of small RNA production from short repetitive sequences was also prominent in RdDM mutants including dms4, drd1, dms3 and rdm1, reflecting the known association of these RdDM effectors with RNAP V. The genomic regions targeted by RNAP V were small, with an estimated average length of 238 bp. Our results suggest that RNAP V affects siRNA production from genomic loci with features dissimilar to known RNAP IV-dependent loci. RNAP V, along with RNAP IV and DRM1/2, may target and silence a set of small, intergenic transposable elements located in dispersed genomic regions for silencing. Silencing at these loci may be actively reinforced by RdDM.

  16. Small RNA binding is a common strategy to suppress RNA silencing by several viral suppressors

    PubMed Central

    Lakatos, Lóránt; Csorba, Tibor; Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Chapman, Elisabeth J; Carrington, James C; Liu, Yu-Ping; Dolja, Valerian V; Calvino, Lourdes Fernández; López-Moya, Juan José; Burgyán, József

    2006-01-01

    RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved system that functions as an antiviral mechanism in higher plants and insects. To counteract RNA silencing, viruses express silencing suppressors that interfere with both siRNA- and microRNA-guided silencing pathways. We used comparative in vitro and in vivo approaches to analyse the molecular mechanism of suppression by three well-studied silencing suppressors. We found that silencing suppressors p19, p21 and HC-Pro each inhibit the intermediate step of RNA silencing via binding to siRNAs, although the molecular features required for duplex siRNA binding differ among the three proteins. None of the suppressors affected the activity of preassembled RISC complexes. In contrast, each suppressor uniformly inhibited the siRNA-initiated RISC assembly pathway by preventing RNA silencing initiator complex formation. PMID:16724105

  17. Sequence-Specific Affinity Chromatography of Bacterial Small Regulatory RNA-Binding Proteins from Bacterial Cells.

    PubMed

    Gans, Jonathan; Osborne, Jonathan; Cheng, Juliet; Djapgne, Louise; Oglesby-Sherrouse, Amanda G

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial small RNA molecules (sRNAs) are increasingly recognized as central regulators of bacterial stress responses and pathogenesis. In many cases, RNA-binding proteins are critical for the stability and function of sRNAs. Previous studies have adopted strategies to genetically tag an sRNA of interest, allowing isolation of RNA-protein complexes from cells. Here we present a sequence-specific affinity purification protocol that requires no prior genetic manipulation of bacterial cells, allowing isolation of RNA-binding proteins bound to native RNA molecules.

  18. A technical assessment of the porcine ejaculated spermatozoa for a sperm-specific RNA-seq analysis.

    PubMed

    Gòdia, Marta; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Nafissi, Julieta; Castelló, Anna; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan Enric; Sánchez, Armand; Clop, Alex

    2018-04-26

    The study of the boar sperm transcriptome by RNA-seq can provide relevant information on sperm quality and fertility and might contribute to animal breeding strategies. However, the analysis of the spermatozoa RNA is challenging as these cells harbor very low amounts of highly fragmented RNA, and the ejaculates also contain other cell types with larger amounts of non-fragmented RNA. Here, we describe a strategy for a successful boar sperm purification, RNA extraction and RNA-seq library preparation. Using these approaches our objectives were: (i) to evaluate the sperm recovery rate (SRR) after boar spermatozoa purification by density centrifugation using the non-porcine-specific commercial reagent BoviPure TM ; (ii) to assess the correlation between SRR and sperm quality characteristics; (iii) to evaluate the relationship between sperm cell RNA load and sperm quality traits and (iv) to compare different library preparation kits for both total RNA-seq (SMARTer Universal Low Input RNA and TruSeq RNA Library Prep kit) and small RNA-seq (NEBNext Small RNA and TailorMix miRNA Sample Prep v2) for high-throughput sequencing. Our results show that pig SRR (~22%) is lower than in other mammalian species and that it is not significantly dependent of the sperm quality parameters analyzed in our study. Moreover, no relationship between the RNA yield per sperm cell and sperm phenotypes was found. We compared a RNA-seq library preparation kit optimized for low amounts of fragmented RNA with a standard kit designed for high amount and quality of input RNA and found that for sperm, a protocol designed to work on low-quality RNA is essential. We also compared two small RNA-seq kits and did not find substantial differences in their performance. We propose the methodological workflow described for the RNA-seq screening of the boar spermatozoa transcriptome. FPKM: fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads; KRT1: keratin 1; miRNA: micro-RNA; miscRNA: miscellaneous

  19. Toward reliable biomarker signatures in the age of liquid biopsies - how to standardize the small RNA-Seq workflow

    PubMed Central

    Buschmann, Dominik; Haberberger, Anna; Kirchner, Benedikt; Spornraft, Melanie; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Schelling, Gustav; Pfaffl, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Small RNA-Seq has emerged as a powerful tool in transcriptomics, gene expression profiling and biomarker discovery. Sequencing cell-free nucleic acids, particularly microRNA (miRNA), from liquid biopsies additionally provides exciting possibilities for molecular diagnostics, and might help establish disease-specific biomarker signatures. The complexity of the small RNA-Seq workflow, however, bears challenges and biases that researchers need to be aware of in order to generate high-quality data. Rigorous standardization and extensive validation are required to guarantee reliability, reproducibility and comparability of research findings. Hypotheses based on flawed experimental conditions can be inconsistent and even misleading. Comparable to the well-established MIQE guidelines for qPCR experiments, this work aims at establishing guidelines for experimental design and pre-analytical sample processing, standardization of library preparation and sequencing reactions, as well as facilitating data analysis. We highlight bottlenecks in small RNA-Seq experiments, point out the importance of stringent quality control and validation, and provide a primer for differential expression analysis and biomarker discovery. Following our recommendations will encourage better sequencing practice, increase experimental transparency and lead to more reproducible small RNA-Seq results. This will ultimately enhance the validity of biomarker signatures, and allow reliable and robust clinical predictions. PMID:27317696

  20. The Small RNA ncS35 Regulates Growth in Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315

    PubMed Central

    Kiekens, Sanne; Sass, Andrea; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Deforce, Dieter

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 is a member of the B. cepacia complex. It has a large genome with three replicons and one plasmid; 7,261 genes code for annotated proteins, while 113 code for functional RNAs. Small regulatory RNAs of B. cenocepacia have not yet been functionally characterized. We investigated a small regulatory RNA, designated ncS35, that was discovered by differential RNA sequencing. Its expression under various conditions was quantified, and a deletion mutant, ΔncS35, was constructed. Compared to planktonic growth in a rich medium, the expression of ncS35 was elevated when B. cenocepacia J2315 was grown in biofilms and in minimal medium. Cells of the deletion mutant showed increased aggregation, higher metabolic activity, a higher growth rate, and an increased susceptibility to tobramycin. A transcriptomic analysis revealed upregulation of the phenylacetic acid and tryptophan degradation pathways in ΔncS35. Computational target prediction indicated that ncS35 likely interacts with the first gene of the tryptophan degradation pathway. Overall, we demonstrated that small RNA ncS35 is a noncoding RNA with an attenuating effect on the metabolic rate and growth. It is possible that slower growth protects B. cenocepacia J2315 against stressors acting on fast-dividing cells and enhances survival under unfavorable conditions. IMPORTANCE Small RNAs play an important role in the survival of bacteria in diverse environments. We explored the physiological role of ncS35, a small RNA expressed in B. cenocepacia J2315, an opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis patients. In cystic fibrosis patients, infections can lead to “cepacia syndrome,” a rapidly progressing and often fatal pneumonia. Infections with Burkholderia spp. are difficult to threat with antibiotics because of their high intrinsic resistance and ability to form biofilms. We show that ncS35 attenuates the growth and reduces the metabolic rate of B. cenocepacia and influences

  1. Anomalous uptake and circulatory characteristics of the plant-based small RNA MIR2911

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inconsistent detection of plant-based dietary small RNAs in circulation has thwarted the use of dietary RNA therapeutics. Here we demonstrate mice consuming diets rich in vegetables displayed enhanced serum levels of the plant specific small RNA MIR2911. Differential centrifugation, size-exclusion c...

  2. miR-MaGiC improves quantification accuracy for small RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Russell, Pamela H; Vestal, Brian; Shi, Wen; Rudra, Pratyaydipta D; Dowell, Robin; Radcliffe, Richard; Saba, Laura; Kechris, Katerina

    2018-05-15

    Many tools have been developed to profile microRNA (miRNA) expression from small RNA-seq data. These tools must contend with several issues: the small size of miRNAs, the small number of unique miRNAs, the fact that similar miRNAs can be transcribed from multiple loci, and the presence of miRNA isoforms known as isomiRs. Methods failing to address these issues can return misleading information. We propose a novel quantification method designed to address these concerns. We present miR-MaGiC, a novel miRNA quantification method, implemented as a cross-platform tool in Java. miR-MaGiC performs stringent mapping to a core region of each miRNA and defines a meaningful set of target miRNA sequences by collapsing the miRNA space to "functional groups". We hypothesize that these two features, mapping stringency and collapsing, provide more optimal quantification to a more meaningful unit (i.e., miRNA family). We test miR-MaGiC and several published methods on 210 small RNA-seq libraries, evaluating each method's ability to accurately reflect global miRNA expression profiles. We define accuracy as total counts close to the total number of input reads originating from miRNAs. We find that miR-MaGiC, which incorporates both stringency and collapsing, provides the most accurate counts.

  3. Diversity, Distribution, and Evolution of Tomato Viruses in China Uncovered by Small RNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenxi; Sun, Xuepeng; Taylor, Angela; Jiao, Chen; Xu, Yimin; Cai, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xiaoli; Ge, Chenhui; Pan, Guanghui; Wang, Quanxi; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Quanhua

    2017-06-01

    Tomato is a major vegetable crop that has tremendous popularity. However, viral disease is still a major factor limiting tomato production. Here, we report the tomato virome identified through sequencing small RNAs of 170 field-grown samples collected in China. A total of 22 viruses were identified, including both well-documented and newly detected viruses. The tomato viral community is dominated by a few species, and they exhibit polymorphisms and recombination in the genomes with cold spots and hot spots. Most samples were coinfected by multiple viruses, and the majority of identified viruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Evolutionary analysis of one of the most dominant tomato viruses, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), predicts its origin and the time back to its most recent common ancestor. The broadly sampled data have enabled us to identify several unreported viruses in tomato, including a completely new virus, which has a genome of ∼13.4 kb and groups with aphid-transmitted viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus Although both DNA and RNA viruses can trigger the biogenesis of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), we show that features such as length distribution, paired distance, and base selection bias of vsiRNA sequences reflect different plant Dicer-like proteins and Argonautes involved in vsiRNA biogenesis. Collectively, this study offers insights into host-virus interaction in tomato and provides valuable information to facilitate the management of viral diseases. IMPORTANCE Tomato is an important source of micronutrients in the human diet and is extensively consumed around the world. Virus is among the major constraints on tomato production. Categorizing virus species that are capable of infecting tomato and understanding their diversity and evolution are challenging due to difficulties in detecting such fast-evolving biological entities. Here, we report the landscape of the tomato virome in China, the leading country in

  4. Diversity, Distribution, and Evolution of Tomato Viruses in China Uncovered by Small RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chenxi; Taylor, Angela; Jiao, Chen; Xu, Yimin; Cai, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xiaoli; Ge, Chenhui; Pan, Guanghui; Wang, Quanxi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tomato is a major vegetable crop that has tremendous popularity. However, viral disease is still a major factor limiting tomato production. Here, we report the tomato virome identified through sequencing small RNAs of 170 field-grown samples collected in China. A total of 22 viruses were identified, including both well-documented and newly detected viruses. The tomato viral community is dominated by a few species, and they exhibit polymorphisms and recombination in the genomes with cold spots and hot spots. Most samples were coinfected by multiple viruses, and the majority of identified viruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Evolutionary analysis of one of the most dominant tomato viruses, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), predicts its origin and the time back to its most recent common ancestor. The broadly sampled data have enabled us to identify several unreported viruses in tomato, including a completely new virus, which has a genome of ∼13.4 kb and groups with aphid-transmitted viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. Although both DNA and RNA viruses can trigger the biogenesis of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), we show that features such as length distribution, paired distance, and base selection bias of vsiRNA sequences reflect different plant Dicer-like proteins and Argonautes involved in vsiRNA biogenesis. Collectively, this study offers insights into host-virus interaction in tomato and provides valuable information to facilitate the management of viral diseases. IMPORTANCE Tomato is an important source of micronutrients in the human diet and is extensively consumed around the world. Virus is among the major constraints on tomato production. Categorizing virus species that are capable of infecting tomato and understanding their diversity and evolution are challenging due to difficulties in detecting such fast-evolving biological entities. Here, we report the landscape of the tomato virome in China, the leading

  5. Studying a Drug-like, RNA-Focused Small Molecule Library Identifies Compounds That Inhibit RNA Toxicity in Myotonic Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Southern, Mark R; Disney, Matthew D

    2015-12-18

    There are many RNA targets in the transcriptome to which small molecule chemical probes and lead therapeutics are desired. However, identifying compounds that bind and modulate RNA function in cellulo is difficult. Although rational design approaches have been developed, they are still in their infancies and leave many RNAs "undruggable". In an effort to develop a small molecule library that is biased for binding RNA, we computationally identified "drug-like" compounds from screening collections that have favorable properties for binding RNA and for suitability as lead drugs. As proof-of-concept, this collection was screened for binding to and modulating the cellular dysfunction of the expanded repeating RNA (r(CUG)(exp)) that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1. Hit compounds bind the target in cellulo, as determined by the target identification approach Competitive Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull-down (C-ChemCLIP), and selectively improve several disease-associated defects. The best compounds identified from our 320-member library are more potent in cellulo than compounds identified by high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns against this RNA. Furthermore, the compound collection has a higher hit rate (9% compared to 0.01-3%), and the bioactive compounds identified are not charged; thus, RNA can be "drugged" with compounds that have favorable pharmacological properties. Finally, this RNA-focused small molecule library may serve as a useful starting point to identify lead "drug-like" chemical probes that affect the biological (dys)function of other RNA targets by direct target engagement.

  6. Cardiac Gene Expression Knockdown Using Small Inhibitory RNA-Loaded Microbubbles and Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kopechek, Jonathan A; Carson, Andrew R; McTiernan, Charles F; Chen, Xucai; Klein, Edwin C; Villanueva, Flordeliza S

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference has potential therapeutic value for cardiac disease, but targeted delivery of interfering RNA is a challenge. Custom designed microbubbles, in conjunction with ultrasound, can deliver small inhibitory RNA to target tissues in vivo. The efficacy of cardiac RNA interference using a microbubble-ultrasound theranostic platform has not been demonstrated in vivo. Therefore, our objective was to test the hypothesis that custom designed microbubbles and ultrasound can mediate effective delivery of small inhibitory RNA to the heart. Microbubble and ultrasound mediated cardiac RNA interference was tested in transgenic mice displaying cardiac-restricted luciferase expression. Luciferase expression was assayed in select tissues of untreated mice (n = 14). Mice received intravenous infusion of cationic microbubbles bearing small inhibitory RNA directed against luciferase (n = 9) or control RNA (n = 8) during intermittent cardiac-directed ultrasound at mechanical index of 1.6. Simultaneous echocardiography in a separate group of mice (n = 3) confirmed microbubble destruction and replenishment during treatment. Three days post treatment, cardiac luciferase messenger RNA and protein levels were significantly lower in ultrasound-treated mice receiving microbubbles loaded with small inhibitory RNA directed against luciferase compared to mice receiving microbubbles bearing control RNA (23±7% and 33±7% of control mice, p<0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). Passive cavitation detection focused on the heart confirmed that insonification resulted in inertial cavitation. In conclusion, small inhibitory RNA-loaded microbubbles and ultrasound directed at the heart significantly reduced the expression of a reporter gene. Ultrasound-targeted destruction of RNA-loaded microbubbles may be an effective image-guided strategy for therapeutic RNA interference in cardiac disease.

  7. Cardiac Gene Expression Knockdown Using Small Inhibitory RNA-Loaded Microbubbles and Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    McTiernan, Charles F.; Chen, Xucai; Klein, Edwin C.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference has potential therapeutic value for cardiac disease, but targeted delivery of interfering RNA is a challenge. Custom designed microbubbles, in conjunction with ultrasound, can deliver small inhibitory RNA to target tissues in vivo. The efficacy of cardiac RNA interference using a microbubble-ultrasound theranostic platform has not been demonstrated in vivo. Therefore, our objective was to test the hypothesis that custom designed microbubbles and ultrasound can mediate effective delivery of small inhibitory RNA to the heart. Microbubble and ultrasound mediated cardiac RNA interference was tested in transgenic mice displaying cardiac-restricted luciferase expression. Luciferase expression was assayed in select tissues of untreated mice (n = 14). Mice received intravenous infusion of cationic microbubbles bearing small inhibitory RNA directed against luciferase (n = 9) or control RNA (n = 8) during intermittent cardiac-directed ultrasound at mechanical index of 1.6. Simultaneous echocardiography in a separate group of mice (n = 3) confirmed microbubble destruction and replenishment during treatment. Three days post treatment, cardiac luciferase messenger RNA and protein levels were significantly lower in ultrasound-treated mice receiving microbubbles loaded with small inhibitory RNA directed against luciferase compared to mice receiving microbubbles bearing control RNA (23±7% and 33±7% of control mice, p<0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). Passive cavitation detection focused on the heart confirmed that insonification resulted in inertial cavitation. In conclusion, small inhibitory RNA-loaded microbubbles and ultrasound directed at the heart significantly reduced the expression of a reporter gene. Ultrasound-targeted destruction of RNA-loaded microbubbles may be an effective image-guided strategy for therapeutic RNA interference in cardiac disease. PMID:27471848

  8. Grape RNA-Seq analysis pipeline environment

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, David G.; Röder, Maik; Merkel, Angelika; Guigó, Roderic

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: The avalanche of data arriving since the development of NGS technologies have prompted the need for developing fast, accurate and easily automated bioinformatic tools capable of dealing with massive datasets. Among the most productive applications of NGS technologies is the sequencing of cellular RNA, known as RNA-Seq. Although RNA-Seq provides similar or superior dynamic range than microarrays at similar or lower cost, the lack of standard and user-friendly pipelines is a bottleneck preventing RNA-Seq from becoming the standard for transcriptome analysis. Results: In this work we present a pipeline for processing and analyzing RNA-Seq data, that we have named Grape (Grape RNA-Seq Analysis Pipeline Environment). Grape supports raw sequencing reads produced by a variety of technologies, either in FASTA or FASTQ format, or as prealigned reads in SAM/BAM format. A minimal Grape configuration consists of the file location of the raw sequencing reads, the genome of the species and the corresponding gene and transcript annotation. Grape first runs a set of quality control steps, and then aligns the reads to the genome, a step that is omitted for prealigned read formats. Grape next estimates gene and transcript expression levels, calculates exon inclusion levels and identifies novel transcripts. Grape can be run on a single computer or in parallel on a computer cluster. It is distributed with specific mapping and quantification tools, but given its modular design, any tool supporting popular data interchange formats can be integrated. Availability: Grape can be obtained from the Bioinformatics and Genomics website at: http://big.crg.cat/services/grape. Contact: david.gonzalez@crg.eu or roderic.guigo@crg.eu PMID:23329413

  9. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Penile Cancer Revealed by Next-Generation Small RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Xu, Bo; Zhou, Jun; Fan, Song; Hao, Zongyao; Shi, Haoqiang; Zhang, Xiansheng; Kong, Rui; Xu, Lingfan; Gao, Jingjing; Zou, Duohong; Liang, Chaozhao

    2015-01-01

    Penile cancer (PeCa) is a relatively rare tumor entity but possesses higher morbidity and mortality rates especially in developing countries. To date, the concrete pathogenic signaling pathways and core machineries involved in tumorigenesis and progression of PeCa remain to be elucidated. Several studies suggested miRNAs, which modulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level, were frequently mis-regulated and aberrantly expressed in human cancers. However, the miRNA profile in human PeCa has not been reported before. In this present study, the miRNA profile was obtained from 10 fresh penile cancerous tissues and matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues via next-generation sequencing. As a result, a total of 751 and 806 annotated miRNAs were identified in normal and cancerous penile tissues, respectively. Among which, 56 miRNAs with significantly different expression levels between paired tissues were identified. Subsequently, several annotated miRNAs were selected randomly and validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Compared with the previous publications regarding to the altered miRNAs expression in various cancers and especially genitourinary (prostate, bladder, kidney, testis) cancers, the most majority of deregulated miRNAs showed the similar expression pattern in penile cancer. Moreover, the bioinformatics analyses suggested that the putative target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs between cancerous and matched normal penile tissues were tightly associated with cell junction, proliferation, growth as well as genomic instability and so on, by modulating Wnt, MAPK, p53, PI3K-Akt, Notch and TGF-β signaling pathways, which were all well-established to participate in cancer initiation and progression. Our work presents a global view of the differentially expressed miRNAs and potentially regulatory networks of their target genes for clarifying the pathogenic transformation of normal penis to PeCa, which research resource also provides new insights

  10. A universal small molecule, inorganic phosphate, restricts the substrate specificity of Dicer-2 in small RNA biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fukunaga, Ryuya; Zamore, Phillip D

    2014-01-01

    The enzyme Dicer is central to the production of small silencing RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Like other insects, Drosophila melanogaster uses different Dicers to make siRNAs and miRNAs: Dicer-1 produces miRNAs from pre-miRNAs, whereas Dicer-2 generates siRNAs from long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). How do the 2 Dicers achieve their substrate specificity? Here, we review recent findings that inorganic phosphate restricts the substrate specificity of Dicer-2 to long dsRNA. Inorganic phosphate inhibits Dicer-2 from binding and cleaving pre-miRNAs, without affecting the processing of long dsRNA. Crystal structures of a fragment of human Dicer in complex with an RNA duplex identify a phosphate-binding pocket that recognizes both the 5′-monophosphate of a substrate RNA and inorganic phosphate. We propose that inorganic phosphate occupies the phosphate-binding pocket in the fly Dicer-2, blocking binding of pre-miRNA and restricting pre-miRNA processing to Dicer-1. Thus, a small molecule can alter the substrate specificity of a nucleic acid-processing enzyme. PMID:24787225

  11. Ebolavirus proteins suppress the effects of small interfering RNA by direct interaction with the mammalian RNA interference pathway.

    PubMed

    Fabozzi, Giulia; Nabel, Christopher S; Dolan, Michael A; Sullivan, Nancy J

    2011-03-01

    Cellular RNA interference (RNAi) provides a natural response against viral infection, but some viruses have evolved mechanisms to antagonize this form of antiviral immunity. To determine whether Ebolavirus (EBOV) counters RNAi by encoding suppressors of RNA silencing (SRSs), we screened all EBOV proteins using an RNAi assay initiated by exogenously delivered small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against either an EBOV or a reporter gene. In addition to viral protein 35 (VP35), we found that VP30 and VP40 independently act as SRSs. Here, we present the molecular mechanisms of VP30 and VP35. VP30 interacts with Dicer independently of siRNA and with one Dicer partner, TRBP, only in the presence of siRNA. VP35 directly interacts with Dicer partners TRBP and PACT in an siRNA-independent fashion and in the absence of effects on interferon (IFN). Taken together, our findings elucidate a new mechanism of RNAi suppression that extends beyond the role of SRSs in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding and IFN antagonism. The presence of three suppressors highlights the relevance of host RNAi-dependent antiviral immunity in EBOV infection and illustrates the importance of RNAi in shaping the evolution of RNA viruses.

  12. Anomalous uptake and circulatory characteristics of the plant-based small RNA MIR2911.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Hotz, Tremearne; Broadnax, LaCassidy; Yarmarkovich, Mark; Elbaz-Younes, Ismail; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2016-06-02

    Inconsistent detection of plant-based dietary small RNAs in circulation has thwarted the use of dietary RNA therapeutics. Here we demonstrate mice consuming diets rich in vegetables displayed enhanced serum levels of the plant specific small RNA MIR2911. Differential centrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography, and proteinase K treatment of plant extracts suggest this RNA resides within a proteinase K-sensitive complex. Plant derived MIR2911 was more bioavailable than the synthetic RNA. Furthermore, MIR2911 exhibited unusual digestive stability compared with other synthetic plant microRNAs. The characteristics of circulating MIR2911 were also unusual as it was not associated with exosomes and fractionated as a soluble complex that was insensitive to proteinase K treatment, consistent with MIR2911 being stabilized by modifications conferred by the host. These results indicate that intrinsic stability and plant-based modifications orchestrate consumer uptake of this anomalous plant based small RNA and invite revisiting plant-based microRNA therapeutic approaches.

  13. OP17MICRORNA PROFILING USING SMALL RNA-SEQ IN PAEDIATRIC LOW GRADE GLIOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Jeyapalan, Jennie N.; Jones, Tania A.; Tatevossian, Ruth G.; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Ellison, David W.; Sheer, Denise

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs regulate gene expression by targeting mRNAs for translational repression or degradation at the post-transcriptional level. In paediatric low-grade gliomas a few key genetic mutations have been identified, including BRAF fusions, FGFR1 duplications and MYB rearrangements. Our aim in the current study is to profile aberrant microRNA expression in paediatric low-grade gliomas and determine the role of epigenetic changes in the aetiology and behaviour of these tumours. METHOD: MicroRNA profiling of tumour samples (6 pilocytic, 2 diffuse, 2 pilomyxoid astrocytomas) and normal brain controls (4 adult normal brain samples and a primary glial progenitor cell-line) was performed using small RNA sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis included sequence alignment, analysis of the number of reads (CPM, counts per million) and differential expression. RESULTS: Sequence alignment identified 695 microRNAs, whose expression was compared in tumours v. normal brain. PCA and hierarchical clustering showed separate groups for tumours and normal brain. Computational analysis identified approximately 400 differentially expressed microRNAs in the tumours compared to matched location controls. Our findings will then be validated and integrated with extensive genetic and epigenetic information we have previously obtained for the full tumour cohort. CONCLUSION: We have identified microRNAs that are differentially expressed in paediatric low-grade gliomas. As microRNAs are known to target genes involved in the initiation and progression of cancer, they provide critical information on tumour pathogenesis and are an important class of biomarkers.

  14. Base Pairing between U3 Small Nucleolar RNA and the 5′ End of 18S rRNA Is Required for Pre-rRNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kishor; Tollervey, David

    1999-01-01

    The loop of a stem structure close to the 5′ end of the 18S rRNA is complementary to the box A region of the U3 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA). Substitution of the 18S loop nucleotides inhibited pre-rRNA cleavage at site A1, the 5′ end of the 18S rRNA, and at site A2, located 1.9 kb away in internal transcribed spacer 1. This inhibition was largely suppressed by a compensatory mutation in U3, demonstrating functional base pairing. The U3–pre-rRNA base pairing is incompatible with the structure that forms in the mature 18S rRNA and may prevent premature folding of the pre-rRNA. In the Escherichia coli pre-rRNA the homologous region of the 16S rRNA is also sequestered, in that case by base pairing to the 5′ external transcribed spacer (5′ ETS). Cleavage at site A0 in the yeast 5′ ETS strictly requires base pairing between U3 and a sequence within the 5′ ETS. In contrast, the U3-18S interaction is not required for A0 cleavage. U3 therefore carries out at least two functionally distinct base pair interactions with the pre-rRNA. The nucleotide at the site of A1 cleavage was shown to be specified by two distinct signals; one of these is the stem-loop structure within the 18S rRNA. However, in contrast to the efficiency of cleavage, the position of A1 cleavage is not dependent on the U3-loop interaction. We conclude that the 18S stem-loop structure is recognized at least twice during pre-rRNA processing. PMID:10454548

  15. Defining RNA–Small Molecule Affinity Landscapes Enables Design of a Small Molecule Inhibitor of an Oncogenic Noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    RNA drug targets are pervasive in cells, but methods to design small molecules that target them are sparse. Herein, we report a general approach to score the affinity and selectivity of RNA motif–small molecule interactions identified via selection. Named High Throughput Structure–Activity Relationships Through Sequencing (HiT-StARTS), HiT-StARTS is statistical in nature and compares input nucleic acid sequences to selected library members that bind a ligand via high throughput sequencing. The approach allowed facile definition of the fitness landscape of hundreds of thousands of RNA motif–small molecule binding partners. These results were mined against folded RNAs in the human transcriptome and identified an avid interaction between a small molecule and the Dicer nuclease-processing site in the oncogenic microRNA (miR)-18a hairpin precursor, which is a member of the miR-17-92 cluster. Application of the small molecule, Targapremir-18a, to prostate cancer cells inhibited production of miR-18a from the cluster, de-repressed serine/threonine protein kinase 4 protein (STK4), and triggered apoptosis. Profiling the cellular targets of Targapremir-18a via Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull Down (Chem-CLIP), a covalent small molecule–RNA cellular profiling approach, and other studies showed specific binding of the compound to the miR-18a precursor, revealing broadly applicable factors that govern small molecule drugging of noncoding RNAs. PMID:28386598

  16. Phylogenetic position of the genus Perkinsus (Protista, Apicomplexa) based on small subunit ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Goggin, C L; Barker, S C

    1993-07-01

    Parasites of the genus Perkinsus destroy marine molluscs worldwide. Their phylogenetic position within the kingdom Protista is controversial. Nucleotide sequence data (1792 bp) from the small subunit rRNA gene of Perkinsus sp. from Anadara trapezia (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Moreton Bay, Queensland, was used to examine the phylogenetic affinities of this enigmatic genus. These data were aligned with nucleotide sequences from 6 apicomplexans, 3 ciliates, 3 flagellates, a dinoflagellate, 3 fungi, maize and human. Phylogenetic trees were constructed after analysis with maximum parsimony and distance matrix methods. Our analyses indicate that Perkinsus is phylogenetically closer to dinoflagellates and to coccidean and piroplasm apicomplexans than to fungi or flagellates.

  17. Small Molecule Modulators of Pre-mRNA Splicing in Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Salton, Maayan; Misteli, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is a fundamental process in mammalian gene expression and alternative RNA splicing plays a considerable role in generating protein diversity. RNA splicing events are also key to the pathology of numerous diseases, particularly cancers. Some tumors are molecularly addicted to specific RNA splicing isoforms making interference with pre-mRNA processing a viable therapeutic strategy. Several RNA splicing modulators have recently been characterized, some showing promise in preclinical studies. While the targets of most splicing modulators are constitutive RNA processing components, possibly leading to undesirable side effects, selectivity for individual splicing events has been observed. Given the high prevalence of splicing defects in cancer, small molecule modulators of RNA processing represent a potentially promising novel therapeutic strategy in cancer treatment. Here, we review their reported effects, mechanisms, and limitations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Extent, Causes, and Consequences of Small RNA Expression Variation in Human Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Knights, Andrew J.; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; van de Bunt, Martijn; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Bartonicek, Nenad; van Dongen, Stijn; Mägi, Reedik; Nisbet, James; Barrett, Amy; Rantalainen, Mattias; Nica, Alexandra C.; Quail, Michael A.; Small, Kerrin S.; Glass, Daniel; Enright, Anton J.; Winn, John; Deloukas, Panos; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Spector, Timothy D.; Durbin, Richard; Lindgren, Cecilia M.

    2012-01-01

    Small RNAs are functional molecules that modulate mRNA transcripts and have been implicated in the aetiology of several common diseases. However, little is known about the extent of their variability within the human population. Here, we characterise the extent, causes, and effects of naturally occurring variation in expression and sequence of small RNAs from adipose tissue in relation to genotype, gene expression, and metabolic traits in the MuTHER reference cohort. We profiled the expression of 15 to 30 base pair RNA molecules in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 131 individuals using high-throughput sequencing, and quantified levels of 591 microRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs. We identified three genetic variants and three RNA editing events. Highly expressed small RNAs are more conserved within mammals than average, as are those with highly variable expression. We identified 14 genetic loci significantly associated with nearby small RNA expression levels, seven of which also regulate an mRNA transcript level in the same region. In addition, these loci are enriched for variants significant in genome-wide association studies for body mass index. Contrary to expectation, we found no evidence for negative correlation between expression level of a microRNA and its target mRNAs. Trunk fat mass, body mass index, and fasting insulin were associated with more than twenty small RNA expression levels each, while fasting glucose had no significant associations. This study highlights the similar genetic complexity and shared genetic control of small RNA and mRNA transcripts, and gives a quantitative picture of small RNA expression variation in the human population. PMID:22589741

  19. Small things considered: the small accessory subunits of RNA polymerase in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Andy; Shaw, Lindsey N.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA-dependent RNA polymerase core enzyme in Gram-positive bacteria consists of seven subunits. Whilst four of them (α2ββ′) are essential, three smaller subunits, δ, ε and ω (∼9–21.5 kDa), are considered accessory. Both δ and ω have been viewed as integral components of RNAP for several decades; however, ε has only recently been described. Functionally these three small subunits carry out a variety of tasks, imparting important, supportive effects on the transcriptional process of Gram-positive bacteria. While ω is thought to have a wide range of roles, reaching from maintaining structural integrity of RNAP to σ factor recruitment, the only suggested function for ε thus far is in protecting cells from phage infection. The third subunit, δ, has been shown to have distinct influences in maintaining transcriptional specificity, and thus has a key role in cellular fitness. Collectively, all three accessory subunits, although dispensable under laboratory conditions, are often thought to be crucial for proper RNAP function. Herein we provide an overview of the available literature on each subunit, summarizing landmark findings that have deepened our understanding of these proteins and their function, and outline future challenges in understanding the role of these small subunits in the transcriptional process. PMID:25878038

  20. Structural Requirement in Clostridium perfringens Collagenase mRNA 5′ Leader Sequence for Translational Induction through Small RNA-mRNA Base Pairing

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Kouji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens is pathogenic to humans and animals, and the production of its toxins is strictly regulated during the exponential phase. We recently found that the 5′ leader sequence of the colA transcript encoding collagenase, which is a major toxin of this organism, is processed and stabilized in the presence of the small RNA VR-RNA. The primary colA 5′-untranslated region (5′UTR) forms a long stem-loop structure containing an internal bulge and masks its own ribosomal binding site. Here we found that VR-RNA directly regulates colA expression through base pairing with colA mRNA in vivo. However, when the internal bulge structure was closed by point mutations in colA mRNA, translation ceased despite the presence of VR-RNA. In addition, a mutation disrupting the colA stem-loop structure induced mRNA processing and ColA-FLAG translational activation in the absence of VR-RNA, indicating that the stem-loop and internal bulge structure of the colA 5′ leader sequence is important for regulation by VR-RNA. On the other hand, processing was required for maximal ColA expression but was not essential for VR-RNA-dependent colA regulation. Finally, colA processing and translational activation were induced at a high temperature without VR-RNA. These results suggest that inhibition of the colA 5′ leader structure through base pairing is the primary role of VR-RNA in colA regulation and that the colA 5′ leader structure is a possible thermosensor. PMID:23585542

  1. An Integrated Analysis of MicroRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles to Identify RNA Expression Signatures in Lambskin Hair Follicles in Hu Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiaoyang; Sun, Wei; Yin, Jinfeng; Ni, Rong; Su, Rui; Wang, Qingzeng; Gao, Wen; Bao, Jianjun; Yu, Jiarui; Wang, Lihong; Chen, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Wave patterns in lambskin hair follicles are an important factor determining the quality of sheep’s wool. Hair follicles in lambskin from Hu sheep, a breed unique to China, have 3 types of waves, designated as large, medium, and small. The quality of wool from small wave follicles is excellent, while the quality of large waves is considered poor. Because no molecular and biological studies on hair follicles of these sheep have been conducted to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of different wave patterns is currently unknown. The aim of this article was to screen the candidate microRNAs (miRNA) and genes for the development of hair follicles in Hu sheep. Two-day-old Hu lambs were selected from full-sib individuals that showed large, medium, and small waves. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles employed high-throughout sequencing technology. Approximately 13, 24, and 18 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between small and large waves, small and medium waves, and medium and large waves, respectively. A total of 54, 190, and 81 differentially expressed genes were found between small and large waves, small and medium waves, and medium and large waves, respectively, by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. Differentially expressed genes were classified using gene ontology and pathway analyses. They were found to be mainly involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, growth, immune response, and ion transport, and were associated with MAPK and the Notch signaling pathway. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses of differentially-expressed miRNA and genes were consistent with sequencing results. Integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression indicated that, compared to small waves, large waves included 4 downregulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 8 upregulated genes and 3 upregulated miRNAs, which in turn influenced 13 downregulated genes. Compared to small waves

  2. Inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression by retroviral vector-mediated small-guide RNAs that direct specific RNA cleavage by tRNase ZL

    PubMed Central

    Habu, Yuichiro; Miyano-Kurosaki, Naoko; Kitano, Michiko; Endo, Yumihiko; Yukita, Masakazu; Ohira, Shigeru; Takaku, Hiroaki; Nashimoto, Masayuki; Takaku, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    The tRNA 3′-processing endoribonuclease (tRNase Z or 3′ tRNase; EC 3.1.26.11) is an essential enzyme that removes the 3′ trailer from pre-tRNA. The long form (tRNase ZL) can cleave a target RNA in vitro at the site directed by an appropriate small-guide RNA (sgRNA). Here, we investigated whether this sgRNA/tRNase ZL strategy could be applied to gene therapy for AIDS. We tested the ability of four sgRNA-expression plasmids to inhibit HIV-1 gene expression in COS cells, using a transient-expression assay. The three sgRNAs guide inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression in cultured COS cells. Analysis of the HIV-1 mRNA levels suggested that sgRNA directed the tRNase ZL to mediate the degradation of target RNA. The observation that sgRNA was localized primarily in nuclei suggests that tRNase ZL cleaves the HIV-1 mRNA when complexed with sgRNA in this location. We also examined the ability of two retroviral vectors expressing sgRNA to suppress HIV-1 expression in HIV-1-infected Jurkat T cells. sgRNA-SL4 suppressed HIV-1 expression almost completely in infected cells for up to 18 days. These results suggest that the sgRNA/tRNase ZL approach is effective in downregulating HIV-1 gene expression. PMID:15647506

  3. Import routes and nuclear functions of Argonaute and other small RNA-silencing proteins.

    PubMed

    Schraivogel, Daniel; Meister, Gunter

    2014-09-01

    Small RNAs are important regulators of gene expression in many different organisms. Nuclear and cytoplasmic biogenesis enzymes generate functional small RNAs from double-stranded (ds) or single-stranded (ss) RNA precursors, and mature small RNAs are loaded into Argonaute proteins. In the cytoplasm, small RNAs guide Argonaute proteins to complementary RNAs leading to cleavage of these targets, translational silencing, or mRNA decay. In the nucleus Argonaute proteins engage in transcriptional silencing processes such as epigenetic silencing of repetitive elements at the chromatin level. During the past few years many novel functions of small RNA-guided gene silencing proteins in the nucleus have been reported. However, their specific import routes are largely unknown. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on nuclear transport routes that Argonaute and other RNA-silencing proteins take to carry out their various functions in the nucleus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Computational analysis of microRNA function in heart development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ganqiang; Ding, Min; Chen, Jiajia; Huang, Jinyan; Wang, Haiyun; Jing, Qing; Shen, Bairong

    2010-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that specific spatio-temporal microRNA (miRNA) expression is required for heart development. In recent years, hundreds of miRNAs have been discovered. In contrast, functional annotations are available only for a very small fraction of these regulatory molecules. In order to provide a global perspective for the biologists who study the relationship between differentially expressed miRNAs and heart development, we employed computational analysis to uncover the specific cellular processes and biological pathways targeted by miRNAs in mouse heart development. Here, we utilized Gene Ontology (GO) categories, KEGG Pathway, and GeneGo Pathway Maps as a gene functional annotation system for miRNA target enrichment analysis. The target genes of miRNAs were found to be enriched in functional categories and pathway maps in which miRNAs could play important roles during heart development. Meanwhile, we developed miRHrt (http://sysbio.suda.edu.cn/mirhrt/), a database aiming to provide a comprehensive resource of miRNA function in regulating heart development. These computational analysis results effectively illustrated the correlation of differentially expressed miRNAs with cellular functions and heart development. We hope that the identified novel heart development-associated pathways and the database presented here would facilitate further understanding of the roles and mechanisms of miRNAs in heart development.

  5. Insight into small RNA abundance and expression in high- and low-temperature stress response using deep sequencing in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Baev, Vesselin; Milev, Ivan; Naydenov, Mladen; Vachev, Tihomir; Apostolova, Elena; Mehterov, Nikolay; Gozmanva, Mariyana; Minkov, Georgi; Sablok, Gaurav; Yahubyan, Galina

    2014-11-01

    Small RNA profiling and assessing its dependence on changing environmental factors have expanded our understanding of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of plant stress responses. Insufficient data have been documented earlier to depict the profiling of small RNA classes in temperature-associated stress which has a wide implication for climate change biology. In the present study, we report a comparative assessment of the genome-wide profiling of small RNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana using two conditional responses, induced by high- and low-temperature. Genome-wide profiling of small RNAs revealed an abundance of 21 nt small RNAs at low temperature, while high temperature showed an abundance of 21 nt and 24 nt small RNAs. The two temperature treatments altered the expression of a specific subset of mature miRNAs and displayed differential expression of a number of miRNA isoforms (isomiRs). Comparative analysis demonstrated that a large number of protein-coding genes can give rise to differentially expressed small RNAs following temperature shifts. Low temperature caused accumulation of small RNAs, corresponding to the sense strand of a number of cold-responsive genes. In contrast, high temperature stimulated the production of small RNAs of both polarities from genes encoding functionally diverse proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. New basic approach to treat non-small cell lung cancer based on RNA-interference.

    PubMed

    Makowiecki, Christina; Nolte, Andrea; Sutaj, Besmire; Keller, Timea; Avci-Adali, Meltem; Stoll, Heidi; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans Peter; Walker, Tobias

    2014-03-01

    To date the therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with severe side effects, frustrating outcomes, and does not consider different tumor characteristics. The RNA-interference (RNAi) pathway represents a potential new approach to treat NSCLC. With small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNAs), it is possible to reduce the expression of proliferation-dependent proteins in tumor cells, leading to their apoptosis. We propose that siRNAs could be adapted to the tumor type and may cause fewer side effects than current therapy. Four NSCLC cell lines were cultured under standard conditions and transfected with three different concentrations of siRNAs targeted against the hypoxia-inducible factors 1α and 2α (HIF1α and HIF2α) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). The expression was observed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blots. For the analysis of cell growth three days after transfection, the cell number was detected using a CASY cell counter system. The results of the silencing of the analyzed factors differ in each cell line. Cell growth was significantly reduced in all cell lines after transfection with HIF1α- and STAT3-siRNA. The silencing of HIF2α resulted in a significant effect on cell growth in squamous, and large-cell lung cancer. This study shows that the knockdown and viability to siRNA transfection differ in each tumor type according to the used siRNA. This implies that the tumor types differ among themselves and should be treated differently. Therefore, the authors suggest a possible approach to a more personalized treatment of NSCLC.

  7. A role for small RNA in regulating innate immunity during plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yingtian; Wang, Jubin; Tung, Jeffrey; Liu, Dan; Zhou, Yingjia; He, Shuang; Baker, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Plant genomes encode large numbers of nucleotide-binding (NB) leucine-rich repeat (LRR) immune receptors (NLR) that mediate effector triggered immunity (ETI) and play key roles in protecting crops from diseases caused by devastating pathogens. Fitness costs are associated with plant NLR genes and regulation of NLR genes by micro(mi)RNAs and phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNA) is proposed as a mechanism for reducing these fitness costs. However, whether NLR expression and NLR-mediated immunity are regulated during plant growth is unclear. We conducted genome-wide transcriptome analysis and showed that NLR expression gradually increased while expression of their regulatory small RNAs (sRNA) gradually decreased as plants matured, indicating that sRNAs could play a role in regulating NLR expression during plant growth. We further tested the role of miRNA in the growth regulation of NLRs using the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) resistance gene N, which was targeted by miR6019 and miR6020. We showed that N-mediated resistance to TMV effectively restricted this virus to the infected leaves of 6-week old plants, whereas TMV infection was lethal in 1- and 3-week old seedlings due to virus-induced systemic necrosis. We further found that N transcript levels gradually increased while miR6019 levels gradually decreased during seedling maturation that occurs in the weeks after germination. Analyses of reporter genes in transgenic plants showed that growth regulation of N expression was post-transcriptionally mediated by MIR6019/6020 whereas MIR6019/6020 was regulated at the transcriptional level during plant growth. TMV infection of MIR6019/6020 transgenic plants indicated a key role for miR6019-triggered phasiRNA production for regulation of N-mediated immunity. Together our results demonstrate a mechanistic role for miRNAs in regulating innate immunity during plant growth. PMID:29293695

  8. Small RNA and transcriptome deep sequencing proffers insight into floral gene regulation in Rosa cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungeun; Park, June Hyun; Lim, Chan Ju; Lim, Jae Yun; Ryu, Jee-Youn; Lee, Bong-Woo; Choi, Jae-Pil; Kim, Woong Bom; Lee, Ha Yeon; Choi, Yourim; Kim, Donghyun; Hur, Cheol-Goo; Kim, Sukweon; Noh, Yoo-Sun; Shin, Chanseok; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2012-11-21

    Roses (Rosa sp.), which belong to the family Rosaceae, are the most economically important ornamental plants--making up 30% of the floriculture market. However, given high demand for roses, rose breeding programs are limited in molecular resources which can greatly enhance and speed breeding efforts. A better understanding of important genes that contribute to important floral development and desired phenotypes will lead to improved rose cultivars. For this study, we analyzed rose miRNAs and the rose flower transcriptome in order to generate a database to expound upon current knowledge regarding regulation of important floral characteristics. A rose genetic database will enable comprehensive analysis of gene expression and regulation via miRNA among different Rosa cultivars. We produced more than 0.5 million reads from expressed sequences, totalling more than 110 million bp. From these, we generated 35,657, 31,434, 34,725, and 39,722 flower unigenes from Rosa hybrid: 'Vital', 'Maroussia', and 'Sympathy' and Rosa rugosa Thunb., respectively. The unigenes were assigned functional annotations, domains, metabolic pathways, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, Plant Ontology (PO) terms, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat) terms. Rose flower transcripts were compared with genes from whole genome sequences of Rosaceae members (apple, strawberry, and peach) and grape. We also produced approximately 40 million small RNA reads from flower tissue for Rosa, representing 267 unique miRNA tags. Among identified miRNAs, 25 of them were novel and 242 of them were conserved miRNAs. Statistical analyses of miRNA profiles revealed both shared and species-specific miRNAs, which presumably effect flower development and phenotypes. In this study, we constructed a Rose miRNA and transcriptome database, and we analyzed the miRNAs and transcriptome generated from the flower tissues of four Rosa cultivars. The database provides a comprehensive genetic resource which can be used to better understand

  9. U1 small nuclear RNA variants differentially form ribonucleoprotein particles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Somarelli, Jason A; Mesa, Annia; Rodriguez, Carol E; Sharma, Shalini; Herrera, Rene J

    2014-04-25

    The U1 small nuclear (sn)RNA participates in splicing of pre-mRNAs by recognizing and binding to 5' splice sites at exon/intron boundaries. U1 snRNAs associate with 5' splice sites in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) that are comprised of the U1 snRNA and 10 core components, including U1A, U1-70K, U1C and the 'Smith antigen', or Sm, heptamer. The U1 snRNA is highly conserved across a wide range of taxa; however, a number of reports have identified the presence of expressed U1-like snRNAs in multiple species, including humans. While numerous U1-like molecules have been shown to be expressed, it is unclear whether these variant snRNAs have the capacity to form snRNPs and participate in splicing. The purpose of the present study was to further characterize biochemically the ability of previously identified human U1-like variants to form snRNPs and bind to U1 snRNP proteins. A bioinformatics analysis provided support for the existence of multiple expressed variants. In vitro gel shift assays, competition assays, and immunoprecipitations (IPs) revealed that the variants formed high molecular weight assemblies to varying degrees and associated with core U1 snRNP proteins to a lesser extent than the canonical U1 snRNA. Together, these data suggest that the human U1 snRNA variants analyzed here are unable to efficiently bind U1 snRNP proteins. The current work provides additional biochemical insights into the ability of the variants to assemble into snRNPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Phylogeny of the Haplosporidia (Eukaryota: Alveolata) based on small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Flores, B S; Siddall, M E; Burreson, E M

    1996-08-01

    The phylogenetic position of the phylum Haplosporidia was investigated with the complete small subunit rRNA gene sequences from 5 species in the phylum: Haplosporidium nelsoni and Haplosporidium costale, parasites of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica; Haplosporidium louisiana, a parasite of the mudcrab Panopeus herbstii; Minchinia teredinis, a parasite of shipworms (Teredo spp.) and Urosporidium crescens, a hyperparasite found in metacercariae of the trematode Megalophallus sp. in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Multiple alignments of small subunit rRNA gene sequences included the 5 haplosporidian taxa and 14 taxa in the alveolate phyla Ciliophora, Dinoflagellida, and Apicomplexa. Maximum parsimony analysis placed the phylum Haplosporidia as a monophyletic group within the alveolate clade, as a taxon of equal rank with the other 3 alveolate phyla, and as a sister taxon to the clade composed of the phyla Dinoflagellida and Apicomplexa. Transversionally weighted parsimony placed the haplosporidians as a sister taxon to the ciliates. A separate analysis focused on the relationships of species in the genus Haplosporidium. Analyses were conducted with the haplosporidians as a functional ingroup, using each of the alveolate phyla individually as functional outgroups. The results indicated that species in the genus Haplosporidium do not form a monophyletic assemblage. As such, the present morphological criteria for distinguishing the genera Haplosporidium and Minchinia are insufficient.

  11. Translational control of small heat shock genes in mesophilic and thermophilic cyanobacteria by RNA thermometers

    PubMed Central

    Cimdins, Annika; Klinkert, Birgit; Aschke-Sonnenborn, Ursula; Kaiser, Friederike M; Kortmann, Jens; Narberhaus, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria constitute a heterogeneous phylum of oxygen-producing, photosynthetic prokaryotes. They are susceptible to various stress conditions like heat, salt, or light stress, all inducing the cyanobacterial heat shock response (HSR). Cyanobacterial small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are known to preserve thylakoid membrane integrity under stress conditions, thereby protecting the photosynthesis machinery. In Synechocystis sp PCC 6803, synthesis of the sHsp Hsp17 is regulated by an RNA thermometer (RNAT) in the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) of the hsp17 mRNA. RNATs are direct temperature sensors that control expression of many bacterial heat shock and virulence genes. They hinder translation at low temperatures by base pairing, thus blocking ribosome access to the mRNA.   To explore the temperature range in which RNATs act, we studied various RNAT candidates upstream of sHsp genes from mesophilic and thermophilic cyanobacteria. The mesophilic cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis and Nostoc sp chromosomally encode two sHsps each. Reporter gene studies suggested RNAT-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of shsp expression in both organisms. Detailed structural analysis of the two A. variabilis candidates revealed two novel RNAT types. The first, avashort, regulates translation primarily by masking of the AUG translational start codon. The second, featuring an extended initial hairpin, thus named avalong, presumably makes use of complex tertiary interaction. The 5′-UTR of the small heat shock gene hspA in the thermophile Thermosynechococcus elongatus is predicted to adopt an extended secondary structure. Structure probing revealed that the ribosome binding site was blocked at temperatures below 55 °C. The results of this study demonstrate that cyanobacteria commonly use RNATs to control expression of their small heat shock genes. PMID:24755616

  12. Slicer-independent mechanism drives small-RNA strand separation during human RISC assembly.

    PubMed

    Park, June Hyun; Shin, Chanseok

    2015-10-30

    Small RNA silencing is mediated by the effector RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) that consists of an Argonaute protein (AGOs 1-4 in humans). A fundamental step during RISC assembly involves the separation of two strands of a small RNA duplex, whereby only the guide strand is retained to form the mature RISC, a process not well understood. Despite the widely accepted view that 'slicer-dependent unwinding' via passenger-strand cleavage is a prerequisite for the assembly of a highly complementary siRNA into the AGO2-RISC, here we show by careful re-examination that 'slicer-independent unwinding' plays a more significant role in human RISC maturation than previously appreciated, not only for a miRNA duplex, but, unexpectedly, for a highly complementary siRNA as well. We discovered that 'slicer-dependency' for the unwinding was affected primarily by certain parameters such as temperature and Mg(2+). We further validate these observations in non-slicer AGOs (1, 3 and 4) that can be programmed with siRNAs at the physiological temperature of humans, suggesting that slicer-independent mechanism is likely a common feature of human AGOs. Our results now clearly explain why both miRNA and siRNA are found in all four human AGOs, which is in striking contrast to the strict small-RNA sorting system in Drosophila. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Slicer-independent mechanism drives small-RNA strand separation during human RISC assembly

    PubMed Central

    Park, June Hyun; Shin, Chanseok

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA silencing is mediated by the effector RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) that consists of an Argonaute protein (AGOs 1–4 in humans). A fundamental step during RISC assembly involves the separation of two strands of a small RNA duplex, whereby only the guide strand is retained to form the mature RISC, a process not well understood. Despite the widely accepted view that ‘slicer-dependent unwinding’ via passenger-strand cleavage is a prerequisite for the assembly of a highly complementary siRNA into the AGO2-RISC, here we show by careful re-examination that ‘slicer-independent unwinding’ plays a more significant role in human RISC maturation than previously appreciated, not only for a miRNA duplex, but, unexpectedly, for a highly complementary siRNA as well. We discovered that ‘slicer-dependency’ for the unwinding was affected primarily by certain parameters such as temperature and Mg2+. We further validate these observations in non-slicer AGOs (1, 3 and 4) that can be programmed with siRNAs at the physiological temperature of humans, suggesting that slicer-independent mechanism is likely a common feature of human AGOs. Our results now clearly explain why both miRNA and siRNA are found in all four human AGOs, which is in striking contrast to the strict small-RNA sorting system in Drosophila. PMID:26384428

  14. Comprehensive analysis of a long noncoding RNA-associated competing endogenous RNA network in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qiaowei; Liu, Bingrong

    2018-01-01

    This study was aimed to develop a lncRNA-associated competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network to provide further understanding of the ceRNA regulatory mechanism and pathogenesis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Expression profiles of mRNAs, lncRNAs, and miRNAs, and clinical information for CRC patients were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The differentially expressed mRNAs, lncRNAs, and miRNAs (referred to as "DEmRNAs", "DElncRNAs", and "DEmiRNAs", respectively) were screened out between 539 CRC samples and 11 normal samples. The interactions between DElncRNAs and DEmiRNAs were predicted by miRcode. The DEmRNAs targeted by the DEmiRNAs were retrieved according to TargetScan, miRTar-Base, and miRDB. The lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA network was constructed based on the DEmiRNA-DElncRNA and DEmiRNA-DEmRNA interactions. Functional enrichment analysis revealed the biological processes and pathways of DEmRNAs involved in the development of CRC. Key lncRNAs were further analyzed for their associations with overall survival and clinical features of CRC patients. A total of 1,767 DEmRNAs, 608 DElncRNAs, and 283 DEmiRNAs were identified as CRC-specific RNAs. Three hundred eighty-two DEmiRNA-DElncRNA interactions and 68 DEmiRNA-DEmRNA interactions were recognized according to the relevant databases. The lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA network was constructed using 25 DEmiRNAs, 52 DEmRNAs, and 64 DElncRNAs. Two DElncRNAs, five DEmiRNAs, and six DEmRNAs were demonstrated to be related to the prognosis of CRC patients. Four DElncRNAs were found to be associated with clinical features. Twenty-eight Gene Ontology terms and 10 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways were found to be significantly enriched by the DEmRNAs in the ceRNA network. Our results showed cancer-specific mRNA, lncRNA, and miRNA expression patterns and enabled us to construct an lncRNA-associated ceRNA network that provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms of CRC. Key RNA transcripts related to the

  15. Fluorescent tag is not a reliable marker for small RNA transfection in the presence of serum.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Wang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Shi-Qiang

    2013-09-01

    Chemically synthetic siRNA and miRNA have become powerful tools to study gene function in the past decade. Fluorescent dyes covalently attached to the 5' or 3' ends of synthetic small RNAs are widely used for fluorescently imaging and detection of these RNAs. However, the reliability of fluorescent tags as small RNA markers in different conditions has not attracted enough attention. We used Cy3-labelled small RNAs to explore the reliability of fluorescent tags as small RNA markers in cell cultures involving serum. A strong Cy3-fluorescence signal was observed in the cytoplasm of the cells transfected with Cy3-miR24 in the culture medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS), but qRT-PCR results showed that little miR24 were detected in these cells. Further study demonstrated that small RNAs were degraded in the presence of FBS, suggesting that it was Cy3-RNA fragments, rather than the original Cy3-miR24, diffused into cells. These phenomena disappeared when FBS was replaced by boiled-FBS, further supporting that the Cy3-fluorescence we observed in cells in the presence of FBS could not represent the presence of intact small RNAs. These findings addressed that fluorescent tags are not reliable for small RNA transfection in the presence of serum in culture.

  16. Small RNA Profiling of Two Important Cultivars of Banana and Overexpression of miRNA156 in Transgenic Banana Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

    2015-01-01

    Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding, short RNAs having important roles in regulation of gene expression. Although plant miRNAs have been studied in detail in some model plants, less is known about these miRNAs in important fruit plants like banana. miRNAs have pivotal roles in plant growth and development, and in responses to diverse biotic and abiotic stress stimuli. Here, we have analyzed the small RNA expression profiles of two different economically significant banana cultivars by using high-throughput sequencing technology. We identified a total of 170 and 244 miRNAs in the two libraries respectively derived from cv. Grand Naine and cv. Rasthali leaves. In addition, several cultivar specific microRNAs along with their putative target transcripts were also detected in our studies. To validate our findings regarding the small RNA profiles, we also undertook overexpression of a common microRNA, MusamiRNA156 in transgenic banana plants. The transgenic plants overexpressing the stem-loop sequence derived from MusamiRNA156 gene were stunted in their growth together with peculiar changes in leaf anatomy. These results provide a foundation for further investigations into important physiological and metabolic pathways operational in banana in general and cultivar specific traits in particular. PMID:25962076

  17. Improving small-angle X-ray scattering data for structural analyses of the RNA world

    PubMed Central

    Rambo, Robert P.; Tainer, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Defining the shape, conformation, or assembly state of an RNA in solution often requires multiple investigative tools ranging from nucleotide analog interference mapping to X-ray crystallography. A key addition to this toolbox is small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). SAXS provides direct structural information regarding the size, shape, and flexibility of the particle in solution and has proven powerful for analyses of RNA structures with minimal requirements for sample concentration and volumes. In principle, SAXS can provide reliable data on small and large RNA molecules. In practice, SAXS investigations of RNA samples can show inconsistencies that suggest limitations in the SAXS experimental analyses or problems with the samples. Here, we show through investigations on the SAM-I riboswitch, the Group I intron P4-P6 domain, 30S ribosomal subunit from Sulfolobus solfataricus (30S), brome mosaic virus tRNA-like structure (BMV TLS), Thermotoga maritima asd lysine riboswitch, the recombinant tRNAval, and yeast tRNAphe that many problems with SAXS experiments on RNA samples derive from heterogeneity of the folded RNA. Furthermore, we propose and test a general approach to reducing these sample limitations for accurate SAXS analyses of RNA. Together our method and results show that SAXS with synchrotron radiation has great potential to provide accurate RNA shapes, conformations, and assembly states in solution that inform RNA biological functions in fundamental ways. PMID:20106957

  18. Nucleic acids encoding phloem small RNA-binding proteins and transgenic plants comprising them

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, William J.; Yoo, Byung-Chun; Lough, Tony J.; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2007-03-13

    The present invention provides a polynucleotide sequence encoding a component of the protein machinery involved in small RNA trafficking, Cucurbita maxima phloem small RNA-binding protein (CmPSRB 1), and the corresponding polypeptide sequence. The invention also provides genetic constructs and transgenic plants comprising the polynucleotide sequence encoding a phloem small RNA-binding protein to alter (e.g., prevent, reduce or elevate) non-cell autonomous signaling events in the plants involving small RNA metabolism. These signaling events are involved in a broad spectrum of plant physiological and biochemical processes, including, for example, systemic resistance to pathogens, responses to environmental stresses, e.g., heat, drought, salinity, and systemic gene silencing (e.g., viral infections).

  19. RNA2DMut: a web tool for the design and analysis of RNA structure mutations.

    PubMed

    Moss, Walter N

    2018-03-01

    With the widespread application of high-throughput sequencing, novel RNA sequences are being discovered at an astonishing rate. The analysis of function, however, lags behind. In both the cis - and trans -regulatory functions of RNA, secondary structure (2D base-pairing) plays essential regulatory roles. In order to test RNA function, it is essential to be able to design and analyze mutations that can affect structure. This was the motivation for the creation of the RNA2DMut web tool. With RNA2DMut, users can enter in RNA sequences to analyze, constrain mutations to specific residues, or limit changes to purines/pyrimidines. The sequence is analyzed at each base to determine the effect of every possible point mutation on 2D structure. The metrics used in RNA2DMut rely on the calculation of the Boltzmann structure ensemble and do not require a robust 2D model of RNA structure for designing mutations. This tool can facilitate a wide array of uses involving RNA: for example, in designing and evaluating mutants for biological assays, interrogating RNA-protein interactions, identifying key regions to alter in SELEX experiments, and improving RNA folding and crystallization properties for structural biology. Additional tools are available to help users introduce other mutations (e.g., indels and substitutions) and evaluate their effects on RNA structure. Example calculations are shown for five RNAs that require 2D structure for their function: the MALAT1 mascRNA, an influenza virus splicing regulatory motif, the EBER2 viral noncoding RNA, the Xist lncRNA repA region, and human Y RNA 5. RNA2DMut can be accessed at https://rna2dmut.bb.iastate.edu/. © 2018 Moss; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  20. A novel small RNA S042 increases acid tolerance in Lactococcus lactis F44.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Song, Shunyi; Tian, Kairen; Zhou, Dandan; Wang, Binbin; Liu, Jiaheng; Zhu, Hongji; Qiao, Jianjun

    2018-06-07

    Lactococcus lactis, a gram-positive bacterium, encounters various environmental stresses, especially acid stress, during fermentation. Small RNAs (sRNAs) that serve as regulators at post-transcriptional level play important roles in acid stress response. Here, a novel sRNA S042 was identified by RNA-Seq, RT-PCR and Northern blot. The transcription level of s042 was upregulated 2.29-fold under acid stress by Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. Acid tolerance assay showed that overexpressing s042 increased the survival rate of L. lactis F44 and deleting s042 significantly inhibited the viability under acidic conditions. Moreover, the targets were predicted by online software and four genes were chosen as candidates. Among them, argR (arginine regulator) and accD (acetyl-CoA carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit beta) were validated to be the direct targets activated by S042 through reporter fusion assay. The regulatory mechanism between S042 and its targets was further investigated through Bioinformatics and qRT-PCR. This study served to highlight the role of the novel sRNA S042 in acid resistance of L. lactis and provided new insights into the response mechanism of acid stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of MMP-2 gene expression with small interfering RNA in rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hlawaty, Hanna; San Juan, Aurélie; Jacob, Marie-Paule; Vranckx, Roger; Letourneur, Didier; Feldman, Laurent J

    2007-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is constitutively expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Using small interfering RNA (siRNA), we evaluated the effect of MMP-2 inhibition in VSMCs in vitro and ex vivo. Rabbit VSMCs were transfected in vitro with 50 nmol/l MMP-2 siRNA or scramble siRNA. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed cellular uptake of siRNA in approximately 80% of VSMCs. MMP-2 mRNA levels evaluated by real-time RT-PCR, pro-MMP-2 activity from conditioned culture media evaluated by gelatin zymography, and VSMC migration were reduced by 44 +/- 19%, 43 +/- 14%, and 36 +/- 14%, respectively, in MMP-2 siRNA-transfected compared with scramble siRNA-transfected VSMCs (P < 0.005 for all). Ex vivo MMP-2 siRNA transfection was performed 2 wk after balloon injury of hypercholesterolemic rabbit carotid arteries. Fluorescence microscopy showed circumferential siRNA uptake in neointimal cells. Gelatin zymography of carotid artery culture medium demonstrated a significant decrease of pro-MMP-2 activity in MMP-2 siRNA-transfected compared with scramble siRNA-transfected arteries (P < 0.01). Overall, our results demonstrate that in vitro MMP-2 siRNA transfection in VSMCs markedly inhibits MMP-2 gene expression and VSMC migration and that ex vivo delivery of MMP-2 siRNA in balloon-injured arteries reduces pro-MMP-2 activity in neointimal cells, suggesting that siRNA could be used to modify arterial biology in vivo.

  2. Structure of the myotonic dystrophy type 2 RNA and designed small molecules that reduce toxicity.

    PubMed

    Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Yildirim, Ilyas; Park, HaJeung; Lohman, Jeremy R; Guan, Lirui; Tran, Tuan; Sarkar, Partha; Schatz, George C; Disney, Matthew D

    2014-02-21

    Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is an incurable neuromuscular disorder caused by a r(CCUG) expansion (r(CCUG)(exp)) that folds into an extended hairpin with periodically repeating 2×2 nucleotide internal loops (5'CCUG/3'GUCC). We designed multivalent compounds that improve DM2-associated defects using information about RNA-small molecule interactions. We also report the first crystal structure of r(CCUG) repeats refined to 2.35 Å. Structural analysis of the three 5'CCUG/3'GUCC repeat internal loops (L) reveals that the CU pairs in L1 are each stabilized by one hydrogen bond and a water-mediated hydrogen bond, while CU pairs in L2 and L3 are stabilized by two hydrogen bonds. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations reveal that the CU pairs are dynamic and stabilized by Na(+) and water molecules. MD simulations of the binding of the small molecule to r(CCUG) repeats reveal that the lowest free energy binding mode occurs via the major groove, in which one C residue is unstacked and the cross-strand nucleotides are displaced. Moreover, we modeled the binding of our dimeric compound to two 5'CCUG/3'GUCC motifs, which shows that the scaffold on which the RNA-binding modules are displayed provides an optimal distance to span two adjacent loops.

  3. Structure of the Myotonic Dystrophy Type 2 RNA and Designed Small Molecules That Reduce Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Park, HaJeung; Lohman, Jeremy R.; Guan, Lirui; Tran, Tuan; Sarkar, Partha; Schatz, George C.; Disney, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is an untreatable neuromuscular disorder caused by a r(CCUG) expansion (r(CCUG)exp) that folds into an extended hairpin with periodically repeating 2×2 nucleotide internal loops (5’CCUG/3’GUCC). We designed multivalent compounds that improve DM2-associated defects using information about RNA-small molecule interactions. We also report the first crystal structure of r(CCUG)exp refined to 2.35 Å. Structural analysis of the three 5’CCUG/3’GUCC repeat internal loops (L) reveals that the CU pairs in L1 are each stabilized by one hydrogen bond and a water-mediated hydrogen bond while CU pairs in L2 and L3 are stabilized by two hydrogen bonds. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations reveal that the CU pairs are dynamic and stabilized by Na+ and water molecules. MD simulations of the binding of the small molecule to r(CCUG) repeats reveal that the lowest free energy binding mode occurs via the major groove, in which one C residue is unstacked and the cross-strand nucleotides are displaced. Moreover, we modeled the binding of our dimeric compound to two 5’CCUG/3’GUCC motifs, which shows that the scaffold on which the RNA-binding modules are displayed provides an optimal distance to span two adjacent loops. PMID:24341895

  4. StarScan: a web server for scanning small RNA targets from degradome sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shun; Li, Jun-Hao; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Ke-Ren; Zhou, Hui; Yang, Jian-Hua; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2015-07-01

    Endogenous small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), including microRNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs and small interfering RNAs, play important gene regulatory roles in animals and plants by pairing to the protein-coding and non-coding transcripts. However, computationally assigning these various sRNAs to their regulatory target genes remains technically challenging. Recently, a high-throughput degradome sequencing method was applied to identify biologically relevant sRNA cleavage sites. In this study, an integrated web-based tool, StarScan (sRNA target Scan), was developed for scanning sRNA targets using degradome sequencing data from 20 species. Given a sRNA sequence from plants or animals, our web server performs an ultrafast and exhaustive search for potential sRNA-target interactions in annotated and unannotated genomic regions. The interactions between small RNAs and target transcripts were further evaluated using a novel tool, alignScore. A novel tool, degradomeBinomTest, was developed to quantify the abundance of degradome fragments located at the 9-11th nucleotide from the sRNA 5' end. This is the first web server for discovering potential sRNA-mediated RNA cleavage events in plants and animals, which affords mechanistic insights into the regulatory roles of sRNAs. The StarScan web server is available at http://mirlab.sysu.edu.cn/starscan/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Intratracheal Administration of Small Interfering RNA Targeting Fas Reduces Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Costamagna, Andrea; Muraca, Giuseppe; Rotondo, Giuseppe; Civiletti, Federica; Vizio, Barbara; Bosco, Ornella; Martin Conte, Erica L; Frati, Giacomo; Delsedime, Luisa; Lupia, Enrico; Fanelli, Vito; Ranieri, V Marco

    2016-08-01

    Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury is the main cause of primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation and results in increased morbidity and mortality. Fas-mediated apoptosis is one of the pathologic mechanisms involved in the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that the inhibition of Fas gene expression in lungs by intratracheal administration of small interfering RNA could reduce lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in an ex vivo model reproducing the procedural sequence of lung transplantation. Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study. University research laboratory. C57/BL6 mice weighing 28-30 g. Ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced in lungs isolated from mice, 48 hours after treatment with intratracheal small interfering RNA targeting Fas, control small interfering RNA, or vehicle. Isolated lungs were exposed to 6 hours of cold ischemia (4°C), followed by 2 hours of warm (37°C) reperfusion with a solution containing 10% of fresh whole blood and mechanical ventilation with constant low driving pressure. Fas gene expression was significantly silenced at the level of messenger RNA and protein after ischemia-reperfusion in lungs treated with small interfering RNA targeting Fas compared with lungs treated with control small interfering RNA or vehicle. Silencing of Fas gene expression resulted in reduced edema formation (bronchoalveolar lavage protein concentration and lung histology) and improvement in lung compliance. These effects were associated with a significant reduction of pulmonary cell apoptosis of lungs treated with small interfering RNA targeting Fas, which did not affect cytokine release and neutrophil infiltration. Fas expression silencing in the lung by small interfering RNA is effective against ischemia-reperfusion injury. This approach represents a potential innovative strategy of organ preservation before lung transplantation.

  6. Design of a bioactive small molecule that targets the myotonic dystrophy type 1 RNA via an RNA motif-ligand database and chemical similarity searching.

    PubMed

    Parkesh, Raman; Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Nakamori, Masayuki; Kumar, Amit; Wang, Eric; Wang, Thomas; Hoskins, Jason; Tran, Tuan; Housman, David; Thornton, Charles A; Disney, Matthew D

    2012-03-14

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a triplet repeating disorder caused by expanded CTG repeats in the 3'-untranslated region of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) gene. The transcribed repeats fold into an RNA hairpin with multiple copies of a 5'CUG/3'GUC motif that binds the RNA splicing regulator muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1). Sequestration of MBNL1 by expanded r(CUG) repeats causes splicing defects in a subset of pre-mRNAs including the insulin receptor, the muscle-specific chloride ion channel, sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase 1, and cardiac troponin T. Based on these observations, the development of small-molecule ligands that target specifically expanded DM1 repeats could be of use as therapeutics. In the present study, chemical similarity searching was employed to improve the efficacy of pentamidine and Hoechst 33258 ligands that have been shown previously to target the DM1 triplet repeat. A series of in vitro inhibitors of the RNA-protein complex were identified with low micromolar IC(50)'s, which are >20-fold more potent than the query compounds. Importantly, a bis-benzimidazole identified from the Hoechst query improves DM1-associated pre-mRNA splicing defects in cell and mouse models of DM1 (when dosed with 1 mM and 100 mg/kg, respectively). Since Hoechst 33258 was identified as a DM1 binder through analysis of an RNA motif-ligand database, these studies suggest that lead ligands targeting RNA with improved biological activity can be identified by using a synergistic approach that combines analysis of known RNA-ligand interactions with chemical similarity searching.

  7. Design of a Bioactive Small Molecule that Targets the Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 RNA Via an RNA Motif-Ligand Database & Chemical Similarity Searching

    PubMed Central

    Parkesh, Raman; Childs-Disney, Jessica L.; Nakamori, Masayuki; Kumar, Amit; Wang, Eric; Wang, Thomas; Hoskins, Jason; Tran, Tuan; Housman, David; Thornton, Charles A.; Disney, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a triplet repeating disorder caused by expanded CTG repeats in the 3′ untranslated region of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) gene. The transcribed repeats fold into an RNA hairpin with multiple copies of a 5′CUG/3′GUC motif that binds the RNA splicing regulator muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1). Sequestration of MBNL1 by expanded r(CUG) repeats causes splicing defects in a subset of pre-mRNAs including the insulin receptor, the muscle-specific chloride ion channel, Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 1 (Serca1/Atp2a1), and cardiac troponin T (cTNT). Based on these observations, the development of small molecule ligands that target specifically expanded DM1 repeats could serve as therapeutics. In the present study, computational screening was employed to improve the efficacy of pentamidine and Hoechst 33258 ligands that have been shown previously to target the DM1 triplet repeat. A series of inhibitors of the RNA-protein complex with low micromolar IC50’s, which are >20-fold more potent than the query compounds, were identified. Importantly, a bis-benzimidazole identified from the Hoechst query improves DM1-associated pre-mRNA splicing defects in cell and mouse models of DM1 (when dosed with 1 mM and 100 mg/kg, respectively). Since Hoechst 33258 was identified as a DM1 binder through analysis of an RNA motif-ligand database, these studies suggest that lead ligands targeting RNA with improved biological activity can be identified by using a synergistic approach that combines analysis of known RNA-ligand interactions with virtual screening. PMID:22300544

  8. RNA-directed DNA methylation involves co-transcriptional small-RNA-guided slicing of polymerase V transcripts in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanlu; Duttke, Sascha H; Hetzel, Jonathan; Groth, Martin; Feng, Suhua; Gallego-Bartolome, Javier; Zhong, Zhenhui; Kuo, Hsuan Yu; Wang, Zonghua; Zhai, Jixian; Chory, Joanne; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2018-03-01

    Small RNAs regulate chromatin modifications such as DNA methylation and gene silencing across eukaryotic genomes. In plants, RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) requires 24-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that bind to ARGONAUTE 4 (AGO4) and target genomic regions for silencing. RdDM also requires non-coding RNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase V (Pol V) that probably serve as scaffolds for binding of AGO4-siRNA complexes. Here, we used a modified global nuclear run-on protocol followed by deep sequencing to capture Pol V nascent transcripts genome-wide. We uncovered unique characteristics of Pol V RNAs, including a uracil (U) common at position 10. This uracil was complementary to the 5' adenine found in many AGO4-bound 24-nucleotide siRNAs and was eliminated in a siRNA-deficient mutant as well as in the ago4/6/9 triple mutant, suggesting that the +10 U signature is due to siRNA-mediated co-transcriptional slicing of Pol V transcripts. Expression of wild-type AGO4 in ago4/6/9 mutants was able to restore slicing of Pol V transcripts, but a catalytically inactive AGO4 mutant did not correct the slicing defect. We also found that Pol V transcript slicing required SUPPRESSOR OF TY INSERTION 5-LIKE (SPT5L), an elongation factor whose function is not well understood. These results highlight the importance of Pol V transcript slicing in RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing, which is a conserved process in many eukaryotes.

  9. Novel small RNA (sRNA) landscape of the starvation-stress response transcriptome of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shivam V; Roberts, Justin T; Patterson, Dillon G; Coley, Alexander B; Allred, Jonathan A; Denner, Jason M; Johnson, Justin P; Mullen, Genevieve E; O'Neal, Trenton K; Smith, Jason T; Cardin, Sara E; Carr, Hank T; Carr, Stacie L; Cowart, Holly E; DaCosta, David H; Herring, Brendon R; King, Valeria M; Polska, Caroline J; Ward, Erin E; Wise, Alice A; McAllister, Kathleen N; Chevalier, David; Spector, Michael P; Borchert, Glen M

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are short (∼50-200 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs that regulate cellular activities across bacteria. Salmonella enterica starved of a carbon-energy (C) source experience a host of genetic and physiological changes broadly referred to as the starvation-stress response (SSR). In an attempt to identify novel sRNAs contributing to SSR control, we grew log-phase, 5-h C-starved and 24-h C-starved cultures of the virulent Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344 and comprehensively sequenced their small RNA transcriptomes. Strikingly, after employing a novel strategy for sRNA discovery based on identifying dynamic transcripts arising from "gene-empty" regions, we identify 58 wholly undescribed Salmonella sRNA genes potentially regulating SSR averaging an ∼1,000-fold change in expression between log-phase and C-starved cells. Importantly, the expressions of individual sRNA loci were confirmed by both comprehensive transcriptome analyses and northern blotting of select candidates. Of note, we find 43 candidate sRNAs share significant sequence identity to characterized sRNAs in other bacteria, and ∼70% of our sRNAs likely assume characteristic sRNA structural conformations. In addition, we find 53 of our 58 candidate sRNAs either overlap neighboring mRNA loci or share significant sequence complementarity to mRNAs transcribed elsewhere in the SL1344 genome strongly suggesting they regulate the expression of transcripts via antisense base-pairing. Finally, in addition to this work resulting in the identification of 58 entirely novel Salmonella enterica genes likely participating in the SSR, we also find evidence suggesting that sRNAs are significantly more prevalent than currently appreciated and that Salmonella sRNAs may actually number in the thousands.

  10. Novel small RNA (sRNA) landscape of the starvation-stress response transcriptome of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Shivam V.; Roberts, Justin T.; Patterson, Dillon G.; Coley, Alexander B.; Allred, Jonathan A.; Denner, Jason M.; Johnson, Justin P.; Mullen, Genevieve E.; O'Neal, Trenton K.; Smith, Jason T.; Cardin, Sara E.; Carr, Hank T.; Carr, Stacie L.; Cowart, Holly E.; DaCosta, David H.; Herring, Brendon R.; King, Valeria M.; Polska, Caroline J.; Ward, Erin E.; Wise, Alice A.; McAllister, Kathleen N.; Chevalier, David; Spector, Michael P.; Borchert, Glen M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Small RNAs (sRNAs) are short (∼50–200 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs that regulate cellular activities across bacteria. Salmonella enterica starved of a carbon-energy (C) source experience a host of genetic and physiological changes broadly referred to as the starvation-stress response (SSR). In an attempt to identify novel sRNAs contributing to SSR control, we grew log-phase, 5-h C-starved and 24-h C-starved cultures of the virulent Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344 and comprehensively sequenced their small RNA transcriptomes. Strikingly, after employing a novel strategy for sRNA discovery based on identifying dynamic transcripts arising from “gene-empty” regions, we identify 58 wholly undescribed Salmonella sRNA genes potentially regulating SSR averaging an ∼1,000-fold change in expression between log-phase and C-starved cells. Importantly, the expressions of individual sRNA loci were confirmed by both comprehensive transcriptome analyses and northern blotting of select candidates. Of note, we find 43 candidate sRNAs share significant sequence identity to characterized sRNAs in other bacteria, and ∼70% of our sRNAs likely assume characteristic sRNA structural conformations. In addition, we find 53 of our 58 candidate sRNAs either overlap neighboring mRNA loci or share significant sequence complementarity to mRNAs transcribed elsewhere in the SL1344 genome strongly suggesting they regulate the expression of transcripts via antisense base-pairing. Finally, in addition to this work resulting in the identification of 58 entirely novel Salmonella enterica genes likely participating in the SSR, we also find evidence suggesting that sRNAs are significantly more prevalent than currently appreciated and that Salmonella sRNAs may actually number in the thousands. PMID:26853797

  11. Preparation of Small RNAs Using Rolling Circle Transcription and Site-Specific RNA Disconnection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingyu; Li, Can; Gao, Xiaomeng; Wang, Jing; Liang, Xingguo

    2015-01-13

    A facile and robust RNA preparation protocol was developed by combining rolling circle transcription (RCT) with RNA cleavage by RNase H. Circular DNA with a complementary sequence was used as the template for promoter-free transcription. With the aid of a 2'-O-methylated DNA, the RCT-generated tandem repeats of the desired RNA sequence were disconnected at the exact end-to-end position to harvest the desired RNA oligomers. Compared with the template DNA, more than 4 × 10(3) times the amount of small RNA products were obtained when modest cleavage was carried out during transcription. Large amounts of RNA oligomers could easily be obtained by simply increasing the reaction volume.

  12. sRNAdb: A small non-coding RNA database for gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The class of small non-coding RNA molecules (sRNA) regulates gene expression by different mechanisms and enables bacteria to mount a physiological response due to adaptation to the environment or infection. Over the last decades the number of sRNAs has been increasing rapidly. Several databases like Rfam or fRNAdb were extended to include sRNAs as a class of its own. Furthermore new specialized databases like sRNAMap (gram-negative bacteria only) and sRNATarBase (target prediction) were established. To the best of the authors’ knowledge no database focusing on sRNAs from gram-positive bacteria is publicly available so far. Description In order to understand sRNA’s functional and phylogenetic relationships we have developed sRNAdb and provide tools for data analysis and visualization. The data compiled in our database is assembled from experiments as well as from bioinformatics analyses. The software enables comparison and visualization of gene loci surrounding the sRNAs of interest. To accomplish this, we use a client–server based approach. Offline versions of the database including analyses and visualization tools can easily be installed locally on the user’s computer. This feature facilitates customized local addition of unpublished sRNA candidates and related information such as promoters or terminators using tab-delimited files. Conclusion sRNAdb allows a user-friendly and comprehensive comparative analysis of sRNAs from available sequenced gram-positive prokaryotic replicons. Offline versions including analysis and visualization tools facilitate complex user specific bioinformatics analyses. PMID:22883983

  13. Caryotricha minuta (Xu et al., 2008) nov. comb., a unique marine ciliate (Protista, Ciliophora, Spirotrichea), with phylogenetic analysis of the ambiguous genus Caryotricha inferred from the small-subunit rRNA gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Miao, Miao; Shao, Chen; Jiang, Jiamei; Li, Liqiong; Stoeck, Thorsten; Song, Weibo

    2009-02-01

    A population of Kiitricha minuta Xu et al., 2008, a small kiitrichid ciliate, was isolated from a brackish water sample in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, northern China. After comparison of its morphology and infraciliature, it is believed that this morphotype should be assigned to the genus Caryotricha; hence, a new combination is suggested, Caryotricha minuta (Xu et al., 2008) nov. comb. The small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence was determined in order to elucidate the phylogenetic position of this poorly known, ambiguous genus. The organism can be clearly separated from its congener, Caryotricha convexa Kahl, 1932, by the extremely shortened ventral cirral rows in the posterior ends. Based on the data available, an improved diagnosis is given for the genus: marine Kiitrichidae with prominent buccal field; two highly developed undulating membranes; non-grouped, uniform cirral rows on both ventral and dorsal sides; enlarged transverse cirri present, which are the only differentiated cirri; marginal cirri not present; one short migratory row located posterior to buccal field; structure of dorsal kineties generally in Kiitricha pattern. The sequence of the SSU rRNA gene of C. minuta differs by 13 % from that of Kiitricha marina. Molecular phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian inference, least squares, neighbour joining, maximum parsimony) indicate that Caryotricha, together with Kiitricha, diverges at a deep level from all other spirotrichs. Its branching position is between Phacodiniidia and Licnophoridia. The results strongly support the distinct separation of the Kiitricha-Caryotricha clade, which always branches basal to the Stichotrichia-Hypotrichia-Oligotrichia-Choreotrichia assemblage. These results also confirm the previous hypothesis that the Kiitricha-Caryotricha group, long assumed to be a close relation to the euplotids, represents a taxon at subclass level within the spirotrichs.

  14. Small RNA Deep Sequencing and the Effects of microRNA408 on Root Gravitropic Bending in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huasheng; Lu, Jinying; Sun, Qiao; Chen, Yu; He, Dacheng; Liu, Min

    2015-11-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a non-coding small RNA composed of 20 to 24 nucleotides that influences plant root development. This study analyzed the miRNA expression in Arabidopsis root tip cells using Illumina sequencing and real-time PCR before (sample 0) and 15 min after (sample 15) a 3-D clinostat rotational treatment was administered. After stimulation was performed, the expression levels of seven miRNA genes, including Arabidopsis miR160, miR161, miR394, miR402, miR403, miR408, and miR823, were significantly upregulated. Illumina sequencing results also revealed two novel miRNAsthat have not been previously reported, The target genes of these miRNAs included pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein and diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase. An overexpression vector of Arabidopsis miR408 was constructed and transferred to Arabidopsis plant. The roots of plants over expressing miR408 exhibited a slower reorientation upon gravistimulation in comparison with those of wild-type. This result indicate that miR408 could play a role in root gravitropic response.

  15. RNA-seq reveals distinctive RNA profiles of small extracellular vesicles from different human liver cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Berardocco, Martina; Radeghieri, Annalisa; Busatto, Sara; Gallorini, Marialucia; Raggi, Chiara; Gissi, Clarissa; D’Agnano, Igea; Bergese, Paolo; Felsani, Armando; Berardi, Anna C.

    2017-01-01

    Liver cancer (LC) is one of the most common cancers and represents the third highest cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Extracellular vesicle (EVs) cargoes, which are selectively enriched in RNA, offer great promise for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of LC. Our study analyzed the RNA cargoes of EVs derived from 4 liver-cancer cell lines: HuH7, Hep3B, HepG2 (hepato-cellular carcinoma) and HuH6 (hepatoblastoma), generating two different sets of sequencing libraries for each. One library was size-selected for small RNAs and the other targeted the whole transcriptome. Here are reported genome wide data of the expression level of coding and non-coding transcripts, microRNAs, isomiRs and snoRNAs providing the first comprehensive overview of the extracellular-vesicle RNA cargo released from LC cell lines. The EV-RNA expression profiles of the four liver cancer cell lines share a similar background, but cell-specific features clearly emerge showing the marked heterogeneity of the EV-cargo among the individual cell lines, evident both for the coding and non-coding RNA species. PMID:29137313

  16. RNA-seq reveals distinctive RNA profiles of small extracellular vesicles from different human liver cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Berardocco, Martina; Radeghieri, Annalisa; Busatto, Sara; Gallorini, Marialucia; Raggi, Chiara; Gissi, Clarissa; D'Agnano, Igea; Bergese, Paolo; Felsani, Armando; Berardi, Anna C

    2017-10-10

    Liver cancer (LC) is one of the most common cancers and represents the third highest cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Extracellular vesicle (EVs) cargoes, which are selectively enriched in RNA, offer great promise for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of LC. Our study analyzed the RNA cargoes of EVs derived from 4 liver-cancer cell lines: HuH7, Hep3B, HepG2 (hepato-cellular carcinoma) and HuH6 (hepatoblastoma), generating two different sets of sequencing libraries for each. One library was size-selected for small RNAs and the other targeted the whole transcriptome. Here are reported genome wide data of the expression level of coding and non-coding transcripts, microRNAs, isomiRs and snoRNAs providing the first comprehensive overview of the extracellular-vesicle RNA cargo released from LC cell lines. The EV-RNA expression profiles of the four liver cancer cell lines share a similar background, but cell-specific features clearly emerge showing the marked heterogeneity of the EV-cargo among the individual cell lines, evident both for the coding and non-coding RNA species.

  17. Silencing GIRK4 expression in human atrial myocytes by adenovirus-delivered small hairpin RNA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiongtao; Yang, Jian; Shang, Fujun; Hong, Changming; Guo, Wangang; Wang, Bing; Zheng, Qiangsun

    2009-07-01

    GIRK4 has been shown to be a subunit of I(KACh), and the use of GIRK4 in human atrial myocytes to treat arrhythmia remains an important research pursuit. Adenovirus-delivered small hairpin RNA (shRNA) has been used to mediate gene knockdown in mouse cardiocytes, yet there is no information on the successful application of this technique in human cardiocytes. In the current study, we used a siRNA validation system to select the most efficient sequence for silencing GIRK4. To this end, adenovirus-delivered shRNA, which expresses this sequence, was used to silence GIRK4 expression in human atrial myocytes. Finally, the feasibility, challenges, and results of silencing GIRK4 expression were evaluated by RT-PCR, western blotting, and the voltage-clamp technique. The levels of mRNA and protein were depressed significantly in cells infected by adenovirus-delivered shRNA against GIRK4, approximately 86.3% and 51.1% lower than those cells infected by adenovirus-delivered nonsense shRNA, respectively. At the same time, I(KACh) densities were decreased 53% by adenovirus-delivered shRNA against GIRK4. In summary, adenovirus-delivered shRNA against GIRK4 mediated efficient GIRK4 knockdown in human atrial myocytes and decreased I(KACh) densities. As such, these data indicated that adenovirus-delivered shRNA against GIRK4 is a potential tool for treating arrhythmia.

  18. Comparative evaluation of different extraction and quantification methods for forensic RNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Grabmüller, Melanie; Madea, Burkhard; Courts, Cornelius

    2015-05-01

    Since about 2005, there is increasing interest in forensic RNA analysis whose versatility may very favorably complement traditional DNA profiling in forensic casework. There is, however, no method available specifically dedicated for extraction of RNA from forensically relevant sample material. In this study we compared five commercially available and commonly used RNA extraction kits and methods (mirVana™ miRNA Isolation Kit Ambion; Trizol® Reagent, Invitrogen; NucleoSpin® miRNA Kit Macherey-Nagel; AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit and RNeasy® Mini Kit both Qiagen) to assess their relative effectiveness of yielding RNA of good quality and their compatibility with co-extraction of DNA amenable to STR profiling. We set up samples of small amounts of dried blood, liquid saliva, semen and buccal mucosa that were aged for different time intervals for co-extraction of RNA and DNA. RNA quality was assessed by determination of 'RNA integrity number' (RIN) and quantitative PCR based expression analysis. DNA quality was assessed via monitoring STR typing success rates. By comparison, the different methods exhibited considerable differences between RNA and DNA yields, RNA quality values and expression levels, and STR profiling success, with the AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit and the NucleoSpin® miRNA Kit excelling at DNA co-extraction and RNA results, respectively. Overall, there was no 'best' method to satisfy all demands of comprehensible co-analysis of RNA and DNA and it appears that each method has specific merits and flaws. We recommend to cautiously choose from available methods and align its characteristics with the needs of the experimental setting at hand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of Alternative Splicing and Fusion Transcripts in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by RNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yoonki; Kim, Woo Jin; Bang, Chi Young; Lee, Jae Cheol; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2016-04-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death. Alterations in gene sequence, structure, and expression have an important role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. Fusion genes and alternative splicing of cancer-related genes have the potential to be oncogenic. In the current study, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate potential fusion genes and alternative splicing in non-small cell lung cancer. RNA was isolated from lung tissues obtained from 86 subjects with lung cancer. The RNA samples from lung cancer and normal tissues were processed with RNA-seq using the HiSeq 2000 system. Fusion genes were evaluated using Defuse and ChimeraScan. Candidate fusion transcripts were validated by Sanger sequencing. Alternative splicing was analyzed using multivariate analysis of transcript sequencing and validated using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. RNA-seq data identified oncogenic fusion genes EML4-ALK and SLC34A2-ROS1 in three of 86 normal-cancer paired samples. Nine distinct fusion transcripts were selected using DeFuse and ChimeraScan; of which, four fusion transcripts were validated by Sanger sequencing. In 33 squamous cell carcinoma, 29 tumor specific skipped exon events and six mutually exclusive exon events were identified. ITGB4 and PYCR1 were top genes that showed significant tumor specific splice variants. In conclusion, RNA-seq data identified novel potential fusion transcripts and splice variants. Further evaluation of their functional significance in the pathogenesis of lung cancer is required.

  20. Experimental RNomics in Aquifex aeolicus: identification of small non-coding RNAs and the putative 6S RNA homolog

    PubMed Central

    Willkomm, Dagmar K.; Minnerup, Jens; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Hartmann, Roland K.

    2005-01-01

    By an experimental RNomics approach, we have generated a cDNA library from small RNAs expressed from the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. The library included RNAs that were antisense to mRNAs and tRNAs as well as RNAs encoded in intergenic regions. Substantial steady-state levels in A.aeolicus cells were confirmed for several of the cloned RNAs by northern blot analysis. The most abundant intergenic RNA of the library was identified as the 6S RNA homolog of A.aeolicus. Although shorter in size (150 nt) than its γ-proteobacterial homologs (∼185 nt), it is predicted to have the most stable structure among known 6S RNAs. As in the γ-proteobacteria, the A.aeolicus 6S RNA gene (ssrS) is located immediately upstream of the ygfA gene encoding a widely conserved 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase. We identifed novel 6S RNA candidates within the γ-proteobacteria but were unable to identify reasonable 6S RNA candidates in other bacterial branches, utilizing mfold analyses of the region immediately upstream of ygfA combined with 6S RNA blastn searches. By RACE experiments, we mapped the major transcription initiation site of A.aeolicus 6S RNA primary transcripts, located within the pheT gene preceding ygfA, as well as three processing sites. PMID:15814812

  1. Examining the intersection between splicing, nuclear export and small RNA pathways.

    PubMed

    Nabih, Amena; Sobotka, Julia A; Wu, Monica Z; Wedeles, Christopher J; Claycomb, Julie M

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear Argonaute/small RNA pathways in a variety of eukaryotic species are generally known to regulate gene expression via chromatin modulation and transcription attenuation in a process known as transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). However, recent data, including genetic screens, phylogenetic profiling, and molecular mechanistic studies, also point to a novel and emerging intersection between the splicing and nuclear export machinery with nuclear Argonaute/small RNA pathways in many organisms. In this review, we summarize the field's current understanding regarding the relationship between splicing, export and small RNA pathways, and consider the biological implications for coordinated regulation of transcripts by these pathways. We also address the importance and available approaches for understanding the RNA regulatory logic generated by the intersection of these particular pathways in the context of synthetic biology. The interactions between various eukaryotic RNA regulatory pathways, particularly splicing, nuclear export and small RNA pathways provide a type of combinatorial code that informs the identity ("self" versus "non-self") and dictates the fate of each transcript in a cell. Although the molecular mechanisms for how splicing and nuclear export impact small RNA pathways are not entirely clear at this early stage, the links between these pathways are widespread across eukaryotic phyla. The link between splicing, nuclear export, and small RNA pathways is emerging and establishes a new frontier for understanding the combinatorial logic of gene regulation across species that could someday be harnessed for therapeutic, biotechnology and agricultural applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PRADA: pipeline for RNA sequencing data analysis.

    PubMed

    Torres-García, Wandaliz; Zheng, Siyuan; Sivachenko, Andrey; Vegesna, Rahulsimham; Wang, Qianghu; Yao, Rong; Berger, Michael F; Weinstein, John N; Getz, Gad; Verhaak, Roel G W

    2014-08-01

    Technological advances in high-throughput sequencing necessitate improved computational tools for processing and analyzing large-scale datasets in a systematic automated manner. For that purpose, we have developed PRADA (Pipeline for RNA-Sequencing Data Analysis), a flexible, modular and highly scalable software platform that provides many different types of information available by multifaceted analysis starting from raw paired-end RNA-seq data: gene expression levels, quality metrics, detection of unsupervised and supervised fusion transcripts, detection of intragenic fusion variants, homology scores and fusion frame classification. PRADA uses a dual-mapping strategy that increases sensitivity and refines the analytical endpoints. PRADA has been used extensively and successfully in the glioblastoma and renal clear cell projects of The Cancer Genome Atlas program.  http://sourceforge.net/projects/prada/  gadgetz@broadinstitute.org or rverhaak@mdanderson.org  Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The cellular RNA-binding protein EAP recognizes a conserved stem-loop in the Epstein-Barr virus small RNA EBER 1.

    PubMed Central

    Toczyski, D P; Steitz, J A

    1993-01-01

    EAP (EBER-associated protein) is an abundant, 15-kDa cellular RNA-binding protein which associates with certain herpesvirus small RNAs. We have raised polyclonal anti-EAP antibodies against a glutathione S-transferase-EAP fusion protein. Analysis of the RNA precipitated by these antibodies from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)- or herpesvirus papio (HVP)-infected cells shows that > 95% of EBER 1 (EBV-encoded RNA 1) and the majority of HVP 1 (an HVP small RNA homologous to EBER 1) are associated with EAP. RNase protection experiments performed on native EBER 1 particles with affinity-purified anti-EAP antibodies demonstrate that EAP binds a stem-loop structure (stem-loop 3) of EBER 1. Since bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase-EAP fusion protein binds EBER 1, we conclude that EAP binding is independent of any other cellular or viral protein. Detailed mutational analyses of stem-loop 3 suggest that EAP recognizes the majority of the nucleotides in this hairpin, interacting with both single-stranded and double-stranded regions in a sequence-specific manner. Binding studies utilizing EBER 1 deletion mutants suggest that there may also be a second, weaker EAP-binding site on stem-loop 4 of EBER 1. These data and the fact that stem-loop 3 represents the most highly conserved region between EBER 1 and HVP 1 suggest that EAP binding is a critical aspect of EBER 1 and HVP 1 function. Images PMID:8380232

  4. Discovery of DNA viruses in wild-caught mosquitoes using small RNA high throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Maijuan; Huang, Yong; Gong, Zhengda; Zhuang, Lu; Li, Cun; Yang, Hong; Tong, Yigang; Liu, Wei; Cao, Wuchun

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito-borne infectious diseases pose a severe threat to public health in many areas of the world. Current methods for pathogen detection and surveillance are usually dependent on prior knowledge of the etiologic agents involved. Hence, efficient approaches are required for screening wild mosquito populations to detect known and unknown pathogens. In this study, we explored the use of Next Generation Sequencing to identify viral agents in wild-caught mosquitoes. We extracted total RNA from different mosquito species from South China. Small 18-30 bp length RNA molecules were purified, reverse-transcribed into cDNA and sequenced using Illumina GAIIx instrumentation. Bioinformatic analyses to identify putative viral agents were conducted and the results confirmed by PCR. We identified a non-enveloped single-stranded DNA densovirus in the wild-caught Culex pipiens molestus mosquitoes. The majority of the viral transcripts (.>80% of the region) were covered by the small viral RNAs, with a few peaks of very high coverage obtained. The +/- strand sequence ratio of the small RNAs was approximately 7∶1, indicating that the molecules were mainly derived from the viral RNA transcripts. The small viral RNAs overlapped, enabling contig assembly of the viral genome sequence. We identified some small RNAs in the reverse repeat regions of the viral 5'- and 3' -untranslated regions where no transcripts were expected. Our results demonstrate for the first time that high throughput sequencing of small RNA is feasible for identifying viral agents in wild-caught mosquitoes. Our results show that it is possible to detect DNA viruses by sequencing the small RNAs obtained from insects, although the underlying mechanism of small viral RNA biogenesis is unclear. Our data and those of other researchers show that high throughput small RNA sequencing can be used for pathogen surveillance in wild mosquito vectors.

  5. Development of pharmacophore models for small molecules targeting RNA: Application to the RNA repeat expansion in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Angelbello, Alicia J; González, Àlex L; Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Disney, Matthew D

    2016-12-01

    RNA is an important drug target, but current approaches to identify bioactive small molecules have been engineered primarily for protein targets. Moreover, the identification of small molecules that bind a specific RNA target with sufficient potency remains a challenge. Computer-aided drug design (CADD) and, in particular, ligand-based drug design provide a myriad of tools to identify rapidly new chemical entities for modulating a target based on previous knowledge of active compounds without relying on a ligand complex. Herein we describe pharmacophore virtual screening based on previously reported active molecules that target the toxic RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). DM1-associated defects are caused by sequestration of muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1), an alternative splicing regulator, by expanded CUG repeats (r(CUG) exp ). Several small molecules have been found to disrupt the MBNL1-r(CUG) exp complex, ameliorating DM1 defects. Our pharmacophore model identified a number of potential lead compounds from which we selected 11 compounds to evaluate. Of the 11 compounds, several improved DM1 defects both in vitro and in cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of an abundant plant-based small RNA in consumers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mechanisms of delivery of plant small RNAs to consumers must be addressed in order to harness this technology to positively impact agbiotechnology. Two groups have used honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) feeding regimes to detect a plant-based small RNA, termed MIR2911, in sera. Meanwhile, numerous gro...

  7. RNA Structural Analysis by Evolving SHAPE Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Spitale, Robert C.; Flynn, Ryan A.; Torre, Eduardo A.; Kool, Eric T.; Chang, Howard Y.

    2017-01-01

    RNA is central to the flow of biological information. From transcription to splicing, RNA localization, translation, and decay, RNA is intimately involved in regulating every step of the gene expression program, and is thus essential for health and understanding disease. RNA has the unique ability to base-pair with itself and other nucleic acids to form complex structures. Hence the information content in RNA is not simply its linear sequence of bases, but is also encoded in complex folding of RNA molecules. A general chemical functionality that all RNAs have is a 2’-hydroxyl group in the ribose ring, and the reactivity of the 2'-hydroxyl in RNA is gated by local nucleotide flexibility. In other words, the 2'-hydroxyl is reactive at single-stranded and conformationally flexible positions but is unreactive at nucleotides constrained by base pairing. Recent efforts have been focused on developing reagents that modify RNA as a function of RNA 2’ hydroxyl group flexibility. Such RNA structure probing techniques can be read out by primer extension in experiments termed RNA SHAPE (Selective 2’ Hydroxyl Acylation and Primer Extension). Herein we describe the efforts devoted to the design and utilization of SHAPE probes for characterizing RNA structure. We also describe current technological advances that are being used to utilize SHAPE chemistry with deep sequencing to probe many RNAs in parallel. The merger of chemistry with genomics is sure to open the door to genome-wide exploration of RNA structure and function. PMID:25132067

  8. SCRAM: a pipeline for fast index-free small RNA read alignment and visualization.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Stephen J; Boden, Mikael; Mitter, Neena; Carroll, Bernard J

    2018-03-15

    Small RNAs play key roles in gene regulation, defense against viral pathogens and maintenance of genome stability, though many aspects of their biogenesis and function remain to be elucidated. SCRAM (Small Complementary RNA Mapper) is a novel, simple-to-use short read aligner and visualization suite that enhances exploration of small RNA datasets. The SCRAM pipeline is implemented in Go and Python, and is freely available under MIT license. Source code, multiplatform binaries and a Docker image can be accessed via https://sfletc.github.io/scram/. s.fletcher@uq.edu.au. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. A Small RNA-Catalytic Argonaute Pathway Tunes Germline Transcript Levels to Ensure Embryonic Divisions

    PubMed Central

    Gerson-Gurwitz, Adina; Wang, Shaohe; Sathe, Shashank; Green, Rebecca; Yeo, Gene W.; Oegema, Karen; Desai, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Multiple division cycles without growth are a characteristic feature of early embryogenesis. The female germline loads proteins and RNAs into oocytes to support these divisions, which lack many quality control mechanisms operating in somatic cells undergoing growth. Here we describe a small RNA-Argonaute pathway that ensures early embryonic divisions in C. elegans by employing catalytic slicing activity to broadly tune, instead of silence, germline gene expression. Misregulation of one target, a kinesin-13 microtubule depolymerase, underlies a major phenotype associated with pathway loss. Tuning of target transcript levels is guided by density of homologous small RNAs, whose generation must ultimately be related to target sequence. Thus, the tuning action of a small RNA-catalytic Argonaute pathway generates oocytes capable of supporting embryogenesis. We speculate that the specialized nature of germline chromatin led to emergence of small RNA-catalytic Argonaute pathways in the female germline as a post-transcriptional control layer to optimize oocyte composition. PMID:27020753

  10. The small RNA profile in latex from Hevea brasiliensis trees is affected by tapping panel dryness.

    PubMed

    Gébelin, Virginie; Leclercq, Julie; Kuswanhadi; Argout, Xavier; Chaidamsari, Tetty; Hu, Songnian; Tang, Chaorong; Sarah, Gautier; Yang, Meng; Montoro, Pascal

    2013-10-01

    Natural rubber is harvested by tapping Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Müll. Arg. Harvesting stress can lead to tapping panel dryness (TPD). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are induced by abiotic stress and regulate gene expression by targeting the cleavage or translational inhibition of target messenger RNAs. This study set out to sequence miRNAs expressed in latex cells and to identify TPD-related putative targets. Deep sequencing of small RNAs was carried out on latex from trees affected by TPD using Solexa technology. The most abundant small RNA class size was 21 nucleotides for TPD trees compared with 24 nucleotides in healthy trees. By combining the LeARN pipeline, data from the Plant MicroRNA database and Hevea EST sequences, we identified 19 additional conserved and four putative species-specific miRNA families not found in previous studies on rubber. The relative transcript abundance of the Hbpre-MIR159b gene increased with TPD. This study revealed a small RNA-specific signature of TPD-affected trees. Both RNA degradation and a shift in miRNA biogenesis are suggested to explain the general decline in small RNAs and, particularly, in miRNAs.

  11. Identification and profiling of novel microRNAs in the Brassica rapa genome based on small RNA deep sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the functional non-coding small RNAs involved in the epigenetic control of the plant genome. Although plants contain both evolutionary conserved miRNAs and species-specific miRNAs within their genomes, computational methods often only identify evolutionary conserved miRNAs. The recent sequencing of the Brassica rapa genome enables us to identify miRNAs and their putative target genes. In this study, we sought to provide a more comprehensive prediction of B. rapa miRNAs based on high throughput small RNA deep sequencing. Results We sequenced small RNAs from five types of tissue: seedlings, roots, petioles, leaves, and flowers. By analyzing 2.75 million unique reads that mapped to the B. rapa genome, we identified 216 novel and 196 conserved miRNAs that were predicted to target approximately 20% of the genome’s protein coding genes. Quantitative analysis of miRNAs from the five types of tissue revealed that novel miRNAs were expressed in diverse tissues but their expression levels were lower than those of the conserved miRNAs. Comparative analysis of the miRNAs between the B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana genomes demonstrated that redundant copies of conserved miRNAs in the B. rapa genome may have been deleted after whole genome triplication. Novel miRNA members seemed to have spontaneously arisen from the B. rapa and A. thaliana genomes, suggesting the species-specific expansion of miRNAs. We have made this data publicly available in a miRNA database of B. rapa called BraMRs. The database allows the user to retrieve miRNA sequences, their expression profiles, and a description of their target genes from the five tissue types investigated here. Conclusions This is the first report to identify novel miRNAs from Brassica crops using genome-wide high throughput techniques. The combination of computational methods and small RNA deep sequencing provides robust predictions of miRNAs in the genome. The finding of numerous novel mi

  12. Isolation and Characterization of a microRNA-size Secretable Small RNA in Streptococcus sanguinis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji-Woong; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Hong, Su-Hyung; Lee, Heon-Jin

    2018-06-01

    MicroRNAs in eukaryotic cells are thought to control highly complex signal transduction and other biological processes by regulating coding transcripts, accounting for their important role in cellular events in eukaryotes. Recently, a novel class of bacterial RNAs similar in size [18-22 nucleotides (nt)] to microRNAs has been reported. Herein, we describe microRNAs, small RNAs from the oral pathogen Streptococcus sanguinis. The bacteria are normally present in the oral cavities and cause endocarditis by contaminating bloodstreams. Small RNAs were analyzed by deep sequencing. Selected highly expressed small RNAs were further validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and northern blot analyses. We found that skim milk supplement changed the expression of small RNAs S.S-1964 in tandem with the nearby SSA_0513 gene involved in vitamin B 12 conversion. We furthermore observed small RNAs secreted via bacterial membrane vesicles. Although their precise function remains unclear, secretable small RNAs may represent an entirely new area of study in bacterial genetics.

  13. Successful silencing of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in human vascular endothelial cells using small interfering RNA.

    PubMed

    Hecke, Anneke; Brooks, Hilary; Meryet-Figuière, Matthieu; Minne, Stephanie; Konstantinides, Stavros; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Lebleu, Bernard; Schäfer, Katrin

    2006-05-01

    Clinical as well as experimental evidence suggests that vascular overexpression of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, the primary physiological inhibitor of both urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activator, may be involved in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the feasibility, efficacy and functional effects of PAI-1 gene silencing in human vascular endothelial cells using small interfering RNA. Double-stranded 21 bp-RNA molecules targeted at sequences within the human PAI-1 gene were constructed. Successful siRNA transfection of HUVEC was confirmed using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. One of five candidate siRNA sequences reduced PAI-1 mRNA and protein in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Suppression of PAI-1 mRNA was detected up to 72 hours after transfection. Moreover, siRNA treatment reduced the activity of PAI-1 released from HUVEC, and prevented the oxLDL- or LPS-induced upregulation of PAI-1 secretion. Importantly, siRNA treatment did not affect the expression of other endothelial-cell markers. Moreover, downregulation of PAI-1 significantly enhanced the ability of endothelial cells to adhere to vitronectin, and this effect could be reversed upon addition of recombinant PAI-1. SiRNA-mediated reduction of PAI-1 expression may be a promising strategy for dissecting the effects of PAI-1 on vascular homeostasis.

  14. Novel approaches for bioinformatic analysis of salivary RNA sequencing data for development.

    PubMed

    Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Karolina Elzbieta; Kim, Yong; Li, Feng; Galeev, Timur; Kitchen, Rob R; Gerstein, Mark; Koyano, Kikuye; Jeong, Sung-Hee; Wang, Xiaoyan; Elashoff, David; Kang, So Young; Kim, Su Mi; Kim, Kyoung; Kim, Sung; Chia, David; Xiao, Xinshu; Rozowsky, Joel; Wong, David T W

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data in human saliva is challenging. Lack of standardization and unification of the bioinformatic procedures undermines saliva's diagnostic potential. Thus, it motivated us to perform this study. We applied principal pipelines for bioinformatic analysis of small RNA-Seq data of saliva of 98 healthy Korean volunteers including either direct or indirect mapping of the reads to the human genome using Bowtie1. Analysis of alignments to exogenous genomes by another pipeline revealed that almost all of the reads map to bacterial genomes. Thus, salivary exRNA has fundamental properties that warrant the design of unique additional steps while performing the bioinformatic analysis. Our pipelines can serve as potential guidelines for processing of RNA-Seq data of human saliva. Processing and analysis results of the experimental data generated by the exceRpt (v4.6.3) small RNA-seq pipeline (github.gersteinlab.org/exceRpt) are available from exRNA atlas (exrna-atlas.org). Alignment to exogenous genomes and their quantification results were used in this paper for the analyses of small RNAs of exogenous origin. dtww@ucla.edu. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Identification of multiple mRNA and DNA sequences from small tissue samples isolated by laser-assisted microdissection.

    PubMed

    Bernsen, M R; Dijkman, H B; de Vries, E; Figdor, C G; Ruiter, D J; Adema, G J; van Muijen, G N

    1998-10-01

    Molecular analysis of small tissue samples has become increasingly important in biomedical studies. Using a laser dissection microscope and modified nucleic acid isolation protocols, we demonstrate that multiple mRNA as well as DNA sequences can be identified from a single-cell sample. In addition, we show that the specificity of procurement of tissue samples is not compromised by smear contamination resulting from scraping of the microtome knife during sectioning of lesions. The procedures described herein thus allow for efficient RT-PCR or PCR analysis of multiple nucleic acid sequences from small tissue samples obtained by laser-assisted microdissection.

  16. Synergistic Effect of Auto-Activation and Small RNA Regulation on Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Li-Ping; Ma, Yu-Qiang; Tang, Lei-Han

    2010-09-01

    Auto-activation and small ribonucleic acid (RNA)-mediated regulation are two important mechanisms in controlling gene expression. We study the synergistic effect of these two regulations on gene expression. It is found that under this combinatorial regulation, gene expression exhibits bistable behaviors at the transition regime, while each of these two regulations, if working solely, only leads to monostability. Within the stochastic framework, the base pairing strength between sRNA and mRNA plays an important role in controlling the transition time between on and off states. The noise strength of protein number in the off state approaches 1 and is smaller than that in the on state. The noise strength also depends on which parameters, the feedback strength or the synthesis rate of small RNA, are tuned in switching the gene expression on and off. Our findings may provide a new insight into gene-regulation mechanism and can be applied in synthetic biology.

  17. Small RNA and transcriptome deep sequencing proffers insight into floral gene regulation in Rosa cultivars

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Roses (Rosa sp.), which belong to the family Rosaceae, are the most economically important ornamental plants—making up 30% of the floriculture market. However, given high demand for roses, rose breeding programs are limited in molecular resources which can greatly enhance and speed breeding efforts. A better understanding of important genes that contribute to important floral development and desired phenotypes will lead to improved rose cultivars. For this study, we analyzed rose miRNAs and the rose flower transcriptome in order to generate a database to expound upon current knowledge regarding regulation of important floral characteristics. A rose genetic database will enable comprehensive analysis of gene expression and regulation via miRNA among different Rosa cultivars. Results We produced more than 0.5 million reads from expressed sequences, totalling more than 110 million bp. From these, we generated 35,657, 31,434, 34,725, and 39,722 flower unigenes from Rosa hybrid: ‘Vital’, ‘Maroussia’, and ‘Sympathy’ and Rosa rugosa Thunb. , respectively. The unigenes were assigned functional annotations, domains, metabolic pathways, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, Plant Ontology (PO) terms, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat) terms. Rose flower transcripts were compared with genes from whole genome sequences of Rosaceae members (apple, strawberry, and peach) and grape. We also produced approximately 40 million small RNA reads from flower tissue for Rosa, representing 267 unique miRNA tags. Among identified miRNAs, 25 of them were novel and 242 of them were conserved miRNAs. Statistical analyses of miRNA profiles revealed both shared and species-specific miRNAs, which presumably effect flower development and phenotypes. Conclusions In this study, we constructed a Rose miRNA and transcriptome database, and we analyzed the miRNAs and transcriptome generated from the flower tissues of four Rosa cultivars. The database provides a comprehensive genetic

  18. Identification of Small RNA-Protein Partners in Plant Symbiotic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Robledo, Marta; Matia-González, Ana M; García-Tomsig, Natalia I; Jiménez-Zurdo, José I

    2018-01-01

    The identification of the protein partners of bacterial small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) is essential to understand the mechanistic principles and functions of riboregulation in prokaryotic cells. Here, we describe an optimized affinity chromatography protocol that enables purification of in vivo formed sRNA-protein complexes in Sinorhizobium meliloti, a genetically tractable nitrogen-fixing plant symbiotic bacterium. The procedure requires the tagging of the desired sRNA with the MS2 aptamer, which is affinity-captured by the MS2-MBP protein conjugated to an amylose resin. As proof of principle, we show recovery of the RNA chaperone Hfq associated to the strictly Hfq-dependent AbcR2 trans-sRNA. This method can be applied for the investigation of sRNA-protein interactions on a broad range of genetically tractable α-proteobacteria.

  19. The small non-coding RNA response to virus infection in the Leishmania vector Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Flávia Viana; Aguiar, Eric Roberto Guimarães Rocha; Olmo, Roenick Proveti; de Oliveira, Karla Pollyanna Vieira; Silva, Emanuele Guimarães; Sant'Anna, Maurício Roberto Viana; Gontijo, Nelder de Figueiredo; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Imler, Jean Luc; Marques, João Trindade

    2018-06-01

    Sandflies are well known vectors for Leishmania but also transmit a number of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Few studies have addressed the interaction between sandflies and arboviruses. RNA interference (RNAi) mechanisms utilize small non-coding RNAs to regulate different aspects of host-pathogen interactions. The small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway is a broad antiviral mechanism in insects. In addition, at least in mosquitoes, another RNAi mechanism mediated by PIWI interacting RNAs (piRNAs) is activated by viral infection. Finally, endogenous microRNAs (miRNA) may also regulate host immune responses. Here, we analyzed the small non-coding RNA response to Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection in the sandfly Lutzoymia longipalpis. We detected abundant production of virus-derived siRNAs after VSV infection in adult sandflies. However, there was no production of virus-derived piRNAs and only mild changes in the expression of vector miRNAs in response to infection. We also observed abundant production of virus-derived siRNAs against two other viruses in Lutzomyia Lulo cells. Together, our results suggest that the siRNA but not the piRNA pathway mediates an antiviral response in sandflies. In agreement with this hypothesis, pre-treatment of cells with dsRNA against VSV was able to inhibit viral replication while knock-down of the central siRNA component, Argonaute-2, led to increased virus levels. Our work begins to elucidate the role of RNAi mechanisms in the interaction between L. longipalpis and viruses and should also open the way for studies with other sandfly-borne pathogens.

  20. bpRNA: large-scale automated annotation and analysis of RNA secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Danaee, Padideh; Rouches, Mason; Wiley, Michelle; Deng, Dezhong; Huang, Liang; Hendrix, David

    2018-05-09

    While RNA secondary structure prediction from sequence data has made remarkable progress, there is a need for improved strategies for annotating the features of RNA secondary structures. Here, we present bpRNA, a novel annotation tool capable of parsing RNA structures, including complex pseudoknot-containing RNAs, to yield an objective, precise, compact, unambiguous, easily-interpretable description of all loops, stems, and pseudoknots, along with the positions, sequence, and flanking base pairs of each such structural feature. We also introduce several new informative representations of RNA structure types to improve structure visualization and interpretation. We have further used bpRNA to generate a web-accessible meta-database, 'bpRNA-1m', of over 100 000 single-molecule, known secondary structures; this is both more fully and accurately annotated and over 20-times larger than existing databases. We use a subset of the database with highly similar (≥90% identical) sequences filtered out to report on statistical trends in sequence, flanking base pairs, and length. Both the bpRNA method and the bpRNA-1m database will be valuable resources both for specific analysis of individual RNA molecules and large-scale analyses such as are useful for updating RNA energy parameters for computational thermodynamic predictions, improving machine learning models for structure prediction, and for benchmarking structure-prediction algorithms.

  1. High-Throughput Sequencing of RNA Silencing-Associated Small RNAs in Olive (Olea europaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Donaire, Livia; Pedrola, Laia; de la Rosa, Raúl; Llave, César

    2011-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) of 20 to 25 nucleotides (nt) in length maintain genome integrity and control gene expression in a multitude of developmental and physiological processes. Despite RNA silencing has been primarily studied in model plants, the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled profiling of the sRNA component of more than 40 plant species. Here, we used deep sequencing and molecular methods to report the first inventory of sRNAs in olive (Olea europaea L.). sRNA libraries prepared from juvenile and adult shoots revealed that the 24-nt class dominates the sRNA transcriptome and atypically accumulates to levels never seen in other plant species, suggesting an active role of heterochromatin silencing in the maintenance and integrity of its large genome. A total of 18 known miRNA families were identified in the libraries. Also, 5 other sRNAs derived from potential hairpin-like precursors remain as plausible miRNA candidates. RNA blots confirmed miRNA expression and suggested tissue- and/or developmental-specific expression patterns. Target mRNAs of conserved miRNAs were computationally predicted among the olive cDNA collection and experimentally validated through endonucleolytic cleavage assays. Finally, we use expression data to uncover genetic components of the miR156, miR172 and miR390/TAS3-derived trans-acting small interfering RNA (tasiRNA) regulatory nodes, suggesting that these interactive networks controlling developmental transitions are fully operational in olive. PMID:22140484

  2. YM500v2: a small RNA sequencing (smRNA-seq) database for human cancer miRNome research.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei-Chung; Chung, I-Fang; Tsai, Cheng-Fong; Huang, Tse-Shun; Chen, Chen-Yang; Wang, Shao-Chuan; Chang, Ting-Yu; Sun, Hsing-Jen; Chao, Jeffrey Yung-Chuan; Cheng, Cheng-Chung; Wu, Cheng-Wen; Wang, Hsei-Wei

    2015-01-01

    We previously presented YM500, which is an integrated database for miRNA quantification, isomiR identification, arm switching discovery and novel miRNA prediction from 468 human smRNA-seq datasets. Here in this updated YM500v2 database (http://ngs.ym.edu.tw/ym500/), we focus on the cancer miRNome to make the database more disease-orientated. New miRNA-related algorithms developed after YM500 were included in YM500v2, and, more significantly, more than 8000 cancer-related smRNA-seq datasets (including those of primary tumors, paired normal tissues, PBMC, recurrent tumors, and metastatic tumors) were incorporated into YM500v2. Novel miRNAs (miRNAs not included in the miRBase R21) were not only predicted by three independent algorithms but also cleaned by a new in silico filtration strategy and validated by wetlab data such as Cross-Linked ImmunoPrecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq) to reduce the false-positive rate. A new function 'Meta-analysis' is additionally provided for allowing users to identify real-time differentially expressed miRNAs and arm-switching events according to customer-defined sample groups and dozens of clinical criteria tidying up by proficient clinicians. Cancer miRNAs identified hold the potential for both basic research and biotech applications. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Anomalous uptake and circulatory characteristics of the plant-based small RNA MIR2911

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Hotz, Tremearne; Broadnax, LaCassidy; Yarmarkovich, Mark; Elbaz-Younes, Ismail; Hirschi, Kendal D.

    2016-01-01

    Inconsistent detection of plant-based dietary small RNAs in circulation has thwarted the use of dietary RNA therapeutics. Here we demonstrate mice consuming diets rich in vegetables displayed enhanced serum levels of the plant specific small RNA MIR2911. Differential centrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography, and proteinase K treatment of plant extracts suggest this RNA resides within a proteinase K-sensitive complex. Plant derived MIR2911 was more bioavailable than the synthetic RNA. Furthermore, MIR2911 exhibited unusual digestive stability compared with other synthetic plant microRNAs. The characteristics of circulating MIR2911 were also unusual as it was not associated with exosomes and fractionated as a soluble complex that was insensitive to proteinase K treatment, consistent with MIR2911 being stabilized by modifications conferred by the host. These results indicate that intrinsic stability and plant-based modifications orchestrate consumer uptake of this anomalous plant based small RNA and invite revisiting plant-based microRNA therapeutic approaches. PMID:27251858

  4. Natural-abundance stable carbon isotopes of small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) from Guaymas Basin (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, B. J.; Mendlovitz, H.; Albert, D.; Teske, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    Small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) is a phylogenetically informative molecule found in all species. Because it is poorly preserved in most environments, it is a useful marker for active microbial populations. We are using the natural-abundance stable carbon isotopic composition of specific microbial groups to help identify the carbon substrates contributing to microbial biomass in a variety of marine environments. At Guaymas Basin, hydrothermal fluids interact with abundant sedimentary organic carbon to produce natural gas and petroleum. Where this reaches the sediment surface, it can support dense patches of seafloor life, including Beggiatoa mats. We report here on the stable carbon isotopic composition of SSU rRNA from a Beggiatoa mat transect, a cold background site, a warm site with high oil concentration, and a second Beggiatoa mat. The central part of the transect mat overlay the steepest temperature gradient, and was visually dominated by orange Beggiatoa. This was fringed by white Beggiatoa mat and bare, but still warm, sediment. Methane concentrations were saturating beneath the orange and white mats and at the oily site, lower beneath bare sediment, and below detection at the background site. Our initial hypotheses were that rRNA isotopic composition would be strongly influenced by methane supply, and that archaeal rRNA might be lighter than bacterial due to contributions from methanogens and anaerobic methane oxidizers. We used biotin-labeled oligonucleotides to capture Bacterial and Archaeal SSU rRNA for isotopic determination. Background-site rRNA was isotopically heaviest, and bacterial RNA from below 2 cm at the oily site was lightest, consistent with control by methane. Within the transect mat, however, the pattern was more complicated; at some sediment depths, rRNA from the mat periphery was isotopically lightest. Part of this may be due to the spatially and temporally variable paths followed by hydrothermal fluid, which can include horizontal

  5. MET-2-Dependent H3K9 Methylation Suppresses Transgenerational Small RNA Inheritance.

    PubMed

    Lev, Itamar; Seroussi, Uri; Gingold, Hila; Bril, Roberta; Anava, Sarit; Rechavi, Oded

    2017-04-24

    In C. elegans, alterations to chromatin produce transgenerational effects, such as inherited increase in lifespan and gradual loss of fertility. Inheritance of histone modifications can be induced by double-stranded RNA-derived heritable small RNAs. Here, we show that the mortal germline phenotype, which is typical of met-2 mutants, defective in H3K9 methylation, depends on HRDE-1, an argonaute that carries small RNAs across generations, and is accompanied by accumulated transgenerational misexpression of heritable small RNAs. We discovered that MET-2 inhibits small RNA inheritance, and, as a consequence, induction of RNAi in met-2 mutants leads to permanent RNAi responses that do not terminate even after more than 30 generations. We found that potentiation of heritable RNAi in met-2 animals results from global hyperactivation of the small RNA inheritance machinery. Thus, changes in histone modifications can give rise to drastic transgenerational epigenetic effects, by controlling the overall potency of small RNA inheritance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An optimised protocol for isolation of RNA from small sections of laser-capture microdissected FFPE tissue amenable for next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Amini, Parisa; Ettlin, Julia; Opitz, Lennart; Clementi, Elena; Malbon, Alexandra; Markkanen, Enni

    2017-08-23

    Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue constitutes a vast treasury of samples for biomedical research. Thus far however, extraction of RNA from FFPE tissue has proved challenging due to chemical RNA-protein crosslinking and RNA fragmentation, both of which heavily impact on RNA quantity and quality for downstream analysis. With very small sample sizes, e.g. when performing Laser-capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate specific subpopulations of cells, recovery of sufficient RNA for analysis with reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) or next-generation sequencing (NGS) becomes very cumbersome and difficult. We excised matched cancer-associated stroma (CAS) and normal stroma from clinical specimen of FFPE canine mammary tumours using LCM, and compared the commonly used protease-based RNA isolation procedure with an adapted novel technique that additionally incorporates a focused ultrasonication step. We successfully adapted a protocol that uses focused ultrasonication to isolate RNA from small amounts of deparaffinised, stained, clinical LCM samples. Using this approach, we found that total RNA yields could be increased by 8- to 12-fold compared to a commonly used protease-based extraction technique. Surprisingly, RNA extracted using this new approach was qualitatively at least equal if not superior compared to the old approach, as Cq values in RT-qPCR were on average 2.3-fold lower using the new method. Finally, we demonstrate that RNA extracted using the new method performs comparably in NGS as well. We present a successful isolation protocol for extraction of RNA from difficult and limiting FFPE tissue samples that enables successful analysis of small sections of clinically relevant specimen. The possibility to study gene expression signatures in specific small sections of archival FFPE tissue, which often entail large amounts of highly relevant clinical follow-up data, unlocks a new dimension of hitherto difficult-to-analyse samples which now

  7. Precise small-molecule recognition of a toxic CUG RNA repeat expansion.

    PubMed

    Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Colgan, Lesley A; Nakai, Yoshio; Cameron, Michael D; Furling, Denis; Yasuda, Ryohei; Disney, Matthew D

    2017-02-01

    Excluding the ribosome and riboswitches, developing small molecules that selectively target RNA is a longstanding problem in chemical biology. A typical cellular RNA is difficult to target because it has little tertiary, but abundant secondary structure. We designed allele-selective compounds that target such an RNA, the toxic noncoding repeat expansion (r(CUG) exp ) that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). We developed several strategies to generate allele-selective small molecules, including non-covalent binding, covalent binding, cleavage and on-site probe synthesis. Covalent binding and cleavage enabled target profiling in cells derived from individuals with DM1, showing precise recognition of r(CUG) exp . In the on-site probe synthesis approach, small molecules bound adjacent sites in r(CUG) exp and reacted to afford picomolar inhibitors via a proximity-based click reaction only in DM1-affected cells. We expanded this approach to image r(CUG) exp in its natural context.

  8. Parallel mRNA, proteomics and miRNA expression analysis in cell line models of the intestine.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Keenan, Joanne; Aherne, Sinead; O'Neill, Fiona; Clarke, Colin; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Breen, Laura; Barron, Niall; Clynes, Martin; Horgan, Karina; Doolan, Padraig; Murphy, Richard

    2017-11-07

    and cholesterol metabolic processes, small molecule transport and a range of responses to external stimuli, while similar analysis of the DE protein list identified gene expression/transcription, epigenetic mechanisms, DNA replication, differentiation and translation ontology categories. The DE protein and gene lists were found to share 15 biological processes including for example epithelial cell differentiation [ P value ≤ 1.81613E-08 (protein list); P ≤ 0.000434311 (gene list)] and actin filament bundle assembly [ P value ≤ 0.001582797 (protein list); P ≤ 0.002733714 (gene list)]. Analysis was conducted on the three data streams acquired in parallel to identify targets undergoing potential miRNA translational repression identified 34 proteins, whose respective mRNAs were detected but no change in expression was observed. Of these 34 proteins, 27 proteins downregulated in the Caco-2 cell line relative to the HT-29 cell line and predicted to be targeted by 19 unique anti-correlated/upregulated microRNAs and 7 proteins upregulated in the Caco-2 cell line relative to the HT-29 cell line and predicted to be targeted by 15 unique anti-correlated/downregulated microRNAs. This first study providing "tri-omics" analysis of the principal intestinal cell line models Caco-2 and HT-29 has identified 34 proteins potentially undergoing miRNA translational repression.

  9. Parallel mRNA, proteomics and miRNA expression analysis in cell line models of the intestine

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Finbarr; Keenan, Joanne; Aherne, Sinead; O’Neill, Fiona; Clarke, Colin; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Breen, Laura; Barron, Niall; Clynes, Martin; Horgan, Karina; Doolan, Padraig; Murphy, Richard

    2017-01-01

    organization, cellular lipid and cholesterol metabolic processes, small molecule transport and a range of responses to external stimuli, while similar analysis of the DE protein list identified gene expression/transcription, epigenetic mechanisms, DNA replication, differentiation and translation ontology categories. The DE protein and gene lists were found to share 15 biological processes including for example epithelial cell differentiation [P value ≤ 1.81613E-08 (protein list); P ≤ 0.000434311 (gene list)] and actin filament bundle assembly [P value ≤ 0.001582797 (protein list); P ≤ 0.002733714 (gene list)]. Analysis was conducted on the three data streams acquired in parallel to identify targets undergoing potential miRNA translational repression identified 34 proteins, whose respective mRNAs were detected but no change in expression was observed. Of these 34 proteins, 27 proteins downregulated in the Caco-2 cell line relative to the HT-29 cell line and predicted to be targeted by 19 unique anti-correlated/upregulated microRNAs and 7 proteins upregulated in the Caco-2 cell line relative to the HT-29 cell line and predicted to be targeted by 15 unique anti-correlated/downregulated microRNAs. CONCLUSION This first study providing “tri-omics” analysis of the principal intestinal cell line models Caco-2 and HT-29 has identified 34 proteins potentially undergoing miRNA translational repression. PMID:29151691

  10. Small indels induced by CRISPR/Cas9 in the 5' region of microRNA lead to its depletion and Drosha processing retardance.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian; Meng, Xing; Meng, Lingwei; Chang, Nannan; Xiong, Jingwei; Cao, Huiqing; Liang, Zicai

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA knockout by genome editing technologies is promising. In order to extend the application of the technology and to investigate the function of a specific miRNA, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to deplete human miR-93 from a cluster by targeting its 5' region in HeLa cells. Various small indels were induced in the targeted region containing the Drosha processing site and seed sequences. Interestingly, we found that even a single nucleotide deletion led to complete knockout of the target miRNA with high specificity. Functional knockout was confirmed by phenotype analysis. Furthermore, de novo microRNAs were not found by RNA-seq. Nevertheless, expression of the pri-microRNAs was increased. When combined with structural analysis, the data indicated that biogenesis was impaired. Altogether, we showed that small indels in the 5' region of a microRNA result in sequence depletion as well as Drosha processing retard.

  11. Small interfering RNA targeting nuclear factor kappa B to prevent vein graft stenosis in rat models.

    PubMed

    Meng, X B; Bi, X L; Zhao, H L; Feng, J B; Zhang, J P; Song, G M; Sun, W Y; Bi, Y W

    2013-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia plays an important role in vein graft stenosis. Inflammatory injury, especially nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) gene activation, is highly involved in stenosis progression. We examined whether neointimal hyperplasia and vein graft stenosis could be inhibited by silencing the NF-κB gene with small interference RNA (siRNA). Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal vein group, a vein graft group, a scrambled siRNA group, and an NF-κB siRNA group. We performed reverse interpositional grafting of the autologous external jugular vein to the abdominal aorta. Vein grafts were treated with liposome and gel complexes containing NF-κB siRNA or scrambled siRNA. The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein -1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and NF-κB p65 in vessel tissues were evaluated after surgery for content of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and vascular wall thickness. NF-κB siRNA treated vein graft showed less neointimal formation and fewer positive PCNA cells (P < .05). In addition there were lower levels of, NF-κB p65 protein and of inflammatory mediators (P < .05) compared with the vein graft group. Our study suggested that siRNA transfection suppressed NF-κB expression, reduced inflammatory factors, lessened neointimal proliferation, and suppressed PCNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of MTL-CEBPA: Small Activating RNA Drug for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Setten, Ryan L; Lightfoot, Helen L; Habib, Nagy A; Rossi, John J

    2018-06-10

    Oligonucleotide drug development has revolutionised the drug discovery field allowing the notoriously "undruggable" genome to potentially become "druggable". Within this field, 'small' or 'short' activating RNAs (saRNA) are a more recently discovered category of short double stranded RNA with clinical potential. SaRNAs promote endogenous transcription from target loci, a phenomenon widely observed in mammals known as RNA activation (RNAa). The ability to target a particular gene is dependent on the sequence of the saRNA. Hence, the potential clinical application of saRNA is to increase target gene expression in a sequence specific manner. SaRNA based oligonucleotide therapeutics present great promise in expanding the "druggable" genome with particular areas of interest including transcription factor activation and haploinsufficency. Review and Conclusion: In this mini-review, we describe the pre-clinical development of the first saRNA drug to enter the clinic. This saRNA, referred to as MTL-CEBPA, induces transcription of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPα), a tumour suppressor and critical regulator of hepatocyte function. MTL-CEBPA is presently in Phase I clinical trials for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The clinical development of MTL-CEBPA will demonstrate "proof of concept", showing that saRNAs can provide the basis for drugs which enhance targeted gene expression and consequently improve disease outcome in patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Functional Interplay between Small Non-Coding RNAs and RNA Modification in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Laura J; Bredy, Timothy W

    2018-06-07

    Small non-coding RNAs are essential for transcription, translation and gene regulation in all cell types, but are particularly important in neurons, with known roles in neurodevelopment, neuroplasticity and neurological disease. Many small non-coding RNAs are directly involved in the post-transcriptional modification of other RNA species, while others are themselves substrates for modification, or are functionally modulated by modification of their target RNAs. In this review, we explore the known and potential functions of several distinct classes of small non-coding RNAs in the mammalian brain, focusing on the newly recognised interplay between the epitranscriptome and the activity of small RNAs. We discuss the potential for this relationship to influence the spatial and temporal dynamics of gene activation in the brain, and predict that further research in the field of epitranscriptomics will identify interactions between small RNAs and RNA modifications which are essential for higher order brain functions such as learning and memory.

  14. Comparison of small molecules and oligonucleotides that target a toxic, non-coding RNA.

    PubMed

    Costales, Matthew G; Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Disney, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Potential RNA targets for chemical probes and therapeutic modalities are pervasive in the transcriptome. Oligonucleotide-based therapeutics are commonly used to target RNA sequence. Small molecules are emerging as a modality to target RNA structures selectively, but their development is still in its infancy. In this work, we compare the activity of oligonucleotides and several classes of small molecules that target the non-coding r(CCUG) repeat expansion (r(CCUG)(exp)) that causes myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2), an incurable disease that is the second-most common cause of adult onset muscular dystrophy. Small molecule types investigated include monomers, dimers, and multivalent compounds synthesized on-site by using RNA-templated click chemistry. Oligonucleotides investigated include phosphorothioates that cleave their target and vivo-morpholinos that modulate target RNA activity via binding. We show that compounds assembled on-site that recognize structure have the highest potencies amongst small molecules and are similar in potency to a vivo-morpholino modified oligonucleotide that targets sequence. These studies are likely to impact the design of therapeutic modalities targeting other repeats expansions that cause fragile X syndrome and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, for example. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Functional base-pairing interaction between highly conserved elements of U3 small nucleolar RNA and the small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J M

    1996-06-21

    The U3 nucleolar RNA has a remarkably wide phyletic distribution extending from the Eukarya to the Archaea. It functions in maturation of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA through a mechanism which is as yet unknown but which involves base-pairing with pre-rRNA. The most conserved part of U3 is within 30 nucleotides of the 5' end, but as yet no function for this domain has been proposed. Elements within this domain are complementary to highly conserved sequences in the SSU rRNA which, in the mature form, fold into a universally conserved pseudoknot. The nature of the complementarity suggests a novel mechanism for U3 function whereby U3 facilitates correct folding of the pseudoknot. Wide phylogenetic comparison provides compelling evidence in support of the interaction in that significant complementary changes have taken place, particularly in the archaeon Sulfolobus, which maintain the base-pairing. Base-substitution mutations in yeast U3 designed to disrupt the base-pairing indicate that the interaction is probably essential. These include cold-sensitivity mutations which exhibit phenotypes similar to U3-depletion, but without impairment of the AO processing step, which occurs within the 5' ETS. These phenotypes are consistent with the destabilization of SSU precursors and partial impairment of the processing steps A1, at the 5' ETS/18 S boundary, and A2, within the ITS1.

  16. Rationally designed small molecules targeting the RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 are potently bioactive.

    PubMed

    Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Hoskins, Jason; Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Thornton, Charles A; Disney, Matthew D

    2012-05-18

    RNA is an important drug target, but it is difficult to design or discover small molecules that modulate RNA function. In the present study, we report that rationally designed, modularly assembled small molecules that bind the RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) are potently bioactive in cell culture models. DM1 is caused when an expansion of r(CUG) repeats, or r(CUG)(exp), is present in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) mRNA. r(CUG)(exp) folds into a hairpin with regularly repeating 5'CUG/3'GUC motifs and sequesters muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1). A variety of defects are associated with DM1, including (i) formation of nuclear foci, (ii) decreased translation of DMPK mRNA due to its nuclear retention, and (iii) pre-mRNA splicing defects due to inactivation of MBNL1, which controls the alternative splicing of various pre-mRNAs. Previously, modularly assembled ligands targeting r(CUG)(exp) were designed using information in an RNA motif-ligand database. These studies showed that a bis-benzimidazole (H) binds the 5'CUG/3'GUC motif in r(CUG)(exp.) Therefore, we designed multivalent ligands to bind simultaneously multiple copies of this motif in r(CUG)(exp). Herein, we report that the designed compounds improve DM1-associated defects including improvement of translational and pre-mRNA splicing defects and the disruption of nuclear foci. These studies may establish a foundation to exploit other RNA targets in genomic sequence.

  17. Asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular small RNA population of papaya

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The small RNAs (sRNA) are a regulatory class of RNA mainly represented by the 21 and 24-nucleotide size classes. The cellular sRNAs are processed by RNase III family enzyme dicer (Dicer like in plant) from a self-complementary hairpin loop or other type of RNA duplexes. The papaya genome has been sequenced, but its microRNAs and other regulatory RNAs are yet to be analyzed. Results We analyzed the genomic features of the papaya sRNA population from three sRNA deep sequencing libraries made from leaves, flowers, and leaves infected with Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV). We also used the deep sequencing data to annotate the micro RNA (miRNA) in papaya. We identified 60 miRNAs, 24 of which were conserved in other species, and 36 of which were novel miRNAs specific to papaya. In contrast to the Chargaff’s purine-pyrimidine equilibrium, cellular sRNA was significantly biased towards a purine rich population. Of the two purine bases, higher frequency of adenine was present in 23nt or longer sRNAs, while 22nt or shorter sRNAs were over represented by guanine bases. However, this bias was not observed in the annotated miRNAs in plants. The 21nt species were expressed from fewer loci but expressed at higher levels relative to the 24nt species. The highly expressed 21nt species were clustered in a few isolated locations of the genome. The PRSV infected leaves showed higher accumulation of 21 and 22nt sRNA compared to uninfected leaves. We observed higher accumulation of miRNA* of seven annotated miRNAs in virus-infected tissue, indicating the potential function of miRNA* under stressed conditions. Conclusions We have identified 60 miRNAs in papaya. Our study revealed the asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular sRNA population. The 21nt species of sRNAs have higher expression levels than 24nt sRNA. The miRNA* of some miRNAs shows higher accumulation in PRSV infected tissues, suggesting that these strands are not totally functionally redundant. The

  18. Asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular small RNA population of papaya.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Rishi; Yang, Xiaozeng; Yu, Qingyi; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Li, Lei; Ming, Ray

    2012-12-05

    The small RNAs (sRNA) are a regulatory class of RNA mainly represented by the 21 and 24-nucleotide size classes. The cellular sRNAs are processed by RNase III family enzyme dicer (Dicer like in plant) from a self-complementary hairpin loop or other type of RNA duplexes. The papaya genome has been sequenced, but its microRNAs and other regulatory RNAs are yet to be analyzed. We analyzed the genomic features of the papaya sRNA population from three sRNA deep sequencing libraries made from leaves, flowers, and leaves infected with Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV). We also used the deep sequencing data to annotate the micro RNA (miRNA) in papaya. We identified 60 miRNAs, 24 of which were conserved in other species, and 36 of which were novel miRNAs specific to papaya. In contrast to the Chargaff's purine-pyrimidine equilibrium, cellular sRNA was significantly biased towards a purine rich population. Of the two purine bases, higher frequency of adenine was present in 23nt or longer sRNAs, while 22nt or shorter sRNAs were over represented by guanine bases. However, this bias was not observed in the annotated miRNAs in plants. The 21nt species were expressed from fewer loci but expressed at higher levels relative to the 24nt species. The highly expressed 21nt species were clustered in a few isolated locations of the genome. The PRSV infected leaves showed higher accumulation of 21 and 22nt sRNA compared to uninfected leaves. We observed higher accumulation of miRNA* of seven annotated miRNAs in virus-infected tissue, indicating the potential function of miRNA* under stressed conditions. We have identified 60 miRNAs in papaya. Our study revealed the asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular sRNA population. The 21nt species of sRNAs have higher expression levels than 24nt sRNA. The miRNA* of some miRNAs shows higher accumulation in PRSV infected tissues, suggesting that these strands are not totally functionally redundant. The findings open a new avenue for further

  19. Small Antisense RNA RblR Positively Regulates RuBisCo in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinlu; Li, Tianpei; Xu, Wen; Zhan, Jiao; Chen, Hui; He, Chenliu; Wang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) function as transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in organisms from all domains of life. Cyanobacteria are thought to have developed a complex RNA-based regulatory mechanism. In the current study, by genome-wide analysis of differentially expressed small RNAs in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under high light conditions, we discovered an asRNA (RblR) that is 113nt in length and completely complementary to its target gene rbcL , which encodes the large chain of RuBisCO, the enzyme that catalyzes carbon fixation. Further analysis of the RblR(+)/(-) mutants revealed that RblR acts as a positive regulator of rbcL under various stress conditions; Suppressing RblR adversely affects carbon assimilation and thus the yield, and those phenotypes of both the wild type and the overexpressor could be downgraded to the suppressor level by carbonate depletion, indicated a regulatory role of RblR in CO 2 assimilation. In addition, a real-time expression platform in Escherichia coli was setup and which confirmed that RblR promoted the translation of the rbcL mRNA into the RbcL protein. The present study is the first report of a regulatory RNA that targets RbcL in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and provides strong evidence that RblR regulates photosynthesis by positively modulating rbcL expression in Synechocystis .

  20. Small Antisense RNA RblR Positively Regulates RuBisCo in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinlu; Li, Tianpei; Xu, Wen; Zhan, Jiao; Chen, Hui; He, Chenliu; Wang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) function as transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in organisms from all domains of life. Cyanobacteria are thought to have developed a complex RNA-based regulatory mechanism. In the current study, by genome-wide analysis of differentially expressed small RNAs in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under high light conditions, we discovered an asRNA (RblR) that is 113nt in length and completely complementary to its target gene rbcL, which encodes the large chain of RuBisCO, the enzyme that catalyzes carbon fixation. Further analysis of the RblR(+)/(−) mutants revealed that RblR acts as a positive regulator of rbcL under various stress conditions; Suppressing RblR adversely affects carbon assimilation and thus the yield, and those phenotypes of both the wild type and the overexpressor could be downgraded to the suppressor level by carbonate depletion, indicated a regulatory role of RblR in CO2 assimilation. In addition, a real-time expression platform in Escherichia coli was setup and which confirmed that RblR promoted the translation of the rbcL mRNA into the RbcL protein. The present study is the first report of a regulatory RNA that targets RbcL in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and provides strong evidence that RblR regulates photosynthesis by positively modulating rbcL expression in Synechocystis. PMID:28261186

  1. Use of mRNA expression signatures to discover small molecule inhibitors of skeletal muscle atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Christopher M.; Ebert, Scott M.; Dyle, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Here, we discuss a recently developed experimental strategy for discovering small molecules with potential to prevent and treat skeletal muscle atrophy. Recent findings Muscle atrophy involves and requires widespread changes in skeletal muscle gene expression, which generate complex but measurable patterns of positive and negative changes in skeletal muscle mRNA levels (a.k.a. mRNA expression signatures of muscle atrophy). Many bioactive small molecules generate their own characteristic mRNA expression signatures, and by identifying small molecules whose signatures approximate mirror images of muscle atrophy signatures, one may identify small molecules with potential to prevent and/or reverse muscle atrophy. Unlike a conventional drug discovery approach, this strategy does not rely on a predefined molecular target but rather exploits the complexity of muscle atrophy to identify small molecules that counter the entire spectrum of pathological changes in atrophic muscle. We discuss how this strategy has been used to identify two natural compounds, ursolic acid and tomatidine, that reduce muscle atrophy and improve skeletal muscle function. Summary Discovery strategies based on mRNA expression signatures can elucidate new approaches for preserving and restoring muscle mass and function. PMID:25807353

  2. Use of mRNA expression signatures to discover small molecule inhibitors of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Adams, Christopher M; Ebert, Scott M; Dyle, Michael C

    2015-05-01

    Here, we discuss a recently developed experimental strategy for discovering small molecules with potential to prevent and treat skeletal muscle atrophy. Muscle atrophy involves and requires widespread changes in skeletal muscle gene expression, which generate complex but measurable patterns of positive and negative changes in skeletal muscle mRNA levels (a.k.a. mRNA expression signatures of muscle atrophy). Many bioactive small molecules generate their own characteristic mRNA expression signatures, and by identifying small molecules whose signatures approximate mirror images of muscle atrophy signatures, one may identify small molecules with potential to prevent and/or reverse muscle atrophy. Unlike a conventional drug discovery approach, this strategy does not rely on a predefined molecular target but rather exploits the complexity of muscle atrophy to identify small molecules that counter the entire spectrum of pathological changes in atrophic muscle. We discuss how this strategy has been used to identify two natural compounds, ursolic acid and tomatidine, that reduce muscle atrophy and improve skeletal muscle function. Discovery strategies based on mRNA expression signatures can elucidate new approaches for preserving and restoring muscle mass and function.

  3. Undesired Small RNAs Originate from an Artificial microRNA Precursor in Transgenic Petunia (Petunia hybrida)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yulong; Han, Yao; Ma, Jing; Wang, Huiping; Sang, Xianchun; Li, Mingyang

    2014-01-01

    Although artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology has been used frequently in gene silencing in plants, little research has been devoted to investigating the accuracy of amiRNA precursor processing. In this work, amiRNAchs1 (amiRchs1), based on the Arabidopsis miR319a precursor, was expressed in order to suppress the expression of CHS genes in petunia. The transgenic plants showed the CHS gene-silencing phenotype. A modified 5′ RACE technique was used to map small-RNA-directed cleavage sites and to detect processing intermediates of the amiRchs1 precursor. The results showed that the target CHS mRNAs were cut at the expected sites and that the amiRchs1 precursor was processed from loop to base. The accumulation of small RNAs in amiRchs1 transgenic petunia petals was analyzed using the deep-sequencing technique. The results showed that, alongside the accumulation of the desired artificial microRNAs, additional small RNAs that originated from other regions of the amiRNA precursor were also accumulated at high frequency. Some of these had previously been found to be accumulated at low frequency in the products of ath-miR319a precursor processing and some of them were accompanied by 3′-tailing variant. Potential targets of the undesired small RNAs were discovered in petunia and other Solanaceae plants. The findings draw attention to the potential occurrence of undesired target silencing induced by such additional small RNAs when amiRNA technology is used. No appreciable production of secondary small RNAs occurred, despite the fact that amiRchs1 was designed to have perfect complementarity to its CHS-J target. This confirmed that perfect pairing between an amiRNA and its targets is not the trigger for secondary small RNA production. In conjunction with the observation that amiRNAs with perfect complementarity to their target genes show high efficiency and specificity in gene silencing, this finding has an important bearing on future applications of amiRNAs in gene

  4. Undesired small RNAs originate from an artificial microRNA precursor in transgenic petunia (Petunia hybrida).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulong; Han, Yao; Ma, Jing; Wang, Huiping; Sang, Xianchun; Li, Mingyang

    2014-01-01

    Although artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology has been used frequently in gene silencing in plants, little research has been devoted to investigating the accuracy of amiRNA precursor processing. In this work, amiRNAchs1 (amiRchs1), based on the Arabidopsis miR319a precursor, was expressed in order to suppress the expression of CHS genes in petunia. The transgenic plants showed the CHS gene-silencing phenotype. A modified 5' RACE technique was used to map small-RNA-directed cleavage sites and to detect processing intermediates of the amiRchs1 precursor. The results showed that the target CHS mRNAs were cut at the expected sites and that the amiRchs1 precursor was processed from loop to base. The accumulation of small RNAs in amiRchs1 transgenic petunia petals was analyzed using the deep-sequencing technique. The results showed that, alongside the accumulation of the desired artificial microRNAs, additional small RNAs that originated from other regions of the amiRNA precursor were also accumulated at high frequency. Some of these had previously been found to be accumulated at low frequency in the products of ath-miR319a precursor processing and some of them were accompanied by 3'-tailing variant. Potential targets of the undesired small RNAs were discovered in petunia and other Solanaceae plants. The findings draw attention to the potential occurrence of undesired target silencing induced by such additional small RNAs when amiRNA technology is used. No appreciable production of secondary small RNAs occurred, despite the fact that amiRchs1 was designed to have perfect complementarity to its CHS-J target. This confirmed that perfect pairing between an amiRNA and its targets is not the trigger for secondary small RNA production. In conjunction with the observation that amiRNAs with perfect complementarity to their target genes show high efficiency and specificity in gene silencing, this finding has an important bearing on future applications of amiRNAs in gene

  5. MicroRNA Superfamilies Descended from miR390 and Their Roles in Secondary Small Interfering RNA Biogenesis in Eudicots[W

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Rui; Meyers, Blake C.; Liu, Zhongchi; Beers, Eric P.; Ye, Songqing; Liu, Zongrang

    2013-01-01

    Trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) are a major class of small RNAs performing essential biological functions in plants. The first reported tasiRNA pathway, that of miR173-TAS1/2, produces tasiRNAs regulating a set of pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) genes and has been characterized only in Arabidopsis thaliana to date. Here, we demonstrate that the microRNA (miRNA)-trans-acting small interfering RNA gene (TAS)-pentatricopeptide repeat-containing gene (PPR)-small interfering RNA pathway is a highly dynamic and widespread feature of eudicots. Nine eudicot plants, representing six different plant families, have evolved similar tasiRNA pathways to initiate phased small interfering RNA (phasiRNA) production from PPR genes. The PPR phasiRNA production is triggered by different 22-nucleotide miRNAs, including miR7122, miR1509, and fve-PPRtri1/2, and through distinct mechanistic strategies exploiting miRNA direct targeting or indirect targeting through TAS-like genes (TASL), one-hit or two-hit, or even two layers of tasiRNA–TASL interactions. Intriguingly, although those miRNA triggers display high sequence divergence caused by the occurrence of frequent point mutations and splicing shifts, their corresponding MIRNA genes show pronounced identity to the Arabidopsis MIR173, implying a common origin of this group of miRNAs (super-miR7122). Further analyses reveal that super-miR7122 may have evolved from a newly defined miR4376 superfamily, which probably originated from the widely conserved miR390. The elucidation of this evolutionary path expands our understanding of the course of miRNA evolution, especially for relatively conserved miRNA families. PMID:23695981

  6. Human plasma and serum extracellular small RNA reference profiles and their clinical utility.

    PubMed

    Max, Klaas E A; Bertram, Karl; Akat, Kemal Marc; Bogardus, Kimberly A; Li, Jenny; Morozov, Pavel; Ben-Dov, Iddo Z; Li, Xin; Weiss, Zachary R; Azizian, Azadeh; Sopeyin, Anuoluwapo; Diacovo, Thomas G; Adamidi, Catherine; Williams, Zev; Tuschl, Thomas

    2018-06-05

    Circulating extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) have the potential to serve as biomarkers for a wide range of medical conditions. However, limitations in existing exRNA isolation methods and a lack of knowledge on parameters affecting exRNA variability in human samples may hinder their successful discovery and clinical implementation. Using combinations of denaturants, reducing agents, proteolysis, and revised organic extraction, we developed an automated, high-throughput approach for recovery of exRNAs and exDNA from the same biofluid sample. We applied this method to characterize exRNAs from 312 plasma and serum samples collected from 13 healthy volunteers at 12 time points over a 2-month period. Small RNA cDNA library sequencing identified nearly twofold increased epithelial-, muscle-, and neuroendocrine-cell-specific miRNAs in females, while fasting and hormonal cycle showed little effect. External standardization helped to detect quantitative differences in erythrocyte and platelet-specific miRNA contributions and in miRNA concentrations between biofluids. It also helped to identify a study participant with a unique exRNA phenotype featuring a miRNA signature of up to 20-fold elevated endocrine-cell-specific miRNAs and twofold elevated total miRNA concentrations stable for over 1 year. Collectively, these results demonstrate an efficient and quantitative method to discern exRNA phenotypes and suggest that plasma and serum RNA profiles are stable over months and can be routinely monitored in long-term clinical studies. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  7. Mammalian genome-wide loss-of-function screens using arrayed small interfering RNA expression libraries.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lianxing; Ding, Sheng

    2004-04-01

    Extract: RNA interference (RNAi), first discovered in Caenorhabdtitis elegans and now widely found and applied in a variety of organisms such as Drosophila, zebrafish and mammalian systems, has emerged to revolutionize the field of functional genomics by inducing specific and effective post-transcriptional gene silencing for loss-of-function studies. Mechanistic investigations of RNAi suggest that long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) are first cleaved by the RNase III-like enzyme, Dicer, to 21-23 base pair (bp) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). These siRNAs are resolved by ATP-dependent RNA helicase, and the resulting single-stranded RNAs are then incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). The antisense strand of the siRNA duplex guides the RISC to the homologous mRNA, where the RISC-associated endoribonuclease cleaves the target mRNA, resulting in silencing of the target gene. The approach of using long dsRNA (up to 1-2 kb) in C. elegans and Drosophila to induce gene silencing cannot be similarly used in mammalian cells, where introduction of long dsRNA activates the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR. PKR phosphorylates and inactivates the translation initiation factor eIF2, resulting in a non-specific gene-silencing effect. Development and implementation of the use of 21 to 23bp siRNAs, which can be prepared by chemical synthesis, in vitro transcription, or expressed in cells using siRNA expression systems, allows specific and effective gene silencing in mammalian cells to occur without activation of PKR.

  8. Analysis of microRNA expression and function.

    PubMed

    Van Wynsberghe, Priscilla M; Chan, Shih-Peng; Slack, Frank J; Pasquinelli, Amy E

    2011-01-01

    Originally discovered in C. elegans, microRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that regulate fundamental cellular processes in diverse organisms. MiRNAs are encoded within the genome and are initially transcribed as primary transcripts that can be several kilobases in length. Primary transcripts are successively cleaved by two RNase III enzymes, Drosha in the nucleus and Dicer in the cytoplasm, to produce ∼70 nucleotide (nt) long precursor miRNAs and 22 nt long mature miRNAs, respectively. Mature miRNAs regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by imperfectly binding target mRNAs in association with the multiprotein RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). The conserved sequence, expression pattern, and function of some miRNAs across distinct species as well as the importance of specific miRNAs in many biological pathways have led to an explosion in the study of miRNA biogenesis, miRNA target identification, and miRNA target regulation. Many advances in our understanding of miRNA biology have come from studies in the powerful model organism C. elegans. This chapter reviews the current methods used in C. elegans to study miRNA biogenesis, small RNA populations, miRNA-protein complexes, and miRNA target regulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of small RNA populations in non-transgenic and aflatoxin-reducing-transformed peanut.

    PubMed

    Power, Imana L; Dang, Phat M; Sobolev, Victor S; Orner, Valerie A; Powell, Joseph L; Lamb, Marshall C; Arias, Renee S

    2017-04-01

    Aflatoxin contamination is a major constraint in food production worldwide. In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), these toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins are mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus Link and A. parasiticus Speare. The use of RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising method to reduce or prevent the accumulation of aflatoxin in peanut seed. In this study, we performed high-throughput sequencing of small RNA populations in a control line and in two transformed peanut lines that expressed an inverted repeat targeting five genes involved in the aflatoxin-biosynthesis pathway and that showed up to 100% less aflatoxin B 1 than the controls. The objective was to determine the putative involvement of the small RNA populations in aflatoxin reduction. In total, 41 known microRNA (miRNA) families and many novel miRNAs were identified. Among those, 89 known and 10 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed in the transformed lines. We furthermore found two small interfering RNAs derived from the inverted repeat, and 39 sRNAs that mapped without mismatches to the genome of A. flavus and were present only in the transformed lines. This information will increase our understanding of the effectiveness of RNAi and enable the possible improvement of the RNAi technology for the control of aflatoxins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Phytophthora effector targets a novel component of small RNA pathway in plants to promote infection.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yongli; Shi, Jinxia; Zhai, Yi; Hou, Yingnan; Ma, Wenbo

    2015-05-05

    A broad range of parasites rely on the functions of effector proteins to subvert host immune response and facilitate disease development. The notorious Phytophthora pathogens evolved effectors with RNA silencing suppression activity to promote infection in plant hosts. Here we report that the Phytophthora Suppressor of RNA Silencing 1 (PSR1) can bind to an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein containing the aspartate-glutamate-alanine-histidine-box RNA helicase domain in plants. This protein, designated PSR1-Interacting Protein 1 (PINP1), regulates the accumulation of both microRNAs and endogenous small interfering RNAs in Arabidopsis. A null mutation of PINP1 causes embryonic lethality, and silencing of PINP1 leads to developmental defects and hypersusceptibility to Phytophthora infection. These phenotypes are reminiscent of transgenic plants expressing PSR1, supporting PINP1 as a direct virulence target of PSR1. We further demonstrate that the localization of the Dicer-like 1 protein complex is impaired in the nucleus of PINP1-silenced or PSR1-expressing cells, indicating that PINP1 may facilitate small RNA processing by affecting the assembly of dicing complexes. A similar function of PINP1 homologous genes in development and immunity was also observed in Nicotiana benthamiana. These findings highlight PINP1 as a previously unidentified component of RNA silencing that regulates distinct classes of small RNAs in plants. Importantly, Phytophthora has evolved effectors to target PINP1 in order to promote infection.

  11. Transcriptome landscape of Lactococcus lactis reveals many novel RNAs including a small regulatory RNA involved in carbon uptake and metabolism.

    PubMed

    van der Meulen, Sjoerd B; de Jong, Anne; Kok, Jan

    2016-01-01

    RNA sequencing has revolutionized genome-wide transcriptome analyses, and the identification of non-coding regulatory RNAs in bacteria has thus increased concurrently. Here we reveal the transcriptome map of the lactic acid bacterial paradigm Lactococcus lactis MG1363 by employing differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq) and a combination of manual and automated transcriptome mining. This resulted in a high-resolution genome annotation of L. lactis and the identification of 60 cis-encoded antisense RNAs (asRNAs), 186 trans-encoded putative regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) and 134 novel small ORFs. Based on the putative targets of asRNAs, a novel classification is proposed. Several transcription factor DNA binding motifs were identified in the promoter sequences of (a)sRNAs, providing insight in the interplay between lactococcal regulatory RNAs and transcription factors. The presence and lengths of 14 putative sRNAs were experimentally confirmed by differential Northern hybridization, including the abundant RNA 6S that is differentially expressed depending on the available carbon source. For another sRNA, LLMGnc_147, functional analysis revealed that it is involved in carbon uptake and metabolism. L. lactis contains 13% leaderless mRNAs (lmRNAs) that, from an analysis of overrepresentation in GO classes, seem predominantly involved in nucleotide metabolism and DNA/RNA binding. Moreover, an A-rich sequence motif immediately following the start codon was uncovered, which could provide novel insight in the translation of lmRNAs. Altogether, this first experimental genome-wide assessment of the transcriptome landscape of L. lactis and subsequent sRNA studies provide an extensive basis for the investigation of regulatory RNAs in L. lactis and related lactococcal species.

  12. Deep sequencing of small RNA repertoires in mice reveals metabolic disorders-associated hepatic miRNAs.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tingming; Liu, Chang; Ye, Zhenchao

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and associated metabolic disorders contribute importantly to the metabolic syndrome. On the other hand, microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that repress target gene expression by inducing mRNA degradation and/or translation repression. Dysregulation of specific miRNAs in obesity may influence energy metabolism and cause insulin resistance, which leads to dyslipidemia, steatosis hepatis and type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we comprehensively analyzed and validated dysregulated miRNAs in ob/ob mouse liver, as well as miRNA groups based on miRNA gene cluster and gene family by using deep sequencing miRNA datasets. We found that over 13.8% of the total analyzed miRNAs were dysregulated, of which 37 miRNA species showed significantly differential expression. Further RT-qPCR analysis in some selected miRNAs validated the similar expression patterns observed in deep sequencing. Interestingly, we found that miRNA gene cluster and family always showed consistent dysregulation patterns in ob/ob mouse liver, although they had various enrichment levels. Functional enrichment analysis revealed the versatile physiological roles (over six signal pathways and five human diseases) of these miRNAs. Biological studies indicated that overexpression of miR-126 or inhibition of miR-24 in AML-12 cells attenuated free fatty acids-induced fat accumulation. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that obesity and metabolic disturbance are tightly associated with functional miRNAs. We also identified hepatic miRNA candidates serving as potential biomarkers for the diagnose of the metabolic syndrome.

  13. DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Dbp4 Is Required for Small-Subunit Processome Formation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Soltanieh, Sahar; Osheim, Yvonne N.; Spasov, Krasimir; Trahan, Christian; Beyer, Ann L.

    2014-01-01

    DEAD-box RNA helicase Dbp4 is required for 18S rRNA synthesis: cellular depletion of Dbp4 impairs the early cleavage reactions of the pre-rRNA and causes U14 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) to remain associated with pre-rRNA. Immunoprecipitation experiments (IPs) carried out with whole-cell extracts (WCEs) revealed that hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Dbp4 is associated with U3 snoRNA but not with U14 snoRNA. IPs with WCEs also showed association with the U3-specific protein Mpp10, which suggests that Dbp4 interacts with the functionally active U3 RNP; this particle, called the small-subunit (SSU) processome, can be observed at the 5′ end of nascent pre-rRNA. Electron microscopy analyses indicated that depletion of Dbp4 compromised SSU processome formation and cotranscriptional cleavage of the pre-rRNA. Sucrose density gradient analyses revealed that depletion of U3 snoRNA or the Mpp10 protein inhibited the release of U14 snoRNA from pre-rRNA, just as was seen with Dbp4-depleted cells, indicating that alteration of SSU processome components has significant consequences for U14 snoRNA dynamics. We also found that the C-terminal extension flanking the catalytic core of Dbp4 plays an important role in the release of U14 snoRNA from pre-rRNA. PMID:25535329

  14. Fluorogenic RNA Mango aptamers for imaging small non-coding RNAs in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Autour, Alexis; C Y Jeng, Sunny; D Cawte, Adam; Abdolahzadeh, Amir; Galli, Angela; Panchapakesan, Shanker S S; Rueda, David; Ryckelynck, Michael; Unrau, Peter J

    2018-02-13

    Despite having many key roles in cellular biology, directly imaging biologically important RNAs has been hindered by a lack of fluorescent tools equivalent to the fluorescent proteins available to study cellular proteins. Ideal RNA labelling systems must preserve biological function, have photophysical properties similar to existing fluorescent proteins, and be compatible with established live and fixed cell protein labelling strategies. Here, we report a microfluidics-based selection of three new high-affinity RNA Mango fluorogenic aptamers. Two of these are as bright or brighter than enhanced GFP when bound to TO1-Biotin. Furthermore, we show that the new Mangos can accurately image the subcellular localization of three small non-coding RNAs (5S, U6, and a box C/D scaRNA) in fixed and live mammalian cells. These new aptamers have many potential applications to study RNA function and dynamics both in vitro and in mammalian cells.

  15. Systematic coarse-grained modeling of complexation between small interfering RNA and polycations

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zonghui; Luijten, Erik, E-mail: luijten@northwestern.edu; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations can provide insight into the properties of polymeric gene-delivery carriers by elucidating their interactions and detailed binding patterns with nucleic acids. However, to explore nanoparticle formation through complexation of these polymers and nucleic acids and study their behavior at experimentally relevant time and length scales, a reliable coarse-grained model is needed. Here, we systematically develop such a model for the complexation of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and grafted polyethyleneimine copolymers, a promising candidate for siRNA delivery. We compare the predictions of this model with all-atom simulations and demonstrate that it is capable of reproducing detailed bindingmore » patterns, charge characteristics, and water release kinetics. Since the coarse-grained model accelerates the simulations by one to two orders of magnitude, it will make it possible to quantitatively investigate nanoparticle formation involving multiple siRNA molecules and cationic copolymers.« less

  16. Targeted Delivery of Small Interfering RNA Using Reconstituted High-Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles12

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Mian MK; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Han, Hee Dong; Lu, Chunhua; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Nishimura, Masato; Mora, Edna M; Lee, Jeong-Won; Stone, Rebecca L; Pecot, Chad V; Thanapprapasr, Duangmani; Roh, Ju-Won; Gaur, Puja; Nair, Maya P; Park, Yun-Yong; Sabnis, Nirupama; Deavers, Michael T; Lee, Ju-Seog; Ellis, Lee M; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; McConathy, Walter J; Prokai, Laszlo; Lacko, Andras G; Sood, Anil K

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference holds tremendous potential as a therapeutic approach, especially in the treatment of malignant tumors. However, efficient and biocompatible delivery methods are needed for systemic delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA). To maintain a high level of growth, tumor cells scavenge high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles by overexpressing its receptor: scavenger receptor type B1 (SR-B1). In this study, we exploited this cellular characteristic to achieve efficient siRNA delivery and established a novel formulation of siRNA by incorporating it into reconstituted HDL (rHDL) nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that rHDL nanoparticles facilitate highly efficient systemic delivery of siRNA in vivo, mediated by the SR-B1. Moreover, in therapeutic proof-of-concept studies, these nanoparticles were effective in silencing the expression of two proteins that are key to cancer growth and metastasis (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and focal adhesion kinase) in orthotopic mouse models of ovarian and colorectal cancer. These data indicate that an rHDL nanoparticle is a novel and highly efficient siRNA carrier, and therefore, this novel technology could serve as the foundation for new cancer therapeutic approaches. PMID:21472135

  17. Small regulatory RNA-induced growth rate heterogeneity of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Mars, Ruben A T; Nicolas, Pierre; Ciccolini, Mariano; Reilman, Ewoud; Reder, Alexander; Schaffer, Marc; Mäder, Ulrike; Völker, Uwe; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Denham, Emma L

    2015-03-01

    Isogenic bacterial populations can consist of cells displaying heterogeneous physiological traits. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) could affect this heterogeneity since they act by fine-tuning mRNA or protein levels to coordinate the appropriate cellular behavior. Here we show that the sRNA RnaC/S1022 from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis can suppress exponential growth by modulation of the transcriptional regulator AbrB. Specifically, the post-transcriptional abrB-RnaC/S1022 interaction allows B. subtilis to increase the cell-to-cell variation in AbrB protein levels, despite strong negative autoregulation of the abrB promoter. This behavior is consistent with existing mathematical models of sRNA action, thus suggesting that induction of protein expression noise could be a new general aspect of sRNA regulation. Importantly, we show that the sRNA-induced diversity in AbrB levels generates heterogeneity in growth rates during the exponential growth phase. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the resulting subpopulations of fast- and slow-growing B. subtilis cells reflect a bet-hedging strategy for enhanced survival of unfavorable conditions.

  18. Protection against lethal Marburg virus infection mediated by lipid encapsulated small interfering RNA.

    PubMed

    Ursic-Bedoya, Raul; Mire, Chad E; Robbins, Marjorie; Geisbert, Joan B; Judge, Adam; MacLachlan, Ian; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2014-02-15

    Marburg virus (MARV) infection causes severe morbidity and mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. Currently, there are no licensed therapeutics available for treating MARV infection. Here, we present the in vitro development and in vivo evaluation of lipid-encapsulated small interfering RNA (siRNA) as a potential therapeutic for the treatment of MARV infection. The activity of anti-MARV siRNAs was assessed using dual luciferase reporter assays followed by in vitro testing against live virus. Lead candidates were tested in lethal guinea pig models of 3 different MARV strains (Angola, Ci67, Ravn). Treatment resulted in 60%-100% survival of guinea pigs infected with MARV. Although treatment with siRNA targeting other MARV messenger RNA (mRNA) had a beneficial effect, targeting the MARV NP mRNA resulted in the highest survival rates. NP-718m siRNA in lipid nanoparticles provided 100% protection against MARV strains Angola and Ci67, and 60% against Ravn. A cocktail containing NP-718m and NP-143m provided 100% protection against MARV Ravn. These data show protective efficacy against the most pathogenic Angola strain of MARV. Further development of the lipid nanoparticle technology has the potential to yield effective treatments for MARV infection.

  19. Protection Against Lethal Marburg Virus Infection Mediated by Lipid Encapsulated Small Interfering RNA

    PubMed Central

    Ursic-Bedoya, Raul; Mire, Chad E.; Robbins, Marjorie; Geisbert, Joan B.; Judge, Adam; MacLachlan, Ian; Geisbert, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Marburg virus (MARV) infection causes severe morbidity and mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. Currently, there are no licensed therapeutics available for treating MARV infection. Here, we present the in vitro development and in vivo evaluation of lipid-encapsulated small interfering RNA (siRNA) as a potential therapeutic for the treatment of MARV infection. Methods. The activity of anti-MARV siRNAs was assessed using dual luciferase reporter assays followed by in vitro testing against live virus. Lead candidates were tested in lethal guinea pig models of 3 different MARV strains (Angola, Ci67, Ravn). Results. Treatment resulted in 60%–100% survival of guinea pigs infected with MARV. Although treatment with siRNA targeting other MARV messenger RNA (mRNA) had a beneficial effect, targeting the MARV NP mRNA resulted in the highest survival rates. NP-718m siRNA in lipid nanoparticles provided 100% protection against MARV strains Angola and Ci67, and 60% against Ravn. A cocktail containing NP-718m and NP-143m provided 100% protection against MARV Ravn. Conclusions. These data show protective efficacy against the most pathogenic Angola strain of MARV. Further development of the lipid nanoparticle technology has the potential to yield effective treatments for MARV infection. PMID:23990568

  20. Zebrafish U6 small nuclear RNA gene promoters contain a SPH element in an unusual location.

    PubMed

    Halbig, Kari M; Lekven, Arne C; Kunkel, Gary R

    2008-09-15

    Promoters for vertebrate small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes contain a relatively simple array of transcriptional control elements, divided into proximal and distal regions. Most of these genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase II (e.g., U1, U2), whereas the U6 gene is transcribed by RNA polymerase III. Previously identified vertebrate U6 snRNA gene promoters consist of a proximal sequence element (PSE) and TATA element in the proximal region, plus a distal region with octamer (OCT) and SphI postoctamer homology (SPH) elements. We have found that zebrafish U6 snRNA promoters contain the SPH element in a novel proximal position immediately upstream of the TATA element. The zebrafish SPH element is recognized by SPH-binding factor/selenocysteine tRNA gene transcription activating factor/zinc finger protein 143 (SBF/Staf/ZNF143) in vitro. Furthermore, a zebrafish U6 promoter with a defective SPH element is inefficiently transcribed when injected into embryos.

  1. [Construction of lentiviral mediated CyPA siRNA and its functions in non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    FENG, Yan-ming; WU, Yi-ming; TU, Xin-ming; XU, Zheng-shun; WU, Wei-dong

    2010-02-01

    To construct a lentiviral-vector-mediated CyPA small interference RNA (siRNA) and study its function in non-small cell lung cancer. First, four target sequences were selected according to CyPA mRNA sequence, the complementary DNA contained both sense and antisense oligonucleotides were designed, synthesized and cloned into the pGCL-GFP vector, which contained U6 promoter and green fluorescent protein (GFP). The resulting lentiviral vector containing CyPA shRNA was named Lv-shCyPA, and it was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Next, it was cotransfected by Lipofectamine 2000 along with pHelper1.0 and pHelper 2.0 into 293T cells to package lentivirus particles. At the same time, the packed virus infected non-small cell lung cancer cell (A549), the level of CyPA protein at 5 d after infection was detected by Western Blot to screen the target of CyPA. A549 were infected with Lv-shCyPA and grown as xenografts in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Cell cycle and apoptosis were measured by FCM. It was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing that lentiviral-vector-mediated CyPA siRNA (Lv-shCyPA) producing CyPA shRNA was constructed successfully. The titer of concentrated virus were 1 x 10(7) TU/ml. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated G2-M phase (11.40% +/- 0.68%) was decreased relatively in A549/LvshCyPA compared with control groups (14.52% +/- 1.19%) (P<0.05). The apoptosis rate of A549/Lv-shCyPA (5.01% +/- 0.5%) was higher than control groups (0.35% +/- 0.17%) (P<0.05). Visible tumors were only detectable at 6th day after inoculated by A549/Lv-shCyPA. The xenograft tumors of A549/Lv-shCyPA remarkably delayed tumor growth and remained at a similarly small average size at 38th days after inoculation compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Lentiviral-vector-mediated siRNA technique effectively inhibits the expression of CyPA, induces the NSCLC cell apoptosis, inhibits the tumor growth. Elucidation of the precise role of CypA in these pathways may lead to new targeted

  2. Approaches to Validate and Manipulate RNA Targets with Small Molecules in Cells.

    PubMed

    Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Disney, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    RNA has become an increasingly important target for therapeutic interventions and for chemical probes that dissect and manipulate its cellular function. Emerging targets include human RNAs that have been shown to directly cause cancer, metabolic disorders, and genetic disease. In this review, we describe various routes to obtain bioactive compounds that target RNA, with a particular emphasis on the development of small molecules. We use these cases to describe approaches that are being developed for target validation, which include target-directed cleavage, classic pull-down experiments, and covalent cross-linking. Thus, tools are available to design small molecules to target RNA and to identify the cellular RNAs that are their targets.

  3. The Crystal Structure and Small-Angle X-Ray Analysis of CsdL/TcdA Reveal a New tRNA Binding Motif in the MoeB/E1 Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    López-Estepa, Miguel; Ardá, Ana; Savko, Martin; Round, Adam; Shepard, William E.; Bruix, Marta; Coll, Miquel; Fernández, Francisco J.; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Vega, M. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic N 6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (‘cyclic t6A’, ct6A) is a non-thiolated hypermodification found in transfer RNAs (tRNAs) in bacteria, protists, fungi and plants. In bacteria and yeast cells ct6A has been shown to enhance translation fidelity and efficiency of ANN codons by improving the faithful discrimination of aminoacylated tRNAs by the ribosome. To further the understanding of ct6A biology we have determined the high-resolution crystal structures of CsdL/TcdA in complex with AMP and ATP, an E1-like activating enzyme from Escherichia coli, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent dehydration of t6A to form ct6A. CsdL/TcdA is a dimer whose structural integrity and dimer interface depend critically on strongly bound K+ and Na+ cations. By using biochemical assays and small-angle X-ray scattering we show that CsdL/TcdA can associate with tRNA with a 1:1 stoichiometry and with the proper position and orientation for the cyclization of t6A. Furthermore, we show by nuclear magnetic resonance that CsdL/TcdA engages in transient interactions with CsdA and CsdE, which, in the latter case, involve catalytically important residues. These short-lived interactions may underpin the precise channeling of sulfur atoms from cysteine to CsdL/TcdA as previously characterized. In summary, the combination of structural, biophysical and biochemical methods applied to CsdL/TcdA has afforded a more thorough understanding of how the structure of this E1-like enzyme has been fine tuned to accomplish ct6A synthesis on tRNAs while providing support for the notion that CsdA and CsdE are able to functionally interact with CsdL/TcdA. PMID:25897750

  4. Small interfering RNA therapy against carbohydrate sulfotransferase 15 inhibits cardiac remodeling in rats with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Sreedhar, Remya; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Masahiko; Harima, Meilei; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    Carbohydrate sulfotransferase 15 (CHST15) is a sulfotransferase responsible for biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate E (CS-E), which plays important roles in numerous biological events such as biosynthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. However, the effects of CHST15 siRNA in rats with chronic heart failure (CHF) after experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) have not yet been investigated. CHF was elicited in Lewis rats by immunization with cardiac myosin, and after immunization, the rats were divided into two groups and treated with either CHST15 siRNA (2μg/week) or vehicle. Age matched normal rats without immunizations were also included in this study. After 7weeks of treatment, we investigated the effects of CHST15 siRNA on cardiac function, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac remodeling in EAM rats. Myocardial functional parameters measured by hemodynamic and echocardiographic studies were significantly improved by CHST15 siRNA treatment in rats with CHF compared with that of vehicle-treated CHF rats. CHST15 siRNA significantly reduced cardiac fibrosis, and hypertrophy and its marker molecules (left ventricular (LV) mRNA expressions of transforming growth factor beta1, collagens I and III, and atrial natriuretic peptide) compared with vehicle-treated CHF rats. CHF-induced increased myocardial mRNA expressions of proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β], monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9), and CHST15 were also suppressed by the treatment with CHST15 siRNA. Western blotting study has confirmed the results obtained from mRNA analysis as CHST15 siRNA treated rats expressed reduced levels of inflammatory and cardiac remodeling marker proteins. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that CHST15 siRNA treatment significantly improved LV function and ameliorated the progression of cardiac remodeling in rats with CHF after EAM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Divergent patterns of endogenous small RNA populations from seed and vegetative tissues of Glycine max

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Small non-coding RNAs (smRNAs) are known to have major roles in gene regulation in eukaryotes. In plants, knowledge of the biogenesis and mechanisms of action of smRNA classes including microRNAs (miRNAs), short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) has been gaine...

  6. Small RNA-Mediated trans-Nuclear and trans-Element Communications in Tetrahymena DNA Elimination.

    PubMed

    Noto, Tomoko; Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2018-06-18

    Epigenetic inheritance of acquired traits is widespread among eukaryotes, but how and to what extent such information is transgenerationally inherited is still unclear. The patterns of programmed DNA elimination in ciliates are epigenetically and transgenerationally inherited, and it has been proposed that small RNAs, which shuttle between the germline and the soma, regulate this epigenetic inheritance. In this study, we test the existence and role of such small-RNA-mediated communication by epigenetically disturbing the pattern of DNA elimination in Tetrahymena. We show that the pattern of DNA elimination is, indeed, determined by the selective turnover of small RNAs, which is induced by the interaction between germline-derived small RNAs and the somatic genome. In addition, we show that DNA elimination of an element is regulated by small-RNA-mediated communication with other eliminated elements. By contrast, no evidence obtained thus far supports the notion that transfer of epigenetic information from the soma to the germline, if any, regulates DNA elimination. Our results indicate that small-RNA-mediated trans-nuclear and trans-element communication, in addition to unknown information in the germline genome, contributes to determining the pattern of DNA elimination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulation of bacterial photosynthesis genes by the small noncoding RNA PcrZ

    PubMed Central

    Mank, Nils N.; Berghoff, Bork A.; Hermanns, Yannick N.; Klug, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    The small RNA PcrZ (photosynthesis control RNA Z) of the facultative phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is induced upon a drop of oxygen tension with similar kinetics to those of genes for components of photosynthetic complexes. High expression of PcrZ depends on PrrA, the response regulator of the PrrB/PrrA two-component system with a central role in redox regulation in R. sphaeroides. In addition the FnrL protein, an activator of some photosynthesis genes at low oxygen tension, is involved in redox-dependent expression of this small (s)RNA. Overexpression of full-length PcrZ in R. sphaeroides affects expression of a small subset of genes, most of them with a function in photosynthesis. Some mRNAs from the photosynthetic gene cluster were predicted to be putative PcrZ targets and results from an in vivo reporter system support these predictions. Our data reveal a negative effect of PcrZ on expression of its target mRNAs. Thus, PcrZ counteracts the redox-dependent induction of photosynthesis genes, which is mediated by protein regulators. Because PrrA directly activates photosynthesis genes and at the same time PcrZ, which negatively affects photosynthesis gene expression, this is one of the rare cases of an incoherent feed-forward loop including an sRNA. Our data identified PcrZ as a trans acting sRNA with a direct regulatory function in formation of photosynthetic complexes and provide a model for the control of photosynthesis gene expression by a regulatory network consisting of proteins and a small noncoding RNA. PMID:22988125

  8. Regulation of bacterial photosynthesis genes by the small noncoding RNA PcrZ.

    PubMed

    Mank, Nils N; Berghoff, Bork A; Hermanns, Yannick N; Klug, Gabriele

    2012-10-02

    The small RNA PcrZ (photosynthesis control RNA Z) of the facultative phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is induced upon a drop of oxygen tension with similar kinetics to those of genes for components of photosynthetic complexes. High expression of PcrZ depends on PrrA, the response regulator of the PrrB/PrrA two-component system with a central role in redox regulation in R. sphaeroides. In addition the FnrL protein, an activator of some photosynthesis genes at low oxygen tension, is involved in redox-dependent expression of this small (s)RNA. Overexpression of full-length PcrZ in R. sphaeroides affects expression of a small subset of genes, most of them with a function in photosynthesis. Some mRNAs from the photosynthetic gene cluster were predicted to be putative PcrZ targets and results from an in vivo reporter system support these predictions. Our data reveal a negative effect of PcrZ on expression of its target mRNAs. Thus, PcrZ counteracts the redox-dependent induction of photosynthesis genes, which is mediated by protein regulators. Because PrrA directly activates photosynthesis genes and at the same time PcrZ, which negatively affects photosynthesis gene expression, this is one of the rare cases of an incoherent feed-forward loop including an sRNA. Our data identified PcrZ as a trans acting sRNA with a direct regulatory function in formation of photosynthetic complexes and provide a model for the control of photosynthesis gene expression by a regulatory network consisting of proteins and a small noncoding RNA.

  9. Mechanism of MicroRNA-Target Interaction: Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Thermodynamics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonghua; Li, Yan; Ma, Zhi; Yang, Wei; Ai, Chunzhi

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously produced ∼21-nt riboregulators that associate with Argonaute (Ago) proteins to direct mRNA cleavage or repress the translation of complementary RNAs. Capturing the molecular mechanisms of miRNA interacting with its target will not only reinforce the understanding of underlying RNA interference but also fuel the design of more effective small-interfering RNA strands. To address this, in the present work the RNA-bound (Ago-miRNA, Ago-miRNA-target) and RNA-free Ago forms were analyzed by performing both molecular dynamics simulations and thermodynamic analysis. Based on the principal component analysis results of the simulation trajectories as well as the correlation analysis in fluctuations of residues, we discover that: 1) three important (PAZ, Mid and PIWI) domains exist in Argonaute which define the global dynamics of the protein; 2) the interdomain correlated movements are so crucial for the interaction of Ago-RNAs that they not only facilitate the relaxation of the interactions between residues surrounding the RNA binding channel but also induce certain conformational changes; and 3) it is just these conformational changes that expand the cavity of the active site and open putative pathways for both the substrate uptake and product release. In addition, by thermodynamic analysis we also discover that for both the guide RNA 5′-end recognition and the facilitated site-specific cleavage of the target, the presence of two metal ions (of Mg2+) plays a predominant role, and this conclusion is consistent with the observed enzyme catalytic cleavage activity in the ternary complex (Ago-miRNA-mRNA). Our results find that it is the set of arginine amino acids concentrated in the nucleotide-binding channel in Ago, instead of the conventionally-deemed seed base-paring, that makes greater contributions in stabilizing the binding of the nucleic acids to Ago. PMID:20686687

  10. Novel small interfering RNA-containing solution protecting donor organs in heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiufen; Lian, Dameng; Wong, Arthur; Bygrave, Michael; Ichim, Thomas E; Khoshniat, Mahdieh; Zhang, Xusheng; Sun, Hongtao; De Zordo, Tobias; Lacefield, James C; Garcia, Bertha; Jevnikar, Anthony M; Min, Wei-Ping

    2009-09-22

    Ischemia/reperfusion injury is a major factor in graft quality and subsequent function in the transplantation setting. We hypothesize that the process of RNA interference may be used to "engineer" a graft to suppress expression of genes associated with inflammation, apoptosis, and complement, which are believed to cause ischemia/reperfusion injury. Such manipulation of pathological gene expression may be performed by treatment of the graft ex vivo with small interfering RNA (siRNA) as part of the preservation procedure. Heart grafts from BALB/c mice were preserved in UW solution (control) or UW solution containing siRNAs targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C3, and Fas genes (siRNA solution) at 4 degrees C for 48 hours and subsequently transplanted into syngeneic recipients. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C3, and Fas genes were elevated by ischemia/reperfusion injury after 48 hours of preservation in UW solution. Preservation in siRNA solution knocked down gene expression at the level of messenger RNA and protein in the grafts after transplantation. All grafts preserved in siRNA solution showed strong contraction, whereas grafts preserved in control solution demonstrated no detectable contraction by high-frequency ultrasound scanning. siRNA solution-treated organs exhibited improved histology and diminished neutrophil and lymphocyte infiltration compared with control solution-treated organs. Furthermore, the treated heart grafts retained strong beating up to the end of the observation period (>100 days), whereas all control grafts lost function within 8 days. Incorporation of siRNA into organ storage solution is a feasible and effective method of attenuating ischemia/reperfusion injury, protecting cardiac function, and prolonging graft survival.

  11. FASTmiR: an RNA-based sensor for in vitro quantification and live-cell localization of small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kun; Doyle, Francis; Wurz, Zachary E.; Tenenbaum, Scott A.; Hammond, Reza K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), play a variety of important regulatory roles in many eukaryotes. Their small size has made it challenging to study them directly in live cells. Here we describe an RNA-based fluorescent sensor for small RNA detection both in vitro and in vivo, adaptable for any small RNA. It utilizes an sxRNA switch for detection of miRNA–mRNA interactions combined with a fluorophore-binding sequence ‘Spinach’, a GFP-like RNA aptamer for which the RNA–fluorophore complex exhibits strong and consistent fluorescence under an excitation wavelength. Two example sensors, FASTmiR171 and FASTmiR122, can rapidly detect and quantify the levels of miR171 and miR122 in vitro. The sensors can determine relative levels of miRNAs in total RNA extracts with sensitivity similar to small RNA sequencing and northern blots. FASTmiR sensors were also used to estimate the copy number range of miRNAs in total RNA extracts. To localize and analyze the spatial distribution of small RNAs in live, single cells, tandem copies of FASTmiR122 were expressed in different cell lines. FASTmiR122 was able to quantitatively detect the differences in miR122 levels in Huh7 and HEK293T cells demonstrating its potential for tracking miRNA expression and localization in vivo. PMID:28586459

  12. A novel plasma circular RNA circFARSA is a potential biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hang, Dong; Zhou, Jing; Qin, Na; Zhou, Wen; Ma, Hongxia; Jin, Guangfu; Hu, Zhibin; Dai, Juncheng; Shen, Hongbing

    2018-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are implicated in cancer development. This study aimed to evaluate whether circulating circRNAs may serve as novel biomarkers for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative real-time PCR to explore cancer-related circRNAs. Bioinformatics and functional analyses were performed to reveal biological effects of circRNAs on lung cancer cells. A total of 5471 distinct circRNAs were identified by total RNA-seq, in which 185 were differentially expressed between cancerous and adjacent normal tissues. A circRNA derived from exon 5-7 of the FARSA gene, termed circFARSA, was observed to increase in cancerous tissues (P = 0.016), and was more abundant in patients' plasma than controls (P < 0.001). Overexpression of circFARSA in A549 cell line significantly promoted cell migration and invasion. In silico analysis suggested that circFARSA might sponge miR-330-5p and miR-326, thereby relieving their inhibitory effects on oncogene fatty acid synthase. Summarily, this study revealed circRNA profile of NSCLC for the first time and provided the evidence of plasma circFARSA as a potential noninvasive biomarker for this malignancy. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Non-small cell lung cancer detection using microRNA expression profiling of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and sputum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Julian O; Gazala, Sayf; Razzak, Rene; Guo, Linghong; Ghosh, Sunita; Roa, Wilson H; Bédard, Eric L R

    2015-04-01

    To assess if miRNA expression profiling of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and sputum could be used to detect early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the expression levels of 5 miRNAs (miR-21, miR-143, miR-155, miR-210, and miR-372) which were quantified using RNA reverse transcription and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in sputum and BAL samples from NSCLC cases and cancer-free controls. Cluster analysis of the miRNA expression levels in BAL samples from 21 NSCLC cases and sputum samples from 10 cancer-free controls yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 100%. Cluster analysis of sputum samples from the same patients yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 67.8% and specificity of 90%. miRNA expression profiling of sputum and BAL fluids represent a potential means to detect early-stage NSCLC. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of hepatitis C virus RNA dimerization and core–RNA interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Kanevsky, Igor; Gabus, Caroline; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Ficheux, Damien; Penin, François; Fossé, Philippe; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    The core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been shown previously to act as a potent nucleic acid chaperone in vitro, promoting the dimerization of the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of the HCV genomic RNA, a process probably mediated by a small, highly conserved palindromic RNA motif, named DLS (dimer linkage sequence) [G. Cristofari, R. Ivanyi-Nagy, C. Gabus, S. Boulant, J. P. Lavergne, F. Penin and J. L. Darlix (2004) Nucleic Acids Res., 32, 2623–2631]. To investigate in depth HCV RNA dimerization, we generated a series of point mutations in the DLS region. We find that both the plus-strand 3′-UTR and the complementary minus-strand RNA can dimerize in the presence of core protein, while mutations in the DLS (among them a single point mutation that abolished RNA replication in a HCV subgenomic replicon system) completely abrogate dimerization. Structural probing of plus- and minus-strand RNAs, in their monomeric and dimeric forms, indicate that the DLS is the major if not the sole determinant of UTR RNA dimerization. Furthermore, the N-terminal basic amino acid clusters of core protein were found to be sufficient to induce dimerization, suggesting that they retain full RNA chaperone activity. These findings may have important consequences for understanding the HCV replicative cycle and the genetic variability of the virus. PMID:16707664

  15. Analysis of hepatitis C virus RNA dimerization and core-RNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Kanevsky, Igor; Gabus, Caroline; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Ficheux, Damien; Penin, François; Fossé, Philippe; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    The core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been shown previously to act as a potent nucleic acid chaperone in vitro, promoting the dimerization of the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the HCV genomic RNA, a process probably mediated by a small, highly conserved palindromic RNA motif, named DLS (dimer linkage sequence) [G. Cristofari, R. Ivanyi-Nagy, C. Gabus, S. Boulant, J. P. Lavergne, F. Penin and J. L. Darlix (2004) Nucleic Acids Res., 32, 2623-2631]. To investigate in depth HCV RNA dimerization, we generated a series of point mutations in the DLS region. We find that both the plus-strand 3'-UTR and the complementary minus-strand RNA can dimerize in the presence of core protein, while mutations in the DLS (among them a single point mutation that abolished RNA replication in a HCV subgenomic replicon system) completely abrogate dimerization. Structural probing of plus- and minus-strand RNAs, in their monomeric and dimeric forms, indicate that the DLS is the major if not the sole determinant of UTR RNA dimerization. Furthermore, the N-terminal basic amino acid clusters of core protein were found to be sufficient to induce dimerization, suggesting that they retain full RNA chaperone activity. These findings may have important consequences for understanding the HCV replicative cycle and the genetic variability of the virus.

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of miRNA targets in Brachypodium and Biomass Energy Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Pamela J.

    2015-08-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the control of numerous biological processes through the regulation of specific target mRNAs. Although the identities of these targets are essential to elucidate miRNA function, the targets are much more difficult to identify than the small RNAs themselves. Before this work, we pioneered the genome-wide identification of the targets of Arabidopsis miRNAs using an approach called PARE (German et al., Nature Biotech. 2008; Nature Protocols, 2009). Under this project, we applied PARE to Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), a model plant in the Poaceae family, which includes the major food grain and bioenergy crops. Through in-depth global analysismore » and examination of specific examples, this research greatly expanded our knowledge of miRNAs and target RNAs of Brachypodium. New regulation in response to environmental stress or tissue type was found, and many new miRNAs were discovered. More than 260 targets of new and known miRNAs with PARE sequences at the precise sites of miRNA-guided cleavage were identified and characterized. Combining PARE data with the small RNA data also identified the miRNAs responsible for initiating approximately 500 phased loci, including one of the novel miRNAs. PARE analysis also revealed that differentially expressed miRNAs in the same family guide specific target RNA cleavage in a correspondingly tissue-preferential manner. The project included generation of small RNA and PARE resources for bioenergy crops, to facilitate ongoing discovery of conserved miRNA-target RNA regulation. By associating specific miRNA-target RNA pairs with known physiological functions, the research provides insights about gene regulation in different tissues and in response to environmental stress. This, and release of new PARE and small RNA data sets should contribute basic knowledge to enhance breeding and may suggest new strategies for improvement of biomass energy crops.« less

  17. DNA methylation of miRNA-encoding genes in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Heller, Gerwin; Altenberger, Corinna; Steiner, Irene; Topakian, Thais; Ziegler, Barbara; Tomasich, Erwin; Lang, György; End-Pfützenreuter, Adelheid; Zehetmayer, Sonja; Döme, Balazs; Arns, Britt-Madeleine; Klepetko, Walter; Zielinski, Christoph C; Zöchbauer-Müller, Sabine

    2018-03-23

    De-regulated DNA methylation leading to transcriptional inactivation of certain genes occurs frequently in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Besides protein-encoding genes also microRNA (miRNA)-encoding genes may be targets for methylation in NSCLCs, however, the number of known methylated miRNA genes is still small. Thus, we investigated methylation of miRNA genes in primary tumours (TU) and corresponding non-malignant lung tissue samples (NL) of 50 NSCLC patients using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation followed by custom designed tiling microarray analyses (MeDIP-chip) and 252 differentially methylated probes between TU and NL samples were identified. These probes were annotated which resulted in the identification of 34 miRNA-encoding genes with increased methylation in TU specimens. While some of these miRNA-encoding genes were already known to be methylated in NSCLCs (e.g. miR-9-3, miR-124), methylation of the vast majority of them was unknown so far. We selected six miRNA genes (miR-10b, miR-1179, miR-137, miR-572, miR-3150b and miR-129-2) for gene-specific methylation analyses in TU and corresponding NL samples of 104 NSCLC patients and observed a statistically significant increase of methylation of these miRNA genes in TU samples (p<0.0001, respectively). In silico target prediction of the six miRNAs identified several oncogenic/cell proliferation promoting factors (e.g. CCNE1 as miR-1179 target). To investigate if miR-1179 indeed targets CCNE1, we transfected miR-1179 mimics into CCNE1 expressing NSCLC cells and observed down-regulated CCNE1 mRNA expression in these cells compared to control cells. Similar effects on Cyclin E1 expression were seen in Western blot analyses. In addition, we found a statistically significant growth reduction of NSCLC cells transfected with miR-1179 mimics compared to control cells. In conclusion, we identified many methylated miRNA genes in NSCLC patients and found that miR-1179 is a potential tumour cell growth

  18. Rapid and specific purification of Argonaute-small RNA complexes from crude cell lysates

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Jasso, C. Fabián; Salomon, William E.; Zamore, Phillip D.

    2013-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct Argonaute proteins, the core components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), to cleave complementary target RNAs. Here, we describe a method to purify active RISC containing a single, unique small RNA guide sequence. We begin by capturing RISC using a complementary 2′-O-methyl oligonucleotide tethered to beads. Unlike other methods that capture RISC but do not allow its recovery, our strategy purifies active, soluble RISC in good yield. The method takes advantage of the finding that RISC partially paired to a target through its siRNA guide dissociates more than 300 times faster than a fully paired siRNA in RISC. We use this strategy to purify fly Ago1- and Ago2-RISC, as well as mouse AGO2-RISC. The method can discriminate among RISCs programmed with different guide strands, making it possible to deplete and recover specific RISC populations. Endogenous microRNA:Argonaute complexes can also be purified from cell lysates. Our method scales readily and takes less than a day to complete. PMID:23249751

  19. Rapid and specific purification of Argonaute-small RNA complexes from crude cell lysates.

    PubMed

    Flores-Jasso, C Fabián; Salomon, William E; Zamore, Phillip D

    2013-02-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct Argonaute proteins, the core components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), to cleave complementary target RNAs. Here, we describe a method to purify active RISC containing a single, unique small RNA guide sequence. We begin by capturing RISC using a complementary 2'-O-methyl oligonucleotide tethered to beads. Unlike other methods that capture RISC but do not allow its recovery, our strategy purifies active, soluble RISC in good yield. The method takes advantage of the finding that RISC partially paired to a target through its siRNA guide dissociates more than 300 times faster than a fully paired siRNA in RISC. We use this strategy to purify fly Ago1- and Ago2-RISC, as well as mouse AGO2-RISC. The method can discriminate among RISCs programmed with different guide strands, making it possible to deplete and recover specific RISC populations. Endogenous microRNA:Argonaute complexes can also be purified from cell lysates. Our method scales readily and takes less than a day to complete.

  20. Two classes of small antisense RNAs in fungal RNA silencing triggered by non-integrative transgenes

    PubMed Central

    Nicolás, Francisco E.; Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M.

    2003-01-01

    Transformation of Mucor circinelloides with self-replicative plasmids containing a wild-type copy of the carotenogenic gene carB causes silencing of the carB function in 3% of transformants. Genomic analyses revealed a relationship between silenced phenotype and number of copies of plasmids. This phenotype results from a reduction of the steady-state levels of carB mRNA, a reduction that is not due to differences in the level of transcription, indicating that silencing is post-transcriptional. Small sense and antisense RNAs have been found to be associated with gene silencing in M.circinelloides. Two size classes of small antisense RNAs, differentially accumulated during the vegetative growth of silenced transformants, have been detected: a long 25-nucleotide RNA and a short 21-nucleotide RNA. Secondary sense and antisense RNAs corresponding to sequences of the endogenous gene downstream of the initial triggering molecule have also been detected, revealing the existence of spreading of RNA targeting in fungi. These findings, together with the self-replicative nature of the triggering molecules, make M.circinelloides a suitable organism for investigating some unresolved questions in RNA silencing. PMID:12881432

  1. Nanoparticle-based delivery of small interfering RNA: challenges for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Miele, Evelina; Spinelli, Gian Paolo; Miele, Ermanno; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Tomao, Silverio; Gulino, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    During recent decades there have been remarkable advances and profound changes in cancer therapy. Many therapeutic strategies learned at the bench, including monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors, have been used at the bedside, leading to important successes. One of the most important advances in biology has been the discovery that small interfering RNA (siRNA) is able to regulate the expression of genes, by a phenomenon known as RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is one of the most rapidly growing fields of research in biology and therapeutics. Much research effort has gone into the application of this new discovery in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. However, even though these molecules may have potential and strong utility, some limitations make their clinical application difficult, including delivery problems, side effects due to off-target actions, disturbance of physiological functions of the cellular machinery involved in gene silencing, and induction of the innate immune response. Many researchers have attempted to overcome these limitations and to improve the safety of potential RNAi-based therapeutics. Nanoparticles, which are nanostructured entities with tunable size, shape, and surface, as well as biological behavior, provide an ideal opportunity to modify current treatment regimens in a substantial way. These nanoparticles could be designed to surmount one or more of the barriers encountered by siRNA. Nanoparticle drug formulations afford the chance to improve drug bioavailability, exploiting superior tissue permeability, payload protection, and the “stealth” features of these entities. The main aims of this review are: to explain the siRNA mechanism with regard to potential applications in siRNA-based cancer therapy; to discuss the possible usefulness of nanoparticle-based delivery of certain molecules for overcoming present therapeutic limitations; to review the ongoing relevant clinical research with its pitfalls and

  2. Development of novel cardiovascular therapeutics from small regulatory RNA molecules--an outline of key requirements.

    PubMed

    Poller, W; Fechner, H

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the roles of RNAs within the cell has changed and expanded dramatically during the past few years. Based on fundamentally new insights it is now increasingly possible to employ RNAs as highly valuable tools in molecular biology and medicine. At present, the most important therapeutic strategies are based on non-coding regulatory RNAs inducing RNA interference (RNAi) to silence single genes, and on modulation of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) to alter complex gene expression patterns in diseased organs. Only recently it became possible to target therapeutic RNAi to specific organs via organotropic viral vector systems and we discuss the most recent strategies in this field, e.g. heart failure treatment by cardiac-targeted RNAi. Due to the peculiar biochemical properties of small RNA molecules, true therapeutic translation of results in vitro is more demanding than with small molecule drugs or proteins. Specifically, there is a critical requirement for extensive studies in animal models of human disease after pre-testing of the RNAi tools in vitro. This requirement likewise applies for miRNA modulations which have complex consequences in the recipient dependent on biochemical stability and distribution of the therapeutic RNA. Problems not yet fully solved are the prediction of targets and specificity of the RNA tools. However, major progress has been made to achieve their tissue-specific and regulatable expression, and breakthroughs in vector technologies from the gene therapy field have fundamentally improved safety and efficacy of RNA-based therapeutic approaches, too. In summary, insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of regulatory RNAs in combination with new delivery tools for RNA therapeutics will significantly expand our cardiovascular therapeutic repertoire beyond classical pharmacology.

  3. Rail-RNA: scalable analysis of RNA-seq splicing and coverage.

    PubMed

    Nellore, Abhinav; Collado-Torres, Leonardo; Jaffe, Andrew E; Alquicira-Hernández, José; Wilks, Christopher; Pritt, Jacob; Morton, James; Leek, Jeffrey T; Langmead, Ben

    2017-12-15

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) experiments now span hundreds to thousands of samples. Current spliced alignment software is designed to analyze each sample separately. Consequently, no information is gained from analyzing multiple samples together, and it requires extra work to obtain analysis products that incorporate data from across samples. We describe Rail-RNA, a cloud-enabled spliced aligner that analyzes many samples at once. Rail-RNA eliminates redundant work across samples, making it more efficient as samples are added. For many samples, Rail-RNA is more accurate than annotation-assisted aligners. We use Rail-RNA to align 667 RNA-seq samples from the GEUVADIS project on Amazon Web Services in under 16 h for US$0.91 per sample. Rail-RNA outputs alignments in SAM/BAM format; but it also outputs (i) base-level coverage bigWigs for each sample; (ii) coverage bigWigs encoding normalized mean and median coverages at each base across samples analyzed; and (iii) exon-exon splice junctions and indels (features) in columnar formats that juxtapose coverages in samples in which a given feature is found. Supplementary outputs are ready for use with downstream packages for reproducible statistical analysis. We use Rail-RNA to identify expressed regions in the GEUVADIS samples and show that both annotated and unannotated (novel) expressed regions exhibit consistent patterns of variation across populations and with respect to known confounding variables. Rail-RNA is open-source software available at http://rail.bio. anellore@gmail.com or langmea@cs.jhu.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Intravaginal gene silencing using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles densely loaded with small-interfering RNA

    PubMed Central

    Woodrow, Kim A.; Cu, Yen; Booth, Carmen J.; Saucier-Sawyer, Jennifer K.; Wood, Monica J.; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Vaginal instillation of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) using liposomes has led to silencing of endogenous genes in the genital tract and protected against challenge from infectious disease. Although siRNA lipoplexes are easily formulated, several of the most effective transfection agents available commercially may be toxic to the mucosal epithelia and none are able to provide controlled or sustained release. Here, we demonstrate an alternate approach, using nanoparticles composed entirely of FDA-approved materials. To render these materials effective for gene silencing we developed novel approaches to load them with high amounts of siRNA. A single dose of siRNA-loaded nanoparticles to the mouse female reproductive tract caused efficient and sustained gene silencing. Knockdown of gene expression was observed proximal (in the vaginal lumen) and distal (in the uterine horns) to the site of topical delivery. In addition, nanoparticles penetrated deep into the epithelial tissue. This is the first report demonstrating that biodegradable polymer nanoparticles are effective delivery vehicles for siRNA in the vaginal mucosa. PMID:19404239

  5. Intravaginal gene silencing using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles densely loaded with small-interfering RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodrow, Kim A.; Cu, Yen; Booth, Carmen J.; Saucier-Sawyer, Jennifer K.; Wood, Monica J.; Mark Saltzman, W.

    2009-06-01

    Vaginal instillation of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) using liposomes has led to silencing of endogenous genes in the genital tract and protection against challenge from infectious disease. Although siRNA lipoplexes are easily formulated, several of the most effective transfection agents available commercially may be toxic to the mucosal epithelia and none are able to provide controlled or sustained release. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach using nanoparticles composed entirely of FDA-approved materials. To render these materials effective for gene silencing, we developed novel approaches to load them with high amounts of siRNA. A single dose of siRNA-loaded nanoparticles to the mouse female reproductive tract caused efficient and sustained gene silencing. Knockdown of gene expression was observed proximal (in the vaginal lumen) and distal (in the uterine horns) to the site of topical delivery. In addition, nanoparticles penetrated deep into the epithelial tissue. This is the first report demonstrating that biodegradable polymer nanoparticles are effective delivery vehicles for siRNA to the vaginal mucosa.

  6. Multiple Regression Analysis of mRNA-miRNA Associations in Colorectal Cancer Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengfeng; Wong, S. C. Cesar; Chan, Lawrence W. C.; Cho, William C. S.; Yip, S. P.; Yung, Benjamin Y. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a short and endogenous RNA molecule that regulates posttranscriptional gene expression. It is an important factor for tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC), and a potential biomarker for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of CRC. Our objective is to identify the related miRNAs and their associations with genes frequently involved in CRC microsatellite instability (MSI) and chromosomal instability (CIN) signaling pathways. Results. A regression model was adopted to identify the significantly associated miRNAs targeting a set of candidate genes frequently involved in colorectal cancer MSI and CIN pathways. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to construct the model and find the significant mRNA-miRNA associations. We identified three significantly associated mRNA-miRNA pairs: BCL2 was positively associated with miR-16 and SMAD4 was positively associated with miR-567 in the CRC tissue, while MSH6 was positively associated with miR-142-5p in the normal tissue. As for the whole model, BCL2 and SMAD4 models were not significant, and MSH6 model was significant. The significant associations were different in the normal and the CRC tissues. Conclusion. Our results have laid down a solid foundation in exploration of novel CRC mechanisms, and identification of miRNA roles as oncomirs or tumor suppressor mirs in CRC. PMID:24895601

  7. Small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of serum response factor, E2-promotor binding factor and survivin in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines by non-viral transfection.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tobias; Nolte, Andrea; Steger, Volker; Makowiecki, Christina; Mustafi, Migdat; Friedel, Godehard; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans-Peter

    2013-03-01

    Serum response factor (SRF), E2F1 and survivin are well-known factors involved in a multitude of cancer-related regulation processes. However, to date, no suitable means has been found to apply their potential in the therapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study deals with questions of small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) transfection efficiency by a non-viral transfection of NSCLC cell-lines and the power of siRNA to transiently influence cell division by specific silencing. Different NSCLC cell lines were cultured under standard conditions and transfected, with specific siRNA targeting SRF, E2F1 and survivin in a non-viral manner. Cells treated with non-specific siRNA (SCR-siRNA) served as controls. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed for messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels. Additionally, transfection efficiency was evaluated by flow cytometry. The analysis of cell proliferation was determined with a CASY cell counter 3 days after transfection with SRF or SCR-siRNA. Transfection of the NSCLC cell lines with specific siRNAs against SRF, E2F1 and survivin resulted in a very considerable reduction of the intracellular mRNA concentration. CASY confirmation of cell viability demonstrated an excellent survival of the cell lines treated with non-specific siRNA, in contrast to with application of specific siRNA. This study reports a reliable transfectability of NSCLC-cell lines by siRNA, initially in a non-viral manner, and a reproducible knockdown of the focussed targets, consequently leading to the death of the tumour cells. This constitutes a strong candidate for a new assessment strategy in the therapy of non-small cell lung cancer.

  8. Visualization and Analysis of MiRNA-Targets Interactions Networks.

    PubMed

    León, Luis E; Calligaris, Sebastián D

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small, noncoding RNA molecules of 21-25 nucleotides in length that regulate the gene expression by base-pairing with the target mRNAs, mainly leading to down-regulation or repression of the target genes. MicroRNAs are involved in diverse regulatory pathways in normal and pathological conditions. In this context, it is highly important to identify the targets of specific microRNA in order to understand the mechanism of its regulation and consequently its involvement in disease. However, the microRNA target identification is experimentally laborious and time-consuming. The in silico prediction of microRNA targets is an extremely useful approach because you can identify potential mRNA targets, reduce the number of possibilities and then, validate a few microRNA-mRNA interactions in an in vitro experimental model. In this chapter, we describe, in a simple way, bioinformatics guidelines to use miRWalk database and Cytoscape software for analyzing microRNA-mRNA interactions through their visualization as a network.

  9. Discovery and small RNA profile of Pecan mosaic-associated virus, a novel potyvirus of pecan trees.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiu; Fu, Shuai; Qian, Yajuan; Zhang, Liqin; Xu, Yi; Zhou, Xueping

    2016-05-26

    A novel potyvirus was discovered in pecan (Carya illinoensis) showing leaf mosaic symptom through the use of deep sequencing of small RNAs. The complete genome of this virus was determined to comprise of 9,310 nucleotides (nt), and shared 24.0% to 58.9% nucleotide similarities with that of other Potyviridae viruses. The genome was deduced to encode a single open reading frame (polyprotein) on the plus strand. Phylogenetic analysis based on the whole genome sequence and coat protein amino acid sequence showed that this virus is most closely related to Lettuce mosaic virus. Using electron microscopy, the typical Potyvirus filamentous particles were identified in infected pecan leaves with mosaic symptoms. Our results clearly show that this virus is a new member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae. The virus is tentatively named Pecan mosaic-associated virus (PMaV). Additionally, profiling of the PMaV-derived small RNA (PMaV-sRNA) showed that the most abundant PMaV-sRNAs were 21-nt in length. There are several hotspots for small RNA production along the PMaV genome; two 21-nt PMaV-sRNAs starting at 811 nt and 610 nt of the minus-strand genome were highly repeated.

  10. Discovery and small RNA profile of Pecan mosaic-associated virus, a novel potyvirus of pecan trees

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiu; Fu, Shuai; Qian, Yajuan; Zhang, Liqin; Xu, Yi; Zhou, Xueping

    2016-01-01

    A novel potyvirus was discovered in pecan (Carya illinoensis) showing leaf mosaic symptom through the use of deep sequencing of small RNAs. The complete genome of this virus was determined to comprise of 9,310 nucleotides (nt), and shared 24.0% to 58.9% nucleotide similarities with that of other Potyviridae viruses. The genome was deduced to encode a single open reading frame (polyprotein) on the plus strand. Phylogenetic analysis based on the whole genome sequence and coat protein amino acid sequence showed that this virus is most closely related to Lettuce mosaic virus. Using electron microscopy, the typical Potyvirus filamentous particles were identified in infected pecan leaves with mosaic symptoms. Our results clearly show that this virus is a new member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae. The virus is tentatively named Pecan mosaic-associated virus (PMaV). Additionally, profiling of the PMaV-derived small RNA (PMaV-sRNA) showed that the most abundant PMaV-sRNAs were 21-nt in length. There are several hotspots for small RNA production along the PMaV genome; two 21-nt PMaV-sRNAs starting at 811 nt and 610 nt of the minus-strand genome were highly repeated. PMID:27226228

  11. Small self-RNA generated by RNase L amplifies antiviral innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Malathi, Krishnamurthy; Dong, Beihua; Gale, Michael; Silverman, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Antiviral innate immunity is initiated in response to RNA molecules that are produced in virus-infected cells1. These RNAs activate signalling cascades that activate the genes that encode α- and β-interferon (IFN). Signalling occurs through the interaction of the RNAs with either of two pathogen recognition receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I, also known as DDX58) and melanoma differentiation associated gene-5 (MDA5, also known as IFIH1), which contain amino-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARD) and carboxy-terminal DExD/H Box RNA helicase motifs2-5. RIG-I and MDA5 interact with another CARD protein, interferon-β promotor stimulator protein-1 (IPS-1, also known as MAVS, VISA and Cardif), in the mitochondrial membrane, which relays the signal through the transcription factors interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB to the IFN-β gene6-10. Although the signalling pathway is well understood, the origin of the RNA molecules that initiate these processes is not. Here we show that activation of the antiviral endoribonuclease, RNase L11, by 2′,5′-linked oligoadenylate (2-5A)12 produces small RNA cleavage products from self-RNA that initiate IFN production. Accordingly, mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking RNase L were resistant to the induction of IFN-β expression in response to 2-5A, dsRNA or viral infection. Single-stranded regions of RNA are cleaved 3′ of UpUp and UpAp sequences by RNase L during viral infections, resulting in small, often duplex, RNAs13,14. We show that small self-RNAs produced by the action of RNase L on cellular RNA induce IFN-β expression and that the signalling involves RIG-I, MDA5 and IPS-1. Mice lacking RNase L produce significantly less IFN-β during viral infections than infected wild-type mice. Furthermore, activation of RNase L with 2-5A in vivo induced the expression of IFN-β in wild-type but not RNase L-deficient mice. Our results indicate that RNase L has an essential

  12. Small RNA profiling of low biomass samples: identification and removal of contaminants

    DOE PAGES

    Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Yusuf, Dilmurat; Kaysen, Anne; ...

    2018-05-14

    Here, sequencing-based analyses of low-biomass samples are known to be prone to misinterpretation due to the potential presence of contaminating molecules derived from laboratory reagents and environments. DNA contamination has been previously reported, yet contamination with RNA is usually considered to be very unlikely due to its inherent instability. Small RNAs (sRNAs) identified in tissues and bodily fluids, such as blood plasma, have implications for physiology and pathology, and therefore the potential to act as disease biomarkers. Thus, the possibility for RNA contaminants demands careful evaluation.

  13. Small RNA profiling of low biomass samples: identification and removal of contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Yusuf, Dilmurat; Kaysen, Anne

    Here, sequencing-based analyses of low-biomass samples are known to be prone to misinterpretation due to the potential presence of contaminating molecules derived from laboratory reagents and environments. DNA contamination has been previously reported, yet contamination with RNA is usually considered to be very unlikely due to its inherent instability. Small RNAs (sRNAs) identified in tissues and bodily fluids, such as blood plasma, have implications for physiology and pathology, and therefore the potential to act as disease biomarkers. Thus, the possibility for RNA contaminants demands careful evaluation.

  14. A novel albumin nanocomplex containing both small interfering RNA and gold nanorods for synergetic anticancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin-Ha; Hwang, Hai-Jin; Shin, Seung Won; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Um, Soong Ho; Oh, Byung-Keun

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic nanocomplexes have been extensively developed for the effective treatment of aggressive cancers because of their outstanding versatility, easy manipulation, and low cytotoxicity. In this study, we describe the synthesis of a novel bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based nanocomplex harboring both Bcl-2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gold (Au) nanorods (siRNA and rods encapsulated in BSA; SREB) with the aim of developing a targeted breast cancer therapeutic. The SREB complexes contained 2 × 105 siRNA molecules and eight Au nanorods per BSA complex and were successively functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and anti-ErbB-2 antibodies to facilitate active targeting. The synergetic therapeutic activity originating from the two components effectively induced cell death (~80% reduction in viability compared with control cells) in target breast cancer cells after a single dose of laser irradiation. Intracellular SREB nanocomplex decomposition by proteolytic enzymes resulted in simultaneous RNA interference and thermal ablation, thus leading to apoptosis in the targeted cancer cells. Moreover, these therapeutic effects were sustained for approximately 72 hours. The intrinsic biocompatibility, multifunctionality, and potent in vitro anticancer properties of these SREB nanocomplexes indicate that they have great therapeutic potential for in vivo targeted cancer therapy, in addition to other areas of nanomedicine.Therapeutic nanocomplexes have been extensively developed for the effective treatment of aggressive cancers because of their outstanding versatility, easy manipulation, and low cytotoxicity. In this study, we describe the synthesis of a novel bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based nanocomplex harboring both Bcl-2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gold (Au) nanorods (siRNA and rods encapsulated in BSA; SREB) with the aim of developing a targeted breast cancer therapeutic. The SREB complexes contained 2 × 105 siRNA molecules and eight Au

  15. Computational methods for prediction of RNA interactions with metal ions and small organic ligands.

    PubMed

    Philips, Anna; Łach, Grzegorz; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, it has become clear that a wide range of regulatory functions in bacteria are performed by riboswitches--regions of mRNA that change their structure upon external stimuli. Riboswitches are therefore attractive targets for drug design, molecular engineering, and fundamental research on regulatory circuitry of living cells. Several mechanisms are known for riboswitches controlling gene expression, but most of them perform their roles by ligand binding. As with other macromolecules, knowledge of the 3D structure of riboswitches is crucial for the understanding of their function. The development of experimental methods allowed for investigation of RNA structure and its complexes with ligands (which are either riboswitches' substrates or inhibitors) and metal cations (which stabilize the structure and are also known to be riboswitches' inhibitors). The experimental probing of different states of riboswitches is however time consuming, costly, and difficult to resolve without theoretical support. The natural consequence is the use of computational methods at least for initial research, such as the prediction of putative binding sites of ligands or metal ions. Here, we present a review on such methods, with a special focus on knowledge-based methods developed in our laboratory: LigandRNA--a scoring function for the prediction of RNA-small molecule interactions and MetalionRNA--a predictor of metal ions-binding sites in RNA structures. Both programs are available free of charge as a Web servers, LigandRNA at http://ligandrna.genesilico.pl and MetalionRNA at http://metalionrna.genesilico.pl/. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of brain-specific and imprinted small nucleolar RNA genes exhibiting an unusual genomic organization

    PubMed Central

    Cavaillé, Jérôme; Buiting, Karin; Kiefmann, Martin; Lalande, Marc; Brannan, Camilynn I.; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Bachellerie, Jean-Pierre; Brosius, Jürgen; Hüttenhofer, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    We have identified three C/D-box small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and one H/ACA-box snoRNA in mouse and human. In mice, all four snoRNAs (MBII-13, MBII-52, MBII-85, and MBI-36) are exclusively expressed in the brain, unlike all other known snoRNAs. Two of the human RNA orthologues (HBII-52 and HBI-36) share this expression pattern, and the remainder, HBII-13 and HBII-85, are prevalently expressed in that tissue. In mice and humans, the brain-specific H/ACA box snoRNA (MBI-36 and HBI-36, respectively) is intron-encoded in the brain-specific serotonin 2C receptor gene. The three human C/D box snoRNAs map to chromosome 15q11–q13, within a region implicated in the Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS), which is a neurogenetic disease resulting from a deficiency of paternal gene expression. Unlike other C/D box snoRNAs, two snoRNAs, HBII-52 and HBII-85, are encoded in a tandemly repeated array of 47 or 24 units, respectively. In mouse the homologue of HBII-52 is processed from intronic portions of the tandem repeats. Interestingly, these snoRNAs were absent from the cortex of a patient with PWS and from a PWS mouse model, demonstrating their paternal imprinting status and pointing to their potential role in the etiology of PWS. Despite displaying hallmarks of the two families of ubiquitous snoRNAs that guide 2′-O-ribose methylation and pseudouridylation of rRNA, respectively, they lack any telltale rRNA complementarity. Instead, brain-specific C/D box snoRNA HBII-52 has an 18-nt phylogenetically conserved complementarity to a critical segment of serotonin 2C receptor mRNA, pointing to a potential role in the processing of this mRNA. PMID:11106375

  17. RNA-Rocket: an RNA-Seq analysis resource for infectious disease research

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Andrew S.; Aurrecoechea, Cristina; Brunk, Brian; Desai, Prerak; Emrich, Scott; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria I.; Harb, Omar; Hix, Deborah; Lawson, Daniel; Machi, Dustin; Mao, Chunhong; McClelland, Michael; Nordberg, Eric; Shukla, Maulik; Vosshall, Leslie B.; Wattam, Alice R.; Will, Rebecca; Yoo, Hyun Seung; Sobral, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: RNA-Seq is a method for profiling transcription using high-throughput sequencing and is an important component of many research projects that wish to study transcript isoforms, condition specific expression and transcriptional structure. The methods, tools and technologies used to perform RNA-Seq analysis continue to change, creating a bioinformatics challenge for researchers who wish to exploit these data. Resources that bring together genomic data, analysis tools, educational material and computational infrastructure can minimize the overhead required of life science researchers. Results: RNA-Rocket is a free service that provides access to RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq analysis tools for studying infectious diseases. The site makes available thousands of pre-indexed genomes, their annotations and the ability to stream results to the bioinformatics resources VectorBase, EuPathDB and PATRIC. The site also provides a combination of experimental data and metadata, examples of pre-computed analysis, step-by-step guides and a user interface designed to enable both novice and experienced users of RNA-Seq data. Availability and implementation: RNA-Rocket is available at rnaseq.pathogenportal.org. Source code for this project can be found at github.com/cidvbi/PathogenPortal. Contact: anwarren@vt.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary materials are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25573919

  18. RNA-Rocket: an RNA-Seq analysis resource for infectious disease research.

    PubMed

    Warren, Andrew S; Aurrecoechea, Cristina; Brunk, Brian; Desai, Prerak; Emrich, Scott; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria I; Harb, Omar; Hix, Deborah; Lawson, Daniel; Machi, Dustin; Mao, Chunhong; McClelland, Michael; Nordberg, Eric; Shukla, Maulik; Vosshall, Leslie B; Wattam, Alice R; Will, Rebecca; Yoo, Hyun Seung; Sobral, Bruno

    2015-05-01

    RNA-Seq is a method for profiling transcription using high-throughput sequencing and is an important component of many research projects that wish to study transcript isoforms, condition specific expression and transcriptional structure. The methods, tools and technologies used to perform RNA-Seq analysis continue to change, creating a bioinformatics challenge for researchers who wish to exploit these data. Resources that bring together genomic data, analysis tools, educational material and computational infrastructure can minimize the overhead required of life science researchers. RNA-Rocket is a free service that provides access to RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq analysis tools for studying infectious diseases. The site makes available thousands of pre-indexed genomes, their annotations and the ability to stream results to the bioinformatics resources VectorBase, EuPathDB and PATRIC. The site also provides a combination of experimental data and metadata, examples of pre-computed analysis, step-by-step guides and a user interface designed to enable both novice and experienced users of RNA-Seq data. RNA-Rocket is available at rnaseq.pathogenportal.org. Source code for this project can be found at github.com/cidvbi/PathogenPortal. anwarren@vt.edu Supplementary materials are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Small RNA Sequencing Reveals Differential miRNA Expression in the Early Development of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wang, Yu; Wu, Mei; Li, Lihong; Jin, Chuan; Zhang, Qingli; Chen, Chengbin; Song, Wenqin; Wang, Chunguo

    2017-01-01

    Pollen development is an important and complex biological process in the sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Although the cytological characteristics of pollen development are well defined, the regulation of its early stages remains largely unknown. In the present study, miRNAs were explored in the early development of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) pollen. A total of 333 known miRNAs that originated from 235 miRNA families were detected. Fifty-five novel miRNA candidates were identified. Sixty of the 333 known miRNAs and 49 of the 55 predicted novel miRNAs exhibited significantly differential expression profiling in the three distinct developmental stages of broccoli pollen. Among these differentially expressed miRNAs, miRNAs that would be involved in the developmental phase transition from uninucleate microspores to binucleate pollen grains or from binucleate to trinucleate pollen grains were identified. miRNAs that showed significantly enriched expression in a specific early stage of broccoli pollen development were also observed. In addition, 552 targets for 127 known miRNAs and 69 targets for 40 predicted novel miRNAs were bioinformatically identified. Functional annotation and GO (Gene Ontology) analysis indicated that the putative miRNA targets showed significant enrichment in GO terms that were related to plant organ formation and morphogenesis. Some of enriched GO terms were detected for the targets directly involved in plant male reproduction development. These findings provided new insights into the functions of miRNA-mediated regulatory networks in broccoli pollen development. PMID:28392797

  20. Small RNA Sequencing Reveals Differential miRNA Expression in the Early Development of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Pollen.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Wang, Yu; Wu, Mei; Li, Lihong; Jin, Chuan; Zhang, Qingli; Chen, Chengbin; Song, Wenqin; Wang, Chunguo

    2017-01-01

    Pollen development is an important and complex biological process in the sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Although the cytological characteristics of pollen development are well defined, the regulation of its early stages remains largely unknown. In the present study, miRNAs were explored in the early development of broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica ) pollen. A total of 333 known miRNAs that originated from 235 miRNA families were detected. Fifty-five novel miRNA candidates were identified. Sixty of the 333 known miRNAs and 49 of the 55 predicted novel miRNAs exhibited significantly differential expression profiling in the three distinct developmental stages of broccoli pollen. Among these differentially expressed miRNAs, miRNAs that would be involved in the developmental phase transition from uninucleate microspores to binucleate pollen grains or from binucleate to trinucleate pollen grains were identified. miRNAs that showed significantly enriched expression in a specific early stage of broccoli pollen development were also observed. In addition, 552 targets for 127 known miRNAs and 69 targets for 40 predicted novel miRNAs were bioinformatically identified. Functional annotation and GO (Gene Ontology) analysis indicated that the putative miRNA targets showed significant enrichment in GO terms that were related to plant organ formation and morphogenesis. Some of enriched GO terms were detected for the targets directly involved in plant male reproduction development. These findings provided new insights into the functions of miRNA-mediated regulatory networks in broccoli pollen development.

  1. Identification of More Feasible MicroRNA-mRNA Interactions within Multiple Cancers Using Principal Component Analysis Based Unsupervised Feature Extraction.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Y-H

    2016-05-10

    MicroRNA(miRNA)-mRNA interactions are important for understanding many biological processes, including development, differentiation and disease progression, but their identification is highly context-dependent. When computationally derived from sequence information alone, the identification should be verified by integrated analyses of mRNA and miRNA expression. The drawback of this strategy is the vast number of identified interactions, which prevents an experimental or detailed investigation of each pair. In this paper, we overcome this difficulty by the recently proposed principal component analysis (PCA)-based unsupervised feature extraction (FE), which reduces the number of identified miRNA-mRNA interactions that properly discriminate between patients and healthy controls without losing biological feasibility. The approach is applied to six cancers: hepatocellular carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, colorectal/colon cancer and breast cancer. In PCA-based unsupervised FE, the significance does not depend on the number of samples (as in the standard case) but on the number of features, which approximates the number of miRNAs/mRNAs. To our knowledge, we have newly identified miRNA-mRNA interactions in multiple cancers based on a single common (universal) criterion. Moreover, the number of identified interactions was sufficiently small to be sequentially curated by literature searches.

  2. Small suitability of the DLEC1, MLH1 and TUSC4 mRNA expression analysis as potential prognostic or differentiating markers for NSCLC patients in the Polish population.

    PubMed

    Kordiak, Jacek; Czarnecka, Karolina H; Pastuszak-Lewandoska, Dorota; Antczak, Adam; Migdalska-Sęk, Monika; Nawrot, Ewa; Domańska-Senderowska, Daria; Kiszałkiewicz, Justyna; Brzeziańska-Lasota, Ewa

    2017-06-01

    According to the latest data, lung cancer is one of the most common cancer worldwide, men contributing nearly 21.2% and women 8.6% of all diagnosed cancers. Late detection of tumour drastically reduces the chance for a cure. Thus, it is important to search for candidate biomarkers for screening of early stage nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Tumour suppressor genes, DLEC1, TUSC4 and MLH1, localized on 3p21 are recognized to play a role in NSCLC carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the DLEC1, TUSC4 and MLH1 mRNA expression, and clinical features of NSCLC patients, tobacco addiction, and tumour histopathological characteristics. The DLEC1, TUSC4 and MLH1 expression was analysed in lung tumour tissue samples obtained from 69 patients diagnosed with NSCLC: squamous cell carcinoma (n = 34), adenocarcinoma (n = 24), large cell carcinoma (n = 5), carcinoma adenosquamosum (n = 5). A decreased gene expression (RQ < 0.7) was observed for DLEC1 in 60.9% of tumour samples, for MLH1 in 50.7% and for TUSC4 in 26% of NSCLC samples. DLEC1 was decreased in more aggressive subtypes: large cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma-squamous cell carcinoma. The simultaneous downregulation of two of the studied genes, DLEC1 andMLH1,was observed in 30.4% of NSCLCsamples, highlighting the importance of these two genes in lung carcinogenesis. We found no correlation between the DLEC1, TUSC4 and MLH1 gene expression and NSCLC patient characteristics (gender, age and smoking) or cancer histopathology. No significant differences in the gene expression among NSCLC subtypes indicate the weakness of DLEC1, TUSC4 and MLH1 expression analysis as potential differentiating markers of NSCLC subtypes in the Polish population.

  3. A definition of the domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya in terms of small subunit ribosomal RNA characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, S.; Woese, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    The number of small subunit rRNA sequences is now great enough that the three domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya (Woese et al., 1990) can be reliably defined in terms of their sequence "signatures". Approximately 50 homologous positions (or nucleotide pairs) in the small subunit rRNA characterize and distinguish among the three. In addition, the three can be recognized by a variety of nonhomologous rRNA characters, either individual positions and/or higher-order structural features. The Crenarchaeota and the Euryarchaeota, the two archaeal kingdoms, can also be defined and distinguished by their characteristic compositions at approximately fifteen positions in the small subunit rRNA molecule.

  4. Ancient Origin of the U2 Small Nuclear RNA Gene-Targeting Non-LTR Retrotransposons Utopia

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Kenji K.

    2015-01-01

    Most non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons encoding a restriction-like endonuclease show target-specific integration into repetitive sequences such as ribosomal RNA genes and microsatellites. However, only a few target-specific lineages of non-LTR retrotransposons are distributed widely and no lineage is found across the eukaryotic kingdoms. Here we report the most widely distributed lineage of target sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons, designated Utopia. Utopia is found in three supergroups of eukaryotes: Amoebozoa, SAR, and Opisthokonta. Utopia is inserted into a specific site of U2 small nuclear RNA genes with different strength of specificity for each family. Utopia families from oomycetes and wasps show strong target specificity while only a small number of Utopia copies from reptiles are flanked with U2 snRNA genes. Oomycete Utopia families contain an “archaeal” RNase H domain upstream of reverse transcriptase (RT), which likely originated from a plant RNase H gene. Analysis of Utopia from oomycetes indicates that multiple lineages of Utopia have been maintained inside of U2 genes with few copy numbers. Phylogenetic analysis of RT suggests the monophyly of Utopia, and it likely dates back to the early evolution of eukaryotes. PMID:26556480

  5. Small RNA Profiling of Influenza A Virus-Infected Cells Identifies miR-449b as a Regulator of Histone Deacetylase 1 and Interferon Beta

    PubMed Central

    Buggele, William A.; Krause, Katherine E.; Horvath, Curt M.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian antiviral response relies on the alteration of cellular gene expression, to induce the production of antiviral effectors and regulate their activities. Recent research has indicated that virus infections can induce the accumulation of cellular microRNA (miRNA) species that influence the stability of host mRNAs and their protein products. To determine the potential for miRNA regulation of cellular responses to influenza A virus infection, small RNA profiling was carried out using next generation sequencing. Comparison of miRNA expression profiles in uninfected human A549 cells to cells infected with influenza A virus strains A/Udorn/72 and A/WSN/33, revealed virus-induced changes in miRNA abundance. Gene expression analysis identified mRNA targets for a cohort of highly inducible miRNAs linked to diverse cellular functions. Experiments demonstrate that the histone deacetylase, HDAC1, can be regulated by influenza-inducible miR-449b, resulting in altered mRNA and protein levels. Expression of miR-449b enhances virus and poly(I:C) activation of the IFNβ promoter, a process known to be negatively regulated by HDAC1. These findings demonstrate miRNA induction by influenza A virus infection and elucidate an example of miRNA control of antiviral gene expression in human cells, defining a role for miR-449b in regulation of HDAC1 and antiviral cytokine signaling. PMID:24086750

  6. RNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, James E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…

  7. tRF2Cancer: A web server to detect tRNA-derived small RNA fragments (tRFs) and their expression in multiple cancers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ling-Ling; Xu, Wei-Lin; Liu, Shun; Sun, Wen-Ju; Li, Jun-Hao; Wu, Jie; Yang, Jian-Hua; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2016-07-08

    tRNA-derived small RNA fragments (tRFs) are one class of small non-coding RNAs derived from transfer RNAs (tRNAs). tRFs play important roles in cellular processes and are involved in multiple cancers. High-throughput small RNA (sRNA) sequencing experiments can detect all the cellular expressed sRNAs, including tRFs. However, distinguishing genuine tRFs from RNA fragments generated by random degradation remains a major challenge. In this study, we developed an integrated web-based computing system, tRF2Cancer, to accurately identify tRFs from sRNA deep-sequencing data and evaluate their expression in multiple cancers. The binomial test was introduced to evaluate whether reads from a small RNA-seq data set represent tRFs or degraded fragments. A classification method was then used to annotate the types of tRFs based on their sites of origin in pre-tRNA or mature tRNA. We applied the pipeline to analyze 10 991 data sets from 32 types of cancers and identified thousands of expressed tRFs. A tool called 'tRFinCancer' was developed to facilitate the users to inspect the expression of tRFs across different types of cancers. Another tool called 'tRFBrowser' shows both the sites of origin and the distribution of chemical modification sites in tRFs on their source tRNA. The tRF2Cancer web server is available at http://rna.sysu.edu.cn/tRFfinder/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Gene Suppression of Mouse Testis In Vivo Using Small Interfering RNA Derived from Plasmid Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Takizawa, Takami; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Kosuge, Takuji; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Sato, Yoko; Koji, Takehiko; Araki, Yoshihiko; Takizawa, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated whether inhibiting gene expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be used for an in vivo model using a germ cell-specific gene (Tex101) as a model target in mouse testis. We generated plasmid-based expression vectors of siRNA targeting the Tex101 gene and transfected them into postnatal day 10 mouse testes by in vivo electroporation. After optimizing the electroporation conditions using a vector transfected into the mouse testis, a combination of high- and low-voltage pulses showed excellent transfection efficiency for the vectors with minimal tissue damage, but gene suppression was transient. Gene suppression by in vivo electroporation may be helpful as an alternative approach when designing experiments to unravel the basic role of testicular molecules. PMID:22489107

  9. The Small RNA GcvB Promotes Mutagenic Break Repair by Opposing the Membrane Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Brittany; Rogers, Elizabeth; Xia, Jun; Frisch, Ryan L.; Richters, Megan; Fitzgerald, Devon M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbes and human cells possess mechanisms of mutagenesis activated by stress responses. Stress-inducible mutagenesis mechanisms may provide important models for mutagenesis that drives host-pathogen interactions, antibiotic resistance, and possibly much of evolution generally. In Escherichia coli, repair of DNA double-strand breaks is switched to a mutagenic mode, using error-prone DNA polymerases, via the SOS DNA damage and general (σS) stress responses. We investigated small RNA (sRNA) clients of Hfq, an RNA chaperone that promotes mutagenic break repair (MBR), and found that GcvB promotes MBR by allowing a robust σS response, achieved via opposing the membrane stress (σE) response. Cells that lack gcvB were MBR deficient and displayed reduced σS-dependent transcription but not reduced σS protein levels. The defects in MBR and σS-dependent transcription in ΔgcvB cells were alleviated by artificially increasing σS levels, implying that GcvB promotes mutagenesis by allowing a normal σS response. ΔgcvB cells were highly induced for the σE response, and blocking σE response induction restored both mutagenesis and σS-promoted transcription. We suggest that GcvB may promote the σS response and mutagenesis indirectly, by promoting membrane integrity, which keeps σE levels lower. At high levels, σE might outcompete σS for binding RNA polymerase and so reduce the σS response and mutagenesis. The data show the delicate balance of stress response modulation of mutagenesis. IMPORTANCE Mutagenesis mechanisms upregulated by stress responses promote de novo antibiotic resistance and cross-resistance in bacteria, antifungal drug resistance in yeasts, and genome instability in cancer cells under hypoxic stress. This paper describes the role of a small RNA (sRNA) in promoting a stress-inducible-mutagenesis mechanism, mutagenic DNA break repair in Escherichia coli. The roles of many sRNAs in E. coli remain unknown. This study shows that ΔgcvB cells

  10. The Small RNA GcvB Promotes Mutagenic Break Repair by Opposing the Membrane Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Brittany; Rogers, Elizabeth; Xia, Jun; Frisch, Ryan L; Richters, Megan; Fitzgerald, Devon M; Rosenberg, Susan M

    2016-12-15

    Microbes and human cells possess mechanisms of mutagenesis activated by stress responses. Stress-inducible mutagenesis mechanisms may provide important models for mutagenesis that drives host-pathogen interactions, antibiotic resistance, and possibly much of evolution generally. In Escherichia coli, repair of DNA double-strand breaks is switched to a mutagenic mode, using error-prone DNA polymerases, via the SOS DNA damage and general (σ S ) stress responses. We investigated small RNA (sRNA) clients of Hfq, an RNA chaperone that promotes mutagenic break repair (MBR), and found that GcvB promotes MBR by allowing a robust σ S response, achieved via opposing the membrane stress (σ E ) response. Cells that lack gcvB were MBR deficient and displayed reduced σ S -dependent transcription but not reduced σ S protein levels. The defects in MBR and σ S -dependent transcription in ΔgcvB cells were alleviated by artificially increasing σ S levels, implying that GcvB promotes mutagenesis by allowing a normal σ S response. ΔgcvB cells were highly induced for the σ E response, and blocking σ E response induction restored both mutagenesis and σ S -promoted transcription. We suggest that GcvB may promote the σ S response and mutagenesis indirectly, by promoting membrane integrity, which keeps σ E levels lower. At high levels, σ E might outcompete σ S for binding RNA polymerase and so reduce the σ S response and mutagenesis. The data show the delicate balance of stress response modulation of mutagenesis. Mutagenesis mechanisms upregulated by stress responses promote de novo antibiotic resistance and cross-resistance in bacteria, antifungal drug resistance in yeasts, and genome instability in cancer cells under hypoxic stress. This paper describes the role of a small RNA (sRNA) in promoting a stress-inducible-mutagenesis mechanism, mutagenic DNA break repair in Escherichia coli The roles of many sRNAs in E. coli remain unknown. This study shows that ΔgcvB cells

  11. Biomarker MicroRNAs for Diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Identified Based on Gene Expression Data and MicroRNA-mRNA Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Tangxin; Zheng, Linqing

    2017-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most malignant tumors with high mortality rate worldwide. Biomarker discovery is critical for early diagnosis and precision treatment of this disease. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules which often regulate essential biological processes and are good candidates for biomarkers. By integrative analysis of both the cancer-associated gene expression data and microRNA-mRNA network, miR-148b-3p, miR-629-3p, miR-27a-3p, and miR-142-3p were screened as novel diagnostic biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma based on their unique regulatory abilities in the network structure of the conditional microRNA-mRNA network and their important functions. These findings were confirmed by literature verification and functional enrichment analysis. Future experimental validation is expected for the further investigation of their molecular mechanisms. PMID:29098014

  12. Chitosan nanoparticle carrying small interfering RNA to platelet-derived growth factor B mRNA inhibits proliferation of smooth muscle cells in rabbit injured arteries.

    PubMed

    Xia, He; Jun, Ji; Wen-Ping, Ling; Yi-Feng, Pan; Xiao-Ling, Chen

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the transfection of chitosan nanoparticle carrying small interfering RNA against platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) to inhibit the expression of PDGF-B mRNA and proliferation of smooth muscle cells. A rabbit iliac artery injury model was constructed. A small interfering RNA (siRNA) against PDGF-B mRNA expression vector was constructed and packaged by chitosan nanoparticle to transfect into the vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) of balloon catheter-injured rabbit iliac artery wall, using a therapeutic ultrasound for the gene delivery. The experiment was divided into two groups: experimental group, denudation and nano-PDGF-B siRNA treated, and only single denudation as control. Effects of the siRNA on the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and PDGF-B mRNA by vSMCs and the proliferation of vSMCs were observed with the methods of routine pathological, immunohistochemical staining, in situ hybridization and morphometry. The nano siRNA against PDGF-B was successfully transfected. The nano siRNA significantly inhibited the expressions of PCNA and PDGF-B mRNA in intimal vSMCs. The local intimal thickness and area were also reduced remarkably. In conclusion, transfection of chitosan nanoparticle carrying siRNA against PDGF-B mRNA could inhibit proliferation of vSMCs in the rabbit iliac artery injury model. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Deep sequencing reveals unique small RNA repertoire that is regulated during head regeneration in Hydra magnipapillata.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Srikar; Nair, Aparna; Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Poduval, Deepak; Dhawan, Jyotsna; Palakodeti, Dasaradhi; Ghanekar, Yashoda

    2013-01-07

    Small non-coding RNAs such as miRNAs, piRNAs and endo-siRNAs fine-tune gene expression through post-transcriptional regulation, modulating important processes in development, differentiation, homeostasis and regeneration. Using deep sequencing, we have profiled small non-coding RNAs in Hydra magnipapillata and investigated changes in small RNA expression pattern during head regeneration. Our results reveal a unique repertoire of small RNAs in hydra. We have identified 126 miRNA loci; 123 of these miRNAs are unique to hydra. Less than 50% are conserved across two different strains of Hydra vulgaris tested in this study, indicating a highly diverse nature of hydra miRNAs in contrast to bilaterian miRNAs. We also identified siRNAs derived from precursors with perfect stem-loop structure and that arise from inverted repeats. piRNAs were the most abundant small RNAs in hydra, mapping to transposable elements, the annotated transcriptome and unique non-coding regions on the genome. piRNAs that map to transposable elements and the annotated transcriptome display a ping-pong signature. Further, we have identified several miRNAs and piRNAs whose expression is regulated during hydra head regeneration. Our study defines different classes of small RNAs in this cnidarian model system, which may play a role in orchestrating gene expression essential for hydra regeneration.

  14. Deep sequencing reveals unique small RNA repertoire that is regulated during head regeneration in Hydra magnipapillata

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Srikar; Nair, Aparna; Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Poduval, Deepak; Dhawan, Jyotsna; Palakodeti, Dasaradhi; Ghanekar, Yashoda

    2013-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs such as miRNAs, piRNAs and endo-siRNAs fine-tune gene expression through post-transcriptional regulation, modulating important processes in development, differentiation, homeostasis and regeneration. Using deep sequencing, we have profiled small non-coding RNAs in Hydra magnipapillata and investigated changes in small RNA expression pattern during head regeneration. Our results reveal a unique repertoire of small RNAs in hydra. We have identified 126 miRNA loci; 123 of these miRNAs are unique to hydra. Less than 50% are conserved across two different strains of Hydra vulgaris tested in this study, indicating a highly diverse nature of hydra miRNAs in contrast to bilaterian miRNAs. We also identified siRNAs derived from precursors with perfect stem–loop structure and that arise from inverted repeats. piRNAs were the most abundant small RNAs in hydra, mapping to transposable elements, the annotated transcriptome and unique non-coding regions on the genome. piRNAs that map to transposable elements and the annotated transcriptome display a ping–pong signature. Further, we have identified several miRNAs and piRNAs whose expression is regulated during hydra head regeneration. Our study defines different classes of small RNAs in this cnidarian model system, which may play a role in orchestrating gene expression essential for hydra regeneration. PMID:23166307

  15. Global Analysis of miRNA-mRNA Interaction Network in Breast Cancer with Brain Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhixin; Peng, Zhiqiang; Gu, Siyu; Zheng, Junfang; Feng, Duiping; Qin, Qiong; He, Junqi

    2017-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been linked to a number of cancer types including breast cancer. The rate of brain metastases is 10-30% in patients with advanced breast cancer which is associated with poor prognosis. The potential application of miRNAs in the diagnostics and therapeutics of breast cancer with brain metastasis is an area of intense interest. In an initial effort to systematically address the differential expression of miRNAs and mRNAs in primary breast cancer which may provide clues for early detection of brain metastasis, we analyzed the consequent changes in global patterns of gene expression in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data set obtained by microarray from patients with in situ carcinoma and patients with brain metastasis. The miRNA-pathway regulatory network and miRNA-mRNA regulatory network were investigated in breast cancer specimens from patients with brain metastasis to screen for significantly dysregulated miRNAs followed by prediction of their target genes and pathways by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. Functional coordination of the changes of gene expression can be modulated by individual miRNAs. Two miRNAs, hsa-miR-17-5p and hsa-miR-16-5p, were identified as having the highest associations with targeted mRNAs [such as B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), small body size/mothers against decapentaplegic 3 (SMAD3) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1)] and pathways associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transitions and other processes linked with cancer metastasis (including cell cycle, adherence junctions and extracellular matrix-receptor interaction). mRNAs for two genes [HECT, UBA and WWE domain containing 1 (HUWE1) and BCL2] were found to have the highest associations with miRNAs, which were down-regulated in brain metastasis specimens of breast cancer. The change of 11 selected miRNAs was verified in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) breast cancer dataset. Up-regulation of hsa-miR-17-5p was detected in triple-negative breast cancer tissues in

  16. Conserved small mRNA with an unique, extended Shine-Dalgarno sequence

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Julia; Migur, Anzhela; von Boeselager, Raphael Freiherr; Kubatova, Nina; Kubareva, Elena; Schwalbe, Harald

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Up to now, very small protein-coding genes have remained unrecognized in sequenced genomes. We identified an mRNA of 165 nucleotides (nt), which is conserved in Bradyrhizobiaceae and encodes a polypeptide with 14 amino acid residues (aa). The small mRNA harboring a unique Shine-Dalgarno sequence (SD) with a length of 17 nt was localized predominantly in the ribosome-containing P100 fraction of Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110. Strong interaction between the mRNA and 30S ribosomal subunits was demonstrated by their co-sedimentation in sucrose density gradient. Using translational fusions with egfp, we detected weak translation and found that it is impeded by both the extended SD and the GTG start codon (instead of ATG). Biophysical characterization (CD- and NMR-spectroscopy) showed that synthesized polypeptide remained unstructured in physiological puffer. Replacement of the start codon by a stop codon increased the stability of the transcript, strongly suggesting additional posttranscriptional regulation at the ribosome. Therefore, the small gene was named rreB (ribosome-regulated expression in Bradyrhizobiaceae). Assuming that the unique ribosome binding site (RBS) is a hallmark of rreB homologs or similarly regulated genes, we looked for similar putative RBS in bacterial genomes and detected regions with at least 16 nt complementarity to the 3′-end of 16S rRNA upstream of sORFs in Caulobacterales, Rhizobiales, Rhodobacterales and Rhodospirillales. In the Rhodobacter/Roseobacter lineage of α-proteobacteria the corresponding gene (rreR) is conserved and encodes an 18 aa protein. This shows how specific RBS features can be used to identify new genes with presumably similar control of expression at the RNA level. PMID:27834614

  17. Microfluidics-based digital quantitative PCR for single-cell small RNA quantification.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tian; Tang, Chong; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Ruirui; Yan, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Quantitative analyses of small RNAs at the single-cell level have been challenging because of limited sensitivity and specificity of conventional real-time quantitative PCR methods. A digital quantitative PCR (dqPCR) method for miRNA quantification has been developed, but it requires the use of proprietary stem-loop primers and only applies to miRNA quantification. Here, we report a microfluidics-based dqPCR (mdqPCR) method, which takes advantage of the Fluidigm BioMark HD system for both template partition and the subsequent high-throughput dqPCR. Our mdqPCR method demonstrated excellent sensitivity and reproducibility suitable for quantitative analyses of not only miRNAs but also all other small RNA species at the single-cell level. Using this method, we discovered that each sperm has a unique miRNA profile. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Inhibition of Non-ATG Translational Events in Cells via Covalent Small Molecules Targeting RNA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wang-Yong; Wilson, Henry D; Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Disney, Matthew D

    2015-04-29

    One major class of disease-causing RNAs is expanded repeating transcripts. These RNAs cause diseases via multiple mechanisms, including: (i) gain-of-function, in which repeating RNAs bind and sequester proteins involved in RNA biogenesis and (ii) repeat associated non-ATG (RAN) translation, in which repeating transcripts are translated into toxic proteins without use of a canonical, AUG, start codon. Herein, we develop and study chemical probes that bind and react with an expanded r(CGG) repeat (r(CGG)(exp)) present in a 5' untranslated region that causes fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Reactive compounds bind to r(CGG)(exp) in cellulo as shown with Chem-CLIP-Map, an approach to map small molecule binding sites within RNAs in cells. Compounds also potently improve FXTAS-associated pre-mRNA splicing and RAN translational defects, while not affecting translation of the downstream open reading frame. In contrast, oligonucleotides affect both RAN and canonical translation when they bind to r(CGG)(exp), which is mechanistically traced to a decrease in polysome loading. Thus, designer small molecules that react with RNA targets can be used to profile the RNAs to which they bind in cells, including identification of binding sites, and can modulate several aspects of RNA-mediated disease pathology in a manner that may be more beneficial than oligonucleotides.

  19. A small noncoding RNA signature found in exosomes of GBM patient serum as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Manterola, Lorea; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Gállego Pérez-Larraya, Jaime; González-Huarriz, Marisol; Jauregui, Patricia; Tejada, Sonia; Diez-Valle, Ricardo; Segura, Victor; Samprón, Nicolás; Barrena, Cristina; Ruiz, Irune; Agirre, Amaia; Ayuso, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Alvaro; Xipell, Enric; Matheu, Ander; López de Munain, Adolfo; Tuñón, Teresa; Zazpe, Idoya; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Paris, Sophie; Delattre, Jean Yves; Alonso, Marta M

    2014-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent malignant brain tumor in adults, and its prognosis remains dismal despite intensive research and therapeutic advances. Diagnostic biomarkers would be clinically meaningful to allow for early detection of the tumor and for those cases in which surgery is contraindicated or biopsy results are inconclusive. Recent findings show that GBM cells release microvesicles that contain a select subset of cellular proteins and RNA. The aim of this hypothesis-generating study was to assess the diagnostic potential of miRNAs found in microvesicles isolated from the serum of GBM patients. To control disease heterogeneity, we used patients with newly diagnosed GBM. In the discovery stage, PCR-based TaqMan Low Density Arrays followed by individual quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were used to test the differences in the miRNA expression levels of serum microvesicles among 25 GBM patients and healthy controls paired by age and sex. The detected noncoding RNAs were then validated in another 50 GBM patients. We found that the expression levels of 1 small noncoding RNA (RNU6-1) and 2 microRNAs (miR-320 and miR-574-3p) were significantly associated with a GBM diagnosis. In addition, RNU6-1 was consistently an independent predictor of a GBM diagnosis. Altogether our results uncovered a small noncoding RNA signature in microvesicles isolated from GBM patient serum that could be used as a fast and reliable differential diagnostic biomarker.

  20. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA in non-small-cell lung carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Fontanini, G; Boldrini, L; Chinè, S; Pisaturo, F; Basolo, F; Calcinai, A; Lucchi, M; Mussi, A; Angeletti, C A; Bevilacqua, G

    1999-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to be strictly related to vascular permeability and endothelial cell growth under physiological and pathological conditions. In tumour development and progression, VEGF plays a pivotal role in the development of the tumoral vascular network, and useful information in the progression of human cancer can be obtained by analysing the vascular endothelial growth factor expression of the tumours. In this study, we investigated the vascular endothelial growth factor transcript expression in non-small-cell lung carcinomas to evaluate the significance of this factor in a group of cancers in which the vascular pattern has been shown to significantly affect progression. Surgical samples of 42 patients with NSCLC were studied using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and in situ hybridization. Thirty-three out of 42 cases (78.6%) showed VEGF transcript expression predominantly as transcripts for the secretory forms of VEGF (isoforms 121 and 165). In situ hybridization, performed on 24 out of 42 samples, showed that the VEGF transcript expression was in several cases present in the cytoplasm both of neoplastic and normal cells, even if the VEGF mRNA was less expressed in the corresponding non-tumoral part. The VEGF 121 expression was associated with hilar and/or mediastinal nodal involvement (P = 0.02), and, taken together, the VEGF isoforms were shown to significantly influence overall (P = 0.02) and disease-free survival (P = 0.03). As a regulator of tumour angiogenesis, VEGF may represent a useful indicator of progression and poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung carcinomas. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:9888482

  1. Characterization and comparative profiling of the small RNA transcriptomes in the Hemipteran insect Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Zha, Wenjun; Zhou, Lei; Li, Sanhe; Liu, Kai; Yang, Guocai; Chen, Zhijun; Liu, Kai; Xu, Huashan; Li, Peide; Hussain, Saddam; You, Aiqing

    2016-12-20

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small RNAs involved in various biological processes through negative regulation of mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level. The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is one of the most serious and destructive insect pests of rice. In the present study, two small RNA libraries of virulent N. lugens populations (Biotype I survives on susceptive rice variety TN1 and Biotype Y survives on moderately resistant rice variety YHY15) were constructed and sequenced using the high-throughput sequencing technology in order to identify the relationship between miRNAs of N.lugens and adaptation of BPH pests to rice resistance. In total 15,758,632 and 11,442,592 reads, corresponding to 3,144,026 and 2,550,049 unique sequences, were obtained in the two libraries (BPH-TN1 and BPH-YHY15 libraries), respectively. A total of 41 potential novel miRNAs were predicted in the two libraries, and 26 miRNAs showed significantly differential expression between two libraries. All miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in the BPH-TN1 library. Target genes likely regulated by these differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using computational prediction. The functional annotation of target genes performed by Gene Ontology enrichment (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis (KEGG) indicated that a majority of differential miRNAs were involved in "Metabolism" pathway. These results provided an understanding of the role of miRNAs in BPH to adaptability of BPH on rice resistance, and will be useful in developing new control strategies for host defense against BPH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Post-transcriptional bursting in genes regulated by small RNA molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, Guillermo

    2018-03-01

    Gene expression programs in living cells are highly dynamic due to spatiotemporal molecular signaling and inherent biochemical stochasticity. Here we study a mechanism based on molecule-to-molecule variability at the RNA level for the generation of bursts of protein production, which can lead to heterogeneity in a cell population. We develop a mathematical framework to show numerically and analytically that genes regulated post transcriptionally by small RNA molecules can exhibit such bursts due to different states of translation activity (on or off), mostly revealed in a regime of few molecules. We exploit this framework to compare transcriptional and post-transcriptional bursting and also to illustrate how to tune the resulting protein distribution with additional post-transcriptional regulations. Moreover, because RNA-RNA interactions are predictable with an energy model, we define the kinetic constants of on-off switching as functions of the two characteristic free-energy differences of the system, activation and formation, with a nonequilibrium scheme. Overall, post-transcriptional bursting represents a distinctive principle linking gene regulation to gene expression noise, which highlights the importance of the RNA layer beyond the simple information transfer paradigm and significantly contributes to the understanding of the intracellular processes from a first-principles perspective.

  3. Development of a functionalized polymer for stent coating in the arterial delivery of small interfering RNA.

    PubMed

    San Juan, Aurélie; Bala, Madiha; Hlawaty, Hanna; Portes, Patrick; Vranckx, Roger; Feldman, Laurent J; Letourneur, Didier

    2009-11-09

    In patients receiving drug eluting stents, there is a growing concern about both the long-term toxicity/degradability of the polymers used for the coating, and the nature of the therapeutic agents. We hypothesized that the use of a functionalized biocompatible polymer for a stent coating could be appropriate for local arterial therapy. A cationized pullulan hydrogel was thus prepared to cover bare metal stents that could be further loaded with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted at MMP2 for gene silencing in vascular cells. The efficient coverage of the stent struts by a smooth polymeric layer, which can withstand the crimping of the stent on a balloon-catheter and its deployment, was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The release of siRNA from the stents was modulated by the presence of the cationic groups, as compared to noncationized pullulan hydrogel. In vivo implantation of coated stents was successful and cationized pullulan-based hydrogels loaded with siRNA in rabbit balloon-injured carotid arteries induced an uptake of siRNA into the arterial wall and a decrease of pro-MMP2 activity. These results suggest that cationized pullulan-based hydrogel could be used as a new biocompatible and biodegradable stent coating for local gene therapy in the arterial wall.

  4. Modulation of the response of prostate cancer cell lines to cisplatin treatment using small interfering RNA.

    PubMed

    Parra, Eduardo; Ferreira, Jorge

    2013-10-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most effective and widely used chemotherapeutic agents against several types of human cancers. However, the underlying mechanisms of action are not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the possible molecular mechanism(s) of acquired chemoresistance observed in prostate cancer cells treated with cisplatin. Human LNCaP cells (bearing wild-type p53) and PC-3 cells (lacking p53) were used. The expression levels of protein were determined by western blotting, and the mRNA levels were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell viability was measured by MTT assay, and the transcriptional effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) was measured by luciferase reporter gene. We showed that cisplatin treatment increased JNK-1 and JNK-2 activity and expression in both LNCaP and PC-3 cells. In addition, the knockdown of JNK-1 expression by siRNA-JNK-1 or siRNA-JNK-2 significantly impaired the upregulation of AP-1 luciferase reporter gene, but failed to decrease the levels of AP-1 reporter gene expression induced by TPA treatment. Our observations indicate that JNK-1 and JNK-2 may be involved in the chemoresistance observed in prostate cancer cells treated with cisplatin and that blocking the stimulation of Jun kinase (JNK) signaling may be important for regulating the susceptibility to cisplatin of prostate cancer.

  5. Targeting focal adhesion kinase with small interfering RNA prevents and reverses load-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Carolina F M Z; Tornatore, Thais F; Theizen, Thais H; Deckmann, Ana C; Pereira, Tiago C; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Souza, José Roberto M; Franchini, Kleber G

    2007-12-07

    Hypertrophy is a critical event in the onset of failure in chronically overloaded hearts. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has attracted particular attention as a mediator of hypertrophy induced by increased load. Here, we demonstrate increased expression and phosphorylation of FAK in the hypertrophic left ventricles (LVs) of aortic-banded mice. We used an RNA interference strategy to examine whether FAK signaling plays a role in the pathophysiology of load-induced LV hypertrophy and failure. Intrajugular delivery of specific small interfering RNA induced prolonged FAK silencing ( approximately 70%) in both normal and hypertrophic LVs. Myocardial FAK silencing was accompanied by prevention, as well as reversal, of load-induced left ventricular hypertrophy. The function of LVs was preserved and the survival rate was higher in banded mice treated with small interfering RNA targeted to FAK, despite the persistent pressure overload. Studies in cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts harvested from LVs confirmed the ability of the systemically administered specific small interfering RNA to silence FAK in both cell types. Further analysis indicated attenuation of cardiac myocyte hypertrophic growth and of the rise in the expression of beta-myosin heavy chain in overloaded LVs. Moreover, FAK silencing was demonstrated to attenuate the rise in the fibrosis, collagen content, and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in overloaded LVs, as well as the rise of matrix metalloproteinase-2 protein expression in fibroblasts harvested from overloaded LVs. This study provides novel evidence that FAK may be involved in multiple aspects of the pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy and failure induced by pressure overload.

  6. Modified RNA-seq method for microbial community and diversity analysis using rRNA in different types of environmental samples

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yong-Wei; Zou, Bin; Zhu, Ting; Hozzein, Wael N.

    2017-01-01

    RNA-seq-based SSU (small subunit) rRNA (ribosomal RNA) analysis has provided a better understanding of potentially active microbial community within environments. However, for RNA-seq library construction, high quantities of purified RNA are typically required. We propose a modified RNA-seq method for SSU rRNA-based microbial community analysis that depends on the direct ligation of a 5’ adaptor to RNA before reverse-transcription. The method requires only a low-input quantity of RNA (10–100 ng) and does not require a DNA removal step. The method was initially tested on three mock communities synthesized with enriched SSU rRNA of archaeal, bacterial and fungal isolates at different ratios, and was subsequently used for environmental samples of high or low biomass. For high-biomass salt-marsh sediments, enriched SSU rRNA and total nucleic acid-derived RNA-seq datasets revealed highly consistent community compositions for all of the SSU rRNA sequences, and as much as 46.4%-59.5% of 16S rRNA sequences were suitable for OTU (operational taxonomic unit)-based community and diversity analyses with complete coverage of V1-V2 regions. OTU-based community structures for the two datasets were also highly consistent with those determined by all of the 16S rRNA reads. For low-biomass samples, total nucleic acid-derived RNA-seq datasets were analyzed, and highly active bacterial taxa were also identified by the OTU-based method, notably including members of the previously underestimated genus Nitrospira and phylum Acidobacteria in tap water, members of the phylum Actinobacteria on a shower curtain, and members of the phylum Cyanobacteria on leaf surfaces. More than half of the bacterial 16S rRNA sequences covered the complete region of primer 8F, and non-coverage rates as high as 38.7% were obtained for phylum-unclassified sequences, providing many opportunities to identify novel bacterial taxa. This modified RNA-seq method will provide a better snapshot of diverse

  7. Ribonucleoprotein organization of eukaryotic RNA. XXXII. U2 small nuclear RNA precursors and their accurate 3' processing in vitro as ribonucleoprotein particles.

    PubMed

    Wieben, E D; Nenninger, J M; Pederson, T

    1985-05-05

    Biosynthetic precursors of U2 small nuclear RNA have been identified in cultured human cells by hybrid-selection of pulse-labeled RNA with cloned U2 DNA. These precursor molecules are one to approximately 16 nucleotides longer than mature U2 RNA and contain 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine "caps". The U2 RNA precursors are associated with proteins that react with a monoclonal antibody for antigens characteristic of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. Like previously described precursors of U1 and U4 small nuclear RNAs, the pre-U2 RNAs are recovered in cytoplasmic fractions, although it is not known if this is their location in vivo. The precursors are processed to mature-size U2 RNA when cytoplasmic extracts are incubated in vitro at 37 degrees C. Mg2+ is required but ATP is not. The ribonucleoprotein structure of the pre-U2 RNA is maintained during the processing reaction in vitro, as are the 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine caps. The ribonucleoprotein organization is of major importance, as exogenous, protein-free U2 RNA precursors are degraded rapidly in the in vitro system. Two lines of evidence indicate that the conversion of U2 precursors to mature-size U2 RNA involves a 3' processing reaction. First, the reaction is unaffected by a large excess of mature U2 small nuclear RNP, whose 5' trimethylguanosine caps would be expected to compete for a 5' processing activity. Second, when pre-U2 RNA precursors are first stoichiometrically decorated with an antibody specific for 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine, the extent of subsequent processing in vitro is unaffected. These results provide the first demonstration of a eukaryotic RNA processing reaction in vitro occurring within a ribonucleoprotein particle.

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis of Long Noncoding RNA (lncRNA) Expression in Hepatoblastoma Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ping; Cui, Ximao; Li, Kai; Zheng, Shan; He, Xianghuo; Dong, Kuiran

    2014-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have crucial roles in cancer biology. We performed a genome-wide analysis of lncRNA expression in hepatoblastoma tissues to identify novel targets for further study of hepatoblastoma. Hepatoblastoma and normal liver tissue samples were obtained from hepatoblastoma patients. The genome-wide analysis of lncRNA expression in these tissues was performed using a 4×180 K lncRNA microarray and Sureprint G3 Human lncRNA Chips. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to confirm these results. The differential expressions of lncRNAs and mRNAs were identified through fold-change filtering. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analyses were performed using the standard enrichment computation method. Associations between lncRNAs and adjacent protein-coding genes were determined through complex transcriptional loci analysis. We found that 2736 lncRNAs were differentially expressed in hepatoblastoma tissues. Among these, 1757 lncRNAs were upregulated more than two-fold relative to normal tissues and 979 lncRNAs were downregulated. Moreover, in hepatoblastoma there were 420 matched lncRNA-mRNA pairs for 120 differentially expressed lncRNAs, and 167 differentially expressed mRNAs. The co-expression network analysis predicted 252 network nodes and 420 connections between 120 lncRNAs and 132 coding genes. Within this co-expression network, 369 pairs were positive, and 51 pairs were negative. Lastly, qRT-PCR data verified six upregulated and downregulated lncRNAs in hepatoblastoma, plus endothelial cell-specific molecule 1 (ESM1) mRNA. Our results demonstrated that expression of these aberrant lncRNAs could respond to hepatoblastoma development. Further study of these lncRNAs could provide useful insight into hepatoblastoma biology. PMID:24465615

  9. Precise small molecule recognition of a toxic CUG RNA repeat expansion

    PubMed Central

    Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Colgan, Lesley A; Nakai, Yoshio; Cameron, Michael D; Furling, Denis; Yasuda, Ryohei; Disney, Matthew D

    2017-01-01

    Excluding the ribosome and riboswitches, developing small molecules that selectively target RNA is a longstanding problem in chemical biology. A typical cellular RNA is difficult to target because it has little tertiary, but abundant secondary structure. We designed allele-selective compounds that target such an RNA, the toxic noncoding repeat expansion (r(CUG)exp) that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). We developed several strategies to generate allele-selective small molecules, including non-covalent binding, covalent binding, cleavage and on-site probe synthesis. Covalent binding and cleavage enabled target profiling in cells derived from individuals with DM1, showing precise recognition of r(CUG)exp. In the on-site probe synthesis approach, small molecules bound adjacent sites in r(CUG)exp and reacted to afford picomolar inhibitors via a proximity-based click reaction only in DM1-affected cells. We expanded this approach to image r(CUG)exp in its natural context. PMID:27941760

  10. Application of small RNA sequencing to identify microRNAs in acute kidney injury and fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, Kathryn L.

    Establishing a microRNA (miRNA) expression profile in affected tissues provides an important foundation for the discovery of miRNAs involved in the development or progression of pathologic conditions. We conducted small RNA sequencing to generate a temporal profile of miRNA expression in the kidneys using a mouse model of folic acid-induced (250 mg/kg i.p.) kidney injury and fibrosis. From the 103 miRNAs that were differentially expressed over the time course (> 2-fold, p < 0.05), we chose to further investigate miR-18a-5p, which is expressed during the acute stage of the injury; miR-132-3p, which is upregulated during transition between acute and fibroticmore » injury; and miR-146b-5p, which is highly expressed at the peak of fibrosis. Using qRT-PCR, we confirmed the increased expression of these candidate miRNAs in the folic acid model as well as in other established mouse models of acute injury (ischemia/reperfusion injury) and fibrosis (unilateral ureteral obstruction). In situ hybridization confirmed high expression of miR-18a-5p, miR-132-3p and miR-146b-5p throughout the kidney cortex in mice and humans with severe kidney injury or fibrosis. When primary human proximal tubular epithelial cells were treated with model nephrotoxicants such as cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}), arsenic trioxide, aristolochic acid (AA), potassium dichromate (K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and cisplatin, miRNA-132-3p was upregulated 4.3-fold after AA treatment and 1.5-fold after K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and CdCl{sub 2} treatment. These results demonstrate the application of temporal small RNA sequencing to identify miR-18a, miR-132 and miR-146b as differentially expressed miRNAs during distinct phases of kidney injury and fibrosis progression. - Highlights: • We used small RNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in kidney. • Distinct patterns were found for acute injury and fibrotic stages in the kidney. • Upregulation of miR-18a, -132 and -146b was confirmed

  11. Preparation and Analysis of RNA Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The crystallization of RiboNucleic Acids (RNA) was studied from the standpoint of mechanisms of crystal growth in three tasks: (1) preparation of high-quality crystals of oligonuclotides for X-ray diffraction, (2) finding pathways to the growth of high-quality crystals for X-ray diffraction and (3) investigation of mechanisms of action of inertial acceleration on crystal growth. In these tasks: (1) RNA crystals were prepared and studied by X-ray diffraction; (2) a pathway to high-quality crystals was discovered and characterized; a combination of kinetic and equilibrium factors could be optimized as described below; and (3) an interplay between purity and gravity was found in a combination of space and ground experiments with nucleic acids and proteins. Most significantly, the rate of concentration of precipitant and RNA can be controlled by membrane-based methods of water removal or by diffusion of multivalent cations across an interface stabilized by a membrane. Oligonucleotide solutions are electrokinetically stabilized colloids, and crystals can form by the controlled addition of multivalent cations.

  12. Small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of tabanids and hippoboscids (Diptera: Brachycera): evolutionary relationships and comparison with other Diptera.

    PubMed

    Carreno, R A; Barta, J R

    1998-11-01

    The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes of hippoboscid (Ornithoica vicina Walker) and tabanid (Chrysops niger Macquart) Diptera were sequenced to determine their phylogenetic position within the order and to determine whether or not extensive hypervariable regions in this gene are widespread in the Diptera. A parsimony analysis of an alignment containing 8 dipteran sequences produced a single most parsimonious tree that placed O. vicina as sister group to Drosophila melanogaster Meigen. The tabanid Chrysops niger was sister group to the asilomorphan taxa, and the sister group to the Brachycera was a Tipula sp. although this relationship was not supported by bootstrap analysis. The hippoboscid and tabanid sequences contain extensive hypervariable regions in the V2, V4, V6, and V7 regions as do other Diptera. When these regions of the alignment were excluded from the phylogenetic analysis, a single most parsimonious tree was found. This tree had an identical overall topology to the tree obtained from the total data set. The hypervariable regions in parts of the dipteran SSU rRNA genes were more extensive in the nematocerous dipteran sequences used in this study than in the other dipteran representatives; these hypervariable regions may be of more utility in inferring relationship among species and subspecies than at the suprageneric level.

  13. Analysis of the Gap Junction-dependent Transfer of miRNA with 3D-FRAP Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lemcke, Heiko; Voronina, Natalia; Steinhoff, Gustav; David, Robert

    2017-06-19

    Small antisense RNAs, like miRNA and siRNA, play an important role in cellular physiology and pathology and, moreover, can be used as therapeutic agents in the treatment of several diseases. The development of new, innovative strategies for miRNA/siRNA therapy is based on an extensive knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Recent data suggest that small RNAs are exchanged between cells in a gap junction-dependent manner, thereby inducing gene regulatory effects in the recipient cell. Molecular biological techniques and flow cytometric analysis are commonly used to study the intercellular exchange of miRNA. However, these methods do not provide high temporal resolution, which is necessary when studying the gap junctional flux of molecules. Therefore, to investigate the impact of miRNA/siRNA as intercellular signaling molecules, novel tools are needed that will allow for the analysis of these small RNAs at the cellular level. The present protocol describes the application of three-dimensional fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (3D-FRAP) microscopy to elucidating the gap junction-dependent exchange of miRNA molecules between cardiac cells. Importantly, this straightforward and non-invasive live-cell imaging approach allows for the visualization and quantification of the gap junctional shuttling of fluorescently labeled small RNAs in real time, with high spatio-temporal resolution. The data obtained by 3D-FRAP confirm a novel pathway of intercellular gene regulation, where small RNAs act as signaling molecules within the intercellular network.

  14. Essential Requirements for Robust Signaling in Hfq Dependent Small RNA Networks

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, David N.; Lim, Han N.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria possess networks of small RNAs (sRNAs) that are important for modulating gene expression. At the center of many of these sRNA networks is the Hfq protein. Hfq's role is to quickly match cognate sRNAs and target mRNAs from among a large number of possible combinations and anneal them to form duplexes. Here we show using a kinetic model that Hfq can efficiently and robustly achieve this difficult task by minimizing the sequestration of sRNAs and target mRNAs in Hfq complexes. This sequestration can be reduced by two non-mutually exclusive kinetic mechanisms. The first mechanism involves heterotropic cooperativity (where sRNA and target mRNA binding to Hfq is influenced by other RNAs bound to Hfq); this cooperativity can selectively decrease singly-bound Hfq complexes and ternary complexes with non-cognate sRNA-target mRNA pairs while increasing cognate ternary complexes. The second mechanism relies on frequent RNA dissociation enabling the rapid cycling of sRNAs and target mRNAs among different Hfq complexes; this increases the probability the cognate ternary complex forms before the sRNAs and target mRNAs degrade. We further demonstrate that the performance of sRNAs in isolation is not predictive of their performance within a network. These findings highlight the importance of experimentally characterizing duplex formation in physiologically relevant contexts with multiple RNAs competing for Hfq. The model will provide a valuable framework for guiding and interpreting these experiments. PMID:21876666

  15. MicroRNA-dependent regulation of transcription in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Molina-Pinelo, Sonia; Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Pastor, Maria Dolores; Hergueta, Marta; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; García-Carbonero, Rocío; Nogal, Ana; Suárez, Rocío; Salinas, Ana; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Lopez-Rios, Fernando; Agulló-Ortuño, Maria Teresa; Ferrer, Irene; Perpiñá, Asunción; Palacios, José; Carnero, Amancio; Paz-Ares, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) and adenocarcinoma are the most common histological subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and have been traditionally managed in the clinic as a single entity. Increasing evidence, however, illustrates the biological diversity of these two histological subgroups of lung cancer, and supports the need to improve our understanding of the molecular basis beyond the different phenotypes if we aim to develop more specific and individualized targeted therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify microRNA (miRNA)-dependent transcriptional regulation differences between SCC and adenocarcinoma histological lung cancer subtypes. In this work, paired miRNA (667 miRNAs by TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA)) and mRNA profiling (Whole Genome 44 K array G112A, Agilent) was performed in tumor samples of 44 NSCLC patients. Nine miRNAs and 56 mRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in SCC versus adenocarcinoma samples. Eleven of these 56 mRNA were predicted as targets of the miRNAs identified to be differently expressed in these two histological conditions. Of them, 6 miRNAs (miR-149, miR-205, miR-375, miR-378, miR-422a and miR-708) and 9 target genes (CEACAM6, CGN, CLDN3, ABCC3, MLPH, ACSL5, TMEM45B, MUC1) were validated by quantitative PCR in an independent cohort of 41 lung cancer patients. Furthermore, the inverse correlation between mRNAs and microRNAs expression was also validated. These results suggest miRNA-dependent transcriptional regulation differences play an important role in determining key hallmarks of NSCLC, and may provide new biomarkers for personalized treatment strategies.

  16. MicroRNA-Dependent Regulation of Transcription in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Pinelo, Sonia; Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Pastor, Maria Dolores; Hergueta, Marta; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; García-Carbonero, Rocío; Nogal, Ana; Suárez, Rocío; Salinas, Ana; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Lopez-Rios, Fernando; Agulló-Ortuño, Maria Teresa; Ferrer, Irene; Perpiñá, Asunción; Palacios, José; Carnero, Amancio; Paz-Ares, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) and adenocarcinoma are the most common histological subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and have been traditionally managed in the clinic as a single entity. Increasing evidence, however, illustrates the biological diversity of these two histological subgroups of lung cancer, and supports the need to improve our understanding of the molecular basis beyond the different phenotypes if we aim to develop more specific and individualized targeted therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify microRNA (miRNA)-dependent transcriptional regulation differences between SCC and adenocarcinoma histological lung cancer subtypes. In this work, paired miRNA (667 miRNAs by TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA)) and mRNA profiling (Whole Genome 44 K array G112A, Agilent) was performed in tumor samples of 44 NSCLC patients. Nine miRNAs and 56 mRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in SCC versus adenocarcinoma samples. Eleven of these 56 mRNA were predicted as targets of the miRNAs identified to be differently expressed in these two histological conditions. Of them, 6 miRNAs (miR-149, miR-205, miR-375, miR-378, miR-422a and miR-708) and 9 target genes (CEACAM6, CGN, CLDN3, ABCC3, MLPH, ACSL5, TMEM45B, MUC1) were validated by quantitative PCR in an independent cohort of 41 lung cancer patients. Furthermore, the inverse correlation between mRNAs and microRNAs expression was also validated. These results suggest miRNA-dependent transcriptional regulation differences play an important role in determining key hallmarks of NSCLC, and may provide new biomarkers for personalized treatment strategies. PMID:24625834

  17. Self-assembling HA/PEI/dsRNA-p21 ternary complexes for CD44 mediated small active RNA delivery to colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chen-Lin; Han, Yan-Xing; Guo, Hui-Hui; Ma, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2017-11-01

    Our previous work proved that sequence specific double strand RNA (dsRNA-p21) effectively activated p21 gene expression of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and consequently suppressed CRC growth. However, efficient delivery system is a significant challenge to achieve sufficient therapy. In this study, a self-assembled HA/PEI/dsRNA-p21 ternary complex (TC-dsRNA-p21) was developed for the tumor-target delivery of dsRNA-p21 into CRC cells. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was introduced to shield the PEI/dsRNA-p21 binary complexes (BC-dsRNA-p21) for reducing the cytotoxicity of PEI and for increasing the tumor-targeted intracellular uptake by cancer cells through HA-CD44 mediated endocytosis. Comparing to the BC-dsRNA-p21, the TC-dsRNA-p21 showed increase in size, decrease in zeta potential, low cytotoxicity as well as high stability in physiological conditions due to the anionic shielding. Confocal microscopy analysis and flow cytometry confirmed that TC-dsRNA-p21 had high transfection efficiency in the CD44-abundant Lovo cells, as compared with binary complex. In vitro physiological experiment showed that, comparing to the control group, the TC-dsRNA-p21 effectively activated the expression of p21 mRNA and P21 protein, causing blockage of cell cycle at G 0 /G 1 phase and suppression of cancer cell proliferation as well as colony formation. Furthermore, in vivo distribution experiment demonstrated that the TC-dsRNA-p21 could effectively accumulate at rectal wall for up to 10 h, following in situ application. These findings indicated that TC-dsRNA-p21 might hold great potential for delivering dsRNA-p21 to treat CRC.

  18. MicroRNA-like viral small RNA from porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus negatively regulates viral replication by targeting the viral nonstructural protein 2.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Yan, Yunhuan; Zhang, Angke; Gao, Jiming; Zhang, Chong; Wang, Xue; Hou, Gaopeng; Zhang, Gaiping; Jia, Jinbu; Zhou, En-Min; Xiao, Shuqi

    2016-12-13

    Many viruses encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that are small non-coding single-stranded RNAs which play critical roles in virus-host interactions. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically impactful viruses in the swine industry. The present study sought to determine whether PRRSV encodes miRNAs that could regulate PRRSV replication. Four viral small RNAs (vsRNAs) were mapped to the stem-loop structures in the ORF1a, ORF1b and GP2a regions of the PRRSV genome by bioinformatics prediction and experimental verification. Of these, the structures with the lowest minimum free energy (MFE) values predicted for PRRSV-vsRNA1 corresponded to typical stem-loop, hairpin structures. Inhibition of PRRSV-vsRNA1 function led to significant increases in viral replication. Transfection with PRRSV-vsRNA1 mimics significantly inhibited PRRSV replication in primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The time-dependent increase in the abundance of PRRSV-vsRNA1 mirrored the gradual upregulation of PRRSV RNA expression. Knockdown of proteins associated with cellular miRNA biogenesis demonstrated that Drosha and Argonaute (Ago2) are involved in PRRSV-vsRNA1 biogenesis. Moreover, PRRSV-vsRNA1 bound specifically to the nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2)-coding sequence of PRRSV genome RNA. Collectively, the results reveal that PRRSV encodes a functional PRRSV-vsRNA1 which auto-regulates PRRSV replication by directly targeting and suppressing viral NSP2 gene expression. These findings not only provide new insights into the mechanism of the pathogenesis of PRRSV, but also explore a potential avenue for controlling PRRSV infection using viral small RNAs.

  19. DEAD-box RNA helicase Dbp4 is required for small-subunit processome formation and function.

    PubMed

    Soltanieh, Sahar; Osheim, Yvonne N; Spasov, Krasimir; Trahan, Christian; Beyer, Ann L; Dragon, François

    2015-03-01

    DEAD-box RNA helicase Dbp4 is required for 18S rRNA synthesis: cellular depletion of Dbp4 impairs the early cleavage reactions of the pre-rRNA and causes U14 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) to remain associated with pre-rRNA. Immunoprecipitation experiments (IPs) carried out with whole-cell extracts (WCEs) revealed that hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Dbp4 is associated with U3 snoRNA but not with U14 snoRNA. IPs with WCEs also showed association with the U3-specific protein Mpp10, which suggests that Dbp4 interacts with the functionally active U3 RNP; this particle, called the small-subunit (SSU) processome, can be observed at the 5' end of nascent pre-rRNA. Electron microscopy analyses indicated that depletion of Dbp4 compromised SSU processome formation and cotranscriptional cleavage of the pre-rRNA. Sucrose density gradient analyses revealed that depletion of U3 snoRNA or the Mpp10 protein inhibited the release of U14 snoRNA from pre-rRNA, just as was seen with Dbp4-depleted cells, indicating that alteration of SSU processome components has significant consequences for U14 snoRNA dynamics. We also found that the C-terminal extension flanking the catalytic core of Dbp4 plays an important role in the release of U14 snoRNA from pre-rRNA. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Comprehensive comparative analysis of 5'-end RNA-sequencing methods.

    PubMed

    Adiconis, Xian; Haber, Adam L; Simmons, Sean K; Levy Moonshine, Ami; Ji, Zhe; Busby, Michele A; Shi, Xi; Jacques, Justin; Lancaster, Madeline A; Pan, Jen Q; Regev, Aviv; Levin, Joshua Z

    2018-06-04

    Specialized RNA-seq methods are required to identify the 5' ends of transcripts, which are critical for studies of gene regulation, but these methods have not been systematically benchmarked. We directly compared six such methods, including the performance of five methods on a single human cellular RNA sample and a new spike-in RNA assay that helps circumvent challenges resulting from uncertainties in annotation and RNA processing. We found that the 'cap analysis of gene expression' (CAGE) method performed best for mRNA and that most of its unannotated peaks were supported by evidence from other genomic methods. We applied CAGE to eight brain-related samples and determined sample-specific transcription start site (TSS) usage, as well as a transcriptome-wide shift in TSS usage between fetal and adult brain.

  1. Identification of a Pyridoxine-Derived Small-Molecule Inhibitor Targeting Dengue Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Tao; Colby-Germinario, Susan P; Hassounah, Said; Quashie, Peter K; Han, Yingshan; Oliveira, Maureen; Stranix, Brent R; Wainberg, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity of the dengue virus (DENV) NS5 protein is an attractive target for drug design. Here, we report the identification of a novel class of inhibitor (i.e., an active-site metal ion chelator) that acts against DENV RdRp activity. DENV RdRp utilizes a two-metal-ion mechanism of catalysis; therefore, we constructed a small library of compounds, through mechanism-based drug design, aimed at chelating divalent metal ions in the catalytic site of DENV RdRp. We now describe a pyridoxine-derived small-molecule inhibitor that targets DENV RdRp and show that 5-benzenesulfonylmethyl-3-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid hydroxyamide (termed DMB220) inhibited the RdRp activity of DENV serotypes 1 to 4 at low micromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s of 5 to 6.7 μM) in an enzymatic assay. The antiviral activity of DMB220 against DENV infection was also verified in a cell-based assay and showed a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of <3 μM. Enzyme assays proved that DMB220 was competitive with nucleotide incorporation. DMB220 did not inhibit the enzymatic activity of recombinant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and showed only weak inhibition of HIV-1 integrase strand transfer activity, indicating high specificity for DENV RdRp. S600T substitution in the DENV RdRp, which was previously shown to confer resistance to nucleoside analogue inhibitors (NI), conferred 3-fold hypersusceptibility to DMB220, and enzymatic analyses showed that this hypersusceptibility may arise from the decreased binding/incorporation efficiency of the natural NTP substrate without significantly impacting inhibitor binding. Thus, metal ion chelation at the active site of DENV RdRp represents a viable anti-DENV strategy, and DMB220 is the first of a new class of DENV inhibitor. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Small interfering RNA transfection against serum response factor mediates growth inhibition of benign prostatic hyperplasia fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Andrea; Aufderklamm, Stefan; Scheu, Katrin; Walker, Tobias; König, Olivia; Böttcher, Miriam; Niederlaender, Jan; Schwentner, Christian; Schlensak, Christian; Stenzl, Arnulf; Wendel, Hans Peter

    2013-02-01

    To treat urethral strictures of the lower urinary tract, urethrotomy is the method of choice. But this minimally invasive method suffers from poor outcome rates and leads often to restenosis of the urinary tract because of hyper-proliferating fibroblasts. Our aim is to minimize the proliferation of excessive tissue due to a new minimal invasive therapeutic approach. As an appropriate model, we isolated fibroblasts from different benign prostatic hyperplasia patients and transfected them with small interfering RNA (siRNA) against the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF), a key factor for cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. The resulting knockdown of SRF was examined on the messenger RNA level by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and on the protein level by western blot. The correlation of SRF silencing and impact on cell proliferation was examined by xCELLigence, 5-bromo-2'-deoxiuridine proliferation assay, total cell counts, and senescence assay. The transfection of primary prostatic fibroblasts with SRFsiRNA revealed specific and significant knockdown of SRF, leading to significant inhibition of proliferation after the second transfection, which was revealed by proliferation assay and total cell number. The results of this study indicate a substantial role of SRF in prostatic fibroblasts and we suggest that SRF silencing might be used for the treatment of urethral strictures to achieve a durably patent urethra.

  3. Identification and Validation of Novel Small Molecule Disruptors of HuR-mRNA Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoqing; Lan, Lan; Wilson, David Michael; Marquez, Rebecca T.; Tsao, Wei-chung; Gao, Philip; Roy, Anuradha; Turner, Benjamin Andrew; McDonald, Peter; Tunge, Jon A; Rogers, Steven A; Dixon, Dan A.; Aubé, Jeffrey; Xu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    HuR, an RNA binding protein, binds to adenine- and uridine-rich elements (ARE) in the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of target mRNAs, regulating their stability and translation. HuR is highly abundant in many types of cancer, and it promotes tumorigenesis by interacting with cancer-associated mRNAs, which encode proteins that are implicated in different tumor processes including cell proliferation, cell survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Drugs that disrupt the stabilizing effect of HuR upon mRNA targets could have dramatic effects on inhibiting cancer growth and persistence. In order to identify small molecules that directly disrupt the HuR–ARE interaction, we established a fluorescence polarization (FP) assay optimized for high throughput screening (HTS) using HuR protein and an ARE oligo from Musashi RNA-binding protein 1 (Msi1) mRNA, a HuR target. Following the performance of an HTS of ~6000 compounds, we discovered a cluster of potential disruptors, which were then validated by AlphaLISA (Amplified Luminescent Proximity Homogeneous Assay), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation (RNP IP) assay, and luciferase reporter functional studies. These compounds disrupted HuR–ARE interactions at the nanomolar level and blocked HuR function by competitive binding to HuR. These results support future studies toward chemical probes for a HuR function study and possibly a novel therapy for HuR-overexpressing cancers. PMID:25750985

  4. Small RNA Regulators of Plant-Hemipteran Interactions: Micromanagers with Versatile Roles

    PubMed Central

    Sattar, Sampurna; Thompson, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) in plants have important roles in regulating biological processes, including development, reproduction, and stress responses. Recent research indicates significant roles for sRNA-mediated gene silencing during plant-hemipteran interactions that involve all three of these biological processes. Plant responses to hemipteran feeding are determined by changes in the host transcriptome that appear to be fine-tuned by sRNAs. The role of sRNA in plant defense responses is complex. Different forms of sRNAs, with specific modes of action, regulate changes in the host transcriptome primarily through post-transcriptional gene silencing and occasionally through translational repression. Plant genetic resistance against hemipterans provides a model to explore the regulatory roles of sRNAs in plant defense. Aphid-induced sRNA expression in resistance genotypes delivers a new paradigm in understanding the regulation of R gene-mediated resistance in host plants. Unique sRNA profiles, including changes in sRNA biogenesis and expression can also provide insights into susceptibility to insect herbivores. Activation of phytohormone-mediated defense responses against insect herbivory is another hallmark of this interaction, and recent studies have shown that regulation of phytohormone signaling is under the control of sRNAs. Hemipterans feeding on resistant plants also show changes in insect sRNA profiles, possibly influencing insect development and reproduction. Changes in insect traits such as fecundity, host range, and resistance to insecticides are impacted by sRNAs and can directly contribute to the success of certain insect biotypes. In addition to causing direct damage to the host plant, hemipteran insects are often vectors of viral pathogens. Insect anti-viral RNAi machinery is activated to limit virus accumulation, suggesting a role in insect immunity. Virus-derived long sRNAs strongly resemble insect piRNAs, leading to the speculation that the piRNA

  5. Silencing heat shock factor 1 by small interfering RNA abrogates heat shock-induced cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chang; Xi, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyin; Eapen, Mareen; Kukreja, Rakesh C

    2005-10-01

    Induction of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is known to associate with cellular response to divergent pathophysiological stresses including whole body hyperthermia (WBH) and ischemia-reperfusion. However, a direct cause-effect relationship between HSF1 activation and cytoprotection induced by myocardial preconditioning has not been conclusively established, mainly due to the limitations of available experiment tools. In the present studies, we used a novel approach to block HSF1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) technique in vivo. Male adult ICR mice were treated intraperitoneally with amine (vehicle) or siRNA specific to HSF1 (siRNA-HSF1). Three days later, WBH preconditioning protocol (rectal temperature 42 degrees C for 15 min) was applied to these mice under light anesthesia. WBH preconditioning resulted in 2.7-fold and 3.4-fold increase in cardiac HSF1 mRNA and protein expression respectively 2 hours after WBH, which was inhibited in the siRNA-treated mice. The silencing effect of siRNA on HSF1 was associated with complete loss of the infarct- limiting protection by WBH preconditioning after 48 hours. Pretreatment with siRNA-HSF1 had no effect on infarct size in the sham control animals as compared with the amine-treated group. DNA micro-array analysis revealed that siRNA-HSF1 caused a general inhibition on multiple members of HSP family, except Hsp32, Hsp47 and Hsp60. In addition, the silencing effect of siRNA on HSF1 and HSPs gene expression was transient and its inhibitory effect disappeared by 10 days after treatment. siRNA-HSF1 also impaired the thermotolerance of the heat shocked mice as indicated by higher mortality following WBH. For the first time, we have applied siRNA technique in the field of myocardial preconditioning to demonstrate HSF1 activation as an essential step in WBH preconditioning against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  6. Small Molecule Inhibition of microRNA-210 Reprograms an Oncogenic Hypoxic Circuit.

    PubMed

    Costales, Matthew G; Haga, Christopher L; Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Phinney, Donald G; Disney, Matthew D

    2017-03-08

    A hypoxic state is critical to the metastatic and invasive characteristics of cancer. Numerous pathways play critical roles in cancer maintenance, many of which include noncoding RNAs such as microRNA (miR)-210 that regulates hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs). Herein, we describe the identification of a small molecule named Targapremir-210 that binds to the Dicer site of the miR-210 hairpin precursor. This interaction inhibits production of the mature miRNA, derepresses glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1-like enzyme (GPD1L), a hypoxia-associated protein negatively regulated by miR-210, decreases HIF-1α, and triggers apoptosis of triple negative breast cancer cells only under hypoxic conditions. Further, Targapremir-210 inhibits tumorigenesis in a mouse xenograft model of hypoxic triple negative breast cancer. Many factors govern molecular recognition of biological targets by small molecules. For protein, chemoproteomics and activity-based protein profiling are invaluable tools to study small molecule target engagement and selectivity in cells. Such approaches are lacking for RNA, leaving a void in the understanding of its druggability. We applied Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull Down (Chem-CLIP) to study the cellular selectivity and the on- and off-targets of Targapremir-210. Targapremir-210 selectively recognizes the miR-210 precursor and can differentially recognize RNAs in cells that have the same target motif but have different expression levels, revealing this important feature for selectively drugging RNAs for the first time. These studies show that small molecules can be rapidly designed to selectively target RNAs and affect cellular responses to environmental conditions, resulting in favorable benefits against cancer. Further, they help define rules for identifying druggable targets in the transcriptome.

  7. Functional Analysis of RNA Interference-Related Soybean Pod Borer (Lepidoptera) Genes Based on Transcriptome Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanli; Yang, Mingyu; Li, Yang; Li, Tianyu; Liu, Xinxin; Wang, Guoyue; Wang, Zhanchun; Jin, Xianhao; Li, Wenbin

    2018-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is useful for controlling pests of agriculturally important crops. The soybean pod borer (SPB) is the most important soybean pest in Northeastern Asia. In an earlier study, we confirmed that the SPB could be controlled via transgenic plant-mediated RNAi. Here, the SPB transcriptome was sequenced to identify RNAi-related genes, and also to establish an RNAi-of-RNAi assay system for evaluating genes involved in the SPB systemic RNAi response. The core RNAi genes, as well as genes potentially involved in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) uptake were identified based on SPB transcriptome sequences. A phylogenetic analysis and the characterization of these core components as well as dsRNA uptake related genes revealed that they contain conserved domains essential for the RNAi pathway. The results of the RNAi-of-RNAi assay involving Laccase 2 (a critical cuticle pigmentation gene) as a marker showed that genes encoding the sid-like (Sil1), scavenger receptor class C (Src), and scavenger receptor class B (Srb3 and Srb4) proteins of the endocytic pathway were required for SPB cellular uptake of dsRNA. The SPB response was inferred to contain three functional small RNA pathways (i.e., miRNA, siRNA, and piRNA pathways). Additionally, the SPB systemic RNA response may rely on systemic RNA interference deficient transmembrane channel-mediated and receptor-mediated endocytic pathways. The results presented herein may be useful for developing RNAi-mediated methods to control SPB infestations in soybean. PMID:29773992

  8. Functional Analysis of RNA Interference-Related Soybean Pod Borer (Lepidoptera) Genes Based on Transcriptome Sequences.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanli; Yang, Mingyu; Li, Yang; Li, Tianyu; Liu, Xinxin; Wang, Guoyue; Wang, Zhanchun; Jin, Xianhao; Li, Wenbin

    2018-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is useful for controlling pests of agriculturally important crops. The soybean pod borer (SPB) is the most important soybean pest in Northeastern Asia. In an earlier study, we confirmed that the SPB could be controlled via transgenic plant-mediated RNAi. Here, the SPB transcriptome was sequenced to identify RNAi-related genes, and also to establish an RNAi-of-RNAi assay system for evaluating genes involved in the SPB systemic RNAi response. The core RNAi genes, as well as genes potentially involved in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) uptake were identified based on SPB transcriptome sequences. A phylogenetic analysis and the characterization of these core components as well as dsRNA uptake related genes revealed that they contain conserved domains essential for the RNAi pathway. The results of the RNAi-of-RNAi assay involving Laccas e 2 (a critical cuticle pigmentation gene) as a marker showed that genes encoding the sid-like ( Sil1 ), scavenger receptor class C ( Src ), and scavenger receptor class B ( Srb3 and Srb4 ) proteins of the endocytic pathway were required for SPB cellular uptake of dsRNA. The SPB response was inferred to contain three functional small RNA pathways (i.e., miRNA, siRNA, and piRNA pathways). Additionally, the SPB systemic RNA response may rely on systemic RNA interference deficient transmembrane channel-mediated and receptor-mediated endocytic pathways. The results presented herein may be useful for developing RNAi-mediated methods to control SPB infestations in soybean.

  9. One-pot synthesis of pH-responsive hybrid nanogel particles for the intracellular delivery of small interfering RNA

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, Alessandro; Evangelopoulos, Michael; Corbo, Claudia; Scaria, Shilpa; Hu, Ye; Haddix, Seth G.; Corradetti, Bruna; Salvatore, Francesco; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a novel, one-pot synthesis of hybrid nanoparticles formed by a nanostructured inorganic silica core and an organic pH-responsive hydrogel shell. This easy-to-perform, oil-in-water emulsion process synthesizes fluorescently-doped silica nanoparticles wrapped within a tunable coating of cationic poly(2-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate) hydrogel in one step. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated that the hydrogel-coated nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in the aqueous phase. The formation of covalent chemical bonds between the silica and the polymer increases the stability of the organic phase around the inorganic core as demonstrated by thermogravimetric analysis. The cationic nature of the hydrogel is responsible for the pH buffering properties of the nanostructured system and was evaluated by titration experiments. Zeta-potential analysis demonstrated that the charge of the system was reversed when transitioned from acidic to basic pH and vice versa. Consequently, small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be loaded and released in an acidic pH environment thereby enabling the hybrid particles and their payload to avoid endosomal sequestration and enzymatic degradation. These nanoparticles, loaded with specific siRNA molecules directed towards the transcript of the membrane receptor CXCR4, significantly decreased the expression of this protein in a human breast cancer cell line (i.e., MDA-MB-231). Moreover, intravenous administration of siRNA-loaded nanoparticles demonstrated a preferential accumulation at the tumor site that resulted in a reduction of CXCR4 expression. PMID:26901429

  10. Mapping Argonaute and conventional RNA-binding protein interactions with RNA at single-nucleotide resolution using HITS-CLIP and CIMS analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Michael; Zhang, Chaolin; Gantman, Emily Conn; Mele, Aldo; Darnell, Jennifer C.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Identifying sites where RNA binding proteins (RNABPs) interact with target RNAs opens the door to understanding the vast complexity of RNA regulation. UV-crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) is a transformative technology in which RNAs purified from in vivo cross-linked RNA-protein complexes are sequenced to reveal footprints of RNABP:RNA contacts. CLIP combined with high throughput sequencing (HITS-CLIP) is a generalizable strategy to produce transcriptome-wide RNA binding maps with higher accuracy and resolution than standard RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) profiling or purely computational approaches. Applying CLIP to Argonaute proteins has expanded the utility of this approach to mapping binding sites for microRNAs and other small regulatory RNAs. Finally, recent advances in data analysis take advantage of crosslinked-induced mutation sites (CIMS) to refine RNA-binding maps to single-nucleotide resolution. Once IP conditions are established, HITS-CLIP takes approximately eight days to prepare RNA for sequencing. Established pipelines for data analysis, including for CIMS, take 3-4 days. PMID:24407355

  11. Genome-Wide Analysis of A-to-I RNA Editing.

    PubMed

    Savva, Yiannis A; Laurent, Georges St; Reenan, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine (A)-to-inosine (I) RNA editing is a fundamental posttranscriptional modification that ensures the deamination of A-to-I in double-stranded (ds) RNA molecules. Intriguingly, the A-to-I RNA editing system is particularly active in the nervous system of higher eukaryotes, altering a plethora of noncoding and coding sequences. Abnormal RNA editing is highly associated with many neurological phenotypes and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying RNA editing-mediated pathogenesis still remain enigmatic and have attracted increasing attention from researchers. Over the last decade, methods available to perform genome-wide transcriptome analysis, have evolved rapidly. Within the RNA editing field researchers have adopted next-generation sequencing technologies to identify RNA-editing sites within genomes and to elucidate the underlying process. However, technical challenges associated with editing site discovery have hindered efforts to uncover comprehensive editing site datasets, resulting in the general perception that the collections of annotated editing sites represent only a small minority of the total number of sites in a given organism, tissue, or cell type of interest. Additionally to doubts about sensitivity, existing RNA-editing site lists often contain high percentages of false positives, leading to uncertainty about their validity and usefulness in downstream studies. An accurate investigation of A-to-I editing requires properly validated datasets of editing sites with demonstrated and transparent levels of sensitivity and specificity. Here, we describe a high signal-to-noise method for RNA-editing site detection using single-molecule sequencing (SMS). With this method, authentic RNA-editing sites may be differentiated from artifacts. Machine learning approaches provide a procedure to improve upon and experimentally validate sequencing outcomes through use of computationally predicted, iterative feedback loops

  12. Small Molecules Targeting the miRNA-Binding Domain of Argonaute 2: From Computer-Aided Molecular Design to RNA Immunoprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Bellissimo, Teresa; Masciarelli, Silvia; Poser, Elena; Genovese, Ilaria; Del Rio, Alberto; Colotti, Gianni; Fazi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The development of small-molecule-based target therapy design for human disease and cancer is object of growing attention. Recently, specific microRNA (miRNA) mimicking compounds able to bind the miRNA-binding domain of Argonaute 2 protein (AGO2) to inhibit miRNA loading and its functional activity were described. Computer-aided molecular design techniques and RNA immunoprecipitation represent suitable approaches to identify and experimentally determine if a compound is able to impair the loading of miRNAs on AGO2 protein. Here, we describe these two methodologies that we recently used to select a specific compound able to interfere with the AGO2 functional activity and able to improve the retinoic acid-dependent myeloid differentiation of leukemic cells.

  13. Homo sapiens Systemic RNA Interference-defective-1 Transmembrane Family Member 1 (SIDT1) Protein Mediates Contact-dependent Small RNA Transfer and MicroRNA-21-driven Chemoresistance*

    PubMed Central

    Elhassan, Mohamed O.; Christie, Jennifer; Duxbury, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Locally initiated RNA interference (RNAi) has the potential for spatial propagation, inducing posttranscriptional gene silencing in distant cells. In Caenorhabditis elegans, systemic RNAi requires a phylogenetically conserved transmembrane channel, SID-1. Here, we show that a human SID-1 orthologue, SIDT1, facilitates rapid, contact-dependent, bidirectional small RNA transfer between human cells, resulting in target-specific non-cell-autonomous RNAi. Intercellular small RNA transfer can be both homotypic and heterotypic. We show SIDT1-mediated intercellular transfer of microRNA-21 to be a driver of resistance to the nucleoside analog gemcitabine in human adenocarcinoma cells. Documentation of a SIDT1-dependent small RNA transfer mechanism and the associated phenotypic effects on chemoresistance in human cancer cells raises the possibility that conserved systemic RNAi pathways contribute to the acquisition of drug resistance. Mediators of non-cell-autonomous RNAi may be tractable targets for novel therapies aimed at improving the efficacy of current cytotoxic agents. PMID:22174421

  14. [Atelocollagen-mediated small interfering RNA delivery for effective gene silencing in rat vein grafts].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xue-feng; Dong, Nian-guo; Sun, Zong-quan; Su, Wei; Shi, Jia-wei

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of using small interfering RNA targeting TF as a therapy for vein graft failure. External jugular vein to carotid artery interposition vein grafts, which were applied to a low flow condition, were made in 120 Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 260 to 300 g. These rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, 30 rats each group. Group A was atelocollagen-TF Stealth Select RNAi group. Group B was atelocollagen-TF Stealth RNAi group. Group C was atelocollagen group. Group D was control group. Small interfering RNA mixed with atelocollagen was administrated to the external wall of grafted veins. The TF protein expression of vein grafts was analyzed by Western blot at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postoperatively, and by immunochemistry at 3 d postoperatively. The proliferation index was determined at 14 d postoperatively. Neointimal hyperplasia was evaluated at 28 d postoperatively. BLOCK-iT fluorescent oligo was used to confirm its stability and successful transfer into the vein graft wall at 3 and 7 d postoperatively for another group (n=12). Fluorescence of BLOCK-iT fluorescent oligo could be detected in the graft wall even at 7 d postoperatively. Knockdown of the TF expression was achieved by perivascular application of siRNA using atelocollagen. Compared with control group, the intima thickness at 28 d after grafting was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). This phenomenon was preceded by significant reduction of cell proliferation in siRNA-treated grafts at 14 d postoperatively (P < 0.05). The expression of TF in vein grafts can be effectively inhibited by specific siRNAs using a atelocollagen-based nonviral delivery approach in vivo, so that the neointimal thickening can be prevented. Transplants;

  15. Role of the Trypanosoma brucei HEN1 Family Methyltransferase in Small Interfering RNA Modification

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Huafang; Barnes, Rebecca L.; Carriero, Nicholas; Atayde, Vanessa D.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic protozoa of the flagellate order Kinetoplastida represent one of the deepest branches of the eukaryotic tree. Among this group of organisms, the mechanism of RNA interference (RNAi) has been investigated in Trypanosoma brucei and to a lesser degree in Leishmania (Viannia) spp. The pathway is triggered by long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and in T. brucei requires a set of five core genes, including a single Argonaute (AGO) protein, T. brucei AGO1 (TbAGO1). The five genes are conserved in Leishmania (Viannia) spp. but are absent in other major kinetoplastid species, such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major. In T. brucei small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are methylated at the 3′ end, whereas Leishmania (Viannia) sp. siRNAs are not. Here we report that T. brucei HEN1, an ortholog of the metazoan HEN1 2′-O-methyltransferases, is required for methylation of siRNAs. Loss of TbHEN1 causes a reduction in the length of siRNAs. The shorter siRNAs in hen1−/− parasites are single stranded and associated with TbAGO1, and a subset carry a nontemplated uridine at the 3′ end. These findings support a model wherein TbHEN1 methylates siRNA 3′ ends after they are loaded into TbAGO1 and this methylation protects siRNAs from uridylation and 3′ trimming. Moreover, expression of TbHEN1 in Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis did not result in siRNA 3′ end methylation, further emphasizing mechanistic differences in the trypanosome and Leishmania RNAi mechanisms. PMID:24186950

  16. Control of female gamete formation by a small RNA pathway in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Olmedo-Monfil, Vianey; Durán-Figueroa, Noé; Arteaga-Vázquez, Mario; Demesa-Arévalo, Edgar; Autran, Daphné; Grimanelli, Daniel; Slotkin, R Keith; Martienssen, Robert A; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2010-03-25

    In the ovules of most sexual flowering plants female gametogenesis is initiated from a single surviving gametic cell, the functional megaspore, formed after meiosis of the somatically derived megaspore mother cell (MMC). Because some mutants and certain sexual species exhibit more than one MMC, and many others are able to form gametes without meiosis (by apomixis), it has been suggested that somatic cells in the ovule are competent to respond to a local signal likely to have an important function in determination. Here we show that the Arabidopsis protein ARGONAUTE 9 (AGO9) controls female gamete formation by restricting the specification of gametophyte precursors in a dosage-dependent, non-cell-autonomous manner. Mutations in AGO9 lead to the differentiation of multiple gametic cells that are able to initiate gametogenesis. The AGO9 protein is not expressed in the gamete lineage; instead, it is expressed in cytoplasmic foci of somatic companion cells. Mutations in SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING 3 and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 6 exhibit an identical defect to ago9 mutants, indicating that the movement of small RNA (sRNAs) silencing out of somatic companion cells is necessary for controlling the specification of gametic cells. AGO9 preferentially interacts with 24-nucleotide sRNAs derived from transposable elements (TEs), and its activity is necessary to silence TEs in female gametes and their accessory cells. Our results show that AGO9-dependent sRNA silencing is crucial to specify cell fate in the Arabidopsis ovule, and that epigenetic reprogramming in companion cells is necessary for sRNA-dependent silencing in plant gametes.

  17. Statistical Analysis Techniques for Small Sample Sizes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navard, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    The small sample sizes problem which is encountered when dealing with analysis of space-flight data is examined. Because of such a amount of data available, careful analyses are essential to extract the maximum amount of information with acceptable accuracy. Statistical analysis of small samples is described. The background material necessary for understanding statistical hypothesis testing is outlined and the various tests which can be done on small samples are explained. Emphasis is on the underlying assumptions of each test and on considerations needed to choose the most appropriate test for a given type of analysis.

  18. Application of small RNA technology for improved control of parasitic helminths.

    PubMed

    Britton, Collette; Winter, Alan D; Marks, Neil D; Gu, Henry; McNeilly, Tom N; Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2015-08-15

    Over the last decade microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. miRNAs are short, non-coding RNAs that regulate a variety of processes including cancer, organ development and immune function. This class of small RNAs bind with partial complementarity to their target mRNA sequences, most often in the 3'UTR, to negatively regulate gene expression. In parasitic helminths, miRNAs are being increasingly studied for their potential roles in development and host-parasite interactions. The availability of genome data, combined with small RNA sequencing, has paved the way to profile miRNAs expressed at particular developmental stages for many parasitic helminths. While some miRNAs are conserved across species, others appear to be unique to specific parasites, suggesting important roles in adaptation and survival in the host environment. Some miRNAs are released from parasites, in exosomes or in protein complexes, and the potential effects of these on host immune function are being increasingly studied. In addition, release of miRNAs from schistosome and filarial parasites into host plasma can be exploited for the development of specific and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of infection. Interfering with miRNA function, as well as silencing key components of the pathways they regulate, will progress our understanding of parasite development and provide a novel approach to therapeutic control. RNA interference (RNAi) by siRNAs has proven to be inconsistent in parasitic nematodes. However, the recent successes reported for schistosome and liver fluke RNAi, encourage further efforts to enhance delivery of RNA and improve in vitro culture systems and assays to monitor phenotypic effects in nematodes. These improvements are important for the establishment of reliable functional genomic platforms for novel drug and vaccine development. In this review we focus on the important roles of mi

  19. Regulation of Plasmodium yoelii oocyst development by strain- and stage-specific small-subunit rRNA.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yanwei; Zhu, Feng; Eastman, Richard T; Fu, Young; Zilversmit, Martine; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Hong, Lingxian; Liu, Shengfa; McCutchan, Thomas F; Pan, Weiqing; Xu, Wenyue; Li, Jian; Huang, Fusheng; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2015-03-10

    One unique feature of malaria parasites is the differential transcription of structurally distinct rRNA (rRNA) genes at different developmental stages: the A-type genes are transcribed mainly in asexual stages, whereas the S-type genes are expressed mostly in sexual or mosquito stages. Conclusive functional evidence of different rRNAs in regulating stage-specific parasite development, however, is still absent. Here we performed genetic crosses of Plasmodium yoelii parasites with one parent having an oocyst development defect (ODD) phenotype and another producing normal oocysts to identify the gene(s) contributing to the ODD. The parent with ODD--characterized as having small oocysts and lacking infective sporozoites--was obtained after introduction of a plasmid with a green fluorescent protein gene into the parasite genome and subsequent passages in mice. Quantitative trait locus analysis of genome-wide microsatellite genotypes of 48 progeny from the crosses linked an ~200-kb segment on chromosome 6 containing one of the S-type genes (D-type small subunit rRNA gene [D-ssu]) to the ODD. Fine mapping of the plasmid integration site, gene expression pattern, and gene knockout experiments demonstrated that disruption of the D-ssu gene caused the ODD phenotype. Interestingly, introduction of the D-ssu gene into the same parasite strain (self), but not into a different subspecies, significantly affected or completely ablated oocyst development, suggesting a stage- and subspecies (strain)-specific regulation of oocyst development by D-ssu. This study demonstrates that P. yoelii D-ssu is essential for normal oocyst and sporozoite development and that variation in the D-ssu sequence can have dramatic effects on parasite development. Malaria parasites are the only known organisms that express structurally distinct rRNA genes at different developmental stages. The differential expression of these genes suggests that they play unique roles during the complex life cycle of the

  20. Characterization of the Small RNA Transcriptome of the Marine Coccolithophorid, Emiliania huxleyi.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Gamarra, Jaime; Castro, Steven; Carrasco, Estela; Hernandez, Aaron; Mock, Thomas; Hadaegh, Ahmad R; Read, Betsy A

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs (smRNAs) control a variety of cellular processes by silencing target genes at the transcriptional or post-transcription level. While extensively studied in plants, relatively little is known about smRNAs and their targets in marine phytoplankton, such as Emiliania huxleyi (E. huxleyi). Deep sequencing was performed of smRNAs extracted at different time points as E. huxleyi cells transition from logarithmic to stationary phase growth in batch culture. Computational analyses predicted 18 E. huxleyi specific miRNAs. The 18 miRNA candidates and their precursors vary in length (18-24 nt and 71-252 nt, respectively), genome copy number (3-1,459), and the number of genes targeted (2-107). Stem-loop real time reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR was used to validate miRNA expression which varied by nearly three orders of magnitude when growth slows and cells enter stationary phase. Stem-loop RT PCR was also used to examine the expression profiles of miRNA in calcifying and non-calcifying cultures, and a small subset was found to be differentially expressed when nutrients become limiting and calcification is enhanced. In addition to miRNAs, endogenous small RNAs such as ra-siRNAs, ta-siRNAs, nat-siRNAs, and piwiRNAs were predicted along with the machinery for the biogenesis and processing of si-RNAs. This study is the first genome-wide investigation smRNAs pathways in E. huxleyi. Results provide new insights into the importance of smRNAs in regulating aspects of physiological growth and adaptation in marine phytoplankton and further challenge the notion that smRNAs evolved with multicellularity, expanding our perspective of these ancient regulatory pathways.

  1. Characterization of the Small RNA Transcriptome of the Marine Coccolithophorid, Emiliania huxleyi

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Gamarra, Jaime; Castro, Steven; Carrasco, Estela; Hernandez, Aaron; Mock, Thomas; Hadaegh, Ahmad R.; Read, Betsy A.

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs (smRNAs) control a variety of cellular processes by silencing target genes at the transcriptional or post-transcription level. While extensively studied in plants, relatively little is known about smRNAs and their targets in marine phytoplankton, such as Emiliania huxleyi (E. huxleyi). Deep sequencing was performed of smRNAs extracted at different time points as E. huxleyi cells transition from logarithmic to stationary phase growth in batch culture. Computational analyses predicted 18 E. huxleyi specific miRNAs. The 18 miRNA candidates and their precursors vary in length (18–24 nt and 71–252 nt, respectively), genome copy number (3–1,459), and the number of genes targeted (2–107). Stem-loop real time reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR was used to validate miRNA expression which varied by nearly three orders of magnitude when growth slows and cells enter stationary phase. Stem-loop RT PCR was also used to examine the expression profiles of miRNA in calcifying and non-calcifying cultures, and a small subset was found to be differentially expressed when nutrients become limiting and calcification is enhanced. In addition to miRNAs, endogenous small RNAs such as ra-siRNAs, ta-siRNAs, nat-siRNAs, and piwiRNAs were predicted along with the machinery for the biogenesis and processing of si-RNAs. This study is the first genome-wide investigation smRNAs pathways in E. huxleyi. Results provide new insights into the importance of smRNAs in regulating aspects of physiological growth and adaptation in marine phytoplankton and further challenge the notion that smRNAs evolved with multicellularity, expanding our perspective of these ancient regulatory pathways. PMID:27101007

  2. Increase in substance P precursor mRNA in noninflamed small-bowel sections in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Christoph W; Autschbach, Frank; Selvaggi, Federico; Shi, Xin; Di Mola, Fabio Francesco; Roggo, Antoine; Müller, Michael W; Di Sebastiano, Pierluigi; Büchler, Markus W; Giese, Thomas; Friess, Helmut

    2007-04-01

    Neuropeptides, such as substance P (SP), are mediators of neurogenic inflammation and play an important role in inflammatory disorders. To further investigate the role of the SP pathway in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we analyzed the following in normal intestinal tissue specimens and in tissue specimens from patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC): neurokinin receptor-1 (NK-1R); its isoforms (NK-1R-L and NK-1R-S); its ligand SP, encoded by preprotachykinin-A (PPT-A); and the SP-degradation enzyme, neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to simultaneously determine the expression of NK-1R-L, NK-1R-S, and PPT-A. Protein levels of NK-1R and NEP were determined by immunoblot analysis. In noninflamed small-bowel tissue samples of CD patients, PPT-A mRNA expression was significantly increased, whereas there was no difference between inflamed or noninflamed UC and normal intestinal tissue samples. Examining subgroups of diverse intestinal segments from CD and UC samples with various levels of inflammation revealed no differences in NK-1R-L and NK-1R-S mRNA expression, whereas there was a tendency toward overall lower NK-1R-S mRNA copy numbers. Immunoblot analysis showed upregulation of NK-1R protein levels in cases of IBD, with more pronounced enhancement in cases of CD than in UC. For NEP, there were no differences in protein levels in normal, CD, and UC intestinal tissues. These observations suggest a contribution of SP and its receptor, NK-1R, in the local inflammatory reaction in IBD and particularly in ileal CD. Moreover, significant upregulation of PPT-A mRNA in the noninflamed ileum of these patients suggests an influence of inflamed intestines on their healthy counterparts.

  3. Application of ion mobility-mass spectrometry to microRNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Kosuke; Hirose, Kenji; Izumi, Yoshihiro; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2013-03-01

    Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry is widely used for studying sequence determination and modification analysis of small RNAs. However, the efficiency of liquid chromatography-based separation of intact small RNA species is insufficient, since the physiochemical properties among small RNAs are very similar. In this study, we focused on ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS), which is a gas-phase separation technique coupled with mass spectrometry; we have evaluated the utility of IM-MS for microRNA (miRNA) analysis. A multiply charged deprotonated ion derived from an 18-24-nt-long miRNA was formed by electrospray ionization, and then the time, called the "drift time", taken by each ion to migrate through a buffer gas was measured. Each multivalent ion was temporally separated on the basis of the charge state and structural formation; 3 types of unique mass-mobility correlation patterns (i.e., chainlike-form, hairpin-form, and dimer-form) were present on the two-dimensional mobility-mass spectrum. Moreover, we found that the ion size (sequence length) and the secondary structures of the small RNAs strongly contributed to the IM-MS-based separation, although solvent conditions such as pH had no effect. Therefore, sequence isomers could also be discerned by the selection of each specific charged ion, i.e., the 6(-) charged ion reflected a majority among chainlike-, hairpin-, and other structures. We concluded that the IM-MS provides additional capability for separation; thus, this analytical method will be a powerful tool for comprehensive small RNA analysis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Integrated genomic analysis of mitochondrial RNA processing in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Idaghdour, Youssef; Hodgkinson, Alan

    2017-04-18

    The mitochondrial genome is transcribed as continuous polycistrons of RNA containing multiple genes. As a consequence, post-transcriptional events are critical for the regulation of gene expression and therefore all aspects of mitochondrial function. One particularly important process is the m 1 A/m 1 G RNA methylation of the ninth position of different mitochondrial tRNAs, which allows efficient processing of mitochondrial mRNAs and protein translation, and de-regulation of genes involved in these processes has been associated with altered mitochondrial function. Although mitochondria play a key role in cancer, the status of mitochondrial RNA processing in tumorigenesis is unknown. We measure and assess mitochondrial RNA processing using integrated genomic analysis of RNA sequencing and genotyping data from 1226 samples across 12 different cancer types. We focus on the levels of m 1 A and m 1 G RNA methylation in mitochondrial tRNAs in normal and tumor samples and use supervised and unsupervised statistical analysis to compare the levels of these modifications to patient whole genome genotypes, nuclear gene expression, and survival outcomes. We find significant changes to m 1 A and m 1 G RNA methylation levels in mitochondrial tRNAs in tumor tissues across all cancers. Pathways of RNA processing are strongly associated with methylation levels in normal tissues (P = 3.27 × 10 -31 ), yet these associations are lost in tumors. Furthermore, we report 18 gene-by-disease-state interactions where altered RNA methylation levels occur under cancer status conditional on genotype, implicating genes associated with mitochondrial function or cancer (e.g., CACNA2D2, LMO2, and FLT3) and suggesting that nuclear genetic variation can potentially modulate an individual's ability to maintain unaltered rates of mitochondrial RNA processing under cancer status. Finally, we report a significant association between the magnitude of methylation level changes in tumors and

  5. Lack of WDR36 leads to preimplantation embryonic lethality in mice and delays the formation of small subunit ribosomal RNA in human cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gallenberger, Martin; Meinel, Dominik M; Kroeber, Markus; Wegner, Michael; Milkereit, Philipp; Bösl, Michael R; Tamm, Ernst R

    2011-02-01

    Mutations in WD repeat domain 36 gene (WDR36) play a causative role in some forms of primary open-angle glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness worldwide. WDR36 is characterized by the presence of multiple WD40 repeats and shows homology to Utp21, an essential protein component of the yeast small subunit (SSU) processome required for maturation of 18S rRNA. To clarify the functional role of WDR36 in the mammalian organism, we generated and investigated mutant mice with a targeted deletion of Wdr36. In parallel experiments, we used RNA interference to deplete WDR36 mRNA in mouse embryos and cultured human trabecular meshwork (HTM-N) cells. Deletion of Wdr36 in the mouse caused preimplantation embryonic lethality, and essentially similar effects were observed when WDR36 mRNA was depleted in mouse embryos by RNA interference. Depletion of WDR36 mRNA in HTM-N cells caused apoptotic cell death and upregulation of mRNA for BAX, TP53 and CDKN1A. By immunocytochemistry, staining for WDR36 was observed in the nucleolus of cells, which co-localized with that of nucleolar proteins such as nucleophosmin and PWP2. In addition, recombinant and epitope-tagged WDR36 localized to the nucleolus of HTM-N cells. By northern blot analysis, a substantial decrease in 21S rRNA, the precursor of 18S rRNA, was observed following knockdown of WDR36. In addition, metabolic-labeling experiments consistently showed a delay of 18S rRNA maturation in WDR36-depleted cells. Our results provide evidence that WDR36 is an essential protein in mammalian cells which is involved in the nucleolar processing of SSU 18S rRNA.

  6. Quantitative and stoichiometric analysis of the microRNA content of exosomes.

    PubMed

    Chevillet, John R; Kang, Qing; Ruf, Ingrid K; Briggs, Hilary A; Vojtech, Lucia N; Hughes, Sean M; Cheng, Heather H; Arroyo, Jason D; Meredith, Emily K; Gallichotte, Emily N; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, Era L; Morrissey, Colm; Stirewalt, Derek L; Hladik, Florian; Yu, Evan Y; Higano, Celestia S; Tewari, Muneesh

    2014-10-14

    Exosomes have been proposed as vehicles for microRNA (miRNA) -based intercellular communication and a source of miRNA biomarkers in bodily fluids. Although exosome preparations contain miRNAs, a quantitative analysis of their abundance and stoichiometry is lacking. In the course of studying cancer-associated extracellular miRNAs in patient blood samples, we found that exosome fractions contained a small minority of the miRNA content of plasma. This low yield prompted us to perform a more quantitative assessment of the relationship between miRNAs and exosomes using a stoichiometric approach. We quantified both the number of exosomes and the number of miRNA molecules in replicate samples that were isolated from five diverse sources (i.e., plasma, seminal fluid, dendritic cells, mast cells, and ovarian cancer cells). Regardless of the source, on average, there was far less than one molecule of a given miRNA per exosome, even for the most abundant miRNAs in exosome preparations (mean ± SD across six exosome sources: 0.00825 ± 0.02 miRNA molecules/exosome). Thus, if miRNAs were distributed homogenously across the exosome population, on average, over 100 exosomes would need to be examined to observe one copy of a given abundant miRNA. This stoichiometry of miRNAs and exosomes suggests that most individual exosomes in standard preparations do not carry biologically significant numbers of miRNAs and are, therefore, individually unlikely to be functional as vehicles for miRNA-based communication. We propose revised models to reconcile the exosome-mediated, miRNA-based intercellular communication hypothesis with the observed stoichiometry of miRNAs associated with exosomes.

  7. Protein-tRNA Agarose Gel Retardation Assays for the Analysis of the N 6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine TcdA Function.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Francisco J; Gómez, Sara; Navas-Yuste, Sergio; López-Estepa, Miguel; Vega, M Cristina

    2017-06-21

    We demonstrate methods for the expression and purification of tRNA(UUU) in Escherichia coli and the analysis by gel retardation assays of the binding of tRNA(UUU) to TcdA, an N 6 -threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t 6 A) dehydratase, which cyclizes the threonylcarbamoyl side chain attached to A37 in the anticodon stem loop (ASL) of tRNAs to cyclic t 6 A (ct 6 A). Transcription of the synthetic gene encoding tRNA(UUU) is induced in E. coli with 1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and the cells containing tRNA are harvested 24 h post-induction. The RNA fraction is purified using the acid phenol extraction method. Pure tRNA is obtained by a gel filtration chromatography that efficiently separates the small-sized tRNA molecules from larger intact or fragmented nucleic acids. To analyze TcdA binding to tRNA(UUU), TcdA is mixed with tRNA(UUU) and separated on a native agarose gel at 4 °C. The free tRNA(UUU) migrates faster, while the TcdA-tRNA(UUU) complexes undergo a mobility retardation that can be observed upon staining of the gel. We demonstrate that TcdA is a tRNA(UUU)-binding enzyme. This gel retardation assay can be used to study TcdA mutants and the effects of additives and other proteins on binding.

  8. Small RNAs, big impact: small RNA pathways in transposon control and their effect on the host stress response.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Bayly S

    2013-12-01

    Transposons are mobile genetic elements that are a major constituent of most genomes. Organisms regulate transposable element expression, transposition, and insertion site preference, mitigating the genome instability caused by uncontrolled transposition. A recent burst of research has demonstrated the critical role of small non-coding RNAs in regulating transposition in fungi, plants, and animals. While mechanistically distinct, these pathways work through a conserved paradigm. The presence of a transposon is communicated by the presence of its RNA or by its integration into specific genomic loci. These signals are then translated into small non-coding RNAs that guide epigenetic modifications and gene silencing back to the transposon. In addition to being regulated by the host, transposable elements are themselves capable of influencing host gene expression. Transposon expression is responsive to environmental signals, and many transposons are activated by various cellular stresses. TEs can confer local gene regulation by acting as enhancers and can also confer global gene regulation through their non-coding RNAs. Thus, transposable elements can act as stress-responsive regulators that control host gene expression in cis and trans.

  9. Global analysis of pre-mRNA subcellular localization following splicing inhibition by spliceostatin A

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Rei; Kaida, Daisuke; Furuno, Masaaki; Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Noma, Shohei; Suzuki, Harukazu; Kawamura, Yumi; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Mayeda, Akila; Yoshida, Minoru

    2017-01-01

    Spliceostatin A (SSA) is a methyl ketal derivative of FR901464, a potent antitumor compound isolated from a culture broth of Pseudomonas sp. no. 2663. These compounds selectively bind to the essential spliceosome component SF3b, a subcomplex of the U2 snRNP, to inhibit pre-mRNA splicing. However, the mechanism of SSA's antitumor activity is unknown. It is noteworthy that SSA causes accumulation of a truncated form of the CDK inhibitor protein p27 translated from CDKN1B pre-mRNA, which is involved in SSA-induced cell-cycle arrest. However, it is still unclear whether pre-mRNAs are uniformly exported from the nucleus following SSA treatment. We performed RNA-seq analysis on nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of SSA-treated cells. Our statistical analyses showed that intron retention is the major consequence of SSA treatment, and a small number of intron-containing pre-mRNAs leak into the cytoplasm. Using a series of reporter plasmids to investigate the roles of intronic sequences in the pre-mRNA leakage, we showed that the strength of the 5′ splice site affects pre-mRNA leakage. Additionally, we found that the level of pre-mRNA leakage is related to transcript length. These results suggest that the strength of the 5′ splice site and the length of the transcripts are determinants of the pre-mRNA leakage induced by SF3b inhibitors. PMID:27754875

  10. The Regulatory Small RNA MarS Supports Virulence of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Pappesch, Roberto; Warnke, Philipp; Mikkat, Stefan; Normann, Jana; Wisniewska-Kucper, Aleksandra; Huschka, Franziska; Wittmann, Maja; Khani, Afsaneh; Schwengers, Oliver; Oehmcke-Hecht, Sonja; Hain, Torsten; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Patenge, Nadja

    2017-09-25

    Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) play a role in the control of bacterial virulence gene expression. In this study, we investigated an sRNA that was identified in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, GAS) but is conserved throughout various streptococci. In a deletion strain, expression of mga, the gene encoding the multiple virulence gene regulator, was reduced. Accordingly, transcript and proteome analyses revealed decreased expression of several Mga-activated genes. Therefore, and because the sRNA was shown to interact with the 5' UTR of the mga transcript in a gel-shift assay, we designated it MarS for m ga-activating regulatory sRNA. Down-regulation of important virulence factors, including the antiphagocytic M-protein, led to increased susceptibility of the deletion strain to phagocytosis and reduced adherence to human keratinocytes. In a mouse infection model, the marS deletion mutant showed reduced dissemination to the liver, kidney, and spleen. Additionally, deletion of marS led to increased tolerance towards oxidative stress. Our in vitro and in vivo results indicate a modulating effect of MarS on virulence gene expression and on the pathogenic potential of GAS.

  11. Small RNA-mediated responses to low- and high-temperature stresses in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiongshan; Liu, Nian; Yang, Xiyan; Tu, Lili; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one class of endogenous non-coding RNAs modulating the expression of target genes involved in plant development and stress tolerance, by degrading mRNA or repressing translation. In this study, small RNA and mRNA degradome sequencing were used to identify low- and high-temperature stress-responsive miRNAs and their targets in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Cotton seedlings were treated under different temperature conditions (4, 12, 25, 35, and 42 °C) and then the effects were investigated. In total, 319 known miRNAs and 800 novel miRNAs were identified, and 168 miRNAs were differentially expressed between different treatments. The targets of these miRNAs were further analysed by degradome sequencing. Based on studies from Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, the majority of the miRNAs are from genes that are likely involved in response to hormone stimulus, oxidation-reduction reaction, photosynthesis, plant–pathogen interaction and plant hormone signal transduction pathways. This study provides new insight into the molecular mechanisms of plant response to extreme temperature stresses, and especially the roles of miRNAs under extreme temperatures. PMID:27752116

  12. Small Molecule Targeting of a MicroRNA Associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Disney, Matthew D

    2016-02-19

    Development of precision therapeutics is of immense interest, particularly as applied to the treatment of cancer. By analyzing the preferred cellular RNA targets of small molecules, we discovered that 5"-azido neomycin B binds the Drosha processing site in the microRNA (miR)-525 precursor. MiR-525 confers invasive properties to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Although HCC is one of the most common cancers, treatment options are limited, making the disease often fatal. Herein, we find that addition of 5"-azido neomycin B and its FDA-approved precursor, neomycin B, to an HCC cell line selectively inhibits production of the mature miRNA, boosts a downstream protein, and inhibits invasion. Interestingly, neomycin B is a second-line agent for hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and bacterial infections due to cirrhosis. Our results provocatively suggest that neomycin B, or second-generation derivatives, may be dual functioning molecules to treat both HE and HCC. Collectively, these studies show that rational design approaches can be tailored to disease-associated RNAs to afford potential lead therapeutics.

  13. In vivo expression and purification of aptamer-tagged small RNA regulators

    PubMed Central

    Said, Nelly; Rieder, Renate; Hurwitz, Robert; Deckert, Jochen; Urlaub, Henning; Vogel, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are an emerging class of post-transcriptional regulators of bacterial gene expression. To study sRNAs and their potential protein interaction partners, it is desirable to purify sRNAs from cells in their native form. Here, we used RNA-based affinity chromatography to purify sRNAs following their expression as aptamer-tagged variants in vivo. To this end, we developed a family of plasmids to express sRNAs with any of three widely used aptamer sequences (MS2, boxB, eIF4A), and systematically tested how the aptamer tagging impacted on intracellular accumulation and target regulation of the Salmonella GcvB, InvR or RybB sRNAs. In addition, we successfully tagged the chromosomal rybB gene with MS2 to observe that RybB-MS2 is fully functional as an envelope stress-induced repressor of ompN mRNA following induction of sigmaE. We further demonstrate that the common sRNA-binding protein, Hfq, co-purifies with MS2-tagged sRNAs of Salmonella. The presented affinity purification strategy may facilitate the isolation of in vivo assembled sRNA–protein complexes in a wide range of bacteria. PMID:19726584

  14. Delivery of Small Interfering RNA by Peptide-Targeted Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle-Supported Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, Carlee E.; Carnes, Eric C.; Epler, Katharine E.; Padilla, David P.; Phillips, Genevieve K.; Castillo, Robert E.; Wilkinson, Dan C.; Wilkinson, Brian S.; Burgard, Cameron A.; Sewell, Robin M.; Townson, Jason L.; Chackerian, Bryce; Willman, Cheryl L.; Peabody, David S.; Wharton, Walker; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is severely limited by the availability of delivery platforms that protect siRNA from degradation, deliver it to the target cell with high specificity and efficiency, and promote its endosomal escape and cytosolic dispersion. Here we report that mesoporous silica nanoparticle-supported lipid bilayers (or ‘protocells’), exhibit multiple properties that overcome many of the limitations of existing delivery platforms. Protocells have a 10- to 100-fold greater capacity for siRNA than corresponding lipid nanoparticles and are markedly more stable when incubated under physiological conditions. Protocells loaded with a cocktail of siRNAs bind to cells in a manner dependent on the presence of an appropriate targeting peptide and, through an endocytic pathway followed by endosomal disruption, promote delivery of the silencing nucleotides to the cytoplasm. The expression of each of the genes targeted by the siRNAs was shown to be repressed at the protein level, resulting in a potent induction of growth arrest and apoptosis. Incubation of control cells that lack expression of the antigen recognized by the targeting peptide with siRNA-loaded protocells induced neither repression of protein expression nor apoptosis, indicating the precise specificity of cytotoxic activity. In terms of loading capacity, targeting capabilities, and potency of action, protocells provide unique attributes as a delivery platform for therapeutic oligonucleotides. PMID:22309035

  15. Small RNA Transfection in Primary Human Th17 Cells by Next Generation Electroporation.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Misty M; Ansel, K Mark

    2017-04-13

    CD4 + T cells can differentiate into several subsets of effector T helper cells depending on the surrounding cytokine milieu. Th17 cells can be generated from naïve CD4 + T cells in vitro by activating them in the presence of the polarizing cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23, and TGFβ. Th17 cells orchestrate immunity against extracellular bacteria and fungi, but their aberrant activity has also been associated with several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Th17 cells are identified by the chemokine receptor CCR6 and defined by their master transcription factor, RORγt, and characteristic effector cytokine, IL-17A. Optimized culture conditions for Th17 cell differentiation facilitate mechanistic studies of human T cell biology in a controlled environment. They also provide a setting for studying the importance of specific genes and gene expression programs through RNA interference or the introduction of microRNA (miRNA) mimics or inhibitors. This protocol provides an easy to use, reproducible, and highly efficient method for transient transfection of differentiating primary human Th17 cells with small RNAs using a next generation electroporation device.

  16. Small interfering RNA-producing loci in the ancient parasitic eukaryote Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background At the core of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in Trypanosoma brucei is a single Argonaute protein, TbAGO1, with an established role in controlling retroposon and repeat transcripts. Recent evidence from higher eukaryotes suggests that a variety of genomic sequences with the potential to produce double-stranded RNA are sources for small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Results To test whether such endogenous siRNAs are present in T. brucei and to probe the individual role of the two Dicer-like enzymes, we affinity purified TbAGO1 from wild-type procyclic trypanosomes, as well as from cells deficient in the cytoplasmic (TbDCL1) or nuclear (TbDCL2) Dicer, and subjected the bound RNAs to Illumina high-throughput sequencing. I