Science.gov

Sample records for small structures research

  1. Radon entry into basements: Approach, experimental structures, and instrumentation of the small structures research project

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Modera, M.P.; Sextro, R.G.; Garbesi, K.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Narasimhan, T.N.; Nuzum, T.; Tsang, Y.W.

    1992-02-01

    We describe the experimental approach, structures, and instrumentation of a research project on radon generation and transport in soil and entry into basements. The overall approach is to construct small precisely-fabricated basements in areas of different geology and climate, to control the pressures and ventilation rates in the structures, and to monitor radon concentrations and other relevant parameters over a period of one year or more. Two nearly air-tight structures have been constructed at the first site. The floor of each structure contains adjustable-width slots that serve as the only significant pathway for advective entry of radon. A layer of gravel underlays the floor of one structure; otherwise they are identical. The structures are instrumented for continuous or periodic monitoring of soil, structural, and meteorological parameters that affect radon entry. The pressure difference that drives advective radon entry can be maintained constant or varied over time. Soil gas and radon entry rates and associated parameters, such as soil gas pressures and radon concentrations, have been monitored for a range of steady-state and time-varying pressure differences between the interior of the structure and the soil. Examples of the experimentally-measured pressure and permeability fields in the soil around a structure are presented and discussed.

  2. Radon entry into basements: Approach, experimental structures, and instrumentation of the small structures research project

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Modera, M.P.; Sextro, R.G.; Garbesi, K.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Narasimhan, T.N.; Nuzum, T.; Tsang, Y.W.

    1992-02-01

    We describe the experimental approach, structures, and instrumentation of a research project on radon generation and transport in soil and entry into basements. The overall approach is to construct small precisely-fabricated basements in areas of different geology and climate, to control the pressures and ventilation rates in the structures, and to monitor radon concentrations and other relevant parameters over a period of one year or more. Two nearly air-tight structures have been constructed at the first site. The floor of each structure contains adjustable-width slots that serve as the only significant pathway for advective entry of radon. A layer of gravel underlays the floor of one structure; otherwise they are identical. The structures are instrumented for continuous or periodic monitoring of soil, structural, and meteorological parameters that affect radon entry. The pressure difference that drives advective radon entry can be maintained constant or varied over time. Soil gas and radon entry rates and associated parameters, such as soil gas pressures and radon concentrations, have been monitored for a range of steady-state and time-varying pressure differences between the interior of the structure and the soil. Examples of the experimentally-measured pressure and permeability fields in the soil around a structure are presented and discussed.

  3. Small Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  4. Small Business Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) invites small businesses, or those with 500 employees or less, to write for a copy of its Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program solicitation, to be issued January 2, 1985. To receive a copy, contact the SBIR Program Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20545; telephone 301-353-5707. The closing date for this solicitation is March 15, 1985.

  5. Research challenges for structural use of small-diameter round timbers

    Treesearch

    Ron Wolfe

    2000-01-01

    Forest managers have identified forest stands overstocked with small-diameter trees as a critical forest health issue. Overstocked stands are subject to attack by insects and disease and, as a result of the heavy fuel load, risk total destruction by fire. Prescribed burning is an economic tool for suppressing the growth of brush and tree seedlings, but its use is often...

  6. Small Wastewater Systems Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small communities face barriers to building and maintaining effective wastewater treatment services, challenges include financial/economic limitations, lack of managerial training and geographic isolation/remoteness.

  7. Structures research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abu-Saba, Elias; Mcginley, Williams; Shen, Ji-Yao

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of the structures group is to provide quality aerospace research with the Center for Aerospace Research - A NASA Center for Excellence at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University. The group includes dedicated faculty and students who have a proven record in the area of structures, in particular space structures. The participating faculty developed accurate mathematical models and effective computational algorithms to characterize the flexibility parameters of joint dominated beam-truss structures. Both experimental and theoretical modelling has been applied to the dynamic mode shapes and mode frequencies for a large truss system. During the past few months, the above procedures has been applied to the hypersonic transport plane model. The plane structure has been modeled as a lumped mass system by Doctor Abu-Saba while Doctor Shen applied the transfer matrix method with a piecewise continuous Timoshenko tapered beam model. Results from both procedures compare favorably with those obtained using the finite element method. These two methods are more compact and require less computer time than the finite element method. The group intends to perform experiments on structural systems including the hypersonic plane model to verify the results from the theoretical models.

  8. 2002 SMALL SYSTEM RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    As research on smaller treatment devices grows, interest is also growing on how POU/POE can fit into a utility's overall strategy of providing safe and affordable water to customers in community and non-community transient and non-transient systems of all sizes. The EPA has been ...

  9. 2002 SMALL SYSTEM RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    As research on smaller treatment devices grows, interest is also growing on how POU/POE can fit into a utility's overall strategy of providing safe and affordable water to customers in community and non-community transient and non-transient systems of all sizes. The EPA has been ...

  10. Small business innovation, research & development

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, D.P.

    1995-12-31

    Historically, small businesses have been the innovation engine of the United States (US). The author provides statistical data that indicates that small business is really big business in the U.S. Small businesses are responsible for much of the applied research necessary for new product development. The author examines productivity, academic research and teaming as a cost-effective and time effective way to develop new products and technologies.

  11. Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Lynn; Jasper, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)/Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs fund the research, development, and demonstration of innovative technologies that fulfill NASA's needs as described in the annual Solicitations and have significant potential for successful commercialization. The only eligible participants are small business concern (SBC) with 500 or fewer employees or a nonprofit research institute such as a university or a research laboratory with ties to an SBC. These programs are potential sources of seed funding for the development of small business innovations.

  12. SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are 159,796 Community Water Systems (CWSs) in the United States. Ninety-three percent of CWSs are considered very small to medium-sized systems that serve roughly 19% of the CWS population. In contrast, large to very large systems comprise just 7% of CWSs, but serve 81% of ...

  13. Small rocket research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven; Biaglow, James

    1993-01-01

    Small chemical rockets are used on nearly all space missions. The small rocket program provides propulsion technology for civil and government space systems. Small rocket concepts are developed for systems which encompass reaction control for launch and orbit transfer systems, as well as on-board propulsion for large space systems and earth orbit and planetary spacecraft. Major roles for on-board propulsion include apogee kick, delta-V, de-orbit, drag makeup, final insertions, north-south stationkeeping, orbit change/trim, perigee kick, and reboost. The program encompasses efforts on earth-storable, space storable, and cryogenic propellants. The earth-storable propellants include nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) as an oxidizer with monomethylhydrazine (MMH) or anhydrous hydrazine (AH) as fuels. The space storable propellants include liquid oxygen (LOX) as an oxidizer with hydrazine or hydrocarbons such as liquid methane, ethane, and ethanol as fuels. Cryogenic propellants are LOX or gaseous oxygen (GOX) as oxidizers and liquid or gaseous hydrogen as fuels. Improved performance and lifetime for small chemical rockets are sought through the development of new predictive tools to understand the combustion and flow physics, the introduction of high temperature materials to eliminate fuel film cooling and its associated combustion inefficiency, and improved component designs to optimize performance. Improved predictive technology is sought through the comparison of both local and global predictions with experimental data. Results indicate that modeling of the injector and combustion process in small rockets needs improvement. High temperature materials require the development of fabrication processes, a durability data base in both laboratory and rocket environments, and basic engineering property data such as strength, creep, fatigue, and work hardening properties at both room and elevated temperature. Promising materials under development include iridium-coated rhenium and a

  14. Small rocket research and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Steven; Biaglow, James

    1993-11-01

    Small chemical rockets are used on nearly all space missions. The small rocket program provides propulsion technology for civil and government space systems. Small rocket concepts are developed for systems which encompass reaction control for launch and orbit transfer systems, as well as on-board propulsion for large space systems and earth orbit and planetary spacecraft. Major roles for on-board propulsion include apogee kick, delta-V, de-orbit, drag makeup, final insertions, north-south stationkeeping, orbit change/trim, perigee kick, and reboost. The program encompasses efforts on earth-storable, space storable, and cryogenic propellants. The earth-storable propellants include nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) as an oxidizer with monomethylhydrazine (MMH) or anhydrous hydrazine (AH) as fuels. The space storable propellants include liquid oxygen (LOX) as an oxidizer with hydrazine or hydrocarbons such as liquid methane, ethane, and ethanol as fuels. Cryogenic propellants are LOX or gaseous oxygen (GOX) as oxidizers and liquid or gaseous hydrogen as fuels. Improved performance and lifetime for small chemical rockets are sought through the development of new predictive tools to understand the combustion and flow physics, the introduction of high temperature materials to eliminate fuel film cooling and its associated combustion inefficiency, and improved component designs to optimize performance. Improved predictive technology is sought through the comparison of both local and global predictions with experimental data. Results indicate that modeling of the injector and combustion process in small rockets needs improvement. High temperature materials require the development of fabrication processes, a durability data base in both laboratory and rocket environments, and basic engineering property data such as strength, creep, fatigue, and work hardening properties at both room and elevated temperature. Promising materials under development include iridium-coated rhenium and a

  15. 78 FR 11745 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... / Wednesday, February 20, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG46 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business...

  16. 77 FR 30227 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... to amend its regulations governing size and eligibility for the Small Business Innovation...

  17. VET and Small Business. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Jennifer

    Research since 1990 on vocational education and training (VET) and small business was reviewed. Special attention was paid to the research that has been conducted in the following categories identified in the Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) Small Business Policy Framework: context; role of government; approach to training; research…

  18. A translational research niche for small business innovation research grants.

    PubMed

    Handelsman, Karl

    2009-11-04

    The United States Congress will decide the future of the Small Business Innovation Research program in the coming months. Essential changes needed in the program and its unique role in translational research are discussed.

  19. Communicating Research to Small Drinking Water Systems: Dissemination by Researchers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk discusses the challenges of disseminating research relevant to small systems. The presentation discusses efforts by the U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development to effectively communicating drinking water information. In particular, communication approaches ...

  20. Communicating Research to Small Drinking Water Systems: Dissemination by Researchers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk discusses the challenges of disseminating research relevant to small systems. The presentation discusses efforts by the U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development to effectively communicating drinking water information. In particular, communication approaches ...

  1. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas

    1989-01-01

    The current understanding of cosmic string evolution is discussed, and the focus placed on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. A physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms is presented. In this picture it can be seen how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. It is also argued that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small scale structure, which argued in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in the present understanding of cosmic string evolution.

  2. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, A.

    1989-10-30

    I discuss our current understanding of cosmic string evolution, and focus on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. I present a physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms. In this picture one can see how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. I also argue that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small structure, which I argue in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in our resent understanding of cosmic string evolution. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Industry Research and Recommendations for Small Buildings and Small Portfolios

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, Rois; Hendron, Bob; Pless, Shanti; Huppert, Mark; Cochrane, Ric

    2013-12-01

    Small buildings have been left behind in the energy efficiency marketplace because financial and technical resources have flowed to larger commercial buildings. DOE's Building Technologies Office works with the commercial building industry to accelerate the uptake of energy efficiency technologies and techniques in existing and new commercial buildings (DOE 2013). BTO recognizes the SBSP sector'spotential for significant energy savings and the need for investments in resources that are tailored to this sector's unique needs. The industry research and recommendations described in this report identify potential approaches and strategic priorities that BTO could explore over the next 3-5 years that will support the implementation of high-potential energy efficiency opportunities for thisimportant sector. DOE is uniquely positioned to provide national leadership, objective information, and innovative tools, technologies, and services to support cost-effective energy savings in the fragmented and complex SBSP sector. Properly deployed, the DOE effort could enhance and complement current energy efficiency approaches. Small portfolios are loosely and qualitatively defined asportfolios of buildings that include only a small number of small buildings. This distinction is important because the report targets portfolio owners and managers who generally do not have staff and other resources to track energy use and pursue energy efficiency solutions.

  4. Small Wind Research Turbine: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Meadors, M.

    2005-10-01

    The Small Wind Research Turbine (SWRT) project was initiated to provide reliable test data for model validation of furling wind turbines and to help understand small wind turbine loads. This report will familiarize the user with the scope of the SWRT test and support the use of these data. In addition to describing all the testing details and results, the report presents an analysis of the test data and compares the SWRT test data to simulation results from the FAST aeroelastic simulation model.

  5. Small-animal research imaging devices.

    PubMed

    Fine, Eugene J; Herbst, Lawrence; Jelicks, Linda A; Koba, Wade; Theele, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The scientific study of living animals may be dated to Aristotle's original dissections, but modern animal studies are perhaps a century in the making, and advanced animal imaging has emerged only during the past few decades. In vivo imaging now occupies a growing role in the scientific research paradigm. Imaging of small animals has been particularly useful to help understand human molecular biology and pathophysiology using rodents, especially using genetically engineered mice (GEM) with spontaneous diseases that closely mimic human diseases. Specific examples of GEM models of veterinary diseases exist, but in general, GEM for veterinary research has lagged behind human research applications. However, the development of spontaneous disease models from GEM may also hold potential for veterinary research. The imaging techniques most widely used in small-animal research are CT, PET, single-photon emission CT, MRI, and optical fluorescent and luminescent imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Federal research assessment of small business innovation research programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Since 1983, federal agencies with large research and development budgets have operated Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) programs to strengthen the role of small innovative firms in federally supported research and development. SBIR awards to small business have totaled over $1.35 billion through fiscal year 1988. In reauthorizing SBIR programs in 1986, the Congress directed GAO to study their effectiveness in meeting SBIR goals, which are to (1) stimulate technological innovation, (2) use small businesses to meet federal research and development needs, (3) increase private sector commercialization of innovations from federal research and development, and (4) encourage participation by minority and disadvantaged firms in technological innovation. The Congress also directed GAO to compare the quality of SBIR research with more traditional agency research and to obtain the views of agency and department heads on how SBIR programs have affected other research activities at their agencies. To obtain information on how well SBIR programs are meeting their goals and on the quality of research, GAO sent questionnaires to firms with SBIR projects and to government project officers responsible for SBIR and other research.

  7. Advanced Deployable Structural Systems for Small Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Straubel, Marco; Wilkie, W. Keats; Zander, Martin E.; Fernandez, Juan M.; Hillebrandt, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the key challenges for small satellites is packaging and reliable deployment of structural booms and arrays used for power, communication, and scientific instruments. The lack of reliable and efficient boom and membrane deployment concepts for small satellites is addressed in this work through a collaborative project between NASA and DLR. The paper provides a state of the art overview on existing spacecraft deployable appendages, the special requirements for small satellites, and initial concepts for deployable booms and arrays needed for various small satellite applications. The goal is to enhance deployable boom predictability and ground testability, develop designs that are tolerant of manufacturing imperfections, and incorporate simple and reliable deployment systems.

  8. NASA Small Business Innovation Research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Harry W.

    1985-01-01

    NASA activities in the framework of the 11-agency federal Small Business Innovation Research program are outlined in tables and graphs and briefly characterized. Statistics on the program are given; the technical topics covered are listed; and the procedures involved in evaluating applications for support are discussed. A number of typical defects in proposals are indicated, and recommendations for avoiding them are provided.

  9. NASA Small Business Innovation Research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Harry W.

    1985-01-01

    NASA activities in the framework of the 11-agency federal Small Business Innovation Research program are outlined in tables and graphs and briefly characterized. Statistics on the program are given; the technical topics covered are listed; and the procedures involved in evaluating applications for support are discussed. A number of typical defects in proposals are indicated, and recommendations for avoiding them are provided.

  10. 78 FR 48537 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs... Administration (SBA) is publishing the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology... Business Administration, 409 Third Street SW., Washington, DC 20416; or send an email to...

  11. Small business innovation research program solicitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration invites eligible small business concerns to submit Phase 1 proposals for its 1994 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, which is described in this twelfth annual NASA SBIR Program Solicitation. The 1994 solicitation period for Phase 1 proposals begins April 4, 1994 and ends June 15, 1994. Eligible firms with research or research and development capabilities (R/R&D) in any of the listed topic and subtopic areas are encouraged to participate. Through SBIR, NASA seeks innovative concepts addressing the program needs described in the SBIR solicitation subtopics and offering commercial application potential. This document contains program background information, outlines eligibility requirements for SBIR participants, describes the three SBIR program phases, and provides the information qualified offerors need to prepare and submit responsive proposals.

  12. Precision Radiotherapy for Small Animal Research

    PubMed Central

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Iordachita, Iulian; Ford, Eric; Wong, John; Kazanzides, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical research using well characterized small animal models has provided tremendous benefits to medical research, enabling low cost, large scale trials with high statistical significance of observed effects. The goal of the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is to make those models available for the development and evaluation of novel radiation therapies. SARRP demonstrates the capabilities of delivering high resolution, sub-millimeter, optimally planned conformal radiation with on-board cone-beam CT (CBCT) guidance. The system requires accurate calibration of the x-ray beam for both imaging and radiation treatment. In this paper, we present a novel technique using an x-ray camera for calibration of the treatment beam. This technique does not require precise positioning or calibration of the x-ray camera. PMID:18982656

  13. Structure and Gene-Silencing Mechanisms of Small Noncoding RNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chia-Ying; Rana, Tariq M.

    Small (19-31-nucleotides) noncoding RNAs were identified in the past 10 years for their distinct function in gene silencing. The best known gene-silencing phenomenon, RNA interference (RNAi), is triggered in a sequence-specific manner by endogenously produced or exogenously introduced small doubled-stranded RNAs. As knowledge of the structure and function of the RNAi machinery has expanded, this phenomenon has become a powerful tool for biochemical research; it has enormous potential for therapeutics. This chapter summarizes significant aspects of three major classes of small noncoding, regulatory RNAs: small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Here, we focus on the biogenesis of these small RNAs, their structural features and coupled effectors as well as the mechanisms of each small regulatory RNA pathway which reveal fascinating ways by which gene silencing is controlled and fine-tuned at an epigenetic level.

  14. Small business innovation research. Abstracts of 1988 phase 1 awards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Non-proprietary proposal abstracts of Phase 1 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects supported by NASA are presented. Projects in the fields of aeronautical propulsion, aerodynamics, acoustics, aircraft systems, materials and structures, teleoperators and robots, computer sciences, information systems, data processing, spacecraft propulsion, bioastronautics, satellite communication, and space processing are covered.

  15. Funding big research with small money.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Joanne V; Koithan, Mary; Unruh, Lynn; Lundmark, Vicki

    2014-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that maybe successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives.With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools,and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives.In this article, the guest authors introduce crowd sourcing asa strategy for funding big research with small money.

  16. Photovoltaic Research in the Small Business Innovative Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, W.I.; Bulawka, A.

    1997-02-01

    The Small Business Innovative Research Program (SBIR) is currently authorized to be funded through September 30, 2000. The National Photovoltaics Program is a contributor to the Department of Energy (DOE) SBIR program. The small business photovoltaic industry has been benefiting from the SBIR program through awards that have funded basic research, new processes and products that have PV and other commercial applications. This paper provides information on SBIR opportunities, selected details of the SBIR program, statistics from the 1995 and 1996 DOE SBIR program, and methods for improving PV industry participation and success in the SBIR program. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Photovoltaic Research in the Small Business Innovative Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Ward I.; Bulawka, Alec

    1997-02-01

    The Small Business Innovative Research Program (SBIR) is currently authorized to be funded through September 30, 2000. The National Photovoltaics Program is a contributor to the Department of Energy (DOE) SBIR program. The small business photovoltaic industry has been benefiting from the SBIR program through awards that have funded basic research, new processes and products that have PV and other commercial applications. This paper provides information on SBIR opportunities, selected details of the SBIR program, statistics from the 1995 and 1996 DOE SBIR program, and methods for improving PV industry participation and success in the SBIR program.

  18. Small-scale coronal structure, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, David F.

    1986-01-01

    Recent observations and models pertaining specifically to solar coronal bright points (BPs) and generally to small-scale coronal structure are reviewed. Two questions were addressed: What is the degree of correspondence among various alleged signatures of BPs at different levels of atmosphere and what can PBs tell about the emerging flux spectrum of the sun?

  19. Proton structure functions at small x

    DOE PAGES

    Hentschinski, Martin

    2015-11-03

    Proton structure functions are measured in electron-proton collision through inelastic scattering of virtual photons with virtuality Q on protons; x denotes the momentum fraction carried by the struck parton. Proton structure functions are currently described with excellent accuracy in terms of scale dependent parton distribution functions, defined in terms of collinear factorization and DGLAP evolution in Q. With decreasing x however, parton densities increase and are ultimately expected to saturate. In this regime DGLAP evolution will finally break down and non-linear evolution equations w.r.t x are expected to take over. In the first part of the talk we present recentmore » result on an implementation of physical DGLAP evolution. Unlike the conventional description in terms of parton distribution functions, the former describes directly the Q dependence of the measured structure functions. It is therefore physical insensitive to factorization scheme and scale ambiguities. It therefore provides a more stringent test of DGLAP evolution and eases the manifestation of (non-linear) small x effects. It however requires a precise measurement of both structure functions F2 and FL, which will be only possible at future facilities, such as an Electron Ion Collider. In the second part we present a recent analysis of the small x region of the combined HERA data on the structure function F2. We demonstrate that (linear) next-to-leading order BFKL evolution describes the effective Pomeron intercept, determined from the combined HERA data, once a resummation of collinear enhanced terms is included and the renormalization scale is fixed using the BLM optimal scale setting procedure. We also provide a detailed description of the Q and x dependence of the full structure functions F2 in the small x region, as measured at HERA. As a result, predictions for the structure function FL are found to be in agreement with the existing HERA data.« less

  20. Proton structure functions at small x

    SciTech Connect

    Hentschinski, Martin

    2015-11-03

    Proton structure functions are measured in electron-proton collision through inelastic scattering of virtual photons with virtuality Q on protons; x denotes the momentum fraction carried by the struck parton. Proton structure functions are currently described with excellent accuracy in terms of scale dependent parton distribution functions, defined in terms of collinear factorization and DGLAP evolution in Q. With decreasing x however, parton densities increase and are ultimately expected to saturate. In this regime DGLAP evolution will finally break down and non-linear evolution equations w.r.t x are expected to take over. In the first part of the talk we present recent result on an implementation of physical DGLAP evolution. Unlike the conventional description in terms of parton distribution functions, the former describes directly the Q dependence of the measured structure functions. It is therefore physical insensitive to factorization scheme and scale ambiguities. It therefore provides a more stringent test of DGLAP evolution and eases the manifestation of (non-linear) small x effects. It however requires a precise measurement of both structure functions F2 and FL, which will be only possible at future facilities, such as an Electron Ion Collider. In the second part we present a recent analysis of the small x region of the combined HERA data on the structure function F2. We demonstrate that (linear) next-to-leading order BFKL evolution describes the effective Pomeron intercept, determined from the combined HERA data, once a resummation of collinear enhanced terms is included and the renormalization scale is fixed using the BLM optimal scale setting procedure. We also provide a detailed description of the Q and x dependence of the full structure functions F2 in the small x region, as measured at HERA. As a result, predictions for the structure function FL are found to be in agreement with the existing HERA

  1. Electronic Structure of Small Lanthanide Containing Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafader, Jared O.; Ray, Manisha; Topolski, Josey E.; Chick Jarrold, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Lanthanide-based materials have unusual electronic properties because of the high number of electronic degrees of freedom arising from partial occupation of 4f orbitals, which make these materials optimal for their utilization in many applications including electronics and catalysis. Electronic spectroscopy of small lanthanide molecules helps us understand the role of these 4f electrons, which are generally considered core-like because of orbital contraction, but are energetically similar to valence electrons. The spectroscopy of small lanthanide-containing molecules is relatively unexplored and to broaden this understanding we have completed the characterization of small cerium, praseodymium, and europium molecules using photoelectron spectroscopy coupled with DFT calculations. The characterization of PrO, EuH, EuO/EuOH, and CexOy molecules have allowed for the determination of their electron affinity, the assignment of numerous anion to neutral state transitions, modeling of anion/neutral structures and electron orbital occupation.

  2. 77 FR 46805 - Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... August 6, 2012 Part II Small Business Administration 13 CFR Chapter I Small Business Innovation Research... Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program Policy Directives... Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Chapter I RIN 3245-AF84 Small Business...

  3. On the structure of small palladium particles

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, R.; Avalos-Borja, M.; Schabes-Retchkiman, P.; Romeu, D.; Jose-Yacaman, M. . Inst. de Fisica); Ponce, F. )

    1989-09-01

    The study of small noble metal particles is becoming increasingly important in many fields in physics (1). The advent of high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) has allowed a deeper understanding of structural aspects of small particles. This work reports the study of particles of palladium with a diameter less than 3 nm. Specimens were prepared by in-situ deposition of Pd onto thin carbon films under near-UHV conditions in the specimen preparation chamber. Faulted decahedral MTP was grown using a recursive (R) growth model which generates infinite, space-filling structures reproducing the structure of crystals, twinned particles and quasicrystals. R growth consists of the formation of a cluster by iterative addition of points (atoms) from a given star vector. The method presented sheds some light on a point that has been controversial in the past about the nature of MTP's. Some authors have claimed that these structures can be considered as FCC twins with a disclination to close the resulting gap. The fact that they can be obtained quite simply from stable smaller units appears to make the disclination unnecessary.

  4. Compilation of small ribosomal subunit RNA structures.

    PubMed Central

    Neefs, J M; Van de Peer, Y; De Rijk, P; Chapelle, S; De Wachter, R

    1993-01-01

    The database on small ribosomal subunit RNA structure contained 1804 nucleotide sequences on April 23, 1993. This number comprises 365 eukaryotic, 65 archaeal, 1260 bacterial, 30 plastidial, and 84 mitochondrial sequences. These are stored in the form of an alignment in order to facilitate the use of the database as input for comparative studies on higher-order structure and for reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. The elements of the postulated secondary structure for each molecule are indicated by special symbols. The database is available on-line directly from the authors by ftp and can also be obtained from the EMBL nucleotide sequence library by electronic mail, ftp, and on CD ROM disk. PMID:8332525

  5. CSM parallel structural methods research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, Olaf O.

    1989-01-01

    Parallel structural methods, research team activities, advanced architecture computers for parallel computational structural mechanics (CSM) research, the FLEX/32 multicomputer, a parallel structural analyses testbed, blade-stiffened aluminum panel with a circular cutout and the dynamic characteristics of a 60 meter, 54-bay, 3-longeron deployable truss beam are among the topics discussed.

  6. Small Business Innovation Research, Post-Phase II Opportunity Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    This report outlines current Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Post-Phase II opportunity contract award results for the SBIR technology program from 2007 to 2011 for NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), Science Mission Directorate (SMD), and Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD). The report provides guidelines for incorporating SBIR technology into NASA programs and projects and provides a quantitative overview of the post-Phase II award patterns that correspond with each mission directorate at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). In recent years, one of NASA's goals has been to not only transfer SBIR technologies to commercial industries, but to ensure that NASA mission directorates incorporate SBIR technologies into their program and project activities. Before incorporating technologies into MD programs, it is important to understand each mission directorate structure because each directorate has different objectives and needs. The directorate program structures follow.

  7. The structure of small metal clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Pettersson, L. G. M.

    1986-01-01

    One metal atom surrounded by its 12 nearest neighbors is considered for both D(3d) (face-centered cubic-like) and D(3h) (hexagonal close-packed-like) geometries. For Al and Be, the neutral cluster and the positive and negative ions are considered for idealized (all bonds equal) and distorted geometries. The D(3d) geometry is found to be the lowest for Be13, while the D(3h) geometry is lower for Al13. This is the reverse of what is expected based upon the bulk metal structures, Be(hcp) and Al(fcc). Al13 is found to have only small distortions, while Be13 shows large distortions for both the D(3d) and D(3h) geometries. The ions have geometries which are similar to those found for the neutral systems. Both all-electron and effective core potential calculations were carried out on the X13 clusters; the agreement is very good.

  8. Small Drinking Water Systems Research and Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, there are 152,002 public water systems (PWS) in operation. Of these, 97% are considered small systems under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)—meaning they serve 10,000 or fewer people. While many of these small systems consistently provide safe, relia...

  9. Small Drinking Water Systems Research and Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, there are 152,002 public water systems (PWS) in operation. Of these, 97% are considered small systems under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)—meaning they serve 10,000 or fewer people. While many of these small systems consistently provide safe, relia...

  10. 77 FR 46909 - Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program Policy Directives... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer Program (STTR) Policy... process, program administration, and fraud, waste and abuse. SBA has addressed these changes in the...

  11. Discovering Research Value in Small Meteorite Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, W. A.

    1995-09-01

    The Campo del Cielo meteorite crater field in Argentina contains at least 20 small meteorite craters, but a recent review of the field data and a remote sensing study suggest there may be many more. The fall occurred about 4000 y ago into a uniform loessy soil, and the craters are well enough preserved so that some of their parameters of impact can be determined by excavation. The craters were formed by multi-ton fragments of a type IA meteoroid with abundant silicate inclusions. Relative to the horizontal, the angle of infall was around 10 degrees. Reflecting the low angle of infall, the crater field is elongated with apparent dimensions of 3 x 18.5 km. The largest craters are near the center of this ellipse. This suggests that when the parent meteoroid broke apart the resulting fragments diverged from the original trajectory in inverse relation to their masses and did not undergo size sorting due to atmospheric deceleration. The major axis of the crater field as we know it extends along N58 degrees E, but the azimuths of infall determined by excavation of Craters 9 and 10 are N84 degrees E and N77 degrees E, respectively, suggesting that the major axis of the crater field is not yet well determined. This is supported by the elongation of magnetic anomalies over 4 other craters, all of which trend significantly more easterly than the major axis of the crater field. The 3 or 4 largest craters appear to be explosion craters and the others are shock-wave excavations extended by penetration funnels with multi-ton masses preserved within them. There are two ways in which field research on the Campo del Cielo craterfield is found to be useful. (1)This occurrence of a swarm of projectiles impacting at known angles and similar velocities into a uniform target material provides an excellent field site at which to test the applicability of various existing studies directed toward the interpretation of impact craters on planetary surfaces other than the earth. Given certain

  12. Supporting Remote Sensing Research with Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Shanks, P. C.; Kritis, L. A.; Trani, M. G.

    2014-11-01

    We describe several remote sensing research projects supported with small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) operated by the NGA Basic and Applied Research Office. These sUAS collections provide data supporting Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR), NGA University Research Initiative (NURI), and Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADA) efforts in addition to inhouse research. Some preliminary results related to 3D electro-optical point clouds are presented, and some research goals discussed. Additional details related to the autonomous operational mode of both our multi-rotor and fixed wing small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) platforms are presented.

  13. Can small institutes address some problems facing biomedical researchers?

    PubMed

    Sheetz, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    At a time of historically low National Institutes of Health funding rates and many problems with the conduct of research (unfunded mandates, disgruntled reviewers, and rampant paranoia), there is a concern that biomedical research as a profession is waning in the United States (see "Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws" by Alberts and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). However, it is wonderful to discover something new and to tackle tough puzzles. If we could focus more of our effort on discussing scientific problems and doing research, then we could be more productive and perhaps happier. One potential solution is to focus efforts on small thematic institutes in the university structure that can provide a stimulating and supportive environment for innovation and exploration. With an open-lab concept, there are economies of scale that can diminish paperwork and costs, while providing greater access to state-of-the-art equipment. Merging multiple disciplines around a common theme can catalyze innovation, and this enables individuals to develop new concepts without giving up the credit they deserve, because it is usually clear who did the work. Small institutes do not solve larger systemic problems but rather enable collective efforts to address the noisome aspects of the system and foster an innovative community effort to address scientific problems.

  14. Small Molecule Docking from Theoretical Structural Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoa, Eva Maria; de Pouplana, Lluis Ribas; Orozco, Modesto

    Structural approaches to rational drug design rely on the basic assumption that pharmacological activity requires, as necessary but not sufficient condition, the binding of a drug to one or several cellular targets, proteins in most cases. The traditional paradigm assumes that drugs that interact only with a single cellular target are specific and accordingly have little secondary effects, while promiscuous molecules are more likely to generate undesirable side effects. However, current examples indicate that often efficient drugs are able to interact with several biological targets [1] and in fact some dirty drugs, such as chlorpromazine, dextromethorphan, and ibogaine exhibit desired pharmacological properties [2]. These considerations highlight the tremendous difficulty of designing small molecules that both have satisfactory ADME properties and the ability of interacting with a limited set of target proteins with a high affinity, avoiding at the same time undesirable interactions with other proteins. In this complex and challenging scenario, computer simulations emerge as the basic tool to guide medicinal chemists during the drug discovery process.

  15. Standard methods for small hive beetle research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, are parasites and scavengers of honey bee and other social bee colonies native to sub-Saharan Africa, where they are a minor pest only. In contrast, the beetles can be harmful parasites of European honey bee subspecies. Very rapidly after A. tumida established pop...

  16. Small Angle X-ray Scattering for Nanoparticle Research

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byeongdu; Senesi-Good, Andrew J.; Li, Tao

    2016-09-28

    X-ray scattering is a structural characterization tool that has impacted diverse fields of study. It is unique in its ability to examine materials in real time and under realistic sample environments, enabling researchers to understand morphology at nanometer and ångström length scales using complementary small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS), respectively. Herein, we focus on the use of SAXS to examine nanoscale particulate systems. We provide a theoretical foundation for X-ray scattering, considering both form factor and structure factor, as well as the use of correlation functions, which may be used to determine a particle’s size, size distribution, shape, and organization into hierarchal structures. The theory is expanded upon with contemporary use cases. Both transmission and reflection (grazing incidence) geometries are addressed, as well the combination of SAXS with other X-ray and non-X ray characterization tools. We conclude with an examination of several key areas of research where X-rays scattering has played a pivotal role, including in situ nanoparticle synthesis, nanoparticle assembly, and in operando studies of catalysts and energy storage materials. Throughout this review we highlight the unique capabilities of X-ray scattering for structural characterization of materials in their native environment.

  17. Small Angle X-ray Scattering for Nanoparticle Research

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tao; Senesi, Andrew J.; Lee, Byeongdu

    2016-04-07

    X-ray scattering is a structural characterization tool that has impacted diverse fields of study. It is unique in its ability to examine materials in real time and under realistic sample environments, enabling researchers to understand morphology at nanometer and ångström length scales using complementary small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS), respectively. Herein, we focus on the use of SAXS to examine nanoscale particulate systems. We provide a theoretical foundation for X-ray scattering, considering both form factor and structure factor, as well as the use of correlation functions, which may be used to determine a particle’s size, size distribution, shape, and organization into hierarchal structures. The theory is expanded upon with contemporary use cases. Both transmission and reflection (grazing incidence) geometries are addressed, as well the combination of SAXS with other X-ray and non-X ray characterization tools. Furthermore, we conclude with an examination of several key areas of research where X-rays scattering has played a pivotal role, including in situ nanoparticle synthesis, nanoparticle assembly, and in operando studies of catalysts and energy storage materials. Throughout this review we highlight the unique capabilities of X-ray scattering for structural characterization of materials in their native environment.

  18. Small Angle X-ray Scattering for Nanoparticle Research

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Tao; Senesi, Andrew J.; Lee, Byeongdu

    2016-04-07

    X-ray scattering is a structural characterization tool that has impacted diverse fields of study. It is unique in its ability to examine materials in real time and under realistic sample environments, enabling researchers to understand morphology at nanometer and ångström length scales using complementary small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS), respectively. Herein, we focus on the use of SAXS to examine nanoscale particulate systems. We provide a theoretical foundation for X-ray scattering, considering both form factor and structure factor, as well as the use of correlation functions, which may be used to determine a particle’s size, size distribution,more » shape, and organization into hierarchal structures. The theory is expanded upon with contemporary use cases. Both transmission and reflection (grazing incidence) geometries are addressed, as well the combination of SAXS with other X-ray and non-X ray characterization tools. Furthermore, we conclude with an examination of several key areas of research where X-rays scattering has played a pivotal role, including in situ nanoparticle synthesis, nanoparticle assembly, and in operando studies of catalysts and energy storage materials. Throughout this review we highlight the unique capabilities of X-ray scattering for structural characterization of materials in their native environment.« less

  19. Small Angle X-ray Scattering for Nanoparticle Research.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Senesi, Andrew J; Lee, Byeongdu

    2016-09-28

    X-ray scattering is a structural characterization tool that has impacted diverse fields of study. It is unique in its ability to examine materials in real time and under realistic sample environments, enabling researchers to understand morphology at nanometer and angstrom length scales using complementary small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS), respectively. Herein, we focus on the use of SAXS to examine nanoscale particulate systems. We provide a theoretical foundation for X-ray scattering, considering both form factor and structure factor, as well as the use of correlation functions, which may be used to determine a particle's size, size distribution, shape, and organization into hierarchical structures. The theory is expanded upon with contemporary use cases. Both transmission and reflection (grazing incidence) geometries are addressed, as well as the combination of SAXS with other X-ray and non-X-ray characterization tools. We conclude with an examination of several key areas of research where X-ray scattering has played a pivotal role, including in situ nanoparticle synthesis, nanoparticle assembly, and operando studies of catalysts and energy storage materials. Throughout this review we highlight the unique capabilities of X-ray scattering for structural characterization of materials in their native environment.

  20. A small grants program to involve communities in research.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Beti; Ondelacy, Stephanie; Godina, Ruby; Coronado, Gloria D

    2010-06-01

    A key tenet of community-based participatory research is that communities be involved in all facets of research, from defining the problem to identifying solutions, to assisting in the research, and to participating in the publication of results. In this study, we instituted a small grants program for community participation. A Request for Applications (RFA) was developed and circulated widely throughout the Valley. The RFA sought proposals to address health disparities in cancer education, prevention, and treatment among Hispanics living in the Valley. Funds available were $2,500.00-3,500.00 for 1 year's worth of work. To help evaluate the progress of the RFA community projects according to the perspectives of the Community Advisory Board (CAB), an open-ended, semi-structured interview was created and administered by a former staff member to CAB members. In 4 years, ten small grants proposed by community members were funded. Funds allocated totaled approximately $25,000. Interviews with CAB members indicated that the RFA program was perceived positively, but there were concerns about sustainability. Our community grants program resulted in the implementation of several novel cancer prevention programs conducted by a variety of community organizations in the Lower Yakima Valley.

  1. Undergraduate Research with a Small Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, P. L.; Williams, G. J.

    2001-11-01

    We describe the construction of a small radio telescope system at ULM and the role of radio astronomy in undergraduate education. The heart of the system is the Small Radio Telescope (SRT), which is a modified satellite TV antenna and custom receiver purchased from MIT Haystack Observatory. This telescope measures the brightness of many celestial objects at wavelengths near 21 cm. The system consists of various components to control dish movement, as well as perform analog to digital conversions allowing analysis of collected data. Undergraduate students have participated in the construction of the hardware and the task of interfacing the hardware to software on two GNU/Linux computer systems. The construction of the telescope and analysis of data allow the students to employ key concepts from mechanics, optics, electrodynamics, and thermodynamics, as well as computer and electronics skills. We will report preliminary results of solar observations conducted with this instrument and with the MIT Haystack Observatory 37m radio telescope. This work was supported by Louisiana Board of Regents grant LEQSF-ENH-UG-16, NASA/LaSPACE LURA R109139 and ULM Development Foundation Grant 97317.

  2. Development of the Research Platform of Small Autonomous Blimp Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaya, Toshihiko; Kawamura, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Masahito; Ohuchi, Azuma

    A blimp robot is attractive as an small flight robot and can float in the air by buoyancy and realize safe to the crash small flight with low energy and can movement for a long time compared with other flight robots with low energy and can movement for a long time compared with other flight robots. However, control of an airplane robot is difficult for the nonlinear characteristic exposed to inertia by the air flow in response to influence. Therefore, the applied research which carried out the maximum use of such in recent years a blimp robot's feature is prosperous. In this paper, we realized development of blimp robot for research which can be used general-purpose by carrying out clue division of the blimp robot body at a unit, and constituting and building for research of blimp robot, and application development. On the other hand, by developing a general-purpose blimp robot research platform, improvement in the research efficiency of many researchers can be attained, and further, research start of blimp robot becomes easy and contributes to development of research. We performed the experiments for the above-mentioned proof. 1. Checked basic keeping position performance and that various orbital operation was possible. And the unit exchange ease of software unit was checked by the experiment which exchanges the control layer of software for learning control from PID control, and carries out comparison of operation. 2. In order to check the exchange ease of hardware unit, the sensor was exchanged for the microphon from the camera, and control of operation was checked. 3. For the unit addition ease, the microphon which carries out sound detection with the picture detection with a camera was added, and control of operation was verified. 4. The unit exchange was carried out for the check of a function addition and the topological map generation experiment by addition of an ultrasonic sensor was conducted. Developed blimp robot for research mounted the exchange ease

  3. Social structure and nursing research.

    PubMed

    Nairn, Stuart

    2009-07-01

    The concept of social structure is ill defined in the literature despite the perennial problem and ongoing discussion about the relationship between agency and structure. In this paper I will provide an outline of what the term social structure means, but my main focus will be on emphasizing the value of the concept for nursing research and demonstrate how its erasure in some research negatively effects on our understanding of the nurses' role in clinical practice. For example, qualitative research in nursing has largely focused on agency through such theories as phenomenology, hermeneutics, and symbolic interactionism. The result is that social structure may be erased or seen as epiphenomena of agency. My purpose is to provide a theoretical discussion of social structure and how such a discussion can help us to understand how nurses live and experience clinical practice. While not denying the importance of agency, I will argue that the thinned out approach to social structure places limits on our understanding of the constraints nurses experience in their working lives. The result is that nurses' attitudes and clinical failings are individualized, resulting in ever more calls for improved education, when a more thorough examination of structural issues may elucidate more fundamental problems.

  4. Small business innovation research: Program solicitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This, the seventh annual SBIR solicitation by NASA, describes the program, identifies eligibility requirements, outlines the required proposal format and content, states proposal preparation and submission requirements, describes the proposal evaluation and award selection process, and provides other information to assist those interested in participating in NASA's SBIR program. It also identifies the Technical Topics and Subtopics in which SBIR Phase 1 proposals are solicited in 1989. These Topics and Subtopics cover a broad range of current NASA interests, but do not necessarily include all areas in which NASA plans or currently conducts research. High-risk high pay-off innovations are desired.

  5. Small Hydropower Research and Development Technology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Blackmore, Mo

    2013-12-06

    The objective of this work was to investigate, develop, and validate the next generation of small hydroturbine generator designs that maximize the energy transfer from flowing water to electrical power generation. What resulted from this effort was the design of a new technology hydroturbine that Near Space Systems (NSS) has named the Star*Stream© Hydroturbine. Using a design that eliminates nearly all of the shortfalls of conventional hydroturbines, the Star*Stream© Hydroturbine employs a new mechanical-to-electrical energy transfer hydro design that operates without lubrication of any kind, and does not introduce foreign chemicals or particulate matter from oil or drive shaft seal degradation into the hydro ecology. In its unique configuration, the Star*Stream© Hydroturbine is nearly environmentally inert, without the negative aspects caused by interrupting the ecological continuity, i.e., disruptions to sedimentation, water quality, habitat changes, human displacement, fish migration, etc., - while it ensures dramatically reduced timeframes to project completion. While a remarkable reduction in LCOE resulting from application of the Star*Stream© Hydroturbine technology has been the core achievement of the this effort, there have been numerous technological breakthroughs from the development effort.

  6. Structural evolution of small ruthenium cluster anions

    SciTech Connect

    Waldt, Eugen; Hehn, Anna-Sophia; Ahlrichs, Reinhart; Kappes, Manfred M.; Schooss, Detlef

    2015-01-14

    The structures of ruthenium cluster anions have been investigated using a combination of trapped ion electron diffraction and density functional theory computations in the size range from eight to twenty atoms. In this size range, three different structural motifs are found: Ru{sub 8}{sup −}–Ru{sub 12}{sup −} have simple cubic structures, Ru{sub 13}{sup −}–Ru{sub 16}{sup −} form double layered hexagonal structures, and larger clusters form close packed motifs. For Ru{sub 17}{sup −}, we find hexagonal close packed stacking, whereas octahedral structures occur for Ru{sub 18}{sup −}–Ru{sub 20}{sup −}. Our calculations also predict simple cubic structures for the smaller clusters Ru{sub 4}{sup −}–Ru{sub 7}{sup −}, which were not accessible to electron diffraction measurements.

  7. Speckle imaging of solar small scale structure. 2: Study of small scale structure in active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Luehe, O.

    1994-01-01

    The speckle imaging technique which is described in the first paper of this series (von der Luehe 1993) was used to analyze time series of high angular resolution images of solar small scale structure at a wavelength of 585 nm in active regions with the 76 cm diameter vacuum tower telescope at National Solar Observatory (NSO)/Sac Peak. Two sets of reconstructed images with a field of 4 by 4 arcsec which cover a period of 36 min and 83 min were generated and analyzed. The image reconstructions are supplemented with simultaneous large field photographs taken within a 15 A passband centered on the Ca II K (3933) line. The prime objective of the observing program was the study of the structure and the dynamics of the continuum wavelength counterpart of facular points which appear with high contrast in the Ca pictures, i.e., continuum bright points (CBPs). In addition to CBPs, the reconstructions allow studying other small scale phenomena. Results of the studies are given.

  8. Structures of small bismuth cluster cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelting, Rebecca; Baldes, Alexander; Schwarz, Ulrike; Rapps, Thomas; Schooss, Detlef; Weis, Patrick; Neiss, Christian; Weigend, Florian; Kappes, Manfred M.

    2012-04-01

    The structures of bismuth cluster cations in the range between 4 and 14 atoms have been assigned by a combination of gas phase ion mobility and trapped ion electron diffraction measurements together with density functional theory calculations. We find that above 8 atoms the clusters adopt prolate structures with coordination numbers between 3 and 4 and highly directional bonds. These open structures are more like those seen for clusters of semiconducting-in-bulk elements (such as silicon) rather than resembling the compact structures typical for clusters of metallic-in-bulk elements. An accurate description of bismuth clusters at the level of density functional theory, in particular of fragmentation pathways and dissociation energetics, requires taking spin-orbit coupling into account. For n = 11 we infer that low energy isomers can have fragmentation thresholds comparable to their structural interconversion barriers. This gives rise to experimental isomer distributions which are dependent on formation and annealing histories.

  9. Building Research Cyberinfrastructure at Small/Medium Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Anne; Rowe, Theresa; Woo, Melissa; Woods, David

    2010-01-01

    A 2006 ECAR study defined cyberinfrastructure as the coordinated aggregate of "hardware, software, communications, services, facilities, and personnel that enable researchers to conduct advanced computational, collaborative, and data-intensive research." While cyberinfrastructure was initially seen as support for scientific and…

  10. Building Research Cyberinfrastructure at Small/Medium Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Anne; Rowe, Theresa; Woo, Melissa; Woods, David

    2010-01-01

    A 2006 ECAR study defined cyberinfrastructure as the coordinated aggregate of "hardware, software, communications, services, facilities, and personnel that enable researchers to conduct advanced computational, collaborative, and data-intensive research." While cyberinfrastructure was initially seen as support for scientific and…

  11. Structural properties of small rhodium clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Yee Yeen; Yoon, Tiem Leong; Lim, Thong Leng

    2015-04-24

    We report a systematic study of the structural properties of rhodium clusters at the atomistic level. A novel global-minimum search algorithm, known as parallel tempering multicanonical basin hopping plus genetic algorithm (PTMBHGA), is used to obtain the geometrical structures with lowest minima at the semi-empirical level where Gupta potential is used to describe the atomic interaction among the rhodium atoms. These structures are then re-optimized at the density functional theory (DFT) level with exchange-correlation energy approximated by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The structures are optimized for different spin multiplicities. The ones with lowest energies will be taken as ground-state structures. In most cases, we observe only minor changes in the geometry and bond length of the clusters as a result of DFT-level re-optimization. Only in some limited cases, the initial geometries obtained from the PTMBHGA are modified by the re-optimization. The variation of structural properties, such as ground-state geometry, symmetry and binding energy, with respect to the cluster size is studied and agreed well with other results available in the literature.

  12. Education and Training that Meets the Needs of Small Business: A Systematic Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan; Nguyen, Nhi

    2007-01-01

    Small businesses account for the great majority of businesses and half the private sector employment in Australia, but only one third provide structured training for their employees. This study, a systematic review of existing research, set out to find clear evidence of intervention strategies that meet small business needs in relation to the…

  13. Small Business Innovation Research Award Success Story: Proton Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-01

    This success story describes Proton Energy Systems, a small business that designs and manufactures proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis sytems to produce hydrogen from water. The U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program has supported much of Proton's technology development through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Awards and other non-SBIR funding.

  14. The Advancement of Educational Research in Small States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper critically examines the impact of global development agendas upon the nature and direction of educational development in small states. This generates a critique of the international transfer of western policy trajectories and related research modalities, identifies the strategic importance of small states, and explores possible ways…

  15. Metacommunity structure in a small boreal stream network.

    PubMed

    Göthe, Emma; Angeler, David G; Sandin, Leonard

    2013-03-01

    Current ecological frameworks emphasize the relative importance of local and regional drivers for structuring species communities. However, most research has been carried out in systems with discrete habitat boundaries and a clear insular structure. Stream networks deviate from the insular structure and can serve as excellent model systems for studying hierarchical community dynamics over different temporal and spatial extents. We used benthic invertebrate data from streams in a small northern Swedish catchment to test whether metacommunity dynamics change between seasons, across spatial hierarchies (i.e. at the whole catchment scale vs. the scales of first-order and second/third-order sites within the catchment) and between stream-order groups. We assessed metacommunity structure as a function of three relevant dispersal dimensions (directional downstream processes, along-stream dispersal and overland dispersal). These dispersal dimensions were related to species groups with relevant dispersal traits (flying capacity, drift propensity) and dispersal capacities (weak vs. strong) to elucidate whether the observed spatial signals were due to dispersal limitation or mass effects. Results showed complex community organization that varied between seasons, with the scale of observation, and with stream order. The importance of spatial factors and specific dispersal dimensions was highly dependent on the time of sampling and the scale of observation. The importance of environmental factors was more consistent in our analyses, but their effect on species community structure peaked at first-order sites. Our analyses of species dispersal traits were not unequivocal, but indicated that both mass effects and dispersal limitation could simultaneously contribute to the spatial signal at the scale of the whole catchment through different dispersal pathways. We conclude that the study of hierarchically organized ecosystems uncovers complex patterns of metacommunity organization

  16. 78 FR 59410 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... period for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR... ). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 5165 of the SBIR/STTR Reauthorization Act of 2011, Public Law 112-81, 125-Stat. 1298, as implemented by section 4(a)(3) of the SBIR and STTR Policy Directives, requires each of...

  17. 77 FR 28520 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... funds. According to the statute, the regulations must also address domestic ownership of program... the SBIR and STTR programs, while also ensuring that only domestic small businesses receive the... Program should address whether the applicant is owned by domestic business concerns. SBA therefore...

  18. The Physics of Very Small Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    thermal current has been reduced. were taken using a Tektronix 577 curve tracer. First and The structure used in this study was grown by an second...low-temperature spectra. Although these features disap- peared in the thermal current at room temperature. the. could be identified without ambiguity...perpendicular to the plane of the layers. Figure 1 (a) depicts tive spectra were obtained using modulation techniques at 5 thermal electronic equilibrium while

  19. Research between conflicts of interest in a small German municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinikmann, Karin; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Lake eutrophication is a traditional topic in hydrology which attracts the attention of scientists all over the world to date. However, in single cases of lakes experiencing severe consequences of nutrient overloads (e.g., toxic algae blooms, loss of species richness…) also a non-scientific public arouses interest in processes behind and reasons for these phenomena. This interest results from the various effects of eutrophication on the anthropogenic use of the lake, such as loss of the lakés recreational value, potential health impairments from contact with lake water, changes of the ecological/esthetical status, etc. We present our manifold experiences in communicating with different actors who are or at least feel affected by our research to identify sources for elevated phosphorus loads to Lake Arendsee in Germany. Among those are supporters and opponents of restoration plans as there are for example • representatives of different public authorities, • inhabitants of local communities making their income from tourism around the lake, • farmers, • fishermen, • etc. We describe different conflicts of interest arising from this situation and describe problems we had interacting with single actors. A citizen-science action was initiated which increased both, the research output and the awareness of the problem within the general local public. We conclude that even in small municipalities a complex structure of stakeholders may develop who might act in unpredictable ways to achieve their personal or political goals.

  20. Feasibility study of the Boeing Small Research Module (BSRM) concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The design, capabilities, and subsystem options for the Boeing Small Research Module (BSRM) are described. Specific scientific missions are defined based on NASA-Ames Research Center requirements and the BSRM capability to support these missions is discussed. Launch vehicle integration requirements and spacecraft operational features are also presented.

  1. Revisiting Scale, Comparative Research and Education in Small States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin; Crossley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Comparative research on education in small states has attracted international attention since the mid-1980s when the Commonwealth sponsored a number of seminal meetings and publications, and became a key advocate for the advancement of such work. This article considers the place of different dimensions of scale in comparative research; re-examines…

  2. Small catalytic RNA: Structure, function and application

    SciTech Connect

    Monforte, J.A.

    1991-04-01

    We have utilized a combination of photochemical cross-linking techniques and site-directed mutagenesis to obtain secondary and tertiary structure information for the self-cleaving, self-ligating subsequence of RNA from the negative strand of Satellite Tobacco Ringspot Virus. We have found that the helical regions fold about a hinge to promoting four different possible tertiary interactions, creating a molecular of similar shape to a paperclip. A model suggesting that the paperclip'' and hammerhead'' RNAs share a similar three dimensional structure is proposed. We have used a self-cleaving RNA molecule related to a subsequence of plant viroids, a hammerhead,'' to study the length-dependent folding of RNA produced during transcription by RNA polymerase. We have used this method to determine the length of RNA sequestered within elongating E. coli and T7 RNA polymerase complexes. The data show that for E. coli RNA polymerase 12{plus minus}1 nucleotides are sequestered within the ternary complex, which is consistent with the presence of an RNA-DNA hybrid within the transcription bubble, as proposed by others. The result for T7 RNA polymerase differs from E. coli RNA polymerase, with only 10{plus minus}1 nucleotides sequestered within the ternary complex, setting a new upper limit for the minimum RNA-DNA required for a stable elongating complex. Comparisons between E. coli and T7 RNA polymerase are made. The relevance of the results to models or transcription termination, abortive initiation, and initiation to elongation mode transitions are discussed.

  3. Large Scale Coordination of Small Scale Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobelski, Adam; Tarr, Lucas A.; Jaeggli, Sarah A.; Savage, Sabrina

    2017-08-01

    Transient brightenings are ubiquitous features of the solar atmosphere across many length and energy scales, the most energetic of which manifest as large-class solar flares. Often, transient brightenings originate in regions of strong magnetic activity and create strong observable enhancements across wavelengths from X-ray to radio, with notable dynamics on timescales of seconds to hours.The coronal aspects of these brightenings have often been studied by way of EUV and X-ray imaging and spectra. These events are likely driven by photospheric activity (such as flux emergence) with the coronal brightenings originating largely from chromospheric ablation (evaporation). Until recently, chromospheric and transition region observations of these events have been limited. However, new observational capabilities have become available which significantly enhance our ability to understand the bi-directional flow of energy through the chromosphere between the photosphere and the corona.We have recently obtained a unique data set with which to study this flow of energy through the chromosphere via the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS), Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT), Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuStar), Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), and Interferometric BIdimensional Spectropolarimeter (IBIS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). This data set targets a small active area near disk center which was tracked simultaneously for approximately four hours. Within this region, many transient brightenings detected through multiple layers of the solar atmosphere. In this study, we combine the imaging data and use the spectra from EIS and IRIS to track flows from the photosphere (HMI, SOT) through the chromosphere and transition region (AIA, IBIS, IRIS, ALMA) into the corona

  4. Small catalytic RNA: Structure, function and application

    SciTech Connect

    Monforte, J.A.

    1991-04-01

    We have utilized a combination of photochemical cross-linking techniques and site-directed mutagenesis to obtain secondary and tertiary structure information for the self-cleaving, self-ligating subsequence of RNA from the negative strand of Satellite Tobacco Ringspot Virus. We have found that the helical regions fold about a hinge to promoting four different possible tertiary interactions, creating a molecular of similar shape to a paperclip. A model suggesting that the ``paperclip`` and ``hammerhead`` RNAs share a similar three dimensional structure is proposed. We have used a self-cleaving RNA molecule related to a subsequence of plant viroids, a ``hammerhead,`` to study the length-dependent folding of RNA produced during transcription by RNA polymerase. We have used this method to determine the length of RNA sequestered within elongating E. coli and T7 RNA polymerase complexes. The data show that for E. coli RNA polymerase 12{plus_minus}1 nucleotides are sequestered within the ternary complex, which is consistent with the presence of an RNA-DNA hybrid within the transcription bubble, as proposed by others. The result for T7 RNA polymerase differs from E. coli RNA polymerase, with only 10{plus_minus}1 nucleotides sequestered within the ternary complex, setting a new upper limit for the minimum RNA-DNA required for a stable elongating complex. Comparisons between E. coli and T7 RNA polymerase are made. The relevance of the results to models or transcription termination, abortive initiation, and initiation to elongation mode transitions are discussed.

  5. The Application of Reflexivity in Small Business Research and Implications for the Business Practitioner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Nigel; Kirkham, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on a review of the lead author's research, which took the form of a self-narrative from a practitioner about the perceived realities of one small business and its owner. The paper explores the practical application of auto-ethnographic reflexive research methodologies and seeks to demonstrate that structured ways can be…

  6. The Application of Reflexivity in Small Business Research and Implications for the Business Practitioner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Nigel; Kirkham, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on a review of the lead author's research, which took the form of a self-narrative from a practitioner about the perceived realities of one small business and its owner. The paper explores the practical application of auto-ethnographic reflexive research methodologies and seeks to demonstrate that structured ways can be…

  7. Structural marsh management research priorities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, Donald R.; Groat, Charles G.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a prioritized list of research issues related to structural marsh management developed by a multidisciplinary panel of regulatory agency representatives, landowners, and scientists. More than 75 issues were identified concerning landscape changes, influence on ecological processes (i.e., hydrologic, biologic, and edaphic factors), habitat quality, cumulative impacts, and management approach. These issues were prioritized and organized around six basic questions regulatory personnel must try to answer for each marsh management plan application. The six questions deal with the influence of marsh management on, in order of most immediate need, marsh loss and health, fisheries, wildlife, habitat change, water quality, and cumulative effects.

  8. Estimating ground water yield in small research basins

    Treesearch

    Elon S. Verry

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of ground water recharge in 32 small research watersheds shows the average flow of ground water out of the watershed (deep seepage) is 45% of streamflow and ranges from 8 to 350 mm/year when apportioned over the watershed area. It is time to meld ground water and small watershed science. The use of we11 networks and the evaluation of ground water well...

  9. Small Multi-Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-15

    NASA Glenn engineer Monica Guzik in the Small Multi-Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF). The facility provides the ability to simulate the environmental conditions encountered in space for a variety of cryogenic applications such as thermal protection systems, fluid transfer operations and propellant level gauging. SMiRF is a low-cost, small-scale screening facility for concept and component testing of a wide variety of hardware and is capable of testing cryogenic hydrogen, oxygen, methane and nitrogen.

  10. Impact of space research and technology on small countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafimov, K. B.

    Space research has generated and stimulated development in the following five ways: influence on other sciences; space technology transfer and spin-offs; rocket industry, direct use of space (communications, remote sensing, meteorology, navigation, etc.); growing interest towards education, science and creative work, increased prestige, etc. The necessity of small and developing countries to participate in space research has been recognized. Their role in international space cooperation has been pointed out. A number of problems have been presented for the small countries related to their adequate engagement in space research activities, as well as some considerations and conclusions in respect to their participation in space research, such as: creating their own `space specialization', optimal choice of participation in international projects and programmes, ensurance of financing, material and technical foundation and other possibilities; active participation in COPEOS, COSPAR, IAF and other space organizations. Some possible negative features in the space activities of small countries have been shown, and a brief review is given as an example of Bulgaria's participation in space research. Some possibilities of help to small and developing countries by COSPAR and IAF are analyzed.

  11. Robotic Delivery of Complex Radiation Volumes for Small Animal Research

    PubMed Central

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Iordachita, Iulian; Wong, John; Kazanzides, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is a novel and complete system capable of delivering multidirectional (focal), kilo-voltage radiation fields to targets in small animals under robotic control using cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance. The capability of the SARRP to deliver highly focused beams to multiple animal models provides new research opportunities that more realistically bridge laboratory research and clinical translation. This paper describes the design and operation of the SARRP for precise radiation delivery. Different delivery procedures are presented which enable the system to radiate through a series of points, representative of a complex shape. A particularly interesting case is shell dose irradiation, where the goal is to deliver a high dose of radiation to the shape surface, with minimal dose to the shape interior. The ability to deliver a dose shell allows mechanistic research of how a tumor interacts with its microenvironment to sustain its growth and lead to its resistance or recurrence. PMID:21643448

  12. Small Business Innovation Research. Abstracts of Phase I awards, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-01

    This booklet presents technical abstracts of Phase I awards made in Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 under the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. SBIR research explores innovative concepts in important technological and scientific areas that can lead to valuable new technology and products. The work described in the abstracts is novel, high-risk research, but the benefits will also be potentially high if the objectives are met. Brief comments on the potential applications, as described by the awardee, are given after each abstract. Individuals and organizations, including venture capital and larger industrial firms, with an interest in the research described in any of the abstracts are encouraged to contact the appropriate small business directly.

  13. Structure and stability of small TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hamad, S; Catlow, C R A; Woodley, S M; Lago, S; Mejías, J A

    2005-08-25

    The effect of the nanostructure on the photochemistry of TiO2 is an active field of research owing to its applications in photocatalysis and photovoltaics. Despite this interest, little is known of the structure of small particles of this oxide with sizes at the nanometer length scale. Here we present a computational study that locates the global minima in the potential energy surface of Ti(n)O2n clusters with n = 1-15. The search procedure does not refer to any of the known TiO2 polymorphs, and is based on a novel combination of simulated annealing and Monte Carlo basin hopping simulations, together with genetic algorithm techniques, with the energy calculated by means of an interatomic potential. The application of several different methods increases our confidence of having located the global minimum. The stable structures are then refined by means of density functional theory calculations. The results from the two techniques are similar, although the methods based on interatomic potentials are unable to describe some subtle effects. The agreement is especially good for the larger particles, with n = 9-15. For these sizes the structures are compact, with a preference for a central octahedron and a surrounding layer of 4- and 5-fold coordinated Ti atoms, although there seems to be some energy penalty for particles containing the 5-fold coordinated metal atoms with square base pyramid geometry and dangling Ti=O bonds. The novel structures reported provide the basis for further computational studies of the effect of nanostructure on adsorption, photochemistry, and nucleation of this material.

  14. Research and Data Needs for Small/Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce

    Information available on rural education remains startlingly inadequate--partly because of the great diversity of rural areas, because agencies responsible for data collection disagree on the definition of small/rural schools, and because large metropolitan schools have received far more than their share of attention, research, and financial…

  15. Feasibility study of the Boeing Small Research Module (BSRM) concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The design, capabilities, and subsystem options are described for the Boeing Small Research Module (BSRM). Specific scientific missions are defined and the BSRM capability to support these missions is discussed. Launch vehicle integration requirements and spacecraft operational features are also presented.

  16. LEADERSHIP IN SMALL MILITARY UNITS--SOME RESEARCH FINDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANGE, CARL J.

    THE EFFECT OF A LEADER'S ACTIONS ON HIS FOLLOWERS IN SMALL MILITARY UNITS WAS THE SUBJECT OF SEVERAL RESEARCH STUDIES CONDUCTED TO EXPLORE THE NATURE OF THE LEADERSHIP PROCESS, WITH THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF DEVELOPING TRAINING THAT WOULD USE IMPROVED PRESENTATIONAL MATERIALS AND WOULD BE BASED ON LEADERSHIP DOCTRINE WITH DEMONSTRATED VALIDITY. THE…

  17. Biomedical Research Experiences for Biology Majors at a Small College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Shawn K.; Mabry, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    A program-level assessment of the biology curriculum at a small liberal arts college validates a previous study demonstrating success in achieving learning outcomes related to content knowledge and communication skills. Furthermore, research opportunities have been provided to complement pedagogical strategies and give students a more complete…

  18. Multiple oligomeric structures of a bacterial small heat shock protein

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Nandini; Bhandari, Spraha; Moreno, Rodolfo; Hu, Liya; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram; Suguna, Kaza

    2016-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins are ubiquitous molecular chaperones that form the first line of defence against the detrimental effects of cellular stress. Under conditions of stress they undergo drastic conformational rearrangements in order to bind to misfolded substrate proteins and prevent cellular protein aggregation. Owing to the dynamic nature of small heat shock protein oligomers, elucidating the structural basis of chaperone action and oligomerization still remains a challenge. In order to understand the organization of sHSP oligomers, we have determined crystal structures of a small heat shock protein from Salmonella typhimurium in a dimeric form and two higher oligomeric forms: an 18-mer and a 24-mer. Though the core dimer structure is conserved in all the forms, structural heterogeneity arises due to variation in the terminal regions. PMID:27053150

  19. Research of the small satellite data management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaozhou; Zhou, Fengqi; Zhou, Jun

    2007-11-01

    Small satellite is the integration of light weight, small volume and low launch cost. It is a promising approach to realize the future space mission. A detailed study of the data management system has been carried out, with using new reconfiguration method based on System On Programmable Chip (SOPC). Compared with common structure of satellite, the Central Terminal Unit (CTU), the Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) and Serial Data Bus (SDB) of the data management are all integrated in single chip. Thus the reliability of the satellite is greatly improved. At the same time, the data management system has powerful performance owing to the modern FPGA processing ability.

  20. Small Radioisotope Power System at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugala, Gina M.; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David P.; Duven, Dennis; Shamkovich, Andrei; Ambrose, Hollis; Meer, David W.

    2012-01-01

    In April 2009, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) formed an integrated product team (IPT) to develop a Small Radioisotope Power System (SRPS) utilizing a single Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) with passive balancer for possible use by the International Lunar Network (ILN) program. The ILN program is studying the feasibility of implementing a multiple node seismometer network to investigate the internal lunar structure. A single ASC produces approximately 80 W(sub e) and could potentially supply sufficient power for that application. The IPT consists of Sunpower, Inc., to provide the single ASC with balancer, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to design an engineering model Single Convertor Controller (SCC) for an ASC with balancer, and NASA GRC to provide technical support to these tasks and to develop a simulated lunar lander test stand. A controller maintains stable operation of an ASC. It regulates the alternating current produced by the linear alternator of the convertor, provides a specified output voltage, and maintains operation at a steady piston amplitude and hot end temperature. JHU/APL also designed an ASC dynamic engine/alternator simulator to aid in the testing and troubleshooting of the SCC. This paper describes the requirements, design, and development of the SCC, including some of the key challenges and the solutions chosen to overcome those issues. In addition, it describes the plans to analyze the effectiveness of a passive balancer to minimize vibration from the ASC, characterize the effect of ASC vibration on a lunar lander, characterize the performance of the SCC, and integrate the single ASC, SCC, and lunar lander test stand to characterize performance of the overall system.

  1. Current research in composite structures at NASA's Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, Michael F.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Research on the mechanics of composite structures at NASA's Langley Research Center is discussed. The advantages and limitations of special purpose and general purpose analysis tools used in research are reviewed. Future directions in computational structural mechanics are described to address analysis short-comings. Research results on the buckling and postbuckling of unstiffened and stiffened composite structures are presented. Recent investigations of the mechanics of failure in compression and shear are reviewed. Preliminary studies of the dynamic response of composite structures due to impacts encountered during crash-landings are presented. Needs for future research are discussed.

  2. Research on the detection technology to dim and small target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Feng; Huang, Jianming; Wei, Xiangquan

    2015-03-01

    With the development of Space Technology, the demand to Space Surveillance System is more urgent than before. The paper studies the dim and small target of long range. Firstly, it describes the research status of dim and small target abroad and the two detection principle of DBT and TBD. Secondly, it focuses on the higher-order correlation method, dynamic programming method and projection transformation method of TBD. Finally, it studies the image sequence simulation of different signal to noise ratio (SNR) with the real-time data from the aircraft in orbit. The image sequence is used to experimental verification. The test results show the dim and small target detection capability and applicable occasion of different methods. At the same time, it provides a new idea to the development of long-distance optical detector.

  3. Small business innovation research. Abstracts of completed 1987 phase 1 projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Non-proprietary summaries of Phase 1 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects supported by NASA in the 1987 program year are given. Work in the areas of aeronautical propulsion, aerodynamics, acoustics, aircraft systems, materials and structures, teleoperators and robotics, computer sciences, information systems, spacecraft systems, spacecraft power supplies, spacecraft propulsion, bioastronautics, satellite communication, and space processing are covered.

  4. Structural mechanics research at the Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    The contributions of NASA's Langley Research Center in areas of structural mechanics were traced from its NACA origins in 1917 to the present. The developments in structural mechanics technology since 1940 were emphasized. A brief review of some current research topics were discussed as well as anticipated near-term research projects.

  5. On the relation between the small world structure and scientific activities.

    PubMed

    Ebadi, Ashkan; Schiffauerova, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The modern science has become more complex and interdisciplinary in its nature which might encourage researchers to be more collaborative and get engaged in larger collaboration networks. Various aspects of collaboration networks have been examined so far to detect the most determinant factors in knowledge creation and scientific production. One of the network structures that recently attracted much theoretical attention is called small world. It has been suggested that small world can improve the information transmission among the network actors. In this paper, using the data on 12 periods of journal publications of Canadian researchers in natural sciences and engineering, the co-authorship networks of the researchers are created. Through measuring small world indicators, the small worldiness of the mentioned network and its relation with researchers' productivity, quality of their publications, and scientific team size are assessed. Our results show that the examined co-authorship network strictly exhibits the small world properties. In addition, it is suggested that in a small world network researchers expand their team size through getting connected to other experts of the field. This team size expansion may result in higher productivity of the whole team as a result of getting access to new resources, benefitting from the internal referring, and exchanging ideas among the team members. Moreover, although small world network is positively correlated with the quality of the articles in terms of both citation count and journal impact factor, it is negatively related with the average productivity of researchers in terms of the number of their publications.

  6. Structural insights into the transport of small molecules across membranes

    PubMed Central

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Buchanan, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    While hydrophobic small molecules often can freely permeate a lipid bilayer, ions and other polar molecules cannot and require transporters to mediate their transport. Recently, a number of important structures have been reported which have advanced our understanding of how membrane protein transporters function to transport small molecules. Structures of TbpA/B and HmuUV provided new insight into iron uptake by pathogenic bacteria while the structures of NarK, ASBT, and VcINDY revealed molecular details about the transport of nitrate, bile acids and dicarboxylates, respectively. The structure of the folate ECF transporter indicated that the S component likely undergoes a large conformational shift to mediate folate transport, while the cellulose synthase/transporter contains an elongated translocation pore for passage through the inner membrane. PMID:24681594

  7. Structural alterations in small resistance arteries in obesity.

    PubMed

    Rizzoni, Damiano; De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Semeraro, Francesco; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti

    2012-01-01

    In cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, small resistance arteries may show the presence of structural alterations. In particular, in essential hypertension, an increased media-to-lumen ratio of subcutaneous small arteries with no change in the total amount of vascular wall tissue (eutrophic remodelling) has already been described several years ago. Similar alterations have been demonstrated also in patients with diabetes mellitus and obesity; in this case, however, a more evident contribution of vascular smooth muscle cell growth (hypertrophic remodelling) is present. This review addresses the effects of obesity on small resistance artery structure. Similar to diabetic patients, obese patients show an increased media-to-lumen ratio of subcutaneous small arteries, which appears associated with hypertrophic remodelling, as demonstrated by an increase in media cross-sectional area. Endothelial dysfunction evaluated as vasodilator response to acetylcholine has also been observed. Several studies have shown that increased media-to-lumen ratio of subcutaneous small resistance arteries possesses a prognostic significance in relation to cardiovascular outcome. Appropriate antihypertensive treatment may improve microvascular alterations both in essential hypertension and in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In obesity, a pronounced weight loss may improve microvascular structure. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the effects of other pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in obesity. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  8. Characterizing the Small Scale Structure in Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, William R.

    1999-01-01

    We have applied a wavelet transform analysis to quantify the small-scale (less than a few arcminutes) X-ray structure of clusters of galaxies to several clusters. Three of these clusters show interesting structure. In addition to the small scale structure in surface brightness, we have searched for temperature structure using Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observations. For A754, we find a filamentary structure, similar to that previously detected in A85. For A119, we find small scale structure associated with both cool and hot regions with a hot filament extending to the northeast. For A1750, one of the first clusters to show substructure from Einstein, we have a rederived the substructure from the ROSAT observations. The ASCA observations show a hot region between the two small scale features - sub-clusters. The hot region shows that the two subclusters are merging and producing a shock wave at the leading edge of the interaction. This analysis had been applied to a sample of 17 clusters to determine the radial distribution of substructure in a sample. The number of detected substructures was rather small and it was decided to select a different cluster sample at larger redshift. This provided a larger radial range over which substructure could be detected. This new cluster sample also includes about 20 clusters and is being analyzed. Finally, we are considering how to compare the substructure parameters of nearby clusters with a more distant sample to see if one can extract cosmological information. Since substructure frequency should depend on the cosmological density parameter, it may be possible to derive new constraints by comparing nearby and distant clusters.

  9. Structural abnormalities of small resistance arteries in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rizzoni, Damiano; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico

    2012-06-01

    Regardless of the mechanisms that initiate the increase in blood pressure, the development of structural changes in the systemic vasculature is the end result of established hypertension. In essential hypertension, the small arteries smooth muscle cells are restructured around a smaller lumen, and there is no net growth of the vascular wall, while in some secondary forms of hypertension, a hypertrophic remodeling may be detected. Also, in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, a hypertrophic remodeling of subcutaneous small arteries is present. The results from our own group have suggested that indices of small resistance artery structure, such as the tunica media to internal lumen ratio, may have a strong prognostic significance in hypertensive patients, over and above all other known cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, the regression of vascular alterations is an appealing goal of antihypertensive treatment. Different antihypertensive drugs seem to have different effect on vascular structure, both in human and in animal models of genetic and experimental hypertension. A complete normalization of small resistance artery structure is demonstrated in hypertensive patients, after long-term and effective therapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and calcium antagonists. Few data are available in diabetic hypertensive patients; however, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system seems to be effective in this regard. In conclusion, there are several pieces of evidence that suggest that small resistance artery structure may be considered an intermediate endpoint in the evaluation of the effects of antihypertensive therapy; however, there are presently no data available about the prognostic impact of the regression of vascular structural alterations in hypertension and diabetes.

  10. The development of small primate models for aging research.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Kathleen E; Austad, Steven N

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman primate (NHP) aging research has traditionally relied mainly on the rhesus macaque. But the long lifespan, low reproductive rate, and relatively large body size of macaques and related Old World monkeys make them less than ideal models for aging research. Manifold advantages would attend the use of smaller, more rapidly developing, shorter-lived NHP species in aging studies, not the least of which are lower cost and the ability to do shorter research projects. Arbitrarily defining "small" primates as those weighing less than 500 g, we assess small, relatively short-lived species among the prosimians and callitrichids for suitability as models for human aging research. Using the criteria of availability, knowledge about (and ease of) maintenance, the possibility of genetic manipulation (a hallmark of 21st century biology), and similarities to humans in the physiology of age-related changes, we suggest three species--two prosimians (Microcebus murinus and Galago senegalensis) and one New World monkey (Callithrix jacchus)--that deserve scrutiny for development as major NHP models for aging studies. We discuss one other New World monkey group, Cebus spp., that might also be an effective NHP model of aging as these species are longer-lived for their body size than any primate except humans.

  11. Unbiased structural search of small copper clusters within DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogollo-Olivo, Beatriz H.; Seriani, Nicola; Montoya, Javier A.

    2015-11-01

    The atomic structure of small Cu clusters with 3-6 atoms has been investigated by density functional theory and random search algorithm. New metastable structures have been found that lie merely tens of meV/atom above the corresponding ground state, and could therefore be present at thermodynamic equilibrium at room temperature or slightly above. Moreover, we show that the previously proposed linear configuration for Cu3 is in fact a local maximum of the energy. Finally, we argue that the random search algorithm also provides qualitative information about the attraction basin of each structure in the energy landscape.

  12. Structural and Spectroscopic Properties of Water Around Small Hydrophobic Solutes

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Maria; Sterpone, Fabio; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the structural, dynamical and spectroscopic properties of water molecules around a solvated methane by means of Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. Despite their mobility, in the first-shell water molecules are dynamically displaced in a clathrate-like cage around the hydrophobic solute. No significant differences in water geometrical parameters, in molecular dipole moments or in hydrogen bonding properties are observed between in-shell and out-shell molecules, indicating that liquid water can accommodate a small hydrophobic solute without altering its structural properties. The calculated contribution of the first shell water molecules to the infrared spectra does not show significant differences with respect the bulk signal once the effects of the missing polarization of second-shell molecules has been taken into account. Small fingerprints of the clathrate-like structure appear in the vibrational density of states in the libration and OH stretching regions. PMID:22946539

  13. Insights to primitive replication derived from structures of small oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. K.; Fox, G. E.

    1995-01-01

    Available information on the structure of small oligonucleotides is surveyed. It is observed that even small oligomers typically exhibit defined structures over a wide range of pH and temperature. These structures rely on a plethora of non-standard base-base interactions in addition to the traditional Watson-Crick pairings. Stable duplexes, though typically antiparallel, can be parallel or staggered and perfect complementarity is not essential. These results imply that primitive template directed reactions do not require high fidelity. Hence, the extensive use of Watson-Crick complementarity in genes rather than being a direct consequence of the primitive condensation process, may instead reflect subsequent selection based on the advantage of accuracy in maintaining the primitive genetic machinery once it arose.

  14. Small magnetic structures near the polar regions of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, I.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Balmaceda, L.; Domingo, V.

    2017-10-01

    The study of the small magnetic structures of the solar photosphere is of great relevance because of their association with concentrations of magnetic field and their possible contribution to the variations of the Total Solar Irradiance. These structures are known to appear close to active regions and ubiquitously in the quiet Sun areas. Numerous studies about their distribution across all over the solar surface have been done with high-resolution instrumentation. However, since the observations have always been carried out from the ecliptic plane, their distribution near the polar regions is not well known. Future missions, like Solar Orbiter, will certainly provide valuable information on these yet unexplored regions. In this work, and in preparation for that moment, we select favorable periods for the observation of the polar regions of the Sun, and study the fraction of covered surface by small magnetic structures and its variation with the solar activity.

  15. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  16. Cyberinfrastructure to Support Collaborative Research Within Small Ecology Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laney, C.; Jaimes, A.; Cody, R. P.; Kassin, A.; Salayandia, L.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    Increasingly, ecological research programs addressing complex challenges are driving technological innovations that allow the acquisition and analysis of data collected over larger spatial scales and finer temporal resolutions. Many research labs are shifting from deploying technicians or students into the field to setting up automated sensors. These sensors can cost less on an individual basis, provide continuous and reliable data collection, and allow researchers to spend more time analyzing data and testing hypotheses. They can provide an enormous amount of complex information about an ecosystem. However, the effort to manage, analyze, and disseminate that information can be daunting. Small labs unfamiliar with these efforts may find their capacity to publish at competitive rates hindered by information management. Such labs would be well served by an easy to manage cyberinfrastructure (CI) that is organized in a modular, plug-and-play design and is amenable to a wide variety of data types. Its functionality would permit addition of new sensors and perform automated data analysis and visualization. Such a system would conceivably enhance access to data from small labs through web services, thereby improving the representation of smaller labs in scientific syntheses and enhancing the spatial and temporal coverage of such efforts. We present a CI that is designed to meet the needs of a small but heavily instrumented research site located within the USDA ARS Jornada Experimental Range in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. This site was constructed and is operated by the Systems Ecology Lab at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), a relatively small and young lab. Researchers at the site study land-atmosphere carbon, water, and energy fluxes at a mixed creosote (Larrea tridentata) - mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) shrubland. The site includes an eddy covariance tower built to AmeriFlux and FLUXNET specifications, a robotic cart that measures hyperspectral

  17. Structural Design Strategies for Improved Small Overlap Crashworthiness Performance.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Becky C; Brethwaite, Andrew S; Zuby, David S; Nolan, Joseph M

    2014-11-01

    In 2012, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) began a 64 km/h small overlap frontal crash test consumer information test program. Thirteen automakers already have redesigned models to improve test performance. One or more distinct strategies are evident in these redesigns: reinforcement of the occupant compartment, use of energy-absorbing fender structures, and the addition of engagement structures to induce vehicle lateral translation. Each strategy influences vehicle kinematics, posing additional challenges for the restraint systems. The objective of this two-part study was to examine how vehicles were modified to improve small overlap test performance and then to examine how these modifications affect dummy response and restraint system performance. Among eight models tested before and after design changes, occupant compartment intrusion reductions ranged from 6 cm to 45 cm, with the highest reductions observed in models with the largest number of modifications. All redesigns included additional occupant compartment reinforcement, one-third added structures to engage the barrier, and two modified a shotgun load path. Designs with engagement structures produced greater glance-off from the barrier and exhibited lower delta Vs but experienced more lateral outboard motion of the dummy. Designs with heavy reinforcement of the occupant compartment had higher vehicle accelerations and delta V. In three cases, these apparent trade-offs were not well addressed by concurrent changes in restraint systems and resulted in increased injury risk compared with the original tests. Among the 36 models tested after design changes, the extent of design changes correlated to structural performance. Half of the vehicles with the lowest intrusion levels incorporated aspects of all three design strategies. Vehicle kinematics and dummy and restraint system characteristics were similar to those observed in the before/after pairs. Different combinations of structural

  18. Visualization of small scale structures on high resolution DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Zakšek, Klemen; Pehani, Peter; Čotar, Klemen; Oštir, Krištof

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge on the terrain morphology is very important for observation of numerous processes and events and digital elevation models are therefore one of the most important datasets in geographic analyses. Furthermore, recognition of natural and anthropogenic microrelief structures, which can be observed on detailed terrain models derived from aerial laser scanning (lidar) or structure-from-motion photogrammetry, is of paramount importance in many applications. In this paper we thus examine and evaluate methods of raster lidar data visualization for the determination (recognition) of microrelief features and present a series of strategies to assist selecting the preferred visualization of choice for structures of various shapes and sizes, set in varied landscapes. Often the answer is not definite and more frequently a combination of techniques has to be used to map a very diverse landscape. Researchers can only very recently benefit from free software for calculation of advanced visualization techniques. These tools are often difficult to understand, have numerous options that confuse the user, or require and produce non-standard data formats, because they were written for specific purposes. We therefore designed the Relief Visualization Toolbox (RVT) as a free, easy-to-use, standalone application to create visualisations from high-resolution digital elevation data. It is tailored for the very beginners in relief interpretation, but it can also be used by more advanced users in data processing and geographic information systems. It offers a range of techniques, such as simple hillshading and its derivatives, slope gradient, trend removal, positive and negative openness, sky-view factor, and anisotropic sky-view factor. All included methods have been proven to be effective for detection of small scale features and the default settings are optimised to accomplish this task. However, the usability of the tool goes beyond computation for visualization purposes, as sky

  19. Structure design of the telescope for Small-JASMINE program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsunomiya, Shin; Yasuda, Susumu; Yano, Taihei; Niwa, Yoshito; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Kashima, Shingo; Goda, Naoteru; Yamada, Yoshiyuki

    2014-08-01

    Small-JASMINE program (Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for INfrared Exploration) is one of applicants for JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) space science missions launched by Epsilon Launch Vehicles, and now being reviewed in the Science Committee of ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science), JAXA. Telescope of 300 mm aperture diameter will focus to the central region of the Milky Way Galactic. The target of Small-JASMINE is to obtain reliable measurements of extremely small stellar motions with the highest accuracy of 10 μ arcseconds and to provide precise distances and velocities of multitudes of stars up to 30,000 light years. Preliminary Structure design of Small- JASMINE has been done and indicates to satisfy all of requirements from the mission requirement, the system requirement, Epsilon Launch conditions and interfaces of the small science satellite standard bus. High margin of weight for the mission allows using all super invar structure that may reduce unforeseen thermal distortion risk especially caused by connection of different materials. Thermal stability of the telescope is a key issue and should be verified in a real model at early stage of the development.

  20. Small watershed-scale research and the challenges ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, M. C.; Glynn, P. D.

    2008-12-01

    For the past century, Federal mission science agencies (eg. USFS, NRCS, ARS, USGS) have had the long- term agency goals, infrastructure, and research staff to conduct research and data collection in small watersheds as well as support these activities for non-Federal partners. The National Science Foundation has been a strong partner with the Federal mission science agencies, through the LTER network, which is dependent on Federally supported research sites, and more recently with the emerging CUAHSI, WATERS, CZEN, and NEON initiatives. Much of the NSF-supported research builds on the foundations provided by their Federally supported partners, who sustain the long-term, extensive monitoring activity and research sites, including making long-term data available to all users via public interfaces. The future of these programs, and their enhancement/expansion to face the intensifying concurrent challenges of population growth, land-use change, and climate change, is dependent on a well-funded national commitment to basic science. Such a commitment will allow the scientific community to advance our understanding of these scientific challenges and to synthesize our understanding among research sites and at the national scale. Small watersheds serve as essential platforms where hypotheses can be tested, as sentinels for climate change, and as a basis for comparing and scaling up local information and syntheses to regional and continental scales. The science guides resource management and mitigation decisions and is fundamental to the development of predictive models. Furthermore, small-watershed research and monitoring programs are generally undervalued because many research questions that can be addressed now or in the future were not anticipated when the sites were initiated. Some examples include: 1) the quantification, characterization, and understanding of how emerging contaminants, personal care products, and endocrine disruptors affect organisms - substances that

  1. Angular domain fluorescence imaging for small animal research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasefi, Fartash; Belton, Michelle; Kaminska, Bozena; Chapman, Glenn H.; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a novel macroscopic fluorescent imaging technique called angular domain fluorescence imaging (ADFI) applicable to the detection of fluorophores embedded in biological tissues. The method exploits the collimation detection capabilities of an angular filter array (AFA). The AFA uses the principle of acceptance angle filtration to extract minimally scattered photons emitted from fluorophores deep within tissue. Our goal was to develop an ADFI system for imaging near-infrared fluorescent markers for small animal imaging. According to the experimental results, the ADFI system offered higher resolution and contrast compared to a conventional lens and lens-pinhole fluorescent detection system. Furthermore, ADFI of a hairless mouse injected with a fluorescent bone marker revealed vertebral structural and morphometric data that correlated well with data derived from volumetric x-ray computed tomography images. The results suggested that ADFI is a useful technique for submillimeter mapping of the distribution of fluorescent biomarkers in small animals.

  2. The Structure of Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Educational research is widely construed as the scientific investigation of the causes of 'effective' teaching. Discussion of values and philosophical problems is condemned as descent into 'ideology'. Opposing this is a conception of teaching as "phronesis" where educational research and philosophy may be desirable, but have no direct relationship…

  3. Small Research Balloons in a Physics Course for Education Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhweiler, F. C.; Verner, E.; Long, T.; Montanaro, E.

    2013-12-01

    At The Catholic Univ. of America, we teach an experimental physics course entitled Physics 240: The Sun-Earth Connection, which is designed for the undergraduate education major. The emphasis is on providing hands-on experience and giving the students an exciting experience in physics. As part of this course, in the Spring 2013 semester, we instituted a project to plan, build, launch, and retrieve a small (~1.3 kg) research balloon payload. The payload flown was a small GPS unit that sent its position to an Internet site, a small wide-angle high-resolution video camera, and an analog refrigerator thermometer placed in the field of view of the camera. All data were stored on the camera sim-card. Students faced the problems of flying a small research balloon in the congested, densely populated Northeast Corridor of the US. They used computer simulators available on the Web to predict the balloon path and flight duration given velocities for the Jet Stream and ground winds, as well as payload mass and amount of helium in the balloon. The first flight was extremely successful. The balloon was launched 140 km NW of Washington DC near Hagerstown, MD and touched down 10 miles (16 km) NW of York, PA, within 1.6 km of what was predicted. The balloon reached 73,000 ft (22,000 m) and the thermometer indicated temperatures as low as -70 degrees Fahrenheit (-57 C) during the flight. Further balloon flights are planned in conjunction with this course. Additional exercises and experiments will be developed centered around these flights. Besides learning that science can be exciting, students also learn that science is not always easily predictable, and that these balloon flights give an understanding of many of problems that go into real scientific space missions. This project is supported in part by an educational supplement to NASA grant NNX10AC56G

  4. Introduction to Small Telescope Research Communities of Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.

    2016-06-01

    Communities of practice are natural, usually informal groups of people who work together. Experienced members teach new members the “ropes.” Social learning theorist Etienne Wenger’s book, Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity, defined the field. There are, in astronomy, many communities of practice. One set of communities uses relatively small telescopes to observe brighter objects such as eclipsing binaries, intrinsically variable stars, transiting exoplanets, tumbling asteroids, and the occultation of background stars by asteroids and the Moon. Advances in low cost but increasingly powerful instrumentation and automation have greatly increased the research capabilities of smaller telescopes. These often professional-amateur (pro-am) communities engage in research projects that require a large number of observers as exemplified by the American Association of Variable Star Observers. For high school and community college students with an interest in science, joining a student-centered, small telescope community of practice can be both educational and inspirational. An example is the now decade-long Astronomy Research Seminar offered by Cuesta College in San Luis Obispo, California. Each student team is required to plan a project, obtain observations (either locally or via a remote robotic telescope), analyze their data, write a paper, and submit it for external review and publication. Well over 100 students, composed primarily of high school juniors and seniors, have been coauthors of several dozen published papers. Being published researchers has boosted these students’ educational careers with admissions to choice schools, often with scholarships. This seminar was recently expanded to serve multiple high schools with a volunteer assistant instructor at each school. The students meet regularly with their assistant instructor and also meet online with other teams and the seminar’s overall community college instructor. The seminar

  5. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajan; Schürer, Stephan C.; Muskal, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR) data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB), WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note. PMID:27429748

  6. Basic neuroscience research with nonhuman primates: a small but indispensable component of biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Roelfsema, Pieter R; Treue, Stefan

    2014-06-18

    Research with nonhuman primates represents a small component of neuroscience with far-reaching relevance that is irreplaceable for essential insights into cognitive functions, brain disease, and therapy. Transparency and widespread information about this research and its importance is central to ensure the support of politicians and the general public. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Teaching and Research in Astronomy using Small Aperture Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, S. K.

    2006-08-01

    Small aperture (<1m, typically 20-50cm) optical telescopes with adequate back-end instrumentation (photometer, CCD camera and CCD spectrograph etc) can be used for spreading the joy and excitement of observational astronomy among postgraduate and research students in Colleges/. On the basis of over a decade's experience in observing with small optical telescopes it has been amply demonstrated that such a facility, which any University department can hope to procure and maintain, can be effectively used for teaching as well quality research. The Physics Department of Pt Ravishankar Shukla University at Raipur, India offers Astronomy & Astrophysics (A&A) as one of the specialization as a part of M Sc program in Physics. A set of observational exercises has been incorporated with a view to provide training in observations, analysis and interpretation of the astronomical data to the students. Observing facilities available in the department include 8"-14" aperture telescopes (CGE series from Celestron) equipped with the new-state-of-the-art backend instrumentation like Photometer, CCD Camera and also a CCD spectrograph. Observing facility of this kind is ideally suited for continuous monitoring of a variety of variable stars, and thus can provide valuable data for understanding the physics of stellar variability. This is especially true for a class of variable stars known as chromospherically active stars. The stars belonging to this class have variable light curves, and the most puzzling feature is that their light curves change year after year in a rather queerer way. A large fraction of these active stars are bright ones and, hence, the importance of small aperture telescope for collecting the much needed photometric data. For over a decade the research activity using 14" optical telescope is focused on photometric monitoring of well known as well suspected active stars. This together with spectroscopic data using observing facility at Indian Observatories has led

  8. Small trawls in juvenile flatfish research: Their development and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuipers, Bouwe R.; Maccurrin, B.; Miller, John M.; van der Veer, Henk W.; Witte, Johannes IJ.

    A resumé is given of the sampling techniques applied in juvenile flatfish research in the countries around the North Sea in the course of time with the emphasis on small trawl nets. A preliminary comparison of the relative efficiencies of otter-trawl and beam-trawl under different environmental conditions is presented. Beam-trawls show a higher and less variable efficiency than otter-trawls. The fixed width of a beam-trawl may be an important factor. Based on these results, a standardization of juvenile flatfish sampling techniques is suggested, based on the 1-m and 2-m beam-trawl.

  9. DoD Small Business Innovation Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-30

    00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE DoD Small Business Innovation Research Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...additional comments from the Under Secretary of Defense to Recommendations A.I., A.3., A. 4 ., B.i.a., and B.I.b.; and from the Assistant Secretary of...staff. Questions should be directed to Richard B. Jolliffe at 703604- 9201 . If you desire, we will provide a formal briefing on the results. Ric 1ard B

  10. The structural factor of hypertension: large and small artery alterations.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane; Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2015-03-13

    Pathophysiological studies have extensively investigated the structural factor in hypertension, including large and small artery remodeling and functional changes. Here, we review the recent literature on the alterations in small and large arteries in hypertension. We discuss the possible mechanisms underlying these abnormalities and we explain how they accompany and often precede hypertension. Finally, we propose an integrated pathophysiological approach to better understand how the cross-talk between large and small artery changes interacts in pressure wave transmission, exaggerates cardiac, brain and kidney damage, and lead to cardiovascular and renal complications. We focus on patients with essential hypertension because this is the most prevalent form of hypertension, and describe other forms of hypertension only for contrasting their characteristics with those of uncomplicated essential hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Structure of the Universe at Small and High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshkevich, A.; Turchaninov, V.

    1998-12-01

    The approximate theoretical description of the formation and evolution of the structure of the universe proposed by Demianski and Doroshkevich (1998) is compared with observed and simulated matter distribution at small and high redshifts. It is found that for the CDM-like power spectrum and suitable parameters of the cosmological model the effective matter compression reaches at small redshifts the observed scales Rwall ~20 - 25h^{-1}Mpc with the typical mean separation of wall-like elements DSLSS 50 - 70h^{-1}Mpc. We show that the same theoretical model explains well both the redshift, temperature and NHI distributions of absorption lines observed in the spectra of quasars at redshifts 2 <= z <= 3.5. The models with 0.3 <= Omega_m <= 0.5 give better description of the observed structure parameters.

  12. Selective small-molecule inhibition of an RNA structural element

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, John A.; Wang, Hao; Fischmann, Thierry O.; Balibar, Carl J.; Xiao, Li; Galgoci, Andrew M.; Malinverni, Juliana C.; Mayhood, Todd; Villafania, Artjohn; Nahvi, Ali; Murgolo, Nicholas; Barbieri, Christopher M.; Mann, Paul A.; Carr, Donna; Xia, Ellen; Zuck, Paul; Riley, Dan; Painter, Ronald E.; Walker, Scott S.; Sherborne, Brad; de Jesus, Reynalda; Pan, Weidong; Plotkin, Michael A.; Wu, Jin; Rindgen, Diane; Cummings, John; Garlisi, Charles G.; Zhang, Rumin; Sheth, Payal R.; Gill, Charles J.; Tang, Haifeng; Roemer, Terry

    2015-09-30

    Riboswitches are non-coding RNA structures located in messenger RNAs that bind endogenous ligands, such as a specific metabolite or ion, to regulate gene expression. As such, riboswitches serve as a novel, yet largely unexploited, class of emerging drug targets. Demonstrating this potential, however, has proven difficult and is restricted to structurally similar antimetabolites and semi-synthetic analogues of their cognate ligand, thus greatly restricting the chemical space and selectivity sought for such inhibitors. Here we report the discovery and characterization of ribocil, a highly selective chemical modulator of bacterial riboflavin riboswitches, which was identified in a phenotypic screen and acts as a structurally distinct synthetic mimic of the natural ligand, flavin mononucleotide, to repress riboswitch-mediated ribB gene expression and inhibit bacterial cell growth. Our findings indicate that non-coding RNA structural elements may be more broadly targeted by synthetic small molecules than previously expected.

  13. Secondary electron emission from surfaces with small structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhanoev, A. R.; Spahn, F.; Yaroshenko, V.; Lühr, H.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-09-01

    It is found that for objects possessing small surface structures with differing radii of curvature the secondary electron emission (SEE) yield may be significantly higher than for objects with smooth surfaces of the same material. The effect is highly pronounced for surface structures of nanometer scale, often providing a more than 100 % increase of the SEE yield. The results also show that the SEE yield from surfaces with structure does not show a universal dependence on the energy of the primary, incident electrons as it is found for flat surfaces in experiments. We derive conditions for the applicability of the conventional formulation of SEE using the simplifying assumption of universal dependence. Our analysis provides a basis for studying low-energy electron emission from nanometer structured surfaces under a penetrating electron beam important in many technological applications.

  14. Small-angle neutron scattering study of polymeric micellar structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.; Chu, B. ); Schneider, D.K. )

    1994-11-17

    Polymeric micellar structures formed by a PEO-PPO-PEO copolymer in o-xylene in the presence of water were investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. In order to reveal the detailed micellar structure, different contrasts among the micellar core, the micellar shell, and the dispersing medium (background) were constructed by selectively changing the protonated/deuterated combination of water and xylene. The micellar structure could be well described by a core-shell structure with the scattering behavior of the micellar shell being very similar to that of a star polymer. The solubilized water existed not only in the micellar core but also in the micellar shell. The volume fraction of a copolymer segments in the micellar shell was rather low, being of the order of 0.2. There seemed to be no sharp interface between the micellar core and the micellar shell. 25 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Nicolaï, S; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1996-01-01

    The Antwerp database on small ribosomal subunit RNA offers over 4300 nucleotide sequences (August 1995). All these sequences are stored in the form of an alignment based on the adopted secondary structure model, which in turn is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. Besides the primary and secondary structure information, literature references, accession numbers and detailed taxonomic information are also compiled. The complete database is made available to the scientific community through anonymous ftp and World Wide Web(WWW). PMID:8594609

  16. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Jansen, J; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1997-01-01

    The Antwerp database on small ribosomal subunit RNA now offers more than 6000 nucleotide sequences (August 1996). All these sequences are stored in the form of an alignment based on the adopted secondary structure model, which is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. Besides the primary and secondary structure information, literature references, accession numbers and detailed taxonomic information are also compiled. For ease of use, the complete database is made available to the scientific community via World Wide Web at URL http://rrna.uia.ac.be/ssu/ . PMID:9016516

  17. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Van den Broeck, I; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1994-01-01

    The database on small ribosomal subunit RNA structure contains (June 1994) 2824 nucleotide sequences. All these sequences are stored in the form of an alignment based on the adopted secondary structure model, which in turn is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. The complete database is made available to the scientific community through anonymous ftp on our server in Antwerp. A special effort was made to improve electronic retrieval and a program is supplied that allows to create different file formats. The database can also be obtained from the EMBL nucleotide sequence library. PMID:7524022

  18. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Caers, A; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1998-01-01

    About 8600 complete or nearly complete sequences are now available from the Antwerp database on small ribosomal subunit RNA. All these sequences are aligned with one another on the basis of the adopted secondary structure model, which is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. Literature references, accession numbers and detailed taxonomic information are also compiled. The database can be consulted via the World Wide Web at URL http://rrna.uia.ac.be/ssu/ PMID:9399829

  19. Small data global existence for a fluid-structure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatova, Mihaela; Kukavica, Igor; Lasiecka, Irena; Tuffaha, Amjad

    2017-02-01

    We address the system of partial differential equations modeling motion of an elastic body inside an incompressible fluid. The fluid is modeled by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations while the structure is represented by the damped wave equation with interior damping. The additional boundary stabilization γ, considered in our previous paper, is no longer necessary. We prove the global existence and exponential decay of solutions for small initial data in a suitable Sobolev space.

  20. MIX DESIGN FOR SMALL-SCALE MODELS OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An easily applied method of mix design was developed for concretes suitable for use in small -scale models of concrete structures. By use of the...properties were collected for model concretes with portland cement and gypsum cement bases. These concretes had maximum aggregate sizes of No. 4...strength, the model concretes using approximately scaled aggregate were found to have about the same splitting-tensile strength and flexural strength, a

  1. Nuclear Structure Research at Richmond

    SciTech Connect

    Beausang, Cornelius W.

    2015-04-30

    The goals for the final year were; (1) to continue ongoing efforts to develop and enhance GRETINA and work towards GRETA; (2) to investigate the structure of non-yrast states in shape transitional Sm and Gd nuclei; (3) to investigate the structure of selected light Cd nuclei; (4) to exploit the surrogate reaction technique to extract (n,f) cross sections for actinide nuclei, particularly the first measurement of the 236Pu and 237Pu(n,f) cross sections.

  2. 48 CFR 227.7204 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovation Research Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Business Innovation Research Program. 227.7204 Section 227.7204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... under the Small Business Innovation Research Program. When contracting under the Small Business Innovation Research Program, follow the procedures at 227-7104. ...

  3. 48 CFR 227.7204 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovation Research Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Business Innovation Research Program. 227.7204 Section 227.7204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... under the Small Business Innovation Research Program. When contracting under the Small Business Innovation Research Program, follow the procedures at 227-7104. ...

  4. 48 CFR 227.7204 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovation Research Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Business Innovation Research Program. 227.7204 Section 227.7204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... under the Small Business Innovation Research Program. When contracting under the Small Business Innovation Research Program, follow the procedures at 227-7104. ...

  5. 48 CFR 227.7204 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovative Research Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Innovative Research Program. 227.7204 Section 227.7204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... under the Small Business Innovative Research Program. When contracting under the Small Business Innovative Research Program, follow the procedures at 227-7104....

  6. 48 CFR 227.7204 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovation Research Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Business Innovation Research Program. 227.7204 Section 227.7204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... under the Small Business Innovation Research Program. When contracting under the Small Business Innovation Research Program, follow the procedures at 227-7104. ...

  7. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Summaries are presented of fiscal year 1989 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights from the branch's major work areas include aeroelasticity, vibration control, dynamic systems, and computation structural methods. A listing of the fiscal year 1989 branch publications is given.

  8. MicroResearch: finding sustainable local health solutions in East Africa through small local research studies.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, N E; Bortolussi, R; Kabakyenga, J; Pemba, S; Estambale, B; Kollmann, K H M; Odoi Adome, R; Appleton, M

    2014-09-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries have urged grassroots input to improve research capacity. In East Africa, MicroResearch is fostering local ability to find sustainable solutions for community health problems. At 5years, the following reports its progress. The MicroResearch program had three integrated components: (1) 2-week training workshops; (2) small proposal development with international peer review followed by project funding, implementation, knowledge translation; (3) coaching from experienced researchers. Evaluation included standardized questions after completion of the workshops, 2013 online survey of recent workshop participants and discussions at two East Africa MicroResearch Forums in 2013. Between 2008 and 2013, 15 workshops were conducted at 5 East Africa sites with 391 participants. Of the 29 projects funded by MicroResearch, 7 have been completed; of which 6 led to changes in local health policy/practice. MicroResearch training stimulated 13 other funded research projects; of which 8 were external to MicroResearch. Over 90% of participants rated the workshops as excellent with 20% spontaneously noting that MicroResearch changed how they worked. The survey highlighted three local research needs: mentors, skills and funding - each addressed by MicroResearch. On-line MicroResearch and alumni networks, two knowledge translation partnerships and an East Africa Leaders Consortium arose from the MicroResearch Forums. MicroResearch helped build local capacity for community-directed interdisciplinary health research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lauro Grotto, Rosapia; Guazzini, Andrea; Bagnoli, Franco

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: (1) they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious) emotions to combine into structured group patterns; (2) they have a certain degree of stability in time; (3) they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; (4) they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical "leadership" pattern, and in "cognitive" terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e., the group behaves "as if" it was assuming that). Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: (1) are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? (2) can these states be differentiated in structural terms? (3) to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical setting.

  10. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lauro Grotto, Rosapia; Guazzini, Andrea; Bagnoli, Franco

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: (1) they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious) emotions to combine into structured group patterns; (2) they have a certain degree of stability in time; (3) they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; (4) they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical “leadership” pattern, and in “cognitive” terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e., the group behaves “as if” it was assuming that). Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: (1) are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? (2) can these states be differentiated in structural terms? (3) to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical

  11. Small Business Innovation Research: Abstracts of Phase 1 awards, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program enables DOE to obtain effective, innovative solutions to important problems through the private sector, which has a commercial incentive to pursue the resulting technology and bring it to the marketplace. The growing number of awardees, many of them started in business in response to SBIR solicitations, is becoming a significant resource for the solution of high risk, high technology problems for the Department. As detailed here, this publication describes the technical efforts for SBIR Phase 1 awards in 1994. It is intended for the educated layman, and may be of particular interest to potential investors who wish to get in on the ground floor of exciting opportunities. Contained in this booklet are abstracts of the Phase 1 awards made in FY 1994 under the DOE SBIR program. The 212 Phase 1 projects described here were selected in a highly competitive process from a total of 2,276 grant applications received in response to the 1994 DOE annual SBIR Solicitation. The selections for awards were made on scientific and technical merit, as judged against the specific criteria listed in the Solicitation. Conclusions were reached on the basis of detailed reports returned by reviewers drawn from DOE laboratories, universities, private industry, and government. (Any discrepancies noted in prior DOE releases naming the firms selected for awards are due either to the firm changing its name after the award selection or to the firm not proceeding to a signed grant.) It is expected that between one-third and one-half of the Phase 1 projects will be continued into Phase 2. The work described in the abstracts is novel, high-risk research, but the benefits will also be potentially high if the objectives are met. Brief comments on the potential applications are given after each abstract. Individuals and organizations with an interest in the research described are encouraged to contact the appropriate small business directly.

  12. Engaging Undergraduate Students in Transiting Exoplanet Research with Small Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Denise C.; Stoker, E.; Gaillard, C.; Ranquist, E.; Lara, P.; Wright, K.

    2013-10-01

    Brigham Young University has a relatively large undergraduate physics program with 300 to 360 physics majors. Each of these students is required to be engaged in a research group and to produce a senior thesis before graduating. For the astronomy professors, this means that each of us is mentoring at least 4-6 undergraduate students at any given time. For the past few years I have been searching for meaningful research projects that make use of our telescope resources and are exciting for both myself and my students. We first started following up Kepler Objects of Interest with our 0.9 meter telescope, but quickly realized that most of the transits we could observe were better analyzed with Kepler data and were false positive objects. So now we have joined a team that is searching for transiting planets, and my students are using our 16" telescope to do ground based follow-up on the hundreds of possible transiting planet candidates produced by this survey. In this presentation I will describe our current telescopes, the observational setup, and how we use our telescopes to search for transiting planets. I'll describe some of the software the students have written. I'll also explain how to use the NASA Exoplanet Archive to gather data on known transiting planets and Kepler Objects of Interests. These databases are useful for determining the observational limits of your small telescopes and teaching your students how to reduce and report data on transiting planets. Once that is in place, you are potentially ready to join existing transiting planet missions by doing ground-based follow-up. I will explain how easy it can be to implement this type of research at any high school, college, or university with a small telescope and CCD camera.

  13. Interpreting Small-Scale Structure from High Resolution Global MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikic, Zoran; Titov, V. S.; Linker, J. A.; Lionello, R.; Riley, P.; Antiochos, S.

    2010-05-01

    High resolution 3D MHD simulations of the solar corona are beginning to reveal how small-scale structures in the magnetic field interact with the global structure of the corona and solar wind. In particular, it has become evident that the detailed characteristics of coronal holes, especially their equatorial extensions, may be related to the source of the slow solar wind. Using structural analysis based on the squashing factor Q (Titov et al. 2002, 2008; Titov 2007) we show how small-scale structure in the magnetic field is related to the structure of the streamer belt. These results have led to a new interpretation of the source of the slow solar wind. Research supported by NASA's Heliospheric Theory and Living With a Star Programs, and NSF/CISM.

  14. Prognostic significance of small-artery structure in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rizzoni, Damiano; Porteri, Enzo; Boari, Gianluca E M; De Ciuceis, Carolina; Sleiman, Intissar; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Castellano, Maurizio; Miclini, Marco; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico

    2003-11-04

    The presence of structural alterations in the microcirculation may be considered an important mechanism of organ damage; however, it is not currently known whether structural alterations of small arteries may predict fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. One hundred twenty-eight patients were included in the present study. There were 59 patients with essential hypertension, 17 with pheochromocytoma, 20 with primary aldosteronism, 12 with renovascular hypertension, and 20 normotensive patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. All subjects were submitted to a biopsy of subcutaneous fat. Small resistance arteries were dissected and mounted on an isometric myograph, and the tunica media-to-internal lumen ratio (M/L) was measured. The subjects were reevaluated after an average follow-up time of 5.4 years. Thirty-seven subjects had a documented fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event (5.32 events/100 patients per year). In the subcutaneous small arteries of subjects with cardiovascular events, a smaller internal diameter and a clearly greater M/L was observed. Our subjects were subdivided according to the presence of an M/L greater or smaller than the mean and median values observed in the whole population (0.098) or mean value +2 SD of our normal subjects (0.11). Life-table analyses showed a significant difference in event-free survival between the subgroups. Cox's proportional hazard model, considering all known cardiovascular risk factors, indicated that only pulse pressure (P=0.009) and M/L (P<0.0001) were significantly associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Our results strongly indicate a relevant prognostic role of structural alterations in small resistance arteries of a high-risk population.

  15. The structure and function of small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins.

    PubMed

    Reichow, Steve L; Hamma, Tomoko; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R; Varani, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotes and archaea use two sets of specialized ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) to carry out sequence-specific methylation and pseudouridylation of RNA, the two most abundant types of modifications of cellular RNAs. In eukaryotes, these protein-RNA complexes localize to the nucleolus and are called small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs), while in archaea they are known as small RNPs (sRNP). The C/D class of sno(s)RNPs carries out ribose-2'-O-methylation, while the H/ACA class is responsible for pseudouridylation of their RNA targets. Here, we review the recent advances in the structure, assembly and function of the conserved C/D and H/ACA sno(s)RNPs. Structures of each of the core archaeal sRNP proteins have been determined and their assembly pathways delineated. Furthermore, the recent structure of an H/ACA complex has revealed the organization of a complete sRNP. Combined with current biochemical data, these structures offer insight into the highly homologous eukaryotic snoRNPs.

  16. Small-scale flow structures in the solar wind turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tieyan; Fu, Huishan; Cao, Jinbin; He, Jiansen; Zhao, Jinsong; Zhang, Lei; Dunlop, Malcolm; Yang, Jian; Chen, Zuzheng; Lu, Haoyu

    2017-04-01

    Small-scale flow structures play a key role in balancing and dissipating turbulent kinetic energy. Significant progress has been made towards understanding the flow patterns in hydrodynamic (HD) turbulence. However, the geometry/topology of the turbulent, magnetized plasma flow remains not fully understood. By virtue of the multi-point plasma moments measured by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, quantification of the velocity gradient, which carries geometrical information of the fluid elements, becomes available. Through analyzing the geometric invariants of the coarse-grained velocity gradient (R and Q), we have investigated the small-scale structure of the turbulent flow in the solar wind. Three main results that agree with theoretical/numerical and experimental results of homogeneous HD turbulence are reported: (1) The joint probability density function of the (R, Q) phase map exhibit a 'teardrop' shape; (2) The vorticity is aligned with the positive intermediate principal of the strain tensor; (3) The ratios of the mean eigenvalues of the stains tensor are around 3: 1: -4, implying sheet-like structures with viscous dissipation and dissipation production. Interestingly, dissimilarities from HD flows are found, featuring a population whose enstrophy is correlated with dissipation. Further investigation of the magnetic field patterns shows a dominance of quasi-2D structures, which is different from the velocity field. Implications of our work are discussed.

  17. Activities at the Smart Structures Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Peter T.

    1991-12-01

    Smart Structures and Materials technology will undoubtedly yield a wide range of new materials plus new sensing and actuation technologies and this will have a radical effect on current approaches to structural design. To meet the multi-disciplinary research challenge posed by this technology, the Smart Structures Research Institute (SSRI) has been established at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow. This paper describes the background, current and planned activities and progress made in developing this new and very promising technology.

  18. Low-force magneto-rheological damper design for small-scale structural control experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Benjamin D.; Velazquez, Antonio; Swartz, R. Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Experimental validation of novel structural control algorithms is a vital step in both developing and building acceptance for this technology. Small-scale experimental test-beds fulfill an important role in the validation of multiple-degree-offreedom (MDOF) and distributed semi-active control systems, allowing researchers to test the control algorithms, communication topologies, and timing-critical aspects of structural control systems that do not require full-scale specimens. In addition, small-scale building specimens can be useful in combined structural health monitoring (SHM) and LQG control studies, diminishing safety concerns during experiments by using benchtop-scale rather than largescale specimens. Development of such small-scale test-beds is hampered by difficulties in actuator construction. In order to be a useful analog to full-scale structures, actuators for small-scale test-beds should exhibit similar features and limitations as their full-scale counterparts. In particular, semi-active devices, such as magneto-rheological (MR) fluid dampers, with limited authority (versus active mass dampers) and nonlinear behavior are difficult to mimic over small force scales due to issues related to fluid containment and friction. In this study, a novel extraction-type small-force (0- 10 N) MR-fluid damper which exhibits nonlinear hysteresis similar to a full-scale, MR-device is proposed. This actuator is a key development to enable the function of a small-scale structural control test-bed intended for wireless control validation studies. Experimental validation of this prototype is conducted using a 3-story scale structure subjected to simulated single-axis seismic excitation. The actuator affects the structural response commanded by a control computer that executes an LQG state feedback control law and a modified Bouc-Wen lookup table that was previously developed for full-scale MR-applications. In addition, damper dynamic limitations are characterized and

  19. Aeropropulsion 1987. Session 2: Aeropropulsion Structures Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Aeropropulsion systems present unique problems to the structural engineer. The extremes in operating temperatures, rotational effects, and behaviors of advanced material systems combine into complexities that require advances in many scientific disciplines involved in structural analysis and design procedures. This session provides an overview of the complexities of aeropropulsion structures and the theoretical, computational, and experimental research conducted to achieve the needed advances.

  20. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  1. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  2. Successes of Small Business Innovation Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Walter S.; Bitler, Dean W.; Prok, George M.; Metzger, Marie E.; Dreibelbis, Cindy L.; Ganss, Meghan

    2002-01-01

    This booklet of success stories highlights the NASA Glenn Research Center's accomplishments and successes by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs. These success stories are the results of selecting projects that support NASA missions and also have high commercialization potential. Each success story describes the innovation accomplished, commercialization of the technology, and further applications and usages. This booklet emphasizes the integration and incorporation of technologies into NASA missions and other government projects. The company name and the NASA contact person are identified to encourage further usage and application of the SBIR developed technologies and also to promote further commercialization of these products.

  3. Small-angle electron scattering of magnetic fine structures.

    PubMed

    Togawa, Yoshihiko

    2013-06-01

    Magnetic structures in magnetic artificial lattices and chiral magnetic orders in chiral magnets have been quantitatively analyzed in the reciprocal space by means of small-angle electron scattering (SAES) method. Lorentz deflection due to magnetic moments and Bragg diffraction due to periodicity are simultaneously recorded at an angle of the order of or less than 1 × 10(-6) rad, using a camera length of more than 100 m. The present SAES method, together with TEM real-space imaging methods such as in-situ Lorentz microscopy, is very powerful in analyzing magnetic fine structures in magnetic materials. Indeed, the existence of both a chiral helimagnetic structure and a chiral magnetic soliton lattice in a chiral magnet CrNb3S6 has been successfully verified for the first time using the present complementary methods.

  4. Structural parameterization of the binding enthalpy of small ligands.

    PubMed

    Luque, Irene; Freire, Ernesto

    2002-11-01

    A major goal in ligand and drug design is the optimization of the binding affinity of selected lead molecules. However, the binding affinity is defined by the free energy of binding, which, in turn, is determined by the enthalpy and entropy changes. Because the binding enthalpy is the term that predominantly reflects the strength of the interactions of the ligand with its target relative to those with the solvent, it is desirable to develop ways of predicting enthalpy changes from structural considerations. The application of structure/enthalpy correlations derived from protein stability data has yielded inconsistent results when applied to small ligands of pharmaceutical interest (MW < 800). Here we present a first attempt at an empirical parameterization of the binding enthalpy for small ligands in terms of structural information. We find that at least three terms need to be considered: (1) the intrinsic enthalpy change that reflects the nature of the interactions between ligand, target, and solvent; (2) the enthalpy associated with any possible conformational change in the protein or ligand upon binding; and, (3) the enthalpy associated with protonation/deprotonation events, if present. As in the case of protein stability, the intrinsic binding enthalpy scales with changes in solvent accessible surface areas. However, an accurate estimation of the intrinsic binding enthalpy requires explicit consideration of long-lived water molecules at the binding interface. The best statistical structure/enthalpy correlation is obtained when buried water molecules within 5-7 A of the ligand are included in the calculations. For all seven protein systems considered (HIV-1 protease, dihydrodipicolinate reductase, Rnase T1, streptavidin, pp60c-Src SH2 domain, Hsp90 molecular chaperone, and bovine beta-trypsin) the binding enthalpy of 25 small molecular weight peptide and nonpeptide ligands can be accounted for with a standard error of +/-0.3 kcal x mol(-1). Copyright 2002 Wiley

  5. Emerging applications of small angle solution scattering in structural biology.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Barnali N

    2015-03-01

    Small angle solution X-ray and neutron scattering recently resurfaced as powerful tools to address an array of biological problems including folding, intrinsic disorder, conformational transitions, macromolecular crowding, and self or hetero-assembling of biomacromolecules. In addition, small angle solution scattering complements crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and other structural methods to aid in the structure determinations of multidomain or multicomponent proteins or nucleoprotein assemblies. Neutron scattering with hydrogen/deuterium contrast variation, or X-ray scattering with sucrose contrast variation to a certain extent, is a convenient tool for characterizing the organizations of two-component systems such as a nucleoprotein or a lipid-protein assembly. Time-resolved small and wide-angle solution scattering to study biological processes in real time, and the use of localized heavy-atom labeling and anomalous solution scattering for applications as FRET-like molecular rulers, are amongst promising newer developments. Despite the challenges in data analysis and interpretation, these X-ray/neutron solution scattering based approaches hold great promise for understanding a wide variety of complex processes prevalent in the biological milieu.

  6. Interactions of solar wind streams and related small structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odstrcil, D.

    1994-09-01

    Coronal holes produce high-speed, low-density, and high-temperature streams that propagate into the interplanetary space. These streams interact with the slow-speed, high-density, and low-temperature stream of the ambient solar wind. We investigate this problem using the time-dependent, two- dimensional hydrodynamic model in the spherical-equatorial coordinate system. More accurate numerical methods and finer difference meshes used enable us to track the evolution of detailed features of the fast and slow stream interaction. An analysis of formation of shock pairs (forward and reverse shocks) is presented for both erupting and corotating parts of fast streams. Further, it is shown that the process of interaction of fast and slow solar wind streams may contain richer structures. Such structures may originate during the reconfinement process (internal shocks), spatial substructures (flux tubes), and small temporal modulations (shock wings). They may influence the global shape of stream interfaces and heating of the plasma. Finally, conclusion can be made that boundaries between the fast and slow coronal streams seem to be stable against small random fluctuations and against small introduced disturbances and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is not initiated.

  7. Emerging applications of small angle solution scattering in structural biology

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Barnali N

    2015-01-01

    Small angle solution X-ray and neutron scattering recently resurfaced as powerful tools to address an array of biological problems including folding, intrinsic disorder, conformational transitions, macromolecular crowding, and self or hetero-assembling of biomacromolecules. In addition, small angle solution scattering complements crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and other structural methods to aid in the structure determinations of multidomain or multicomponent proteins or nucleoprotein assemblies. Neutron scattering with hydrogen/deuterium contrast variation, or X-ray scattering with sucrose contrast variation to a certain extent, is a convenient tool for characterizing the organizations of two-component systems such as a nucleoprotein or a lipid-protein assembly. Time-resolved small and wide-angle solution scattering to study biological processes in real time, and the use of localized heavy-atom labeling and anomalous solution scattering for applications as FRET-like molecular rulers, are amongst promising newer developments. Despite the challenges in data analysis and interpretation, these X-ray/neutron solution scattering based approaches hold great promise for understanding a wide variety of complex processes prevalent in the biological milieu. PMID:25516491

  8. Small business innovation research: Abstracts of 1984. Phase 1 awards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    On September 27, 1984, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announced the selection of Phase I projects for the Small Business Innovation Research Program. These awards resulted from the evaluation of proposals submitted in response to the 1984 Program Solicitation, SBIR 84-1. In order to make available information on the technical content of the Phase I projects supported by the NASA SBIR Program, the abstracts of those proposals which resulted in awards of contracts are given. In addition, the name and address of the firm performing the work are given for those who may desired additional information about the project. Propulsion, aerodynamics, computer techniques, exobiology and composite materials are among the areas covered.

  9. Electron Precipitation Associated with Small-Scale Auroral Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michell, R.; Samara, M.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Hampton, D. L.; Bonnell, J. W.; Ogasawara, K.

    2014-12-01

    We present results from the Ground-to-Rocket Electrons Electrodynamics Correlative Experiment (GREECE) sounding rocket mission, where we combined high-resolution ground-based auroral imaging with high time-resolution precipitating electron measurements. The GREECE payload successfully launched from Poker Flat, Alaska on 03 March 2014 and reached an apogee of approximately 335 km. The narrow field-of-view auroral imaging was taken from Venetie, AK, which is directly under apogee. This enabled the small-scale auroral features at the magnetic footpoint of the rocket payload to be imaged in detail. The electron precipitation was measured with the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) onboard the payload. Features in the electron data are matched up with their corresponding auroral structures and boundaries, enabling measurement of the exact electron distributions responsible for the specific small-scale auroral features. These electron distributions will then be used to infer what the potential electron acceleration processes were.

  10. Structural basis of AMPK regulation by small molecule activators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Bing; Sanders, Matthew J.; Carmena, David; Bright, Nicola J.; Haire, Lesley F.; Underwood, Elizabeth; Patel, Bhakti R.; Heath, Richard B.; Walker, Philip A.; Hallen, Stefan; Giordanetto, Fabrizio; Martin, Stephen R.; Carling, David; Gamblin, Steven J.

    2013-12-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a major role in regulating cellular energy balance by sensing and responding to increases in AMP/ADP concentration relative to ATP. Binding of AMP causes allosteric activation of the enzyme and binding of either AMP or ADP promotes and maintains the phosphorylation of threonine 172 within the activation loop of the kinase. AMPK has attracted widespread interest as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes and, more recently, cancer. A number of direct AMPK activators have been reported as having beneficial effects in treating metabolic diseases, but there has been no structural basis for activator binding to AMPK. Here we present the crystal structure of human AMPK in complex with a small molecule activator that binds at a site between the kinase domain and the carbohydrate-binding module, stabilising the interaction between these two components. The nature of the activator-binding pocket suggests the involvement of an additional, as yet unidentified, metabolite in the physiological regulation of AMPK. Importantly, the structure offers new opportunities for the design of small molecule activators of AMPK for treatment of metabolic disorders.

  11. Mapping small molecule binding data to structural domains

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Large-scale bioactivity/SAR Open Data has recently become available, and this has allowed new analyses and approaches to be developed to help address the productivity and translational gaps of current drug discovery. One of the current limitations of these data is the relative sparsity of reported interactions per protein target, and complexities in establishing clear relationships between bioactivity and targets using bioinformatics tools. We detail in this paper the indexing of targets by the structural domains that bind (or are likely to bind) the ligand within a full-length protein. Specifically, we present a simple heuristic to map small molecule binding to Pfam domains. This profiling can be applied to all proteins within a genome to give some indications of the potential pharmacological modulation and regulation of all proteins. Results In this implementation of our heuristic, ligand binding to protein targets from the ChEMBL database was mapped to structural domains as defined by profiles contained within the Pfam-A database. Our mapping suggests that the majority of assay targets within the current version of the ChEMBL database bind ligands through a small number of highly prevalent domains, and conversely the majority of Pfam domains sampled by our data play no currently established role in ligand binding. Validation studies, carried out firstly against Uniprot entries with expert binding-site annotation and secondly against entries in the wwPDB repository of crystallographic protein structures, demonstrate that our simple heuristic maps ligand binding to the correct domain in about 90 percent of all assessed cases. Using the mappings obtained with our heuristic, we have assembled ligand sets associated with each Pfam domain. Conclusions Small molecule binding has been mapped to Pfam-A domains of protein targets in the ChEMBL bioactivity database. The result of this mapping is an enriched annotation of small molecule bioactivity data and a

  12. Robust, high-throughput solution structural analyses by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)

    SciTech Connect

    Hura, Greg L.; Menon, Angeli L.; Hammel, Michal; Rambo, Robert P.; Poole II, Farris L.; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Jenney Jr, Francis E.; Classen, Scott; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Yang, Sungjae; Scott, Joseph W.; Dillard, Bret D.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Tainer, John A.

    2009-07-20

    We present an efficient pipeline enabling high-throughput analysis of protein structure in solution with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our SAXS pipeline combines automated sample handling of microliter volumes, temperature and anaerobic control, rapid data collection and data analysis, and couples structural analysis with automated archiving. We subjected 50 representative proteins, mostly from Pyrococcus furiosus, to this pipeline and found that 30 were multimeric structures in solution. SAXS analysis allowed us to distinguish aggregated and unfolded proteins, define global structural parameters and oligomeric states for most samples, identify shapes and similar structures for 25 unknown structures, and determine envelopes for 41 proteins. We believe that high-throughput SAXS is an enabling technology that may change the way that structural genomics research is done.

  13. Small-angle scattering and 3D structure interpretation.

    PubMed

    Trewhella, Jill

    2016-10-01

    This review focuses on advances in the application of solution small-angle scattering (SAS) in structural analysis of biomolecules and the complexes they form. Examples highlighted illustrate the unique contribution of SAS, using both X-rays and neutrons, in hybrid or integrative modelling methods. The increased information content when neutron scattering with contrast variation is used is a particular focus. Finally, progress toward an agreed reporting framework, the development of open data and model archives, and the importance of these initiatives is covered.

  14. Army/NASA small turboshaft engine digital controls research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, J. F.; Baez, A. N.

    1981-01-01

    The emphasis of a program to conduct digital controls research for small turboshaft engines is on engine test evaluation of advanced control logic using a flexible microprocessor based digital control system designed specifically for research on advanced control logic. Control software is stored in programmable memory. New control algorithms may be stored in a floppy disk and loaded directly into memory. This feature facilitates comparative evaluation of different advanced control modes. The central processor in the digital control is an Intel 8086 16 bit microprocessor. Control software is programmed in assembly language. Software checkout is accomplished prior to engine test by connecting the digital control to a real time hybrid computer simulation of the engine. The engine currently installed in the facility has a hydromechanical control modified to allow electrohydraulic fuel metering and VG actuation by the digital control. Simulation results are presented which show that the modern control reduces the transient rotor speed droop caused by unanticipated load changes such as cyclic pitch or wind gust transients.

  15. Smart structures research program at Virginia Tech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, R. O.; Safaai-Jazi, A.; Bennett, K. D.; May, R. G.; Duncan, B. D.

    1989-01-01

    A review of the smart structures and avionics research and teaching program that started in 1979 at Virginia Tech is described. Current smart structures research include major efforts in the development of embedded and attached optical fiber and acoustic fiber sensors for cure monitoring, in-service lifetime structural testing, nondestructive evaluation, and impact and damage detection and analysis; of gradual material degradation; sensor signal multiplexing, processing and data handling to achieve near real-time distributed structural analysis; and the integration of embedded sensors, actuators and control electronics to achieve controlled structural response. Special campus facilities used for this work include an optical fiber fabrication facility, an autoclave for composite structure fabrication and curing, and laboratories for optical fiber sensor development, materials response and nondestructive evaluation, structural control testing and computer engineering.

  16. Atomistic and elastic analyses of defects and small structures. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Srolovitz, D.J.

    1995-11-01

    This past year, the authors have been working on several problems associated with defects in crystals and small structures. In one series of studies, they have been investigating the structure and energetics of surfaces as a function of surface orientation. One of the goals of their present research is to model non-topological defects in crystals and very small structures using elastic models as parameterized using atomistic calculations. In order to do this, they need to make sure that the atomistic and elastic models describe the same bulk system. To this end, they have developed a set of Embedded Atom Method interatomic potentials that produce an elastically isotopic perfect fcc crystal. In another project they evaluated the accuracy of the Free Energy Minimization Method. Another goal is to understand the effect of small system size on the behavior of materials. To that end, they have been performing simulations on the structure and thermodynamics of small spherical clusters of atoms and thin films, as a function of systems size. Recently, they have extended these calculations on small systems to alloys where appropriate focus is on surface segregation. Finally, they have been working to understand the effects of strain energy on the thermodynamics of a new class of highly distorted materials -- nested fullerenes.

  17. Small UAV Research and Evolution in Long Endurance Electric Powered Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; Chu, Julio; Motter, Mark A.; Carter, Dennis L.; Ol, Michael; Zeune, Cale

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes recent research into the advancement of small, electric powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) capabilities. Specifically, topics include the improvements made in battery technology, design methodologies, avionics architectures and algorithms, materials and structural concepts, propulsion system performance prediction, and others. The results of prototype vehicle designs and flight tests are discussed in the context of their usefulness in defining and validating progress in the various technology areas. Further areas of research need are also identified. These include the need for more robust operating regimes (wind, gust, etc.), and continued improvement in payload fraction vs. endurance.

  18. Small Radioisotope Power System Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugala, Gina; Bell, Mark; Oriti, Salvatore; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David; Duven, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    In April 2009, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) formed an integrated product team (IPT) to develop a Small Radioisotope Power System (SRPS) utilizing a single Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) with passive balancer. A single ASC produces approximately 80 We making this system advantageous for small distributed lunar science stations. The IPT consists of Sunpower, Inc., to provide the single ASC with a passive balancer, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL) to design an engineering model Single Convertor Controller (SCC) for an ASC with a passive balancer, and NASA GRC to provide technical support to these tasks and to develop a simulated lunar lander test stand. The single ASC with a passive balancer, simulated lunar lander test stand, and SCC were delivered to GRC and were tested as a system. The testing sequence at GRC included SCC fault tolerance, integration, electromagnetic interference (EMI), vibration, and extended operation testing. The SCC fault tolerance test characterized the SCCs ability to handle various fault conditions, including high or low bus power consumption, total open load or short circuit, and replacing a failed SCC card while the backup maintains control of the ASC. The integrated test characterized the behavior of the system across a range of operating conditions, including variations in cold-end temperature and piston amplitude, including the emitted vibration to both the sensors on the lunar lander and the lunar surface. The EMI test characterized the AC and DC magnetic and electric fields emitted by the SCC and single ASC. The vibration test confirms the SCCs ability to control the single ASC during launch. The extended operation test allows data to be collected over a period of thousands of hours to obtain long term performance data of the ASC with a passive balancer and the SCC. This paper will discuss the results of each of these tests.

  19. Shielding considerations for the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP).

    PubMed

    Sayler, Elaine; Dolney, Derek; Avery, Stephen; Koch, Cameron

    2013-05-01

    The Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is a commercially available platform designed to deliver conformal, image-guided radiation to small animals using a dual-anode kV x-ray source. At the University of Pennsylvania, a free-standing 2 m enclosure was designed to shield the SARRP according to federal code regulating cabinet x-ray systems. The initial design consisted of 4.0-mm-thick lead for all secondary barriers and proved wholly inadequate. Radiation levels outside the enclosure were 15 times higher than expected. Additionally, the leakage appeared to be distributed broadly within the enclosure, so concern arose that a subject might receive significant doses outside the intended treatment field. Thus, a detailed analysis was undertaken to identify and block all sources of leakage. Leakage sources were identified by Kodak X-OmatV (XV) film placed throughout the enclosure. Radiation inside the enclosure was quantified using Gafchromic film. Outside the enclosure, radiation was measured using a survey meter. Sources of leakage included (1) an unnecessarily broad beam exiting the tube, (2) failure of the secondary collimator to confine the primary beam entirely, (3) scatter from the secondary collimator, (4) lack of beam-stop below the treatment volume, and (5) incomplete shielding of the x-ray tube. The exit window was restricted, and a new collimator was designed to address problems (1-3). A beam-stop and additional tube shielding were installed. These modifications reduced internal scatter by more than 100-fold. Radiation outside the enclosure was reduced to levels compliant with federal regulations, provided the SARRP is operated using tube potentials of 175 kV or less. In addition, these simple and relatively inexpensive modifications eliminate the possibility of exposing a larger animal (such as a rat) to significant doses outside the treatment field.

  20. SHIELDING CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE SMALL ANIMAL RADIATION RESEARCH PLATFORM (SARRP)

    PubMed Central

    Sayler, Elaine; Dolney, Derek; Avery, Stephen; Koch, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    The Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is a commercially available platform designed to deliver conformal, image-guided radiation to small animals using a dual-anode kV x-ray source. At the University of Pennsylvania, a free-standing 2 m3 enclosure was designed to shield the SARRP according to federal code regulating cabinet x-ray systems. The initial design consisted of 4.0-mm-thick lead for all secondary barriers and proved wholly inadequate. Radiation levels outside the enclosure were 15 times higher than expected. Additionally, the leakage appeared to be distributed broadly within the enclosure, so concern arose that a subject might receive significant doses outside the intended treatment field. Thus, a detailed analysis was undertaken to identify and block all sources of leakage. Leakage sources were identified by Kodak X-OmatV (XV) film placed throughout the enclosure. Radiation inside the enclosure was quantified using Gafchromic film. Outside the enclosure, radiation was measured using a survey meter. Sources of leakage included (1) an unnecessarily broad beam exiting the tube, (2) failure of the secondary collimator to confine the primary beam entirely, (3) scatter from the secondary collimator, (4) lack of beam-stop below the treatment volume, and (5) incomplete shielding of the x-ray tube. The exit window was restricted, and a new collimator was designed to address problems (1–3). A beam-stop and additional tube shielding were installed. These modifications reduced internal scatter by more than 100-fold. Radiation outside the enclosure was reduced to levels compliant with federal regulations, provided the SARRP is operated using tube potentials of 175 kV or less. In addition, these simple and relatively inexpensive modifications eliminate the possibility of exposing a larger animal (such as a rat) to significant doses outside the treatment field. PMID:23532076

  1. Small-Scale Fabrication of Biomimetic Structures for Periodontal Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Han-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The periodontium is the supporting tissues for the tooth organ and is vulnerable to destruction, arising from overpopulating pathogenic bacteria and spirochaetes. The presence of microbes together with host responses can destroy large parts of the periodontium sometimes leading tooth loss. Permanent tissue replacements are made possible with tissue engineering techniques. However, existing periodontal biomaterials cannot promote proper tissue architectures, necessary tissue volumes within the periodontal pocket and a "water-tight" barrier, to become clinically acceptable. New kinds of small-scale engineered biomaterials, with increasing biological complexity are needed to guide proper biomimetic regeneration of periodontal tissues. So the ability to make compound structures with small modules, filled with tissue components, is a promising design strategy for simulating the anatomical complexity of the periodotium attachment complexes along the tooth root and the abutment with the tooth collar. Anatomical structures such as, intima, adventitia, and special compartments such as the epithelial cell rests of Malassez or a stellate reticulum niche need to be engineered from the start of regeneration to produce proper periodontium replacement. It is our contention that the positioning of tissue components at the origin is also necessary to promote self-organizing cell-cell connections, cell-matrix connections. This leads to accelerated, synchronized and well-formed tissue architectures and anatomies. This strategy is a highly effective preparation for tackling periodontitis, periodontium tissue resorption, and to ultimately prevent tooth loss. Furthermore, such biomimetic tissue replacements will tackle problems associated with dental implant support and perimimplantitis.

  2. Small-Scale Fabrication of Biomimetic Structures for Periodontal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Green, David W.; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Han-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The periodontium is the supporting tissues for the tooth organ and is vulnerable to destruction, arising from overpopulating pathogenic bacteria and spirochaetes. The presence of microbes together with host responses can destroy large parts of the periodontium sometimes leading tooth loss. Permanent tissue replacements are made possible with tissue engineering techniques. However, existing periodontal biomaterials cannot promote proper tissue architectures, necessary tissue volumes within the periodontal pocket and a “water-tight” barrier, to become clinically acceptable. New kinds of small-scale engineered biomaterials, with increasing biological complexity are needed to guide proper biomimetic regeneration of periodontal tissues. So the ability to make compound structures with small modules, filled with tissue components, is a promising design strategy for simulating the anatomical complexity of the periodotium attachment complexes along the tooth root and the abutment with the tooth collar. Anatomical structures such as, intima, adventitia, and special compartments such as the epithelial cell rests of Malassez or a stellate reticulum niche need to be engineered from the start of regeneration to produce proper periodontium replacement. It is our contention that the positioning of tissue components at the origin is also necessary to promote self-organizing cell–cell connections, cell–matrix connections. This leads to accelerated, synchronized and well-formed tissue architectures and anatomies. This strategy is a highly effective preparation for tackling periodontitis, periodontium tissue resorption, and to ultimately prevent tooth loss. Furthermore, such biomimetic tissue replacements will tackle problems associated with dental implant support and perimimplantitis. PMID:26903872

  3. Extreme events and small-scale structure in computational turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, X. M.; Yeung, P. K.; Sreenivasan, K. R.

    2015-11-01

    Detailed analyses have been made of data from a direct numerical simulation of turbulence on a periodic domain with 81923 grid points designed to improve our understanding of small-scale structure and intermittency. At the Reynolds number of this simulation (1300 based on the Taylor scale) extreme events of dissipation and enstrophy as large as 105 times the mean value are observed. These events are shown to possess a form that is different from similar events at low Reynolds numbers. Extreme vorticity appears to be ``chunky'' in character, in contrast to elongated vortex tubes at moderately large amplitudes commonly reported in the literature. We track the temporal evolution of these extreme events and find that they are generally short-lived, which suggests frequent sampling on-the-fly is useful. Extreme magnitudes of energy dissipation rate and enstrophy are essentially coincident in space and remain so during their evolution. Numerical tests show sensitivity to small-scale resolution and sampling but not machine precision. The connections expected between indicators of fine-scale intermittency such as acceleration statistics and the anomalous scaling of high-order velocity structure functions are also investigated. Supported by NSF Grant ACI-1036170 (Track 1 Petascale Resource Allocations Program).

  4. On the Relation between the Small World Structure and Scientific Activities

    PubMed Central

    Ebadi, Ashkan; Schiffauerova, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The modern science has become more complex and interdisciplinary in its nature which might encourage researchers to be more collaborative and get engaged in larger collaboration networks. Various aspects of collaboration networks have been examined so far to detect the most determinant factors in knowledge creation and scientific production. One of the network structures that recently attracted much theoretical attention is called small world. It has been suggested that small world can improve the information transmission among the network actors. In this paper, using the data on 12 periods of journal publications of Canadian researchers in natural sciences and engineering, the co-authorship networks of the researchers are created. Through measuring small world indicators, the small worldiness of the mentioned network and its relation with researchers’ productivity, quality of their publications, and scientific team size are assessed. Our results show that the examined co-authorship network strictly exhibits the small world properties. In addition, it is suggested that in a small world network researchers expand their team size through getting connected to other experts of the field. This team size expansion may result in higher productivity of the whole team as a result of getting access to new resources, benefitting from the internal referring, and exchanging ideas among the team members. Moreover, although small world network is positively correlated with the quality of the articles in terms of both citation count and journal impact factor, it is negatively related with the average productivity of researchers in terms of the number of their publications. PMID:25780922

  5. Composite fuselage shell structures research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Shuart, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    Fuselage structures for transport aircraft represent a significant percentage of both the weight and the cost of these aircraft primary structures. Composite materials offer the potential for reducing both the weight and the cost of transport fuselage structures, but only limited studies of the response and failure of composite fuselage structures have been conducted for transport aircraft. The behavior of these important primary structures must be understood, and the structural mechanics methodology for analyzing and designing these complex stiffened shell structures must be validated in the laboratory. The effects of local gradients and discontinuities on fuselage shell behavior and the effects of local damage on pressure containment must be thoroughly understood before composite fuselage structures can be used for commercial aircraft. This paper describes the research being conducted and planned at NASA LaRC to help understand the critical behavior or composite fuselage structures and to validate the structural mechanics methodology being developed for stiffened composite fuselage shell structure subjected to combined internal pressure and mechanical loads. Stiffened shell and curved stiffened panel designs are currently being developed and analyzed, and these designs will be fabricated and then tested at Langley to study critical fuselage shell behavior and to validate structural analysis and design methodology. The research includes studies of the effects of combined internal pressure and mechanical loads on nonlinear stiffened panel and shell behavior, the effects of cutouts and other gradient-producing discontinuities on composite shell response, and the effects of local damage on pressure containment and residual strength. Scaling laws are being developed that relate full-scale and subscale behavior of composite fuselage shells. Failure mechanisms are being identified and advanced designs will be developed based on what is learned from early results from

  6. Program of Research in Structures and Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Structures and Dynamics Program was first initiated in 1972 with the following two major objectives: to provide a basic understanding and working knowledge of some key areas pertinent to structures, solid mechanics, and dynamics technology including computer aided design; and to provide a comprehensive educational and research program at the NASA Langley Research Center leading to advanced degrees in the structures and dynamics areas. During the operation of the program the research work was done in support of the activities of both the Structures and Dynamics Division and the Loads and Aeroelasticity Division. During the period of 1972 to 1986 the Program provided support for two full-time faculty members, one part-time faculty member, three postdoctoral fellows, one research engineer, eight programmers, and 28 graduate research assistants. The faculty and staff of the program have published 144 papers and reports, and made 70 presentations at national and international meetings, describing their research findings. In addition, they organized and helped in the organization of 10 workshops and national symposia in the structures and dynamics areas. The graduate research assistants and the students enrolled in the program have written 20 masters theses and 2 doctoral dissertations. The overall progress is summarized.

  7. Smart Structures Research Program At Virginia Tech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claus, R. O.; Safaai-Jazi, A.; Bennett, K. D.; May, R. G.; Duncan, B. D.; Vengsarkar, A. M.

    This paper reviews the smart structures and avionics research and teaching program at Virginia Tech. Started in 1979 with support from the NASA Langley Research Center, this program has grown to include interdisciplinary participation between more than twenty faculty from seven departments in the Colleges of Engineering and Arts and Sciences, graduate and undergraduate engineering classes which specifically address smart structures issues, and directed research programs conducted in cooperation with more than a dozen aerospace companies and government organizations. Current smart structures research includes major efforts in 1) the development of embedded and attached optical fiber and acoustic fiber sensors for a wide range of applications including cure monitoring, in-service lifetime structural monitoring, nondestructive evaluation, and impact and damage detection and analysis, 2) sensor signal multiplexing, processing and data handling to achieve near real time distributed structural analysis, and 3) the combined use of embedded or attached sensors and actuators to achieve controlled structural response. Special campus facilities which have been used for this work include an optical fiber fabrication facility, an autoclave for composite structure fabrication and curing, and laboratories for optical fiber sensor development, materials response and non-destructive evaluation, structural control testing, and computer engineering. The work in all of these areas during the past few years by different Virginia Tech faculty, staff, graduate student and visiting scientist groups is reviewed.

  8. Earthquake Forecast Science Research with a Small Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jason, Susan; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Pulinets, Sergey; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    Reliable, repeatable Earthquake forecast is a subject surrounded by controversy and scepticism. What is clear, is that reliable forecast could be the single most effective tool for earthquake disaster management. Roughly a third of the world's population live in areas that are at risk and, every year since the beginning of the twentieth century earthquakes have caused an average of 20,000 deaths [1]. The economic loss in the 1995 Kobe, Japan earthquake was greater than US100 billion [2]. Substantial progress has been made on the development of methods for earthquake hazard analysis on a timescale of a few decades. However, the forecast of specific earthquakes on timescales of a few years to a few days is a difficult problem. It has been proposed that satellites and ground-based facilities may detect earthquake precursors in the ionosphere a few hours or days before the main shock. This hypothesis is now backed by a physical model, derived by the Russian Academy of Sciences from statistical studies and an understanding of the main morphological features of seismo-ionospheric precursors, which allows them to be separated from background ionospheric variability. The main problems now are lack of regular global data and limited funding for what is considered to be financially risky research. Low-cost, small satellites offer a solution to these problems. A 100 kg class SSTL enhanced microsatellite, carrying a RAS topside sounder and complimentary payload, will be used to make regular measurements over seismically active zones around the globe. The low cost of the spacecraft offers a financially low-risk approach to the next step in this invaluable research. The spacecraft will make ionospheric measurements for systematic research into the proposed precursors. The aims will be to confirm or refute the hypothesis; define their reliability and reproducibility; and enable further scientific understanding of their mechanisms. In addition, forecasting of the magnitude of the

  9. Structural Equation Modeling in Rehabilitation Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Fong; Lee, Gloria K.; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Kubota, Coleen; Allen, Chase A.

    2007-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) has become increasingly popular in counseling, psychology, and rehabilitation research. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the basic concepts and applications of SEM in rehabilitation counseling research using the AMOS statistical software program.

  10. Structural Equation Modeling in Rehabilitation Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Fong; Lee, Gloria K.; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Kubota, Coleen; Allen, Chase A.

    2007-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) has become increasingly popular in counseling, psychology, and rehabilitation research. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the basic concepts and applications of SEM in rehabilitation counseling research using the AMOS statistical software program.

  11. Advances in structure elucidation of small molecules using mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Fiehn, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The structural elucidation of small molecules using mass spectrometry plays an important role in modern life sciences and bioanalytical approaches. This review covers different soft and hard ionization techniques and figures of merit for modern mass spectrometers, such as mass resolving power, mass accuracy, isotopic abundance accuracy, accurate mass multiple-stage MS(n) capability, as well as hybrid mass spectrometric and orthogonal chromatographic approaches. The latter part discusses mass spectral data handling strategies, which includes background and noise subtraction, adduct formation and detection, charge state determination, accurate mass measurements, elemental composition determinations, and complex data-dependent setups with ion maps and ion trees. The importance of mass spectral library search algorithms for tandem mass spectra and multiple-stage MS(n) mass spectra as well as mass spectral tree libraries that combine multiple-stage mass spectra are outlined. The successive chapter discusses mass spectral fragmentation pathways, biotransformation reactions and drug metabolism studies, the mass spectral simulation and generation of in silico mass spectra, expert systems for mass spectral interpretation, and the use of computational chemistry to explain gas-phase phenomena. A single chapter discusses data handling for hyphenated approaches including mass spectral deconvolution for clean mass spectra, cheminformatics approaches and structure retention relationships, and retention index predictions for gas and liquid chromatography. The last section reviews the current state of electronic data sharing of mass spectra and discusses the importance of software development for the advancement of structure elucidation of small molecules. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12566-010-0015-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21289855

  12. Neutronographic investigations of supramolecular structures on upgraded small-angle spectrometer YuMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklin, A. I.; Rogachev, A. V.; Soloviov, D. V.; Ivankov, O. I.; Kovalev, Yu S.; Utrobin, P. K.; Kutuzov, S. A.; Soloviev, A. G.; Rulev, M. I.; Gordeliy, V. I.

    2017-05-01

    Abstract.The work is a review of neutronographic investigations of supramolecular structures on upgraded small-angle spectrometer YuMO. Here, key parameters of small-angle spectrometers are considered. It is shown that two-detector system is the basis of YuMO upgrade. It allows to widen the dynamic q-range twice. In result, the available q-range is widened and dynamic q-range and data collection rate are doubled. The detailed description of YuMO spectrometer is given.The short review of experimental researches made on the spectrometer in the polymers field, biology, material science and physical chemistry is given. The current investigations also have a methodological aspect. It is shown that upgraded spectrometer provides advanced world level of research of supramolecular structures.

  13. Research progress in the treatment of small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yan-fang; Liu, Zhi-gang; Yang, Wen-juan; Zhao, Yu; Tang, Jiao; Tang, Wei-zhi; Jin, Yi; Li, Fang; Zhong, Rui; Wang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for approximately 10-15% of all lung cancers. No significant improvement has been made for patients with SCLC in the past several decades. The main progresses were the thoracic radiation and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) that improved the patient survival rate. For patients with limited disease and good performance status (PS), concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by PCI should be considered. For extensive disease, the combination of etoposide and platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard treatment and consolidative thoracic radiotherapy is beneficial for patients who have a significant respond to initial chemotherapy. However, the prognosis still remains poor. Recently, efforts have been focused on molecular targets and immunotherapy. But numerous molecular targets methods have failed to show a significant clinical benefit in patients with SCLC. It is anticipated that further development of research will depend on the on-going trials for molecular targeted therapy and immunotherapy which are promising and may improve the outcomes for SCLC in the next decade. PMID:28123595

  14. Composite fuselage shell structures research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Shuart, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    Fuselage structures for transport aircraft represent a large portion of both the weight and cost of these aircraft primary structures. Composite materials offer the potential for reducing both the weight and cost of these structures, but only limited studies of the response and failure of composite fuselage structures have been conducted. The research is described which is being conducted and planned at NASA Langley to understand the critical behavior of composite fuselage structures and to validate the structural mechanics methodology being developed for stiffened composite fuselage shell structure subjected to combined internal pressure and mechanical loads. Stiffened shell and curved stiffened panel designs are currently being developed and analyzed, and these designs will be fabricated and then tested to study critical fuselage behavior and to validate structural analysis and design methodology. The research includes studies of the effects of combined internal pressure and mechanical loads on nonlinear stiffened panel and shell behavior, the effects of cutouts and other gradient producing discontinuities on composite shell response, and the effects of local damage on pressure containment and residual strength. Scaling laws are being developed that relate full scale and subscale behavior of composite fuselage shells.

  15. Analysis of PKR Structure by Small-Angle Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    VanOudenhove, Jennifer; Anderson, Eric; Krueger, Susan; Cole, James L.

    2009-04-27

    Protein kinase R (PKR) is a key component of the interferon antiviral defense pathway. Upon binding double-stranded RNA, PKR undergoes autophosphorylation reactions that activate the kinase. PKR contains an N-terminal double-stranded RNA binding domain, which consists of two tandem double-stranded RNA binding motifs, and a C-terminal kinase domain. We have used small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering to define the conformation of latent PKR in solution. Guinier analysis indicates a radius of gyration of about 35 {angstrom}. The p(r) distance distribution function exhibits a peak near 30 {angstrom}, with a broad shoulder extending to longer distances. Good fits to the scattering data require models that incorporate multiple compact and extended conformations of the two interdomain linker regions. Thus, PKR belongs to the growing family of proteins that contain intrinsically unstructured regions. We propose that the flexible linkers may allow PKR to productively dimerize upon interaction with RNA activators that have diverse structures.

  16. Pervasive small-scale structure in molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, B.; Lada, E.

    1986-01-01

    An unbiased CO survey of molecular cloud cores was completed, and the profiles were analyzed within the context of a model for emission from clumpy clouds. It was found that all sources observed contain a significant amount of structure that is not resolved with our 2.3-arcmin beam, and that the parameters which describe the degree of clumping span a remarkably narrow range of the possible values. We studied two separate samples of cloud cores: a large sample of warm cores from the Massachusetts-Stony Brook 12CO survey of the first galactic quadrant, and a sample of cool cores in the Taurus dark clouds chosen primarily on the basis of H2CO emission. We observed all sources in the 1-0 transition of 12CO and 13CO with the 5-m telescope of the Millimeter Wave Observatory. The 12CO/13CO ratios can be explained if there is unresolved structure giving rise to significant variations of opacity across the beam. Our model cloud consists of a large number of identical clumps distributed randomly in the beam. These clumps have velocity widths v small compared to the width of the observed profile, which is determined by the relative motion of the clumps. The entire cloud is isothermal and in local thermodynamic equilibrium. With these assumptions the intensity and linewidth ratios depend on three parameters: the abundance ratio; the peak 13CO opacity through a single clump, tau(0); and the average number of clumps on a line of sight N. Small tau(0) and large N correspond to the microturbulent limit, which is indistinguishable from a uniform gas distribution. In the other extreme, large tau(0) and snall N, at a given velocity at most one clump contributes to the profile on each line of sight. A figure is presented which shows the model parameters which reproduce the measured intensity and linewidth ratios for the sample of warm cores, assuming an abundance ratio of 75.

  17. A design guide and specification for small explosive containment structures

    SciTech Connect

    Marchand, K.A.; Cox, P.A.; Polcyn, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The design of structural containments for testing small explosive devices requires the designer to consider the various aspects of the explosive loading, i.e., shock and gas or quasistatic pressure. Additionally, if the explosive charge has the potential of producing damaging fragments, provisions must be made to arrest the fragments. This may require that the explosive be packed in a fragment attenuating material, which also will affect the loads predicted for containment response. Material also may be added just to attenuate shock, in the absence of fragments. Three charge weights are used in the design. The actual charge is used to determine a design fragment. Blast loads are determined for a {open_quotes}design charge{close_quotes}, defined as 125% of the operational charge in the explosive device. No yielding is permitted at the design charge weight. Blast loads are also determined for an over-charge, defined as 200% of the operational charge in the explosive device. Yielding, but no failure, is permitted at this over-charge. This guide emphasizes the calculation of loads and fragments for which the containment must be designed. The designer has the option of using simplified or complex design-analysis methods. Examples in the guide use readily available single degree-of-freedom (sdof) methods, plus static methods for equivalent dynamic loads. These are the common methods for blast resistant design. Some discussion of more complex methods is included. Generally, the designer who chooses more complex methods must be fully knowledgeable in their use and limitations. Finally, newly fabricated containments initially must be proof tested to 125% of the operational load and then inspected at regular intervals. This specification provides guidance for design, proof testing, and inspection of small explosive containment structures.

  18. Electronic Structure and Geometries of Small Compound Metal Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-14

    During the tenure of the DOE grant DE-FG05-87EI145316 we have concentrated on equilibrium geometries, stability, and the electronic structure of transition metal-carbon clusters (met-cars), clusters designed to mimic the chemistry of atoms, and reactivity of homo-nuclear metal clusters and ions with various reactant molecules. It is difficult to describe all the research the authors have accomplished as they have published 38 papers. In this report, they outline briefly the salient features of their work on the following topics: (1) Designer Clusters: Building Blocks for a New Class of Solids; (2) Atomic Structure, Stability, and Electronic Properties of Metallo-Carbohedrenes; (3) Reactivity of Metal Clusters with H{sub 2} and NO; and (4) Anomalous Spectroscopy of Li{sub 4} Clusters.

  19. Replicating Small Group Research Using the Functional Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragan, John F.; Wright, David W.

    A replication study tested functional theory utilizing untrained full-fledged groups. One hundred forty undergraduate students who were enrolled in a small group communication course at a large midwestern university participated in small group discussions analyzing a plagiarism case used in an original study by R. Y. Hirokawa. Results indicated…

  20. Small Business Research in a World of Skewed Returns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    evaluations include discussions on the distribution of outcomes to better inform policy makers, administrators, and participations on the nature of the...recommends that the small business evaluations include discussions on the distribution of outcomes to better inform policy makers, administrators, and...the small business evaluations include discussions on the distribution of outcomes to better inform policy makers, administrators, and

  1. Forest Products Laboratory research program on small-diameter material.

    Treesearch

    2000-01-01

    Forests in the United States contain a significant amount of small-diameter and underutilized material. These overstocked stands not only increase the risk of insect, disease, fire, and drought damage, but also are costly to remove. Finding economical and marketable uses for small-diameter and underutilized material would alleviate these problems while improving...

  2. Heparin's solution structure determined by small-angle neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Rubinson, Kenneth A; Chen, Yin; Cress, Brady F; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    Heparin is a linear, anionic polysaccharide that is widely used as a clinical anticoagulant. Despite its discovery 100 years ago in 1916, the solution structure of heparin remains unknown. The solution shape of heparin has not previously been examined in water under a range of concentrations, and here is done so in D2 O solution using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Solutions of 10 kDa heparin-in the millimolar concentration range-were probed with SANS. Our results show that when sodium concentrations are equivalent to the polyelectrolyte's charge or up to a few hundred millimoles higher, the molecular structure of heparin is compact and the shape could be well modeled by a cylinder with a length three to four times its diameter. In the presence of molar concentrations of sodium, the molecule becomes extended to nearly its full length estimated from reported X-ray measurements on stretched fibers. This stretched form is not found in the presence of molar concentrations of potassium ions. In this high-potassium environment, the heparin molecules have the same shape as when its charges were mostly protonated at pD ≈ 0.5, that is, they are compact and approximately half the length of the extended molecules.

  3. Recent global trends in structural materials research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Hideyuki; Ohmura, Takahito; Nishimura, Toshiyuki

    2013-02-01

    Structural materials support the basis of global society, such as infrastructure and transportation facilities, and are therefore essential for everyday life. The optimization of such materials allows people to overcome environmental, energy and resource depletion issues on a global scale. The creation and manufacture of structural materials make a large contribution to economies around the world every year. The use of strong, resistant materials can also have profound social effects, providing a better quality of life at both local and national levels. The Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011 caused significant structural damage in the Tohoku and Kanto regions of Japan. On a global scale, accidents caused by the ageing and failure of structural materials occur on a daily basis. Therefore, the provision and inspection of structural reliability, safety of nuclear power facilities and construction of a secure and safe society hold primary importance for researchers and engineers across the world. Clearly, structural materials need to evolve further to address both existing problems and prepare for new challenges that may be faced in the future. With this in mind, the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) organized the 'NIMS Conference 2012' to host an extensive discussion on a variety of global issues related to the future development of structural materials. Ranging from reconstruction following natural disasters, verification of structural reliability, energy-saving materials to fundamental problems accompanying the development of materials for high safety standards, the conference covered many key issues in the materials industry today. All the above topics are reflected in this focus issue of STAM, which introduces recent global trends in structural materials research with contributions from world-leading researchers in this field. This issue covers the development of novel alloys, current methodologies in the characterization of structural

  4. Composite Structures and Materials Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Dexter, H. Benson; Johnston, Norman J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Cano, Roberto J.

    2001-01-01

    A summary of recent composite structures and materials research at NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Fabrication research to develop low-cost automated robotic fabrication procedures for thermosetting and thermoplastic composite materials, and low-cost liquid molding processes for preformed textile materials is described. Robotic fabrication procedures discussed include ply-by-ply, cure-on-the-fly heated placement head and out-of-autoclave electron-beam cure methods for tow and tape thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Liquid molding fabrication processes described include Resin Film Infusion (RFI) Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Results for a full-scale composite wing box are summarized to identify the performance of materials and structures fabricated with these low-cost fabrication methods.

  5. Composite Structures and Materials Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Dexter, H. Benson; Johnston, Norman J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Cano, roberto J.

    2003-01-01

    A summary of recent composite structures and materials research at NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Fabrication research to develop low-cost automated robotic fabrication procedures for thermosetting and thermoplastic composite materials, and low-cost liquid molding processes for preformed textile materials is described. Robotic fabrication procedures discussed include ply-by-ply, cure-on-the-fly heated placement head and out-of-autoclave electron-beam cure methods for tow and tape thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Liquid molding fabrication processes described include Resin Film Infusion (RFI), Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Results for a full-scale composite wing box are summarized to identify the performance of materials and structures fabricated with these low-cost fabrication methods.

  6. Composite Structures and Materials Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Dexter, H. Benson; Johnston, Norman J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Cano, roberto J.

    2003-01-01

    A summary of recent composite structures and materials research at NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Fabrication research to develop low-cost automated robotic fabrication procedures for thermosetting and thermoplastic composite materials, and low-cost liquid molding processes for preformed textile materials is described. Robotic fabrication procedures discussed include ply-by-ply, cure-on-the-fly heated placement head and out-of-autoclave electron-beam cure methods for tow and tape thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Liquid molding fabrication processes described include Resin Film Infusion (RFI), Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Results for a full-scale composite wing box are summarized to identify the performance of materials and structures fabricated with these low-cost fabrication methods.

  7. The Physical Character of Small-Scale Interstellar Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the multiple interstellar absorption lines of H2 toward the members of 3 resolvable binary/multiple star systems to explore the physical conditions in known interstellar small-scale structures. Each of the selected systems was meant to address a different aspect of the models for the origin of these structures: 1) The stars HD 32039/40 were meant to probe a temporally varying component which probed a cloud with an inferred size of tens to a few hundreds of AU. The goal was to see if there was any significant H2 associated with this component; 2) The star HD 36408B and its companion HD 36408A (observed as part of FUSE GTO program P119) show significant spatial and temporal (proper motion induced) Na I column variations in a strong, relatively isolated component, as well as a relatively simple component structure. The key goal here was to identify any differences in H2 or C I excitation between the sightlines, and to measure the physical conditions (primarily density and temperature) in the temporally varying component; 3) The stars HD 206267C and HD 206267D are highly reddened sightlines which showed significant variations in K I and molecular absorption lines in multiple velocity components. Coupled with FUSE GTO observations of HD 206267A (program P116), the goal was to study the variations in H2 along sightlines which are significantly more distant, with larger separations, and with greater extinctions than the other selected binary systems.

  8. Detecting small scale CO2 emission structures using OCO-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Eldering, Annmarie; Verhulst, Kristal R.; Miller, Charles E.; Nguyen, Hai M.; Oda, Tomohiro; O'Dell, Christopher; Rao, Preeti; Kahn, Brian; Crisp, David; Gunson, Michael R.; Sanchez, Robert M.; Ashok, Manasa; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin P.; Yuen, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Localized carbon dioxide (CO2) emission structures cover spatial domains of less than 50 km diameter and include cities and transportation networks, as well as fossil fuel production, upgrading and distribution infra-structure. Anthropogenic sources increasingly upset the natural balance between natural carbon sources and sinks. Mitigation of resulting climate change impacts requires management of emissions, and emissions management requires monitoring, reporting and verification. Space-borne measurements provide a unique opportunity to detect, quantify, and analyze small scale and point source emissions on a global scale. NASA's first satellite dedicated to atmospheric CO2 observation, the July 2014 launched Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2), now leads the afternoon constellation of satellites (A-Train). Its continuous swath of 2 to 10 km in width and eight footprints across can slice through coincident emission plumes and may provide momentary cross sections. First OCO-2 results demonstrate that we can detect localized source signals in the form of urban total column averaged CO2 enhancements of ~2 ppm against suburban and rural backgrounds. OCO-2's multi-sounding swath observing geometry reveals intra-urban spatial structures reflected in XCO2 data, previously unobserved from space. The transition from single-shot GOSAT soundings detecting urban/rural differences (Kort et al., 2012) to hundreds of soundings per OCO-2 swath opens up the path to future capabilities enabling urban tomography of greenhouse gases. For singular point sources like coal fired power plants, we have developed proxy detections of plumes using bands of imaging spectrometers with sensitivity to SO2 in the thermal infrared (ASTER). This approach provides a means to automate plume detection with subsequent matching and mining of OCO-2 data for enhanced detection efficiency and validation. © California Institute of Technology

  9. TESOL, Teacher Identity, and the Need for "Small Story" Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Narrative research in TESOL still remains very much in its infancy. And the predominant mode of narrative research in TESOL--following the trend in educational research, as well as in other social sciences--has clearly been that of narrative inquiry, with its concomitant privileging of autobiographical "big stories", or researcher-elicited…

  10. Small Schools: The Numbers Tell a Story. A Review of the Research and Current Experiences. The Small Schools Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klonsky, Michael

    A compelling body of research shows that when students are part of smaller and more intimate learning communities, they are more successful. The latest research demonstrates that small schools, particularly schools of choice, have a measurably positive impact on inner-city students, especially those from minority and low-income families. The…

  11. 10 CFR 600.381 - Special provisions for Small Business Innovation Research Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special provisions for Small Business Innovation Research... Organizations Additional Provisions § 600.381 Special provisions for Small Business Innovation Research Grants. (a) General. This section contains provisions applicable to the Small Business Innovation...

  12. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarry, Scott E.; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    The aviation industry is an integral part of the world s economy. Travelers have consistently chosen aviation as their mode of transportation as it is reliable, time efficient and safe. The out- dated Hub and Spoke system, coupled with high demand, has led to delays, cancellations and gridlock. NASA is developing innovative solutions to these and other air transportation problems. This research is being conducted through partnerships with federal agencies, industry stakeholders, and academia, specifically the University of Nebraska at Omaha. Each collaborator is pursuing the NASA General Aviation Roadmap through their involvement in the expansion of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). SATS will utilize technologically advanced small aircraft to transport travelers to and from rural and isolated communities. Additionally, this system will provide a safe alternative to the hub and spoke system, giving more time to more people through high-speed mobility and increased accessibility.

  13. Animal health research in the Small Ruminant Collaborative Research Support Program.

    PubMed

    Alexander, A F; DeMartini, J C; McGuire, T C; Olander, H J

    1989-11-01

    Disease is a major constraint in small ruminant production systems in lesser-developed countries throughout the world. Animal health projects have been an integral part of the Small Ruminant Collaborative Research Support Program (SR-CRSP) from its inception. At the onset, these projects were oriented toward herd health care and veterinary extension activities. Later, all the projects developed a sharper focus in that they were directed to more basic studies of infectious disease. Diseases currently being investigated include caseous lymphadenitis, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, caprine arthritis-encephalitis, ovine pulmonary carcinoma, ovine progressive pneumonia and neonatal mortality of alpaca. Continued, sharply focused studies are projected for the future to take advantage of recombinant technology in the development of multivalent vaccines.

  14. Structural modeling of proteins by integrating small-angle x-ray scattering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-Hui; Peng, Jun-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Yong

    2015-12-01

    Elucidating the structure of large biomolecules such as multi-domain proteins or protein complexes is challenging due to their high flexibility in solution. Recently, an “integrative structural biology” approach has been proposed, which aims to determine the protein structure and characterize protein flexibility by combining complementary high- and low-resolution experimental data using computer simulations. Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) is an efficient technique that can yield low-resolution structural information, including protein size and shape. Here, we review computational methods that integrate SAXS with other experimental datasets for structural modeling. Finally, we provide a case study of determination of the structure of a protein complex formed between the tandem SH3 domains in c-Cb1-associated protein and the proline-rich loop in human vinculin. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CB910203 and 2011CB911104), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31270760), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB08030102), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20113402120013).

  15. Linear feature extraction from radar imagery: SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research), phase 2, option 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milgram, David L.; Kahn, Philip; Conner, Gary D.; Lawton, Daryl T.

    1988-12-01

    The goal of this effort is to develop and demonstrate prototype processing capabilities for a knowledge-based system to automatically extract and analyze features from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. This effort constitutes Phase 2 funding through the Defense Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program. Previous work examined the feasibility of and technology issues involved in the development of an automated linear feature extraction system. This final report documents this examination and the technologies involved in automating this image understanding task. In particular, it reports on a major software delivery containing an image processing algorithmic base, a perceptual structures manipulation package, a preliminary hypothesis management framework and an enhanced user interface.

  16. Small but powerful: top predator local extinction affects ecosystem structure and function in an intermittent stream.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators' extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a 'mesopredator release', affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to 'mesopredator release', and also to 'prey release' despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem's structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers' extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been extirpated, to restore

  17. Small but Powerful: Top Predator Local Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure and Function in an Intermittent Stream

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators’ extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a ‘mesopredator release’, affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to ‘mesopredator release’, and also to ‘prey release’ despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem’s structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers’ extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been

  18. Structural Elucidation of a Small Molecule Inhibitor of Protein Disulfide Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Compound libraries provide a starting point for multiple biological investigations, but the structural integrity of compounds is rarely assessed experimentally until a late stage in the research process. Here, we describe the discovery of a neuroprotective small molecule that was originally incorrectly annotated with a chemical structure. We elucidated the correct structure of the active compound using analytical chemistry, revealing it to be the natural product securinine. We show that securinine is protective in a cell model of Huntington disease and identify the binding site of securinine to its target, protein disulfide isomerase using NMR chemical shift perturbation studies. We show that securinine displays favorable pharmaceutical properties, making it a promising compound for in vivo studies in neurodegenerative disease models. In addition to finding this unexpected activity of securinine, this study provides a systematic roadmap to those who encounter compounds with incorrect structural annotation in the course of screening campaigns. PMID:26500720

  19. Structural network connectivity and cognition in cerebral small vessel disease.

    PubMed

    Tuladhar, Anil M; van Dijk, Ewoud; Zwiers, Marcel P; van Norden, Anouk G W; de Laat, Karlijn F; Shumskaya, Elena; Norris, David G; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), including white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes and microbleeds, and brain atrophy, are related to cognitive impairment. However, these magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers for SVD do not account for all the clinical variances observed in subjects with SVD. Here, we investigated the relation between conventional MRI markers for SVD, network efficiency and cognitive performance in 436 nondemented elderly with cerebral SVD. We computed a weighted structural connectivity network from the diffusion tensor imaging and deterministic streamlining. We found that SVD-severity (indicated by higher WMH load, number of lacunes and microbleeds, and lower total brain volume) was related to networks with lower density, connection strengths, and network efficiency, and to lower scores on cognitive performance. In multiple regressions models, network efficiency remained significantly associated with cognitive index and psychomotor speed, independent of MRI markers for SVD and mediated the associations between these markers and cognition. This study provides evidence that network (in)efficiency might drive the association between SVD and cognitive performance. This highlights the importance of network analysis in our understanding of SVD-related cognitive impairment in addition to conventional MRI markers for SVD and might provide an useful tool as disease marker.

  20. FE analysis strategies for structural materials with small tensile strength

    SciTech Connect

    Borri, A. ); Sorace, S. )

    1993-05-01

    A review of the smeared crack approach to the finite element analysis of small tensile strength (STS) materials is presented. The most widely applied strategies for crack modeling, shear transfer mechanism, and the definition of the mechanical constitutive laws and failure critically discussed. The models and special options in the ANSYS, ADINA, and ABAQUS programs are considered in detail, and applied to the analysis of a square panel under boundary pressures. The three solutions were compared in terms of the final broadening of the panel cracked zones. The results of the analysis of an hemispherical dome over a cylindrical drum are also presented. The Romulus Temple in the Roman Forum was the reference structure for this FE model. The problem was analyzed by a special procedure using the ANSYS concrete element. The results were compared with those of a discrete crack solution which reproduced the real cracked configuration of the building, and then with an experimental survey carried out by the flat jack technique.

  1. HERU research in support of the USDA Small Watershed Program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The nation is confronted with issues related to aging infrastructure. The USDA Small Watershed Program flood control dams are a part of that aging infrastructure and as a result have many unique challenges. The National Rehabilitation Amendment of 2000 has helped set into motion a program of addre...

  2. USEPA'S RESEARCH EFFORTS IN SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, in the United States there are approximately 50,000 small community and 130,000 non-community systems providing water to over 25 million people. The drinking water treatment systems at these locations are not always adequate to comply with current and pending regulati...

  3. USEPA'S RESEARCH EFFORTS IN SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, in the United States there are approximately 50,000 small community and 130,000 non-community systems providing water to over 25 million people. The drinking water treatment systems at these locations are not always adequate to comply with current and pending regulati...

  4. Ground water and small research basins: an historical perspective

    Treesearch

    Elon S. Verry

    2003-01-01

    Scientists have been studying hydrological processes within a watershed context for hundreds of years. Throughout much of that history, little attention was paid to the significance of ground water; in nearly all early studies, ground water was never considered. In many recent studies, ground water fluxes are assumed to be insignificantly small. The following is a...

  5. A Research Brief: Small Learning Communities--Recommendations for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban Education Collaborative, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, a variety of efforts to transform American high schools have gained both public and private support. Significant among these efforts are initiatives to implement small learning communities (SLCs). Like other reform efforts, SLCs have several goals, including "downsizing large schools, meeting the needs of at-risk students,…

  6. Management of small fragment wounds in war: current research.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, G W; Cooper, G J; Rice, P

    1995-03-01

    The majority of war wounds are caused by antipersonnel fragments from munitions such as mortars and bomblets. Modern munitions aim to incapacitate soldiers with multiple wounds from very small fragments of low available kinetic energy. Many of these fragments may be stopped by helmets and body armour and this has led to a predominance of multiple wounds to limbs in those casualties requiring surgery. The development of an appropriate management strategy for these multiple wounds requires knowledge of the contamination and extent of soft tissue injury; conservative management may be appropriate. The extent of skin and muscle damage associated with a small fragment wound, the way in which these wounds may progress without intervention and their colonisation by bacteria has been determined in an experimental animal model. Results from 12 animals are presented. There was a very small (approximately 1 mm) margin of nonviable skin around the entrance wound. The amount of devitalised muscle in the wound tract was a few hundred milligrams. Some muscles peripheral to the wound track also showed signs of damage 1 h after wounding, but this improved over 24 h; the proportion of fragmented muscle fibres in the tissue around the track decreased as time went on. There was no clinical sign or bacteriological evidence of the track becoming infected up to 24 h after wounding. This preliminary work suggests that, in the absence of infection, the amount of muscle damage caused by small fragment wounds begins to resolve in the first 24 h after injury, even without surgical intervention.

  7. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water Small Systems Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Power Point presentation will summarize some of the results from Arsenic Demonstration Program with the main focus on the adsorptive media systems used by small systems. The presentation will also describe the results of recent regeneration studies conducted on the arsenic ...

  8. Directions of Small Group Research for the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Samuel L.

    Speech communicators need to return to applied research, developing theoretical statements about how groups might work better and testing the validity of those statements. Among the tasks that group communication researchers might take up are determining the range of applicability of generalizations concerning different kinds of groups, studying…

  9. Observation and Analysis of Small-scale Solar Magnetic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T.

    1996-05-01

    Solar magnetic flux elements on spatial scales below 350 km (0\\arcsec.5) are analyzed using G-Band 4305 Angstroms, Ca II K-line, and 4686 Angstroms continuum filtegrams as well as Fe I 6302 Angstroms and 5250 Angstroms magnetograms acquired nearly simultaneously at the Swedish Solar Vacuum Telescope on La Palma. Spatial resolution is below 0\\arcsec.3 in the majority of images. Phase-diversity image restoration is applied to yield a 180 frame (78 minute) image set in which nearly every frame exhibits 0\\arcsec.2 spatial resolution. Image processing algorithms are developed which successfully segment the magnetic elements from the surrounding granulation for analysis. The FWHM of magnetic elements demarcated by G-band bright points in disk-center plage is log-normally distributed with a modal value of 220 km and an average value of 250 km. Average disk center contrast of magnetic elements in the G-band is 31% with maximum values frequently exceeding 70% relative to the quiet-Sun average. Simulataneous 4686 Angstroms continuum contrast is 2 to 3 times lower. The average G-band contrast of magnetic elements shows no size dependency over a range of 150---600 km in diameter. G-band bright points occur without exception on sites of isolated magnetic flux concentrations or peninsular concentrations extending from larger concentrations of flux; isolated magnetic flux concentrations are found without associated G-band bright points. Magnetic elements demarcated by G-band bright points occupy no more than 1---2% of plage and active network regions by area at any one time. Magnetic elements move in the intergranular flowfield at speeds from 0.5 to 5 km sec(-1) . The RMS speed is 2.4 km sec(-1) over an average range of 2100 km (3\\arcsec). Continual fragmentation and merging of magnetic elements is the normal evolutionary mode for small-scale magnetic elements. The time scale for the dynamics is approximately 6--8 minutes, but significant morphological changes occur on time

  10. Structural formation of huntingtin-like aggregates probed by small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, Christopher B; Perevozchikova, Tatiana; Berthelier-Jung, Valerie M

    2011-01-01

    In several neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington s disease (HD), aspects concerning the earliest of protein structures that form along the aggregation pathway have increasingly gained attention since these particular species are likely to be neurotoxic. We used time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to probe in solution these transient structures formed by peptides having the N-terminal sequence context of mutant huntingtin (Htt) exon 1. We obtained snapshots of the formed aggregates as the kinetic reaction ensued to yield quantitative information on their size and mass. At the early stage, small precursor species with an initial radius of gyration (Rg) of 16.1 5.9 and average mass of a dimer to trimer were monitored. Structural growth was treated as two modes with a transition from three-dimensional early aggregate formation to two-dimensional fibril growth and association. Our SANS results on the internal structure of the mature fibrils demonstrate loose packing with about 1 peptide per 4.75 -sheet repeat distance, which is shown to be quantitatively consistent with a -helix model. This research provides new insights into the structures forming along the pathway of Htt exon 1 aggregation and should assist in determining the role that precursors play in neuronal toxicity.

  11. Research on inflatable structure for space use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katou, Sumio; Muragishi, Osamu; Oota, Toyoyuki; Natori, Michihiro; Miura, Kouryou; Sakamaki, Masamori

    1993-03-01

    This report describes an overview of the trial manufacture and research related to the feasibility of the concepts of a reflector structure using inflatable elements, inflatable tube, and recommendations on experiments on the exposed facility of the JEM (Japanese Experiment Module). The expected roles of and basic structure concept concerning the configurations, dimensions, and film surface materials of the reflector are outlined. The results of the film pressure deformation test, film element hardening test, and film and supporting truss interface test are described. The strength, trial manufacture, and its results are outlined. The onboard JEM experiment concept concerning the research on the earth, preliminary experiment, and on-orbit experiment onboard JEM are introduced.

  12. Managing Astronomy Research Data: Case Studies of Big and Small Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, Ashley E.

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy data management refers to all actions taken upon data over the course of the entire research process. It includes activities involving the collection, organization, analysis, release, storage, archiving, preservation, and curation of research data. Astronomers have cultivated data management tools, infrastructures, and local practices to ensure the use and future reuse of their data. However, new sky surveys will soon amass petabytes of data requiring new data management strategies.The goal of this dissertation, to be completed in 2015, is to identify and understand data management practices and the infrastructure and expertise required to support best practices. This will benefit the astronomy community in efforts toward an integrated scholarly communication framework.This dissertation employs qualitative, social science research methods (including interviews, observations, and document analysis) to conduct case studies of data management practices, covering the entire data lifecycle, amongst three populations: Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) collaboration team members; Individual and small-group users of SDSS data; and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) collaboration team members. I have been observing the collection, release, and archiving of data by the SDSS collaboration, the data practices of individuals and small groups using SDSS data in journal articles, and the LSST collaboration's planning and building of infrastructure to produce data.Preliminary results demonstrate that current data management practices in astronomy are complex, situational, and heterogeneous. Astronomers often have different management repertoires for working on sky surveys and for their own data collections, varying their data practices as they move between projects. The multitude of practices complicates coordinated efforts to maintain data.While astronomy expertise proves critical to managing astronomy data in the short, medium, and long term, the larger astronomy

  13. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) FY 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-31

    purification device which will serve to make non-potable water drinkable ; o a compact, lightweight, colorless aerosol glue and aerosol glue-dissolvent...an other- wise successful proposal which makes its terms more favorable to the Government will be considered at any time it is received and may be...Components anticipate making awards during fiscal year 1983 to small , -. businesses typically of the order of one-half to one (1) man-year effort over

  14. A Small Acoustic Goniometer for General Purpose Research

    PubMed Central

    Pook, Michael L.; Loo, Sin Ming

    2016-01-01

    Understanding acoustic events and monitoring their occurrence is a useful aspect of many research projects. In particular, acoustic goniometry allows researchers to determine the source of an event based solely on the sound it produces. The vast majority of acoustic goniometry research projects used custom hardware targeted to the specific application under test. Unfortunately, due to the wide range of sensing applications, a flexible general purpose hardware/firmware system does not exist for this purpose. This article focuses on the development of such a system which encourages the continued exploration of general purpose hardware/firmware and lowers barriers to research in projects requiring the use of acoustic goniometry. Simulations have been employed to verify system feasibility, and a complete hardware implementation of the acoustic goniometer has been designed and field tested. The results are reported, and suggested areas for improvement and further exploration are discussed. PMID:27136563

  15. A Small Acoustic Goniometer for General Purpose Research.

    PubMed

    Pook, Michael L; Loo, Sin Ming

    2016-04-29

    Understanding acoustic events and monitoring their occurrence is a useful aspect of many research projects. In particular, acoustic goniometry allows researchers to determine the source of an event based solely on the sound it produces. The vast majority of acoustic goniometry research projects used custom hardware targeted to the specific application under test. Unfortunately, due to the wide range of sensing applications, a flexible general purpose hardware/firmware system does not exist for this purpose. This article focuses on the development of such a system which encourages the continued exploration of general purpose hardware/firmware and lowers barriers to research in projects requiring the use of acoustic goniometry. Simulations have been employed to verify system feasibility, and a complete hardware implementation of the acoustic goniometer has been designed and field tested. The results are reported, and suggested areas for improvement and further exploration are discussed.

  16. Effect of Small Changes in Secondary Structure on the Electron Transfer Rate in Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgang, J.; Risser, S. M.

    1996-03-01

    In the non-adiabatic limit, the rate of electron transfer reactions is proportional to the square of the electronic coupling between donor and acceptor. The distance decay of the coupling in a protein is sensitive to the protein geometry and the tunneling energy of the electron. In this paper, we use Green's function methods combined with molecular dynamics simulations to examine how the electronic coupling is modulated by the primary, secondary and tertiary structure of polypeptides. We also will explore the sensitivity of the coupling to small changes in atomic coordinates. This work was supported by the Research Corporation and East Texas State University.

  17. Investigation of the small-scale structure and dynamics of Uranus' atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, Von R.; Hinson, David P.

    1991-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report of the Uranus Analysis Program. Papers and/or abstracts resulting from this research are presented. The following topics are covered: (1) past and future of radio occultation studies of planetary atmospheres; (2) equatorial waves in the stratosphere of Uranus; (3) the atmosphere of Uranus- results of radio occultation measurements with Voyager 2; (4) Uranus' atmospheric dynamics and circulation; (5) small-scale structure and dynamics in the atmosphere of Uranus; (6) evidence for inertia-gravity waves in the stratosphere of Uranus derived from Voyager 2 radio occultation data; and (7) planetary waves in the equatorial stratosphere of Uranus.

  18. Research and Applications in Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, Irving

    1997-01-01

    An overview of recently completed programs in aeroelasticity and structural dynamics research at the NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Methods used to perform flutter clearance studies in the wind-tunnel on a high performance fighter are discussed. Recent advances in the use of smart structures and controls to solve aeroelastic problems, including flutter and gust response are presented. An aeroelastic models program designed to support an advanced high speed civil transport is described. An extension to transonic small disturbance theory that better predicts flows involving separation and reattachment is presented. The results of a research study to determine the effects of flexibility on the taxi and takeoff characteristics of a high speed civil transport are presented. The use of photogrammetric methods aboard Space Shuttle to measure spacecraft dynamic response is discussed. Issues associated with the jitter response of multi-payload spacecraft are discussed. Finally a Space Shuttle flight experiment that studied the control of flexible spacecraft is described.

  19. [Small compounds libraries: a research tool for chemical biology].

    PubMed

    Florent, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining and screening collections of small molecules remain a challenge for biologists. Recent advances in analytical techniques and instrumentation now make screening possible in academia. The history of the creation of such public or commercial collections and their accessibility is related. It shows that there is interest for an academic laboratory involved in medicinal chemistry, chemogenomics or "chemical biology" to organize its own collection and make it available through existing networks such as the French National chimiothèque or the European partner network "European Infrastructure of open screening platforms for Chemical Biology" EU-OpenScreen under construction. © Société de Biologie, 2013.

  20. Physics and Chemistry of Small Scale Structures for Modern Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    that in AIGaAs. In the InAs- ZnTe system, the increase in speed is due to the small dielectric constant in ZaTe and the high mobility in InAs, and the...temperature. In addition, 1 _____0__ ._._... ... the small dielectric constant in ZnTe and the high mobility ---- : T = 3OCK GoAs-ZnSe in InAs should...semiconductors were explored. While the materials to date have not been single crystal but have consisted of relatively small grain polycrystal in vandium

  1. Heterogeneous road networks have no apparent effect on the genetic structure of small mammal populations.

    PubMed

    Grilo, Clara; Del Cerro, Irene; Centeno-Cuadros, Alejandro; Ramiro, Victor; Román, Jacinto; Molina-Vacas, Guillem; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Rodríguez, Juan; Porto-Peter, Flávia; Fonseca, Carlos; Revilla, Eloy; Godoy, José A

    2016-09-15

    Roads are widely recognized to represent a barrier to individual movements and, conversely, verges can act as potential corridors for the dispersal of many small mammals. Both barrier and corridor effects should generate a clear spatial pattern in genetic structure. Nevertheless, the effect of roads on the genetic structure of small mammal populations still remains unclear. In this study, we examine the barrier effect that different road types (4-lane highway, 2-lane roads and single-lane unpaved roads) may have on the population genetic structure of three species differing in relevant life history traits: southern water vole Arvicola sapidus, the Mediterranean pine vole Microtus duodecimcostatus and the Algerian mouse Mus spretus. We also examine the corridor effect of highway verges on the Mediterranean pine vole and the Algerian mouse. We analysed the population structure through pairwise estimates of FST among subpopulations bisected by roads, identified genetic clusters through Bayesian assignment approaches, and used simple and partial Mantel tests to evaluate the relative barrier or corridor effect of roads. No strong evidences were found for an effect of roads on population structure of these three species. The barrier effect of roads seems to be site-specific and no corridor effect of verges was found for the pine vole and Algerian mouse populations. The lack of consistent results among species and for each road type lead us to believe that the ability of individual dispersers to use those crossing structures or the habitat quality in the highway verges may have a relatively higher influence on gene flow among populations than the presence of crossing structures per se. Further research should include microhabitat analysis and the estimates of species abundance to understand the mechanisms that underlie the genetic structure observed at some sites.

  2. 10 CFR 600.381 - Special provisions for Small Business Innovation Research Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special provisions for Small Business Innovation Research... Organizations Additional Provisions § 600.381 Special provisions for Small Business Innovation Research Grants... unexpended at the end of the project if those amounts exceed $500; (6) Recipients will certify in writing...

  3. Toward an Alternative Research Paradigm for Small/Rural Schools: Beyond an Approximated Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Russell L; Dobson, Judith E.

    1990-01-01

    Presents arguments, based on Thomas Kuhn's work, that most research on rural and small schools proceeds from previous scientific achievements, and that researchers' (outsiders') preconceived and approximated reality forces the nature of rural and small schools into an inflexible box. Contains 40 references. (Author/SV)

  4. Toward an Alternative Research Paradigm for Small/Rural Schools: Beyond an Approximated Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Russell L; Dobson, Judith E.

    1990-01-01

    Presents arguments, based on Thomas Kuhn's work, that most research on rural and small schools proceeds from previous scientific achievements, and that researchers' (outsiders') preconceived and approximated reality forces the nature of rural and small schools into an inflexible box. Contains 40 references. (Author/SV)

  5. Research and Development of Satellites, Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingo, Dennis Ray

    1996-01-01

    The work proposed in this task order was successfully accomplished. This is reflected in the approval by three NASA centers of the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space Satellite (SEDSAT) to fly as a payload on the shuttle. All documentation necessary for evaluation of the satellite as a Shuttle payload was submitted and approved by the appropriate safety boards. The Small Expendable Deployer System - SEDS - Earth Atmosphere and Space Imaging System (SEASIS) instrument was demonstrated to work and its inclusion as a SEDSAT payload was accomplished in the task period. Finally, the SEDSAT interface to the NASA GSFC PES was approved by MSFC and GSFC with no substantive issues outstanding. As of the end of the contract date all milestones were met. However the NASA MSFC SEDS program was canceled by the center. Since that time SEDSAT has gone on to be manifested on a Delta vehicle.

  6. Smart structures technology and biomechanics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, Dryver R.; Beynnon, Bruce; Krag, Martin

    1996-05-01

    The human musculoskeletal system represents one of the ultimate manifestations of smart structures capabilities. It can sense, actuate, and heal for periods occasionally in excess of one hundred years. As a natural consequence, research and treatment regimes for a variety of musculoskeletal disorders use technologies that are in many respects very similar to that of the more traditional aerospace and civil smart structures technologies. This paper presents an overview of the technologies that are currently in use in orthopaedic practice and research that mimic these more traditional smart structures. This includes a wide variety of instrumentation that can measure loads and motions within the musculoskeletal system, within prostheses (artificial joints and limbs), and within orthoses (devices that limit the motion of joints and limbs). Included are discussions about the instrumentation of spine and hip implants and the use of telemetry to transmit the data, the measurement of spinal motions through goniometers and surface-attached lordosimeters, and the forces involved in ambulation. In addition to the systems that can measure loads and motions, there are some devices that can measure these quantities and respond in such as way as to control the motions or loads. A 'virtual corset' that provides audio and/or tactile feedback to patients to prevent excessive trunk flexion is described.

  7. Structure Optimization and Evaluation of Small Adjustable Diameter Grinding Wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yiyong; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Liping; Zhao, Hu

    Focus on the uneven deformation of conventional adjustable diameter grinding wheel (ADGW), a structure optimization and evaluation method of ADGW was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the evaluation index system and structure optimization framework of ADGW was established to obtain the optimization objective of ADGW. Then a simulated experiment was provided. The flexible units of ADGW with different structures and geometries were selected to analyze the unevenness of deformation. The comparison results showed that the proposed method can improve the ADGW structures effectively and provide a technical approach for evaluating the structure design of ADGW.

  8. Distributed Acquisition for Geomagnetic Research (DAGR) for SmallSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zesta, E.; Bonalsky, T. M.; Wendel, D. E.; Simpson, D. G.; Beach, T. L.; Allen, L.; Clavier, O.

    2015-12-01

    Geomagnetic field measurements are a fundamental, key parameter measurement for any space weather application, particularly for tracking the electromagnetic energy input in the Ionosphere-Thermosphere system and for high latitude dynamics governed by the large-scale field-aligned currents. The full characterization of the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere coupled system necessitates measurements with higher spatial/temporal resolution and from multiple locations simultaneously. This becomes extremely challenging in the current state of shrinking budgets. Traditionally, including a science-grade magnetometer in a mission necessitates very costly integration and design (sensor on long boom) and imposes magnetic cleanliness restrictions on all components of the bus and payload. Recent advances in Smallsat and Cubesat developments offer a pathway for the proliferation of measurements. However, the Cubesat bus is a small volume in which to include all traditional bus components and payload, and the low cost of such programs makes the acquisition of clean Geomagnetic field observations a challenge. This work presents our approach of combining multiple sensitive onboard sensors with an innovative algorithm approach that enables high quality magnetic field measurements in Cubesats.

  9. Science Education Research vs. Physics Education Research: A Structural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to introduce physics education research (PER) to researchers in other fields. Topics include discussion of differences between science education research (SER) and physics education research (PER), physics educators, research design and methodology in physics education research and current research traditions and…

  10. Structural and Functional Insights into Small, Glutamine-Rich, Tetratricopeptide Repeat Protein Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Joanna D.; Thapaliya, Arjun; Martínez-Lumbreras, Santiago; Krysztofinska, Ewelina M.; Isaacson, Rivka L.

    2015-01-01

    The small glutamine-rich, tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA) is an emerging player in the quality control of secretory and membrane proteins mislocalized to the cytosol, with established roles in tail-anchored (TA) membrane protein biogenesis. SGTA consists of three structural domains with individual functions, an N-terminal dimerization domain that assists protein sorting pathways, a central tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain that mediates interactions with heat-shock proteins, proteasomal, and hormonal receptors, and viral proteins, and a C-terminal glutamine rich region that binds hydrophobic substrates. SGTA has been linked to viral lifecycles and hormone receptor signaling, with implications in the pathogenesis of various disease states. Thus far, a range of biophysical techniques have been employed to characterize SGTA structure in some detail, and to investigate its interactions with binding partners in different biological contexts. A complete description of SGTA structure, together with further investigation into its function as a co-chaperone involved quality control, could provide us with useful insights into its role in maintaining cellular proteostasis, and broaden our understanding of mechanisms underlying associated pathologies. This review describes how some structural features of SGTA have been elucidated, and what this has uncovered about its cellular functions. A brief background on the structure and function of SGTA is given, highlighting its importance to biomedicine and related fields. The current level of knowledge and what remains to be understood about the structure and function of SGTA is summarized, discussing the potential direction of future research. PMID:26734616

  11. Community-oriented support and research structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attig, Norbert; Eickermann, Thomas; Gibbon, Paul; Lippert, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Coordinated by the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) Europe is restructuring and strengthening its high-performance computing infrastructure with the aim to create a model HPC ecosystem. At the tip of the pyramid, up to six centres are envisaged that will operate systems of the highest performance class. The HPC Research Infrastructure (HPC-RI) will comprise European, national and regional centres. Science communities are integral partners, strong links will include Grid and Cloud users. The HPC-RI strives at providing scientists all over Europe, on the one hand, with unlimited and independent access to state-of-the-art computer resources in all performance classes and, on the other hand, with a world-class pan-European competence and support network. While the hardware-oriented buildup of the infrastructure is making progress, high-quality user support and software development in the upcoming era of unprecedented parallelism and exascale on the horizon have become the imminent challenges. This has been clearly recognized by the European Commission, who will issue calls for proposals to fund petascale software development in summer 2009. Although traditional support structures are well established in Europe's major supercomputing centres, it is questionable if these structures are able to meet the challenges of the future: in general, support structures are based on cross-disciplinary computer science and mathematics teams; disciplinary computational science support usually is given in an ad-hoc, project-oriented manner. In this paper, we describe our approach to establish a suitable support structure-Simulation Laboratories (SL). SLs are currently being established at the Jülich Supercomputing Centre of the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and at the Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) of the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) in Germany. While SLs are community-oriented, i.e. each SL focusses on a specific community, they are structured

  12. Big issues, small systems: managing with information in medical research.

    PubMed

    Jones, J; Preston, H

    2000-08-01

    This subject of this article is the design of a database system for handling files related to the work of the Molecular Genetics Department of the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory. It examines specialist information needs identified within this organization and it indicates how the design of the Rhesus Information Tracking System was able to meet current needs. Rapid Applications Development prototyping forms the basis of the investigation, linked to interview, questionnaire, and observation techniques in order to establish requirements for interoperability. In particular, the place of this specialist database within the much broader information strategy of the National Blood Service will be examined. This unique situation is analogous to management activities in broader environments and a number of generic issues are highlighted by the research.

  13. Structure of nanocrystalline palladium and copper studied by small angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, P.G.; Weertman, J.R.; Barker, J.G.

    1996-12-01

    The structure of nanocrystalline palladium and copper, made by inert gas condensation and compaction, was studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of annealing and warm compaction were also examined with these techniques. The SANS results were interpreted using a maximum entropy routine, combined with knowledge of the Archimedes density and hydrogen concentration determined by prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). Similar hydrogen concentrations were detected by SANS and PGAA. This hydrogen content, which was approximately 5 at.{percent} in samples compacted at room temperature, was reduced by both annealing and warm compaction. Defects in several size classes were observed, including missing grain pores ({approx_equal}1{endash}50 nm diameter) and defects of micrometer size. Warm compaction produced a lower number density of pores in nanocrystalline palladium, which led to increased density. The observed structure was correlated with Vickers microhardness and fracture surface morphology. {copyright} {ital 1996 Materials Research Society.}

  14. Advanced Deployable Shell-Based Composite Booms for Small Satellite Structural Applications Including Solar Sails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    sail missions for such composite boom systems are already under consideration and development at NASA, as well as mission studies that will benefit from planned scaled-up versions of the composite boom technologies to be introduced. The paper presents ongoing research and development of thin-shell rollable composite booms designed under the particular stringent and challenging system requirements of relatively large solar sails housed on small satellites. These requirements will be derived and listed. Several new boom concepts are proposed and other existing ones are improved upon using thin-ply composite materials to yield unprecedented compact deployable structures. Some of these booms are shown in Fig. 1. For every boom to be introduced the scalable fabrication process developed to keep the overall boom system cost down will be shown. Finally, the initial results of purposely designed boom structural characterization test methods with gravity off-loading will be presented to compare their structural performance under expected and general load cases.

  15. 6. FLYWHEEL FOR THE 32/28 STRUCTURAL MILL. THE SMALL ELECTRIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FLYWHEEL FOR THE 32/28 STRUCTURAL MILL. THE SMALL ELECTRIC MOTOR IN FOREGROUND MAY HAVE BEEN USED TO HELP START THE MILL. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Structural Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  16. Measuring forest structure along productivity gradients in the Canadian boreal with small-footprint Lidar.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Douglas K; Coops, Nicholas C; Wulder, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    The structure and productivity of boreal forests are key components of the global carbon cycle and impact the resources and habitats available for species. With this research, we characterized the relationship between measurements of forest structure and satellite-derived estimates of gross primary production (GPP) over the Canadian boreal. We acquired stand level indicators of canopy cover, canopy height, and structural complexity from nearly 25,000 km of small-footprint discrete return Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) data and compared these attributes to GPP estimates derived from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). While limited in our capacity to control for stand age, we removed recently disturbed and managed forests using information on fire history, roads, and anthropogenic change. We found that MODIS GPP was strongly linked to Lidar-derived canopy cover (r = 0.74, p < 0.01), however was only weakly related to Lidar-derived canopy height and structural complexity as these attributes are largely a function of stand age. A relationship was apparent between MODIS GPP and the maximum sampled heights derived from Lidar as growth rates and resource availability likely limit tree height in the prolonged absence of disturbance. The most structurally complex stands, as measured by the coefficient of variation of Lidar return heights, occurred where MODIS GPP was highest as productive boreal stands are expected to contain a wider range of tree heights and transition to uneven-aged structures faster than less productive stands. While MODIS GPP related near-linearly to Lidar-derived canopy cover, the weaker relationships to Lidar-derived canopy height and structural complexity highlight the importance of stand age in determining the structure of boreal forests. We conclude that an improved quantification of how both productivity and disturbance shape stand structure is needed to better understand the current state of boreal forests in

  17. Decommissioning Small Research and Training Reactors; Experience on Three Recent University Projects - 12455

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Thomas; DeWitt, Corey; Miller, Dustin; Colborn, Kurt

    2012-07-01

    Decommissioning small reactors within the confines of an active University environment presents unique challenges. These range from the radiological protection of the nearby University population and grounds, to the logistical challenges of working in limited space without benefit of the established controlled, protected, and vital areas common to commercial facilities. These challenges, and others, are discussed in brief project histories of three recent (calendar year 2011) decommissioning activities at three University training and research reactors. These facilities include three separate Universities in three states. The work at each of the facilities addresses multiple phases of the decommissioning process, from initial characterization and pre-decommissioning waste removal, to core component removal and safe storage, through to complete structural dismantlement and site release. The results of the efforts at each University are presented, along with the challenges that were either anticipated or discovered during the decommissioning efforts, and results and lessons learned from each of the projects. (authors)

  18. Structure and dynamics of small van der Waals complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Loreau, J.

    2014-10-06

    We illustrate computational aspects of the calculation of the potential energy surfaces of small (up to five atoms) van der Waals complexes with high-level quantum chemistry techniques such as the CCSD(T) method with extended basis sets. We discuss the compromise between the required accuracy and the computational time. Further, we show how these potential energy surfaces can be fitted and used in dynamical calculations such as non-reactive inelastic scattering.

  19. Inntags: small self-structured epitopes for innocuous protein tagging.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Maya V; Yahya, Galal; Codó, Laia; Ortiz, Raúl; Teixidó, Laura; Claros, José; Jara, Ricardo; Jara, Mònica; Iborra, Antoni; Gelpí, Josep Lluís; Gallego, Carme; Orozco, Modesto; Aldea, Martí

    2015-10-01

    Protein tagging is widely used in approaches ranging from affinity purification to fluorescence-based detection in live cells. However, an intrinsic limitation of tagging is that the native function of the protein may be compromised or even abolished by the presence of the tag. Here we describe and characterize a set of small, innocuous protein tags (inntags) that we anticipate will find application in a variety of biological techniques.

  20. The Structure and Climate of Size: Small Scale Schooling in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeChasseur, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    This study explores mechanisms involved in small scale schooling and student engagement. Specifically, this study questions the validity of arguments for small scale schooling reforms that confound the promised effects of small scale schooling "structures" (such as smaller enrollments, schools-within-schools, and smaller class sizes)…

  1. The Structure and Climate of Size: Small Scale Schooling in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeChasseur, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    This study explores mechanisms involved in small scale schooling and student engagement. Specifically, this study questions the validity of arguments for small scale schooling reforms that confound the promised effects of small scale schooling "structures" (such as smaller enrollments, schools-within-schools, and smaller class sizes)…

  2. Structural and electronic properties of small silicon clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturin, V. S.; Lepeshkin, S. V.; Magnitskaya, M. V.; Matsko, N. L.; Uspenskii, Yu A.

    2014-05-01

    The atomic structure and electronic spectrum of silicon nanoclusters (Si-ncs) Si7, Si10,Si10H16 and Si10H20 are calculated using the evolutionary algorithm with total energy computed within density functional theory and generalized gradient approximation (DFT-GGA). When analysing the low-energy structures, we pay significant attention to their symmetry and interatomic bond geometry. The candidate structures arising in the process of evolutionary algorithm convergence are also considered and classified by their topology and grouping near local energy minima. Possible ways to improve the convergence of evolutionary computation are discussed. Addressing qualitative criteria for the ground-state atomic structure of Si-ncs, we consider correlations between the density of electronic states and the total energetics of clusters in the ground state and low-energy-isomer configurations.

  3. Current and Future Perspectives on the Structural Identification of Small Molecules in Biological Systems.

    PubMed

    Dias, Daniel A; Jones, Oliver A H; Beale, David J; Boughton, Berin A; Benheim, Devin; Kouremenos, Konstantinos A; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Wishart, David S

    2016-12-15

    Although significant advances have been made in recent years, the structural elucidation of small molecules continues to remain a challenging issue for metabolite profiling. Many metabolomic studies feature unknown compounds; sometimes even in the list of features identified as "statistically significant" in the study. Such metabolic "dark matter" means that much of the potential information collected by metabolomics studies is lost. Accurate structure elucidation allows researchers to identify these compounds. This in turn, facilitates downstream metabolite pathway analysis, and a better understanding of the underlying biology of the system under investigation. This review covers a range of methods for the structural elucidation of individual compounds, including those based on gas and liquid chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry, single and multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectrometry and includes discussion of data standardization. Future perspectives in structure elucidation are also discussed; with a focus on the potential development of instruments and techniques, in both nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry that, may help solve some of the current issues that are hampering the complete identification of metabolite structure and function.

  4. Current and Future Perspectives on the Structural Identification of Small Molecules in Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Daniel A.; Jones, Oliver A.H.; Beale, David J.; Boughton, Berin A.; Benheim, Devin; Kouremenos, Konstantinos A.; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Wishart, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Although significant advances have been made in recent years, the structural elucidation of small molecules continues to remain a challenging issue for metabolite profiling. Many metabolomic studies feature unknown compounds; sometimes even in the list of features identified as “statistically significant” in the study. Such metabolic “dark matter” means that much of the potential information collected by metabolomics studies is lost. Accurate structure elucidation allows researchers to identify these compounds. This in turn, facilitates downstream metabolite pathway analysis, and a better understanding of the underlying biology of the system under investigation. This review covers a range of methods for the structural elucidation of individual compounds, including those based on gas and liquid chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry, single and multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectrometry and includes discussion of data standardization. Future perspectives in structure elucidation are also discussed; with a focus on the potential development of instruments and techniques, in both nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry that, may help solve some of the current issues that are hampering the complete identification of metabolite structure and function. PMID:27983674

  5. Ethical Guidelines for Structural Interventions to Small-Scale Historic Stone Masonry Buildings.

    PubMed

    Hurol, Yonca; Yüceer, Hülya; Başarır, Hacer

    2015-12-01

    Structural interventions to historic stone masonry buildings require that both structural and heritage values be considered simultaneously. The absence of one of these value systems in implementation can be regarded as an unethical professional action. The research objective of this article is to prepare a guideline for ensuring ethical structural interventions to small-scale stone historic masonry buildings in the conservation areas of Northern Cyprus. The methodology covers an analysis of internationally accepted conservation documents and national laws related to the conservation of historic buildings, an analysis of building codes, especially Turkish building codes, which have been used in Northern Cyprus, and an analysis of the structural interventions introduced to a significant historic building in a semi-intact state in the walled city of Famagusta. This guideline covers issues related to whether buildings are intact or ruined, the presence of earthquake risk, the types of structural decisions in an architectural conservation project, and the values to consider during the decision making phase.

  6. 48 CFR 227.7104 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. 227.7104 Section 227.7104 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. (a) Use the clause at 252.227-7018, Rights in Noncommercial Technical Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, when technical data or...

  7. 48 CFR 227.7104 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. 227.7104 Section 227.7104 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. (a) Use the clause at 252.227-7018, Rights in Noncommercial Technical Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, when technical data or...

  8. 48 CFR 227.7104 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. 227.7104 Section 227.7104 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. (a) Use the clause at 252.227-7018, Rights in Noncommercial Technical Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, when technical data or...

  9. 48 CFR 227.7104 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. 227.7104 Section 227.7104 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. (a) Use the clause at 252.227-7018, Rights in Noncommercial Technical Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, when technical data or...

  10. Managing Change in Small Scottish Primary Schools. SCRE Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie; McPake, Joanna

    This report describes Scottish research on ways in which headteachers in small primary schools managed mandated changes. The research focused on implementation of four recent major initiatives: 5-14 Curriculum Guidelines, School Development Planning, Staff Development and Appraisal, and Devolved School Management. Research methods included a…

  11. Introduction to Journal of Structural Geology special issue on "Deformation of the lithosphere. How small structures tell a big story"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintubin, Manuel; de Bresser, Hans; Drury, Martyn; Prior, David J.; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2015-02-01

    This special issue Deformation of the Lithosphere. How small structures tell a big story is dedicated to Professor Henk Zwart (1924-2012). The theme is inspired by Henk's retirement lecture entitled Mountains must indeed be studied with a microscope (19 February 1988). Henk Zwart was a pioneer in linking microstructural research with the large-scale issues concerning lithospheric rheology and deformation. The famous Zwart's Hen House, representing the nine diagnostic relationships of porphyroblast growth with respect to the timing of deformation, is still a key element in contemporary textbooks on structural geology and microtectonics. This particular insight may not have occurred if it wasn't for a mistake made by the thin-section maker in the Leiden lab of Henk Zwart. By accident a thin section of a Pyrenean metamorphic rock was made, not perpendicular to the lineation - as was the standard procedure in those early days of structural geology - but parallel to the lineation. That mistake and Henk's recognition that the lineation parallel view gave more useful information changed structural geology and microtectonics.

  12. Aeroservoelastic and Structural Dynamics Research on Smart Structures Conducted at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas; Wilkie, W. Keats; Moses, Robert W.; Lake, Renee C.; Florance, Jennifer Pinkerton; Wieseman, Carol D.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Taleghani, Barmac K.; Mirick, Paul H.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of smart structures research currently underway at the NASA Langley Research Center in the areas of aeroservoelasticity and structural dynamics is presented. Analytical and experimental results, plans, potential technology pay-offs, and challenges are discussed. The goal of this research is to develop the enabling technologies to actively and passively control aircraft and rotorcraft vibration and loads using smart devices. These enabling technologies and related research efforts include developing experimentally-validated finite element and aeroservoelastic modeling techniques; conducting bench experimental tests to assess feasibility and understand system trade-offs; and conducting large-scale wind- tunnel tests to demonstrate system performance. The key aeroservoelastic applications of this research include: active twist control of rotor blades using interdigitated electrode piezoelectric composites and active control of flutter, and gust and buffeting responses using discrete piezoelectric patches. In addition, NASA Langley is an active participant in the DARPA/ Air Force Research Laboratory/ NASA/ Northrop Grumman Smart Wing program which is assessing aerodynamic performance benefits using smart materials. Keywords: aeroelasticity, smart structures, piezoelectric actuators, active fiber composites, rotorcraft, buffet load alleviation, individual blade control, aeroservoelasticity, shape memory alloys, damping augmentation, piezoelectric power consumption

  13. Aeroservoelastic and Structural Dynamics Research on Smart Structures Conducted at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas; Wilkie, W. Keats; Moses, Robert W.; Lake, Renee C.; Florance, Jennifer Pinkerton; Wieseman, Carol D.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Taleghani, Barmac K.; Mirick, Paul H.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of smart structures research currently underway at the NASA Langley Research Center in the areas of aeroservoelasticity and structural dynamics is presented. Analytical and experimental results, plans, potential technology pay-offs, and challenges are discussed. The goal of this research is to develop the enabling technologies to actively and passively control aircraft and rotorcraft vibration and loads using smart devices. These enabling technologies and related research efforts include developing experimentally-validated finite element and aeroservoelastic modeling techniques; conducting bench experimental tests to assess feasibility and understand system trade-offs; and conducting large-scale wind- tunnel tests to demonstrate system performance. The key aeroservoelastic applications of this research include: active twist control of rotor blades using interdigitated electrode piezoelectric composites and active control of flutter, and gust and buffeting responses using discrete piezoelectric patches. In addition, NASA Langley is an active participant in the DARPA/ Air Force Research Laboratory/ NASA/ Northrop Grumman Smart Wing program which is assessing aerodynamic performance benefits using smart materials. Keywords: aeroelasticity, smart structures, piezoelectric actuators, active fiber composites, rotorcraft, buffet load alleviation, individual blade control, aeroservoelasticity, shape memory alloys, damping augmentation, piezoelectric power consumption

  14. Formation of structure in small lead clusters under thermal effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidyshev, V. S.; Gafner, Yu. Ya.

    2016-12-01

    The thermal effect on lead clusters with radii up to 5.5 nm has been investigated by the molecular dynamics method using a modified tight-binding potential TB-SMA. The melting of Pb nanoparticles of these sizes is strictly homogeneous, without the formation of a surface liquidlike layer. The primary fcc phase in the particles is retained upon heating in the overwhelming majority of model experiments. An analysis of the structure formation during crystallization has shown that structures with pentagonal symmetry are preferred for lead clusters in this case. It is noted that an increase in the nanoparticle size leads to the dominance of the dodecahedral structure over the icosahedral one.

  15. The Small-Scale Structure of Acceleration in Wall Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Kenneth T.; Adrian, Ronald J.

    2001-11-01

    Temporal and convective derivatives of velocity are measured in the streamwise--wall-normal plane of turbulent channel flow at Re_τ=547, 1133, and 1734 using a new technique called particle-image accelerometry. Pairs of temporally-resolved instantaneous velocity fields are acquired in rapid succession using a two-CCD-camera arrangement, and the associated instantaneous temporal and convective derivatives of velocity are computed numerically from this data. Advection of the small-scale vortices embedded within the flow dominates the small-scale behavior of the velocity time-derivative as noted in both the instantaneous rate-of-change fields as well as in the statistics of the temporal derivative. However, in a reference frame traveling with the vortices, a marked deceleration is present and represents the evolution of the flow. This large-scale deceleration is conjectured to be the dynamic influence of larger-scale vortices present further away from the wall on the smaller scale vortices present closer to the wall.

  16. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology into Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Projects for 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2017-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) technologies into NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) projects. Other Government and commercial project managers interested in ARMD funding opportunities through NASA's SBIR program will find this report useful as well.

  17. Antecedents to Member Participation within Small Groups: A Review of Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Stephen Joel; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature on member characteristics and conditions that increase the likelihood of group participation. Describes positive consequences of small group participation and antecedents to participation including attitudes, atmosphere, leader characteristics, expectations, and group structure. (JAC)

  18. Small Sample Research Designs for Evidence-based Rehabilitation: Issues and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Graham, James E.; Karmarkar, Amol M.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional research methods, including randomized controlled trials, are powerful techniques for determining the efficacy of interventions. These designs, however, have practical limitations when applied to many rehabilitation settings and research questions. Alternative methods are available that can supplement findings from traditional research designs and improve our ability to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for individual patients. The focus on individual patients is an important element of evidenced-based rehabilitation. This paper examines one such alternate approach: small-N research designs. Small-N designs usually focus on ten or fewer participants whose behavior (outcomes) are measured repeatedly and compared over time. The advantages and limitations of various small-N designs are described and illustrated using three examples from the rehabilitation literature. The challenges and opportunities of applying small-N designs to enhance evidence-based rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:22580169

  19. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology--a bidirectional translational approach.

    PubMed

    Tillner, Falk; Thute, Prasad; Bütof, Rebecca; Krause, Mechthild; Enghardt, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.

  20. Small sample research designs for evidence-based rehabilitation: issues and methods.

    PubMed

    Graham, James E; Karmarkar, Amol M; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2012-08-01

    Conventional research methods, including randomized controlled trials, are powerful techniques for determining the efficacy of interventions. These designs, however, have practical limitations when applied to many rehabilitation settings and research questions. Alternative methods are available that can supplement findings from traditional research designs and improve our ability to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for individual patients. The focus on individual patients is an important element of evidenced-based rehabilitation. This article examines one such alternate approach: small-N research designs. Small-N designs usually focus on 10 or fewer participants whose behavior (outcomes) are measured repeatedly and compared over time. The advantages and limitations of various small-N designs are described and illustrated using 3 examples from the rehabilitation literature. The challenges and opportunities of applying small-N designs to enhance evidence-based rehabilitation are discussed.

  1. A Review of Research on Small-School Student Participation in Extracurricular Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Neil G.; Peltier, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Research reveals that high school students in small schools participate more in extracurricular activities than their peers in large schools; that a high degree of student participation provides opportunities for enhancing leadership, responsibility, and motivation; that students in small schools feel needed; and that the benefits of…

  2. Respect and Responsibility: Review of Research on Small Rural Schools in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews 25 years of research on small rural schools in England, in a period of unprecedented educational reform, and shift in government policy on small schools from persistent threat of closure through a period of a centrally funded "presumption against closure" in the early 2000s. It notes a dearth of funded or peer-reviewed…

  3. Small Business Innovation Research Award Success Story: FuelCell Energy Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    2011-08-31

    This success story describes FuelCell Energy Inc., a small business that manufactures stationary fuel cells. In collaboration with Sustainable Innovations LLC, and with support from a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Award from the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, FuelCell Energy Inc. has developed a highly efficient solid state electrochemical hydrogen compressor.

  4. 77 FR 47797 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Business Set Asides for Research and Development Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... aside acquisitions for research and development, when there is also a reasonable expectation, as a... expectation of obtaining from small businesses the best scientific and technological sources consistent with...)(3), to clarify that for R&D small business set-asides, there must be a reasonable expectation...

  5. Training and Human Resource Issues in Small E-Businesses: Towards a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlay, Harry

    2004-01-01

    A great deal has been written in recent years about the internet and the emergence of e-businesses operating in the global e-economy. Although a small proportion of the expanding literature on this topic is based on empirically rigorous research, the bulk of publications tend to be of limited value to small business owner/managers. Furthermore,…

  6. Cross--Cultural Small Group Research: A Review, an Analysis, and a Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuter, Robert

    1977-01-01

    Reviews and analyzes research on cross-national small group behavior and offers a value theory of small group development. Available from: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers-The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903. (MH)

  7. Partnership Working in Small Rural Primary Schools: The Best of Both Worlds. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the most effective ways for small rural primary schools to work together in order to improve provision and raise standards. The project sought to examine the circumstances and context of small rural schools in Lincolnshire and evaluate their different leadership models (such as collaborations,…

  8. A Review of Research on Small-School Student Participation in Extracurricular Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Neil G.; Peltier, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Research reveals that high school students in small schools participate more in extracurricular activities than their peers in large schools; that a high degree of student participation provides opportunities for enhancing leadership, responsibility, and motivation; that students in small schools feel needed; and that the benefits of…

  9. Neuroimaging standards for research into small vessel disease and its contribution to ageing and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wardlaw, Joanna M; Smith, Eric E; Biessels, Geert J; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Fazekas, Franz; Frayne, Richard; Lindley, Richard I; O'Brien, John T; Barkhof, Frederik; Benavente, Oscar R; Black, Sandra E; Brayne, Carol; Breteler, Monique; Chabriat, Hugues; DeCarli, Charles; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Doubal, Fergus; Duering, Marco; Fox, Nick C; Greenberg, Steven; Hachinski, Vladimir; Kilimann, Ingo; Mok, Vincent; Oostenbrugge, Robert van; Pantoni, Leonardo; Speck, Oliver; Stephan, Blossom C M; Teipel, Stefan; Viswanathan, Anand; Werring, David; Chen, Christopher; Smith, Colin; van Buchem, Mark; Norrving, Bo; Gorelick, Philip B; Dichgans, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common accompaniment of ageing. Features seen on neuroimaging include recent small subcortical infarcts, lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, perivascular spaces, microbleeds, and brain atrophy. SVD can present as a stroke or cognitive decline, or can have few or no symptoms. SVD frequently coexists with neurodegenerative disease, and can exacerbate cognitive deficits, physical disabilities, and other symptoms of neurodegeneration. Terminology and definitions for imaging the features of SVD vary widely, which is also true for protocols for image acquisition and image analysis. This lack of consistency hampers progress in identifying the contribution of SVD to the pathophysiology and clinical features of common neurodegenerative diseases. We are an international working group from the Centres of Excellence in Neurodegeneration. We completed a structured process to develop definitions and imaging standards for markers and consequences of SVD. We aimed to achieve the following: first, to provide a common advisory about terms and definitions for features visible on MRI; second, to suggest minimum standards for image acquisition and analysis; third, to agree on standards for scientific reporting of changes related to SVD on neuroimaging; and fourth, to review emerging imaging methods for detection and quantification of preclinical manifestations of SVD. Our findings and recommendations apply to research studies, and can be used in the clinical setting to standardise image interpretation, acquisition, and reporting. This Position Paper summarises the main outcomes of this international effort to provide the STandards for ReportIng Vascular changes on nEuroimaging (STRIVE). PMID:23867200

  10. Acquisition of Cooperative Small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Advancing Man Machine Interface Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-24

    Systems for Advancing Man- Machine Interface Research The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not...of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Acquisition of Cooperative Small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Advancing Man- Machine ...of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Advancing Cooperative Man- Machine Systems Research and Education Daniel Pack, Yufei Huang, Chunjiang Qian

  11. Structural integrity and containment aspects of small gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S. S.; Gomuc, R.

    1994-03-01

    Structural integrity of rotating components in gas turbine engines is very crucial since their failure implies high impact energy, which, if uncontained, could mean damage to aircraft structures, controls, and so forth, and, in the worst scenario, even loss of lives. This final consequence has led to very stringent airworthiness regulations for engine/aircraft certifications. This paper discusses the historical statistics of noncontainment events in turbofans, turboprops, and turboshafts and shows how the damage severity varies between different applications and how changes to regulations are continuing in order to improve the reliability of aircraft/rotorcraft. The paper also presents design challenges resulting from the analysis complexity of containment/noncontainment event and the way Pratt & Whitney Canada design/analysis/test system caters to all the requirements. The weight and cost impact of possible changes to current regulations are also presented.

  12. Performance optimized, small structurally integrated ion thruster system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyman, J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A 5-cm structurally integrated ion thruster has been developed for attitude control and stationkeeping of synchronous satellites. As optimized with a conventional ion extraction system, the system demonstrates a thrust T = 0.47 mlb at a beam voltage of 1600 V, total mass efficiency of 76%, and electrical efficiency of 56%. Under the subject contract effort, no significant performance change was noted for operation with two dimensional electrostatic thrust-vectoring grids. Structural integrity with the vectoring grids was demonstrated for shock (+ or - 30 G), sinusoidal (9 G), and random (19.9 G rms) accelerations. System envelope is 31.2 cm long by 13.4 cm flange bolt circle, with a mass of 9.0 Kg, including 6.8 Kg mercury propellant.

  13. Dynamics and structural changes of small water clusters on ionization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han Myoung; Kim, Kwang S

    2013-07-05

    Despite utmost importance in understanding water ionization process, reliable theoretical results of structural changes and molecular dynamics (MD) of water clusters on ionization have hardly been reported yet. Here, we investigate the water cations [(H2O)(n = 2-6)(+)] with density functional theory (DFT), Möller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory (MP2), and coupled cluster theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. The complete basis set limits of interaction energies at the CCSD(T) level are reported, and the geometrical structures, electronic properties, and infrared spectra are investigated. The characteristics of structures and spectra of the water cluster cations reflect the formation of the hydronium cation moiety (H3O(+)) and the hydroxyl radical. Although most density functionals fail to predict reasonable energetics of the water cations, some functionals are found to be reliable, in reasonable agreement with high-level ab initio results. To understand the ionization process of water clusters, DFT- and MP2-based Born-Oppenheimer MD (BOMD) simulations are performed on ionization. On ionization, the water clusters tend to have an Eigen-like form with the hydronium cation instead of a Zundel-like form, based on reliable BOMD simulations. For the vertically ionized water hexamer, the relatively stable (H2O)5(+) (5sL4A) cluster tends to form with a detached water molecule (H2O).

  14. Aeroservoelastic and Structural Dynamics Research on Smart Structures Conducted at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas; Wilkie, W. Keats; Moses, Robert W.; Lake, Renee C.; Florance, Jennifer Pinkerton; Wieseman, Carol D.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Taleghani, Barmac K.; Mirick, Paul H.; Wilbur, Mathew L.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of smart structures research currently underway at the NASA Langley Research Center in the areas of aeroservoelasticity and structural dynamics is presented. Analytical and experimental results, plans, potential technology pay-offs, and challenges are discussed. The goal of this research is to develop the enabling technologies to actively and passively control aircraft and rotorcraft vibration and loads using smart devices. These enabling technologies and related research efforts include developing experimentally-validated finite element and aeroservoelastic modeling techniques; conducting bench experimental tests to assess feasibility and understand system trade-offs; and conducting large-scale wind tunnel tests to demonstrate system performance. The key aeroservoelastic applications of this research include: active twist control of rotor blades using interdigitated electrode piezoelectric composites and active control of flutter, and gust and buffeting responses using discrete piezoelectric patches. In addition, NASA Langley is an active participant in the DARPA/Air Force Research Laboratory/NASA/Northrop Grumman Smart Wing program which is assessing aerodynamic performance benefits using smart materials.

  15. Theoretical studies of the electronic structure of small metal clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, K. D.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical studies of the electronic structure of metal clusters, in particular clusters of Group IIA and IIB atoms were conducted. Early in the project it became clear that electron correlation involving d orbitals plays a more important role in the binding of these clusters than had been previously anticipated. This necessitated that computer codes for calculating two electron integrals and for constructing the resulting CI Hamiltonions be replaced with newer, more efficient procedures. Program modification, interfacing and testing were performed. Results of both plans are reported.

  16. Structural Biology and Molecular Applications Research

    Cancer.gov

    Part of NCI's Division of Cancer Biology's research portfolio, research and development in this area focuses on enabling technologies, models, and methodologies to support basic and applied cancer research.

  17. NASA Lewis Research Center/university graduate research program on engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center established a graduate research program in support of the Engine Structures Research activities. This graduate research program focuses mainly on structural and dynamics analyses, computational mechanics, mechanics of composites and structural optimization. The broad objectives of the program, the specific program, the participating universities and the program status are briefly described.

  18. NASA Lewis Research Center/university graduate research program on engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center established a graduate research program in support of the Engine Structures Research activities. This graduate research program focuses mainly on structural and dynamics analyses, computational mechanics, mechanics of composites and structural optimization. The broad objectives of the program, the specific program, the participating universities and the program status are briefly described.

  19. NASA Lewis Research Center/University Graduate Research Program on Engine Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center established a graduate research program in support of the Engine Structures Research activities. This graduate research program focuses mainly on structural and dynamics analyses, computational mechanics, mechanics of composites and structural optimization. The broad objectives of the program, the specific program, the participating universities and the program status are briefly described.

  20. Structural motifs and stability of small argon-nitrogen clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewage, Jinasena W.; Amar, François G.

    2003-11-01

    The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method is used to study Arm(N2)n clusters. Using realistic pair potentials for the argon-argon, nitrogen-nitrogen, and argon-nitrogen interactions, the structures and thermodynamics of these clusters are investigated. The initial focus of the study is the series of thirteen particle clusters of Arm(N2)13-m (0⩽m⩽13). These icosahedral argon-nitrogen clusters display systematic changes in energetics when argon is substituted by nitrogen in the central position. The relative stability of argon-centered clusters over nitrogen-centered clusters is further investigated by defining and calculating a "species-centric" order parameter which can be monitored during a MD simulation. These results are interpreted in terms of frustration effects due to anisotropy in the N2-N2 and N2-Ar potentials. The consequences of these observations for cluster stability and for dynamical behavior, such as melting and evaporation, are investigated. The dynamical studies of larger clusters reveal that the mixed clusters evolve towards a structure with an argon core coated by a nitrogen shell.

  1. Molecular locks and keys: the role of small molecules in phytohormone research.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Sandra; Rosado, Abel; Vaughan-Hirsch, John; Bishopp, Anthony; Chini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Plant adaptation, growth and development rely on the integration of many environmental and endogenous signals that collectively determine the overall plant phenotypic plasticity. Plant signaling molecules, also known as phytohormones, are fundamental to this process. These molecules act at low concentrations and regulate multiple aspects of plant fitness and development via complex signaling networks. By its nature, phytohormone research lies at the interface between chemistry and biology. Classically, the scientific community has always used synthetic phytohormones and analogs to study hormone functions and responses. However, recent advances in synthetic and combinational chemistry, have allowed a new field, plant chemical biology, to emerge and this has provided a powerful tool with which to study phytohormone function. Plant chemical biology is helping to address some of the most enduring questions in phytohormone research such as: Are there still undiscovered plant hormones? How can we identify novel signaling molecules? How can plants activate specific hormone responses in a tissue-specific manner? How can we modulate hormone responses in one developmental context without inducing detrimental effects on other processes? The chemical genomics approaches rely on the identification of small molecules modulating different biological processes and have recently identified active forms of plant hormones and molecules regulating many aspects of hormone synthesis, transport and response. We envision that the field of chemical genomics will continue to provide novel molecules able to elucidate specific aspects of hormone-mediated mechanisms. In addition, compounds blocking specific responses could uncover how complex biological responses are regulated. As we gain information about such compounds we can design small alterations to the chemical structure to further alter specificity, enhance affinity or modulate the activity of these compounds.

  2. Analytical challenges of determining composition and structure in small volumes with applications to semiconductor technology, nanostructures and solid state science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhiyong; Kuhn, Markus; Johnson, David C.

    2017-03-01

    Determining the structure and composition of small volumes is vital to the ability to understand and control nanoscale properties and critical for advancing both fundamental science and applications, such as semiconductor device manufacturing. While metrology of nanoscale materials (nanoparticles, nanocomposites) and nanoscale semiconductor structures is challenging, both basic research and cutting edge technology benefit from new and enhanced analytical techniques. This focus issue contains articles describing approaches to overcome the challenges in obtaining statistically significant atomic-scale quantification of structure and composition in a variety of materials and devices using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography.

  3. The use of small-molecule structures to complement protein–ligand crystal structures in drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Jason C.

    2017-01-01

    Many ligand-discovery stories tell of the use of structures of protein–ligand complexes, but the contribution of structural chemistry is such a core part of finding and improving ligands that it is often overlooked. More than 800 000 crystal structures are available to the community through the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). Individually, these structures can be of tremendous value and the collection of crystal structures is even more helpful. This article provides examples of how small-molecule crystal structures have been used to complement those of protein–ligand complexes to address challenges ranging from affinity, selectivity and bioavailability though to solubility. PMID:28291759

  4. Ordered structures of small numbers of nanorods induced by semiflexible star polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; He, Lilin; Zhang, Linxi

    2014-09-14

    The ordered structures of nanorods (NRs) in the semiflexible star polymer/NR mixtures are explored by employing molecular dynamics simulation. The structures of small numbers of NRs can be well controlled by varying the stiffness of semiflexible star polymers. At a moderate binding energy between star polymers and NRs, four completely different structures of small numbers of NRs are observed, including that the side-to-side hexagonal aggregation structures of NRs for flexible star polymers, the partly parallel aggregation structures of NRs and the end-to-end contact parallel aggregation structures of NRs for semiflexible star polymers, and the partial dispersion of NRs for rigid star polymers. Helical conformations of semiflexible star polymers binding with NRs are responsible for the formation of the end-to-end contact parallel aggregation structures for small numbers of NRs. This investigation may provide a possible pathway to develop ''smart'' medium to construct novel materials with high performance.

  5. Strength and Dislocation Structure Evolution of Small Metals under Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngan, Alfonso

    2015-03-01

    It is well-known that ultrasonic vibration can soften metals, and this phenomenon has been widely exploited in industrial applications concerning metal forming and bonding. In this work, we explore the effects of a superimposed small oscillatory load on metal plasticity, from the nano- to macro-size range, and from audible to ultrasonic frequency ranges. Macroscopic and nano-indentation were performed on aluminum, copper and molybdenum, and the results show that the simultaneous application of oscillatory stresses can lower the hardness of these samples. More interestingly, EBSD and TEM observations show that subgrain formation and reduction in dislocation density generally occurred when stress oscillations were applied. These findings point to an important knowledge gap in metal plasticity - the existing understanding of ultrasound softening in terms of the vibrations either imposing additional stress waves to augment the quasi-static applied load, or heating up the metal, whereas the metal's intrinsic deformation resistance or dislocation interactive processes are assumed unaltered by the ultrasound, is proven wrong by the present results. Furthermore, in the case of nanoindentation, the Continuous Stiffness Measurement technique for contact stiffness measurement assumes that the imposed signal-carrier oscillations do not intrinsically alter the material properties of the specimen, and again, the present results prove that this can be wrong. To understand the enhanced subgrain formation and dislocation annihilation, Discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DDD) simulations were carried out and these show that when an oscillatory stress is superimposed on a quasi-static applied stress, reversals of motion of dislocations may occur, and these allow the dislocations to revisit repeatedly suitable configurations for annihilation. DDD, however, was unable to predict the observed subgrain formation presumably because the number of dislocations that can be handled is not large

  6. Longitudinal Structure Function F L of Proton from Regge Like Behaviour of Structure Function at Small-x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Nomita; Das, Mrinal Kumar; Sarma, Jayanta Kumar

    2014-08-01

    The evolutions of longitudinal structure function F L from quantum chromodynamics (QCD) evolution equation in next-to-leading order at small-x is presented using the Regge like behaviour of the structure function. The proposed simple analytical expression for F L structure function provides the t- and x-evolution equations to study the behaviour of F L structure function at small-x. The calculated results are compared with the data of H1, ZEUS collaborations and results of Block model, Donnachie-Landshoff model. Our calculated results can be described within the framework of perturbative QCD.

  7. Mechanism Research on Melting Loss of Coppery Tuyere Small Sleeve in Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Jian-Liang; Ning, Xiao-Jun; Wei, Guang-Yun; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The tuyere small sleeve in blast furnace works under poor conditions. The abnormal damage of it will severely affect the performance of the blast furnace, thus it should be replaced during the damping down period. So it is of great significance that we study and reduce the burnout of tuyere small sleeve. Melting loss is one case of its burnout. This paper studied the reasons of tuyere small sleeve's melting loss, through computational simulation and microscopic analysis of the melting section. The research shows that the temperature of coppery tuyere small sleeve is well distributed when there is no limescale in the lumen, and the temperature increases with the thickness of limescale. In addition, the interruption of circulating water does great harm to the tuyere small sleeve. The melting loss of tuyere small sleeve is caused by iron-slag erosion, with the occurrence of the melt metallurgical bonding and diffusion metallurgical combination.

  8. "It's Really Making a Difference": How Small-Scale Research Projects Can Enhance Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Barbara; Seden, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Following an internal evaluation exercise, using Action Research, this paper identifies the positive impact of small-scale research projects on teaching and learning at a single case study UK University. Clear evidence is given of how the projects benefited students and staff, and enhanced institutional culture. Barriers to better practice are…

  9. Sensitive Educational Research in Small States and Territories: The Case of Macau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Keith

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the sensitivities of conducting educational research in small states and territories, where the very act of conducting research, aside from its purposes or focuses, is itself a sensitive matter. The paper takes a "critical case study" of Macau and examines cultural, educational, political, micro-political,…

  10. "It's Really Making a Difference": How Small-Scale Research Projects Can Enhance Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Barbara; Seden, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Following an internal evaluation exercise, using Action Research, this paper identifies the positive impact of small-scale research projects on teaching and learning at a single case study UK University. Clear evidence is given of how the projects benefited students and staff, and enhanced institutional culture. Barriers to better practice are…

  11. Perceptions of the UK's Research Excellence Framework 2014: A Small Survey of Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Tony; Sage, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Earlier work inspired by a body of literature raised important questions about the workings of the UK's Research Excellence Framework (REF) and its predecessor the Research Assessment Framework (RAE), and noted the possible adverse outcomes of such processes. This paper builds on this by examining the findings of a small survey of social science…

  12. Towards systematic planning of small-scale hydrological intervention-based research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramana, Kharis Erasta Reza; Ertsen, Maurits Willem

    2016-10-01

    Many small-scale water development initiatives are accompanied by hydrological research to study either the form of the intervention or its impacts. Humans influence both the development of intervention and research, and thus one needs to take human agency into account. This paper focuses on the effects of human actions in the development of the intervention and its associated hydrological research, as hydrological research is often designed without adequate consideration of how to account for human agency and that these effects have not yet been discussed explicitly in a systematic way. In this paper, we propose a systematic planning for hydrological research, based on evaluating three hydrological research efforts targeting small-scale water development initiatives in Vietnam, Kenya, and Indonesia. The main purpose of the three cases was to understand the functioning of interventions in their hydrological contexts. Aiming for better decision-making on hydrological research in small-scale water intervention initiatives, we propose two analysis steps, including (1) consideration of possible surprises and possible actions and (2) cost-benefit analysis. By performing the two analyses continuously throughout small-scale hydrological intervention-based initiatives, effective hydrological research can be achieved.

  13. Extraction of Vegetation Biophysical Structure from Small-Footprint Full-Waveform Lidar Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanczyk, Paul

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental scale environmental monitoring initiative tasked with characterizing and understanding ecological phenomenology over a 30-year time frame. To support this mission, NEON collects ground truth measurements, such as organism counts and characterization, carbon flux measurements, etc. To spatially upscale these plot-based measurements, NEON developed an airborne observation platform (AOP), with a high-resolution visible camera, next-generation AVIRIS imaging spectrometer, and a discrete and waveform digitizing light detection and ranging (lidar) system. While visible imaging, imaging spectroscopy, and discrete lidar are relatively mature technologies, our understanding of and associated algorithm development for small-footprint full-waveform lidar are still in early stages of development. This work has as its primary aim to extend small-footprint full-waveform lidar capabilities to assess vegetation biophysical structure. In order to fully exploit waveform lidar capabilities, high fidelity geometric and radio-metric truth data are needed. Forests are structurally and spectrally complex, which makes collecting the necessary truth challenging, if not impossible. We utilize the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model, which provides an environment for radiometric simulations, in order to simulate waveform lidar signals. The first step of this research was to build a virtual forest stand based on Harvard Forest inventory data. This scene was used to assess the level of geometric fidelity necessary for small-footprint waveform lidar simulation in broadleaf forests. It was found that leaves have the largest influence on the backscattered signal and that there is little contribution to the signal from the leaf stems and twigs. From this knowledge, a number of additional realistic and abstract virtual "forest" scenes were created to aid studies assessing the ability of waveform lidar

  14. Student Teachers' Collaborative Research: Small-Scale Research Projects during Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobber, Marjolein; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Verloop, Nico; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher research is increasingly described as an important aspect of professional development. In response, teacher education programs incorporate teacher research in their curricula. We report on the collaborative research processes of two groups of student teachers in a university teacher education program, focussing on elaboration and decision…

  15. Insights into the channel gating of P2X receptors from structures, dynamics and small molecules

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Yu, Ye

    2016-01-01

    P2X receptors, as ATP-gated non-selective trimeric ion channels, are permeable to Na+, K+ and Ca2+. Comparing with other ligand-gated ion channel families, P2X receptors are distinct in their unique gating properties and pathophysiological roles, and have attracted attention as promising drug targets for a variety of diseases, such as neuropathic pain, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and thrombus. Several small molecule inhibitors for distinct P2X subtypes have entered into clinical trials. However, many questions regarding the gating mechanism of P2X remain unsolved. The structural determinations of P2X receptors at the resting and ATP-bound open states revealed that P2X receptor gating is a cooperative allosteric process involving multiple domains, which marks the beginning of the post-structure era of P2X research at atomic level. Here, we review the current knowledge on the structure-function relationship of P2X receptors, depict the whole picture of allosteric changes during the channel gating, and summarize the active sites that may contribute to new strategies for developing novel allosteric drugs targeting P2X receptors. PMID:26725734

  16. Modelling of Dust Extinction through Dark Clouds: Small Scale Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, D.; Lada, C.

    1993-12-01

    In order to understand some curious effects discovered in analyzing our deep JHK near-infrared survey of the background stars probing the IC 5146 dark cloud complex (Lada, Lada, Clemens, & Bally 1993), we have constructed a simple model of the dust extinction through a molecular cloud. The effect noticed involved a correlation between the dispersion of the E(H-K) based estimate of A_V, when the stellar estimates of E(H-K) were binned into arcmin sized bins, with the mean A_V computed for those bins. The sense of the correlation is that the dispersion of the extinction rises with the extinction in a nearly linear fashion. Further, the dispersion of the dispersion also rises with extinction. Our model was constructed to try to understand the origin of this unexpected behavior. The model consists of a Poisson generator to populate a bin with stars and various extinction generating functions to add extinction to each star. Additionally, measurement noise and varying amounts of foreground star contamination are added to simulate the actual observations. Remarkably, this simple model is able to rule out several cloud structure models, including uniform extinction across an arcmin sized bin and the case of dense clumplets (rocks) embedded in a low extinction medium. We show that a power law parameterization of the extinction variation with position across a bin is able to fully reproduce the observations for a fairly robust set of power law indices. We also show that foreground star contamination plus any simple extinction model cannot reproduce the observations, while foreground star contamination does not appreciably affect the power law extinction model for foreground stellar fractions less than 30 - 50% of the total stellar content.

  17. Proposals for an influential role of small tokamaks in mainstream fusion physics and technology research

    SciTech Connect

    Oost, G. van; Bosco, E. del; Gryaznevich, M. P.

    2006-12-04

    Small tokamaks may significantly contribute to the better understanding of phenomena in a wide range of fields such as plasma confinement and energy transport; plasma stability in different magnetic configurations; plasma turbulence and its impact on local and global plasma parameters; processes at the plasma edge and plasma-wall interaction; scenarios of additional heating and non-inductive current drive; new methods of plasma profile and parameter control; development of novel plasma diagnostics; benchmarking of new numerical codes and so on. Furthermore, due to the compactness, flexibility, low operation costs and high skill of their personnel small tokamaks are very convenient to develop and test new materials and technologies, which because of the risky nature cannot be done in large machines without preliminary studies. Small tokamaks are suitable and important for broad international cooperation, providing the necessary environment and manpower to conduct dedicated joint research programmes. In addition, the experimental work on small tokamaks is very appropriate for the education of students, scientific activities of post-graduate students and for the training of personnel for large tokamaks. All these tasks are well recognised and reflected in documents and understood by the large tokamak teams. Recent experimental results will be presented of contributions to mainstream fusion physics and technology research on small tokamaks involved in the IAEA Coordinated Research Project 'Joint Research using small tokamaks', started in 2004.

  18. Small-angle X-ray scattering: a bridge between RNA secondary structures and three-dimensional topological structures.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xianyang; Stagno, Jason R; Bhandari, Yuba R; Zuo, Xiaobing; Wang, Yun-Xing

    2015-02-01

    Whereas the structures of small to medium-sized well folded RNA molecules often can be determined by either X-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy, obtaining structural information for large RNAs using experimental, computational, or combined approaches remains a major interest and challenge. RNA is very sensitive to small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) due to high electron density along phosphate-sugar backbones, whose scattering contribution dominates SAXS intensity. For this reason, SAXS is particularly useful in obtaining global RNA structural information that outlines backbone topologies and, therefore, molecular envelopes. Such information is extremely valuable in bridging the gap between the secondary structures and three-dimensional topological structures of RNA molecules, particularly those that have proven difficult to study using other structure-determination methods. Here we review published results of RNA topological structures derived from SAXS data or in combination with other experimental data, as well as details on RNA sample preparation for SAXS experiments.

  19. Research in structures, structural dynamics and materials, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, William F. (Compiler); Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    Topics addressed include: composite plates; buckling predictions; missile launch tube modeling; structural/control systems design; optimization of nonlinear R/C frames; error analysis for semi-analytic displacement; crack acoustic emission; and structural dynamics.

  20. Research in structures, structural dynamics and materials, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, W.F.; Noor, A.K.

    1989-04-01

    Topics addressed include: composite plates; buckling predictions; missile launch tube modeling; structural/control systems design; optimization of nonlinear R/C frames; error analysis for semi-analytic displacement; crack acoustic emission; and structural dynamics.

  1. Research in Structures and Dynamics, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayduk, R. J. (Compiler); Noor, A. K. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    A symposium on advanced and trends in structures and dynamics was held to communicate new insights into physical behavior and to identify trends in the solution procedures for structures and dynamics problems. Pertinent areas of concern were (1) multiprocessors, parallel computation, and database management systems, (2) advances in finite element technology, (3) interactive computing and optimization, (4) mechanics of materials, (5) structural stability, (6) dynamic response of structures, and (7) advanced computer applications.

  2. Structuring Research Opportunities for All Biology Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Susan E.; Conley, Lisa K.; Horst, Cynthia J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a required research experience program for all biology majors instituted in the biology department of Carroll College. Discusses successes and challenges of coordinating a program that involves 20-40 research projects each year. (Author/NB)

  3. (U-Th)/He Dating of Impact Structures - The Big, the Small, and the Potential Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartho, J.-A.; van Soest, M. C.; Cooper, F. J.; Spray, J. G.; Schmieder, M.; Buchner, E.; King, D. T.; Ukstins Peate, I.; Koeberl, C.; Reimold, W. U.; Biren, M. B.; Petruny, L. W.; Hodges, K. V.

    2012-09-01

    We report the latest results from (U-Th)/He zircon and apatite dating of big and small terrestrial impact structures, including Manicouagan, Charlevoix, Lake Saint Martin, Ries and Steinheim, Bosumtwi, Wetumpka, Karikkoselkä, and Monturaqui.

  4. PSRna: Prediction of small RNA secondary structures based on reverse complementary folding method.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Xu, Chengzhen; Wang, Lei; Liang, Hong; Feng, Weixing; Cai, Zhongxi; Wang, Ying; Cong, Wang; Liu, Yunlong

    2016-08-01

    Prediction of RNA secondary structures is an important problem in computational biology and bioinformatics, since RNA secondary structures are fundamental for functional analysis of RNA molecules. However, small RNA secondary structures are scarce and few algorithms have been specifically designed for predicting the secondary structures of small RNAs. Here we propose an algorithm named "PSRna" for predicting small-RNA secondary structures using reverse complementary folding and characteristic hairpin loops of small RNAs. Unlike traditional algorithms that usually generate multi-branch loops and 5[Formula: see text] end self-folding, PSRna first estimated the maximum number of base pairs of RNA secondary structures based on the dynamic programming algorithm and a path matrix is constructed at the same time. Second, the backtracking paths are extracted from the path matrix based on backtracking algorithm, and each backtracking path represents a secondary structure. To improve accuracy, the predicted RNA secondary structures are filtered based on their free energy, where only the secondary structure with the minimum free energy was identified as the candidate secondary structure. Our experiments on real data show that the proposed algorithm is superior to two popular methods, RNAfold and RNAstructure, in terms of sensitivity, specificity and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC).

  5. Small

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Joseph

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion (CNEEC), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE energy. The mission of CNEEC is to understand how nanostructuring can enhance efficiency for energy conversion and solve fundamental cross-cutting problems in advanced energy conversion and storage systems.

  6. Crystal structure of a small heat-shock protein from Xylella fastidiosa reveals a distinct high-order structure.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Emanuella Maria Barreto; Scorsato, Valéria; Dos Santos, Marcelo Leite; Júnior, Atilio Tomazini; Tada, Susely Ferraz Siqueira; Dos Santos, Clelton Aparecido; de Toledo, Marcelo Augusto Szymanski; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Polikarpov, Igor; Aparicio, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Citrus variegated chlorosis is a disease that attacks economically important citrus plantations and is caused by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. In this work, the structure of a small heat-shock protein from X. fastidiosa (XfsHSP17.9) is reported. The high-order structures of small heat-shock proteins from other organisms are arranged in the forms of double-disc, hollow-sphere or spherical assemblies. Unexpectedly, the structure reported here reveals a high-order architecture forming a nearly square cavity.

  7. Research in Electromagnetic Shielding Theory. Part 2. EMP (electromagnetic Pulse) Simulation Using Small Loops

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Electromagnetic Shielding Theory: Part 2. EMP Simulation Using Small Loops by Richard L. Monroe D TIC ELECTESP 19 19880 Prepared by D Sol Telecommunications...1197 EEETN. N112 N 17 TiTLE, (’nc~ude SecL~rir) C;assifica ton) 4 Research in Electromagnetic Shielding Theory: Part 2. EIP Simulation Using Small...r.ýeceisary and identify by block number) F;ELD GROUP SUB-GROUP E:1 ,ýelac-trornagnetic pulse); electromagnetic shielding

  8. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology Into Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Projects at NASA Glenn Research Center for 2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    This document is intended to enable the more effective transition of NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) SBIR technologies funded by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program as well as its companion, the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) program into NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) projects. Primarily, it is intended to help NASA program and project managers find useful technologies that have undergone extensive research and development (RRD), through Phase II of the SBIR program; however, it can also assist non-NASA agencies and commercial companies in this process. aviation safety, unmanned aircraft, ground and flight test technique, low emissions, quiet performance, rotorcraft

  9. Neuroimaging standards for research into small vessel disease and its contribution to ageing and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Wardlaw, Joanna M; Smith, Eric E; Biessels, Geert J; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Fazekas, Franz; Frayne, Richard; Lindley, Richard I; O'Brien, John T; Barkhof, Frederik; Benavente, Oscar R; Black, Sandra E; Brayne, Carol; Breteler, Monique; Chabriat, Hugues; Decarli, Charles; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Doubal, Fergus; Duering, Marco; Fox, Nick C; Greenberg, Steven; Hachinski, Vladimir; Kilimann, Ingo; Mok, Vincent; Oostenbrugge, Robert van; Pantoni, Leonardo; Speck, Oliver; Stephan, Blossom C M; Teipel, Stefan; Viswanathan, Anand; Werring, David; Chen, Christopher; Smith, Colin; van Buchem, Mark; Norrving, Bo; Gorelick, Philip B; Dichgans, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common accompaniment of ageing. Features seen on neuroimaging include recent small subcortical infarcts, lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, perivascular spaces, microbleeds, and brain atrophy. SVD can present as a stroke or cognitive decline, or can have few or no symptoms. SVD frequently coexists with neurodegenerative disease, and can exacerbate cognitive deficits, physical disabilities, and other symptoms of neurodegeneration. Terminology and definitions for imaging the features of SVD vary widely, which is also true for protocols for image acquisition and image analysis. This lack of consistency hampers progress in identifying the contribution of SVD to the pathophysiology and clinical features of common neurodegenerative diseases. We are an international working group from the Centres of Excellence in Neurodegeneration. We completed a structured process to develop definitions and imaging standards for markers and consequences of SVD. We aimed to achieve the following: first, to provide a common advisory about terms and definitions for features visible on MRI; second, to suggest minimum standards for image acquisition and analysis; third, to agree on standards for scientific reporting of changes related to SVD on neuroimaging; and fourth, to review emerging imaging methods for detection and quantification of preclinical manifestations of SVD. Our findings and recommendations apply to research studies, and can be used in the clinical setting to standardise image interpretation, acquisition, and reporting. This Position Paper summarises the main outcomes of this international effort to provide the STandards for ReportIng Vascular changes on nEuroimaging (STRIVE). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Small-angle X-ray scattering: a bridge between RNA secondary structures and three-dimensional topological structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Xianyang; Stagno, Jason R.; Bhandari, Yuba R.; Zuo, Xiaobing; Wang, Yun-Xing

    2015-02-01

    Whereas the structures of small to medium-sized well folded RNA molecules often can be determined by either X-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy, obtaining structural information for large RNAs using experimental, computational, or combined approaches remains a major interest and challenge. RNA is very sensitive to small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) due to high electron density along phosphate-sugar backbones, whose scattering contribution dominates SAXS intensity. For this reason, SAXS is particularly useful in obtaining global RNA structural information that outlines backbone topologies and, therefore, molecular envelopes. Such information is extremely valuable in bridging the gap between the secondary structures and three-dimensional topological structures of RNAmolecules, particularly those that have proven difficult to study using other structuredetermination methods. Here we review published results of RNA topological structures derived from SAXS data or in combination with other experimental data, as well as details on RNA sample preparation for SAXS experiments.

  11. Using small angle solution scattering data in Xplor-NIH structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Schwieters, Charles D; Clore, G Marius

    2014-07-01

    This contribution describes the use of small and wide angle X-ray and small angle neutron scattering for biomolecular structure calculation using the program Xplor-NIH, both with and without NMR data. The current algorithms used for calculating scattering curves are described, and the use of scattering data as a structural restraint is given concrete form as a fragment of an Xplor-NIH structure calculation script. We review five examples of the use of scattering data in structure calculation, including the treatment of single domain proteins, nucleic acids, structure determination of large proteins, and the use of ensemble representations to characterize small and large amplitude motions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Research on the attitude of small UAV based on MEMS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaojie; Lu, Libin; Jin, Guodong; Tan, Lining

    2017-05-01

    This paper mainly introduces the research principle and implementation method of the small UAV navigation attitude system based on MEMS devices. The Gauss - Newton method based on least squares is used to calibrate the MEMS accelerometer and gyroscope for calibration. Improve the accuracy of the attitude by using the modified complementary filtering to correct the attitude angle error. The experimental data show that the design of the attitude and attitude system in this paper to meet the requirements of small UAV attitude accuracy to achieve a small, low cost.

  13. Analysis of small scale turbulent structures and the effect of spatial scales on gas transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnieders, Jana; Garbe, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The exchange of gases through the air-sea interface strongly depends on environmental conditions such as wind stress and waves which in turn generate near surface turbulence. Near surface turbulence is a main driver of surface divergence which has been shown to cause highly variable transfer rates on relatively small spatial scales. Due to the cool skin of the ocean, heat can be used as a tracer to detect areas of surface convergence and thus gather information about size and intensity of a turbulent process. We use infrared imagery to visualize near surface aqueous turbulence and determine the impact of turbulent scales on exchange rates. Through the high temporal and spatial resolution of these types of measurements spatial scales as well as surface dynamics can be captured. The surface heat pattern is formed by distinct structures on two scales - small-scale short lived structures termed fish scales and larger scale cold streaks that are consistent with the footprints of Langmuir Circulations. There are two key characteristics of the observed surface heat patterns: 1. The surface heat patterns show characteristic features of scales. 2. The structure of these patterns change with increasing wind stress and surface conditions. In [2] turbulent cell sizes have been shown to systematically decrease with increasing wind speed until a saturation at u* = 0.7 cm/s is reached. Results suggest a saturation in the tangential stress. Similar behaviour has been observed by [1] for gas transfer measurements at higher wind speeds. In this contribution a new model to estimate the heat flux is applied which is based on the measured turbulent cell size und surface velocities. This approach allows the direct comparison of the net effect on heat flux of eddies of different sizes and a comparison to gas transfer measurements. Linking transport models with thermographic measurements, transfer velocities can be computed. In this contribution, we will quantify the effect of small scale

  14. Integrative structural modeling with small angle X-ray scattering profiles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances enabled high-throughput collection of Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) profiles of biological macromolecules. Thus, computational methods for integrating SAXS profiles into structural modeling are needed more than ever. Here, we review specifically the use of SAXS profiles for the structural modeling of proteins, nucleic acids, and their complexes. First, the approaches for computing theoretical SAXS profiles from structures are presented. Second, computational methods for predicting protein structures, dynamics of proteins in solution, and assembly structures are covered. Third, we discuss the use of SAXS profiles in integrative structure modeling approaches that depend simultaneously on several data types. PMID:22800408

  15. NASA Small Business Innovation Research Program. Composite List of Projects, 1983 to 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The NASA SBIR Composite List of Projects, 1983 to 1989, includes all projects that have been selected for support by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program of NASA. The list describes 1232 Phase 1 and 510 Phase 2 contracts that had been awarded or were in negotiation for award in August 1990. The main body is organized alphabetically by name of the small businesses. Four indexes cross-reference the list. The objective of this listing is to provide information about the SBIR program to anyone concerned with NASA research and development activities.

  16. Fully automated high-quality NMR structure determination of small (2)H-enriched proteins.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuefeng; Schneider, William M; Shen, Yang; Raman, Srivatsan; Inouye, Masayori; Baker, David; Roth, Monica J; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2010-12-01

    Determination of high-quality small protein structures by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods generally requires acquisition and analysis of an extensive set of structural constraints. The process generally demands extensive backbone and sidechain resonance assignments, and weeks or even months of data collection and interpretation. Here we demonstrate rapid and high-quality protein NMR structure generation using CS-Rosetta with a perdeuterated protein sample made at a significantly reduced cost using new bacterial culture condensation methods. Our strategy provides the basis for a high-throughput approach for routine, rapid, high-quality structure determination of small proteins. As an example, we demonstrate the determination of a high-quality 3D structure of a small 8 kDa protein, E. coli cold shock protein A (CspA), using <4 days of data collection and fully automated data analysis methods together with CS-Rosetta. The resulting CspA structure is highly converged and in excellent agreement with the published crystal structure, with a backbone RMSD value of 0.5 Å, an all atom RMSD value of 1.2 Å to the crystal structure for well-defined regions, and RMSD value of 1.1 Å to crystal structure for core, non-solvent exposed sidechain atoms. Cross validation of the structure with (15)N- and (13)C-edited NOESY data obtained with a perdeuterated (15)N, (13)C-enriched (13)CH(3) methyl protonated CspA sample confirms that essentially all of these independently-interpreted NOE-based constraints are already satisfied in each of the 10 CS-Rosetta structures. By these criteria, the CS-Rosetta structure generated by fully automated analysis of data for a perdeuterated sample provides an accurate structure of CspA. This represents a general approach for rapid, automated structure determination of small proteins by NMR.

  17. Computational structural mechanics methods research using an evolving framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, N. F., Jr.; Lotts, C. G.; Gillian, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced structural analysis and computational methods that exploit high-performance computers are being developed in a computational structural mechanics research activity sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center. These new methods are developed in an evolving framework and applied to representative complex structural analysis problems from the aerospace industry. An overview of the methods development environment is presented, and methods research areas are described. Selected application studies are also summarized.

  18. Computational structural mechanics methods research using an evolving framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, N. F., Jr.; Lotts, C. G.; Gillian, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced structural analysis and computational methods that exploit high-performance computers are being developed in a computational structural mechanics research activity sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center. These new methods are developed in an evolving framework and applied to representative complex structural analysis problems from the aerospace industry. An overview of the methods development environment is presented, and methods research areas are described. Selected application studies are also summarized.

  19. Bias in Research Grant Evaluation Has Dire Consequences for Small Universities

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Dennis L.; Morris, Douglas; Lavoie, Claude; Leavitt, Peter R.; MacIsaac, Hugh; Masson, Michael E. J.; Villard, Marc-Andre

    2016-01-01

    Federal funding for basic scientific research is the cornerstone of societal progress, economy, health and well-being. There is a direct relationship between financial investment in science and a nation’s scientific discoveries, making it a priority for governments to distribute public funding appropriately in support of the best science. However, research grant proposal success rate and funding level can be skewed toward certain groups of applicants, and such skew may be driven by systemic bias arising during grant proposal evaluation and scoring. Policies to best redress this problem are not well established. Here, we show that funding success and grant amounts for applications to Canada’s Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) Discovery Grant program (2011–2014) are consistently lower for applicants from small institutions. This pattern persists across applicant experience levels, is consistent among three criteria used to score grant proposals, and therefore is interpreted as representing systemic bias targeting applicants from small institutions. When current funding success rates are projected forward, forecasts reveal that future science funding at small schools in Canada will decline precipitously in the next decade, if skews are left uncorrected. We show that a recently-adopted pilot program to bolster success by lowering standards for select applicants from small institutions will not erase funding skew, nor will several other post-evaluation corrective measures. Rather, to support objective and robust review of grant applications, it is necessary for research councils to address evaluation skew directly, by adopting procedures such as blind review of research proposals and bibliometric assessment of performance. Such measures will be important in restoring confidence in the objectivity and fairness of science funding decisions. Likewise, small institutions can improve their research success by more strongly supporting productive

  20. Bias in Research Grant Evaluation Has Dire Consequences for Small Universities.

    PubMed

    Murray, Dennis L; Morris, Douglas; Lavoie, Claude; Leavitt, Peter R; MacIsaac, Hugh; Masson, Michael E J; Villard, Marc-Andre

    2016-01-01

    Federal funding for basic scientific research is the cornerstone of societal progress, economy, health and well-being. There is a direct relationship between financial investment in science and a nation's scientific discoveries, making it a priority for governments to distribute public funding appropriately in support of the best science. However, research grant proposal success rate and funding level can be skewed toward certain groups of applicants, and such skew may be driven by systemic bias arising during grant proposal evaluation and scoring. Policies to best redress this problem are not well established. Here, we show that funding success and grant amounts for applications to Canada's Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) Discovery Grant program (2011-2014) are consistently lower for applicants from small institutions. This pattern persists across applicant experience levels, is consistent among three criteria used to score grant proposals, and therefore is interpreted as representing systemic bias targeting applicants from small institutions. When current funding success rates are projected forward, forecasts reveal that future science funding at small schools in Canada will decline precipitously in the next decade, if skews are left uncorrected. We show that a recently-adopted pilot program to bolster success by lowering standards for select applicants from small institutions will not erase funding skew, nor will several other post-evaluation corrective measures. Rather, to support objective and robust review of grant applications, it is necessary for research councils to address evaluation skew directly, by adopting procedures such as blind review of research proposals and bibliometric assessment of performance. Such measures will be important in restoring confidence in the objectivity and fairness of science funding decisions. Likewise, small institutions can improve their research success by more strongly supporting productive

  1. The structural diversity and promise of antiparasitic marine invertebrate-derived small molecules

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Katharine R; Tenney, Karen; Crews, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on six important parasitic diseases that adversely affect the health and lives of over one billion people worldwide. In light of the global human impact of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), several initiatives and campaigns have been mounted to eradicate these infections once and for all. Currently available therapeutics summarized herein are either ineffective and/or have severe and deleterious side effects. Resistant strains continue to emerge and there is an overall unmet and urgent need for new antiparasitic drugs. Marine-derived small molecules (MDSMs) from invertebrates comprise an extremely diverse and promising source of compounds from a wide variety of structural classes. New discoveries of marine natural product privileged structures and compound classes that are being made via natural product library screening using whole cell in vitro assays are highlighted. It is striking to note that for the first time in history the entire genomes of all six parasites have been sequenced and additional transcriptome and proteomic analyses are available. Furthermore, open and shared, publicly available databases of the genome sequences, compounds, screening assays, and druggable molecular targets are being used by the worldwide research community. A combined assessment of all of the above factors, especially of current discoveries in marine natural products, implies a brighter future with more effective, affordable, and benign antiparasitic therapeutics. PMID:20956079

  2. Structural Parameters of Seven Small Magellanic Cloud Intermediate-Age and Old Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatt, Katharina; Grebel, Eva K.; Gallagher, John S., III; Nota, Antonella; Sabbi, Elena; Sirianni, Marco; Clementini, Gisella; Da Costa, Gary; Tosi, Monica; Harbeck, Daniel; Koch, Andreas; Kayser, Andrea

    2009-11-01

    We present structural parameters for the seven intermediate-age and old star clusters NGC 121, Lindsay 1, Kron 3, NGC 339, NGC 416, Lindsay 38, and NGC 419 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We fit King profiles and Elson, Fall, and Freeman profiles to both surface-brightness and star-count data taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Clusters older than ~1 Gyr show a spread in cluster core radii that increases with age, while the youngest clusters have relatively compact cores. No evidence for post-core-collapse clusters was found. We find no correlation between core radius and distance from the SMC center, although consistent with other studies of dwarf galaxies, some relatively old and massive clusters have low densities. The oldest SMC star cluster, the only globular NGC121, is the most elliptical object of the studied clusters. No correlation is seen between ellipticity and distance from the SMC center. The structures of these massive intermediate-age (1-8 Gyr) SMC star clusters thus appear to primarily result from internal evolutionary processes. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-10396.

  3. The structural diversity and promise of antiparasitic marine invertebrate-derived small molecules.

    PubMed

    Watts, Katharine R; Tenney, Karen; Crews, Phillip

    2010-12-01

    This review focuses on six important parasitic diseases that adversely affect the health and lives of over one billion people worldwide. In light of the global human impact of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), several initiatives and campaigns have been mounted to eradicate these infections once and for all. Currently available therapeutics summarized herein are either ineffective and/or have severe and deleterious side effects. Resistant strains continue to emerge and there is an overall unmet and urgent need for new antiparasitic drugs. Marine-derived small molecules (MDSMs) from invertebrates comprise an extremely diverse and promising source of compounds from a wide variety of structural classes. New discoveries of marine natural product privileged structures and compound classes that are being made via natural product library screening using whole cell in vitro assays are highlighted. It is striking to note that for the first time in history the entire genomes of all six parasites have been sequenced and additional transcriptome and proteomic analyses are available. Furthermore, open and shared, publicly available databases of the genome sequences, compounds, screening assays, and druggable molecular targets are being used by the worldwide research community. A combined assessment of all of the above factors, especially of current discoveries in marine natural products, implies a brighter future with more effective, affordable, and benign antiparasitic therapeutics.

  4. Structure and properties of small clusters of transition 3d-element oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, A. V.

    2011-03-15

    The results of calculations of the parameters of the equilibrium structures of small clusters of transition 3d-element oxides are presented. The calculations are performed by the spin-unrestricted Hartree-Fock method. The properties of the most stable structures, i.e., those with the lowest total energies among all those obtained, are discussed.

  5. The Effect of Riparian Zones in Structuring Small Mammal Communities in the Southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Joshua Laerm; Michael A. Menzel; Dorothy J. Wolf; James R. Welch

    1997-01-01

    Riparian zones have been shown to be important in structuring vertebrate communities and in maintaining biodiversity. We examined the role of riparian zones in structuring small mammal communities in a southern Appalachian watershed at Coweeta Hydrological Laboratory, Macon County, North Carolina. We established pitfall and live-trap grids in three replicates each of...

  6. NASA research on structures and materials for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, P. A.; Heldenfels, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    The technology and data base necessary for sound technical decisions regarding long haul supersonic cruise aircraft transportation systems are considered. The objectives and status of the research elements in the structures and materials program phase of the program are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on reductions in structural mass by research on advanced structural concepts, light-weight materials, improved loads, aeroelastic predictive techniques, and by development of efficient structural design procedures.

  7. Preparation of Protein Samples for NMR Structure, Function, and Small Molecule Screening Studies

    PubMed Central

    Acton, Thomas B.; Xiao, Rong; Anderson, Stephen; Aramini, James; Buchwald, William A.; Ciccosanti, Colleen; Conover, Ken; Everett, John; Hamilton, Keith; Huang, Yuanpeng Janet; Janjua, Haleema; Kornhaber, Gregory; Lau, Jessica; Lee, Dong Yup; Liu, Gaohua; Maglaqui, Melissa; Ma, Lichung; Mao, Lei; Patel, Dayaban; Rossi, Paolo; Sahdev, Seema; Shastry, Ritu; Swapna, G.V.T.; Tang, Yeufeng; Tong, Saichiu; Wang, Dongyan; Wang, Huang; Zhao, Li; Montelione, Gaetano T.

    2014-01-01

    technologies are suitable for implementation in a large individual laboratory or by a small group of collaborating investigators for structural biology, functional proteomics, ligand screening and structural genomics research. PMID:21371586

  8. Membrane Structure Studies by Means of Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, R. B.

    2008-03-17

    The basic model for membrane structure--a lipid bilayer with imbedded proteins--was formulated 35 years ago, however the detailed structure is still under active investigation using a variety of physical, chemical and computational techniques. Every biologically active cell is encapsulated by a plasma membrane with most cells also equipped with an extensive intracellular membrane system. The plasma membrane is an important boundary between the cytoplasm of the cell and the external environment, and selectively isolates the cell from that environment. Passive diffusion and/or active transport mechanisms are provided for water, ions, substrates etc. which are vital for cell metabolism and viability. Membranes also facilitate excretion of substances either as useful cellular products or as waste. Despite their complexity and diverse function, plasma membranes from quite different cells have surprisingly similar compositions. A typical membrane structure consists of a phospholipid bilayer with a number of proteins scattered throughout, along with carbohydrates (glycoproteins), glycolipids and sterols. The plasma membranes of most eukaryotic cells contain approximately equal weights of lipid and protein, which corresponds to about 100 lipid molecules per protein molecule. Clearly, lipids are a major constituent and the study of their structure and function in isolation provides valuable insight into the more complex intact multicomponent membrane. The membrane bound protein is the other major constituent and is a very active area of research for a number of reasons including the fact that over 60% of modern drugs act on their receptor sites. The interaction between the protein and the supporting lipid bilayer is clearly of major importance. Neutron scattering is a powerful technique for exploring the structure of membranes, either as reconstituted membranes formed from well characterised lipids, or as intact membranes isolated from selected biological systems. A brief

  9. Small business innovation research program solicitation: Closing date July 16, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This is the eighth annual solicitation by NASA addressed to small business firms, inviting them to submit proposals for research, or research and development, activities in some of the science and engineering areas of interest to NASA. The solicitation describes the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program, identifies eligibility requirements, outlines the required proposal format and content, states proposal preparation and submission requirements, describes the proposal evaluation and award selection process, and provides other information to assist those interested in participating in NASA's SBIR program. It also identifies the technical topics and subtopics for which SBIR proposals are solicited. These cover a broad range of current NASA interests, but do not necessarily include all areas in which NASA plans or currently conducts research. High-risk high pay-off innovations are desired.

  10. Investigation of current university research concerning energy conversion and conservation in small single-family dwellings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, G. R.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of university research concerning energy conversion and conservation techniques which may be applied in small single-family residences. Information was accumulated through published papers, progress reports, telephone conversations, and personal interviews. A synopsis of each pertinent investigation is given. Finally, a discussion of the synopses is presented and recommendations are made concerning the applicability of concepts for the design and construction of NASA-Langley Research Center's proposed Technology Utilization House in Hampton, Virginia.

  11. Quaternary structure built from subunits combining NMR and small-angle x-ray scattering data.

    PubMed Central

    Mattinen, Maija-Liisa; Pääkkönen, Kimmo; Ikonen, Teemu; Craven, Jeremy; Drakenberg, Torbjörn; Serimaa, Ritva; Waltho, Jonathan; Annila, Arto

    2002-01-01

    A new principle in constructing molecular complexes from the known high-resolution domain structures joining data from NMR and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements is described. Structure of calmodulin in complex with trifluoperazine was built from N- and C-terminal domains oriented based on residual dipolar couplings measured by NMR in a dilute liquid crystal, and the overall shape of the complex was derived from SAXS data. The residual dipolar coupling data serves to reduce angular degrees of freedom, and the small-angle scattering data serves to confine the translational degrees of freedom. The complex built by this method was found to be consistent with the known crystal structure. The study demonstrates how approximate tertiary structures of modular proteins or quaternary structures composed of subunits can be assembled from high-resolution structures of domains or subunits using mutually complementary NMR and SAXS data. PMID:12124297

  12. Altered structure of small cerebral arteries in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rizzoni, Damiano; De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Paiardi, Silvia; Boari, Gianluca E M; Mortini, Pietro; Cornali, Claudio; Cenzato, Marco; Rodella, Luigi F; Borsani, Elisa; Rizzardi, Nicola; Platto, Caterina; Rezzani, Rita; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti

    2009-04-01

    Structural alterations in the microcirculation may be considered an important mechanism of organ damage. An increased media-to-lumen ratio of subcutaneous small resistance arteries has been demonstrated to predict the development of cardiocerebrovascular events in hypertensive patients. Alterations in the structure of small cerebral arteries have been demonstrated in animal models of experimental or genetic hypertension. However, no evaluation with reliable techniques has ever been performed in humans. Twenty-eight participants were included in the present study: they were 13 hypertensive patients and 15 normotensive individuals. All participants underwent a neurosurgical intervention for benign or malign tumors. A small portion of morphologically normal cerebral tissue was excised from surgical samples and examined. Cerebral small resistance arteries (relaxed diameter around 200 mum) were dissected and mounted on an isometric and isobaric myograph, and the tunica media to internal lumen ratio was measured. In addition, cerebral cortical microvessel density (MVD) was also evaluated. The tissue was sectioned and stained for CD31, and MVD was measured with an automated image analyzer (percentage of area stained). Blood pressure values were evaluated, before surgical intervention, by standard sphygmomanometry. M/L was significantly greater and MVD significantly lower in hypertensive patients than that in normotensive individuals. No difference between groups in collagen content or mechanical properties of cerebral small arteries was observed. Our results indicate that structural alterations of small cerebral vessels are present in hypertensive patients compared with normotensive individuals, similar to those previously observed in subcutaneous small arteries.

  13. Theoretical Calculations Supporting Investigation of Metal Contacts to Ultra-Small Semiconductor Structures,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS SUPPORTING INVESTIGATION OF M4ETAL CONTACTS TO ULTRA-SHALL SEMICONDUCTOR STRUCTURES by0 F.Flores, G.Platero, J.SAnchez-Dehesa...distribution unlimited 86 1 1,5 04 7 THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS SUPPORTING INVESTIGATIONr OF METAL CONTACTS TO ULTRA-SMALL SEMICONDUCTOR STRUCTURES by...34Anion induced surface states for the ideal (100)-faces of GaAs, AlAs and GaSb" 3. Paper No.2: "Electronic structure of (100)- semiconductor

  14. Employers' Attitudes on Hiring Workers with Intellectual Disabilities in Small and Medium Enterprises: An Italian Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zappella, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Employers play a significant role in the process of hiring workers with intellectual disability. Through an in-depth interview, this research aims to investigate the attitudes of 30 representatives of small and medium-sized Italian companies involved in a process of recruitment. The data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. The results…

  15. 48 CFR 227.7104 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, when technical data or computer software will be generated during performance of contracts under the SBIR program. (b) Under the clause at 252.227-7018, the Government obtains SBIR data rights in technical data and computer software...

  16. Employers' Attitudes on Hiring Workers with Intellectual Disabilities in Small and Medium Enterprises: An Italian Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zappella, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Employers play a significant role in the process of hiring workers with intellectual disability. Through an in-depth interview, this research aims to investigate the attitudes of 30 representatives of small and medium-sized Italian companies involved in a process of recruitment. The data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. The results…

  17. Cooperative Learning Strategies for Teaching Small Group Communication: Research and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Kay; Gimple, Debbie

    Research has shown that cooperative learning rather than competitive behavior enhances students' achievement, self-esteem, and satisfaction while reducing performance anxiety. Although cooperation within a small group results in greater productivity and member satisfaction, it should be considered only as a means to an end, not an end in itself. A…

  18. Windows into the forest: extending long-term small-watershed research

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    2004-01-01

    Interactions among forests, forestry, and water remain a critical aspect of Forest Service land stewardship. Small, experimental watershed studies managed by Forest Service Research and Development have a long history of advancing science and management and have resulted in a rich collection of long-term data. Early work addressed effects of forestry practices in...

  19. Can We Find Solutions with People? Participatory Action Research with Small Organic Producers in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar-Padilla, Mamen; Calle-Collado, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and…

  20. The Smaller the Better? A Review of Research on Small Rural Schools in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    This review of 30 years of research in small rural schools in Sweden includes projects focusing directly upon rural education and rural schools, reports from national agencies, and official statistics. Two main foci were found: (i) the quality of education and pupils' academic performance, and (ii) the economics of running schools in different…

  1. Selected achievements, science directions, and new opportunities for the WEBB Small Watershed Research Program

    Treesearch

    Pierre D. Glynn; Matthew C. Larsen; Earl A. Greene; Heather L. Buss; David W. Clow; Randall J. Hunt; M. Alisa Mast; Sheila F. Murphy; Norman E. Peters; Stephen D. Sebestyen; James B. Shanley; John F. Walker

    2009-01-01

    Over nearly two decades, the Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) small watershed research program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented how water and solute fluxes, nutrient, carbon, and mercury dynamics, and weathering and sediment transport respond to natural and humancaused drivers, including climate, climate change, and atmospheric...

  2. A Statistical Test of the Relationship between Galactic HI Structure and Small-scale Structure in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2014-06-01

    The archive of IRIS, PLANCK and WMAP data available at the IRSA website of IPAC allows the apparent associations between galactic neutral hydrogen (HI) features and small-scale structure in WMAP and PLANCK data to be closely examined. In addition, HI new observations made with the Green Bank Telescope are used to perform a statistical test of putative associations. It is concluded that attention should be paid to the possibility that some of the small-scale structure found in WMAP and PLANCK data harbors the signature of a previously unrecognized source of high-frequency continuum emission in the Galaxy.

  3. 48 CFR 252.227-7018 - Rights in noncommercial technical data and computer software-Small Business Innovation Research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... technical data and computer software-Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. 252.227-7018 Section... Clauses 252.227-7018 Rights in noncommercial technical data and computer software—Small Business... Noncommercial Technical Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program (JUN...

  4. 48 CFR 252.227-7018 - Rights in noncommercial technical data and computer software-Small Business Innovation Research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... technical data and computer software-Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. 252.227-7018 Section... Clauses 252.227-7018 Rights in noncommercial technical data and computer software—Small Business... Noncommercial Technical Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program (MAY 2013...

  5. 48 CFR 252.227-7018 - Rights in noncommercial technical data and computer software-Small Business Innovation Research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... technical data and computer software-Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. 252.227-7018 Section... Clauses 252.227-7018 Rights in noncommercial technical data and computer software—Small Business... Noncommercial Technical Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program (FEB 2014...

  6. 48 CFR 252.227-7018 - Rights in noncommercial technical data and computer software-Small Business Innovation Research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... technical data and computer software-Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. 252.227-7018 Section... Clauses 252.227-7018 Rights in noncommercial technical data and computer software—Small Business... Noncommercial Technical Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program (MAR 2011...

  7. 48 CFR 252.227-7018 - Rights in noncommercial technical data and computer software-Small Business Innovation Research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... technical data and computer software-Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. 252.227-7018 Section... Clauses 252.227-7018 Rights in noncommercial technical data and computer software—Small Business... Noncommercial Technical Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program (MAR 2011...

  8. An Action Research Process on University Tutorial Sessions with Small Groups: Presentational Tutorial Sessions and Online Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcaraz-Salarirche, Noelia; Gallardo-Gil, Monsalud; Herrera-Pastor, David; Servan-Nunez, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    We describe and analyse the action research process carried out by us as teachers in a general didactics course in the University of Malaga (Spain). The course methodology combined lectures to the whole class and small-group work. We were in charge of guiding small-group work. In the small groups, students researched on an educational innovation…

  9. Using more than 801 296 small-molecule crystal structures to aid in protein structure refinement and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Jason C.

    2017-01-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is the worldwide resource for the dissemination of all published three-dimensional structures of small-molecule organic and metal–organic compounds. This paper briefly describes how this collection of crystal structures can be used en masse in the context of macromolecular crystallography. Examples highlight how the CSD and associated software aid protein–ligand complex validation, and show how the CSD could be further used in the generation of geometrical restraints for protein structure refinement. PMID:28291758

  10. Structure and Agency in Transition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Walter R.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the results of transition studies in the UK, Germany, USA and Canada, the virtues of analysing the structural contexts, institutional arrangements and the young peoples' action orientations are presented. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, school and the labour market have become more and more decoupled and transition routes…

  11. Research in nonlinear structural and solid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomb, H. G., Jr. (Compiler); Noor, A. K. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    Nonlinear analysis of building structures and numerical solution of nonlinear algebraic equations and Newton's method are discussed. Other topics include: nonlinear interaction problems; solution procedures for nonlinear problems; crash dynamics and advanced nonlinear applications; material characterization, contact problems, and inelastic response; and formulation aspects and special software for nonlinear analysis.

  12. The Helter-Skelter Relationship Between Teaching and Research: A Cluster of Problems and Small Wins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    Contrasts the culture and social structure of research and teaching; demonstrating significant differences in these two spheres of academic work. Explores the question of how scholarship related to teaching can be fostered in a fashion similar to research and identifies six strategies for making gains in this endeavor. (JDH)

  13. Research in Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M. (Compiler); Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Structural Dynamics and Materials (SDM) Conference was held on April 2 to 4, 1990 in Long Beach, California. This publication is a compilation of presentations of the work-in-progress sessions and does not contain papers from the regular sessions since those papers are published by AIAA in the conference proceedings.

  14. Rhetorical Structure of Biochemistry Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanoksilapatham, Budsaba

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a move analysis [Swales, J. (1990). "Genre analysis." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] of 60 biochemistry research articles. First, a corpus was systematically compiled to ensure that it represents core journals in the focused discipline. Then, coding reliability analysis was conducted to…

  15. Structural Analysis and Ethnographic Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, Karen Abney; Watras, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    To illustrate how theoretical studies should blend with empirical research, this article describes how scholars changed the ways they thought about schools and poverty. It begins with a historical review of the perspective of educational theorists and public policy prior to the 1970s. Taking a Marxist perspective, Bowles and Gintis (1976)…

  16. Structural Dynamics Branch research and accomplishments for FY 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is a collection of FY 1990 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights are from the branch's major work areas: aeroelasticity, vibration control, dynamic systems, and computational structural methods. A listing is given of FY 1990 branch publications.

  17. Rhetorical Structure of Research Articles in Agricultural Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Huimin; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2014-01-01

    Although the rhetorical structure of research articles (RA) has been extensively examined from individual sections to complete IMRD sections regarding different disciplines, no research has been addressed to the overall rhetorical structure of RAs as a whole entity in the field of agricultural science. In this study, we analyzed 45 agricultural…

  18. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments for fiscal year 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This publication contains a collection of fiscal year 1987 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights from the branch's four major work areas, Aeroelasticity, Vibration Control, Dynamic Systems, and Computational Structural Methods, are included in the report as well as a complete listing of the FY87 branch publications.

  19. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments for FY 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Fiscal year 1988 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center are described. Highlights from the branch's major work areas -- aeroelasticity, vibration control, dynamic systems, and computational structural methods -- are included as well as a complete listing of the FY 88 branch publications.

  20. Structural Equation Modelling: A Primer for Music Education Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation modelling (SEM) is a method for analysis of multivariate data from both non-experimental and experimental research. The method combines a structural model linking latent variables and a measurement model linking observed variables with latent variables. Its use in social science and educational research has grown since the…

  1. Structure-based DNA-targeting strategies with small molecule ligands for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jia; Gan, Jianhua; Huang, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    Nucleic acids are the molecular targets of many clinical anticancer drugs. However, compared with proteins, nucleic acids have traditionally attracted much less attention as drug targets in structure-based drug design, partially because limited structural information of nucleic acids complexed with potential drugs is available. Over the past several years, enormous progresses in nucleic acid crystallization, heavy-atom derivatization, phasing, and structural biology have been made. Many complicated nucleic acid structures have been determined, providing new insights into the molecular functions and interactions of nucleic acids, especially DNAs complexed with small molecule ligands. Thus, opportunities have been created to further discover nucleic acid-targeting drugs for disease treatments. This review focuses on the structure studies of DNAs complexed with small molecule ligands for discovering lead compounds, drug candidates, and/or therapeutics. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Structure-Based DNA-Targeting Strategies with Small Molecule Ligands for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jia; Gan, Jianhua; Huang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acids are the molecular targets of many clinical anticancer drugs. However, compared with proteins, nucleic acids have traditionally attracted much less attention as drug targets in structure-based drug design, partially because limited structural information of nucleic acids complexed with potential drugs is available. Over the past several years, enormous progresses in nucleic acid crystallization, heavy-atom derivatization, phasing, and structural biology have been made. Many complicated nucleic acid structures have been determined, providing new insights into the molecular functions and interactions of nucleic acids, especially DNAs complexed with small molecule ligands. Thus, opportunities have been created to further discover nucleic acid-targeting drugs for disease treatments. This review focuses on the structure studies of DNAs complexed with small molecule ligands for discovering lead compounds, drug candidates, and/or therapeutics. PMID:23633219

  3. Regression of small resistance artery structural alterations in hypertension by appropriate antihypertensive treatment.

    PubMed

    Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Rizzoni, Damiano

    2010-04-01

    Regardless of the mechanisms that initiate the rise of blood pressure, the development of structural changes in the systemic vasculature is the end result of established hypertension. Indices of small resistance artery structure, such as the ratio of tunica media to internal lumen, may have a strong prognostic significance in hypertensive patients, over and above all other known cardiovascular risk factors. Hence, the regression of vascular alterations seems to be an appealing goal for antihypertensive treatment. Different antihypertensive drugs may have different effects on vascular structure. Complete normalization of small resistance artery structure was demonstrated in hypertensive patients after long-term and effective antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and calcium antagonists. Little or no improvement was observed with beta-blockers or diuretics. Evidence from several studies suggests that some antihypertensive drugs are more effective than others in reversing microvascular structural alterations in hypertension.

  4. The use of calorimetry in the biophysical characterization of small molecule alkaloids binding to RNA structures.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh; Basu, Anirban

    2016-05-01

    RNA has now emerged as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. RNA targeted drug design requires detailed thermodynamic characterization that provides new insights into the interactions and this together with structural data, may be used in rational drug design. The use of calorimetry to characterize small molecule-RNA interactions has emerged as a reliable and sensitive tool after the recent advancements in biocalorimetry. This review summarizes the recent advancements in thermodynamic characterization of small molecules, particularly some natural alkaloids binding to various RNA structures. Thermodynamic characterization provides information that can supplement structural data leading to more effective drug development protocols. This review provides a concise report on the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques in characterizing small molecules, mostly alkaloids-RNA interactions with particular reference to binding of tRNA, single stranded RNA, double stranded RNA, poly(A), triplex RNA. It is now apparent that a combination of structural and thermodynamic data is essential for rational design of specific RNA targeted drugs. Recent advancements in biocalorimetry instrumentation have led to detailed understanding of the thermodynamics of small molecules binding to various RNA structures paving the path for the development of many new natural and synthetic molecules as specific binders to various RNA structures. RNA targeted drug design, that remained unexplored, will immensely benefit from the calorimetric studies leading to the development of effective drugs for many diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing Regional Scale Fluxes of Mass, Momentum, and Energy with Small Environmental Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulueta, Rommel Callejo

    Natural ecosystems are rarely structurally or functionally homogeneous. This is true for the complex coastal regions of Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and the Barrow Peninsula on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. The coastal region of Magdalena Bay is comprised of the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert ecosystems all adjacent and within a few kilometers, while the Barrow Peninsula is a mosaic of small ponds, thaw lakes, different aged vegetated thaw-lake basins ( VDTLBs ) and interstitial tundra which have been dynamically formed by both short- and long-term processes. We used a combination of tower- and small environmental research aircraft (SERA)-based eddy covariance measurements to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of CO2, latent, and sensible heat fluxes along with MODIS NDVI, and land surface information, to scale the SERA-based CO2 fluxes up to the regional scale. In the first part of this research, the spatial variability in ecosystem fluxes from the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert areas of northern Magdalena Bay were studied. SERA-derived average midday CO2 fluxes from the desert showed a slight uptake of -1.32 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1, the coastal ocean also showed uptake of -3.48 mumol CO2 m-2 s -1, and the lagoon mangroves showed the highest uptake of -8.11 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1. Additional simultaneous measurements of NDVI allowed simple linear modeling of CO2 flux as a function of NDVI for the mangroves of the Magdalena Bay region. In the second part of this research, the spatial variability of ecosystem fluxes across the 1802 km2 Barrow Peninsula region was studied. During typical 2006 summer conditions, the midday hourly CO2 flux over the region was -2.04 x 105 kgCO2 hr-1. The CO2 fluxes among the interstitial tundra, Ancient and Old VDTLBs, as well as between the Medium and Young VDTLBs were not significantly different. Combined, the interstitial tundra and Old and Ancient

  6. Research Designs for Intervention Research with Small Samples II: Stepped Wedge and Interrupted Time-Series Designs

    PubMed Central

    Ting Fok, Carlotta Ching; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2015-01-01

    The stepped wedge design (SWD) and the interrupted time-series design (ITSD) are two alternative research designs that maximize efficiency and statistical power with small samples when contrasted to the operating characteristics of conventional randomized controlled trials (RCT). This paper provides an overview and introduction to previous work with these designs, and compares and contrasts them with the dynamic wait-list design (DWLD) and the regression point displacement design (RPDD), which were presented in a previous article (Wyman, Henry, Knoblauch, and Brown, 2015) in this Special Section. The SWD and the DWLD are similar in that both are intervention implementation roll-out designs. We discuss similarities and differences between the SWD and DWLD in their historical origin and application, along with differences in the statistical modeling of each design. Next, we describe the main design characteristics of the ITSD, along with some of its strengths and limitations. We provide a critical comparative review of strengths and weaknesses in application of the ITSD, SWD, DWLD, and RPDD as small samples alternatives to application of the RCT, concluding with a discussion of the types of contextual factors that influence selection of an optimal research design by prevention researchers working with small samples. PMID:26017633

  7. Research Designs for Intervention Research with Small Samples II: Stepped Wedge and Interrupted Time-Series Designs.

    PubMed

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2015-10-01

    The stepped wedge design (SWD) and the interrupted time-series design (ITSD) are two alternative research designs that maximize efficiency and statistical power with small samples when contrasted to the operating characteristics of conventional randomized controlled trials (RCT). This paper provides an overview and introduction to previous work with these designs and compares and contrasts them with the dynamic wait-list design (DWLD) and the regression point displacement design (RPDD), which were presented in a previous article (Wyman, Henry, Knoblauch, and Brown, Prevention Science. 2015) in this special section. The SWD and the DWLD are similar in that both are intervention implementation roll-out designs. We discuss similarities and differences between the SWD and DWLD in their historical origin and application, along with differences in the statistical modeling of each design. Next, we describe the main design characteristics of the ITSD, along with some of its strengths and limitations. We provide a critical comparative review of strengths and weaknesses in application of the ITSD, SWD, DWLD, and RPDD as small sample alternatives to application of the RCT, concluding with a discussion of the types of contextual factors that influence selection of an optimal research design by prevention researchers working with small samples.

  8. Amylopectin small chain glucans form structure fingerprint that determines botanical origin of starch.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sarita; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2017-02-20

    Starch granule size, shape and structure of amylopectin are species specific and influence starch properties and end-use of starch. Amylopectin glucan chain structure was used to predict the starch botanical sources. Mathematical probability for accumulation of small glucan chains DP 6-10 reveal exponential fit curve with maximum R(2) in smallest granule size starches (Chlamydomonas, quinoa, buckwheat). Cereal and cassava showed R(2) of 0.81-0.96 while in pulses and tubers it was less than 0.7. The amylopectin small glucan chains form a unique 'finger print region' that identified starch botanical source. Differential amylopectin chain length distribution (APCLD) graphs between DP 6-80 of all species from Chlamydomonas starch distinguished five structural groups that clustered the 31 analyzed starches into four major patterns. APCLD analyses of amylopectin combined with characteristic pattern of small linear DP (6-9) glucan chains predicted the starch botanical source.

  9. Small-angle scattering gives direct structural information about a membrane protein inside a lipid environment.

    PubMed

    Kynde, Søren A R; Skar-Gislinge, Nicholas; Pedersen, Martin Cramer; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Simonsen, Jens Baek; Schweins, Ralf; Mortensen, Kell; Arleth, Lise

    2014-02-01

    Monomeric bacteriorhodopsin (bR) reconstituted into POPC/POPG-containing nanodiscs was investigated by combined small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering. A novel hybrid approach to small-angle scattering data analysis was developed. In combination, these provided direct structural insight into membrane-protein localization in the nanodisc and into the protein-lipid interactions. It was found that bR is laterally decentred in the plane of the disc and is slightly tilted in the phospholipid bilayer. The thickness of the bilayer is reduced in response to the incorporation of bR. The observed tilt of bR is in good accordance with previously performed theoretical predictions and computer simulations based on the bR crystal structure. The result is a significant and essential step on the way to developing a general small-angle scattering-based method for determining the low-resolution structures of membrane proteins in physiologically relevant environments.

  10. Materials and light thermal structures research for advanced space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Earl A.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1991-01-01

    The Light Thermal Structures Center at the University of Virginia sponsors educational and research programs focused on the development of reliable, lightweight structures to function in hostile thermal environments. Technology advances in materials and design methodology for light thermal structures will contribute to improved space vehicle design concepts with attendant weight savings. This paper highlights current research activities in three areas relevant to space exploration: low density, high temperature aluminum alloys, composite materials, and structures with thermal gradients. Advances in the development of new aluminum-lithium alloys and mechanically alloyed aluminum alloys are described. Material properties and design features of advanced composites are highlighted. Research studies in thermal structures with temperature gradients include inelastic panel buckling and thermally induced unstable oscillations. Current and future research is focused on the integration of new materials with applications to structural components with thermal gradients.

  11. Pressure Myography to Study the Function and Structure of Isolated Small Arteries.

    PubMed

    Schjørring, Olav L; Carlsson, Rune; Simonsen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Small arteries play an important role in regulation of peripheral resistance and organ perfusion. Here we describe a series of methods allowing measurements in pressurized segments of small arteries from the systemic and coronary circulation of mice as well as other species. The pressure myography techniques described include measurements of wall structure, wall stress, strain, and myogenic tone. The pressurized perfused small arteries also allow evaluation of responses to increases in pressure, flow, and drugs, where the main readout is changes in vascular diameter.

  12. The small-world organization of large-scale brain systems and relationships with subcortical structures.

    PubMed

    Koziol, Leonard F; Barker, Lauren A; Joyce, Arthur W; Hrin, Skip

    2014-01-01

    Brain structure and function is characterized by large-scale brain systems. However, each system has its own "small-world" organization, with sub-regions, or "hubs," that have varying degrees of specialization for certain cognitive and behavioral processes. This article describes this small-world organization, and the concepts of functional specialization and functional integration are defined and explained through practical examples. We also describe the development of large-scale brain systems and this small-world organization as a sensitive, protracted process, vulnerable to a variety of influences that generate neurodevelopmental disorders.

  13. Developmental research as a way to an empirically based didactical structure of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lijnse, P. L.

    In the past decades, much work has been done in science education on large-scale curriculum development, ranging from a structure-of-the-discipline approach to STS. At the same time, research on students' ideas has drawn attention to the underestimated problems of learning and teaching, which may largely explain the limited success of the curriculum efforts as far as cognitive learning is concerned. Proposed solutions are mainly inspired by a constructivist cognitive science perspective and are formulated as general teaching strategies that aim at a more or less forced process of conceptual change. However, in our view, developmental research is needed in which small-scale curriculum development is cyclically coupled to indepth classroom research of teaching-learning processes. Such research should resuit in worked out examples of successful ways of teaching, according to new conceptual curriculum structures. Designing such didactical structures constitutes a longer term research program, which asks for international exchange and cooperation.

  14. Impact dynamics research on composite transport structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1984-01-01

    The experimental and analytical efforts being undertaken to investigate the response of composite and aluminum structures under crash loading conditions were reviewed. A Boeing 720 airplane was used in the controlled-impact demonstration test. Energy absorption of composite materials, the tearing of fuselage skin panels, the friction and abrasion behavior of composite skins, and the crushing behavior and dynamic response of composite beams were among the topics addressed.

  15. Impact dynamics research on composite transport structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental and analytical efforts being undertaken to investigate the response of composite and aluminum structures under crash loading conditions were reviewed. A Boeing 720 airplane was used in the controlled-impact demonstration test. Energy absorption of composite materials, the tearing of fuselage skin panels, the friction and abrasion behavior of composite skins, and the crushing behavior and dynamic response of composite beams were among the topics addressed.

  16. Research Program for Vibration Control in Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mingori, D. L.; Gibson, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of program to apply control theory to large space structures (LSS's) and design practical compensator for suppressing vibration. Program models LSS as distributed system. Control theory applied to produce compensator described by functional gains and transfer functions. Used for comparison of robustness of low- and high-order compensators that control surface vibrations of realistic wrap-rib antenna. Program written in FORTRAN for batch execution.

  17. Research in nonlinear structural and solid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomb, H. G., Jr. (Compiler); Noor, A. K. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Recent and projected advances in applied mechanics, numerical analysis, computer hardware and engineering software, and their impact on modeling and solution techniques in nonlinear structural and solid mechanics are discussed. The fields covered are rapidly changing and are strongly impacted by current and projected advances in computer hardware. To foster effective development of the technology perceptions on computing systems and nonlinear analysis software systems are presented.

  18. Structural and functional assessment of skin nerve fibres in small-fibre pathology.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, P; Nyengaard, J R; Polydefkis, M; Jensen, T S

    2015-09-01

    Damage to nociceptor nerve fibres may give rise to peripheral neuropathies, some of which are pain free and some are painful. A hallmark of many peripheral neuropathies is the loss of small nerve fibres in the epidermis, a condition called small-fibre neuropathy (SFN) when it is predominantly the small nerve fibres that are damaged. Historically, SFN has been very difficult to diagnose as clinical examination and nerve conduction studies mainly detect large nerve fibres, and quantitative sensory testing is not sensitive enough to detect small changes in small nerve fibres. However, taking a 3-mm punch skin biopsy from the distal leg and quantification of the nerve fibre density has proven to be a useful method to diagnose SFN. However, the correlation between the nerve fibre loss and other test results varies greatly. Recent studies have shown that it is possible not only to extract information about the nerve fibre density from the biopsies but also to get an estimation of the nerve fibre length density using stereology, quantify sweat gland innervation and detect morphological changes such as axonal swelling, all of which may be additional parameters indicating diseased small fibres relating to symptoms reported by the patients. In this review, we focus on available tests to assess structure and function of the small nerve fibres, and summarize recent advances that have provided new possibilities to more specifically relate structural findings with symptoms and function in patients with SFN.

  19. sRNAtoolbox: an integrated collection of small RNA research tools.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Antonio; Barturen, Guillermo; Lebrón, Ricardo; Gómez-Martín, Cristina; Alganza, Ángel; Oliver, José L; Hackenberg, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Small RNA research is a rapidly growing field. Apart from microRNAs, which are important regulators of gene expression, other types of functional small RNA molecules have been reported in animals and plants. MicroRNAs are important in host-microbe interactions and parasite microRNAs might modulate the innate immunity of the host. Furthermore, small RNAs can be detected in bodily fluids making them attractive non-invasive biomarker candidates. Given the general broad interest in small RNAs, and in particular microRNAs, a large number of bioinformatics aided analysis types are needed by the scientific community. To facilitate integrated sRNA research, we developed sRNAtoolbox, a set of independent but interconnected tools for expression profiling from high-throughput sequencing data, consensus differential expression, target gene prediction, visual exploration in a genome context as a function of read length, gene list analysis and blast search of unmapped reads. All tools can be used independently or for the exploration and downstream analysis of sRNAbench results. Workflows like the prediction of consensus target genes of parasite microRNAs in the host followed by the detection of enriched pathways can be easily established. The web-interface interconnecting all these tools is available at http://bioinfo5.ugr.es/srnatoolbox. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Researchers View the Small Low Cost Engine and the Large Quiet Engine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-02-21

    Researchers Robert Cummings, left, and Harold Gold with the small Low Cost Engine in the shadow of the much larger Quiet Engine at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. The two engines were being studied in different test cells at the Propulsion Systems Laboratory. Jet engines had proven themselves on military and large transport aircraft, but their use on small general aviation aircraft was precluded by cost. Lewis undertook a multiyear effort to develop a less expensive engine to fill this niche using existing technologies. Lewis researchers designed a four-stage, axial-flow engine constructed from sheet metal. It was only 11.5 inches in diameter and weighed 100 pounds. The final design specifications were turned over to a manufacturer in 1972. Four engines were created, and, as expected, the fabrication and assembly of the engine were comparatively inexpensive. In 1973 the Low Cost Engine had its first realistic analysis in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory altitude tank. The engine successfully operated at speeds up to Mach 1.24 and simulated altitudes of 30,000 feet. NASA released the engine to private industry in the hope that design elements would be incorporated into future projects and reduce the overall cost of small jet aircraft. Small jet and turboprop engines became relatively common in general aviation aircraft by the late 1970s.

  1. Small-Scale Heterogeneity in Deep-Sea Nematode Communities around Biogenic Structures

    PubMed Central

    Hasemann, Christiane; Soltwedel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The unexpected high species richness of deep-sea sediments gives rise to the questions, which processes produce and maintain diversity in the deep sea, and at what spatial scales do these processes operate? The idea of a small-scale habitat structure at the deep-sea floor provides the background for this study. At small scales biogenic structures create a heterogeneous environment that influences the structure of the surrounding communities and the dynamics of the meiobenthic populations. As an example for biogenic structures, small deep-sea sponges (Tentorium semisuberites Schmidt 1870) and their sedimentary environment were investigated for small-scale distribution patterns of benthic deep-sea nematodes. Sampling was carried out with the remotely operated vehicle Victor 6000 at the Arctic deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN. In order to investigate nematode community patterns sediment cores around three small sponges and corresponding control cores were analysed. A total of approx. 5800 nematodes were identified. The comparison of the nematode communities from sponge and control samples indicated an influence of the biogenic structure “sponge” on diversity patterns and habitat heterogeneity. The increased number of nematode species and functional groups found in the sediments around the sponges suggest that on a small scale the sponge acts as a gradient and creates a more divers habitat structure. The nematode community from the sponge sediments shows a greater taxonomic variance and species richness together with lower relative abundances of the species compared to those from control sediments. Obviously, the more homogeneous habitat conditions of the control sediments offer less micro-habitats than the sediments around the sponges. This seems to reduce the number of functional groups and species coexisting in the control sediments. PMID:22216193

  2. Comparative metabolomics and structural characterizations illuminate colibactin pathway-dependent small molecules.

    PubMed

    Vizcaino, Maria I; Engel, Philipp; Trautman, Eric; Crawford, Jason M

    2014-07-02

    The gene cluster responsible for synthesis of the unknown molecule "colibactin" has been identified in mutualistic and pathogenic Escherichia coli. The pathway endows its producer with a long-term persistence phenotype in the human bowel, a probiotic activity used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, and a carcinogenic activity under host inflammatory conditions. To date, functional small molecules from this pathway have not been reported. Here we implemented a comparative metabolomics and targeted structural network analyses approach to identify a catalog of small molecules dependent on the colibactin pathway from the meningitis isolate E. coli IHE3034 and the probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917. The structures of 10 pathway-dependent small molecules are proposed based on structural characterizations and network relationships. The network will provide a roadmap for the structural and functional elucidation of a variety of other small molecules encoded by the pathway. From the characterized small molecule set, in vitro bacterial growth inhibitory and mammalian CNS receptor antagonist activities are presented.

  3. A Tale of Two Small Business Grants: The Best of Times, the Worst of Times from the NASA Ames Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Lee, Geoffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of the SBIR Program are to: stimulate technological innovation in the private sector; strengthen the role of Small Business Concerns (SBCs) in meeting Federal research and development needs; increase the commercial application of these research results; and encourage participation of socially and economically disadvantaged persons and women-owned small businesses. The process can be highly rewarding, providing the small business with resources to pursue research and development with a focus on providing NASA with new and advanced capabilities. We present two examples of how the NASA Ames SBIR Program has addressed these purposes, nurturing innovative ideas from small, businesses into commercially viable products that also address analytical needs in space research. These examples, from the Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration Subtopic, describe the journey from innovative concept to analytical instrument, one successful and one hampered by numerous roadblocks (including some international intrigue}.

  4. A Tale of Two Small Business Grants: The Best of Times, the Worst of Times from the NASA Ames Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Lee, Geoffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of the SBIR Program are to: stimulate technological innovation in the private sector; strengthen the role of Small Business Concerns (SBCs) in meeting Federal research and development needs; increase the commercial application of these research results; and encourage participation of socially and economically disadvantaged persons and women-owned small businesses. The process can be highly rewarding, providing the small business with resources to pursue research and development with a focus on providing NASA with new and advanced capabilities. We present two examples of how the NASA Ames SBIR Program has addressed these purposes, nurturing innovative ideas from small, businesses into commercially viable products that also address analytical needs in space research. These examples, from the Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration Subtopic, describe the journey from innovative concept to analytical instrument, one successful and one hampered by numerous roadblocks (including some international intrigue}.

  5. Structural Interventions: Concepts, Challenges and Opportunities for Research

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, S. R.; Dworkin, S.; Mantell, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Structural interventions refer to public health interventions that promote health by altering the structural context within which health is produced and reproduced. They draw on concepts from multiple disciplines, including public health, psychiatry, and psychology, in which attention to interventions is common, and sociology and political economy, where structure is a familiar, if contested, concept. This has meant that even as discussions of structural interventions bring together researchers from various fields, they can get stalled in debates over definitions. In this paper, we seek to move these discussions forward by highlighting a number of critical issues raised by structural interventions, and the subsequent implications of these for research. PMID:16736355

  6. Isocurvature Perturbation of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles and Small Scale Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Young; Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Shin, Chang Sub

    2015-11-01

    The adiabatic perturbation of dark matter is damped during the kinetic decoupling due to the collision with a relativistic component on subhorizon scales. However, the isocurvature part is free from damping and could be large enough to make a substantial contribution to the formation of small scale structure. We explicitly study the weakly interacting massive particles as dark matter with an early matter dominated period before radiation domination and show that the isocurvature perturbation is generated during the phase transition and leaves an imprint in the observable signatures for small scale structure.

  7. Fabrication of small-scale structures with non-planar features

    DOEpatents

    Burckel, David B.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2015-11-19

    The fabrication of small-scale structures is disclosed. A unit-cell of a small-scale structure with non-planar features is fabricated by forming a membrane on a suitable material. A pattern is formed in the membrane and a portion of the substrate underneath the membrane is removed to form a cavity. Resonators are then directionally deposited on the wall or sides of the cavity. The cavity may be rotated during deposition to form closed-loop resonators. The resonators may be non-planar. The unit-cells can be formed in a layer that includes an array of unit-cells.

  8. Fabrication method for small-scale structures with non-planar features

    DOEpatents

    Burckel, David Bruce; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2016-09-20

    The fabrication of small-scale structures is disclosed. A unit-cell of a small-scale structure with non-planar features is fabricated by forming a membrane on a suitable material. A pattern is formed in the membrane and a portion of the substrate underneath the membrane is removed to form a cavity. Resonators are then directionally deposited on the wall or sides of the cavity. The cavity may be rotated during deposition to form closed-loop resonators. The resonators may be non-planar. The unit-cells can be formed in a layer that includes an array of unit-cells.

  9. Small copper clusters studied by x-ray absorption near-edge structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyanagi, H.; Sun, Z. H.; Jiang, Y.; Uehara, M.; Nakamura, H.; Yamashita, K.; Orimoto, Y.; Zhang, L.; Lee, C.; Fukano, A.; Maeda, H.

    2012-04-01

    The local structure of copper nanoparticles grown in organic solution by reducing Cu(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate [Cu(hfac)2] was studied as-grown by the Cu K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). Comparison of the experimental XANES spectra with reference materials indicated small copper clusters are formed by ligand-exchange with oleylamine and subsequent reducing by diphenylsilane. The multiple-scattering (MS) calculation for various model clusters consisting of 13-135 atoms suggests that small (13-19 atom) Cu clusters are stabilized without a large deformation.

  10. Rhetorical Structure of Education Research Article Methods Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Baoya; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rhetorical move structure of the education research article genre within the framework of Swales' (1981, 1990, 2004) move analysis. A corpus of 120 systematically sampled empirical education research articles served as data input for the analysis. The results indicate that the education research article methods section…

  11. Summary of U.S. research on wood transportation structures

    Treesearch

    M. A. Ritter; R. C. Moody; S. R. Duwadi

    1996-01-01

    An extensive U.S. research program to further develop wood utilization in transportation structures is currently in progress as a joint effort of the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, and the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. This research is funded primarily by U.S. legislation and involves cooperative research with...

  12. Magnetic Properties of Surface Sediments in Small Temperate Lakes: Modern Analogues for Paleolimnologic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascu, I.; Plank, C.

    2007-12-01

    Magnetic properties of lake sediments are routinely measured as part of paleolimnological and paleoclimatic research. Basic parameters such as magnetic susceptibility (MS), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) are used for correlating cores from different sites in the same basin, tracking erosion history and lake level changes, or investigating eutrophication and microbial processes. However, a detailed investigation of the syn-depositional processes that control the distribution of magnetic minerals across lake basins is lacking for most types of lake systems. In order to understand the main controls on environmental magnetic records, we systematically investigated the magnetic properties of surface sediments collected along transects in nine Minnesota lakes. The lakes are small (<1 sq. km), have simple morphologies, are hydrologically closed, and are distributed across an east-west moisture gradient, as well as a north-south temperature gradient. The structure of lake water columns was investigated by measuring temperature, specific conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Sediment composition was determined via loss on ignition (LOI). The magnetic properties of the sediments reflect the change in depositional environments from shallow to deep water, as defined in sedimentological context by LOI and sediment granulometry. All lake basins exhibit a characteristic pattern in terms of concentration (MS and IRM) and grain size (ARM/IRM) of magnetic minerals. Sediments above wave base (0.5 m) have high concentrations of coarse grained magnetic minerals. Below wave base, but in the thermally mixed layer, magnetic particles are finer-grained and present in lower concentrations. Profundal slope sediments are characterized by variable magnetic and compositional parameters, indicative of a dynamic sedimentological and geochemical environment. In the deep, anoxic regions, magnetic concentration increases again, associated

  13. The influence of small intestinal mucus structure on particle transport ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Bajka, Balázs H; Rigby, Neil M; Cross, Kathryn L; Macierzanka, Adam; Mackie, Alan R

    2015-11-01

    Mucus provides a barrier to bacteria and toxins while allowing nutrient absorption and waste transport. Unlike colonic mucus, small intestinal mucus structure is poorly understood. This study aimed to provide evidence for a continuous, structured mucus layer and assess the diffusion of different sized particles through it. Mucus structure was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Ultra-structure was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Tracking of 100 nm and 500 nm latex beads was conducted using ex vivo porcine mucus. The porcine jejunum and ileum were filled with mucus. Layered MUC2 staining was visible throughout the small intestine, covering villus tips. Scanning electron microscopy showed net-like mucin sheets covering villi (211 ± 7 nm pore diameter). Particle tracking of 100 nm latex beads, showed no inhibition of diffusion through mucus while 500 nm beads displayed limited diffusion. These results suggest a continuous mucus layer exists throughout the small intestine, which is highly stratified adjacent to the epithelium. The network observed is consistent with previous observations and correlates with stratified MUC2 staining. Mucin pore size is consistent with free diffusion of 100 nm and limited diffusion of 500 nm particles. Small Intestinal mucus structure has important implications for drug delivery systems and prevention and treatment of conditions like mucositis and inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Silica glass structure generation for ab initio calculations using small samples of amorphous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ginhoven, Renée M.; Jónsson, Hannes; Corrales, L. René

    2005-01-01

    Multiple small samples of amorphous silica have been generated and optimized using classical dynamics and the van Beest-Kramer-van Santen (BKS) empirical potential function. The samples were subsequently optimized and annealed using density functional theory (DFT) with both the local density and the generalized gradient approximations. A thorough analysis of the local and medium-range structure of the optimized samples obtained from the different methods was carried out. The structural characteristics obtained for the average of small systems each containing ca. 100 ions are compared for each of the different methods, and to the BKS simulation of a larger system. The differences found between the DFT and BKS simulations and the effects of volume relaxation on the structures are discussed. Fixed-volume samples are compared to neutron scattering data, with good agreement to 5Å , the length limit of the sample sizes used here. It is shown that by creating multiple small samples, it is possible to achieve a good statistical sampling of structural features consistent with larger simulated glass systems. This study also shows that multiple small samples are necessary to capture the structural distribution of silica glass, and therefore to study more complex processes in glass, such as reactions.

  15. Formation of the small-scale structure of auroral electron precipitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropotkin, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    This paper is aimed at physical causes of the small-scale transverse structure in the flows of auroral electrons, generating the corresponding small-scale structure of discrete auroras. The parallel electric field existing in the lower part of the auroral magnetosphere, in the auroral cavity region, in the presence of a strong upward field-aligned current, accelerates magnetospheric electrons to energies of ∼ 1 - 10 keV. The flow of these particles while maintaining the high density of the field-aligned current, produces a current-driven instability, which generates Alfvénic turbulence at short perpendicular wavelengths ≤ 1 km. These short-wavelength inertial Alfvén disturbances possess a nonzero parallell electric field, which modulates the electron flow velocity. The modulation occurring at high altitudes ≥104 km leads to a nonlinear effect of formation of strong density peaks at low altitudes of electron precipitation. The transverse, horizontal scales of the corresponding electron flow structure coincide with the small scales of the Alfvénic turbulence; and this structuring leads to non-uniformities in the auroral luminosity on the same scales, i.e., to small-scale structure of discrete auroras.

  16. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples.

    PubMed

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.

  17. Systems analysis for the development of small resource recovery systems: research and development needs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crnkovich, P G; Helmstetter, A J

    1980-10-01

    The technologies that should be developed to make small-scale solid waste processing facilities attractive and viable for small municipalities with solid waste between 50 and 250 tons per day are identified. Research and development needs for refuse derived fuel systems, thermal systems, and biological processes are listed. Selected research and development needs discussed for mechanical processing systems are: develop data bank for low-cost, low-energy shredder options; develop performance data for shredders applied after separation; develop data bank for Trommel performance; and identification and evaluation of low-cost materials separation equipment. Selected research and development needs discussed for thermal systems are: emission levels from solid/waste/to/energy systems; determination of the theoretical efficiencies for thermal processing systems; boiler erosion/corrosion evaluation for systems firing refuse derived fuel; optimization of feed and ash handling systems; refractory life and maintenance requirements; development of 5- to 20-TPD systems; and optimization studies of control systems for small modular incinerators. Selected research and development needs discussed for biological processing systems are: optimum design and operation to maximize gas recovery rates and investigate process configuration alternatives for anaerobic digesters.

  18. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: A Mixed Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples

    PubMed Central

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research, but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data, but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-Means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data, and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a “real-world” example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities. PMID:25946969

  19. Graph analysis of structural brain networks in Alzheimer's disease: beyond small world properties.

    PubMed

    John, Majnu; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Ferbinteanu, Janina

    2017-03-01

    Changes in brain connectivity in patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been investigated using graph analysis. However, these studies were based on small data sets, explored a limited range of network parameters, and did not focus on more restricted sub-networks, where neurodegenerative processes may introduce more prominent alterations. In this study, we constructed structural brain networks out of 87 regions using data from 135 healthy elders and 100 early AD patients selected from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS) database. We evaluated the graph properties of these networks by investigating metrics of network efficiency, small world properties, segregation, product measures of complexity, and entropy. Because degenerative processes take place at different rates in different brain areas, analysis restricted to sub-networks may reveal changes otherwise undetected. Therefore, we first analyzed the graph properties of a network encompassing all brain areas considered together, and then repeated the analysis after dividing the brain areas into two sub-networks constructed by applying a clustering algorithm. At the level of large scale network, the analysis did not reveal differences between AD patients and controls. In contrast, the same analysis performed on the two sub-networks revealed that small worldness diminished with AD only in the sub-network containing the areas of medial temporal lobe known to be heaviest and earliest affected. The second sub-network, which did not present significant AD-induced modifications of 'classical' small world parameters, nonetheless showed a trend towards an increase in small world propensity, a novel metric that unbiasedly quantifies small world structure. Beyond small world properties, complexity and entropy measures indicated that the intricacy of connection patterns and structural diversity decreased in both sub-networks. These results show that neurodegenerative processes impact volumetric

  20. Development of the West Virginia University Small Microgravity Research Facility (WVU SMiRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Kyle G.

    West Virginia University (WVU) has created the Small Microgravity Research Facility (SMiRF) drop tower through a WVU Research Corporation Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (PSCoR) grant on its campus to increase direct access to inexpensive and repeatable reduced gravity research. In short, a drop tower is a tall structure from which experimental payloads are dropped, in a controlled environment, and experience reduced gravity or microgravity (i.e. "weightlessness") during free fall. Currently, there are several methods for conducting scientific research in microgravity including drop towers, parabolic flights, sounding rockets, suborbital flights, NanoSats, CubeSats, full-sized satellites, manned orbital flight, and the International Space Station (ISS). However, none of the aforementioned techniques is more inexpensive or has the capability of frequent experimentation repeatability as drop tower research. These advantages are conducive to a wide variety of experiments that can be inexpensively validated, and potentially accredited, through repeated, reliable research that permits frequent experiment modification and re-testing. Development of the WVU SMiRF, or any drop tower, must take a systems engineering approach that may include the detailed design of several main components, namely: the payload release system, the payload deceleration system, the payload lifting and transfer system, the drop tower structure, and the instrumentation and controls system, as well as a standardized drop tower payload frame for use by those researchers who cannot afford to spend money on a data acquisition system or frame. In addition to detailed technical development, a budgetary model by which development took place is also presented throughout, summarized, and detailed in an appendix. After design and construction of the WVU SMiRF was complete, initial calibration provided performance characteristics at various payload weights, and full-scale checkout via

  1. Small Business Innovation Research. Program solicitation. Closing date: July 21, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) invites small businesses to submit Phase 1 proposals in response to its Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program Solicitation 92-1. Firms with research or research and development capabilities (R/R&D) in science or engineering in any of the areas listed are encouraged to participate. This, the tenth annual SBIR solicitation by NASA, describes the program, identifies eligibility requirements, describes the proposal evaluation and award selection process, and provides other information to assist those interested in participating in NASA's SBIR program. It also identifies, in Section 8.0, the technical topics and subtopics in which SBIR Phase 1 proposals are solicited in 1992. These topics and subtopics cover a broad range of current NASA interests but do not necessarily include all areas in which NASA plans or currently conducts research. The NASA SBIR program seeks innovative approaches that respond to the needs, technical requirements, and new opportunities described in the subtopics. The focus is on innovation through the use of emerging technologies, novel applications of existing technologies, exploitation of scientific breakthroughs, or new capabilities or major improvements to existing technologies. NASA plans to select about 320 high-quality research or research and development proposals for Phase 1 contract awards on the basis of this Solicitation. Phase 1 contracts are normally six months in duration and funded up to $50,000, including profit. Selections will be based on the competitive merits of the offers and on NASA needs and priorities.

  2. Research priorities for conservation and natural resource management in Oceania's small island developing states.

    PubMed

    Weeks, R; Adams, V M

    2017-06-06

    For conservation science to effectively inform management, research must focus on creating the scientific knowledge required to solve conservation problems. We report the outcomes of an exercise to identify research questions that, if answered, would increase the effectiveness of conservation and natural resource management practice and policy within Oceania's small island developing states. Respondents from academia, government, and nongovernment organizations across the region surveyed online proposed 270 questions, and subsequently identified 38 of these as high priority. High priority questions speak to the particular challenges of undertaking conservation within small island developing states, and the need for a research agenda that is responsive to the socio-cultural context of Oceania. Our comparison with research priorities identified globally and for other regions revealed broad thematic similarities but also highlighted important differences in specific issues that are relevant to particular conservation contexts. This emphasizes the importance of involving local practitioners in the identification of research priorities. We found that priorities were reasonably well aligned between sectoral groups. Only a few questions were widely considered to be already answered; this may indicate a smaller than expected knowledge-action gap. We hope that these questions can act to strengthen research collaborations between scientists and practitioners working to further conservation and natural resource management in this region. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Beyond traditional advertisements: leveraging Facebook's social structures for research recruitment.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Rupa S; Guterbock, Thomas M; Thompson, Morgan J; Reilly, Jeremiah D; Menefee, Hannah K; Bennici, Maria S; Williams, Ishan C; Rexrode, Deborah L

    2014-10-27

    of administrators. Excluding personnel time, the first recruitment method resulted in no direct costs, and the second recruitment method resulted in a total direct cost of US $118.17. Messages, posts, and comments received using both recruitment strategies reflected ten themes, including appreciation, assistance, clarification, concerns, encouragement, health information, interest, promotion, solicitations, and support. Both recruitment methods produced mixed results regarding sample representativeness with respect to characteristics such as gender, race, and ethnicity. The results of the study demonstrate that leveraging the social structures of Facebook for health-related research was feasible for obtaining small samples appropriate for qualitative research but not for obtaining large samples needed for quantitative research. The content of interactions with members of the target population prompted ethical deliberations concerning suitable target communities and appropriate boundaries between researchers and participants. Widespread replication of this method would benefit from a broad discussion among researchers, social media users, social media companies, and experts in research ethics to address appropriate protocols for such interactions.

  4. Organisation of autonomic nervous structures in the small intestine of chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, Molina).

    PubMed

    Nowak, E

    2014-08-01

    Using histochemical, histological and immunocytochemical methods, organisation of the autonomic nerve structures in small intestine of chinchilla was investigated. Myenteric plexus was localised between circular and longitudinal layers of the smooth muscles. Forming network nodes, the small autonomic, cholinergic ganglia were linked with the bundles of nerve fibres. Adrenergic structures were visible as specific varicose, rosary-like fibres forming bundles of parallel fibres connecting network nodes. Structures of the submucosal plexus formed a finer network than those of the myenteric plexus. Moreover, in 'whole-mount' specimens, fibres forming thick perivascular plexuses were also observed. Immunocytochemical studies confirmed the cholinergic and adrenergic character of the investigated structures. VAChT-positive neurones were found only in myenteric plexus, and numerous VAChT-positive and DBH-positive fibres were found in both plexuses.

  5. Structural biology computing: Lessons for the biomedical research sciences.

    PubMed

    Morin, Andrew; Sliz, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    The field of structural biology, whose aim is to elucidate the molecular and atomic structures of biological macromolecules, has long been at the forefront of biomedical sciences in adopting and developing computational research methods. Operating at the intersection between biophysics, biochemistry, and molecular biology, structural biology's growth into a foundational framework on which many concepts and findings of molecular biology are interpreted1 has depended largely on parallel advancements in computational tools and techniques. Without these computing advances, modern structural biology would likely have remained an exclusive pursuit practiced by few, and not become the widely practiced, foundational field it is today. As other areas of biomedical research increasingly embrace research computing techniques, the successes, failures and lessons of structural biology computing can serve as a useful guide to progress in other biomedically related research fields. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effects of weight loss on structural and functional alterations of subcutaneous small arteries in obese patients.

    PubMed

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Corbellini, Claudia; La Boria, Elisa; Boari, Gianluca E M; Pilu, Annamaria; Mittempergher, Francesco; Di Betta, Ernesto; Casella, Claudio; Nascimbeni, Riccardo; Rosei, Claudia Agabiti; Ruggeri, Giuseppina; Caimi, Luigi; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti

    2011-07-01

    Structural alterations of subcutaneous small resistance arteries, as indicated by an increased media:lumen ratio, are frequently present in hypertensive and/or diabetic patients and may represent the earliest alteration observed. In addition, media:lumen ratios of small arteries have a strong prognostic significance. However, no data are available about the structure of small resistance arteries of obese patients, particularly after weight loss. We have investigated 27 patients with severe obesity. Twelve of them were normotensive, and 15 were hypertensive. All of the obese patients underwent bariatric surgery. We compared results obtained with those observed in 13 normotensive lean controls and in 13 hypertensive lean patients. All of the subjects and patients underwent a biopsy of subcutaneous fat during surgical intervention. In 8 obese patients, a second biopsy was obtained after consistent weight loss, during a surgical intervention for abdominoplasty. Subcutaneous small resistance arteries were dissected and mounted on a wire myograph, and structural parameters were measured. A concentration-response curve to acetylcholine was performed to evaluate endothelial function. Obese patients, independent from the presence of hypertension, show the presence of an increased media:lumen ratio and media cross-sectional area, together with an impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. After surgical correction of obesity and consistent weight loss, a significant improvement of microvascular structure and of some oxidative stress/inflammation markers were observed. In conclusion, our data suggest that the presence of obesity is associated with structural alterations of subcutaneous small resistance arteries, mainly characterized by hypertrophic remodeling. Weight loss may improve microvascular structure.

  7. Poetic forms and structures in qualitative health research.

    PubMed

    Furman, Rich

    2006-04-01

    In this article, the author explores the uses of poetic forms in qualitative health research, analyzing thematically a poem written from a patient's perspective of being treated in an emergency room. From the themes identified, he created two "research poems" using two formal poetic structures: the French-Malaysian pantoum, and the Japanese-inspired American tanka. The author contextualizes this research through an exploration of the arts and poetry as qualitative research.

  8. A novel method for the identification of conserved structural patterns in RNA: From small scale to high-throughput applications.

    PubMed

    Pietrosanto, Marco; Mattei, Eugenio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Ferrè, Fabrizio

    2016-10-14

    Functional RNA regions are often related to recurrent secondary structure patterns (or motifs), which can exert their role in several different ways, particularly in dictating the interaction with RNA-binding proteins, and acting in the regulation of a large number of cellular processes. Among the available motif-finding tools, the majority focuses on sequence patterns, sometimes including secondary structure as additional constraints to improve their performance. Nonetheless, secondary structures motifs may be concurrent to their sequence counterparts or even encode a stronger functional signal. Current methods for searching structural motifs generally require long pipelines and/or high computational efforts or previously aligned sequences. Here, we present BEAM (BEAr Motif finder), a novel method for structural motif discovery from a set of unaligned RNAs, taking advantage of a recently developed encoding for RNA secondary structure named BEAR (Brand nEw Alphabet for RNAs) and of evolutionary substitution rates of secondary structure elements. Tested in a varied set of scenarios, from small- to large-scale, BEAM is successful in retrieving structural motifs even in highly noisy data sets, such as those that can arise in CLIP-Seq or other high-throughput experiments. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Small karstic Dobra River (Croatia) suggested as natural laboratory for impactite research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Sikder, Arif M.

    2016-04-01

    An unexpected anomaly of magnetic susceptibility (MS) was observed in stream sediments of the upper course of the karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Preliminary results pointed to a possible impactite, formed by a shock event caused by a meteorite impact or by volcanic processes [1]. In addition to geophysical experiments, petrological and geochemical studies are reported [2, 3]. The multidisciplinary work for identification and confirmation of impact structure is still in progress. Results will be presented and the difficulties due to weathering and transport processes will be discussed and compared with recent literature [4, 5]. In reported results numerous evidences exist, which are in support of impact origin, such as vesicular glass with quench texture, ballen textures in the lechatelierite, presence of Troilite, etc. We suggest that the Dobra River from its source to the abyss in Ogulin (Upper Dobra) is a possible natural laboratory for studying processes of mixing between impactite material and fluvial sediments within a small area, including spherules exposed to water and in the overbank sediments. Especially the introduction of isotope studies in this research and enlargement of multinational team of experts are suggested. Literature: [1] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Scholger, R., Tomašić, N., Maldini, K. (2014): Magnetic spherules in sediments of the sinking karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Journal of soils and sediments 14(3), 600-614. [2] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Sikder, A.M., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Garman, G.C. (2015): Traces of meteorite impact in the sediments of karstic Dobra River (Croatia). 15th International multidisciplinary scientific geoconference SGEM 2015 Conference proceedings, Vol. 1, 507-514. [3] Sikder, A.M., Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Clifford, D.M., Turner, J.B., Garman, G.C. (2015): Petrographic analysis of the magnetic spherules from the sediments of karastic Dobra River

  10. Modeling the Structure of RNA Molecules with Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Data

    PubMed Central

    Gajda, Michal Jan; Martinez Zapien, Denise; Uchikawa, Emiko; Dock-Bregeon, Anne-Catherine

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel fragment assembly method for low-resolution modeling of RNA and show how it may be used along with small-angle X-ray solution scattering (SAXS) data to model low-resolution structures of particles having as many as 12 independent secondary structure elements. We assessed this model-building procedure by using both artificial data on a previously proposed benchmark and publicly available data. With the artificial data, SAXS-guided models show better similarity to native structures than ROSETTA decoys. The publicly available data showed that SAXS-guided models can be used to reinterpret RNA structures previously deposited in the Protein Data Bank. Our approach allows for fast and efficient building of de novo models of RNA using approximate secondary structures that can be readily obtained from existing bioinformatic approaches. We also offer a rigorous assessment of the resolving power of SAXS in the case of small RNA structures, along with a small multimetric benchmark of the proposed method. PMID:24223750

  11. The Use of Additive Manufacturing for Fabrication of Multi-Function Small Satellite Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Horais, Brian J; Love, Lonnie J; Dehoff, Ryan R

    2013-01-01

    The use of small satellites in constellations is limited only by the growing functionality of smallsats themselves. Additive manufacturing provides exciting new design opportunities for development of multifunction CubeSat structures that integrate such functions as propulsion and thermal control into the satellite structures themselves. Manufacturing of these complex multifunction structures is now possible in lightweight, high strength, materials such as titanium by using existing electron beam melting additive manufacturing processes. However, the use of today's additive manufacturing capabilities is often cost-prohibitive for small companies due to the large capital investments required. To alleviate this impediment the U.S. Department of Energy has established a Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at their Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee that provides industry access to a broad range of energy-efficient additive manufacturing equipment for collaborative use by both small and large organizations. This paper presents a notional CubeSat multifunction design that integrates the propulsion system into a three-unit (3U) CubeSat structure. The full-scale structure has been designed and fabricated at the ORNL MDF. The use of additive manufacturing for spacecraft fabrication is opening up many new possibilities in design and fabrication capabilities for what had previously been impossible structures to fabricate.

  12. Low-rank network decomposition reveals structural characteristics of small-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranca, Victor J.; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2015-12-01

    Small-world networks occur naturally throughout biological, technological, and social systems. With their prevalence, it is particularly important to prudently identify small-world networks and further characterize their unique connection structure with respect to network function. In this work we develop a formalism for classifying networks and identifying small-world structure using a decomposition of network connectivity matrices into low-rank and sparse components, corresponding to connections within clusters of highly connected nodes and sparse interconnections between clusters, respectively. We show that the network decomposition is independent of node indexing and define associated bounded measures of connectivity structure, which provide insight into the clustering and regularity of network connections. While many existing network characterizations rely on constructing benchmark networks for comparison or fail to describe the structural properties of relatively densely connected networks, our classification relies only on the intrinsic network structure and is quite robust with respect to changes in connection density, producing stable results across network realizations. Using this framework, we analyze several real-world networks and reveal new structural properties, which are often indiscernible by previously established characterizations of network connectivity.

  13. sRNAtoolbox: an integrated collection of small RNA research tools

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Antonio; Barturen, Guillermo; Lebrón, Ricardo; Gómez-Martín, Cristina; Alganza, Ángel; Oliver, José L.; Hackenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA research is a rapidly growing field. Apart from microRNAs, which are important regulators of gene expression, other types of functional small RNA molecules have been reported in animals and plants. MicroRNAs are important in host-microbe interactions and parasite microRNAs might modulate the innate immunity of the host. Furthermore, small RNAs can be detected in bodily fluids making them attractive non-invasive biomarker candidates. Given the general broad interest in small RNAs, and in particular microRNAs, a large number of bioinformatics aided analysis types are needed by the scientific community. To facilitate integrated sRNA research, we developed sRNAtoolbox, a set of independent but interconnected tools for expression profiling from high-throughput sequencing data, consensus differential expression, target gene prediction, visual exploration in a genome context as a function of read length, gene list analysis and blast search of unmapped reads. All tools can be used independently or for the exploration and downstream analysis of sRNAbench results. Workflows like the prediction of consensus target genes of parasite microRNAs in the host followed by the detection of enriched pathways can be easily established. The web-interface interconnecting all these tools is available at http://bioinfo5.ugr.es/srnatoolbox PMID:26019179

  14. Simulation and experiment research of aerodynamic performance of small axial fans with struts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wei; Lin, Peifeng; Zhang, Li; Jin, Yingzi; Wang, Yanping; Kim, Heuy Dong; Setoguchi, Toshiaki

    2016-06-01

    Interaction between rotor and struts has great effect on the performance of small axial fan systems. The small axial fan systems are selected as the studied objects in this paper, and four square struts are downstream of the rotor. The cross section of the struts is changed to the cylindrical shapes for the investigation: one is in the same hydraulic diameter as the square struts and another one is in the same cross section as the square struts. Influence of the shape of the struts on the static pressure characteristics, the internal flow and the sound emission of the small axial fans are studied. Standard K-ɛ turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm are applied in the calculation of the steady fluid field, and the curves of the pressure rising against the flow rate are obtained, which demonstrates that the simulation results are in nice consistence with the experimental data. The steady calculation results are set as the initial field in the unsteady calculation. Large eddy simulation and PISO algorithm are used in the transient calculation, and the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings model is introduced to predict the sound level at the eight monitoring points. The research results show that: the static pressure coefficients of the fan with cylindrical struts increase by about 25% compared to the fan with square struts, and the efficiencies increase by about 28.6%. The research provides a theoretical guide for shape optimization and noise reduction of small axial fan with struts.

  15. NASA's Management and Utilization of the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mexcur, Winfield Paul

    2003-01-01

    The United Space Congress established the SBIR program in 1982 for the following purposes: ( 1) Stimulate technological innovation (2) Increase private-sector commercialization derived from federal R&D (3) Use small business to meet federal R&D needs (4) Foster and encourage participation by disadvantaged persons and women in technological innovation The STTR program was established in 1992 with the additional requirement of having a small business partner with a research institution (usually a university) for the purpose of transferring intellectual property from the research institution to the small business concern for enabling a government technical need and furthering the technological development for the purpose of developing commercial products. The government of Japan has established a program that models portions of the U.S. SBIR and STTR programs. They are very interested in how NASA has been so successful in fulfilling the Congressional objectives of these programs. In particular, they want to understand the management practices and incentives that are provided to enable partnerships between business enterprises, academia and government. The speech will also focus on some of the many successful technologies (on a conceptual level) that have been developed through NASA s SBIR and STTR programs and mechanisms used to promote cooperation between small businesses, large businesses, academia and government agencies within the United States. The speech is on a conceptual level, focusing on U.S. and NASA policies and management implementation practices. No enabling technical discussion will be held.

  16. NASA's Management and Utilization of the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mexcur, Winfield Paul

    2003-01-01

    The United Space Congress established the SBIR program in 1982 for the following purposes: ( 1) Stimulate technological innovation (2) Increase private-sector commercialization derived from federal R&D (3) Use small business to meet federal R&D needs (4) Foster and encourage participation by disadvantaged persons and women in technological innovation The STTR program was established in 1992 with the additional requirement of having a small business partner with a research institution (usually a university) for the purpose of transferring intellectual property from the research institution to the small business concern for enabling a government technical need and furthering the technological development for the purpose of developing commercial products. The government of Japan has established a program that models portions of the U.S. SBIR and STTR programs. They are very interested in how NASA has been so successful in fulfilling the Congressional objectives of these programs. In particular, they want to understand the management practices and incentives that are provided to enable partnerships between business enterprises, academia and government. The speech will also focus on some of the many successful technologies (on a conceptual level) that have been developed through NASA s SBIR and STTR programs and mechanisms used to promote cooperation between small businesses, large businesses, academia and government agencies within the United States. The speech is on a conceptual level, focusing on U.S. and NASA policies and management implementation practices. No enabling technical discussion will be held.

  17. Small Business Innovation Research. Program solicitation. Closing date: July 22, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The sixth annual Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) solicitation by NASA, describes the program, identifies eligibility requirements, outlines proposal preparation and submission requirements, describes the proposal evaluation and award selection process, and provides other information to assist those interested in participating in the SBIR program. It also identifies in Section 8.0 and Appendix D, the specific technical topics and subtopics in which SBIR Phase 1 proposals are solicited in 1988.

  18. Structural basis for small molecule targeting of the programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Krzysztof M.; Grudnik, Przemyslaw; Guzik, Katarzyna; Zieba, Bartosz J.; Musielak, Bogdan; Dömling, Alexander; Dubin, Grzegorz; Holak, Tad A.

    2016-01-01

    Targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 immunologic checkpoint with monoclonal antibodies has provided unprecedented results in cancer treatment in the recent years. Development of chemical inhibitors for this pathway lags the antibody development because of insufficient structural information. The first nonpeptidic chemical inhibitors that target the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction have only been recently disclosed by Bristol-Myers Squibb. Here, we show that these small-molecule compounds bind directly to PD-L1 and that they potently block PD-1 binding. Structural studies reveal a dimeric protein complex with a single small molecule which stabilizes the dimer thus occluding the PD-1 interaction surface of PD-L1s. The small-molecule interaction “hot spots” on PD-L1 surfaces suggest approaches for the PD-1/PD-L1 antagonist drug discovery. PMID:27083005

  19. Effect of chenodiol on the small intestine. Unimpaired structure and function during therapy for gallstone dissolution.

    PubMed

    Casanova, S; Roda, A; Festi, D; Mazzella, G; Aldini, R; Bazzoli, F; Sama, C; Morselli, A M; Barbara, L; Roda, E

    1981-12-04

    To test whether long-term oral dosage with chenodiol (chenodeoxycholic acid) used for dissolution of cholesterol gallstones would cause impairment of small-intestinal structuree or function, ten patients were studied before and after three months of oral chenodiol administration, 15 mg/kg of body weight per day. Small-intestinal structure was assessed by roentgenogram and intestinal biopsy, using both light and electron microscopy. Small-intestinal function was assessed by xylose, fat and vitamin B12, lactose, and bile-acid absorption. Bile acid metabolism was also characterized by the breath test for deconjugation using carbon dioxide labeled with radioactive carbon 14. No significant abnormalities were found. The results suggest that oral chenodiol administration does not impair intestinal structur or function in doses used for gallstone dissolution.

  20. [Experience in simulating the structural and dynamic features of small proteins using table supercomputers].

    PubMed

    Kondrat'ev, M S; Kabanov, A V; Komarov, V M; Khechinashvili, N N; Samchenko, A A

    2011-01-01

    The results of theoretical studies of the structural and dynamic features of peptides and small proteins have been presented that were carried out by quantum chemical and molecular dynamics methods in high-performance graphic stations, "table supercomputers", using distributed calculations by the CUDA technology.

  1. Structural connectivity within neural ganglia: A default small-world network.

    PubMed

    Ould Ismail, Abdol Aziz O; Amouzandeh, Ghoncheh; Grant, Samuel C

    2016-11-19

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides a unique contrast based on the restricted directionality of water movement in an anisotropic environment. As such, DTI-based tractography can be used to characterize and quantify the structural connectivity within neural tissue. Here, DTI-based connectivity within isolated abdominal ganglia of Aplysia californica (ABG) is analyzed using network theory. In addition to quantifying the regional physical proprieties of the fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient, DTI tractography was used to probe inner-connections of local communities, yielding unweighted, undirected graphs that represent community structures. Local and global efficiency, characteristic path lengths and clustering analysis are performed on both experimental and simulated data. The relevant intensity by which these specific nodes communicate is probed through weighted clustering coefficient measurements. Both small-worldness and novel small-world metrics were used as tools to verify the small-world properties for the experimental results. The aim of this manuscript is to categorize the properties exhibited by structural networks in a model neural tissue to derive unique mean field information that quantitatively describe macroscopic connectivity. For ABG, findings demonstrate a default structural network with preferential specific small-world properties when compared to simulated lattice and random networks that are equivalent in order and degree. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural lumber from dense stands of small-diameter Douglas-fir trees.

    Treesearch

    David W. Green; Eini C. Lowell; Roland. Hernandez

    2005-01-01

    Small-diameter trees growing in overstocked dense stands are often targeted for thinning to reduce fire hazard and improve forest health and ecosystem diversity. In the Pacific Northwest and Intermountain regions, Douglas-fir can be a predominant species in such stands. In this study, mechanical properties and grade yield of structural products were estimated for 2 by...

  3. Evaluating Small Sample Approaches for Model Test Statistics in Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevitt, Jonathan; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2004-01-01

    Through Monte Carlo simulation, small sample methods for evaluating overall data-model fit in structural equation modeling were explored. Type I error behavior and power were examined using maximum likelihood (ML), Satorra-Bentler scaled and adjusted (SB; Satorra & Bentler, 1988, 1994), residual-based (Browne, 1984), and asymptotically…

  4. Small-diameter log evaluation for value-added structural applications

    Treesearch

    Ronald. Wolfe; Cassandra. Moseley

    2000-01-01

    Three species of small-diameter logs from the Klamath/Siskiyou Mountains and the Cascade Range in southwest Oregon were tested for their potential for value-added structural applications. The logs were tested in bending and compression parallel to the grain. Strength and stiffness values were correlated to possible nondestructive evaluation grading parameters and...

  5. Reconstruction of three-dimensional anisotropic structure from small-angle scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guan-Rong; Wang, Yangyang; Wu, Bin; Wang, Zhe; Do, Changwoo; Smith, Gregory S.; Bras, Wim; Porcar, Lionel; Falus, Péter; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2017-08-01

    When subjected to flow, the structures of many soft-matter systems become anisotropic due to the symmetry breaking of the spatial arrangements of constituent particles at the microscopic level. At present, it is common practice to use various small-angle scattering techniques to explore flow-induced microstructural distortion. However, there has not been a thorough discussion in the literature on how a three-dimensional anisotropic structure can be faithfully reconstructed from two-dimensional small-angle scattering spectra. In this work, we address this issue rigorously from a mathematical perspective by using real spherical harmonic expansion analysis. We first show that, except for cases in which mechanical perturbation is sufficiently small, the existing small-angle scattering techniques generally do not provide complete information on structural distortion. This limitation is caused by the linear dependence of certain real spherical harmonic basis vectors on the flow-vorticity and flow-velocity gradient planes in the Couette shear cell. To circumvent the constraint imposed by this geometry, an alternative approach is proposed in which a parallel sliding plate shear cell is used with a central rotary axis along the flow direction. From the calculation of rotation of the reference frame, we demonstrate the feasibility of this experimental implementation for a fully resolved three-dimensional anisotropic structure via a case study of sheared polymers.

  6. Nuclear structure research. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    The most significant development this year has been the realization that EO transition strength is a fundamental manifestation of nuclear mean-square charge radius differences. Thus, EO transitions provide a fundamental signature for shape coexistence in nuclei. In this sense, EO transitions are second only to E2 transitions for signaling (quadrupole) shapes in nuclei and do so when shape differences occur. A major effort has been devoted to the review of EO transitions in nuclei. Experiments have been carried out or are scheduled at: ATLAS/FMA ({alpha} decay of very neutron-deficient Bi isotopes); MSU/NSCL ({beta} decay of {sup 56}Cu); and HRIBF/RMS (commissioning of tape collector, internal conversion/internal-pair spectrometer; {beta} decay of {sup 58}Cu). A considerable effort has been devoted to planning the nuclear structure physics that will be pursued using HRIBF. Theoretical investigations have continued in collaboration with Prof. K. Heyde, Prof. D.J. Rowe, Prof. J.O. Rasmussen, and Prof. P.B. Semmes. These studies focus on shape coexistence and particle-core coupling.

  7. Nuclear structure research. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.L.

    1995-07-31

    The most significant development this year has been the realization of a method for estimating EO transition strength in nuclei and the prediction that the de-excitation (draining) of superdeformed bands must take place, at least in some cases, by strong EO transitions. A considerable effort has been devoted to planning the nuclear structure physics that will be pursued using the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge. A significant effort has been devoted to HRIBF target development. This is a critical component of the HRIBF project. Exhaustive literature searches have been made for a variety of target materials with emphasis on thermodynamic properties. Vapor pressure measurements have been carried out. Experimental data sets for radioactive decays in the very neutron-deficient Pr-Eu and Ir-Tl regions have been under analysis. These decay schemes constitute parts of student Ph.D. theses. These studies are aimed at elucidating the onset of deformation in the Pr-Sm region and the characteristics of shape coexistence in the Ir-Bi region. Further experiments on shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient Ir-Bi region are planned using {alpha} decay studies at the FMA at ATLAS. The first experiment is scheduled for later this year.

  8. An integrated multimodality image-guided robot system for small-animal imaging research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Wen-Lin; Hsin Wu, Tung; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Chen, Chia-Lin; Lee, Jason J. S.; Huang, Yung-Hui

    2011-10-01

    We design and construct an image-guided robot system for use in small-animal imaging research. This device allows the use of co-registered small-animal PET-MRI images to guide the movements of robotic controllers, which will accurately place a needle probe at any predetermined location inside, for example, a mouse tumor, for biological readouts without sacrificing the animal. This system is composed of three major components: an automated robot device, a CCD monitoring mechanism, and a multimodality registration implementation. Specifically, the CCD monitoring mechanism was used for correction and validation of the robot device. To demonstrate the value of the proposed system, we performed a tumor hypoxia study that involved FMISO small-animal PET imaging and the delivering of a pO 2 probe into the mouse tumor using the image-guided robot system. During our evaluation, the needle positioning error was found to be within 0.153±0.042 mm of desired placement; the phantom simulation errors were within 0.693±0.128 mm. In small-animal studies, the pO 2 probe measurements in the corresponding hypoxia areas showed good correlation with significant, low tissue oxygen tensions (less than 6 mmHg). We have confirmed the feasibility of the system and successfully applied it to small-animal investigations. The system could be easily adapted to extend to other biomedical investigations in the future.

  9. High Power Microwave Emission of Large and Small Orbit Gyrotron Devices in Rectangular Interaction Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochman, J. M.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Jaynes, R. L.; Rintamaki, J. I.; Luginsland, J. W.; Lau, Y. Y.; Spencer, T. A.

    1996-11-01

    Experiments utilize large and small orbit e-beam gyrotron devices in a rectangular-cross-section (RCS) gyrotron. This device is being explored to examine polarization control. Other research issues include pulse shortening, and mode competition. MELBA generates electron beams with parameters of: -800kV, 1-10kA diode current, and 0.5-1.0 μ sec pulselengths. The small orbit gyrotron device is converted to a large orbit experiment by running MELBA's annular electron beam through a magnetic cusp. Initial experiments showed an increase in beam alpha (V_perp/V_par) of a factor of ~ 4 between small and large orbit devices. Experimental results from the RCS gyrotron will be compared for large-orbit and small-orbit electron beams. Beam transport data and frequency measurements will be presented. Computer modeling utilizing the MAGIC and E-gun codes will be shown.

  10. Advanced accelerator and mm-wave structure research at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna

    2016-06-22

    This document outlines acceleration projects and mm-wave structure research performed at LANL. The motivation for PBG research is described first, with reference to couplers for superconducting accelerators and structures for room-temperature accelerators and W-band TWTs. These topics are then taken up in greater detail: PBG structures and the MIT PBG accelerator; SRF PBG cavities at LANL; X-band PBG cavities at LANL; and W-band PBG TWT at LANL. The presentation concludes by describing other advanced accelerator projects: beam shaping with an Emittance Exchanger, diamond field emitter array cathodes, and additive manufacturing of novel accelerator structures.

  11. Structural dynamics technology research in NASA: Perspective on future needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The perspective of a NASA ad hoc study group on future research needs in structural dynamics within the aerospace industry is presented. The common aspects of the design process across the industry are identified and the role of structural dynamics is established through a discussion of various design considerations having their basis in structural dynamics. The specific structural dynamics issues involved are identified and assessed as to their current technological status and trends. Projections of future requirements based on this assessment are made and areas of research to meet them are identified.

  12. Multiple size scale structures in silica/siloxane composites studied by small-angle scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Beaucage, G.; Schaefer, D.W.; Ulibarri, T.; Black, E.

    1993-12-31

    The physical properties of in-situ produced composites, such as the TEOS-polysiloxane based systems, are directly related to the complex interaction of structural features from the nano- to macro-scopic scales. The nature of these structural interactions are a key element in understanding and controlling mechanical properties in these systems. We believe that the smallest scale structures, in the nanometer range, correlate with properties such as the modulus while large-scale structures on the micron scale effect failure in these materials. This paper discusses techniques for analysis of structural features and interrelation of structural features over these wide ranges of size using small-angle light, x-ray and neutron scattering. Combination of data from different instruments allows for characterization of the interaction between these different size scale features.

  13. Capitalizing on Community: the Small College Environment and the Development of Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoneking, M. R.

    2014-03-01

    Liberal arts colleges constitute an important source of and training ground for future scientists. At Lawrence University, we take advantage of our small college environment to prepare physics students for research careers by complementing content acquisition with skill development and project experience distributed throughout the curriculum and with co-curricular elements that are tied to our close-knit supportive physics community. Small classes and frequent contact between physics majors and faculty members offer opportunities for regular and detailed feedback on the development of research relevant skills such as laboratory record-keeping, data analysis, electronic circuit design, computational programming, experimental design and modification, and scientific communication. Part of our approach is to balance collaborative group work on small projects (such as Arduino-based electronics projects and optical design challenges) with independent work (on, for example, advanced laboratory experimental extensions and senior capstone projects). Communal spaces and specialized facilities (experimental and computational) and active on-campus research programs attract eager students to the program, establish a community-based atmosphere, provide unique opportunities for the development of research aptitude, and offer opportunities for genuine contribution to a research program. Recently, we have also been encouraging innovativetendencies in physics majors through intentional efforts to develop personal characteristics, encouraging students to become more tolerant of ambiguity, risk-taking, initiative-seeking, and articulate. Indicators of the success of our approach include the roughly ten physics majors who graduate each year and our program's high ranking among institutions whose graduates go on to receive the Ph.D. in physics. Work supported in part by the National Science Foundation.

  14. Complex sound stimuli representation by small neural groups in subcortical auditory structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyzwa, Dominika

    The neural representation of complex natural sound stimuli in higher auditory structures is not yet well understood. Based on neurophysiological recordings from the mammalian auditory midbrain, neural responses to complex (natural and also artificial) sounds are investigated and mapped with respect to temporal and spectral neural tuning in the subcortical structure. The mapping includes spiking activity of single neurons and small neural clusters and local field potential activity. A neural model is presented which captures the mapping and also the similarity of responses across the auditory structure, and is used to predict responses to novel sound. Financial support by Bernstein Focus Neural Technology Goettingen, Grant Number #01GQ0811.

  15. Universal small-scale structure in turbulence driven by magnetorotational instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Walker, Justin; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Lesur, Geoffroy

    2017-05-01

    The intermittent small-scale structure of turbulence governs energy dissipation in many astrophysical plasmas and is often believed to have universal properties for sufficiently large systems. In this work, we argue that small-scale turbulence in accretion discs is universal in the sense that it is insensitive to the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and background shear, and therefore indistinguishable from standard homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence at small scales. We investigate the intermittency of current density, vorticity and energy dissipation in numerical simulations of incompressible MHD turbulence driven by the MRI in a shearing box. We find that the simulations exhibit a similar degree of intermittency as in standard MHD turbulence. We perform a statistical analysis of intermittent dissipative structures and find that energy dissipation is concentrated in thin sheet-like structures that span a wide range of scales up to the box size. We show that these structures exhibit strikingly similar statistical properties to those in standard MHD turbulence. Additionally, the structures are oriented in the toroidal direction with a characteristic tilt of approximately 17.^{circ}5, implying an effective guide field in that direction.

  16. Personality Research Form: Factor Structure and Response Style Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, Lawrence J.

    1974-01-01

    Explores factor structure of the Personality Research Form (PRF) and examines the inventory's relations with response styles. In general, the PRF content scales correlate moderately with each other and with measures of acquiescence, social desirability, and defensiveness response biases. (Author)

  17. Micelle structural studies on oil solubilization by a small-angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman; Seong, Baek Seok; Ikram, Abarrul

    2009-02-01

    A small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique was applied to reveal the micelle structural changes. The micelle structural changes of 0.3 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentration by addition of various oil, i.e. n-hexane, n-octane, and n-decane up to 60% (v/v) have been investigated. It was found that the size, aggregation number and the structures of the micelles changed exhibiting that the effective charge on the micelle decreases with an addition of oil. There was a small increase in minor axis of micelle while the correlation peak shifted to a lower momentum transfer Q and then to higher Q by a further oil addition.

  18. Correlating Molecular Structures with Transport Dynamics in High-Efficiency Small-Molecule Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jiajun; Chen, Yani; Wu, Xiaohan; Zhang, Qian; Kan, Bin; Chen, Xiaoqing; Chen, Yongsheng; Huang, Jia; Liang, Ziqi

    2015-06-24

    Efficient charge transport is a key step toward high efficiency in small-molecule organic photovoltaics. Here we applied time-of-flight and organic field-effect transistor to complementarily study the influences of molecular structure, trap states, and molecular orientation on charge transport of small-molecule DRCN7T (D1) and its analogue DERHD7T (D2). It is revealed that, despite the subtle difference of the chemical structures, D1 exhibits higher charge mobility, the absence of shallow traps, and better photosensitivity than D2. Moreover, charge transport is favored in the out-of-plane structure within D1-based organic solar cells, while D2 prefers in-plane charge transport.

  19. Ordering of small particles in one-dimensional coherent structures by time-periodic flows.

    PubMed

    Pushkin, D O; Melnikov, D E; Shevtsova, V M

    2011-06-10

    Small particles transported by a fluid medium do not necessarily have to follow the flow. We show that for a wide class of time-periodic incompressible flows inertial particles have a tendency to spontaneously align in one-dimensional dynamic coherent structures. This effect may take place for particles so small that often they would be expected to behave as passive tracers and be used in PIV measurement technique. We link the particle tendency to form one-dimensional structures to the nonlinear phenomenon of phase locking. We propose that this general mechanism is, in particular, responsible for the enigmatic formation of the "particle accumulation structures" discovered experimentally in thermocapillary flows more than a decade ago and unexplained until now.

  20. A multifractal representation of the small-scale structure in a turbulent plume

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, R.I.; Gabruk, R.S.; Hen, D.S.

    1995-10-01

    An improved method for representing the small-scale structure of a turbulent scalar field using fractal recursion techniques is described. The model generalizes the fractal successive refinement method described by Sykes and Gabruk to include a more realistic description of the pseudodissipation field, that is, the square of the scalar gradient. Turbulent dissipation fields are known to be multifractal, so a multifractal generation technique has been incorporated into the fractal refinement model to yield a scalar field with fractal isosurfaces but with a multifractal pseudodissipation field. The model fields are compared with realizations from large-eddy simulations of turbulent scalar dispersion and shown to provide improved agreement with the small-scale structure. The simple combination of fractal and multifractal properties employed in the model also provides insight into the structure of the random scalar field. Finally, the generation technique is completely localized in physical space and is therefore applicable to inhomogeneous fields. 17 refs., 19 figs.

  1. Landau theory of crystallization and the capsid structures of small icosahedral viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorman, V. L.; Rochal, S. B.

    2008-06-01

    A new approach to the capsid structures of small viruses with spherical topology and icosahedral symmetry is proposed. It generalizes Landau theory of crystallization to describe icosahedral viral shells self-assembled from identical asymmetric proteins. An explicit method which predicts the positions of centers of mass for the proteins constituting the shell is discussed in detail. The method is based on irreducible density distribution function which generates the protein positions. The universal form of the density distribution function which contains no fitting parameter permits to classify the capsids structures of small viruses. The theory describes in a uniform way both the structures satisfying the well-known Caspar and Klug geometrical model for capsid construction and those violating it. A group theory analysis of the Caspar and Klug model and of the “quasiequivalence” principle for protein environments in viral capsids is given. The molecular basis of difference in protein environments and peculiarities in the assembly thermodynamics are also discussed.

  2. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  3. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  4. 77 FR 23228 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program-Phase II...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Public Law 106-554, the ``Small Business Reauthorization Act of 2000, H.R. 5667'' enacted on December 21... Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program--Phase II--Grant Application Package SUMMARY: This application package invites small business concerns to submit a Phase...

  5. 77 FR 23229 - Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program-Phase I-Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Law 106- 554, the ``Small Business Reauthorization Act of ] 2000, H.R. 5667'' enacted on December 21... Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program--Phase I--Grant Application Package SUMMARY: This application package invites small business concerns to submit a Phase I...

  6. Effects of manganese doping on the structure evolution of small-sized boron clusters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingquan; Qu, Xin; Wang, Yanchao; Lv, Jian; Zhang, Lijun; Hu, Ziyu; Gu, Guangrui; Ma, Yanming

    2017-07-05

    Atomic doping of clusters is known as an effective approach to stabilize or modify the structures and properties of resulting doped clusters. We herein report the effect of manganese (Mn) doping on the structure evolution of small-sized boron (B) clusters. The global minimum structures of both neutral and charged Mn doped B cluster [Formula: see text] (n  =  10-20 and Q  =  0, ±1) have been proposed through extensive first-principles swarm-intelligence based structure searches. It is found that Mn doping has significantly modified the grow behaviors of B clusters, leading to two novel structural transitions from planar to tubular and then to cage-like B structures in both neutral and charged species. Half-sandwich-type structures are most favorable for small [Formula: see text] (n  ⩽  13) clusters and gradually transform to Mn-centered double-ring tubular structures at [Formula: see text] clusters with superior thermodynamic stabilities compared with their neighbors. Most strikingly, endohedral cages become the ground-state structures for larger [Formula: see text] (n  ⩾  19) clusters, among which [Formula: see text] adopts a highly symmetric structure with superior thermodynamic stability and a large HOMO-LUMO gap of 4.53 eV. The unique stability of the endohedral [Formula: see text] cage is attributed to the geometric fit and formation of 18-electron closed-shell configuration. The results significantly advance our understanding about the structure and bonding of B-based clusters and strongly suggest transition-metal doping as a viable route to synthesize intriguing B-based nanomaterials.

  7. Structure and function of small heat shock/alpha-crystallin proteins: established concepts and emerging ideas.

    PubMed

    MacRae, T H

    2000-06-01

    Small heat shock/alpha-crystallin proteins are defined by conserved sequence of approximately 90 amino acid residues, termed the alpha-crystallin domain, which is bounded by variable amino- and carboxy-terminal extensions. These proteins form oligomers, most of uncertain quaternary structure, and oligomerization is prerequisite to their function as molecular chaperones. Sequence modelling and physical analyses show that the secondary structure of small heat shock/alpha-crystallin proteins is predominately beta-pleated sheet. Crystallography, site-directed spin-labelling and yeast two-hybrid selection demonstrate regions of secondary structure within the alpha-crystallin domain that interact during oligomer assembly, a process also dependent on the amino terminus. Oligomers are dynamic, exhibiting subunit exchange and organizational plasticity, perhaps leading to functional diversity. Exposure of hydrophobic residues by structural modification facilitates chaperoning where denaturing proteins in the molten globule state associate with oligomers. The flexible carboxy-terminal extension contributes to chaperone activity by enhancing the solubility of small heat shock/alpha-crystallin proteins. Site-directed mutagenesis has yielded proteins where the effect of the change on structure and function depends upon the residue modified, the organism under study and the analytical techniques used. Most revealing, substitution of a conserved arginine residue within the alpha-crystallin domain has a major impact on quaternary structure and chaperone action probably through realignment of beta-sheets. These mutations are linked to inherited diseases. Oligomer size is regulated by a stress-responsive cascade including MAPKAP kinase 2/3 and p38. Phosphorylation of small heat shock/alpha-crystallin proteins has important consequences within stressed cells, especially for microfilaments.

  8. Technical Note: Harmonizing met-ocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, Richard; Camossi, E.

    2016-01-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardised web services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using free technologies that are easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing standardised, service-based tools that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modellers continue to use their existing files and tools, while serving virtual data sets that can be used with standardised tools. The goal of this paper is to convince modellers that a standardised framework is not only useful but can be implemented with modest effort using free software components. We use NetCDF Markup language for data aggregation and standardisation, the THREDDS Data Server for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (MATLAB®) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.

  9. Technical note: Harmonising metocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signell, Richard P.; Camossi, Elena

    2016-05-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardised web services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using free technologies that are easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing standardised, service-based tools that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modellers continue to use their existing files and tools, while serving virtual data sets that can be used with standardised tools. The goal of this paper is to convince modellers that a standardised framework is not only useful but can be implemented with modest effort using free software components. We use NetCDF Markup language for data aggregation and standardisation, the THREDDS Data Server for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (MATLAB®) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.

  10. Technical note: Harmonizing met-ocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signell, R. P.; Camossi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardized web-services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by: (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using technology that is free, and that is easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing tools to communicate with web services that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modelers continue producing custom data, but virtually aggregates and standardizes the data using NetCDF Markup Language. The THREDDS Data Server is used for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (Matlab®1) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Ocean Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.1 Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use by the US Government.

  11. Influence of choice of null network on small-world parameters of structural correlation networks.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, S M Hadi; Kesler, Shelli R

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, coordinated variations in brain morphology (e.g., volume, thickness) have been employed as a measure of structural association between brain regions to infer large-scale structural correlation networks. Recent evidence suggests that brain networks constructed in this manner are inherently more clustered than random networks of the same size and degree. Thus, null networks constructed by randomizing topology are not a good choice for benchmarking small-world parameters of these networks. In the present report, we investigated the influence of choice of null networks on small-world parameters of gray matter correlation networks in healthy individuals and survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Three types of null networks were studied: 1) networks constructed by topology randomization (TOP), 2) networks matched to the distributional properties of the observed covariance matrix (HQS), and 3) networks generated from correlation of randomized input data (COR). The results revealed that the choice of null network not only influences the estimated small-world parameters, it also influences the results of between-group differences in small-world parameters. In addition, at higher network densities, the choice of null network influences the direction of group differences in network measures. Our data suggest that the choice of null network is quite crucial for interpretation of group differences in small-world parameters of structural correlation networks. We argue that none of the available null models is perfect for estimation of small-world parameters for correlation networks and the relative strengths and weaknesses of the selected model should be carefully considered with respect to obtained network measures.

  12. Influence of Choice of Null Network on Small-World Parameters of Structural Correlation Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Kesler, Shelli R.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, coordinated variations in brain morphology (e.g., volume, thickness) have been employed as a measure of structural association between brain regions to infer large-scale structural correlation networks. Recent evidence suggests that brain networks constructed in this manner are inherently more clustered than random networks of the same size and degree. Thus, null networks constructed by randomizing topology are not a good choice for benchmarking small-world parameters of these networks. In the present report, we investigated the influence of choice of null networks on small-world parameters of gray matter correlation networks in healthy individuals and survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Three types of null networks were studied: 1) networks constructed by topology randomization (TOP), 2) networks matched to the distributional properties of the observed covariance matrix (HQS), and 3) networks generated from correlation of randomized input data (COR). The results revealed that the choice of null network not only influences the estimated small-world parameters, it also influences the results of between-group differences in small-world parameters. In addition, at higher network densities, the choice of null network influences the direction of group differences in network measures. Our data suggest that the choice of null network is quite crucial for interpretation of group differences in small-world parameters of structural correlation networks. We argue that none of the available null models is perfect for estimation of small-world parameters for correlation networks and the relative strengths and weaknesses of the selected model should be carefully considered with respect to obtained network measures. PMID:23840672

  13. Small-angle Scattering Study of Mesoscopic Structures in Charged Gel and Their Evolution in Dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, M.; Annaka, M.; Hara, K.; Vigild, M. E.; Wignall, George D

    2003-01-01

    Mesoscopic structures, with length scales {approx}10{sup 2} {angstrom}, were investigated by small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) in several N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) copolymeric hydrogels with varying [NIPA]/[SA] ratios and water contents. The SAXS experiments reveal that, depending upon the [NIPA]/[SA] ratio, the dehydrated NIPA-SA gel shows two mesoscopic structures: one consists of randomly distributed SA-rich islands in NIPA matrix, while the other is a microphase-separated structure, composed of NIPA-rich and SA-rich domains. In addition, the SANS experiments reveal the mesoscopic structural features during the dehydration process. As the concentration of the network polymers increases, NIPA-rich and water-rich domains segregate in the gel. Then, an electrostatic interaction between the segregated domains induces a microphase-separated structure in the limit of the dehydrated NIPA-SA gel.

  14. Small angle neutron scattering study to determine the structure of high strength hydrogels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Taiki; Tirumala, Vijay R.; Lin, Eric K.; Wu, Wen-Li; Gong, Jian Ping; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Osada, Yoshihito

    2006-03-01

    Hydrogels are swollen polymer networks containing more than 90% water. Most hydrogels, however, are mechanically too weak to be used as load bearing devices. Gong et al. have overcome this problem by synthesizing hydrogels with a double network (DN) structure. Modifying the polyelectrolyte network structure by polymerization of high molecular weight uncharged polymer in situ, resulted in orders of magnitude increase in their load bearing ability. Despite 90% water, these tough gels exhibit a fracture stress of 170 kg/cm^2, similar to that of articular cartilage found in the bone-joints of human body. In this work, we determined the structure of DN-gels using small angle neutron scattering. Structural origins for high toughness found in DN-gels were then examined by comparing the structure of DN-gels with that of pure polyelectrolyte network and polyacrylamide solution.

  15. From small area variations to accountable care organizations: how health services research can inform policy.

    PubMed

    Luft, Harold S

    2012-04-01

    Much of health services research seeks to inform particular policy choices and is best characterized as policy-driven research. The reverse, research-driven policy, occurs when studies alter how people perceive reality, which eventually leads to new policy. An example of the latter is nearly four decades of work by John Wennberg and colleagues. Observing variations in practice across small geographic areas led to the notion that some care is preference sensitive, whereas other care is supply constrained. For the former, patient, rather than physician, preferences should be honored, after acquiring and effectively communicating the best available information on the benefits and risks of treatment options. Finding that areas with high use of services have no better quality or outcomes than do areas with lower use led to the notion of accountable care organizations (ACOs). Eventually, both patient engagement and ACOs were written into the Affordable Care Act of 2010.

  16. ALEPH: Israel's Research Library Network: Background, Evolution, and Implications for Networking in a Small Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazinger, Susan S.

    1991-01-01

    Describes ALEPH, the research library network in Israel, and analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of its decentralized structure. Highlights include comparisons between RLIN and ALEPH; centralized versus decentralized networks; the format of ALEPH; authority control in ALEPH; and non-Roman scripts in both networks. (16 references) (LRW)

  17. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments to FY 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains a collection of fiscal year 1992 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA LeRC. Highlights from the branch's major work areas--Aeroelasticity, Vibration Control, Dynamic Systems, and Computational Structural Methods are included in the report as well as a listing of the fiscal year 1992 branch publications.

  18. Describing an Environment for a Self-Sustaining Technology Transfer Service in a Small Research Budget University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieb, Sharon Lynn

    2014-01-01

    This single-site qualitative study sought to identify the characteristics that contribute to the self sustainability of technology transfer services at universities with small research budgets through a case study analysis of a small research budget university that has been operating a financially self-sustainable technology transfer service for…

  19. Describing an Environment for a Self-Sustaining Technology Transfer Service in a Small Research Budget University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieb, Sharon Lynn

    2014-01-01

    This single-site qualitative study sought to identify the characteristics that contribute to the self sustainability of technology transfer services at universities with small research budgets through a case study analysis of a small research budget university that has been operating a financially self-sustainable technology transfer service for…

  20. The Implications of Structural Reorganization in an Emerging Research Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Lars G.

    Structural reorganization was investigated as one factor associated with the development of the University of New Mexico from an undergraduate teaching institution toward becoming of a nationally-ranked graduate research university. A longitudinal, ethnohistorical study was undertaken for the 1967-1978 period. The qualitative research methodology…

  1. Bridging Emotion Research: From Biology to Social Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kimberly B.; Kavanagh, Liam

    2010-01-01

    Emotion research demonstrates that problems of theoretical interest or practical significance are not divided neatly along disciplinary boundaries. Researchers acknowledge both organic and social underpinnings of emotion, but the intersections between biological and structural processes can be difficult to negotiate. In this article, the authors…

  2. Research Articles in Applied Linguistics: Structures from a Functional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiying, Yang; Allison, Desmond

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the main lines of a genre analysis of the macro-structures of research articles (RAs) in applied linguistics, an area that deserves more attention both for pedagogic and research reasons. The analysis is based upon a detailed study of a corpus of 40 RAs, selected as random sets of 10 drawn from four leading journals in the…

  3. Bridging Emotion Research: From Biology to Social Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kimberly B.; Kavanagh, Liam

    2010-01-01

    Emotion research demonstrates that problems of theoretical interest or practical significance are not divided neatly along disciplinary boundaries. Researchers acknowledge both organic and social underpinnings of emotion, but the intersections between biological and structural processes can be difficult to negotiate. In this article, the authors…

  4. Factor structure of the Clinical Research Appraisal Inventory (CRAI).

    PubMed

    Mills, Britain A; Caetano, Raul; Rhea, Arianne E

    2014-03-01

    The Clinical Research Appraisal Inventory (CRAI) is a 92-item measure covering 10 domains of research self-efficacy. A known behavioral antecedent, reliable and valid measures of self-efficacy represent a potentially useful tool in the evaluation of research training program efficacy. However, few formal psychometric studies of this instrument exist. Using exploratory factor analysis, we examine the CRAI's dimensional structure in a new sample of clinical research trainees. In contrast to the multidimensional solutions reported previously, CRAI responses in the present sample were unambiguously one-dimensional (as suggested by a dominant single Eigenvalue and parallel analysis). This discrepant finding may reflect sample differences in research experience, as unlike previous studies, participants had all already obtained a professional degree. The CRAI's dimensional structure may coalesce into a smaller number of factors as research experience is acquired, and investigators should be mindful of this possibility in future studies of the instrument.

  5. Small-angle neutron scattering study of structure and kinetics of temperature-induced protein gelation.

    PubMed

    Chodankar, S; Aswal, V K; Kohlbrecher, J; Vavrin, R; Wagh, A G

    2009-02-01

    The phase diagram, structural evolution, and kinetics of temperature-induced protein gelation of protein Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) have been studied as a function of solution pH and protein concentration. The protein gelation temperature represents the onset of turbidity in the protein solution, which increases significantly with increasing pH beyond the isoelectric pH of the protein molecule. On the other hand, the gelation temperature decreases with an increase in protein concentration only in the low-protein-concentration regime and shows a small increasing trend at higher protein concentrations. The structural evolution and kinetics of protein gelation have been studied using small-angle neutron scattering. The structure of the protein molecule remains stable up to temperatures very close to the gelation temperature. On increasing the temperature above the gelation temperature, the protein solution exhibits a fractal structure, an indication of gel formation due to aggregation. The fractal dimension of the gel increases with increasing temperature, suggesting an increase in branching between the aggregates, which leads to stronger gels. The increase in both solution pH and protein concentration is found to delay the growth in the fractal structure and its saturation. The kinetics of gelation has been studied using the temperature-jump process of heating. It is found that the structure of the protein gels remains invariant after the heating time ( approximately 1 min), indicating a rapid formation of gel structure within this time. The protein gels prepared through gradual and temperature-jump heating routes do not always show the same structure. In particular, at higher temperatures (e.g., 85 degrees C ), while gradual heating shows a fractal structure, there is collapse of such fractal structure during temperature-jump heating.

  6. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology Into Science Mission Directorate Projects at Glenn Research Center for 2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Glenn ResearchCenter Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR)/(STTR)technologies into NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) programs/projects. Other Government and commercial project managers can also find this useful.

  7. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology Into Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Programs and Projects for 2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR)/(STTR) technologies into NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) projects. Other Government and commercial projects managers can also find this useful.

  8. Analysis and Comparison of Test Results from the Small Wind Research Turbine Test Project: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Prascher, D.

    2004-11-01

    Most small wind turbines furl (yaw or tilt out of the wind) as a means of limiting power and rotor speeds in high winds. The Small Wind Research Turbine (SWRT) testing project was initiated in 2003 with the goal of better characterizing both small wind turbine loads (including thrust) and dynamic behavior, specifically as they relate to furling. The main purpose of the testing was to produce high-quality data sets for model development and validation and to help the wind industry further their understanding of small wind turbine behavior. Testing was conducted on a modified Bergey Excel 10-kW wind turbine. A special shaft sensor was designed to measure shaft loads including thrust, torque, and shaft bending. Analysis of 10-minute mean data showed a strong correlation between furling and center of thrust location, as calculated from the shaft-bending and thrust measurements. Data were collected for three different turbine configurations that included a change in the lateral furling offset and the blades. An analysis of inflow conditions indicated that organized atmospheric turbulence had some impact on furling.

  9. YM500v3: a database for small RNA sequencing in human cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Chung, I-Fang; Chang, Shing-Jyh; Chen, Chen-Yang; Liu, Shu-Hsuan; Li, Chia-Yang; Chan, Chia-Hao; Shih, Chuan-Chi; Cheng, Wei-Chung

    2017-01-01

    We previously presented the YM500 database, which contains >8000 small RNA sequencing (smRNA-seq) data sets and integrated analysis results for various cancer miRNome studies. In the updated YM500v3 database (http://ngs.ym.edu.tw/ym500/) presented herein, we not only focus on miRNAs but also on other functional small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs), such as PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). There is growing knowledge of the role of sncRNAs in gene regulation and tumorigenesis. We have also incorporated >10 000 cancer-related RNA-seq and >3000 more smRNA-seq data sets into the YM500v3 database. Furthermore, there are two main new sections, ‘Survival' and ‘Cancer', in this updated version. The ‘Survival’ section provides the survival analysis results in all cancer types or in a user-defined group of samples for a specific sncRNA. The ‘Cancer’ section provides the results of differential expression analyses, miRNA–gene interactions and cancer miRNA-related pathways. In the ‘Expression’ section, sncRNA expression profiles across cancer and sample types are newly provided. Cancer-related sncRNAs hold potential for both biotech applications and basic research. PMID:27899625

  10. Dissipative structures of diffuse molecular gas. III. Small-scale intermittency of intense velocity-shears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hily-Blant, P.; Falgarone, E.; Pety, J.

    2008-04-01

    Aims: We further characterize the structures tentatively identified on thermal and chemical grounds as the sites of dissipation of turbulence in molecular clouds (Papers I and II). Methods: Our study is based on two-point statistics of line centroid velocities (CV), computed from three large 12CO maps of two fields. We build the probability density functions (PDF) of the CO line centroid velocity increments (CVI) over lags varying by an order of magnitude. Structure functions of the line CV are computed up to the 6th order. We compare these statistical properties in two translucent parsec-scale fields embedded in different large-scale environments, one far from virial balance and the other virialized. We also address their scale dependence in the former, more turbulent, field. Results: The statistical properties of the line CV bear the three signatures of intermittency in a turbulent velocity field: (1) the non-Gaussian tails in the CVI PDF grow as the lag decreases, (2) the departure from Kolmogorov scaling of the high-order structure functions is more pronounced in the more turbulent field, (3) the positions contributing to the CVI PDF tails delineate narrow filamentary structures (thickness ~0.02 pc), uncorrelated to dense gas structures and spatially coherent with thicker ones (~0.18 pc) observed on larger scales. We show that the largest CVI trace sharp variations of the extreme CO linewings and that they actually capture properties of the underlying velocity field, uncontaminated by density fluctuations. The confrontation with theoretical predictions leads us to identify these small-scale filamentary structures with extrema of velocity-shears. We estimate that viscous dissipation at the 0.02 pc-scale in these structures is up to 10 times higher than average, consistent with their being associated with gas warmer than the bulk. Last, their average direction is parallel (or close) to that of the local magnetic field projection. Conclusions: Turbulence in these

  11. Research accomplishments for wood transportation structures based on a national research needs assessment

    Treesearch

    M. A. Ritter; S. R. Duwadi

    1998-01-01

    In 1991, the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) formed a joint cooperative research program for wood transportation structures. Development and execution of this program was based on a national assessment of research needs and priorities. In the 5 years since completion of the research needs assessment,...

  12. Scaling the relative dominance of exogenous drivers in structuring desert small mammal assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Daniela; Ojeda, Ricardo A.

    2015-11-01

    Assemblage patterns could be primarily generated by two types of drivers: exogenous (such as environmental and climatic factors) and endogenous (interactions such as competition, predation, mutualism or herbivory). The most widely accepted hypothesis states that at smaller scales (such as patch scale), interspecific interactions are the major drivers structuring communities, whereas at larger regional scales, factors such as climate, topography and soil act as ecological filters that determine assemblage composition. The general aim of this paper is to compare different exogenous drivers in terms of their relative dominance in structuring desert small mammal communities across a range of spatial scales, from patch to regional, and compare them with previous results on endogenous drivers. Our results show that as spatial scale increases, the explanatory power of exogenous factors also increases, e.g. from 17% at the patch scale (i.e. abundance) to 99% at the regional scale (i.e. diversity). Moreover, environmental drivers vary in type and strength depending on the community estimator across several spatial scales. On the other hand, endogenous drivers such as interspecific interactions are more important at the patch scale, diminishing in importance towards the regional scale. Therefore, the relative importance of exogenous versus endogenous drivers affects small mammal assemblage structure at different spatial scales. Our results fill up a knowledge gap concerning ecological drivers of assemblage structure at intermediate spatial scales for Monte desert small mammals, and highlight the importance of dealing with multi-causal factors in explaining ecological patterns of assemblages.

  13. SmallGEO Structural-Thermal Model (STM) Mechanical Test Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, A.; Ruess, F.; Obst, A.; Segelke, H.; Rubio Blanes, A.

    2014-06-01

    SmallGEO is a general-purpose small geostationary satellite platform developed by an industrial team managed by OHB System AG. The consortium includes OHB subsidiaries LuxSpace and OHB Sweden, and RUAG Space. SmallGEO's first use is for Hispasat Advanced Generation 1 (AG1) satellite.RUAG Space was responsible for the development, qualification, production and assembly of the Structure Sub-system as well as the thermal control system.A Structural-Thermal Model (STM) was developed and assembled at RUAG Space premises in Zurich, in parallel with the Protoflight Model (PFM), to qualify the structure and the thermal control system.Between August and December 2012, the STM was subject to testing at European Test Services ETS in Noordwjik to qualify the platform versus all the specified mechanical and thermal environmental loads. Objective of the paper is to describe the phases of the mechanical test campaign, with special focus on the sine burst test, used to substitute the traditional static load tests in qualifying the structure versus the quasi-static launch environment.The challenge was to apply the right accelerations (at least 2.6g lateral and 7.5g axial) to a 3500 kg S/C with a sine vibration at a frequency close enough to resonance to generate the desired amplification and far enough to consider the load application still quasi-static.

  14. Narrative health research: exploring big and small stories as analytical tools.

    PubMed

    Sools, Anneke

    2013-01-01

    In qualitative health research many researchers use a narrative approach to study lay health concepts and experiences. In this article, I explore the theoretical linkages between the concepts narrative and health, which are used in a variety of ways. The article builds on previous work that conceptualizes health as a multidimensional, positive, dynamic and morally dilemmatic yet meaningful practice. I compare big and small stories as analytical tools to explore what narrative has to offer to address, nuance and complicate five challenges in narrative health research: (1) the interplay between health and other life issues; (2) the taken-for-granted yet rare character of the experience of good health; (3) coherence or incoherence as norms for good health; (4) temporal issues; (5) health as moral practice. In this article, I do not present research findings per se; rather, I use two interview excerpts for methodological and theoretical reflections. These interview excerpts are derived from a health promotion study in the Netherlands, which was partly based on peer-to-peer interviews. I conclude with a proposal to advance narrative health research by sensitizing researchers to different usages of both narrative and health, and the interrelationship(s) between the two.

  15. Examining the Effects of Text Genre and Structure on Fourth-and Fifth-Grade Students' High-Level Comprehension as Evidenced in Small-Group Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Mengyi; Murphy, P. Karen; Firetto, Carla M.

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a rich literature on the role of text genre and structure on students' literal comprehension, more research is needed regarding the role of these text features on students' high-level comprehension as evidenced in their small-group discussions. As such, the present study examined the effects of text genre (i.e., narrative and…

  16. Estimation of small-scale soil erosion in laboratory experiments with Structure from Motion photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguer-Puig, Matilde; Marqués-Mateu, Ángel; Lerma, José Luis; Ibáñez-Asensio, Sara

    2017-10-01

    The quantitative estimation of changes in terrain surfaces caused by water erosion can be carried out from precise descriptions of surfaces given by means of digital elevation models (DEMs). Some stages of water erosion research efforts are conducted in the laboratory using rainfall simulators and soil boxes with areas less than 1 m2. Under these conditions, erosive processes can lead to very small surface variations and high precision DEMs are needed to account for differences measured in millimetres. In this paper, we used a photogrammetric Structure from Motion (SfM) technique to build DEMs of a 0.5 m2 soil box to monitor several simulated rainfall episodes in the laboratory. The technique of DEM of difference (DoD) was then applied using GIS tools to compute estimates of volumetric changes between each pair of rainfall episodes. The aim was to classify the soil surface into three classes: erosion areas, deposition areas, and unchanged or neutral areas, and quantify the volume of soil that was eroded and deposited. We used a thresholding criterion of changes based on the estimated error of the difference of DEMs, which in turn was obtained from the root mean square error of the individual DEMs. Experimental tests showed that the choice of different threshold values in the DoD can lead to volume differences as large as 60% when compared to the direct volumetric difference. It turns out that the choice of that threshold was a key point in this method. In parallel to photogrammetric work, we collected sediments from each rain episode and obtained a series of corresponding measured sediment yields. The comparison between computed and measured sediment yields was significantly correlated, especially when considering the accumulated value of the five simulations. The computed sediment yield was 13% greater than the measured sediment yield. The procedure presented in this paper proved to be suitable for the determination of sediment yields in rainfall-driven soil

  17. The Overlap of Small Molecule and Protein Binding Sites within Families of Protein Structures

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Fred P.; Sali, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions are challenging targets for modulation by small molecules. Here, we propose an approach that harnesses the increasing structural coverage of protein complexes to identify small molecules that may target protein interactions. Specifically, we identify ligand and protein binding sites that overlap upon alignment of homologous proteins. Of the 2,619 protein structure families observed to bind proteins, 1,028 also bind small molecules (250–1000 Da), and 197 exhibit a statistically significant (p<0.01) overlap between ligand and protein binding positions. These “bi-functional positions”, which bind both ligands and proteins, are particularly enriched in tyrosine and tryptophan residues, similar to “energetic hotspots” described previously, and are significantly less conserved than mono-functional and solvent exposed positions. Homology transfer identifies ligands whose binding sites overlap at least 20% of the protein interface for 35% of domain–domain and 45% of domain–peptide mediated interactions. The analysis recovered known small-molecule modulators of protein interactions as well as predicted new interaction targets based on the sequence similarity of ligand binding sites. We illustrate the predictive utility of the method by suggesting structural mechanisms for the effects of sanglifehrin A on HIV virion production, bepridil on the cellular entry of anthrax edema factor, and fusicoccin on vertebrate developmental pathways. The results, available at http://pibase.janelia.org, represent a comprehensive collection of structurally characterized modulators of protein interactions, and suggest that homologous structures are a useful resource for the rational design of interaction modulators. PMID:20140189

  18. Applying Individual Tree Structure From Lidar to Address the Sensitivity of Allometric Equations to Small Sample Sizes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncanson, L.; Dubayah, R.

    2015-12-01

    Lidar remote sensing is widely applied for mapping forest carbon stocks, and technological advances have improved our ability to capture structural details from forests, even resolving individual trees. Despite these advancements, the accuracy of forest aboveground biomass models remains limited by the quality of field estimates of biomass. The accuracies of field estimates are inherently dependent on the accuracy of the allometric equations used to relate measurable attributes to biomass. These equations are calibrated with relatively small samples of often spatially clustered trees. This research focuses on one of many issues involving allometric equations - understanding how sensitive allometric parameters are to the sample sizes used to fit them. We capitalize on recent advances in lidar remote sensing to extract individual tree structural information from six high-resolution airborne lidar datasets in the United States. We remotely measure millions of tree heights and crown radii, and fit allometric equations to the relationship between tree height and radius at a 'population' level, in each site. We then extract samples from our tree database, and build allometries on these smaller samples of trees, with varying sample sizes. We show that for the allometric relationship between tree height and crown radius, small sample sizes produce biased allometric equations that overestimate height for a given crown radius. We extend this analysis using translations from the literature to address potential implications for biomass, showing that site-level biomass may be greatly overestimated when applying allometric equations developed with the typically small sample sizes used in popular allometric equations for biomass.

  19. A High-Throughput Processor for Flight Control Research Using Small UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenke, Robert H.; Sleeman, W. C., IV; Motter, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    There are numerous autopilot systems that are commercially available for small (<100 lbs) UAVs. However, they all share several key disadvantages for conducting aerodynamic research, chief amongst which is the fact that most utilize older, slower, 8- or 16-bit microcontroller technologies. This paper describes the development and testing of a flight control system (FCS) for small UAV s based on a modern, high throughput, embedded processor. In addition, this FCS platform contains user-configurable hardware resources in the form of a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) that can be used to implement custom, application-specific hardware. This hardware can be used to off-load routine tasks such as sensor data collection, from the FCS processor thereby further increasing the computational throughput of the system.

  20. The significance of medium- or small-size devices in fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Hikosuke; Itoh, Sanae

    1990-10-01

    The significance of medium and small size devices is reviewed using the example of the ITER Physics R and D. It is noted that the heat flux density expected in a fusioning plasma will become large and it is not self-evident that one can use current energy confinement time scalings to predict ITER performance. The confinement of plasma is considered to be related to heat, momentum, and mass transport problems in a nonlinear, non-equilibrium system with a finite source and dissipation. Therefore, recent progress in fluid dynamics, especially where basic experiments are unveiling modes of heat and mass transport in the nonlinear non-equilibrium system (including conditions of transition to turbulence), is referred to frequently. Hence, systematic and basic research along the same lines is necessary in medium and small devices in order to develop further insight into the physics of plasma confinement.