Science.gov

Sample records for smart grid systems

  1. Smart Grid Communications System Blueprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Adrian; Pavlovski, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Telecommunications operators are well versed in deploying 2G and 3G wireless networks. These networks presently support the mobile business user and/or retail consumer wishing to place conventional voice calls and data connections. The electrical power industry has recently commenced transformation of its distribution networks by deploying smart monitoring and control devices throughout their networks. This evolution of the network into a `smart grid' has also motivated the need to deploy wireless technologies that bridge the communication gap between the smart devices and information technology systems. The requirements of these networks differ from traditional wireless networks that communications operators have deployed, which have thus far forced energy companies to consider deploying their own wireless networks. We present our experience in deploying wireless networks to support the smart grid and highlight the key properties of these networks. These characteristics include application awareness, support for large numbers of simultaneous cell connections, high service coverage and prioritized routing of data. We also outline our target blueprint architecture that may be useful to the industry in building wireless and fixed networks to support the smart grid. By observing our experiences, telecommunications operators and equipment manufacturers will be able to augment their current networks and products in a way that accommodates the needs of the emerging industry of smart grids and intelligent electrical networks.

  2. Smart Grid - Transforming Power System Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Kirkham, Harold

    2010-04-28

    Abstract—Electric power systems are entering a new realm of operations. Large amounts of variable generation tax our ability to reliably operate the system. Couple this with a greater reliance on the electricity network to serve consumer demand that is likely to rise significantly even as we drive for greater efficiency. Trade-offs between energy and environmental needs will be constantly negotiated, while a reliable supply of electricity needs even greater assurance in a world where threats of disruption have risen. Smart grid capabilities are being proposed to help address the challenges confronting system operations. This paper reviews the impact of smart grid functionality on transforming power system operations. It explores models for distributed energy resources (DER – generation, storage, and load) that are appearing on the system. It reviews the evolving nature of electricity markets to deal with this complexity and a change of emphasis on signals from these markets to affect power system control. Smart grid capabilities will also impact reliable operations, while cyber security issues must be addressed as a culture change that influences all system design, implementation, and maintenance. Lastly, the paper explores significant questions for further research and the need for a simulation environment that supports such investigation and informs deployments to mitigate operational issues as they arise.

  3. Advanced HVAC System for Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, Scott A.; Corbin, Charles D.

    2015-03-06

    Rocky Research (Boulder City, NV) has developed an advanced roof top air conditioning unit (RTU) with the potential for providing smart grid functions such as regulation services and PV integration. The RTU contains advanced technologies that have been demonstrated to enable 1) improved coefficient of performance (COP) during start-up transients, 2) improved steady-state efficiency, and 3) blending of DC and AC power with high conversion efficiency. Technologies incorporated by Rocky Research include a pulsing thermal expansion valve (PTXV) to dynamically optimize refrigerant flow, a variable frequency drive (VFD) for the compressor, and on-board integrated power conversion electronics for inverting and blending DC and AC power.

  4. Cyber-Physical System Security of Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-01-31

    Abstract—This panel presentation will provide perspectives of cyber-physical system security of smart grids. As smart grid technologies are deployed, the interconnected nature of these systems is becoming more prevalent and more complex, and the cyber component of this cyber-physical system is increasing in importance. Studying system behavior in the face of failures (e.g., cyber attacks) allows a characterization of the systems’ response to failure scenarios, loss of communications, and other changes in system environment (such as the need for emergent updates and rapid reconfiguration). The impact of such failures on the availability of the system can be assessed and mitigation strategies considered. Scenarios associated with confidentiality, integrity, and availability are considered. The cyber security implications associated with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 in the United States are discussed.

  5. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Troxell, Wade

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3) Simulation of

  6. Adapting a commercial power system simulator for smart grid based system study and vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navaratne, Uditha Sudheera

    The smart grid is the future of the power grid. Smart meters and the associated network play a major role in the distributed system of the smart grid. Advance Metering Infrastructure (AMI) can enhance the reliability of the grid, generate efficient energy management opportunities and many innovations around the future smart grid. These innovations involve intense research not only on the AMI network itself but as also on the influence an AMI network can have upon the rest of the power grid. This research describes a smart meter testbed with hardware in loop that can facilitate future research in an AMI network. The smart meters in the testbed were developed such that their functionality can be customized to simulate any given scenario such as integrating new hardware components into a smart meter or developing new encryption algorithms in firmware. These smart meters were integrated into the power system simulator to simulate the power flow variation in the power grid on different AMI activities. Each smart meter in the network also provides a communication interface to the home area network. This research delivers a testbed for emulating the AMI activities and monitoring their effect on the smart grid.

  7. Economic evaluation of distribution system smart grid investments

    SciTech Connect

    Onen, Ahmet; Cheng, Danling; Broadwater, Robert P.; Scirbona, Charlie; Cocks, George; Hamilton, Stephanie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Roark, Jeffrey

    2014-12-31

    This paper investigates economic benefits of smart grid automation investments. A system consisting of 7 substations and 14 feeders is used in the evaluation. Here benefits that can be quantified in terms of dollar savings are considered, termed “hard dollar” benefits. Smart Grid investment evaluations to be considered include investments in improved efficiency, more cost effective use of existing system capacity with automated switches, and coordinated control of capacitor banks and voltage regulators. These Smart Grid evaluations are sequentially ordered, resulting in a series of incremental hard dollar benefits. Hard dollar benefits come from improved efficiency, delaying large capital equipment investments, shortened storm restoration times, and reduced customer energy use. Analyses used in the evaluation involve hourly power flow analysis over multiple years and Monte Carlo simulations of switching operations during storms using a reconfiguration for restoration algorithm. The economic analysis uses the time varying value of the Locational Marginal Price. Algorithms used include reconfiguration for restoration involving either manual or automated switches and coordinated control involving two modes of control. Field validations of phase balancing and capacitor design results are presented. The evaluation shows that investments in automation can improve performance while at the same time lowering costs.

  8. Economic evaluation of distribution system smart grid investments

    DOE PAGES

    Onen, Ahmet; Cheng, Danling; Broadwater, Robert P.; ...

    2014-12-31

    This paper investigates economic benefits of smart grid automation investments. A system consisting of 7 substations and 14 feeders is used in the evaluation. Here benefits that can be quantified in terms of dollar savings are considered, termed “hard dollar” benefits. Smart Grid investment evaluations to be considered include investments in improved efficiency, more cost effective use of existing system capacity with automated switches, and coordinated control of capacitor banks and voltage regulators. These Smart Grid evaluations are sequentially ordered, resulting in a series of incremental hard dollar benefits. Hard dollar benefits come from improved efficiency, delaying large capital equipmentmore » investments, shortened storm restoration times, and reduced customer energy use. Analyses used in the evaluation involve hourly power flow analysis over multiple years and Monte Carlo simulations of switching operations during storms using a reconfiguration for restoration algorithm. The economic analysis uses the time varying value of the Locational Marginal Price. Algorithms used include reconfiguration for restoration involving either manual or automated switches and coordinated control involving two modes of control. Field validations of phase balancing and capacitor design results are presented. The evaluation shows that investments in automation can improve performance while at the same time lowering costs.« less

  9. A Smart Home Test Bed for Undergraduate Education to Bridge the Curriculum Gap from Traditional Power Systems to Modernized Smart Grids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Qinran; Li, Fangxing; Chen, Chien-fei

    2015-01-01

    There is a worldwide trend to modernize old power grid infrastructures to form future smart grids, which will achieve efficient, flexible energy consumption by using the latest technologies in communication, computing, and control. Smart grid initiatives are moving power systems curricula toward smart grids. Although the components of smart grids…

  10. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  11. Communication Security for Control Systems in Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    As an example of Control System, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems can be relatively simple, such as one that monitors environmental conditions of a small office building, or incredibly complex, such as a system that monitors all the activity in a nuclear power plant or the activity of a municipal water system. SCADA systems are basically Process Control Systems, designed to automate systems such as traffic control, power grid management, waste processing etc. Connecting SCADA to the Internet can provide a lot of advantages in terms of control, data viewing and generation. SCADA infrastructures like electricity can also be a part of a Smart Grid. Connecting SCADA to a public network can bring a lot of security issues. To answer the security issues, a SCADA communication security solution is proposed.

  12. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  13. Study of Security Attributes of Smart Grid Systems- Current Cyber Security Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne F. Boyer; Scott A. McBride

    2009-04-01

    This document provides information for a report to congress on Smart Grid security as required by Section 1309 of Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The security of any future Smart Grid is dependent on successfully addressing the cyber security issues associated with the nation’s current power grid. Smart Grid will utilize numerous legacy systems and technologies that are currently installed. Therefore, known vulnerabilities in these legacy systems must be remediated and associated risks mitigated in order to increase the security and success of the Smart Grid. The implementation of Smart Grid will include the deployment of many new technologies and multiple communication infrastructures. This report describes the main technologies that support Smart Grid and summarizes the status of implementation into the existing U.S. electrical infrastructure.

  14. Model of interaction in Smart Grid on the basis of multi-agent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E. A.; Kovalev, I. V.; Engel, N. E.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents model of interaction in Smart Grid on the basis of multi-agent system. The use of travelling waves in the multi-agent system describes the behavior of the Smart Grid from the local point, which is being the complement of the conventional approach. The simulation results show that the absorption of the wave in the distributed multi-agent systems is effectively simulated the interaction in Smart Grid.

  15. Distribution System Reliability Analysis for Smart Grid Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljohani, Tawfiq Masad

    Reliability of power systems is a key aspect in modern power system planning, design, and operation. The ascendance of the smart grid concept has provided high hopes of developing an intelligent network that is capable of being a self-healing grid, offering the ability to overcome the interruption problems that face the utility and cost it tens of millions in repair and loss. To address its reliability concerns, the power utilities and interested parties have spent extensive amount of time and effort to analyze and study the reliability of the generation and transmission sectors of the power grid. Only recently has attention shifted to be focused on improving the reliability of the distribution network, the connection joint between the power providers and the consumers where most of the electricity problems occur. In this work, we will examine the effect of the smart grid applications in improving the reliability of the power distribution networks. The test system used in conducting this thesis is the IEEE 34 node test feeder, released in 2003 by the Distribution System Analysis Subcommittee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society. The objective is to analyze the feeder for the optimal placement of the automatic switching devices and quantify their proper installation based on the performance of the distribution system. The measures will be the changes in the reliability system indices including SAIDI, SAIFI, and EUE. The goal is to design and simulate the effect of the installation of the Distributed Generators (DGs) on the utility's distribution system and measure the potential improvement of its reliability. The software used in this work is DISREL, which is intelligent power distribution software that is developed by General Reliability Co.

  16. Some characteristics of emerging distribution systems considering the smart grid initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Hilary E.; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Heydt, Gerald T.

    2010-06-15

    Modernization of the electric power system in the United States is driven by the Smart Grid Initiative. Many changes are planned in the coming years to the distribution side of the U.S. electricity delivery infrastructure to embody the idea of ''smart distribution systems.'' However, no functional or technical definition of a smart distribution system has yet been accepted by all. (author)

  17. Smart EV Energy Management System to Support Grid Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin

    Under smart grid scenarios, the advanced sensing and metering technologies have been applied to the legacy power grid to improve the system observability and the real-time situational awareness. Meanwhile, there is increasing amount of distributed energy resources (DERs), such as renewable generations, electric vehicles (EVs) and battery energy storage system (BESS), etc., being integrated into the power system. However, the integration of EVs, which can be modeled as controllable mobile energy devices, brings both challenges and opportunities to the grid planning and energy management, due to the intermittency of renewable generation, uncertainties of EV driver behaviors, etc. This dissertation aims to solve the real-time EV energy management problem in order to improve the overall grid efficiency, reliability and economics, using online and predictive optimization strategies. Most of the previous research on EV energy management strategies and algorithms are based on simplified models with unrealistic assumptions that the EV charging behaviors are perfectly known or following known distributions, such as the arriving time, leaving time and energy consumption values, etc. These approaches fail to obtain the optimal solutions in real-time because of the system uncertainties. Moreover, there is lack of data-driven strategy that performs online and predictive scheduling for EV charging behaviors under microgrid scenarios. Therefore, we develop an online predictive EV scheduling framework, considering uncertainties of renewable generation, building load and EV driver behaviors, etc., based on real-world data. A kernel-based estimator is developed to predict the charging session parameters in real-time with improved estimation accuracy. The efficacy of various optimization strategies that are supported by this framework, including valley-filling, cost reduction, event-based control, etc., has been demonstrated. In addition, the existing simulation-based approaches do

  18. Understanding The Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of what the Smart Grid is and what is being done to define and implement it. The electric industry is preparing to undergo a transition from a centralized, producer-controlled network to a decentralized, user-interactive one. Not only will the technology involved in the electric grid change, but the entire business model of the industry will change too. A major objective of the report is to identify the changes that the Smart Grid will bring about so that industry participants can be prepared to face them. A concise overview of the development of the Smart Grid is provided. It presents an understanding of what the Smart Grid is, what new business opportunities or risks might come about due to its introduction, and what activities are already taking place regarding defining or implementing the Smart Grid. This report will be of interest to the utility industry, energy service providers, aggregators, and regulators. It will also be of interest to home/building automation vendors, information technology vendors, academics, consultants, and analysts. The scope of the report includes an overview of the Smart Grid which identifies the main components of the Smart Grid, describes its characteristics, and describes how the Smart Grid differs from the current electric grid. The overview also identifies the key concepts involved in the transition to the Smart Grid and explains why a Smart Grid is needed by identifying the deficiencies of the current grid and the need for new investment. The report also looks at the impact of the Smart Grid, identifying other industries which have gone through a similar transition, identifying the overall benefits of the Smart Grid, and discussing the impact of the Smart Grid on industry participants. Furthermore, the report looks at current activities to implement the Smart Grid including utility projects, industry collaborations, and government initiatives. Finally, the report takes a look at key technology

  19. Estimating System-wide Impacts of Smart Grid Demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Lightner, Eric M.; Fuller, Jason C.

    2015-03-01

    Quantifying the impact of a new technology on a single specific distribution feeder is relatively easy, but it does not provide insight into the complexities and variations of a system-wide deployment. It is the inability to extrapolate system-wide impacts that hinders the deployment of many promising new technologies. This paper presents a method of extrapolating technology impacts, either simulated or from a field demonstration, from a limited number of distribution feeders to a system-wide impact. The size of the system can vary from the service territory of a single utility, to a region, or to an entire country. The paper will include an example analysis using the United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects, extrapolating their benefits to a national level.

  20. Customer Engagement in AEP gridSMART Residential Transactive System

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Marinovici, Maria C.; Fuller, Jason C.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chassin, David P.; Somani, Abhishek

    2014-12-31

    — In 2013, AEP Ohio (AEP) operated a 5-minute real-time price (RTP) electricity market system on 4 distribution feeders as part of their gridSMART® demonstration project. The RTP households were billed for their electricity usage according to an RTP tariff approved by the Public Utility Commission of Ohio. They were given the incentive that their annual bill would be no greater than if they were on the flat-rate tariff, but they had financial incentives to shift consumption from high price periods to low price periods. Incentives were also available for response under high prices from local events, such as reaching the distribution feeder capacity or a critical peak pricing event. An analysis of this transactive system experiment was completed in early 2014. This paper describes the incentive provided to the customer, the nature of their interaction with the smart thermostat that provided automated response to the transactive signal, and their level of satisfaction with the program.

  1. Securing smart grid technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaitanya Krishna, E.; Kosaleswara Reddy, T.; Reddy, M. YogaTeja; Reddy G. M., Sreerama; Madhusudhan, E.; AlMuhteb, Sulaiman

    2013-03-01

    In the developing countries electrical energy is very important for its all-round improvement by saving thousands of dollars and investing them in other sector for development. For Growing needs of power existing hierarchical, centrally controlled grid of the 20th Century is not sufficient. To produce and utilize effective power supply for industries or people we should have Smarter Electrical grids that address the challenges of the existing power grid. The Smart grid can be considered as a modern electric power grid infrastructure for enhanced efficiency and reliability through automated control, high-power converters, modern communications infrastructure along with modern IT services, sensing and metering technologies, and modern energy management techniques based on the optimization of demand, energy and network availability and so on. The main objective of this paper is to provide a contemporary look at the current state of the art in smart grid communications as well as critical issues on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of information and communication technology (ICT) issues like security, efficiency to communications layer field. In this paper we propose new model for security in Smart Grid Technology that contains Security Module(SM) along with DEM which will enhance security in Grid. It is expected that this paper will provide a better understanding of the technologies, potential advantages and research challenges of the smart grid and provoke interest among the research community to further explore this promising research area.

  2. The research of the malfunction diagnosis and predictions system in the smart electric grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaqing; Zhang, Guoxing; Xu, Hongbing

    2017-03-01

    The Chinese smart electric grid constriction has been increasing with the technology development. However, the monitoring equipment and background system which should play important roles did not work as intended and restrict to the efficacy of the smart grid. In this essay, it has researched an intelligentized malfunction diagnosis and predictions system which could work with the existed monitoring equipment to function as whole energy monitoring, common malfunction diagnosis, faulted proactive judgment and automatically elimination.

  3. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  4. The biometric-based module of smart grid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Ermoshkina, A.

    2015-10-01

    Within Smart Grid concept the flexible biometric-based module base on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and selective Neural Network is developed. The formation of the selective Neural Network the biometric-based module uses the method which includes three main stages: preliminary processing of the image, face localization and face recognition. Experiments on the Yale face database show that (i) selective Neural Network exhibits promising classification capability for face detection, recognition problems; and (ii) the proposed biometric-based module achieves near real-time face detection, recognition speed and the competitive performance, as compared to some existing subspaces-based methods.

  5. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Rabari, Anil; Fadipe, Oloruntomi

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  6. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  7. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  8. Unlocking the smart grid

    SciTech Connect

    Rokach, Joshua Z.

    2010-10-15

    The country has progressed in a relatively short time from rotary dial phones to computers, cell phones, and iPads. With proper planning and orderly policy implementation, the same will happen with the Smart Grid. Here are some suggestions on how to proceed. (author)

  9. Research and design of smart grid monitoring control via terminal based on iOS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei; Gong, Li; Chen, Heli; Pan, Guangji

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at a series of problems existing in current smart grid monitoring Control Terminal, such as high costs, poor portability, simple monitoring system, poor software extensions, low system reliability when transmitting information, single man-machine interface, poor security, etc., smart grid remote monitoring system based on the iOS system has been designed. The system interacts with smart grid server so that it can acquire grid data through WiFi/3G/4G networks, and monitor each grid line running status, as well as power plant equipment operating conditions. When it occurs an exception in the power plant, incident information can be sent to the user iOS terminal equipment timely, which will provide troubleshooting information to help the grid staff to make the right decisions in a timely manner, to avoid further accidents. Field tests have shown the system realizes the integrated grid monitoring functions, low maintenance cost, friendly interface, high security and reliability, and it possesses certain applicable value.

  10. NREL Smart Grid Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Hambrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    Although implementing Smart Grid projects at the distribution level provides many advantages and opportunities for advanced operation and control, a number of significant challenges must be overcome to maintain the high level of safety and reliability that the modern grid must provide. For example, while distributed generation (DG) promises to provide opportunities to increase reliability and efficiency and may provide grid support services such as volt/var control, the presence of DG can impact distribution operation and protection schemes. Additionally, the intermittent nature of many DG energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) can present a number of challenges to voltage regulation, etc. This presentation provides an overview a number of Smart Grid projects being performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) along with utility, industry, and academic partners. These projects include modeling and analysis of high penetration PV scenarios (with and without energy storage), development and testing of interconnection and microgrid equipment, as well as the development and implementation of advanced instrumentation and data acquisition used to analyze the impacts of intermittent renewable resources. Additionally, standards development associated with DG interconnection and analysis as well as Smart Grid interoperability will be discussed.

  11. Evaluation of security availability of data components for a renewable energy micro Smart Grid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera Zambrano, Leonel

    In this thesis, we study the development and security testing of photovoltaic data collection system. With the introduction of the smart grid concept, a lot of research has been done on the communication aspect of energy production and distribution throughout the power network. For Smart Grid, Internet is used as the communication medium for specific required services and for data collection. Despite all the advantages of the Smart Grid infrastructure, there is also some security concern regarding the vulnerabilities associated with internet access. In this thesis, we consider security testing of the two most popular and globally deployed web server platforms Apache running on Red Had Linux 5 and IIS on Windows Server 2008, and their performance under Distributed Denial of Service Attacks. Furthermore we stress test the data collection services provided by MySQL running on both Windows and Linux Servers when it is also under DDoS attacks.

  12. Future evolution of distributed systems for smart grid - The challenges and opportunities to using decentralized energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    A decentralized energy system is a relatively new approach in the power industry. Decentralized energy systems provide promising opportunities for deploying renewable energy sources locally available as well as for expanding access to clean energy services to remote communities. The electricity system of the future must produce and distribute electricity that is reliable and affordable. To accomplish these goals, both the electricity grid and the existing regulatory system must be smarter. In this paper, the major issues and challenges in distributed systems for smart grid are discussed and future trends are presented. The smart grid technologies and distributed generation systems are explored. A general overview of the comparison of the traditional grid and smart grid is also included.

  13. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Craig; Carroll, Paul; Bell, Abigail

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  14. National Smart Water Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water crossing the US

  15. A decision modeling for phasor measurement unit location selection in smart grid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Yup

    As a key technology for enhancing the smart grid system, Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) provides synchronized phasor measurements of voltages and currents of wide-area electric power grid. With various benefits from its application, one of the critical issues in utilizing PMUs is the optimal site selection of units. The main aim of this research is to develop a decision support system, which can be used in resource allocation task for smart grid system analysis. As an effort to suggest a robust decision model and standardize the decision modeling process, a harmonized modeling framework, which considers operational circumstances of component, is proposed in connection with a deterministic approach utilizing integer programming. With the results obtained from the optimal PMU placement problem, the advantages and potential that the harmonized modeling process possesses are assessed and discussed.

  16. 78 FR 18322 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    .... Cuong Nguyen, Smart Grid and Cyber-Physical Systems Program Office, National Institute of Standards and... submit written statements to the Smart Grid and Cyber-Physical Systems Program Office, National Institute...

  17. Scalable Real Time Data Management for Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Jian; Kulkarni, Anand V.; Purohit, Sumit; Gorton, Ian; Akyol, Bora A.

    2011-12-16

    This paper presents GridMW, a scalable and reliable data middleware for smart grids. Smart grids promise to improve the efficiency of power grid systems and reduce green house emissions through incorporating power generation from renewable sources and shaping demand to match the supply. As a result, power grid systems will become much more dynamic and require constant adjustments, which requires analysis and decision making applications to improve the efficiency and reliability of smart grid systems.

  18. Evaluation of System-Integrated Smart Grid Devices using Software- and Hardware-in-the-Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, Blake; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Lauss, Georg; Brundlinger, Roland; Conklin, Russell

    2016-12-12

    This paper presents a concise description of state-of-the-art real-time simulation-based testing methods and demonstrates how they can be used independently and/or in combination as an integrated development and validation approach for smart grid DERs and systems. A three-part case study demonstrating the application of this integrated approach at the different stages of development and validation of a system-integrated smart photovoltaic (PV) inverter is also presented. Laboratory testing results and perspectives from two international research laboratories are included in the case study.

  19. Security Policies for Mitigating the Risk of Load Altering Attacks on Smart Grid Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, Tatyana; AlMajali, Anas; Neuman, Clifford

    2015-04-01

    While demand response programs implement energy efficiency and power quality objectives, they bring potential security threats to the Smart Grid. The ability to influence load in a system enables attackers to cause system failures and impacts the quality and integrity of power delivered to customers. This paper presents a security mechanism to monitor and control load according to a set of security policies during normal system operation. The mechanism monitors, detects, and responds to load altering attacks. We examined the security requirements of Smart Grid stakeholders and constructed a set of load control policies enforced by the mechanism. We implemented a proof of concept prototype and tested it using the simulation environment. By enforcing the proposed policies in this prototype, the system is maintained in a safe state in the presence of load drop attacks.

  20. Effect of electromagnetic disturbance on the practical QKD system in the smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang-Yi; Wang, Dong; Wang, Shuang; Li, Mo; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-12-01

    To improve the security of the smart grid, quantum key distribution (QKD) is an excellent choice. The rapid fluctuations on the power aerial optical cable and electromagnetic disturbance in substations are two main challenges for implementation of QKD. Due to insensitivity to birefringence of the channel, the stable phase-coding Faraday—Michelson QKD system is very practical in the smart grid. However, the electromagnetic disturbance in substations on this practical QKD system should be considered. The disturbance might change the rotation angle of the Faraday mirror, and would introduce an additional quantum bit error rate (QBER). We derive the new fringe visibility of the system and the additional QBER from the electromagnetic disturbance. In the worst case, the average additional QBER only increases about 0.17% due to the disturbance, which is relatively small to normal QBER values. We also find the way to degrade the electromagnetic disturbance on the QKD system.

  1. Unlocking the potential of the smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    The smart grid refers to describe a next-generation electrical power system that is typified by the increased use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the whole delivery electrical energy process. The generation, delivery and consumption energy, all the steps for power transmission and distribution make the smart grid a complex system. The question is if the amount, diversity, and uses of such data put the smart grid in the category of Big Data applications, followed by the natural question of what is the true value of such data. In this paper an initial answer to this question is provided, the current state of data generation of the Polish grid is analyzed, and a future realistic scenario is illustrated. The analysis shows that the amount of data generated in smart grid is comparable to some of Big Data system examples.

  2. Design of a Multi-agent System for Personalized Service in the Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Jinhee; Shin, In-Hye; Park, Gyung-Leen; Kwak, Ho-Yong; Ahn, Khi-Jung

    This paper designs a multi-agent system capable of providing personalized services in the smart grid, defining the relevant agent modules. The proposed system provides electricity consumers with personalized power purchase recommendation. Our framework consists of four agents and seven object categories. For the operation center which manages and controls the whole system, an adaptive agent, a coordination agent, and a filtering agent are defined, while a consumer agent is define for each home to collect the history of power consumption. Based on the analysis of the consumer, power market, residence, power consumption, appliance, family member, and electric vehicle objects, those agents autonomously cooperate to provide a personalized power service to each smart grid entity. In addition, adaptive learning capability further improves the recommendation quality.

  3. Development of a smart DC grid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimunthe, Amty Ma'rufah Ardhiyah; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2016-03-01

    Smart grid and distributed generation should be the solution of the global climate change and the crisis energy of the main source of electrical power generation which is fossil fuel. In order to meet the rising electrical power demand and increasing service quality demands, as well as reduce pollution, the existing power grid infrastructure should be developed into a smart grid and distributed power generation which provide a great opportunity to address issues related to energy efficiency, energy security, power quality and aging infrastructure systems. The conventional of the existing distributed generation system is an AC grid while for a renewable resources requires a DC grid system. This paper explores the model of smart DC grid by introducing a model of smart DC grid with the stable power generation give a minimal and compressed circuitry that can be implemented very cost-effectively with simple components. The PC based application software for controlling was developed to show the condition of the grid and to control the grid become `smart'. The model is then subjected to a severe system perturbation, such as incremental change in loads to test the performance of the system again stability. It is concluded that the system able to detect and controlled the voltage stability which indicating the ability of power system to maintain steady voltage within permissible rangers in normal condition.

  4. A Framework for Testing Automated Detection, Diagnosis, and Remediation Systems on the Smart Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Shing-hon

    2011-01-01

    America's electrical grid is currently undergoing a multi-billion dollar modernization effort aimed at producing a highly reliable critical national infrastructure for power - a Smart Grid. While the goals for the Smart Grid include upgrades to accommodate large quantities of clean, but transient, renewable energy and upgrades to provide customers with real-time pricing information, perhaps the most important objective is to create an electrical grid with a greatly increased robustness.

  5. A Framework for Testing Automated Detection, Diagnosis, and Remediation Systems on the Smart Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Shing-hon

    2011-01-01

    America's electrical grid is currently undergoing a multi-billion dollar modernization effort aimed at producing a highly reliable critical national infrastructure for power - a Smart Grid. While the goals for the Smart Grid include upgrades to accommodate large quantities of clean, but transient, renewable energy and upgrades to provide customers with real-time pricing information, perhaps the most important objective is to create an electrical grid with a greatly increased robustness.

  6. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Clements, Samuel L.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kirkham, Harold; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Smith, David L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gardner, Chris; Varney, Jeff

    2014-07-01

    A smart grid uses digital power control and communication technology to improve the reliability, security, flexibility, and efficiency of the electric system, from large generation through the delivery systems to electricity consumers and a growing number of distributed generation and storage resources. To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. The Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report defines and examines 21 metrics that collectively provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This appendix presents papers covering each of the 21 metrics identified in Section 2.1 of the Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report. These metric papers were prepared in advance of the main body of the report and collectively form its informational backbone.

  7. Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System

    SciTech Connect

    Agamy, Mohammed

    2015-10-27

    The “Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System” program is focused on developing innovative concepts for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems with the following objectives: to create an Innovative micro-inverter topology that reduces the cost from the best in class micro-inverter and provides high efficiency (>96% CEC - California Energy Commission), and 25+ year warranty, as well as reactive power support; integrate micro-inverter and PV module to reduce system price by at least $0.25/W through a) accentuating dual use of the module metal frame as a large area heat spreader reducing operating temperature, and b) eliminating redundant wiring and connectors; and create micro-inverter controller handles smart grid and safety functions to simplify implementation and reduce cost.

  8. A Multi-layer, Hierarchical Information Management System for the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Du, Pengwei; Paulson, Patrick R.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Guo, Xinxin; Hadley, Mark D.

    2011-10-10

    This paper presents the modeling approach, methodologies, and initial results of setting up a multi-layer, hierarchical information management system (IMS) for the smart grid. The IMS allows its users to analyze the data collected by multiple control and communication networks to characterize the states of the smart grid. Abnormal, corrupted, or erroneous measurement data and outliers are detected and analyzed to identify whether they are caused by random equipment failures, unintentional human errors, or deliberate tempering attempts. Data collected from different information networks are crosschecked for data integrity based on redundancy, dependency, correlation, or cross-correlations, which reveal the interdependency between data sets. A hierarchically structured reasoning mechanism is used to rank possible causes of an event to aid the system operators to proactively respond or provide mitigation recommendations to remove or neutralize the threats. The model provides satisfactory performance on identifying the cause of an event and significantly reduces the need of processing myriads of data collected.

  9. Smart Grid as Multi-layer Interacting System for Complex Decision Makings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bompard, Ettore; Han, Bei; Masera, Marcelo; Pons, Enrico

    This chapter presents an approach to the analysis of Smart Grids based on a multi-layer representation of their technical, cyber, social and decision-making aspects, as well as the related environmental constraints. In the Smart Grid paradigm, self-interested active customers (prosumers), system operators and market players interact among themselves making use of an extensive cyber infrastructure. In addition, policy decision makers define regulations, incentives and constraints to drive the behavior of the competing operators and prosumers, with the objective of ensuring the global desired performance (e.g. system stability, fair prices). For these reasons, the policy decision making is more complicated than in traditional power systems, and needs proper modeling and simulation tools for assessing "in vitro" and ex-ante the possible impacts of the decisions assumed. In this chapter, we consider the smart grids as multi-layered interacting complex systems. The intricacy of the framework, characterized by several interacting layers, cannot be captured by closed-form mathematical models. Therefore, a new approach using Multi Agent Simulation is described. With case studies we provide some indications about how to develop agent-based simulation tools presenting some preliminary examples.

  10. 78 FR 22846 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee Meeting Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee Meeting Cancellation AGENCY... cancellation. SUMMARY: The meeting of the Smart Grid Advisory Committee (SGAC or Committee) scheduled for..., Smart Grid and Cyber-Physical Systems Program Office, National Institute of Standards and Technology...

  11. Using System Dynamics to Define, Study, and Implement Smart Control Strategies on the Electric Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle G. Roybal; Robert F Jeffers

    2013-07-01

    The United States electric power grid is the most complex and expansive control system in the world. Local generation control occurs at individual units based on response time and unit economics, larger regional control coordinates unit response to error conditions, and high level large-area regional control is ultimately administered by a network of humans guided by economic and resiliency related factors. Under normal operating conditions, the grid is a relatively slow moving entity that exhibits high inertia to outside stimuli, and behaves along repeatable diurnal and seasonal patterns. However, that paradigm is quickly changing because of the increasing implementation of renewable generation sources. Renewable generators by nature cannot be tightly controlled or scheduled. They appear like a negative load to the system with all of the variability associated with load on a larger scale. Also, grid-reactive loads (i.e. smart devices) can alter their consumption based on price or demand rules adding more variability to system behavior. This paper demonstrates how a systems dynamic modeling approach capable of operating over multiple time scales, can provide valuable insight into developing new “smart-grid” control strategies and devices needed to accommodate renewable generation and regulate the frequency of the grid.

  12. Development of a smart DC grid model

    SciTech Connect

    Dalimunthe, Amty Ma’rufah Ardhiyah; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2016-03-11

    Smart grid and distributed generation should be the solution of the global climate change and the crisis energy of the main source of electrical power generation which is fossil fuel. In order to meet the rising electrical power demand and increasing service quality demands, as well as reduce pollution, the existing power grid infrastructure should be developed into a smart grid and distributed power generation which provide a great opportunity to address issues related to energy efficiency, energy security, power quality and aging infrastructure systems. The conventional of the existing distributed generation system is an AC grid while for a renewable resources requires a DC grid system. This paper explores the model of smart DC grid by introducing a model of smart DC grid with the stable power generation give a minimal and compressed circuitry that can be implemented very cost-effectively with simple components. The PC based application software for controlling was developed to show the condition of the grid and to control the grid become ‘smart’. The model is then subjected to a severe system perturbation, such as incremental change in loads to test the performance of the system again stability. It is concluded that the system able to detect and controlled the voltage stability which indicating the ability of power system to maintain steady voltage within permissible rangers in normal condition.

  13. Smart Grid Development: Multinational Demo Project Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleinikova, I.; Mutule, A.; Obushevs, A.; Antoskovs, N.

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyses demand side management (DSM) projects and stakeholders' experience with the aim to develop, promote and adapt smart grid tehnologies in Latvia. The research aims at identifying possible system service posibilites, including demand response (DR) and determining the appropriate market design for such type of services to be implemented at the Baltic power system level, with the cooperation of distribution system operator (DSO) and transmission system operator (TSO). This paper is prepared as an extract from the global smart grid best practices, smart solutions and business models.

  14. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

  15. Electricity Markets, Smart Grids and Smart Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcey, Jonathan M.

    A smart grid is an electricity network that accommodates two-way power flows, and utilizes two-way communications and increased measurement, in order to provide more information to customers and aid in the development of a more efficient electricity market. The current electrical network is outdated and has many shortcomings relating to power flows, inefficient electricity markets, generation/supply balance, a lack of information for the consumer and insufficient consumer interaction with electricity markets. Many of these challenges can be addressed with a smart grid, but there remain significant barriers to the implementation of a smart grid. This paper proposes a novel method for the development of a smart grid utilizing a bottom up approach (starting with smart buildings/campuses) with the goal of providing the framework and infrastructure necessary for a smart grid instead of the more traditional approach (installing many smart meters and hoping a smart grid emerges). This novel approach involves combining deterministic and statistical methods in order to accurately estimate building electricity use down to the device level. It provides model users with a cheaper alternative to energy audits and extensive sensor networks (the current methods of quantifying electrical use at this level) which increases their ability to modify energy consumption and respond to price signals The results of this method are promising, but they are still preliminary. As a result, there is still room for improvement. On days when there were no missing or inaccurate data, this approach has R2 of about 0.84, sometimes as high as 0.94 when compared to measured results. However, there were many days where missing data brought overall accuracy down significantly. In addition, the development and implementation of the calibration process is still underway and some functional additions must be made in order to maximize accuracy. The calibration process must be completed before a reliable

  16. Ten questions concerning integrating smart buildings into the smart grid

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Thomas M.; Boudreau, Marie-Claude; Helsen, Lieve; Henze, Gregor; Mohammadpour, Javad; Noonan, Doug; Patteeuw, Dieter; Pless, Shanti; Watson, Richard T.

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in information and communications technology (ICT) have initiated development of a smart electrical grid and smart buildings. Buildings consume a large portion of the total electricity production worldwide, and to fully develop a smart grid they must be integrated with that grid. Buildings can now be 'prosumers' on the grid (both producers and consumers), and the continued growth of distributed renewable energy generation is raising new challenges in terms of grid stability over various time scales. Buildings can contribute to grid stability by managing their overall electrical demand in response to current conditions. Facility managers must balance demand response requests by grid operators with energy needed to maintain smooth building operations. For example, maintaining thermal comfort within an occupied building requires energy and, thus an optimized solution balancing energy use with indoor environmental quality (adequate thermal comfort, lighting, etc.) is needed. Successful integration of buildings and their systems with the grid also requires interoperable data exchange. However, the adoption and integration of newer control and communication technologies into buildings can be problematic with older legacy HVAC and building control systems. Public policy and economic structures have not kept up with the technical developments that have given rise to the budding smart grid, and further developments are needed in both technical and non-technical areas.

  17. Assistive Awareness in Smart Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourazeri, Aikaterini; Almajano, Pablo; Rodriguez, Inmaculada; Lopez-Sanchez, Maite

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Background * The User-Infrastructure Interface * User Engagement through Assistive Awareness * Research Impact * Serious Games for Smart Grids * Serious Game Technology * Game scenario * Game mechanics * Related Work * Summary and Conclusions

  18. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    ScienceCinema

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2016-07-12

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  19. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-03-03

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  20. Co-Simulation of Detailed Whole Building with the Power System to Study Smart Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Fuller, Jason C.; Srivastava, Viraj; Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.

    2014-12-24

    Modernization of the power system in a way that ensures a sustainable energy system is arguably one of the most pressing concerns of our time. Buildings are important components in the power system. First, they are the main consumers of electricity and secondly, they do not have constant energy demand. Conventionally, electricity has been difficult to store and should be consumed as it is generated. Therefore, maintaining the demand and supply is critical in the power system. However, to reduce the complexity of power models, buildings (i.e., end-use loads) are traditionally modeled and represented as aggregated “dumb” nodes in the power system. This means we lack effective detailed whole building energy models that can support requirements and emerging technologies of the smart power grid. To gain greater insight into the relationship between building energy demand and power system performance, it is important to constitute a co-simulation framework to support detailed building energy modeling and simulation within the power system to study capabilities promised by the modern power grid. This paper discusses ongoing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and presents underlying tools and framework needed to enable co-simulation of building, building energy systems and their control in the power system to study applications such as demand response, grid-based HVAC control, and deployment of buildings for ancillary services. The optimal goal is to develop an integrated modeling and simulation platform that is flexible, reusable, and scalable. Results of this work will contribute to future building and power system studies, especially those related to the integrated ‘smart grid’. Results are also expected to advance power resiliency and local (micro) scale grid studies where several building and renewable energy systems transact energy directly. This paper also reviews some applications that can be supported and studied using the framework introduced

  1. Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration, a Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Yinger, Robert; Irwin, Mark

    2015-12-29

    ISGD was a comprehensive demonstration that spanned the electricity delivery system and extended into customer homes. The project used phasor measurement technology to enable substation-level situational awareness, and demonstrated SCE’s next-generation substation automation system. It extended beyond the substation to evaluate the latest generation of distribution automation technologies, including looped 12-kV distribution circuit topology using URCIs. The project team used DVVC capabilities to demonstrate CVR. In customer homes, the project evaluated HAN devices such as smart appliances, programmable communicating thermostats, and home energy management components. The homes were also equipped with energy storage, solar PV systems, and a number of energy efficiency measures (EEMs). The team used one block of homes to evaluate strategies and technologies for achieving ZNE. A home achieves ZNE when it produces at least as much renewable energy as the amount of energy it consumes annually. The project also assessed the impact of device-specific demand response (DR), as well as load management capabilities involving energy storage devices and plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. In addition, the ISGD project sought to better understand the impact of ZNE homes on the electric grid. ISGD’s SENet enabled end-to-end interoperability between multiple vendors’ systems and devices, while also providing a level of cybersecurity that is essential to smart grid development and adoption across the nation. The ISGD project includes a series of sub-projects grouped into four logical technology domains: Smart Energy Customer Solutions, Next-Generation Distribution System, Interoperability and Cybersecurity, and Workforce of the Future. Section 2.3 provides a more detailed overview of these domains.

  2. A Systems Approach to Analyzing Cyber-Physical Threats in the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Almajali, Anas; Rice, Eric; Viswanathan, Arun; Tan, Kymie; Neuman, Clifford

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a systems analysis approach to characterizing the risk of a Smart Grid to a load-drop attack. A characterization of the risk is necessary for the design of detection and remediation strategies to address the consequences of such attacks. Using concepts from systems health management and system engineering, this work (a) first identifies metrics that can be used to generate constraints for security features, and (b) lays out an end-to-end integrated methodology using separate network and power simulations to assess system risk. We demonstrate our approach by performing a systems-style analysis of a load-drop attack implemented over the AMI subsystem and targeted at destabilizing the underlying power grid.

  3. Power system voltage stability and agent based distribution automation in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Cuong Phuc

    2011-12-01

    Our interconnected electric power system is presently facing many challenges that it was not originally designed and engineered to handle. The increased inter-area power transfers, aging infrastructure, and old technologies, have caused many problems including voltage instability, widespread blackouts, slow control response, among others. These problems have created an urgent need to transform the present electric power system to a highly stable, reliable, efficient, and self-healing electric power system of the future, which has been termed "smart grid". This dissertation begins with an investigation of voltage stability in bulk transmission networks. A new continuation power flow tool for studying the impacts of generator merit order based dispatch on inter-area transfer capability and static voltage stability is presented. The load demands are represented by lumped load models on the transmission system. While this representation is acceptable in traditional power system analysis, it may not be valid in the future smart grid where the distribution system will be integrated with intelligent and quick control capabilities to mitigate voltage problems before they propagate into the entire system. Therefore, before analyzing the operation of the whole smart grid, it is important to understand the distribution system first. The second part of this dissertation presents a new platform for studying and testing emerging technologies in advanced Distribution Automation (DA) within smart grids. Due to the key benefits over the traditional centralized approach, namely flexible deployment, scalability, and avoidance of single-point-of-failure, a new distributed approach is employed to design and develop all elements of the platform. A multi-agent system (MAS), which has the three key characteristics of autonomy, local view, and decentralization, is selected to implement the advanced DA functions. The intelligent agents utilize a communication network for cooperation and

  4. Novel Directional Protection Scheme for the FREEDM Smart Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nitish

    This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level PSCAD model which is used to validate component models for different time-scale platforms, to provide a virtual testing platform for the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. It is also used to validate the cases of power system protection, renewable energy integration and storage, and load profiles. The protection of the FREEDM system against any abnormal condition is one of the important tasks. The addition of distributed generation and power electronic based solid state transformer adds to the complexity of the protection. The FREEDM loop system has a fault current limiter and in addition, the Solid State Transformer (SST) limits the fault current at 2.0 per unit. Former students at ASU have developed the protection scheme using fiber-optic cable. However, during the NSF-FREEDM site visit, the National Science Foundation (NSF) team regarded the system incompatible for the long distances. Hence, a new protection scheme with a wireless scheme is presented in this thesis. The use of wireless communication is extended to protect the large scale meshed distributed generation from any fault. The trip signal generated by the pilot protection system is used to trigger the FID (fault isolation device) which is an electronic circuit breaker operation (switched off/opening the FIDs). The trip signal must be received and accepted by the SST, and it must block the SST operation immediately. A comprehensive protection system for the large scale meshed distribution system has been developed in PSCAD with the ability to quickly detect the faults. The validation of the protection system is performed by building a hardware model using commercial relays at the ASU power laboratory.

  5. Improving Cyber-Security of Smart Grid Systems via Anomaly Detection and Linguistic Domain Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2012-08-01

    The planned large scale deployment of smart grid network devices will generate a large amount of information exchanged over various types of communication networks. The implementation of these critical systems will require appropriate cyber-security measures. A network anomaly detection solution is considered in this work. In common network architectures multiple communications streams are simultaneously present, making it difficult to build an anomaly detection solution for the entire system. In addition, common anomaly detection algorithms require specification of a sensitivity threshold, which inevitably leads to a tradeoff between false positives and false negatives rates. In order to alleviate these issues, this paper proposes a novel anomaly detection architecture. The designed system applies the previously developed network security cyber-sensor method to individual selected communication streams allowing for learning accurate normal network behavior models. Furthermore, the developed system dynamically adjusts the sensitivity threshold of each anomaly detection algorithm based on domain knowledge about the specific network system. It is proposed to model this domain knowledge using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic rules, which linguistically describe the relationship between various features of the network communication and the possibility of a cyber attack. The proposed method was tested on experimental smart grid system demonstrating enhanced cyber-security.

  6. Modeling Framework and Validation of a Smart Grid and Demand Response System for Wind Power Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Broeer, Torsten; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, David P.; Djilali, Ned

    2014-01-31

    Electricity generation from wind power and other renewable energy sources is increasing, and their variability introduces new challenges to the power system. The emergence of smart grid technologies in recent years has seen a paradigm shift in redefining the electrical system of the future, in which controlled response of the demand side is used to balance fluctuations and intermittencies from the generation side. This paper presents a modeling framework for an integrated electricity system where loads become an additional resource. The agent-based model represents a smart grid power system integrating generators, transmission, distribution, loads and market. The model incorporates generator and load controllers, allowing suppliers and demanders to bid into a Real-Time Pricing (RTP) electricity market. The modeling framework is applied to represent a physical demonstration project conducted on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA, and validation simulations are performed using actual dynamic data. Wind power is then introduced into the power generation mix illustrating the potential of demand response to mitigate the impact of wind power variability, primarily through thermostatically controlled loads. The results also indicate that effective implementation of Demand Response (DR) to assist integration of variable renewable energy resources requires a diversity of loads to ensure functionality of the overall system.

  7. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Eltamaly, Ali M.; Alolah, Abdulrahman I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers. PMID:27513000

  8. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed A; Eltamaly, Ali M; Alolah, Abdulrahman I

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers.

  9. Feasibility analysis of a smart grid photovoltaics system for the subarctic rural region in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lei

    A smart grid photovoltaics system was developed to demonstrate that the system is feasible for a similar off-grid rural community in the subarctic region in Alaska. A system generation algorithm and a system business model were developed to determine feasibility. Based on forecasts by the PV F-Chart software, a 70° tilt angle in winter, and a 34° tilt angle in summer were determined to be the best angles for electrical output. The proposed system's electricity unit cost was calculated at 32.3 cents/kWh that is cheaper than current unsubsidized electricity price (46.8 cents/kWh) in off-grid rural communities. Given 46.8 cents/kWh as the electricity unit price, the system provider can break even when 17.3 percent of the total electrical revenue through power generated by the proposed system is charged. Given these results, the system can be economically feasible during the life-cycle period. With further incentives, the system may have a competitive advantage.

  10. Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Saifur

    2014-08-31

    Since the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 was enacted, there has been a large number of websites that discusses smart grid and relevant information, including those from government, academia, industry, private sector and regulatory. These websites collect information independently. Therefore, smart grid information was quite scattered and dispersed. The objective of this work was to develop, populate, manage and maintain the public Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC) web portal. The information in the SGIC website is comprehensive that includes smart grid information, research & development, demonstration projects, technical standards, costs & benefit analyses, business cases, legislation, policy & regulation, and other information on lesson learned and best practices. The content in the SGIC website is logically grouped to allow easily browse, search and sort. In addition to providing the browse and search feature, the SGIC web portal also allow users to share their smart grid information with others though our online content submission platform. The Clearinghouse web portal, therefore, serves as the first stop shop for smart grid information that collects smart grid information in a non-bias, non-promotional manner and can provide a missing link from information sources to end users and better serve users’ needs. The web portal is available at www.sgiclearinghouse.org. This report summarizes the work performed during the course of the project (September 2009 – August 2014). Section 2.0 lists SGIC Advisory Committee and User Group members. Section 3.0 discusses SGIC information architecture and web-based database application functionalities. Section 4.0 summarizes SGIC features and functionalities, including its search, browse and sort capabilities, web portal social networking, online content submission platform and security measures implemented. Section 5.0 discusses SGIC web portal contents, including smart grid 101, smart grid projects

  11. Smart Grid Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad Lopez, Carlos Adrian

    Current electricity infrastructure is being stressed from several directions -- high demand, unreliable supply, extreme weather conditions, accidents, among others. Infrastructure planners have, traditionally, focused on only the cost of the system; today, resilience and sustainability are increasingly becoming more important. In this dissertation, we develop computational tools for efficiently managing electricity resources to help create a more reliable and sustainable electrical grid. The tools we present in this work will help electric utilities coordinate demand to allow the smooth and large scale integration of renewable sources of energy into traditional grids, as well as provide infrastructure planners and operators in developing countries a framework for making informed planning and control decisions in the presence of uncertainty. Demand-side management is considered as the most viable solution for maintaining grid stability as generation from intermittent renewable sources increases. Demand-side management, particularly demand response (DR) programs that attempt to alter the energy consumption of customers either by using price-based incentives or up-front power interruption contracts, is more cost-effective and sustainable in addressing short-term supply-demand imbalances when compared with the alternative that involves increasing fossil fuel-based fast spinning reserves. An essential step in compensating participating customers and benchmarking the effectiveness of DR programs is to be able to independently detect the load reduction from observed meter data. Electric utilities implementing automated DR programs through direct load control switches are also interested in detecting the reduction in demand to efficiently pinpoint non-functioning devices to reduce maintenance costs. We develop sparse optimization methods for detecting a small change in the demand for electricity of a customer in response to a price change or signal from the utility

  12. From the grid to the smart grid, topologically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2016-05-01

    In its more visionary acceptation, the smart grid is a model of energy management in which the users are engaged in producing energy as well as consuming it, while having information systems fully aware of the energy demand-response of the network and of dynamically varying prices. A natural question is then: to make the smart grid a reality will the distribution grid have to be upgraded? We assume a positive answer to the question and we consider the lower layers of medium and low voltage to be the most affected by the change. In our previous work, we analyzed samples of the Dutch distribution grid (Pagani and Aiello, 2011) and we considered possible evolutions of these using synthetic topologies modeled after studies of complex systems in other technological domains (Pagani and Aiello, 2014). In this paper, we take an extra important step by defining a methodology for evolving any existing physical power grid to a good smart grid model, thus laying the foundations for a decision support system for utilities and governmental organizations. In doing so, we consider several possible evolution strategies and apply them to the Dutch distribution grid. We show how increasing connectivity is beneficial in realizing more efficient and reliable networks. Our proposal is topological in nature, enhanced with economic considerations of the costs of such evolutions in terms of cabling expenses and economic benefits of evolving the grid.

  13. 76 FR 46279 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Smart Grid... should be sent to Office of the National Coordinator for Smart Grid Interoperability, National...

  14. 77 FR 38768 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Smart Grid... the Smart Grid Interoperability Panel transition plan, review the status of the research...

  15. 75 FR 55306 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Smart Grid... provide an update on NIST's Smart Grid program. The agenda may change to accommodate Committee business...

  16. Smart Grid Maturity Model: A Vision for the Future of Smart Grid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-24

    2011 Carnegie Mellon University SEI Technologies Forum Twitter: #SEIVirtualForum Smart Grid Maturity Model : A Vision for...the Future of Smart Grid David W. White Smart Grid Maturity Model Project Manager White is a member of the Resilient Enterprise Management (REM...infrastructure protection, and smart grid deployment. He is the project manager and a core member of the development team for the SEI Smart Grid Maturity Model (SGMM

  17. The Development of a Smart Distribution Grid Testbed for Integrated Information Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Du, Pengwei; Paulson, Patrick R.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Guo, Xinxin; Hadley, Mark D.

    2011-07-28

    This paper presents a smart distribution grid testbed to test or compare designs of integrated information management systems (I2MSs). An I2MS extracts and synthesizes information from a wide range of data sources to detect abnormal system behaviors, identify possible causes, assess the system status, and provide grid operators with response suggestions. The objective of the testbed is to provide a modeling environment with sufficient data sources for the I2MS design. The testbed includes five information layers and a physical layer; it generates multi-layer chronological data based on actual measurement playbacks or simulated data sets produced by the physical layer. The testbed models random hardware failures, human errors, extreme weather events, and deliberate tampering attempts to allow users to evaluate the performance of different I2MS designs. Initial results of I2MS performance tests showed that the testbed created a close-to-real-world environment that allowed key performance metrics of the I2MS to be evaluated.

  18. Cloud Computing for the Grid: GridControl: A Software Platform to Support the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-08

    GENI Project: Cornell University is creating a new software platform for grid operators called GridControl that will utilize cloud computing to more efficiently control the grid. In a cloud computing system, there are minimal hardware and software demands on users. The user can tap into a network of computers that is housed elsewhere (the cloud) and the network runs computer applications for the user. The user only needs interface software to access all of the cloud’s data resources, which can be as simple as a web browser. Cloud computing can reduce costs, facilitate innovation through sharing, empower users, and improve the overall reliability of a dispersed system. Cornell’s GridControl will focus on 4 elements: delivering the state of the grid to users quickly and reliably; building networked, scalable grid-control software; tailoring services to emerging smart grid uses; and simulating smart grid behavior under various conditions.

  19. Behavior Computation for Smart Grid Software Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Linger, Richard C; Pleszkoch, Mark G; Prowell, Stacy J; Sayre, Kirk D

    2011-01-01

    Smart grid embedded software is subject to intrusion and compromise with potentially serious consequences. Current methods of cybersecurity analysis are increasingly challenged by the scope the problem. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is pioneering the new technology of software behavior computation to help address these risks. Software behavior computation and its instantiation in Function eXtraction (FX) systems apply mathematical foundations of denotational semantics to compute the behavior of software in all circumstances of use. Research has shown how to make the effects of recursion-theoretic limitations on this process arbitrarily small. Behavior computation operates on the functional semantics of programs, and is not subject to the limitations of syntactic recognition or testing. ORNL is applying FX technology to help evaluate cyber security properties in smart grid systems, with initial focus on vulnerabilities in embedded software that controls smart meters.

  20. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Kirkham, Harold

    2014-07-01

    To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. It measures 21 metrics to provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This report looks across a spectrum of smart grid concerns to measure the status of smart grid deployment and impacts.

  1. Smart Meter Rollout: Intelligente Messsysteme als Schnittstelle zum Kunden im Smart Grid und Smart Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vortanz, Karsten; Zayer, Peter

    Das Gesetz zur Digitalisierung der Energiewende ist verabschiedet. Ab 2017 sind moderne Messeinrichtungen (mME) und intelligente Messsysteme (iMSys) zu verbauen und zu betreiben. Der "deutsche Weg" für die Einführung von Smart Metern sieht einen stufenweisen Rollout sowie ein Höchstmaß an Informations- und Datensicherheit vor. Dabei spielen iMSys und mME eine wichtige Rolle bei der Neugestaltung der intelligenten Netze (Smart Grids) und des neuen Marktmodells (Smart Market). Dieser Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit den neuen Gesetzen, den Marktrollen und ihren Aufgaben, Datenschutz und Datensicherheit, dem iMSys als sichere Lösung, dem sicheren Betrieb von Smart Meter Gateways, Smart Grid - Smart Market, dem Zusammenspiel zwischen reguliertem Bereich und Markt, den Einsatzbereichen der iMSys sowie den Auswirkungen auf Prozesse und Systeme und gibt Handlungsempfehlungen.

  2. Greening the Grid - Advancing Solar, Wind, and Smart Grid Technologies (Spanish Version)

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-01

    This is the Spanish version of 'Greening the Grid - Advancing Solar, Wind, and Smart Grid Technologies'. Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid.

  3. 76 FR 70412 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Smart Grid... agenda may change to accommodate Committee business. The final agenda will be posted on the Smart...

  4. A Study of Energy Management Systems and its Failure Modes in Smart Grid Power Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musani, Aatif

    The subject of this thesis is distribution level load management using a pricing signal in a smart grid infrastructure. The project relates to energy management in a spe-cialized distribution system known as the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. Energy management through demand response is one of the key applications of smart grid. Demand response today is envisioned as a method in which the price could be communicated to the consumers and they may shift their loads from high price periods to the low price periods. The development and deployment of the FREEDM system necessitates controls of energy and power at the point of end use. In this thesis, the main objective is to develop the control model of the Energy Management System (EMS). The energy and power management in the FREEDM system is digitally controlled therefore all signals containing system states are discrete. The EMS is modeled as a discrete closed loop transfer function in the z-domain. A breakdown of power and energy control devices such as EMS components may result in energy con-sumption error. This leads to one of the main focuses of the thesis which is to identify and study component failures of the designed control system. Moreover, H-infinity ro-bust control method is applied to ensure effectiveness of the control architecture. A focus of the study is cyber security attack, specifically bad data detection in price. Test cases are used to illustrate the performance of the EMS control design, the effect of failure modes and the application of robust control technique. The EMS was represented by a linear z-domain model. The transfer function be-tween the pricing signal and the demand response was designed and used as a test bed. EMS potential failure modes were identified and studied. Three bad data detection meth-odologies were implemented and a voting policy was used to declare bad data. The run-ning mean and standard deviation analysis method proves to be

  5. Development of Smart Grid for Community and Cyber based Landslide Hazard Monitoring and Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnawati, D.; Wilopo, W.; Fathani, T. F.; Fukuoka, H.; Andayani, B.

    2012-12-01

    A Smart Grid is a cyber-based tool to facilitate a network of sensors for monitoring and communicating the landslide hazard and providing the early warning. The sensor is designed as an electronic sensor installed in the existing monitoring and early warning instruments, and also as the human sensors which comprise selected committed-people at the local community, such as the local surveyor, local observer, member of the local task force for disaster risk reduction, and any person at the local community who has been registered to dedicate their commitments for sending reports related to the landslide symptoms observed at their living environment. This tool is designed to be capable to receive up to thousands of reports/information at the same time through the electronic sensors, text message (mobile phone), the on-line participatory web as well as various social media such as Twitter and Face book. The information that should be recorded/ reported by the sensors is related to the parameters of landslide symptoms, for example the progress of cracks occurrence, ground subsidence or ground deformation. Within 10 minutes, this tool will be able to automatically elaborate and analyse the reported symptoms to predict the landslide hazard and risk levels. The predicted level of hazard/ risk can be sent back to the network of electronic and human sensors as the early warning information. The key parameters indicating the symptoms of landslide hazard were recorded/ monitored by the electrical and the human sensors. Those parameters were identified based on the investigation on geological and geotechnical conditions, supported with the laboratory analysis. The cause and triggering mechanism of landslide in the study area was also analysed in order to define the critical condition to launch the early warning. However, not only the technical but also social system were developed to raise community awareness and commitments to serve the mission as the human sensors, which will

  6. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  7. Technology Readiness and the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, Harold; Marinovici, Maria C.

    2013-02-27

    Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) originated as a way for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to monitor the development of systems being readied for space. The technique has found wide application as part of the more general topic of system engineering. In this paper, we consider the applicability of TRLs to systems being readied for the smart grid. We find that there are many useful parallels, and much to be gained by this application. However, TRLs were designed for a developer who was also a user. That is not usually the case for smart grid developments. We consider the matter from the point of view of the company responsible for implementation, typically a utility, and we find that there is a need for connecting the many standards in the industry. That connection is explored, and some new considerations are introduced.

  8. Smart Home Test Bed: Examining How Smart Homes Interact with the Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2016-11-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Smart Home Test Bed capability at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working on one of the new frontiers of smart home research: finding ways for smart home technologies and systems to enhance grid operations in the presence of distributed, clean energy technologies such as photovoltaics (PV). To help advance this research, NREL has developed a controllable, flexible, and fully integrated Smart Home Test Bed.

  9. Software Technology Readiness for the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Tugurlan, Maria C.; Kirkham, Harold; Chassin, David P.

    2011-06-13

    Abstract Budget and schedule overruns in product development due to the use of immature technologies constitute an important matter for program managers. Moreover, unexpected lack of technology maturity is also a problem for buyers. Both sides of the situation would benefit from an unbiased measure of technology maturity. This paper presents the use of a software maturity metric called Technology Readiness Level (TRL), in the milieu of the smart grid. For most of the time they have been in existence, power utilities have been protected monopolies, guaranteed a return on investment on anything they could justify adding to the rate base. Such a situation did not encourage innovation, and instead led to widespread risk-avoidance behavior in many utilities. The situation changed at the end of the last century, with a series of regulatory measures, beginning with the Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act of 1978. However, some bad experiences have actually served to strengthen the resistance to innovation by some utilities. Some aspects of the smart grid, such as the addition of computer-based control to the power system, face an uphill battle. It is our position that the addition of TRLs to the decision-making process for smart grid power-system projects, will lead to an environment of more confident adoption.

  10. A smart grid simulation testbed using Matlab/Simulink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallapuram, Sriharsha; Moulema, Paul; Yu, Wei

    2014-06-01

    The smart grid is the integration of computing and communication technologies into a power grid with a goal of enabling real time control, and a reliable, secure, and efficient energy system [1]. With the increased interest of the research community and stakeholders towards the smart grid, a number of solutions and algorithms have been developed and proposed to address issues related to smart grid operations and functions. Those technologies and solutions need to be tested and validated before implementation using software simulators. In this paper, we developed a general smart grid simulation model in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, which integrates renewable energy resources, energy storage technology, load monitoring and control capability. To demonstrate and validate the effectiveness of our simulation model, we created simulation scenarios and performed simulations using a real-world data set provided by the Pecan Street Research Institute.

  11. Semantic Information Modeling for Emerging Applications in Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Qunzhi; Natarajan, Sreedhar; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor

    2012-04-16

    Smart Grid modernizes power grid by integrating digital and information technologies. Millions of smart meters, intelligent appliances and communication infrastructures are under deployment allowing advanced IT applications to be developed to secure and manage power grid operations. Demand response (DR) is one such emerging application to optimize electricity demand by curtailing/shifting power load when peak load occurs. Existing DR approaches are mostly based on static plans such as pricing policies and load shedding schedules. However, improvements to power management applications rely on data emanating from existing and new information sources with the growth of Smart Grid information space. In particular, dynamic DR algorithms depend on information from smart meters that report interval-based power consumption measurement, HVAC systems that monitor buildings heat and humidity, and even weather forecast services. In order for emerging Smart Grid applications to take advantage of the diverse data influx, extensible information integration is required. In this paper, we develop an integrated Smart Grid information model using Semantic Web techniques and present case studies of using semantic information for dynamic DR. We show the semantic model facilitates information integration and knowledge representation for developing the next generation Smart Grid applications.

  12. VOLTTRON - An Intelligent Agent Platform for the Smart Grid

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The distributed nature of the Smart Grid, such as responsive loads, solar and wind generation, and automation in the distribution system present a complex environment not easily controlled in a centralized manner.

  13. VOLTTRON - An Intelligent Agent Platform for the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-23

    The distributed nature of the Smart Grid, such as responsive loads, solar and wind generation, and automation in the distribution system present a complex environment not easily controlled in a centralized manner.

  14. A Taxonomy on Accountability and Privacy Issues in Smart Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Ameya; Shahnasser, Hamid

    2017-07-01

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are combinations of computation, networking, and physical processes. Embedded computers and networks monitor control the physical processes, which affect computations and vice versa. Two applications of cyber physical systems include health-care and smart grid. In this paper, we have considered privacy aspects of cyber-physical system applicable to smart grid. Smart grid in collaboration with different stockholders can help in the improvement of power generation, communication, circulation and consumption. The proper management with monitoring feature by customers and utility of energy usage can be done through proper transmission and electricity flow; however cyber vulnerability could be increased due to an increased assimilation and linkage. This paper discusses various frameworks and architectures proposed for achieving accountability in smart grids by addressing privacy issues in Advance Metering Infrastructure (AMI). This paper also highlights additional work needed for accountability in more precise specifications such as uncertainty or ambiguity, indistinct, unmanageability, and undetectably.

  15. Cloud computing for energy management in smart grid - an application survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveen, P.; Kiing Ing, Wong; Kobina Danquah, Michael; Sidhu, Amandeep S.; Abu-Siada, Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    The smart grid is the emerging energy system wherein the application of information technology, tools and techniques that make the grid run more efficiently. It possesses demand response capacity to help balance electrical consumption with supply. The challenges and opportunities of emerging and future smart grids can be addressed by cloud computing. To focus on these requirements, we provide an in-depth survey on different cloud computing applications for energy management in the smart grid architecture. In this survey, we present an outline of the current state of research on smart grid development. We also propose a model of cloud based economic power dispatch for smart grid.

  16. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model Beta Version

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Drummond, R.; Giroti, Tony; Houseman, Doug; Knight, Mark; Levinson, Alex; longcore, Wayne; Lowe, Randy; Mater, J.; Oliver, Terry V.; Slack, Phil; Tolk, Andreas; Montgomery, Austin

    2011-12-02

    The GridWise Architecture Council was formed by the U.S. Department of Energy to promote and enable interoperability among the many entities that interact with the electric power system. This balanced team of industry representatives proposes principles for the development of interoperability concepts and standards. The Council provides industry guidance and tools that make it an available resource for smart grid implementations. In the spirit of advancing interoperability of an ecosystem of smart grid devices and systems, this document presents a model for evaluating the maturity of the artifacts and processes that specify the agreement of parties to collaborate across an information exchange interface. You are expected to have a solid understanding of large, complex system integration concepts and experience in dealing with software component interoperation. Those without this technical background should read the Executive Summary for a description of the purpose and contents of the document. Other documents, such as checklists, guides, and whitepapers, exist for targeted purposes and audiences. Please see the www.gridwiseac.org website for more products of the Council that may be of interest to you.

  17. Advancing Smart Grid Interoperability and Implementing NIST's Interoperability Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Basso,T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2010-04-01

    The IEEE American National Standards project P2030TM addressing smart grid interoperability and the IEEE 1547 series of standards addressing distributed resources interconnection with the grid have been identified in priority action plans in the Report to NIST on the Smart Grid Interoperability Standards Roadmap. This paper presents the status of the IEEE P2030 development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards publications and drafts, and provides insight on systems integration and grid infrastructure. The P2030 and 1547 series of standards are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21.

  18. Thundercloud: Domain specific information security training for the smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stites, Joseph

    In this paper, we describe a cloud-based virtual smart grid test bed: ThunderCloud, which is intended to be used for domain-specific security training applicable to the smart grid environment. The test bed consists of virtual machines connected using a virtual internal network. ThunderCloud is remotely accessible, allowing students to undergo educational exercises online. We also describe a series of practical exercises that we have developed for providing the domain-specific training using ThunderCloud. The training exercises and attacks are designed to be realistic and to reflect known vulnerabilities and attacks reported in the smart grid environment. We were able to use ThunderCloud to offer practical domain-specific security training for smart grid environment to computer science students at little or no cost to the department and no risk to any real networks or systems.

  19. Smart grid as a service: a discussion on design issues.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hung-Lin; Tsai, Chen-Chou; Hsiung, Pao-Ann; Chou, I-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid allows the integration of distributed renewable energy resources into the conventional electricity distribution power grid such that the goals of reduction in power cost and in environment pollution can be met through an intelligent and efficient matching between power generators and power loads. Currently, this rapidly developing infrastructure is not as "smart" as it should be because of the lack of a flexible, scalable, and adaptive structure. As a solution, this work proposes smart grid as a service (SGaaS), which not only allows a smart grid to be composed out of basic services, but also allows power users to choose between different services based on their own requirements. The two important issues of service-level agreements and composition of services are also addressed in this work. Finally, we give the details of how SGaaS can be implemented using a FIPA-compliant JADE multiagent system.

  20. GridOPTICS(TM): A Design for Plug-and-Play Smart Grid Software Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan; Yin, Jian

    2012-06-03

    As the smart grid becomes reality, software architectures for integrating legacy systems with new innovative approaches for grid management are needed. These architectures must exhibit flexibility, extensibility, interoperability and scalability. In this position paper, we describe our preliminary work to design such an architecture, known as GridOPTICS, that will enable the deployment and integration of new software tools in smart grid operations. Our preliminary design is based upon use cases from PNNL’s Future Power Grid Initiative, which is a developing a collection of advanced software technologies for smart grid management and control. We describe the motivations for GridOPTICS, and the preliminary design that we are currently prototyping for several distinct use cases.

  1. SMART FUEL CELL OPERATED RESIDENTIAL MICRO-GRID COMMUNITY

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam University of South Alabama ECE Department, EEB 75 Mobile, AL 36688-0002 Phone: 251-460-6117 Fax: 251-460-6028

    2005-04-13

    To build on the work of year one by expanding the smart control algorithm developed to a micro-grid of ten houses; to perform a cost analysis; to evaluate alternate energy sources; to study system reliability; to develop the energy management algorithm, and to perform micro-grid software and hardware simulations.

  2. Design and optimization of smart grid system based on renewable energy in Nyamuk Island, Karimunjawa district, Central Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novitasari, D.; Indartono, Y. S.; Rachmidha, T. D.; Reksowardojo, I. K.; Irsyad, M.

    2017-03-01

    Nyamuk Island in Karimunjawa District is one of the regions in Java that has no access to electricity grid. The electricity in Nyamuk Island relies on diesel engine which is managed by local government and only operated for 6 hours per day. It occurs as a consequence of high fuel cost. A study on smart micro grid system based on renewable energy was conducted in Combustion Engine and Propulsion System Laboratory of Institut Teknologi Bandung by using 1 kWp solar panels and a 3 kW bio based diesel engine. The fuels used to run the bio based diesel engine were diesel, virgin coconut oil and pure palm oil. The results show that the smart grid system run well at varying load and also with different fuel. Based on the experiments, average inverter efficiency was about 87%. This experiments proved that the use of biofuels had no effects to the overall system performance. Based on the results of prototype experiments, this paper will focus on design and optimization of smart micro grid system using HOMER software for Nyamuk Island. The design consists of (1) a diesel engine existing in Nyamuk Island whose fuel was diesel, (2) a lister engine whose fuel was from vegetable oil from Callophyllum inophyllum, (3) solar panels, (4) batteries and (5) converter. In this simulation, the existing diesel engine was set to operate 2 hours per day, while operating time of the lister engine has been varied with several scenarios. In scenario I, the lister engine was operated 5 hours per day, in scenario II the lister engine was operated 24 hours per day and in scenario III the lister engine was operated 8 hours per week in the weekend. In addition, a design using a modified diesel engine was conducted as well with an assumption that the modified cost was about 10% of new diesel engine cost. By modifying the diesel engine, the system will not need a lister engine. Assessments has been done to evaluate the designs, and the result shows that the optimal value obtains by the lister engine

  3. GridLAB-D: An Agent-Based Simulation Framework for Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Djilali, Ned

    2014-06-23

    Simulation of smart grid technologies requires a fundamentally new approach to integrated modeling of power systems, energy markets, building technologies, and the plethora of other resources and assets that are becoming part of modern electricity production, delivery, and consumption systems. As a result, the US Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity commissioned the development of a new type of power system simulation tool called GridLAB-D that uses an agent-based approach to simulating smart grids. This paper presents the numerical methods and approach to time-series simulation used by GridLAB-D and reviews applications in power system studies, market design, building control system design, and integration of wind power in a smart grid.

  4. An overview of smart grid routing algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junsheng; OU, Qinghai; Shen, Haijuan

    2017-08-01

    This paper summarizes the typical routing algorithm in smart grid by analyzing the communication business and communication requirements of intelligent grid. Mainly from the two kinds of routing algorithm is analyzed, namely clustering routing algorithm and routing algorithm, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of two kinds of typical routing algorithm in routing algorithm and applicability.

  5. Bus.py: A GridLAB-D Communication Interface for Smart Distribution Grid Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Timothy M.; Palmintier, Bryan; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Maciejewski, Anthony A.; Siegel, Howard Jay

    2015-07-03

    As more Smart Grid technologies (e.g., distributed photovoltaic, spatially distributed electric vehicle charging) are integrated into distribution grids, static distribution simulations are no longer sufficient for performing modeling and analysis. GridLAB-D is an agent-based distribution system simulation environment that allows fine-grained end-user models, including geospatial and network topology detail. A problem exists in that, without outside intervention, once the GridLAB-D simulation begins execution, it will run to completion without allowing the real-time interaction of Smart Grid controls, such as home energy management systems and aggregator control. We address this lack of runtime interaction by designing a flexible communication interface, Bus.py (pronounced bus-dot-pie), that uses Python to pass messages between one or more GridLAB-D instances and a Smart Grid simulator. This work describes the design and implementation of Bus.py, discusses its usefulness in terms of some Smart Grid scenarios, and provides an example of an aggregator-based residential demand response system interacting with GridLAB-D through Bus.py. The small scale example demonstrates the validity of the interface and shows that an aggregator using said interface is able to control residential loads in GridLAB-D during runtime to cause a reduction in the peak load on the distribution system in (a) peak reduction and (b) time-of-use pricing cases.

  6. Unlocking the potential of smart grid technologies with behavioral science

    DOE PAGES

    Sintov, Nicole D.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2015-04-09

    Smart grid systems aim to provide a more stable and adaptable electricity infrastructure, and to maximize energy efficiency. Grid-linked technologies vary widely in form and function, but generally share common potentials: to reduce energy consumption via efficiency and/or curtailment, to shift use to off-peak times of day, and to enable distributed storage and generation options. Although end users are central players in these systems, they are sometimes not central considerations in technology or program design, and in some cases, their motivations for participating in such systems are not fully appreciated. Behavioral science can be instrumental in engaging end-users and maximizingmore » the impact of smart grid technologies. In this study, we present emerging technologies made possible by a smart grid infrastructure, and for each we highlight ways in which behavioral science can be applied to enhance their impact on energy savings.« less

  7. Unlocking the potential of smart grid technologies with behavioral science

    PubMed Central

    Sintov, Nicole D.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Smart grid systems aim to provide a more stable and adaptable electricity infrastructure, and to maximize energy efficiency. Grid-linked technologies vary widely in form and function, but generally share common potentials: to reduce energy consumption via efficiency and/or curtailment, to shift use to off-peak times of day, and to enable distributed storage and generation options. Although end users are central players in these systems, they are sometimes not central considerations in technology or program design, and in some cases, their motivations for participating in such systems are not fully appreciated. Behavioral science can be instrumental in engaging end-users and maximizing the impact of smart grid technologies. In this paper, we present emerging technologies made possible by a smart grid infrastructure, and for each we highlight ways in which behavioral science can be applied to enhance their impact on energy savings. PMID:25914666

  8. Unlocking the potential of smart grid technologies with behavioral science

    SciTech Connect

    Sintov, Nicole D.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2015-04-09

    Smart grid systems aim to provide a more stable and adaptable electricity infrastructure, and to maximize energy efficiency. Grid-linked technologies vary widely in form and function, but generally share common potentials: to reduce energy consumption via efficiency and/or curtailment, to shift use to off-peak times of day, and to enable distributed storage and generation options. Although end users are central players in these systems, they are sometimes not central considerations in technology or program design, and in some cases, their motivations for participating in such systems are not fully appreciated. Behavioral science can be instrumental in engaging end-users and maximizing the impact of smart grid technologies. In this study, we present emerging technologies made possible by a smart grid infrastructure, and for each we highlight ways in which behavioral science can be applied to enhance their impact on energy savings.

  9. Unlocking the potential of smart grid technologies with behavioral science.

    PubMed

    Sintov, Nicole D; Schultz, P Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Smart grid systems aim to provide a more stable and adaptable electricity infrastructure, and to maximize energy efficiency. Grid-linked technologies vary widely in form and function, but generally share common potentials: to reduce energy consumption via efficiency and/or curtailment, to shift use to off-peak times of day, and to enable distributed storage and generation options. Although end users are central players in these systems, they are sometimes not central considerations in technology or program design, and in some cases, their motivations for participating in such systems are not fully appreciated. Behavioral science can be instrumental in engaging end-users and maximizing the impact of smart grid technologies. In this paper, we present emerging technologies made possible by a smart grid infrastructure, and for each we highlight ways in which behavioral science can be applied to enhance their impact on energy savings.

  10. Maui Smart Grid Demonstration Project Managing Distribution System Resources for Improved Service Quality and Reliability, Transmission Congestion Relief, and Grid Support Functions

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-09-30

    The Maui Smart Grid Project (MSGP) is under the leadership of the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The project team includes Maui Electric Company, Ltd. (MECO), Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. (HECO), Sentech (a division of SRA International, Inc.), Silver Spring Networks (SSN), Alstom Grid, Maui Economic Development Board (MEDB), University of Hawaii-Maui College (UHMC), and the County of Maui. MSGP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC26-08NT02871, with approximately 50% co-funding supplied by MECO. The project was designed to develop and demonstrate an integrated monitoring, communications, database, applications, and decision support solution that aggregates renewable energy (RE), other distributed generation (DG), energy storage, and demand response technologies in a distribution system to achieve both distribution and transmission-level benefits. The application of these new technologies and procedures will increase MECO’s visibility into system conditions, with the expected benefits of enabling more renewable energy resources to be integrated into the grid, improving service quality, increasing overall reliability of the power system, and ultimately reducing costs to both MECO and its customers.

  11. GridLAB-D: An Agent-Based Simulation Framework for Smart Grids

    DOE PAGES

    Chassin, David P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Djilali, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Simulation of smart grid technologies requires a fundamentally new approach to integrated modeling of power systems, energy markets, building technologies, and the plethora of other resources and assets that are becoming part of modern electricity production, delivery, and consumption systems. As a result, the US Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity commissioned the development of a new type of power system simulation tool called GridLAB-D that uses an agent-based approach to simulating smart grids. This paper presents the numerical methods and approach to time-series simulation used by GridLAB-D and reviews applications in power system studies, market design, building control systemmore » design, and integration of wind power in a smart grid.« less

  12. A New Approach to Design of an optimized Grid Tied Smart Solar Photovoltaic (PV) System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhad, M. Mehedi; Ali, M. Mohammad; Iqbal, M. Asif; Islam, N. Nahar; Ashraf, N.

    2012-11-01

    Energy is the key element for the economical development of a country. With the increasing concern about the global demand for Renewable Energy (RE) energy, it is very much important to reduce the cost of the whole solar photovoltaic (PV) system. Still now most of the solar photovoltaic (PV) system is highly expensive. In this paper we have shown that grid tied solar system can be developed by omitting the energy storage device like large capacity battery bank. It will not only reduce the internallosses for charging and discharging of battery bank but also at the same time a large amount of cost of the battery will be reduced. So, the system maintenance cost will be reduced also. We have proposed a new approach to design a photovoltaic (PV) solar power system which can be operated by feeding the solar power to the national grid along with the residential load. Again if there is an extra power demand for residential load along with the solar power then this system can also provide an opportunity to consume the power from the national grid. The total system is controlled with the help of some the sensors and a microcontroller. As a whole a significant reduction in the system costs and efficient system performance can be realized.

  13. Identifying emerging smart grid impacts to upstream and midstream natural gas operations.

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Annie

    2010-09-01

    The Smart Grid has come to describe a next-generation electrical power system that is typified by the increased use of communications and information technology in the generation, delivery and consumption of electrical energy. Much of the present Smart Grid analysis focuses on utility and consumer interaction. i.e. smart appliances, home automation systems, rate structures, consumer demand response, etc. An identified need is to assess the upstream and midstream operations of natural gas as a result of the smart grid. The nature of Smart Grid, including the demand response and role of information, may require changes in upstream and midstream natural gas operations to ensure availability and efficiency. Utility reliance on natural gas will continue and likely increase, given the backup requirements for intermittent renewable energy sources. Efficient generation and delivery of electricity on Smart Grid could affect how natural gas is utilized. Things that we already know about Smart Grid are: (1) The role of information and data integrity is increasingly important. (2) Smart Grid includes a fully distributed system with two-way communication. (3) Smart Grid, a complex network, may change the way energy is supplied, stored, and in demand. (4) Smart Grid has evolved through consumer driven decisions. (5) Smart Grid and the US critical infrastructure will include many intermittent renewables.

  14. Cyber-Security Considerations for the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Samuel L.; Kirkham, Harold

    2010-07-26

    The electrical power grid is evolving into the “smart grid”. The goal of the smart grid is to improve efficiency and availability of power by adding more monitoring and control capabilities. These new technologies and mechanisms are certain to introduce vulnerabilities into the power grid. In this paper we provide an overview of the cyber security state of the electrical power grid. We highlight some of the vulnerabilities that already exist in the power grid including limited capacity systems, implicit trust and the lack of authentication. We also address challenges of complexity, scale, added capabilities and the move to multipurpose hardware and software as the power grid is upgraded. These changes create vulnerabilities that did not exist before and bring increased risks. We conclude the paper by showing that there are a number mitigation strategies that can help keep the risk at an acceptable level.

  15. Smart Grid as a Service: A Discussion on Design Issues

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chen-Chou; Chou, I-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid allows the integration of distributed renewable energy resources into the conventional electricity distribution power grid such that the goals of reduction in power cost and in environment pollution can be met through an intelligent and efficient matching between power generators and power loads. Currently, this rapidly developing infrastructure is not as “smart” as it should be because of the lack of a flexible, scalable, and adaptive structure. As a solution, this work proposes smart grid as a service (SGaaS), which not only allows a smart grid to be composed out of basic services, but also allows power users to choose between different services based on their own requirements. The two important issues of service-level agreements and composition of services are also addressed in this work. Finally, we give the details of how SGaaS can be implemented using a FIPA-compliant JADE multiagent system. PMID:25243214

  16. Secure Interoperable Open Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, Thoman

    2014-12-28

    The Consolidated Edison, Inc., of New York (Con Edison) Secure Interoperable Open Smart Grid Demonstration Project (SGDP), sponsored by the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), demonstrated that the reliability, efficiency, and flexibility of the grid can be improved through a combination of enhanced monitoring and control capabilities using systems and resources that interoperate within a secure services framework. The project demonstrated the capability to shift, balance, and reduce load where and when needed in response to system contingencies or emergencies by leveraging controllable field assets. The range of field assets includes curtailable customer loads, distributed generation (DG), battery storage, electric vehicle (EV) charging stations, building management systems (BMS), home area networks (HANs), high-voltage monitoring, and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). The SGDP enables the seamless integration and control of these field assets through a common, cyber-secure, interoperable control platform, which integrates a number of existing legacy control and data systems, as well as new smart grid (SG) systems and applications. By integrating advanced technologies for monitoring and control, the SGDP helps target and reduce peak load growth, improves the reliability and efficiency of Con Edison’s grid, and increases the ability to accommodate the growing use of distributed resources. Con Edison is dedicated to lowering costs, improving reliability and customer service, and reducing its impact on the environment for its customers. These objectives also align with the policy objectives of New York State as a whole. To help meet these objectives, Con Edison’s long-term vision for the distribution grid relies on the successful integration and control of a growing penetration of distributed resources, including demand response (DR) resources, battery storage units, and DG. For example, Con Edison is expecting significant long-term growth of DG

  17. SmartGrid: Quarterly Data Summaries from the Data Hub and SmartGrid Project Information (from OpenEI and SmartGrid.gov)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Both OpenEI and SmartGrid.gov are DOE portals to a wealth of information about the federal initiatives that support the development of the technologies, policies and projects transforming the electric power industry. Projects funded through the U.S. Recovery Act are organized by type and pinned to an interactive map at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Smart_Grid. Each project title links to more detailed information. The Quarterly Data Summaries from the Data Hub at SmartGrid.gov are also available on OpenEI at http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/928. In addition, the SmartGrid Information Center contains documents and reports that can be searched or browsed. Smart Grid Resources introduces international SmartGrid programs and sites, while OpenEI encourages users to add SmartGrid information to the repository.

  18. Technology Readiness for the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, Harold; Marinovici, Maria C.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Lindsey, K.; McBride, James; Clark, G. L.

    2013-06-30

    Reluctance to adopt new technology into a utility application is understandable, given the critical nature of the infrastructure and the less-than-ideal experiences of some power companies. The authors of this paper have considered adapting the NASA approach of classifying technology readiness, but find it not quite appropriate because NASA was both the developer and the eventual user of the new technology it was evaluating, whereas a utility is ordinarily in the mode of a customer, acquiring a new product from a manufacturer. Instead of a generic scale of technology readiness, a scale of readiness is proposed specifically for the smart grid, based on the many standards that exist for the relevant technologies. In this paper we present an overall structure for organization those standards. The acceptance of new technology is organized into five SGL (Smart Grid Level) steps, numbered five through 9 to correspond approximately to the last five numbers of the NASA TRL scale. SGL 5 is a certification that the hardware and software of the technology is safe for the system into which is intended to be placed. SGL 6 is documentation that the system is safe for itself, and will have adequate reliability. It is thus clear that the steps differ from NASA’s TRL in that technology development is not required, the transition is more one of documenting already existing system readiness. Since SGL 6 describes a system that is safe for the power system and for itself, it should not be restricted from being in a pilot-scale study, and achieving SGL 7. A larger-scale demonstration in a realistic environment will demonstrate interoperability and achieve SGL 8. Only when systems are installed and operating, and when disposal plans are in place will the designation of fully operable at SGL 9 be granted.

  19. Grid integration and smart grid implementation of emerging technologies in electric power systems through approximate dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jingjie

    A key hurdle for implementing real-time pricing of electricity is a lack of consumers' responses. Solutions to overcome the hurdle include the energy management system that automatically optimizes household appliance usage such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging (and discharging with vehicle-to-grid) via a two-way communication with the grid. Real-time pricing, combined with household automation devices, has a potential to accommodate an increasing penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. In addition, the intelligent energy controller on the consumer-side can help increase the utilization rate of the intermittent renewable resource, as the demand can be managed to match the output profile of renewables, thus making the intermittent resource such as wind and solar more economically competitive in the long run. One of the main goals of this dissertation is to present how real-time retail pricing, aided by control automation devices, can be integrated into the wholesale electricity market under various uncertainties through approximate dynamic programming. What distinguishes this study from the existing work in the literature is that whole- sale electricity prices are endogenously determined as we solve a system operator's economic dispatch problem on an hourly basis over the entire optimization horizon. This modeling and algorithm framework will allow a feedback loop between electricity prices and electricity consumption to be fully captured. While we are interested in a near-optimal solution using approximate dynamic programming; deterministic linear programming benchmarks are use to demonstrate the quality of our solutions. The other goal of the dissertation is to use this framework to provide numerical evidence to the debate on whether real-time pricing is superior than the current flat rate structure in terms of both economic and environmental impacts. For this purpose, the modeling and algorithm framework is tested on a large-scale test case

  20. Distinction of Concept and Discussion on Construction Idea of Smart Water Grid Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Y.; Yizi, S., Sr.; Lili, L., Sr.; Sang, X.; Zhai, J.

    2016-12-01

    Smart water grid project includes construction of water physical grid consisting of various flow regulating infrastructures, construction of water information grid in line with the trend of intelligent technology and construction of water management grid featured by system & mechanism construction and systemization of regulation decision-making. It is the integrated platform and comprehensive carrier for water conservancy practices. Currently, there still is dispute over engineering construction idea of smart water grid which, however, represents the future development trend of water management and is increasingly emphasized. The paper, based on distinction of concept of water grid and water grid engineering, explains the concept of water grid intelligentization, actively probes into construction idea of Smart water grid project in our country and presents scientific problems to be solved as well as core technologies to be mastered for smart water grid construction.

  1. Smart Grid Legislative and Regulatory Policies and Case Studies

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a number of U.S. states have adopted or are considering smart grid related laws, regulations, and voluntary or mandatory requirements. At the same time, the number of smart grid pilot projects has been increasing rapidly. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) commissioned SAIC to research the development of smart grid in the United States and abroad. The research produced several documents that will help guide EIA as it considers how best to track smart grid developments.

  2. Challenges and opportunities of power systems from smart homes to super-grids.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Philipp; Huber, Matthias; Dorfner, Johannes; Hamacher, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The world's power systems are facing a structural change including liberalization of markets and integration of renewable energy sources. This paper describes the challenges that lie ahead in this process and points out avenues for overcoming different problems at different scopes, ranging from individual homes to international super-grids. We apply energy system models at those different scopes and find a trade-off between technical and social complexity. Small-scale systems would require technological breakthroughs, especially for storage, but individual agents can and do already start to build and operate such systems. In contrast, large-scale systems could potentially be more efficient from a techno-economic point of view. However, new political frameworks are required that enable long-term cooperation among sovereign entities through mutual trust. Which scope first achieves its breakthrough is not clear yet.

  3. 77 FR 71169 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National... Smart Grid Advisory Committee (SGAC or Committee), will meet in open session on Tuesday, December 18... NIST Smart Grid Program Plan. The agenda may change to accommodate Committee business. The final agenda...

  4. 75 FR 63462 - Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Docket Designation for Smart Grid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ...' cyber security protections, NIST has now identified five suites of standards that it states are ready... Smart Grid Interoperability Standards October 7, 2010. 1. The Energy Independence and Security Act of...

  5. Smart Grid Cybersecurity: Job Performance Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Assante, Michael; Tobey, David

    2012-08-01

    This is the project report to DOE OE-30 for the completion of Phase 1 of a 3 phase report. This report outlines the work done to develop a smart grid cybersecurity certification. This work is being done with the subcontractor NBISE.

  6. Flexible Transmission in the Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, Kory Walter

    There is currently a national push to create a smarter electric grid; introducing new technologies that will create a more controllable and flexible grid is part of the smart grid concept and integral to its success. The full control of transmission assets are not currently built into electric energy dispatch optimization models. Optimal transmission switching is a straightforward way to leverage grid controllability: to make better use of the existing system and meet growing demand with existing infrastructure. Previous research has shown that transmission switching as a corrective mechanism can help relieve line overloading, voltage violations, etc. However, there has been limited focus on the use of transmission switching as a means to improve the economic efficiency of the network by incorporating the control of transmission assets into the overall economic dispatch problem. This research discusses the ways that the modeling of flexible transmission assets can benefit the multi-trillion dollar electric industry. It presents and analyzes novel formulations by which the operator can incorporate this flexibility into the economic dispatch formulation. This research focuses on modeling transmission assets so that they can be temporarily taken out of service, i.e., by opening breakers, or kept in service, i.e., by keeping the breakers closed. By incorporating this control into the network optimization problem, this provides the ability for the operator to consider the state of a transmission line as a decision variable instead of treating it as a static asset, which is the current practice today. The possible benefits demonstrated from this research indicate that the benefits to society are substantial. On the contrary, the benefits to individual market participants are uncertain; some will benefit and other will not. Consequently, this research also analyzes the impacts that optimal transmission switching may have on market participants as well as the policy

  7. Analyzing Resiliency of the Smart Grid Communication Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-08-01

    Smart grids are susceptible to cyber-attack as a result of new communication, control and computation techniques employed in the grid. In this paper, we characterize and analyze the resiliency of smart grid communication architecture, specifically an RF mesh based architecture, under cyber attacks. We analyze the resiliency of the communication architecture by studying the performance of high-level smart grid functions such as metering, and demand response which depend on communication. Disrupting the operation of these functions impacts the operational resiliency of the smart grid. Our analysis shows that it takes an attacker only a small fraction of meters to compromise the communication resiliency of the smart grid. We discuss the implications of our result to critical smart grid functions and to the overall security of the smart grid.

  8. Bio-Inspired Cyber Security for Smart Grid Deployments

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, Archibald D.; Thompson, Seth R.; Doroshchuk, Ruslan A.; Fink, Glenn A.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2013-05-01

    mart grid technologies are transforming the electric power grid into a grid with bi-directional flows of both power and information. Operating millions of new smart meters and smart appliances will significantly impact electric distribution systems resulting in greater efficiency. However, the scale of the grid and the new types of information transmitted will potentially introduce several security risks that cannot be addressed by traditional, centralized security techniques. We propose a new bio-inspired cyber security approach. Social insects, such as ants and bees, have developed complex-adaptive systems that emerge from the collective application of simple, light-weight behaviors. The Digital Ants framework is a bio-inspired framework that uses mobile light-weight agents. Sensors within the framework use digital pheromones to communicate with each other and to alert each other of possible cyber security issues. All communication and coordination is both localized and decentralized thereby allowing the framework to scale across the large numbers of devices that will exist in the smart grid. Furthermore, the sensors are light-weight and therefore suitable for implementation on devices with limited computational resources. This paper will provide a brief overview of the Digital Ants framework and then present results from test bed-based demonstrations that show that Digital Ants can identify a cyber attack scenario against smart meter deployments.

  9. Smart Grid Development Issues for Terrestrial and Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, James F.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the so called Smart Grid has as many definitions as individuals working in the area. Based on the technology or technologies that are of interest, be it high speed communication, renewable generation, smart meters, energy storage, advanced sensors, etc. they can become the individual defining characteristic of the Smart Grid. In reality the smart grid encompasses all of these items and quite at bit more. This discussion attempts to look at what the needs are for the grid of the future, such as the issues of increased power flow capability, use of renewable energy, increased security and efficiency and common power and data standards. It also shows how many of these issues are common with the needs of NASA for future exploration programs. A common theme to address both terrestrial and space exploration issues is to develop micro-grids that advertise the ability to enable the load leveling of large power generation facilities. However, for microgrids to realize their promise there needs to a holistic systems approach to their development and integration. The overall system integration issues are presented along with potential solution methodologies.

  10. Smart Grid Development Issues for Terrestrial and Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, James F.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the so called Smart Grid has as many definitions as individuals working in the area. Based on the technology or technologies that are of interest, be it high speed communication, renewable generation, smart meters, energy storage, advanced sensors, etc. they can become the individual defining characteristic of the Smart Grid. In reality the smart grid encompasses all of these items and quite at bit more. This discussion attempts to look at what the needs are for the grid of the future, such as the issues of increased power flow capability, use of renewable energy, increased security and efficiency and common power and data standards. It also shows how many of these issues are common with the needs of NASA for future exploration programs. A common theme to address both terrestrial and space exploration issues is to develop micro-grids that advertise the ability to enable the load leveling of large power generation facilities. However, for microgrids to realize their promise there needs to a holistic systems approach to their development and integration. The overall system integration issues are presented along with potential solution methodologies.

  11. PLL Based Energy Efficient PV System with Fuzzy Logic Based Power Tracker for Smart Grid Applications.

    PubMed

    Rohini, G; Jamuna, V

    This work aims at improving the dynamic performance of the available photovoltaic (PV) system and maximizing the power obtained from it by the use of cascaded converters with intelligent control techniques. Fuzzy logic based maximum power point technique is embedded on the first conversion stage to obtain the maximum power from the available PV array. The cascading of second converter is needed to maintain the terminal voltage at grid potential. The soft-switching region of three-stage converter is increased with the proposed phase-locked loop based control strategy. The proposed strategy leads to reduction in the ripple content, rating of components, and switching losses. The PV array is mathematically modeled and the system is simulated and the results are analyzed. The performance of the system is compared with the existing maximum power point tracking algorithms. The authors have endeavored to accomplish maximum power and improved reliability for the same insolation of the PV system. Hardware results of the system are also discussed to prove the validity of the simulation results.

  12. PLL Based Energy Efficient PV System with Fuzzy Logic Based Power Tracker for Smart Grid Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rohini, G.; Jamuna, V.

    2016-01-01

    This work aims at improving the dynamic performance of the available photovoltaic (PV) system and maximizing the power obtained from it by the use of cascaded converters with intelligent control techniques. Fuzzy logic based maximum power point technique is embedded on the first conversion stage to obtain the maximum power from the available PV array. The cascading of second converter is needed to maintain the terminal voltage at grid potential. The soft-switching region of three-stage converter is increased with the proposed phase-locked loop based control strategy. The proposed strategy leads to reduction in the ripple content, rating of components, and switching losses. The PV array is mathematically modeled and the system is simulated and the results are analyzed. The performance of the system is compared with the existing maximum power point tracking algorithms. The authors have endeavored to accomplish maximum power and improved reliability for the same insolation of the PV system. Hardware results of the system are also discussed to prove the validity of the simulation results. PMID:27294189

  13. Maturity Model for Advancing Smart Grid Interoperability

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Mark; Widergren, Steven E.; Mater, J.; Montgomery, Austin

    2013-10-28

    Abstract—Interoperability is about the properties of devices and systems to connect and work properly. Advancing interoperability eases integration and maintenance of the resulting interconnection. This leads to faster integration, lower labor and component costs, predictability of projects and the resulting performance, and evolutionary paths for upgrade. When specifications are shared and standardized, competition and novel solutions can bring new value streams to the community of stakeholders involved. Advancing interoperability involves reaching agreement for how things join at their interfaces. The quality of the agreements and the alignment of parties involved in the agreement present challenges that are best met with process improvement techniques. The GridWise® Architecture Council (GWAC) sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is supporting an effort to use concepts from capability maturity models used in the software industry to advance interoperability of smart grid technology. An interoperability maturity model has been drafted and experience is being gained through trials on various types of projects and community efforts. This paper describes the value and objectives of maturity models, the nature of the interoperability maturity model and how it compares with other maturity models, and experiences gained with its use.

  14. Application of Game Theory to Improve the Defense of the Smart Grid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Requirements [28] System Situation Response Time Substation IEDs, Primary short circuit protection and control Routine power equipment signal...closer to thermal limits and beyond normal system voltage or stability limits. [38]. 17 Table 4. Percentages of Most Common SPS Types [36] Type... systems . [38] In this vision for the smart grid, Distributed Intelligent Agents provide decentralized monitoring and control of smart grid

  15. A Measurement and Power Line Communication System Design for Renewable Smart Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabalci, E.; Kabalci, Y.

    2013-10-01

    The data communication over the electric power lines can be managed easily and economically since the grid connections are already spread around all over the world. This paper investigates the applicability of Power Line Communication (PLC) in an energy generation system that is based on photovoltaic (PV) panels with the modeling study in Matlab/Simulink. The Simulink model covers the designed PV panels, boost converter with Perturb and Observe (P&O) control algorithm, full bridge inverter, and the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modem that is utilized to transfer the measured data over the power lines. This study proposes a novel method to use the electrical power lines not only for carrying the line voltage but also to transmit the measurements of the renewable energy generation plants. Hence, it is aimed at minimizing the additional monitoring costs such as SCADA, Ethernet-based or GSM based systems by using the proposed technique. Although this study is performed with solar power plants, the proposed model can be applied to other renewable generation systems. Consequently, the usage of the proposed technique instead of SCADA or Ethernet-based systems eliminates additional monitoring costs.

  16. Survey of cyber security issues in smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Thomas M.

    2010-04-01

    The future smart grid will enable cost savings and lower energy use by means of smart appliances and smart meters which support dynamic load management and real-time monitoring of energy use and distribution. The introduction of two-way communications and control into power grid introduces security and privacy concerns. This talk will survey the security and privacy issues in smart grids using the NIST reference model, and relate these issues to cyber security in the Internet.

  17. An Informatics Approach to Demand Response Optimization in Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Aman, Saima; Cao, Baohua; Giakkoupis, Mike; Kumbhare, Alok; Zhou, Qunzhi; Paul, Donald; Fern, Carol; Sharma, Aditya; Prasanna, Viktor K

    2011-03-03

    Power utilities are increasingly rolling out “smart” grids with the ability to track consumer power usage in near real-time using smart meters that enable bidirectional communication. However, the true value of smart grids is unlocked only when the veritable explosion of data that will become available is ingested, processed, analyzed and translated into meaningful decisions. These include the ability to forecast electricity demand, respond to peak load events, and improve sustainable use of energy by consumers, and are made possible by energy informatics. Information and software system techniques for a smarter power grid include pattern mining and machine learning over complex events and integrated semantic information, distributed stream processing for low latency response,Cloud platforms for scalable operations and privacy policies to mitigate information leakage in an information rich environment. Such an informatics approach is being used in the DoE sponsored Los Angeles Smart Grid Demonstration Project, and the resulting software architecture will lead to an agile and adaptive Los Angeles Smart Grid.

  18. Model-driven Privacy Assessment in the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Knirsch, Fabian; Engel, Dominik; Neureiter, Christian; Frincu, Marc; Prasanna, Viktor

    2015-02-09

    In a smart grid, data and information are transported, transmitted, stored, and processed with various stakeholders having to cooperate effectively. Furthermore, personal data is the key to many smart grid applications and therefore privacy impacts have to be taken into account. For an effective smart grid, well integrated solutions are crucial and for achieving a high degree of customer acceptance, privacy should already be considered at design time of the system. To assist system engineers in early design phase, frameworks for the automated privacy evaluation of use cases are important. For evaluation, use cases for services and software architectures need to be formally captured in a standardized and commonly understood manner. In order to ensure this common understanding for all kinds of stakeholders, reference models have recently been developed. In this paper we present a model-driven approach for the automated assessment of such services and software architectures in the smart grid that builds on the standardized reference models. The focus of qualitative and quantitative evaluation is on privacy. For evaluation, the framework draws on use cases from the University of Southern California microgrid.

  19. Home Area Networks and the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Samuel L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Hadley, Mark D.

    2011-04-01

    With the wide array of home area network (HAN) options being presented as solutions to smart grid challenges for the home, it is time to compare and contrast their strengths and weaknesses. This white paper examines leading and emerging HAN technologies. The emergence of the smart grid is bringing more networking players into the field. The need for low consistent bandwidth usage differs enough from the traditional information technology world to open the door to new technologies. The predominant players currently consist of a blend of the old and new. Within the wired world Ethernet and HomePlug Green PHY are leading the way with an advantage to HomePlug because it doesn't require installing new wires. In the wireless the realm there are many more competitors but WiFi and ZigBee seem to have the most momentum.

  20. Comprehensive Smart Grid Planning in a Regulated Utility Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Matthew; Liao, Yuan; Du, Yan

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the tools and exercises used during the Kentucky Smart Grid Roadmap Initiative in a collaborative electric grid planning process involving state regulators, public utilities, academic institutions, and private interest groups. The mandate of the initiative was to assess the existing condition of smart grid deployments in Kentucky, to enhance understanding of smart grid concepts by stakeholders, and to develop a roadmap for the deployment of smart grid technologies by the jurisdictional utilities of Kentucky. Through involvement of many important stakeholder groups, the resultant Smart Grid Deployment Roadmap proposes an aggressive yet achievable strategy and timetable designed to promote enhanced availability, security, efficiency, reliability, affordability, sustainability and safety of the electricity supply throughout the state while maintaining Kentucky's nationally competitive electricity rates. The models and methods developed for this exercise can be utilized as a systematic process for the planning of coordinated smart grid deployments.

  1. OPNET/Simulink Based Testbed for Disturbance Detection in the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Sadi, Mohammad A. H.; Dasgupta, Dipankar; Ali, Mohammad Hassan; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    The important backbone of the smart grid is the cyber/information infrastructure, which is primarily used to communicate with different grid components. A smart grid is a complex cyber physical system containing a numerous and variety number of sources, devices, controllers and loads. Therefore, the smart grid is vulnerable to grid related disturbances. For such dynamic system, disturbance and intrusion detection is a paramount issue. This paper presents a Simulink and Opnet based co-simulated platform to carry out a cyber-intrusion in cyber network for modern power systems and the smart grid. The IEEE 30 bus power system model is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the simulated testbed. The experiments were performed by disturbing the circuit breakers reclosing time through a cyber-attack. Different disturbance situations in the considered test system are considered and the results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed co-simulated scheme.

  2. IEEE Smart Grid Series of Standards IEEE 2030 (Interoperability) and IEEE 1547 (Interconnection) Status: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2012-04-01

    The IEEE American National Standards smart grid publications and standards development projects IEEE 2030, which addresses smart grid interoperability, and IEEE 1547TM, which addresses distributed resources interconnection with the grid, have made substantial progress since 2009. The IEEE 2030TM and 1547 standards series focus on systems-level aspects and cover many of the technical integration issues involved in a mature smart grid. The status and highlights of these two IEEE series of standards, which are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21), are provided in this paper.

  3. Toward Real Time Data Analysis for Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Jian; Gorton, Ian; Sharma, Poorva

    2012-11-10

    This paper describes the architecture and design of a novel system for supporting large-scale real-time data analysis for future power grid systems. The widespread deployment of renewable generation, smart grid controls, energy storage, plug-in hybrids, and new conducting materials will require fundamental changes in the operational concepts and principal components of the grid. As a result, the whole system becomes highly dynamic and requires constant adjusting based on real time data. Even though millions of sensors such as phase measurement units (PMU) and smart meters are being widely deployed, a data layer that can analyze this amount of data in real time is needed. Unlike the data fabric in other cloud services, the data layer for smart grids has some unique design requirements. First, this layer must provide real time guarantees. Second, this layer must be scalable to allow a large number of applications to access the data from millions of sensors in real time. Third, reliability is critical and this layer must be able to continue to provide service in face of failures. Fourth, this layer must be secure. We address these challenges though a scalable system architecture that integrates the I/O and data processing capability in a devise set of devices. Data process operations can be placed anywhere from sensors, data storage devices, to control centers. We further employ compression to improve performance. We design a lightweight compression customized for power grid data. Our system can reduce end-to-end response time by reduce I/O overhead through compression and overlap compression operations with I/O. The initial prototype of our system was demonstrated with several use cases from PNNL’s FPGI and show that our system can provide real time guarantees to a diverse set of applications.

  4. Flow Battery Solution for Smart Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-30

    To address future grid requirements, a U.S. Department of Energy ARRA Storage Demonstration program was launched in 2009 to commercialize promising technologies needed for stronger and more renewables-intensive grids. Raytheon Ktech and EnerVault received a cost-share grant award from the U.S. Department of Energy to develop a grid-scale storage system based on EnerVault’s iron-chromium redox flow battery technology.

  5. Evaluation of the Netherlands' International Test Facility for Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Palmintier, Bryan; Pratt, Annabelle

    2015-06-01

    The Netherlands Enterprise Agency (Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland, or RVO) engaged the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for two primary purposes: to evaluate the International Test Facility for Smart Grids (ITF) sponsored by RVO and to learn best practices for integrated test facilities from NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF). This report covers the ITF evaluation and is largely based on a one-week visit to the Netherlands in November 2014.

  6. Volttron: An Agent Platform for the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Haack, Jereme N.; Akyol, Bora A.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Tews, Cody W.; Foglesong, Lance W.

    2013-05-06

    VOLLTRON platform enables the deployment of intelligent sensors and controllers in the smart grid and provides a stable, secure and flexible framework that expands the sensing and control capabilities. VOLTTRON platform provides services fulfilling the essential requirements of resource management and security for agent operation in the power grid. The facilities provided by the platform allow agent developers to focus on the implementation of their agent system and not on the necessary "plumbing' code. For example, a simple collaborative demand response application was written in less than 200 lines of Python.

  7. Smart Home, Smart Grid, Smart Meter - digitale Konzepte und das Recht an Daten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiecker genannt Döhmann, Indra

    Modernes Energiemanagement setzt auf ein intelligent gesteuertes Energieinformationsnetz, das Smart Grid. In diesem ist der Smart Meter, die intelligente Messstelle beim Nutzer, ein zentrales Instrument für den wechselseitigen Austausch von Informationen. Allerdings werfen die über diverse Gesetze forcierten Informationsströme erhebliche datenschutzrechtliche Fragen auf. Der Beitrag stellt zentrale datenschutzrechtliche Leitlinien und Probleme vor und behandelt auch offene Fragestellungen.

  8. 75 FR 6414 - Consumer Interface With the Smart Grid

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...--including Federal and State policy hurdles, appliance interoperability standards, cyber security, and... energy consumption, especially during peak load periods, can improve the reliability, security, and... Smart Grid. Section 1305 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 advises that the Smart Grid...

  9. Mediating Cyber and Physical Threat Propagation in Security Smart Grid Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, Clifford; Tan, Kymie

    2011-10-01

    The power grid is a federated system. Regions of the system are controlled by different organizations and security of the grid is imposed from above through regulation of the security techniques used by the federants. This approach will be less effective as we move to a smart grid, where control of some elements of the grid rests in the customer’s home through technologies that enable remote access to appliances. These regions of the smart grid are less trusted, yet they interact in various ways with other parts of the grid. This paper demonstrates threat propagation in the smart grid from such regions, and discusses architectural approaches to mediating the impact of such flows.

  10. A Trend of Systems Development Technologies toward Smart Public Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Katsumi; Hirasawa, Shigeki

    Driven by increasing urbanization and serious economic and environmental challenges, what is called smart grid and smart cities, the transformation to smart public infrastructure system will require technological progress. This paper presents an emerging trend of the systems development and a framework of systems technologies to achieve the smart public infrastructure of the future.

  11. The Next-Generation Power Electronics Technology for Smart Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper presents an overview of the next-generation power electronics technology for the Japanese-version smart grid. It focuses on a grid-level battery energy storage system, a grid-level STATCOM (STATic synchronous COMpensator), and a 6.6-kV BTB (Back-To-Back) system for power flow control between two power distribution feeders. These power electronic devices play an important role in achieving load frequency control and voltage regulation. Their circuit configurations based on modular multilevel cascade PWM converters are characterized by flexible system design, low voltage steps, and low EMI (Electro-Magnetic Interference) emission. Their downscaled laboratory models are designed, constructed, and tested to verify the viability and effectiveness of the circuit configurations and control methods.

  12. Achieving Resiliency by Eliminating Common Mode Failures in the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-01-19

    Abstract—This panel presentation will provide perspectives of resiliency as it relates to smart grids. As smart grid technologies are deployed, the interconnected nature of these systems is becoming more prevalent and more complex, and while resilience is expected to be enhanced, the presence of common mode failures will thwart the ability of the smart grid to achieve full levels of resilience. Studying system behavior in the face of failures (e.g., cyber attacks) allows a characterization of the systems’ response to failure scenarios, loss of communications, and other changes in system environment (such as the need for emergent updates and rapid reconfiguration). The impact of such failures on the availability of the system can be assessed and mitigation strategies considered. This panel will consider measures to identify and eliminate common mode failure mechanisms that might be present in the deployment of smart grid systems.

  13. A Study of the Relationship between Weather Variables and Electric Power Demand inside a Smart Grid/Smart World Framework

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Luis; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M.; Calavia, Lorena; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio; Cook, Diane J.; Chinarro, David; Gómez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges of today's society is the need to fulfill at the same time the two sides of the dichotomy between the growing energy demand and the need to look after the environment. Smart Grids are one of the answers: intelligent energy grids which retrieve data about the environment through extensive sensor networks and react accordingly to optimize resource consumption. In order to do this, the Smart Grids need to understand the existing relationship between energy demand and a set of relevant climatic variables. All smart “systems” (buildings, cities, homes, consumers, etc.) have the potential to employ their intelligence for self-adaptation to climate conditions. After introducing the Smart World, a global framework for the collaboration of these smart systems, this paper presents the relationship found at experimental level between a range of relevant weather variables and electric power demand patterns, presenting a case study using an agent-based system, and emphasizing the need to consider this relationship in certain Smart World (and specifically Smart Grid and microgrid) applications.

  14. Flexible Residential Smart Grid Simulation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Wang

    Different scheduling and coordination algorithms controlling household appliances' operations can potentially lead to energy consumption reduction and/or load balancing in conjunction with different electricity pricing methods used in smart grid programs. In order to easily implement different algorithms and evaluate their efficiency against other ideas, a flexible simulation framework is desirable in both research and business fields. However, such a platform is currently lacking or underdeveloped. In this thesis, we provide a simulation framework to focus on demand side residential energy consumption coordination in response to different pricing methods. This simulation framework, equipped with an appliance consumption library using realistic values, aims to closely represent the average usage of different types of appliances. The simulation results of traditional usage yield close matching values compared to surveyed real life consumption records. Several sample coordination algorithms, pricing schemes, and communication scenarios are also implemented to illustrate the use of the simulation framework.

  15. Role of Smart Grids in Integrating Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Speer, B.; Miller, M.; Schaffer, W.; Gueran, L.; Reuter, A.; Jang, B.; Widegren, K.

    2015-05-27

    This report was prepared for the International Smart Grid Action Network (ISGAN), which periodically publishes briefs and discussion papers on key topics of smart grid development globally. The topic of this report was selected by a multilateral group of national experts participating in ISGAN Annex 4, a working group that aims to produce synthesis insights for decision makers. This report is an update of a 2012 ISGAN Annex 4 report entitled “Smart Grid Contributions to Variable Renewable Resource Integration.” That report and other past publications of ISGAN Annexes can be found at www.iea-isgan.org and at www.cleanenergysolutions.org.

  16. Adaptive Energy Forecasting and Information Diffusion for Smart Power Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Agarwal, Vaibhav; Aman, Saim; Kumbhare, Alok; Natarajan, Sreedhar; Rajguru, Nikhil; Robinson, Ian; Stevens, Samuel; Yin, Wei; Zhou, Qunzhi; Prasanna, Viktor

    2012-05-16

    Smart Power Grids exemplify an emerging class of Cyber Physical Applications that exhibit dynamic, distributed and data intensive (D3) characteristics along with an always-on paradigm to support operational needs. Smart Grids are an outcome of instrumentation, such as Phasor Measurement Units and Smart Power Meters, that is being deployed across the transmission and distribution network of electric grids. These sensors provide utilities with improved situation awareness on near-realtime electricity usage by individual consumers, and the power quality and stability of the transmission network.

  17. Frequency versus time domain immunity testing of Smart Grid components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronwald, F.

    2014-11-01

    Smart Grid components often are subject to considerable conducted current disturbances in the frequency range 2-150 kHz and, as a consequence, it is necessary to provide reliable immunity test methods. The relevant basic standard IEC 61000-4-19 that is currently under discussion focusses on frequency domain test methods. It is remarked in this contribution that in the context of frequency domain testing the chosen frequency spacing is related to the resonance response of the system under test which, in turn, is characterized in terms of resonance frequencies and quality factors. These notions apply well to physical system but it is pointed out by the example of an actual smart meter immunity test that smart grid components may exhibit susceptibilities that do not necessarily follow a resonance pattern and, additionally, can be narrowband. As a consequence it is suggested to supplement the present frequency domain test methods by time domain tests which utilize damped sinusoidal excitations with corresponding spectra that properly cover the frequency range 2-150 kHz, as exemplified by the military standard MIL-STD-461.

  18. Data processing of high-rate low-voltage distribution grid recordings for smart grid monitoring and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaß, Heiko; Cakmak, Hüseyin Kemal; Bach, Felix; Mikut, Ralf; Harrabi, Aymen; Süß, Wolfgang; Jakob, Wilfried; Stucky, Karl-Uwe; Kühnapfel, Uwe G.; Hagenmeyer, Veit

    2015-12-01

    Power networks will change from a rigid hierarchic architecture to dynamic interconnected smart grids. In traditional power grids, the frequency is the controlled quantity to maintain supply and load power balance. Thereby, high rotating mass inertia ensures for stability. In the future, system stability will have to rely more on real-time measurements and sophisticated control, especially when integrating fluctuating renewable power sources or high-load consumers like electrical vehicles to the low-voltage distribution grid.

  19. 75 FR 66752 - Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Technical Conference... regulatory authorities that also are considering the adoption of Smart Grid Interoperability Standards.../FERC Collaborative on Smart Response (Collaborative), in the International D Ballroom at the Omni Hotel...

  20. Smart signal processing for an evolving electric grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Leandro Rodrigues Manso; Duque, Calos Augusto; Ribeiro, Paulo F.

    2015-12-01

    Electric grids are interconnected complex systems consisting of generation, transmission, distribution, and active loads, recently called prosumers as they produce and consume electric energy. Additionally, these encompass a vast array of equipment such as machines, power transformers, capacitor banks, power electronic devices, motors, etc. that are continuously evolving in their demand characteristics. Given these conditions, signal processing is becoming an essential assessment tool to enable the engineer and researcher to understand, plan, design, and operate the complex and smart electronic grid of the future. This paper focuses on recent developments associated with signal processing applied to power system analysis in terms of characterization and diagnostics. The following techniques are reviewed and their characteristics and applications discussed: active power system monitoring, sparse representation of power system signal, real-time resampling, and time-frequency (i.e., wavelets) applied to power fluctuations.

  1. GRID INDEPENDENT FUEL CELL OPERATED SMART HOME

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam

    2003-12-07

    A fuel cell power plant, which utilizes a smart energy management and control (SEMaC) system, supplying the power need of laboratory based ''home'' has been purchased and installed. The ''home'' consists of two rooms, each approximately 250 sq. ft. Every appliance and power outlet is under the control of a host computer, running the SEMaC software package. It is possible to override the computer, in the event that an appliance or power outage is required. Detailed analysis and simulation of the fuel cell operated smart home has been performed. Two journal papers has been accepted for publication and another journal paper is under review. Three theses have been completed and three additional theses are in progress.

  2. A decision support system using combined-classifier for high-speed data stream in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hang; Li, Peng; He, Zhian; Guo, Xiaobin; Fong, Simon; Chen, Huajun

    2016-11-01

    Large volume of high-speed streaming data is generated by big power grids continuously. In order to detect and avoid power grid failure, decision support systems (DSSs) are commonly adopted in power grid enterprises. Among all the decision-making algorithms, incremental decision tree is the most widely used one. In this paper, we propose a combined classifier that is a composite of a cache-based classifier (CBC) and a main tree classifier (MTC). We integrate this classifier into a stream processing engine on top of the DSS such that high-speed steaming data can be transformed into operational intelligence efficiently. Experimental results show that our proposed classifier can return more accurate answers than other existing ones.

  3. Exploiting the Potential of Data Centers in the Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yu-An; Liu, Xiaojing; Cao, Tengfei

    As the number of cloud computing data centers grows rapidly in recent years, from the perspective of smart grid, they are really large and noticeable electric load. In this paper, we focus on the important role and the potential of data centers as controllable loads in the smart grid. We reviewed relevant research in the area of letting data centers participate in the ancillary services market and demand response programs of the grid, and further investigate the possibility of exploiting the impact of data center placement on the grid. Various opportunities and challenges are summarized, which could provide more chances for researches to explore this field.

  4. High-Performance Computing for Advanced Smart Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu

    2012-07-06

    The power grid is becoming far more complex as a result of the grid evolution meeting an information revolution. Due to the penetration of smart grid technologies, the grid is evolving as an unprecedented speed and the information infrastructure is fundamentally improved with a large number of smart meters and sensors that produce several orders of magnitude larger amounts of data. How to pull data in, perform analysis, and put information out in a real-time manner is a fundamental challenge in smart grid operation and planning. The future power grid requires high performance computing to be one of the foundational technologies in developing the algorithms and tools for the significantly increased complexity. New techniques and computational capabilities are required to meet the demands for higher reliability and better asset utilization, including advanced algorithms and computing hardware for large-scale modeling, simulation, and analysis. This chapter summarizes the computational challenges in smart grid and the need for high performance computing, and present examples of how high performance computing might be used for future smart grid operation and planning.

  5. Elliptic Curve Cryptography-Based Authentication with Identity Protection for Smart Grids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Tang, Shanyu; Luo, He

    2016-01-01

    In a smart grid, the power service provider enables the expected power generation amount to be measured according to current power consumption, thus stabilizing the power system. However, the data transmitted over smart grids are not protected, and then suffer from several types of security threats and attacks. Thus, a robust and efficient authentication protocol should be provided to strength the security of smart grid networks. As the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system provides the security protection between the control center and substations in most smart grid environments, we focus on how to secure the communications between the substations and smart appliances. Existing security approaches fail to address the performance-security balance. In this study, we suggest a mitigation authentication protocol based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography with privacy protection by using a tamper-resistant device at the smart appliance side to achieve a delicate balance between performance and security of smart grids. The proposed protocol provides some attractive features such as identity protection, mutual authentication and key agreement. Finally, we demonstrate the completeness of the proposed protocol using the Gong-Needham-Yahalom logic.

  6. Elliptic Curve Cryptography-Based Authentication with Identity Protection for Smart Grids

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liping; Tang, Shanyu; Luo, He

    2016-01-01

    In a smart grid, the power service provider enables the expected power generation amount to be measured according to current power consumption, thus stabilizing the power system. However, the data transmitted over smart grids are not protected, and then suffer from several types of security threats and attacks. Thus, a robust and efficient authentication protocol should be provided to strength the security of smart grid networks. As the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system provides the security protection between the control center and substations in most smart grid environments, we focus on how to secure the communications between the substations and smart appliances. Existing security approaches fail to address the performance-security balance. In this study, we suggest a mitigation authentication protocol based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography with privacy protection by using a tamper-resistant device at the smart appliance side to achieve a delicate balance between performance and security of smart grids. The proposed protocol provides some attractive features such as identity protection, mutual authentication and key agreement. Finally, we demonstrate the completeness of the proposed protocol using the Gong-Needham- Yahalom logic. PMID:27007951

  7. Optimal Operation Method of Smart House by Controllable Loads based on Smart Grid Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoza, Akihiro; Uchida, Kosuke; Yona, Atsushi; Senju, Tomonobu

    2013-08-01

    From the perspective of global warming suppression and depletion of energy resources, renewable energy such as wind generation (WG) and photovoltaic generation (PV) are getting attention in distribution systems. Additionally, all electrification apartment house or residence such as DC smart house have increased in recent years. However, due to fluctuating power from renewable energy sources and loads, supply-demand balancing fluctuations of power system become problematic. Therefore, "smart grid" has become very popular in the worldwide. This article presents a methodology for optimal operation of a smart grid to minimize the interconnection point power flow fluctuations. To achieve the proposed optimal operation, we use distributed controllable loads such as battery and heat pump. By minimizing the interconnection point power flow fluctuations, it is possible to reduce the maximum electric power consumption and the electric cost. This system consists of photovoltaics generator, heat pump, battery, solar collector, and load. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, MATLAB is used in simulations.

  8. Information Theoretically Secure, Enhanced Johnson Noise Based Key Distribution over the Smart Grid with Switched Filters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions. PMID:23936164

  9. Information theoretically secure, enhanced Johnson noise based key distribution over the smart grid with switched filters.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Elias; Kish, Laszlo B; Balog, Robert S; Enjeti, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions.

  10. A distributed power market for the Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, Ryan James

    To address the challenges of resource allocation in the Smart Electrical Grid a new power market is proposed. A distributed and autonomous contract net based market system in which participants, represented by the agents, engage in two distinct yet interconnected markets in order to determine resource allocation. Key to this proposed design is the 2 market structure which separates negotiations between consumers and reliable generation from negotiations between consumers and intermittent energy resources. The first or primary market operates as a first price sealed bid reverse auction while the second or secondary market utilizes a uniform price auction. In order to evaluate this new market a simulator is developed and the market is modeled and tested within it. The results of these tests indicate that the proposed design is an effective method of allocating electrical grid resources amongst consumers, generators, and intermittent energy resources with some feasibility and scalability limitations.

  11. Faces of the Recovery Act: The Impact of Smart Grid

    ScienceCinema

    President Obama

    2016-07-12

    On October 27th, Baltimore Gas & Electric was selected to receive $200 million for Smart Grid innovation projects under the Recovery Act. Watch as members of their team, along with President Obama, explain how building a smarter grid will help consumers cut their utility bills, battle climate change and create jobs.

  12. Argonne National Laboratory Smart Grid Technology Interactive Model

    ScienceCinema

    Ted Bohn

    2016-07-12

    As our attention turns to new cars that run partially or completely on electricity, how can we redesign our electric grid to not only handle the new load, but make electricity cheap and efficient for everyone? Argonne engineer Ted Bohn explains a model of a "smart grid" that gives consumers the power to choose their own prices and sources of electricity.

  13. Argonne National Laboratory Smart Grid Technology Interactive Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Bohn

    2009-10-13

    As our attention turns to new cars that run partially or completely on electricity, how can we redesign our electric grid to not only handle the new load, but make electricity cheap and efficient for everyone? Argonne engineer Ted Bohn explains a model of a "smart grid" that gives consumers the power to choose their own prices and sources of electricity.

  14. Faces of the Recovery Act: The Impact of Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    President Obama

    2009-11-24

    On October 27th, Baltimore Gas & Electric was selected to receive $200 million for Smart Grid innovation projects under the Recovery Act. Watch as members of their team, along with President Obama, explain how building a smarter grid will help consumers cut their utility bills, battle climate change and create jobs.

  15. AVQS: attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme for smart grid.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jongbin; Lim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Seokjun; Shon, Taeshik

    2014-01-01

    A smart grid is a large, consolidated electrical grid system that includes heterogeneous networks and systems. Based on the data, a smart grid system has a potential security threat in its network connectivity. To solve this problem, we develop and apply a novel scheme to measure the vulnerability in a smart grid domain. Vulnerability quantification can be the first step in security analysis because it can help prioritize the security problems. However, existing vulnerability quantification schemes are not suitable for smart grid because they do not consider network vulnerabilities. We propose a novel attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme using a network vulnerability score and an end-to-end security score, depending on the specific smart grid network environment to calculate the vulnerability score for a particular attack route. To evaluate the proposed approach, we derive several attack scenarios from the advanced metering infrastructure domain. The experimental results of the proposed approach and the existing common vulnerability scoring system clearly show that we need to consider network connectivity for more optimized vulnerability quantification.

  16. AVQS: Attack Route-Based Vulnerability Quantification Scheme for Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Seokjun; Shon, Taeshik

    2014-01-01

    A smart grid is a large, consolidated electrical grid system that includes heterogeneous networks and systems. Based on the data, a smart grid system has a potential security threat in its network connectivity. To solve this problem, we develop and apply a novel scheme to measure the vulnerability in a smart grid domain. Vulnerability quantification can be the first step in security analysis because it can help prioritize the security problems. However, existing vulnerability quantification schemes are not suitable for smart grid because they do not consider network vulnerabilities. We propose a novel attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme using a network vulnerability score and an end-to-end security score, depending on the specific smart grid network environment to calculate the vulnerability score for a particular attack route. To evaluate the proposed approach, we derive several attack scenarios from the advanced metering infrastructure domain. The experimental results of the proposed approach and the existing common vulnerability scoring system clearly show that we need to consider network connectivity for more optimized vulnerability quantification. PMID:25152923

  17. A Review on Development Practice of Smart Grid Technology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Liu; Chen, Wei; Zhuang, Bo; Shen, Hongming

    2017-05-01

    Smart grid has become an inexorable trend of energy and economy development worldwide. Since the development of smart grid was put forward in China in 2009, we have obtained abundant research results and practical experiences as well as extensive attention from international community in this field. This paper reviews the key technologies and demonstration projects on new energy connection forecasts; energy storage; smart substations; disaster prevention and reduction for power transmission lines; flexible DC transmission; distribution automation; distributed generation access and micro grid; smart power consumption; the comprehensive demonstration of power distribution and utilization; smart power dispatching and control systems; and the communication networks and information platforms of China, systematically, on the basis of 5 fields, i.e., renewable energy integration, smart power transmission and transformation, smart power distribution and consumption, smart power dispatching and control systems and information and communication platforms. Meanwhile, it also analyzes and compares with the developmental level of similar technologies abroad, providing an outlook on the future development trends of various technologies.

  18. Feature combination analysis in smart grid based using SOM for Sudan national grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohari, Z. H.; Yusof, M. A. M.; Jali, M. H.; Sulaima, M. F.; Nasir, M. N. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the investigation of power grid security, the cascading failure in multicontingency situations has been a test because of its topological unpredictability and computational expense. Both system investigations and burden positioning routines have their limits. In this project, in view of sorting toward Self Organizing Maps (SOM), incorporated methodology consolidating spatial feature (distance)-based grouping with electrical attributes (load) to evaluate the vulnerability and cascading impact of various part sets in the force lattice. Utilizing the grouping result from SOM, sets of overwhelming stacked beginning victimized people to perform assault conspires and asses the consequent falling impact of their failures, and this SOM-based approach viably distinguishes the more powerless sets of substations than those from the conventional burden positioning and other bunching strategies. The robustness of power grids is a central topic in the design of the so called "smart grid". In this paper, to analyze the measures of importance of the nodes in a power grid under cascading failure. With these efforts, we can distinguish the most vulnerable nodes and protect them, improving the safety of the power grid. Also we can measure if a structure is proper for power grids.

  19. Enabling Smart Grid Cosimulation Studies: Rapid Design and Development of the Technologies and Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Timothy M.; Kadavil, Rahul; Palmintier, Bryan; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Maciejewski, Anthony A.; Siegel, Howard Jay; Chong, Edwin K. P.; Hale, Elaine

    2016-03-01

    The 21st century electric power grid is transforming with an unprecedented increase in demand and increase in new technologies. In the United States Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Title XIII sets the tenets for modernizing the electricity grid through what is known as the 'Smart Grid Initiative.' This initiative calls for increased design, deployment, and integration of distributed energy resources, smart technologies and appliances, and advanced storage devices. The deployment of these new technologies requires rethinking and re-engineering the traditional boundaries between different electric power system domains.

  20. Data Grid Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.; Jagatheesan, Arun; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael; Schroeder, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The "Grid" is an emerging infrastructure for coordinating access across autonomous organizations to distributed, heterogeneous computation and data resources. Data grids are being built around the world as the next generation data handling systems for sharing, publishing, and preserving data residing on storage systems located in multiple administrative domains. A data grid provides logical namespaces for users, digital entities and storage resources to create persistent identifiers for controlling access, enabling discovery, and managing wide area latencies. This paper introduces data grids and describes data grid use cases. The relevance of data grids to digital libraries and persistent archives is demonstrated, and research issues in data grids and grid dataflow management systems are discussed.

  1. Information Security Risk Assessment of Smart Grid Based on Absorbing Markov Chain and SPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianye, Zhang; Qinshun, Zeng; Yiyang, Song; Cunbin, Li

    2014-12-01

    To assess and prevent the smart grid information security risks more effectively, this paper provides risk index quantitative calculation method based on absorbing Markov chain to overcome the deficiencies that links between system components were not taken into consideration and studies mostly were limited to static evaluation. The method avoids the shortcomings of traditional Expert Score with significant subjective factors and also considers the links between information system components, which make the risk index system closer to the reality. Then, a smart grid information security risk assessment model on the basis of set pair analysis improved by Markov chain was established. Using the identity, discrepancy, and contradiction of connection degree to dynamically reflect the trend of smart grid information security risk and combining with the Markov chain to calculate connection degree of the next period, the model implemented the smart grid information security risk assessment comprehensively and dynamically. Finally, this paper proves that the established model is scientific, effective, and feasible to dynamically evaluate the smart grid information security risks.

  2. Smart Communication of Energy Use and Prediction in a Smart Grid Software Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Aman, Saima; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2010-09-19

    The increasing deployment of smart meters and other sensor technologies in the Smart Grid environment enables us to monitor, transmit and give feedback on consumer energy usage in realtime. Energy data is also being sensed and collected in disaggregated form, continuously and at high frequency, from individual devices and appliances. This information-rich Smart Grid environment has opened up research opportunities for understanding and drawing conclusions on energy consumption behavior, predicting future usage trend, designing demand-­response policies, and improving efficient use of energy.

  3. 76 FR 4102 - Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Supplemental Notice of Technical... Technical Conference on Smart Grid Interoperability Standards will be held on Monday, January 31, 2011...

  4. 75 FR 7526 - Consumer Interface With the Smart Grid

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ...With this notice, the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) within the Executive Office of the President requests input from the public regarding the consumer interface with the Smart Grid. This Request for Information (RFI) will be active from February 23, 2010 to March 12, 2010. Respondents are invited to respond online via the Smart Grid Forum at http://www.nist.gov/smartgrid/, or may submit responses via electronic mail. Electronic mail responses will be re-posted on the online forum.

  5. 75 FR 62515 - Notice of Availability of Report on the Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... of Availability of Report on the Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies AGENCY..., ``Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies.'' In this report, DOE sets forth recommendations and observations on current and potential communications requirements of the Smart Grid, as well as the types of...

  6. 75 FR 1595 - Establishment of NIST Smart Grid Advisory Committee and Solicitation of Nominations for Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Establishment of NIST Smart Grid Advisory Committee and.... ACTION: Notice of establishment of the NIST Smart Grid Advisory Committee and solicitation of nominations... Standards and Technology (NIST) announces the establishment of the NIST Smart Grid Advisory Committee...

  7. Smart Grid Integrity Attacks: Characterizations and Countermeasures

    SciTech Connect

    Annarita Giani; Eilyan Bitar; Miles McQueen; Pramod Khargonekar; Kameshwar Poolla

    2011-10-01

    Real power injections at loads and generators, and real power flows on selected lines in a transmission network are monitored, transmitted over a SCADA network to the system operator, and used in state estimation algorithms to make dispatch, re-balance and other energy management system [EMS] decisions. Coordinated cyber attacks of power meter readings can be arranged to be undetectable by any bad data detection algorithm. These unobservable attacks present a serious threat to grid operations. Of particular interest are sparse attacks that involve the compromise of a modest number of meter readings. An efficient algorithm to find all unobservable attacks [under standard DC load flow approximations] involving the compromise of exactly two power injection meters and an arbitrary number of power meters on lines is presented. This requires O(n2m) flops for a power system with n buses and m line meters. If all lines are metered, there exist canonical forms that characterize all 3, 4, and 5-sparse unobservable attacks. These can be quickly detected in power systems using standard graph algorithms. Known secure phase measurement units [PMUs] can be used as countermeasures against an arbitrary collection of cyber attacks. Finding the minimum number of necessary PMUs is NP-hard. It is shown that p + 1 PMUs at carefully chosen buses are sufficient to neutralize a collection of p cyber attacks.

  8. Interplay Between Energy-Market Dynamics and Physical Stability of a Smart Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picozzi, Sergio; Mammoli, Andrea; Sorrentino, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    A smart power grid is being envisioned for the future which, among other features, should enable users to play the dual role of consumers as well as producers and traders of energy, thanks to emerging renewable energy production and energy storage technologies. As a complex dynamical system, any power grid is subject to physical instabilities. With existing grids, such instabilities tend to be caused by natural disasters, human errors, or weather-related peaks in demand. In this work we analyze the impact, upon the stability of a smart grid, of the energy-market dynamics arising from users' ability to buy from and sell energy to other users. The stability analysis of the resulting dynamical system is performed assuming different proposed models for this market of the future, and the corresponding stability regions in parameter space are identified. We test our theoretical findings by comparing them with data collected from some existing prototype systems.

  9. Smart-Grid Backbone Network Real-Time Delay Reduction via Integer Programming.

    PubMed

    Pagadrai, Sasikanth; Yilmaz, Muhittin; Valluri, Pratyush

    2016-08-01

    This research investigates an optimal delay-based virtual topology design using integer linear programming (ILP), which is applied to the current backbone networks such as smart-grid real-time communication systems. A network traffic matrix is applied and the corresponding virtual topology problem is solved using the ILP formulations that include a network delay-dependent objective function and lightpath routing, wavelength assignment, wavelength continuity, flow routing, and traffic loss constraints. The proposed optimization approach provides an efficient deterministic integration of intelligent sensing and decision making, and network learning features for superior smart grid operations by adaptively responding the time-varying network traffic data as well as operational constraints to maintain optimal virtual topologies. A representative optical backbone network has been utilized to demonstrate the proposed optimization framework whose simulation results indicate that superior smart-grid network performance can be achieved using commercial networks and integer programming.

  10. Price-responsive demand management for a smart grid world

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Hung-po

    2010-01-15

    Price-responsive demand is essential for the success of a smart grid. However, existing demand-response programs run the risk of causing inefficient price formation. This problem can be solved if each retail customer could establish a contract-based baseline through demand subscription before joining a demand-response program. (author)

  11. Development and Demonstration of Smart grid inverters for High-Penetration PV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roose, Leon; Liang, Nathan; Noma, Edwin; Tran, Thai; Matsuura, Marc

    2014-10-31

    The objective of this Smart Grid Inverter (SGI) project is to implement, on operating utility distribution feeders with “very high” penetration of rooftop PV, enhanced capability smart inverters to achieve improved operational performance, control and visibility. This is accomplished by creating, deploying, and evaluating new smart inverters using integrated inverter management control software (IMCS) and standards-based communications systems. Detailed distribution modeling is also employed to aid in development of inverter control algorithms/settings. The project will test various inverter control strategies in two project deployment locations – Maui, Hawai’i and Maryland/Washington D.C.

  12. A Theoretical Secure Enterprise Architecture for Multi Revenue Generating Smart Grid Sub Electric Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Hina

    2013-01-01

    This study is a part of the smart grid initiative providing electric vehicle charging infrastructure. It is a refueling structure, an energy generating photovoltaic system and charge point electric vehicle charging station. The system will utilize advanced design and technology allowing electricity to flow from the site's normal electric service…

  13. A Theoretical Secure Enterprise Architecture for Multi Revenue Generating Smart Grid Sub Electric Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Hina

    2013-01-01

    This study is a part of the smart grid initiative providing electric vehicle charging infrastructure. It is a refueling structure, an energy generating photovoltaic system and charge point electric vehicle charging station. The system will utilize advanced design and technology allowing electricity to flow from the site's normal electric service…

  14. Smart distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yazhou; Liu, Chen -Ching; Xu, Yin

    2016-04-19

    The increasing importance of system reliability and resilience is changing the way distribution systems are planned and operated. To achieve a distribution system self-healing against power outages, emerging technologies and devices, such as remote-controlled switches (RCSs) and smart meters, are being deployed. The higher level of automation is transforming traditional distribution systems into the smart distribution systems (SDSs) of the future. The availability of data and remote control capability in SDSs provides distribution operators with an opportunity to optimize system operation and control. In this paper, the development of SDSs and resulting benefits of enhanced system capabilities are discussed. A comprehensive survey is conducted on the state-of-the-art applications of RCSs and smart meters in SDSs. Specifically, a new method, called Temporal Causal Diagram (TCD), is used to incorporate outage notifications from smart meters for enhanced outage management. To fully utilize the fast operation of RCSs, the spanning tree search algorithm is used to develop service restoration strategies. Optimal placement of RCSs and the resulting enhancement of system reliability are discussed. Distribution system resilience with respect to extreme events is presented. Furthermore, test cases are used to demonstrate the benefit of SDSs. Active management of distributed generators (DGs) is introduced. Future research in a smart distribution environment is proposed.

  15. Smart distribution systems

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Yazhou; Liu, Chen -Ching; Xu, Yin

    2016-04-19

    The increasing importance of system reliability and resilience is changing the way distribution systems are planned and operated. To achieve a distribution system self-healing against power outages, emerging technologies and devices, such as remote-controlled switches (RCSs) and smart meters, are being deployed. The higher level of automation is transforming traditional distribution systems into the smart distribution systems (SDSs) of the future. The availability of data and remote control capability in SDSs provides distribution operators with an opportunity to optimize system operation and control. In this paper, the development of SDSs and resulting benefits of enhanced system capabilities are discussed. Amore » comprehensive survey is conducted on the state-of-the-art applications of RCSs and smart meters in SDSs. Specifically, a new method, called Temporal Causal Diagram (TCD), is used to incorporate outage notifications from smart meters for enhanced outage management. To fully utilize the fast operation of RCSs, the spanning tree search algorithm is used to develop service restoration strategies. Optimal placement of RCSs and the resulting enhancement of system reliability are discussed. Distribution system resilience with respect to extreme events is presented. Furthermore, test cases are used to demonstrate the benefit of SDSs. Active management of distributed generators (DGs) is introduced. Future research in a smart distribution environment is proposed.« less

  16. Distributed Smart Grid Asset Control Strategies for Providing Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Moya, Christian; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2013-10-30

    implementing real load control programs. The promise of autonomous, Grid Friendly™ response by smart appliances in the form of under-frequency load shedding was demonstrated in the GridWise Olympic Peninsula Demonstration in 2006. Each controller monitored the power grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow under-frequency event, which was an average of one event per day and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Another objective of this project was to perform extensive simulation studies to investigate the impact of a population of Grid Friendly™ Appliances (GFAs) on the bulk power system frequency stability. The GFAs considered in this report are represented as demonstration units with water heaters individually modeled.

  17. Data distribution service-based interoperability framework for smart grid testbed infrastructure

    DOE PAGES

    Youssef, Tarek A.; Elsayed, Ahmed T.; Mohammed, Osama A.

    2016-03-02

    This study presents the design and implementation of a communication and control infrastructure for smart grid operation. The proposed infrastructure enhances the reliability of the measurements and control network. The advantages of utilizing the data-centric over message-centric communication approach are discussed in the context of smart grid applications. The data distribution service (DDS) is used to implement a data-centric common data bus for the smart grid. This common data bus improves the communication reliability, enabling distributed control and smart load management. These enhancements are achieved by avoiding a single point of failure while enabling peer-to-peer communication and an automatic discoverymore » feature for dynamic participating nodes. The infrastructure and ideas presented in this paper were implemented and tested on the smart grid testbed. A toolbox and application programing interface for the testbed infrastructure are developed in order to facilitate interoperability and remote access to the testbed. This interface allows control, monitoring, and performing of experiments remotely. Furthermore, it could be used to integrate multidisciplinary testbeds to study complex cyber-physical systems (CPS).« less

  18. Data distribution service-based interoperability framework for smart grid testbed infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Youssef, Tarek A.; Elsayed, Ahmed T.; Mohammed, Osama A.

    2016-03-02

    This study presents the design and implementation of a communication and control infrastructure for smart grid operation. The proposed infrastructure enhances the reliability of the measurements and control network. The advantages of utilizing the data-centric over message-centric communication approach are discussed in the context of smart grid applications. The data distribution service (DDS) is used to implement a data-centric common data bus for the smart grid. This common data bus improves the communication reliability, enabling distributed control and smart load management. These enhancements are achieved by avoiding a single point of failure while enabling peer-to-peer communication and an automatic discovery feature for dynamic participating nodes. The infrastructure and ideas presented in this paper were implemented and tested on the smart grid testbed. A toolbox and application programing interface for the testbed infrastructure are developed in order to facilitate interoperability and remote access to the testbed. This interface allows control, monitoring, and performing of experiments remotely. Furthermore, it could be used to integrate multidisciplinary testbeds to study complex cyber-physical systems (CPS).

  19. Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration Project Technology Performance Report Volume 1: Technology Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, Ron

    2015-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration (PNWSGD), a $179 million project that was co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in late 2009, was one of the largest and most comprehensive demonstrations of electricity grid modernization ever completed. The project was one of 16 regional smart grid demonstrations funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. It was the only demonstration that included multiple states and cooperation from multiple electric utilities, including rural electric co-ops, investor-owned, municipal, and other public utilities. No fewer than 55 unique instantiations of distinct smart grid systems were demonstrated at the projects’ sites. The local objectives for these systems included improved reliability, energy conservation, improved efficiency, and demand responsiveness. The demonstration developed and deployed an innovative transactive system, unique in the world, that coordinated many of the project’s distributed energy resources and demand-responsive components. With the transactive system, additional regional objectives were also addressed, including the mitigation of renewable energy intermittency and the flattening of system load. Using the transactive system, the project coordinated a regional response across the 11 utilities. This region-wide connection from the transmission system down to individual premises equipment was one of the major successes of the project. The project showed that this can be done and assets at the end points can respond dynamically on a wide scale. In principle, a transactive system of this type might eventually help coordinate electricity supply, transmission, distribution, and end uses by distributing mostly automated control responsibilities among the many distributed smart grid domain members and their smart devices.

  20. Smart Grid Enabled L2 EVSE for the Commercial Market

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, John; Pugh, Jerry

    2015-03-31

    In 2011, the DOE issued Funding Opportunity DE-FOA-0000554 as a means of addressing two major task areas identified by the Grid Integration Tech Team (GITT) that would help transition Electric vehicles from a market driven by early adopters and environmental supporters to a market with mainstream volumes. Per DE-FOA-0000554, these tasks were: To reduce the cost of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE), thereby increasing the likelihood of the build out of EV charging infrastructure. The goal of increasing the number of EVSE available was to ease concerns over range anxiety, and promote the adoption of electric vehicles: To allow EV loads to be managed via the smart grid, thereby maintaining power quality, reliability and affordability, while protecting installed distribution equipment. In December of that year, the DOE awarded one of the two contracts targeted toward commercial EVSE to Eaton, and in early 2012, we began in earnest the process of developing a Smart Grid Enable L2 EVSE for the Commercial Market (hereafter known as the DOE Charger). The design of the Smart Grid Enabled L2 EVSE was based primarily on the FOA requirements along with input from the Electric Transportation Infrastructure product line (hereafter ETI) marketing team who aided in development of the customer requirements.

  1. Power grid complex network evolutions for the smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2014-02-01

    The shift towards an energy grid dominated by prosumers (consumers and producers of energy) will inevitably have repercussions on the electricity distribution infrastructure. Today the grid is a hierarchical one delivering energy from large scale facilities to end-users. Tomorrow it will be a capillary infrastructure at the medium and low voltage levels that will support local energy trading among prosumers. We investigate how different network topologies and growth models facilitate a more efficient and reliable network, and how they can facilitate the emergence of a decentralized electricity market. We show how connectivity plays an important role in improving the properties of reliability and path-cost reduction. Our results indicate that a specific type of evolution balances best the ratio between increased connectivity and costs to achieve the network growth.

  2. Final Report Report: Smart Grid Ready PV Inverters with Utility Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Seal, Brian; Huque, Aminul; Rogers, Lindsey; Key, Tom; Riley, Cameron; Li, Huijuan; York, Ben; Purcell, Chris; Pacific, Oliver; Ropp, Michael; Tran, Teresa; Asgeirsson, Hawk; Woodard, Justin; Steffel, Steve

    2016-03-30

    In 2011, EPRI began a four-year effort under the Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) to demonstrate smart grid ready inverters with utility communication. The objective of the project was to successfully implement and demonstrate effective utilization of inverters with grid support functionality to capture the full value of distributed photovoltaic (PV). The project leveraged ongoing investments and expanded PV inverter capabilities, to enable grid operators to better utilize these grid assets. Developing and implementing key elements of PV inverter grid support capabilities will increase the distribution system’s capacity for higher penetration levels of PV, while reducing the cost. The project team included EPRI, Yaskawa-Solectria Solar, Spirae, BPL Global, DTE Energy, National Grid, Pepco, EDD, NPPT and NREL. The project was divided into three phases: development, deployment, and demonstration. Within each phase, the key areas included: head-end communications for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) at the utility operations center; methods for coordinating DER with existing distribution equipment; back-end PV plant master controller; and inverters with smart-grid functionality. Four demonstration sites were chosen in three regions of the United States with different types of utility operating systems and implementations of utility-scale PV inverters. This report summarizes the project and findings from field demonstration at three utility sites.

  3. GridMan: A grid manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Wang, Zhu

    1992-01-01

    GridMan is an interactive grid manipulation system. It operates on grids to produce new grids which conform to user demands. The input grids are not constrained to come from any particular source. They may be generated by algebraic methods, elliptic methods, hyperbolic methods, parabolic methods, or some combination of methods. The methods are included in the various available structured grid generation codes. These codes perform the basic assembly function for the various elements of the initial grid. For block structured grids, the assembly can be quite complex due to a large number of clock corners, edges, and faces for which various connections and orientations must be properly identified. The grid generation codes are distinguished among themselves by their balance between interactive and automatic actions and by their modest variations in control. The basic form of GridMan provides a much more substantial level of grid control and will take its input from any of the structured grid generation codes. The communication link to the outside codes is a data file which contains the grid or section of grid.

  4. Control and prediction for blackouts caused by frequency collapse in smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengwei; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2016-09-01

    The electric power system is one of the cornerstones of modern society. One of its most serious malfunctions is the blackout, a catastrophic event that may disrupt a substantial portion of the system, playing havoc to human life and causing great economic losses. Thus, understanding the mechanisms leading to blackouts and creating a reliable and resilient power grid has been a major issue, attracting the attention of scientists, engineers, and stakeholders. In this paper, we study the blackout problem in power grids by considering a practical phase-oscillator model. This model allows one to simultaneously consider different types of power sources (e.g., traditional AC power plants and renewable power sources connected by DC/AC inverters) and different types of loads (e.g., consumers connected to distribution networks and consumers directly connected to power plants). We propose two new control strategies based on our model, one for traditional power grids and another one for smart grids. The control strategies show the efficient function of the fast-response energy storage systems in preventing and predicting blackouts in smart grids. This work provides innovative ideas which help us to build up a robuster and more economic smart power system.

  5. Control and prediction for blackouts caused by frequency collapse in smart grids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengwei; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S

    2016-09-01

    The electric power system is one of the cornerstones of modern society. One of its most serious malfunctions is the blackout, a catastrophic event that may disrupt a substantial portion of the system, playing havoc to human life and causing great economic losses. Thus, understanding the mechanisms leading to blackouts and creating a reliable and resilient power grid has been a major issue, attracting the attention of scientists, engineers, and stakeholders. In this paper, we study the blackout problem in power grids by considering a practical phase-oscillator model. This model allows one to simultaneously consider different types of power sources (e.g., traditional AC power plants and renewable power sources connected by DC/AC inverters) and different types of loads (e.g., consumers connected to distribution networks and consumers directly connected to power plants). We propose two new control strategies based on our model, one for traditional power grids and another one for smart grids. The control strategies show the efficient function of the fast-response energy storage systems in preventing and predicting blackouts in smart grids. This work provides innovative ideas which help us to build up a robuster and more economic smart power system.

  6. The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and CO2 Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Robert G.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Katipamula, Srinivas; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-01-15

    This report articulates nine mechanisms by which the smart grid can reduce energy use and carbon impacts associated with electricity generation and delivery. The quantitative estimates of potential reductions in electricity sector energy and associated CO2 emissions presented are based on a survey of published results and simple analyses. This report does not attempt to justify the cost effectiveness of the smart grid, which to date has been based primarily upon the twin pillars of cost-effective operation and improved reliability. Rather, it attempts to quantify the additional energy and CO2 emission benefits inherent in the smart grid’s potential contribution to the nation’s goal of mitigating climate change by reducing the carbon footprint of the electric power system.

  7. The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and CO2 Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Robert G.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Katipamula, Srinivas; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-01-27

    This report articulates nine mechanisms by which the smart grid can reduce energy use and carbon impacts associated with electricity generation and delivery. The quantitative estimates of potential reductions in electricity sector energy and associated CO2 emissions presented are based on a survey of published results and simple analyses. This report does not attempt to justify the cost effectiveness of the smart grid, which to date has been based primarily upon the twin pillars of cost-effective operation and improved reliability. Rather, it attempts to quantify the additional energy and CO2 emission benefits inherent in the smart grid’s potential contribution to the nation’s goal of mitigating climate change by reducing the carbon footprint of the electric power system.

  8. Semi-Cooperative Learning in Smart Grid Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    one-way flow of electricity from large centralized power plants to distributed consumers such as households and industrial facilities. The Smart Grid...participate in wholesale power markets and for smaller customers to form consumer cooperatives and virtual power plants (VPP). The broker- based tariff market... plants based on demand forecasts. Such forecasts are typically esti- mated using historical demand observations, weather forecasts, long-term purchase

  9. Knowledge Discovery for Smart Grid Operation, Control, and Situation Awareness -- A Big Data Visualization Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Yi; Jiang, Huaiguang; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun Jason; Gao, Tianlu; Muljadi, Eduard

    2016-11-21

    In this paper, a big data visualization platform is designed to discover the hidden useful knowledge for smart grid (SG) operation, control and situation awareness. The spawn of smart sensors at both grid side and customer side can provide large volume of heterogeneous data that collect information in all time spectrums. Extracting useful knowledge from this big-data poll is still challenging. In this paper, the Apache Spark, an open source cluster computing framework, is used to process the big-data to effectively discover the hidden knowledge. A high-speed communication architecture utilizing the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model is designed to transmit the data to a visualization platform. This visualization platform uses Google Earth, a global geographic information system (GIS) to link the geological information with the SG knowledge and visualize the information in user defined fashion. The University of Denver's campus grid is used as a SG test bench and several demonstrations are presented for the proposed platform.

  10. A Current Sensor Based on the Giant Magnetoresistance Effect: Design and Potential Smart Grid Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Yong; He, Jinliang; Hu, Jun; Wang, Shan X.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced sensing and measurement techniques are key technologies to realize a smart grid. The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect has revolutionized the fields of data storage and magnetic measurement. In this work, a design of a GMR current sensor based on a commercial analog GMR chip for applications in a smart grid is presented and discussed. Static, dynamic and thermal properties of the sensor were characterized. The characterizations showed that in the operation range from 0 to ±5 A, the sensor had a sensitivity of 28 mV·A−1, linearity of 99.97%, maximum deviation of 2.717%, frequency response of −1.5 dB at 10 kHz current measurement, and maximum change of the amplitude response of 0.0335%·°C−1 with thermal compensation. In the distributed real-time measurement and monitoring of a smart grid system, the GMR current sensor shows excellent performance and is cost effective, making it suitable for applications such as steady-state and transient-state monitoring. With the advantages of having a high sensitivity, high linearity, small volume, low cost, and simple structure, the GMR current sensor is promising for the measurement and monitoring of smart grids. PMID:23202221

  11. A current sensor based on the giant magnetoresistance effect: design and potential smart grid applications.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yong; He, Jinliang; Hu, Jun; Wang, Shan X

    2012-11-09

    Advanced sensing and measurement techniques are key technologies to realize a smart grid. The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect has revolutionized the fields of data storage and magnetic measurement. In this work, a design of a GMR current sensor based on a commercial analog GMR chip for applications in a smart grid is presented and discussed. Static, dynamic and thermal properties of the sensor were characterized. The characterizations showed that in the operation range from 0 to ±5 A, the sensor had a sensitivity of 28 mV·A(-1), linearity of 99.97%, maximum deviation of 2.717%, frequency response of −1.5 dB at 10 kHz current measurement, and maximum change of the amplitude response of 0.0335%·°C(-1) with thermal compensation. In the distributed real-time measurement and monitoring of a smart grid system, the GMR current sensor shows excellent performance and is cost effective, making it suitable for applications such as steady-state and transient-state monitoring. With the advantages of having a high sensitivity, high linearity, small volume, low cost, and simple structure, the GMR current sensor is promising for the measurement and monitoring of smart grids.

  12. Machine Learning Methods for Attack Detection in the Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Ozay, Mete; Esnaola, Inaki; Yarman Vural, Fatos Tunay; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R; Poor, H Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Attack detection problems in the smart grid are posed as statistical learning problems for different attack scenarios in which the measurements are observed in batch or online settings. In this approach, machine learning algorithms are used to classify measurements as being either secure or attacked. An attack detection framework is provided to exploit any available prior knowledge about the system and surmount constraints arising from the sparse structure of the problem in the proposed approach. Well-known batch and online learning algorithms (supervised and semisupervised) are employed with decision- and feature-level fusion to model the attack detection problem. The relationships between statistical and geometric properties of attack vectors employed in the attack scenarios and learning algorithms are analyzed to detect unobservable attacks using statistical learning methods. The proposed algorithms are examined on various IEEE test systems. Experimental analyses show that machine learning algorithms can detect attacks with performances higher than attack detection algorithms that employ state vector estimation methods in the proposed attack detection framework.

  13. Impact of SolarSmart Subdivisions on SMUD's Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, P.; Hambrick, J.; Keesee, M.; Brown, D.

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes the distribution impacts of high penetrations of grid-integrated renewable energy systems, specifically photovoltaic (PV) equipped SolarSmart Homes found in the Anatolia III Residential Community.

  14. Incorporating Semantic Knowledge into Dynamic Data Processing for Smart Power Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Qunzhi; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor

    2012-11-15

    Semantic Web allows us to model and query time-invariant or slowly evolving knowledge using ontologies. Emerging applications in Cyber Physical Systems such as Smart Power Grids that require continuous information monitoring and integration present novel opportunities and challenges for Semantic Web technologies. Semantic Web is promising to model diverse Smart Grid domain knowledge for enhanced situation awareness and response by multi-disciplinary participants. However, current technology does pose a performance overhead for dynamic analysis of sensor measurements. In this paper, we combine semantic web and complex event processing for stream based semantic querying. We illustrate its adoption in the USC Campus Micro-Grid for detecting and enacting dynamic response strategies to peak power situations by diverse user roles. We also describe the semantic ontology and event query model that supports this. Further, we introduce and evaluate caching techniques to improve the response time for semantic event queries to meet our application needs and enable sustainable energy management.

  15. Power Prediction in Smart Grids with Evolutionary Local Kernel Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Oliver; Satzger, Benjamin; Lässig, Jörg

    Electric grids are moving from a centralized single supply chain towards a decentralized bidirectional grid of suppliers and consumers in an uncertain and dynamic scenario. Soon, the growing smart meter infrastructure will allow the collection of terabytes of detailed data about the grid condition, e.g., the state of renewable electric energy producers or the power consumption of millions of private customers, in very short time steps. For reliable prediction strong and fast regression methods are necessary that are able to cope with these challenges. In this paper we introduce a novel regression technique, i.e., evolutionary local kernel regression, a kernel regression variant based on local Nadaraya-Watson estimators with independent bandwidths distributed in data space. The model is regularized with the CMA-ES, a stochastic non-convex optimization method. We experimentally analyze the load forecast behavior on real power consumption data. The proposed method is easily parallelizable, and therefore well appropriate for large-scale scenarios in smart grids.

  16. Small-Scale Smart Grid Construction and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surface, Nicholas James

    The smart grid (SG) is a commonly used catch-phrase in the energy industry yet there is no universally accepted definition. The objectives and most useful concepts have been investigated extensively in economic, environmental and engineering research by applying statistical knowledge and established theories to develop simulations without constructing physical models. In this study, a small-scale version (SSSG) is constructed to physically represent these ideas so they can be evaluated. Results of construction show data acquisition three times more expensive than the grid itself although mainly due to the incapability to downsize 70% of data acquisition costs to small-scale. Experimentation on the fully assembled grid exposes the limitations of low cost modified sine wave power, significant enough to recommend pure sine wave investment in future SSSG iterations. Findings can be projected to full-size SG at a ratio of 1:10, based on the appliance representing average US household peak daily load. However this exposes disproportionalities in the SSSG compared with previous SG investigations and recommended changes for future iterations are established to remedy this issue. Also discussed are other ideas investigated in the literature and their suitability for SSSG incorporation. It is highly recommended to develop a user-friendly bidirectional charger to more accurately represent vehicle-to-grid (V2G) infrastructure. Smart homes, BEV swap stations and pumped hydroelectric storage can also be researched on future iterations of the SSSG.

  17. An Analysis of Security and Privacy Issues in Smart Grid Software Architectures on Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Kumbhare, Alok; Cao, Baohua; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2011-07-09

    Power utilities globally are increasingly upgrading to Smart Grids that use bi-directional communication with the consumer to enable an information-driven approach to distributed energy management. Clouds offer features well suited for Smart Grid software platforms and applications, such as elastic resources and shared services. However, the security and privacy concerns inherent in an information rich Smart Grid environment are further exacerbated by their deployment on Clouds. Here, we present an analysis of security and privacy issues in a Smart Grids software architecture operating on different Cloud environments, in the form of a taxonomy. We use the Los Angeles Smart Grid Project that is underway in the largest U.S. municipal utility to drive this analysis that will benefit both Cloud practitioners targeting Smart Grid applications, and Cloud researchers investigating security and privacy.

  18. Towards High Performance Discrete-Event Simulations of Smart Electric Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S; Nutaro, James J; Yoginath, Srikanth B

    2011-01-01

    Future electric grid technology is envisioned on the notion of a smart grid in which responsive end-user devices play an integral part of the transmission and distribution control systems. Detailed simulation is often the primary choice in analyzing small network designs, and the only choice in analyzing large-scale electric network designs. Here, we identify and articulate the high-performance computing needs underlying high-resolution discrete event simulation of smart electric grid operation large network scenarios such as the entire Eastern Interconnect. We focus on the simulator's most computationally intensive operation, namely, the dynamic numerical solution for the electric grid state, for both time-integration as well as event-detection. We explore solution approaches using general-purpose dense and sparse solvers, and propose a scalable solver specialized for the sparse structures of actual electric networks. Based on experiments with an implementation in the THYME simulator, we identify performance issues and possible solution approaches for smart grid experimentation in the large.

  19. Synchronization in Complex Oscillator Networks and Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfler, Florian; Chertkov, Michael; Bullo, Francesco

    2012-07-24

    The emergence of synchronization in a network of coupled oscillators is a fascinating topic in various scientific disciplines. A coupled oscillator network is characterized by a population of heterogeneous oscillators and a graph describing the interaction among them. It is known that a strongly coupled and sufficiently homogeneous network synchronizes, but the exact threshold from incoherence to synchrony is unknown. Here we present a novel, concise, and closed-form condition for synchronization of the fully nonlinear, non-equilibrium, and dynamic network. Our synchronization condition can be stated elegantly in terms of the network topology and parameters, or equivalently in terms of an intuitive, linear, and static auxiliary system. Our results significantly improve upon the existing conditions advocated thus far, they are provably exact for various interesting network topologies and parameters, they are statistically correct for almost all networks, and they can be applied equally to synchronization phenomena arising in physics and biology as well as in engineered oscillator networks such as electric power networks. We illustrate the validity, the accuracy, and the practical applicability of our results in complex networks scenarios and in smart grid applications.

  20. Synchronization in complex oscillator networks and smart grids

    PubMed Central

    Dörfler, Florian; Chertkov, Michael; Bullo, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of synchronization in a network of coupled oscillators is a fascinating topic in various scientific disciplines. A widely adopted model of a coupled oscillator network is characterized by a population of heterogeneous phase oscillators, a graph describing the interaction among them, and diffusive and sinusoidal coupling. It is known that a strongly coupled and sufficiently homogeneous network synchronizes, but the exact threshold from incoherence to synchrony is unknown. Here, we present a unique, concise, and closed-form condition for synchronization of the fully nonlinear, nonequilibrium, and dynamic network. Our synchronization condition can be stated elegantly in terms of the network topology and parameters or equivalently in terms of an intuitive, linear, and static auxiliary system. Our results significantly improve upon the existing conditions advocated thus far, they are provably exact for various interesting network topologies and parameters; they are statistically correct for almost all networks; and they can be applied equally to synchronization phenomena arising in physics and biology as well as in engineered oscillator networks, such as electrical power networks. We illustrate the validity, the accuracy, and the practical applicability of our results in complex network scenarios and in smart grid applications. PMID:23319658

  1. Synchronization in complex oscillator networks and smart grids.

    PubMed

    Dörfler, Florian; Chertkov, Michael; Bullo, Francesco

    2013-02-05

    The emergence of synchronization in a network of coupled oscillators is a fascinating topic in various scientific disciplines. A widely adopted model of a coupled oscillator network is characterized by a population of heterogeneous phase oscillators, a graph describing the interaction among them, and diffusive and sinusoidal coupling. It is known that a strongly coupled and sufficiently homogeneous network synchronizes, but the exact threshold from incoherence to synchrony is unknown. Here, we present a unique, concise, and closed-form condition for synchronization of the fully nonlinear, nonequilibrium, and dynamic network. Our synchronization condition can be stated elegantly in terms of the network topology and parameters or equivalently in terms of an intuitive, linear, and static auxiliary system. Our results significantly improve upon the existing conditions advocated thus far, they are provably exact for various interesting network topologies and parameters; they are statistically correct for almost all networks; and they can be applied equally to synchronization phenomena arising in physics and biology as well as in engineered oscillator networks, such as electrical power networks. We illustrate the validity, the accuracy, and the practical applicability of our results in complex network scenarios and in smart grid applications.

  2. Review and Evaluation of Security Threats on the Communication Networks in the Smart Grid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    must have the ability to detect the attempt of an intruder to gain unauthorized access to computer systems . Recently, a few papers have investigated...the problem of cyber intrusion detection in power networks [24]–[26]. In general, the intrusion detection for computer systems falls mainly into the...Triangle Park, NC 27709 Email: cliff.wang@us.army.mil Abstract—The smart grid, generally referred to as the next- generation power electric system

  3. An Application of Con-Resistant Trust to Improve the Reliability of Special Protection Systems within the Smart Grid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    3.6 System Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3.7 Evaluation Technique...59 x List of Tables Table Page 2.1 Critical Infrastructure Sectors and Key Resources ...3 CIKR Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources

  4. The Smart Power Lab at the Energy Systems Integration Facility

    ScienceCinema

    Christensen, Dane; Sparn, Bethany; Hannegan, Brian

    2016-07-12

    Watch how NREL researchers are using the Smart Power Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) to develop technologies that will help the "smart homes" of the future perform efficiently and communicate effectively with the electricity grid while enhancing occupants' comfort and convenience.

  5. The Smart Power Lab at the Energy Systems Integration Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Dane; Sparn, Bethany; Hannegan, Brian

    2015-06-11

    Watch how NREL researchers are using the Smart Power Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) to develop technologies that will help the "smart homes" of the future perform efficiently and communicate effectively with the electricity grid while enhancing occupants' comfort and convenience.

  6. Optimal Operation and Management for Smart Grid Subsumed High Penetration of Renewable Energy, Electric Vehicle, and Battery Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigenobu, Ryuto; Noorzad, Ahmad Samim; Muarapaz, Cirio; Yona, Atsushi; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2016-04-01

    Distributed generators (DG) and renewable energy sources have been attracting special attention in distribution systems in all over the world. Renewable energies, such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbine generators are considered as green energy. However, a large amount of DG penetration causes voltage deviation beyond the statutory range and reverse power flow at interconnection points in the distribution system. If excessive voltage deviation occurs, consumer's electric devices might break and reverse power flow will also has a negative impact on the transmission system. Thus, mass interconnections of DGs has an adverse effect on both of the utility and the customer. Therefore, reactive power control method is proposed previous research by using inverters attached DGs for prevent voltage deviations. Moreover, battery energy storage system (BESS) is also proposed for resolve reverse power flow. In addition, it is possible to supply high quality power for managing DGs and BESSs. Therefore, this paper proposes a method to maintain voltage, active power, and reactive power flow at interconnection points by using cooperative controlled of PVs, house BESSs, EVs, large BESSs, and existing voltage control devices. This paper not only protect distribution system, but also attain distribution loss reduction and effectivity management of control devices. Therefore mentioned control objectives are formulated as an optimization problem that is solved by using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Modified scheduling method is proposed in order to improve convergence probability of scheduling scheme. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by case studies results and by using numerical simulations in MATLAB®.

  7. An Overview of Distributed Microgrid State Estimation and Control for Smart Grids

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Md Masud; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Given the significant concerns regarding carbon emission from the fossil fuels, global warming and energy crisis, the renewable distributed energy resources (DERs) are going to be integrated in the smart grid. This grid can spread the intelligence of the energy distribution and control system from the central unit to the long-distance remote areas, thus enabling accurate state estimation (SE) and wide-area real-time monitoring of these intermittent energy sources. In contrast to the traditional methods of SE, this paper proposes a novel accuracy dependent Kalman filter (KF) based microgrid SE for the smart grid that uses typical communication systems. Then this article proposes a discrete-time linear quadratic regulation to control the state deviations of the microgrid incorporating multiple DERs. Therefore, integrating these two approaches with application to the smart grid forms a novel contributions in green energy and control research communities. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed KF based microgrid SE and control algorithm provides an accurate SE and control compared with the existing method. PMID:25686316

  8. An overview of distributed microgrid state estimation and control for smart grids.

    PubMed

    Rana, Md Masud; Li, Li

    2015-02-12

    Given the significant concerns regarding carbon emission from the fossil fuels, global warming and energy crisis, the renewable distributed energy resources (DERs) are going to be integrated in the smart grid. This grid can spread the intelligence of the energy distribution and control system from the central unit to the long-distance remote areas, thus enabling accurate state estimation (SE) and wide-area real-time monitoring of these intermittent energy sources. In contrast to the traditional methods of SE, this paper proposes a novel accuracy dependent Kalman filter (KF) based microgrid SE for the smart grid that uses typical communication systems. Then this article proposes a discrete-time linear quadratic regulation to control the state deviations of the microgrid incorporating multiple DERs. Therefore, integrating these two approaches with application to the smart grid forms a novel contributions in green energy and control research communities. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed KF based microgrid SE and control algorithm provides an accurate SE and control compared with the existing method.

  9. Key Management Challenges in Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Frederick T; Duren, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Agenda Awarded in February 2011 Team of industry and research organizations Project Objectives Address difficult issues Complexity Diversity of systems Scale Longevity of solution Participate in standards efforts and working groups Develop innovative key management solutions Modeling and simulation ORNL Cyber Security Econometric Enterprise System Demonstrate effectiveness of solution Demonstrate scalability

  10. Smart Operations in Distributed Energy Resources System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Li; Jie, Shu; Zhang-XianYong; Qing, Zhou

    Smart grid capabilities are being proposed to help solve the challenges concerning system operations due to that the trade-offs between energy and environmental needs will be constantly negotiated while a reliable supply of electricity needs even greater assurance in case of that threats of disruption have risen. This paper mainly explores models for distributed energy resources system (DG, storage, and load),and also reviews the evolving nature of electricity markets to deal with this complexity and a change of emphasis on signals from these markets to affect power system control. Smart grid capabilities will also impact reliable operations, while cyber security issues must be solved as a culture change that influences all system design, implementation, and maintenance. Lastly, the paper explores significant questions for further research and the need for a simulation environment that supports such investigation and informs deployments to mitigate operational issues as they arise.

  11. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Project Technologies: Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of a limited number of demand response technologies and implementations deployed in the SGIG projects.

  12. Barriers and Solutions to Smart Water Grid Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, So-Min; Choi, Gye-Woon; Lee, Ho-Sun

    2016-03-01

    This limited review of smart water grid (SWG) development, challenges, and solutions provides an initial assessment of early attempts at operating SWGs. Though the cost and adoption issues are critical, potential benefits of SWGs such as efficient water conservation and distribution sustain the development of SWGs around the world. The review finds that the keys to success are the new regulations concerning data access and ownership to solve problems of security and privacy; consumer literacy to accept and use SWGs; active private sector involvement to coordinate SWG development; government-funded pilot projects and trial centers; and integration with sustainable water management.

  13. Barriers and Solutions to Smart Water Grid Development.

    PubMed

    Cheong, So-Min; Choi, Gye-Woon; Lee, Ho-Sun

    2016-03-01

    This limited review of smart water grid (SWG) development, challenges, and solutions provides an initial assessment of early attempts at operating SWGs. Though the cost and adoption issues are critical, potential benefits of SWGs such as efficient water conservation and distribution sustain the development of SWGs around the world. The review finds that the keys to success are the new regulations concerning data access and ownership to solve problems of security and privacy; consumer literacy to accept and use SWGs; active private sector involvement to coordinate SWG development; government-funded pilot projects and trial centers; and integration with sustainable water management.

  14. Smart HIV testing system.

    PubMed

    El Kateeb, Ali; Law, Peter; Chan, King

    2005-06-01

    The quick HIV testing method called "MiraWell Rapid HIV Test" uses a specialized testing kit to determine whether an individual's blood is contaminated with the HIV virus or not. When a drop of blood is placed on the center of the testing kit, a simple pattern will appear in the middle of the kit to indicate the test status, i.e., positive or negative. This HIV test should be done in a small clinic or in a lab and the test must be conducted by a trained technician. A smart HIV testing system was developed through this research to eliminate the human error that is associated with the use of the quick HIV testing kits. Also, the smart HIV system will improve the testing productivity in comparison to those achieved by the trained technicians. In this research, we have developed a cost-effective system that analyzes the image produced by the HIV kits. We have used a System-On-Chip (SOC) design approach based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology and the Xilinx Virtex SOC chip in building the system's prototype. The system used a CMOS digital camera to capture the image and an FPGA chip to process the captured image and send the testing results to the display unit. The system can be used in small clinics and pharmacies and eliminates the need for trained technicians. The system has been tested successfully and 98% of the tests were correct.

  15. An Open Framework for Low-Latency Communications across the Smart Grid Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, John Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The recent White House (2011) policy paper for the Smart Grid that was released on June 13, 2011, "A Policy Framework for the 21st Century Grid: Enabling Our Secure Energy Future," defines four major problems to be solved and the one that is addressed in this dissertation is Securing the Grid. Securing the Grid is referred to as one of…

  16. An Open Framework for Low-Latency Communications across the Smart Grid Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, John Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The recent White House (2011) policy paper for the Smart Grid that was released on June 13, 2011, "A Policy Framework for the 21st Century Grid: Enabling Our Secure Energy Future," defines four major problems to be solved and the one that is addressed in this dissertation is Securing the Grid. Securing the Grid is referred to as one of…

  17. Dynamic Line Rating Oncor Electric Delivery Smart Grid Program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Justin; Smith, Cale; Young, Mike; Donohoo, Ken; Owen, Ross; Clark, Eddit; Espejo, Raul; Aivaliotis, Sandy; Stelmak, Ron; Mohr, Ron; Barba, Cristian; Gonzalez, Guillermo; Malkin, Stuart; Dimitrova, Vessela; Ragsdale, Gary; Mitchem, Sean; Jeirath, Nakul; Loomis, Joe; Trevino, Gerardo; Syracuse, Steve; Hurst, Neil; Mereness, Matt; Johnson, Chad; Bivens, Carrie

    2013-05-04

    Electric transmission lines are the lifeline of the electric utility industry, delivering its product from source to consumer. This critical infrastructure is often constrained such that there is inadequate capacity on existing transmission lines to efficiently deliver the power to meet demand in certain areas or to transport energy from high-generation areas to high-consumption regions. When this happens, the cost of the energy rises; more costly sources of power are used to meet the demand or the system operates less reliably. These economic impacts are known as congestion, and they can amount to substantial dollars for any time frame of reference: hour, day or year. There are several solutions to the transmission constraint problem, including: construction of new generation, construction of new transmission facilities, rebuilding and reconductoring of existing transmission assets, and Dynamic Line Rating (DLR). All of these options except DLR are capital intensive, have long lead times and often experience strong public and regulatory opposition. The Smart Grid Demonstration Program (SGDP) project co-funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Oncor Electric Delivery Company developed and deployed the most extensive and advanced DLR installation to demonstrate that DLR technology is capable of resolving many transmission capacity constraint problems with a system that is reliable, safe and very cost competitive. The SGDP DLR deployment is the first application of DLR technology to feed transmission line real-time dynamic ratings directly into the system operation’s State Estimator and load dispatch program, which optimizes the matching of generation with load demand on a security, reliability and economic basis. The integrated Dynamic Line Rating (iDLR)1 collects transmission line parameters at remote locations on the lines, calculates the real-time line rating based on the equivalent conductor temperature, ambient temperature and influence of wind and solar

  18. Results from the Operational Testing of the Eaton Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Brion

    2014-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Eaton smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Eaton for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Eaton smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  19. Results from Operational Testing of the Siemens Smart Grid-Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Brion

    2015-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Siemens smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Siemens for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Siemens smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  20. On a simulation study for reliable and secured smart grid communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallapuram, Sriharsha; Moulema, Paul; Yu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Demand response is one of key smart grid applications that aims to reduce power generation at peak hours and maintain a balance between supply and demand. With the support of communication networks, energy consumers can become active actors in the energy management process by adjusting or rescheduling their electricity usage during peak hours based on utilities pricing incentives. Nonetheless, the integration of communication networks expose the smart grid to cyber-attacks. In this paper, we developed a smart grid simulation test-bed and designed evaluation scenarios. By leveraging the capabilities of Matlab and ns-3 simulation tools, we conducted a simulation study to evaluate the impact of cyber-attacks on demand response application. Our data shows that cyber-attacks could seriously disrupt smart grid operations, thus confirming the need of secure and resilient communication networks for supporting smart grid operations.

  1. 75 FR 62514 - Notice of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies AGENCY... Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies.'' In this report, DOE discusses existing... accommodate the deployment of Smart Grid technologies. DOE also provides a comprehensive summary of...

  2. 78 FR 9678 - Multi-stakeholder Process To Develop a Voluntary Code of Conduct for Smart Grid Data Privacy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ...-stakeholder Process To Develop a Voluntary Code of Conduct for Smart Grid Data Privacy AGENCY: Office of... convene the first meeting of the smart grid data privacy multistakeholder process concerning the..., Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE OE) hosted the Smart Grid Privacy Workshop \\1...

  3. 76 FR 66040 - NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Release 2.0 (Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability... and Technology (NIST) seeks comments on the draft NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid..., 2011. The entire draft version of the NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability...

  4. Smart Grid Constraint Violation Management for Balancing and Regulating Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattarai, Bishnu; Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Mendaza, Iker; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan; Myers, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    The gradual active load penetration in low voltage distribution grids is expected to challenge their network capacity in the near future. Distribution system operators should for this reason resort to either costly grid reinforcements or to demand side management mechanisms. Since demand side management implementation is usually cheaper, it is also the favorable solution. To this end, this article presents a framework for handling grid limit violations, both voltage and current, to ensure a secure and qualitative operation of the distribution grid. This framework consists of two steps, namely a proactive centralized and subsequently a reactive decentralized control scheme. The former is employed to balance the one hour ahead load while the latter aims at regulating the consumption in real-time. In both cases, the importance of fair use of electricity demand flexibility is emphasized. Thus, it is demonstrated that this methodology aids in keeping the grid status within preset limits while utilizing flexibility from all flexibility participants.

  5. Smart friction driven systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, Rainer; Gaul, Lothar

    2005-02-01

    Vibration properties of most assembled mechanical systems depend on frictional damping in joints. The nonlinear transfer behavior of the frictional interfaces often provides the dominant damping mechanism in a built-up structure and plays an important role in the vibratory response of the structure (Gaul and Nitsche 2001 Appl. Mech. Rev. 54 93-105). For improving the performance of systems, many studies have been carried out to predict, measure and/or enhance the energy dissipation of friction. To enhance the friction damping in joint connections a semi-active joint is investigated. A rotational joint connection is designed and manufactured such that the normal force in the friction interface can be influenced with a piezoelectric stack disc. With the piezoelectric device the normal force and thus the friction damping in the joint connection can be controlled. A control design method, namely semi-active control, is investigated. The recently developed LuGre friction model is used to describe the nonlinear transfer behavior of joints. This model is based on a bristle model and turns out to be highly suitable for systems assembled by such smart joints. Those systems can also be regarded as friction driven systems, since the energy flow is controlled by smart joints. The semi-active method is well suited for large space structures since the friction damping in joints turned out to be a major source of damping. To show the applicability of the proposed concept to large space structures a two-beam system representing a part of a large space structure is considered. Two flexible beams are connected with a semi-active joint connection. It can be shown that the damping of the system can be improved significantly by controlling the normal force in the semi-active joint connection. Experimental results validate the damping improvement due to the semi-active friction damping.

  6. Smart Grid Maturity Model: Model Definition. A Framework for Smart Grid Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    adoption of more efficient and reliable generation sources and would allow consumer-generated electricity (e.g., solar power and wind) to be connected to...program that pays customers (or credits their accounts) for customer-provided electricity such as from solar panels to the grid or electric vehicles...deployed. CUST-5.3 Plug-and-play customer-based generation (e.g., wind and solar ) is supported. This includes the necessary infrastructure, such

  7. Smart Grids and their Applicability for the Development of the Electricity Sector for Colombia in the year 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, J.; Aceros, C.

    2016-07-01

    Smart Grids are a technology that can be used to implement a sustainable energy scheme of a country. Therefore, this paper proposes the development of a prospective analysis of Smart Grids as a tool to ensure energetic security in Colombia in 2050. Using LEAP software, a base scenario for Colombian energy demand has developed according to current policies, with a time horizon from 2012 to 2050. The energy analysis is based on three scenarios, taking into account the impact of cogeneration in the residential and industrial sector using renewable energy and the power quality indicators. The results show that the implementation of Smart Grids generate energy savings and increasing the coverage of the national electricity system, ensuring energetic security of the country by 2050.

  8. Smart Energy Management and Control for Fuel Cell Based Micro-Grid Connected Neighborhoods

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam

    2006-03-15

    Fuel cell power generation promises to be an efficient, pollution-free, reliable power source in both large scale and small scale, remote applications. DOE formed the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance with the intention of breaking one of the last barriers remaining for cost effective fuel cell power generation. The Alliance’s goal is to produce a core solid-state fuel cell module at a cost of no more than $400 per kilowatt and ready for commercial application by 2010. With their inherently high, 60-70% conversion efficiencies, significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and negligible emissions of other pollutants, fuel cells will be the obvious choice for a broad variety of commercial and residential applications when their cost effectiveness is improved. In a research program funded by the Department of Energy, the research team has been investigating smart fuel cell-operated residential micro-grid communities. This research has focused on using smart control systems in conjunction with fuel cell power plants, with the goal to reduce energy consumption, reduce demand peaks and still meet the energy requirements of any household in a micro-grid community environment. In Phases I and II, a SEMaC was developed and extended to a micro-grid community. In addition, an optimal configuration was determined for a single fuel cell power plant supplying power to a ten-home micro-grid community. In Phase III, the plan is to expand this work to fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhoods (mini-grid). The economic implications of hydrogen cogeneration will be investigated. These efforts are consistent with DOE’s mission to decentralize domestic electric power generation and to accelerate the onset of the hydrogen economy. A major challenge facing the routine implementation and use of a fuel cell based mini-grid is the varying electrical demand of the individual micro-grids, and, therefore, analyzing these issues is vital. Efforts are needed to determine

  9. Multi-state time-varying reliability evaluation of smart grid with flexible demand resources utilizing Lz transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Heping; Jin, Wende; Ding, Yi; Song, Yonghua; Yu, Dezhao

    2017-01-01

    With the expanding proportion of renewable energy generation and development of smart grid technologies, flexible demand resources (FDRs) have been utilized as an approach to accommodating renewable energies. However, multiple uncertainties of FDRs may influence reliable and secure operation of smart grid. Multi-state reliability models for a single FDR and aggregating FDRs have been proposed in this paper with regard to responsive abilities for FDRs and random failures for both FDR devices and information system. The proposed reliability evaluation technique is based on Lz transform method which can formulate time-varying reliability indices. A modified IEEE-RTS has been utilized as an illustration of the proposed technique.

  10. A Comprehensive WSN-Based Approach to Efficiently Manage a Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Sandoval, Ruben; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Haro, Joan; Flynn, David

    2014-01-01

    The Smart Grid (SG) is conceived as the evolution of the current electrical grid representing a big leap in terms of efficiency, reliability and flexibility compared to today's electrical network. To achieve this goal, the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are considered by the scientific/engineering community to be one of the most suitable technologies to apply SG technology to due to their low-cost, collaborative and long-standing nature. However, the SG has posed significant challenges to utility operators—mainly very harsh radio propagation conditions and the lack of appropriate systems to empower WSN devices—making most of the commercial widespread solutions inadequate. In this context, and as a main contribution, we have designed a comprehensive ad-hoc WSN-based solution for the Smart Grid (SENSED-SG) that focuses on specific implementations of the MAC, the network and the application layers to attain maximum performance and to successfully deal with any arising hurdles. Our approach has been exhaustively evaluated by computer simulations and mathematical analysis, as well as validation within real test-beds deployed in controlled environments. In particular, these test-beds cover two of the main scenarios found in a SG; on one hand, an indoor electrical substation environment, implemented in a High Voltage AC/DC laboratory, and, on the other hand, an outdoor case, deployed in the Transmission and Distribution segment of a power grid. The results obtained show that SENSED-SG performs better and is more suitable for the Smart Grid than the popular ZigBee WSN approach. PMID:25310468

  11. A comprehensive WSN-based approach to efficiently manage a Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sandoval, Ruben; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Haro, Joan; Flynn, David

    2014-10-10

    The Smart Grid (SG) is conceived as the evolution of the current electrical grid representing a big leap in terms of efficiency, reliability and flexibility compared to today's electrical network. To achieve this goal, the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are considered by the scientific/engineering community to be one of the most suitable technologies to apply SG technology to due to their low-cost, collaborative and long-standing nature. However, the SG has posed significant challenges to utility operators-mainly very harsh radio propagation conditions and the lack of appropriate systems to empower WSN devices-making most of the commercial widespread solutions inadequate. In this context, and as a main contribution, we have designed a comprehensive ad-hoc WSN-based solution for the Smart Grid (SENSED-SG) that focuses on specific implementations of the MAC, the network and the application layers to attain maximum performance and to successfully deal with any arising hurdles. Our approach has been exhaustively evaluated by computer simulations and mathematical analysis, as well as validation within real test-beds deployed in controlled environments. In particular, these test-beds cover two of the main scenarios found in a SG; on one hand, an indoor electrical substation environment, implemented in a High Voltage AC/DC laboratory, and, on the other hand, an outdoor case, deployed in the Transmission and Distribution segment of a power grid. The results obtained show that SENSED-SG performs better and is more suitable for the Smart Grid than the popular ZigBee WSN approach.

  12. Optimal Operation of Data Centers in Future Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamkhari, Seyed Mahdi

    The emergence of cloud computing has established a growing trend towards building massive, energy-hungry, and geographically distributed data centers. Due to their enormous energy consumption, data centers are expected to have major impact on the electric grid by significantly increasing the load at locations where they are built. However, data centers also provide opportunities to help the grid with respect to robustness and load balancing. For instance, as data centers are major and yet flexible electric loads, they can be proper candidates to offer ancillary services, such as voluntary load reduction, to the smart grid. Also, data centers may better stabilize the price of energy in the electricity markets, and at the same time reduce their electricity cost by exploiting the diversity in the price of electricity in the day-ahead and real-time electricity markets. In this thesis, such potentials are investigated within an analytical profit maximization framework by developing new mathematical models based on queuing theory. The proposed models capture the trade-off between quality-of-service and power consumption in data centers. They are not only accurate, but also they posses convexity characteristics that facilitate joint optimization of data centers' service rates, demand levels and demand bids to different electricity markets. The analysis is further expanded to also develop a unified comprehensive energy portfolio optimization for data centers in the future smart grid. Specifically, it is shown how utilizing one energy option may affect selecting other energy options that are available to a data center. For example, we will show that the use of on-site storage and the deployment of geographical workload distribution can particularly help data centers in utilizing high-risk energy options such as renewable generation. The analytical approach in this thesis takes into account service-level-agreements, risk management constraints, and also the statistical

  13. Smart Grid Communications Security Project, U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Frank

    2012-09-01

    There were four groups that worked on this project in different areas related to Smart Girds and Security. They included faculty and students from electric computer and energy engineering, law, business and sociology. The results of the work are summarized in a verity of reports, papers and thesis. A major report to the Governor of Colorado’s energy office with contributions from all the groups working on this project is given bellow. Smart Grid Deployment in Colorado: Challenges and Opportunities, Report to Colorado Governor’s Energy Office and Colorado Smart Grid Task Force(2010) (Kevin Doran, Frank Barnes, and Puneet Pasrich, eds.) This report includes information on the state of the grid cyber security, privacy, energy storage and grid stability, workforce development, consumer behavior with respect to the smart grid and safety issues.

  14. The Evolution of the Internet Community and the"Yet-to-Evolve" Smart Grid Community: Parallels and Lessons-to-be-Learned

    SciTech Connect

    McParland, Charles

    2009-11-06

    The Smart Grid envisions a transformed US power distribution grid that enables communicating devices, under human supervision, to moderate loads and increase overall system stability and security. This vision explicitly promotes increased participation from a community that, in the past, has had little involvement in power grid operations -the consumer. The potential size of this new community and its member's extensive experience with the public Internet prompts an analysis of the evolution and current state of the Internet as a predictor for best practices in the architectural design of certain portions of the Smart Grid network. Although still evolving, the vision of the Smart Grid is that of a community of communicating and cooperating energy related devices that can be directed to route power and modulate loads in pursuit of an integrated, efficient and secure electrical power grid. The remaking of the present power grid into the Smart Grid is considered as fundamentally transformative as previous developments such as modern computing technology and high bandwidth data communications. However, unlike these earlier developments, which relied on the discovery of critical new technologies (e.g. the transistor or optical fiber transmission lines), the technologies required for the Smart Grid currently exist and, in many cases, are already widely deployed. In contrast to other examples of technical transformations, the path (and success) of the Smart Grid will be determined not by its technology, but by its system architecture. Fortunately, we have a recent example of a transformative force of similar scope that shares a fundamental dependence on our existing communications infrastructure - namely, the Internet. We will explore several ways in which the scale of the Internet and expectations of its users have shaped the present Internet environment. As the presence of consumers within the Smart Grid increases, some experiences from the early growth of the Internet

  15. Modeling and distributed gain scheduling strategy for load frequency control in smart grids with communication topology changes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shichao; Liu, Xiaoping P; El Saddik, Abdulmotaleb

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the modeling and distributed control problems for the load frequency control (LFC) in a smart grid. In contrast with existing works, we consider more practical and real scenarios, where the communication topology of the smart grid changes because of either link failures or packet losses. These topology changes are modeled as a time-varying communication topology matrix. By using this matrix, a new closed-loop power system model is proposed to integrate the communication topology changes into the dynamics of a physical power system. The globally asymptotical stability of this closed-loop power system is analyzed. A distributed gain scheduling LFC strategy is proposed to compensate for the potential degradation of dynamic performance (mean square errors of state vectors) of the power system under communication topology changes. In comparison to conventional centralized control approaches, the proposed method can improve the robustness of the smart grid to the variation of the communication network as well as to reduce computation load. Simulation results show that the proposed distributed gain scheduling approach is capable to improve the robustness of the smart grid to communication topology changes. © 2013 ISA. Published by ISA. All rights reserved.

  16. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  17. AEP Ohio gridSMART Demonstration Project Real-Time Pricing Demonstration Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.; Somani, Abhishek; Marinovici, Maria C.; Hammerstrom, Janelle L.

    2014-02-01

    This report contributes initial findings from an analysis of significant aspects of the gridSMART® Real-Time Pricing (RTP) – Double Auction demonstration project. Over the course of four years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) worked with American Electric Power (AEP), Ohio and Battelle Memorial Institute to design, build, and operate an innovative system to engage residential consumers and their end-use resources in a participatory approach to electric system operations, an incentive-based approach that has the promise of providing greater efficiency under normal operating conditions and greater flexibility to react under situations of system stress. The material contained in this report supplements the findings documented by AEP Ohio in the main body of the gridSMART report. It delves into three main areas: impacts on system operations, impacts on households, and observations about the sensitivity of load to price changes.

  18. SMART-1/AMIE Camera System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josset, J.-L.; Beauvivre, S.; Cerroni, P.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.; Langevin, Y.; Barucci, M. A.; Plancke, P.; Koschny, D.; Almeida, M.; Sodnik, Z.; Mancuso, S.; Hofmann, B. A.; Muinonen, K.; Shevchenko, V.; Shkuratov, Y.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Foing, B. H.

    2006-03-01

    The Advanced Moon micro-Imager Experiment (AMIE), on board ESA SMART-1, the first European mission to the Moon (launched on 27th September 2003), is a camera system with scientific, technical and public outreach oriented objectives.

  19. 75 FR 81605 - Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Technical Conference December 21, 2010. Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical...

  20. Inspection Robot Based Mobile Sensing and Power Line Tracking for Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Byambasuren, Bat-erdene; Kim, Donghan; Oyun-Erdene, Mandakh; Bold, Chinguun; Yura, Jargalbaatar

    2016-01-01

    Smart sensing and power line tracking is very important in a smart grid system. Illegal electricity usage can be detected by remote current measurement on overhead power lines using an inspection robot. There is a need for accurate detection methods of illegal electricity usage. Stable and correct power line tracking is a very prominent issue. In order to correctly track and make accurate measurements, the swing path of a power line should be previously fitted and predicted by a mathematical function using an inspection robot. After this, the remote inspection robot can follow the power line and measure the current. This paper presents a new power line tracking method using parabolic and circle fitting algorithms for illegal electricity detection. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking method by simulation and experimental results. PMID:26907274

  1. Inspection Robot Based Mobile Sensing and Power Line Tracking for Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Byambasuren, Bat-Erdene; Kim, Donghan; Oyun-Erdene, Mandakh; Bold, Chinguun; Yura, Jargalbaatar

    2016-02-19

    Smart sensing and power line tracking is very important in a smart grid system. Illegal electricity usage can be detected by remote current measurement on overhead power lines using an inspection robot. There is a need for accurate detection methods of illegal electricity usage. Stable and correct power line tracking is a very prominent issue. In order to correctly track and make accurate measurements, the swing path of a power line should be previously fitted and predicted by a mathematical function using an inspection robot. After this, the remote inspection robot can follow the power line and measure the current. This paper presents a new power line tracking method using parabolic and circle fitting algorithms for illegal electricity detection. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking method by simulation and experimental results.

  2. Smart Grid Constraint Violation Management for Balancing and Regulating Purposes

    DOE PAGES

    Bhattarai, Bishnu; Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Mendaza, Iker; ...

    2017-01-01

    The gradual active load penetration in low voltage distribution grids is expected to challenge their network capacity in the near future. Distribution system operators should for this reason resort to either costly grid reinforcements or to demand side management mechanisms. Since demand side management implementation is usually cheaper, it is also the favorable solution. To this end, this article presents a framework for handling grid limit violations, both voltage and current, to ensure a secure and qualitative operation of the distribution grid. This framework consists of two steps, namely a proactive centralized and subsequently a reactive decentralized control scheme. Themore » former is employed to balance the one hour ahead load while the latter aims at regulating the consumption in real-time. In both cases, the importance of fair use of electricity demand flexibility is emphasized. Thus, it is demonstrated that this methodology aids in keeping the grid status within preset limits while utilizing flexibility from all flexibility participants.« less

  3. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Grant Project Technologies: Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ruchi; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of addition of renewable resources- solar and wind in the distribution system as deployed in the SGIG projects.

  4. Parameter identification of aggregated thermostatically controlled loads for smart grids using PDE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Scott; Bendtsen, Jan; Ruiz, Victor

    2014-07-01

    This paper develops methods for model identification of aggregated thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) in smart grids, via partial differential equation (PDE) techniques. Control of aggregated TCLs provides a promising opportunity to mitigate the mismatch between power generation and demand, thus enhancing grid reliability and enabling renewable energy penetration. To this end, this paper focuses on developing parameter identification algorithms for a PDE-based model of aggregated TCLs. First, a two-state boundary-coupled hyperbolic PDE model for homogenous TCL populations is derived. This model is extended to heterogeneous populations by including a diffusive term, which provides an elegant control-oriented model. Next, a passive parameter identification scheme and a swapping-based identification scheme are derived for the PDE model structure. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of each method under various autonomous and non-autonomous scenarios. The proposed models can subsequently be employed to provide system critical information for power system monitoring and control.

  5. Robust optimization based energy dispatch in smart grids considering demand uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassourou, M.; Puig, V.; Blesa, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we discuss the application of robust optimization to the problem of economic energy dispatch in smart grids. Robust optimization based MPC strategies for tackling uncertain load demands are developed. Unexpected additive disturbances are modelled by defining an affine dependence between the control inputs and the uncertain load demands. The developed strategies were applied to a hybrid power system connected to an electrical power grid. Furthermore, to demonstrate the superiority of the standard Economic MPC over the MPC tracking, a comparison (e.g average daily cost) between the standard MPC tracking, the standard Economic MPC, and the integration of both in one-layer and two-layer approaches was carried out. The goal of this research is to design a controller based on Economic MPC strategies, that tackles uncertainties, in order to minimise economic costs and guarantee service reliability of the system.

  6. Some advanced parametric methods for assessing waveform distortion in a smart grid with renewable generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfieri, Luisa

    2015-12-01

    Power quality (PQ) disturbances are becoming an important issue in smart grids (SGs) due to the significant economic consequences that they can generate on sensible loads. However, SGs include several distributed energy resources (DERs) that can be interconnected to the grid with static converters, which lead to a reduction of the PQ levels. Among DERs, wind turbines and photovoltaic systems are expected to be used extensively due to the forecasted reduction in investment costs and other economic incentives. These systems can introduce significant time-varying voltage and current waveform distortions that require advanced spectral analysis methods to be used. This paper provides an application of advanced parametric methods for assessing waveform distortions in SGs with dispersed generation. In particular, the Standard International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC) method, some parametric methods (such as Prony and Estimation of Signal Parameters by Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT)), and some hybrid methods are critically compared on the basis of their accuracy and the computational effort required.

  7. Equil: A Global Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Sebastian; Reimer, Christioph; Paulik, Christoph; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Geophysical parameters derived from space-borne Earth Observation Systems are either assigned to discrete points on a fixed Earth grid (e.g. regular lon/lat grid) or located on orbital point nodes with a customized arrangement, often in-line with the instrument's measurement geometry. The driving factors of the choice and structure of a spatial reference system (i.e. the grid) are typically spatial resolution, instrument geometry, measurement technique or application.In this study we propose a global grid system, the so- called Equil grid, and demonstrate its realization and structure. An exemplary Equil grid with a base sampling distance of 12.5 km is compared against two other grids commonly used in the domain of remote sensing of soil moisture. The simple nearly-equidistant grid design makes it interesting for a wide range of other geophysical parameters as well.

  8. Incentive-compatible demand-side management for smart grids based on review strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jie; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2015-12-01

    Demand-side load management is able to significantly improve the energy efficiency of smart grids. Since the electricity production cost depends on the aggregate energy usage of multiple consumers, an important incentive problem emerges: self-interested consumers want to increase their own utilities by consuming more than the socially optimal amount of energy during peak hours since the increased cost is shared among the entire set of consumers. To incentivize self-interested consumers to take the socially optimal scheduling actions, we design a new class of protocols based on review strategies. These strategies work as follows: first, a review stage takes place in which a statistical test is performed based on the daily prices of the previous billing cycle to determine whether or not the other consumers schedule their electricity loads in a socially optimal way. If the test fails, the consumers trigger a punishment phase in which, for a certain time, they adjust their energy scheduling in such a way that everybody in the consumer set is punished due to an increased price. Using a carefully designed protocol based on such review strategies, consumers then have incentives to take the socially optimal load scheduling to avoid entering this punishment phase. We rigorously characterize the impact of deploying protocols based on review strategies on the system's as well as the users' performance and determine the optimal design (optimal billing cycle, punishment length, etc.) for various smart grid deployment scenarios. Even though this paper considers a simplified smart grid model, our analysis provides important and useful insights for designing incentive-compatible demand-side management schemes based on aggregate energy usage information in a variety of practical scenarios.

  9. The Hephaestus Smart Wheelchair System.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Richard C; Poirot, Daniel; Baxter, Francie

    2002-06-01

    The Hephaestus Smart Wheelchair System is envisioned as a series of components that clinicians and wheelchair manufacturers will be able to attach to standard power wheelchairs to convert them into "smart wheelchairs." A prototype of the system has been developed and mounted on an Everest and Jennings Lancer2000 wheelchair. The prototype bases its navigation assistance behavior on the behavior developed for the NavChair Assistive Wheelchair Navigation System, but the underlying hardware and software are being designed to facilitate commercialization. This paper describes our design goals for the Hephaestus system and discusses the current status of the system prototype as well as plans for future work.

  10. Smart Grid Maturity Model Webinar: Defining the Pathway to the California Smart Grid of 2020, for Publicly Owned Utilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-21

    system cost; support clean energy job creation and will be accomplished in a financially responsible manner at a pace and scope of deployment that...Enhance service offerings Improve grid efficiency and reliability Reflect local financial, environmental and social priorities Support clean ... energy job creation Followers Fast Followers Leaders Reduce Maintain Increase Maintain Explore Enhance Maintain Improve Improve React Explore

  11. Datums, Ellipsoids, Grids, and Grid Reference Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Tunisie Grid, Sud Algerie Grid, Sud Maroc Grid, and Sud Tunisie Grid. 4-1.1.8 The...REFERENCES ON THE SUD ALGERIE AND SUD TUNISIE GRIDS 6-8.5.2 When oil reference boxes cannot be accommodated in the margin, the excess is shown in expanses...GIVING REFERENCES ON THE SUD ALGERIE AND SUD TUNISIE GRIDS 6-21 DMA TM 8358.1 I CHAPTER 7 GRIDS ON MAPS AT 1:250,000 AND 1:500,000 SCALE 7.1 GENERAL.

  12. Ring-like reliable PON planning with physical constraints for a smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Due to the high reliability requirements in the communication networks of a smart grid, a ring-like reliable PON is an ideal choice to carry power distribution information. Economical network planning is also very important for the smart grid communication infrastructure. Although the ring-like reliable PON has been widely used in the real applications, as far as we know, little research has been done on the network optimization subject of the ring-like reliable PON. Most PON planning research studies only consider a star-like topology or cascaded PON network, which barely guarantees the reliability requirements of the smart grid. In this paper, we mainly investigate the economical network planning problem for the ring-like reliable PON of the smart grid. To address this issue, we built a mathematical model for the planning problem of the ring-like reliable PON, and the objective was to minimize the total deployment costs under physical constraints. The model is simplified such that all of the nodes have the same properties, except OLT, because each potential splitter site can be located in the same ONU position in power communication networks. The simplified model is used to construct an optimal main tree topology in the complete graph and a backup-protected tree topology in the residual graph. An efficient heuristic algorithm, called the Constraints and Minimal Weight Oriented Fast Searching Algorithm (CMW-FSA), is proposed. In CMW-FSA, a feasible solution can be obtained directly with oriented constraints and a few recursive search processes. From the simulation results, the proposed planning model and CMW-FSA are verified to be accurate (the error rates are less than 0.4%) and effective compared with the accurate solution (CAESA), especially in small and sparse scenarios. The CMW-FSA significantly reduces the computation time compared with the CAESA. The time complexity algorithm of the CMW-FSA is acceptable and calculated as T(n) = O(n3). After evaluating the

  13. PNNL Future Power Grid Initiative-developed GridOPTICS Software System (GOSS)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-03

    The power grid is changing and evolving. One aspect of this change is the growing use of smart meters and other devices, which are producing large volumes of useful data. However, in many cases, the data can’t be translated quickly into actionable guidance to improve grid performance. There's a need for innovative tools. The GridOPTICS(TM) Software System, or GOSS, developed through PNNL's Future Power Grid Initiative, is open source and became publicly available in spring 2014. The value of this middleware is that it easily integrates grid applications with sources of data and facilitates communication between them. Such a capability provides a foundation for developing a range of applications to improve grid management.

  14. PNNL Future Power Grid Initiative-developed GridOPTICS Software System (GOSS)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The power grid is changing and evolving. One aspect of this change is the growing use of smart meters and other devices, which are producing large volumes of useful data. However, in many cases, the data can’t be translated quickly into actionable guidance to improve grid performance. There's a need for innovative tools. The GridOPTICS(TM) Software System, or GOSS, developed through PNNL's Future Power Grid Initiative, is open source and became publicly available in spring 2014. The value of this middleware is that it easily integrates grid applications with sources of data and facilitates communication between them. Such a capability provides a foundation for developing a range of applications to improve grid management.

  15. Metrics for Assessment of Smart Grid Data Integrity Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Annarita Giani; Miles McQueen; Russell Bent; Kameshwar Poolla; Mark Hinrichs

    2012-07-01

    There is an emerging consensus that the nation’s electricity grid is vulnerable to cyber attacks. This vulnerability arises from the increasing reliance on using remote measurements, transmitting them over legacy data networks to system operators who make critical decisions based on available data. Data integrity attacks are a class of cyber attacks that involve a compromise of information that is processed by the grid operator. This information can include meter readings of injected power at remote generators, power flows on transmission lines, and relay states. These data integrity attacks have consequences only when the system operator responds to compromised data by redispatching generation under normal or contingency protocols. These consequences include (a) financial losses from sub-optimal economic dispatch to service loads, (b) robustness/resiliency losses from placing the grid at operating points that are at greater risk from contingencies, and (c) systemic losses resulting from cascading failures induced by poor operational choices. This paper is focused on understanding the connections between grid operational procedures and cyber attacks. We first offer two examples to illustrate how data integrity attacks can cause economic and physical damage by misleading operators into taking inappropriate decisions. We then focus on unobservable data integrity attacks involving power meter data. These are coordinated attacks where the compromised data are consistent with the physics of power flow, and are therefore passed by any bad data detection algorithm. We develop metrics to assess the economic impact of these attacks under re-dispatch decisions using optimal power flow methods. These metrics can be use to prioritize the adoption of appropriate countermeasures including PMU placement, encryption, hardware upgrades, and advance attack detection algorithms.

  16. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  17. ATES Smart Grids research project overview and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemendal, Martin; Jaxa-Rozen, Marc; Rostampour, Vahab

    2016-04-01

    Background: ATES is application is growing Application of seasonal Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) contributes to energy saving and Greenhouse Gas (GHG)-reduction goals (CBS, 2015; EU, 2010, 2014). Recently it was shown that ATES is applicable in several parts of the world (Bloemendal et al., 2015). While in most parts of the world adoption is just beginning, in the Netherlands progressive building energy efficiency regulation already caused the adoption of ATES to take off (Heekeren and Bakema, 2015; Sommer et al., 2015). As a result of the large number of ATES systems in the Netherlands, the subsurface plays a crucial role in the energy saving objectives of The Netherlands (Kamp, 2015; SER, 2013). Problem: suboptimal use of the subsurface for energy storage ATES systems accumulate in urban areas, as can be expected with a large growth of ATES systems; at many locations in Dutch cities demand for ATES transcends the available space in the subsurface (Li, 2014; Sommer et al., 2015). Within in the Dutch legal framework and state of technology optimal use of the subsurface is not secured; i.e. minimizing the total GHG emissions in a certain area. (Bloemendal et al., 2014; Li, 2014). The most important aspects in this problem are A) the permanent and often unused claim resulting from static permits and B) excessive safety zones around wells to prevent interaction. Both aspects result in an artificial reduction of subsurface space for potential new ATES systems. Recent research has shown that ground energy storage systems could be placed much closer to each other (Bakr et al., 2013; Sommer et al., 2015), and a controlled/limited degree of interaction between them can actually benefit the overall energy savings of an entire area. Solution: the approach and first results of our research project on ATES Smart Grids The heating and cooling demand of buildings is a dynamic and hard to predict process, due to effects such as weather, climate change, changing function

  18. Energy Management of Smart Distribution Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Bananeh

    Electric power distribution systems interface the end-users of electricity with the power grid. Traditional distribution systems are operated in a centralized fashion with the distribution system owner or operator being the only decision maker. The management and control architecture of distribution systems needs to gradually transform to accommodate the emerging smart grid technologies, distributed energy resources, and active electricity end-users or prosumers. The content of this document concerns with developing multi-task multi-objective energy management schemes for: 1) commercial/large residential prosumers, and 2) distribution system operator of a smart distribution system. The first part of this document describes a method of distributed energy management of multiple commercial/ large residential prosumers. These prosumers not only consume electricity, but also generate electricity using their roof-top solar photovoltaics systems. When photovoltaics generation is larger than local consumption, excess electricity will be fed into the distribution system, creating a voltage rise along the feeder. Distribution system operator cannot tolerate a significant voltage rise. ES can help the prosumers manage their electricity exchanges with the distribution system such that minimal voltage fluctuation occurs. The proposed distributed energy management scheme sizes and schedules each prosumer's ES to reduce the electricity bill and mitigate voltage rise along the feeder. The second part of this document focuses on emergency energy management and resilience assessment of a distribution system. The developed emergency energy management system uses available resources and redundancy to restore the distribution system's functionality fully or partially. The success of the restoration maneuver depends on how resilient the distribution system is. Engineering resilience terminology is used to evaluate the resilience of distribution system. The proposed emergency energy

  19. Smart Grid Adoption Likeliness Framework: Comparing Idaho and National Residential Consumers' Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiya, Evanson G.

    New energy technologies that provide real-time visibility of the electricity grid's performance, along with the ability to address unusual events in the grid and allow consumers to manage their energy use, are being developed in the United States. Primary drivers for the new technologies include the growing energy demand, tightening environmental regulations, aging electricity infrastructure, and rising consumer demand to become more involved in managing individual energy usage. In the literature and in practice, it is unclear if, and to what extent, residential consumers will adopt smart grid technologies. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationships between demographic characteristics, perceptions, and the likelihood of adopting smart grid technologies among residential energy consumers. The results of a 31-item survey were analyzed for differences within the Idaho consumers and compared against national consumers. Analysis of variance was used to examine possible differences between the dependent variable of likeliness to adopt smart grid technologies and the independent variables of age, gender, residential ownership, and residential location. No differences were found among Idaho consumers in their likeliness to adopt smart grid technologies. An independent sample t-test was used to examine possible differences between the two groups of Idaho consumers and national consumers in their level of interest in receiving detailed feedback information on energy usage, the added convenience of the smart grid, renewable energy, the willingness to pay for infrastructure costs, and the likeliness to adopt smart grid technologies. The level of interest in receiving detailed feedback information on energy usage was significantly different between the two groups (t = 3.11, p = .0023), while the other variables were similar. The study contributes to technology adoption research regarding specific consumer perceptions and provides a framework that

  20. Open Automated Demand Response Technologies for Dynamic Pricing and Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatikar, Girish; Mathieu, Johanna L.; Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-06-02

    We present an Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specifications (OpenADR) data model capable of communicating real-time prices to electricity customers. We also show how the same data model could be used to for other types of dynamic pricing tariffs (including peak pricing tariffs, which are common throughout the United States). Customers participating in automated demand response programs with building control systems can respond to dynamic prices by using the actual prices as inputs to their control systems. Alternatively, prices can be mapped into"building operation modes," which can act as inputs to control systems. We present several different strategies customers could use to map prices to operation modes. Our results show that OpenADR can be used to communicate dynamic pricing within the Smart Grid and that OpenADR allows for interoperability with existing and future systems, technologies, and electricity markets.

  1. Solar energy grid integration systems "SEGIS"

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-10-01

    The inevitable transformation of the electrical grid to a more distributed generation configuration requires solar system capabilities well beyond simple net-metered, grid-connected approaches. Time-of-use and peak-demand rate structures will require more sophisticated systems designs that integrate energy management and/or energy storage into the system architecture. Controlling power flow into and from the utility grid will be required to ensure grid reliability and power quality. Alternative protection strategies will also be required to accommodate large numbers of distributed energy sources. This document provides an overview of the R&D needs and describes some pathways to promising solutions. The solutions will, in many cases, require R&D of new components, innovative inverter/controllers, energy management systems, innovative energy storage and a suite of advanced control algorithms, technical methodologies, protocols and the associated communications. It is expected that these solutions will help to push the “advanced integrated system” and “smart grid” evolutionary processes forward in a faster but focused manner.

  2. Development of Advanced Alarm System for SMART

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Gwi-sook; Seoung, Duk-hyun; Suh, Sang-moon; Lee, Jong-bok; Park, Geun-ok; Koo, In-soo

    2004-07-01

    A SMART-Alarm System (SMART-AS) is a new system being developed as part of the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) project. The SMART-AS employs modern digital technology to implement the alarm functions of the SMART. The use of modern digital technology can provide advanced alarm processing in which new algorithms such as a signal validation, advanced alarm processing logic and other features are applied to improve the control room man-machine interfaces. This paper will describe the design process of the SMART-AS, improving the system reliability and availability using the reliability prediction tool, design strategies regarding the human performance topics associated with a computer-based SMART-AS and the results of the performance analysis using a prototype of the SMART-AS. (authors)

  3. Optimum Aggregation and Control of Spatially Distributed Flexible Resources in Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattarai, Bishnu; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Myers, Kurt S.; Bak-Jensen, Brigitte; Paudyal, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    This study optimally aggregates spatially distributed flexible resources at strategic microgrid/smart-grid locations and reduces a distribution network having thousands of nodes to an equivalent network having few aggregated nodes. Such aggregation enables trading of aggregated flexible resources to different power/energy market on behalf of small distributed flexible resources. Moreover, a hierarchical control architecture comprising a combination of centralized and decentralized control approaches are proposed to deploy the aggregated flexibilities in fulfilling grid requirements and solving constraint violations. This serve as a great operational tool for distribution system operators (DSOs) to decide the exact amount of flexibilities from different network sections for solving particular grid constraints. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through simulation of three operational scenarios performed in a real low voltage distribution system that is having high penetrations of electric vehicles and heat pumps. The simulation results demonstrated that the proposed method not only help DSOs in taking effective decision to utilize available flexibilities, but also in effective materialization of the demand flexibilities within a given aggregated area.

  4. DNA-Cryptography-Based Obfuscated Systolic Finite Field Multiplier for Secure Cryptosystem in Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shaobo; Chen, Pingxiuqi; Shao, Qiliang; Basha Shaik, Nazeem; Xie, Jiafeng

    2017-05-01

    The elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) provides much stronger security per bits compared to the traditional cryptosystem, and hence it is an ideal role in secure communication in smart grid. On the other side, secure implementation of finite field multiplication over GF(2 m ) is considered as the bottle neck of ECC. In this paper, we present a novel obfuscation strategy for secure implementation of systolic field multiplier for ECC in smart grid. First, for the first time, we propose a novel obfuscation technique to derive a novel obfuscated systolic finite field multiplier for ECC implementation. Then, we employ the DNA cryptography coding strategy to obfuscate the field multiplier further. Finally, we obtain the area-time-power complexity of the proposed field multiplier to confirm the efficiency of the proposed design. The proposed design is highly obfuscated with low overhead, suitable for secure cryptosystem in smart grid.

  5. 75 FR 42747 - Smart Grid Update; Notice of Commissioner and Staff Attendance at FERC/NARUC Collaborative on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Smart Grid Update; Notice of Commissioner and Staff Attendance at FERC/NARUC Collaborative on Smart Response Meeting July 15, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives.../NARUC Collaborative on Smart Response: Sacramento Convention Center, 1400 J Street, Sacramento, CA 95814...

  6. Recovery Act-SmartGrid regional demonstration transmission and distribution (T&D) Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, Edward T.

    2015-01-31

    This document represents the Final Technical Report for the Kansas City Power & Light Company (KCP&L) Green Impact Zone SmartGrid Demonstration Project (SGDP). The KCP&L project is partially funded by Department of Energy (DOE) Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project cooperative agreement DE-OE0000221 in the Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure application area. This Final Technical Report summarizes the KCP&L SGDP as of April 30, 2015 and includes summaries of the project design, implementation, operations, and analysis performed as of that date.

  7. Results from the Operational Testing of the General Electric Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Barney Carlson; Don Scoffield; Brion Bennett

    2013-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the General Electric (GE) smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from GE for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the GE smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  8. Ultrafast Power Processor for Smart Grid Power Module Development

    SciTech Connect

    MAITRA, ARINDAM; LITWIN, RAY; lai, Jason; Syracuse, David

    2012-12-30

    This project’s goal was to increase the switching speed and decrease the losses of the power semiconductor devices and power switch modules necessary to enable Smart Grid energy flow and control equipment such as the Ultra-Fast Power Processor. The primary focus of this project involves exploiting the new silicon-based Super-GTO (SGTO) technology and build on prototype modules already being developed. The prototype super gate-turn-off thyristor (SGTO) has been tested fully under continuously conducting and double-pulse hard-switching conditions for conduction and switching characteristics evaluation. The conduction voltage drop measurement results indicate that SGTO has excellent conduction characteristics despite inconsistency among some prototype devices. Tests were conducted with two conditions: (1) fixed gate voltage and varying anode current condition, and (2) fixed anode current and varying gate voltage condition. The conduction voltage drop is relatively a constant under different gate voltage condition. In terms of voltage drop as a function of the load current, there is a fixed voltage drop about 0.5V under zero current condition, and then the voltage drop is linearly increased with the current. For a 5-kV voltage blocking device that may operate under 2.5-kV condition, the projected voltage drop is less than 2.5 V under 50-A condition, or 0.1%. If the device is adopted in a converter operating under soft-switching condition, then the converter can achieve an ultrahigh efficiency, typically above 99%. The two-pulse switching test results indicate that SGTO switching speed is very fast. The switching loss is relatively low as compared to that of the insulated-gate-bipolar-transistors (IGBTs). A special phenomenon needs to be noted is such a fast switching speed for the high-voltage switching tends to create an unexpected Cdv/dt current, which reduces the turn-on loss because the dv/dt is negative and increases the turn-off loss because the dv/dt is

  9. GridOPTICS Software System

    SciTech Connect

    Akyol, Bora A; Ciraci, PNNL Selim; Gibson, PNNL Tara; Rice, PNNL Mark; Sharma, PNNL Poorva; Yin, PNNL Jian; Allwardt, PNNL Craig; PNNL,

    2014-02-24

    GridOPTICS Software System (GOSS) is a middleware that facilitates creation of new, modular and flexible operational and planning platforms that can meet the challenges of the next generation power grid. GOSS enables Department of Energy, power system utilities, and vendors to build better tools faster. GOSS makes it possible to integrate Future Power Grid Initiative software products/prototypes into existing power grid software systems, including the PNNL PowerNet and EIOC environments. GOSS is designed to allow power grid applications developed for different underlying software platforms installed in different utilities to communicate with ease. This can be done in compliance with existing security and data sharing policies between the utilities. GOSS not only supports one-to-one data transfer between applications, but also publisher/subscriber scheme. To support interoperability requirements of future EMS, GOSS is designed for CIM compliance. In addition to this, it supports authentication and authorization capabilities to protect the system from cyber threats. In summary, the contributions of the GOSS middleware are as follows: • A platform to support future EMS development. • A middleware that promotes interoperability between power grid applications. • A distributed architecture that separates data sources from power grid applications. • Support for data exchange with either one-to-one or publisher/subscriber interfaces. • An authentication and authorization scheme for limiting the access to data between utilities.

  10. Branch-based centralized data collection for smart grids using wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Seong-il

    2015-05-21

    A smart grid is one of the most important applications in smart cities. In a smart grid, a smart meter acts as a sensor node in a sensor network, and a central device collects power usage from every smart meter. This paper focuses on a centralized data collection problem of how to collect every power usage from every meter without collisions in an environment in which the time synchronization among smart meters is not guaranteed. To solve the problem, we divide a tree that a sensor network constructs into several branches. A conflict-free query schedule is generated based on the branches. Each power usage is collected according to the schedule. The proposed method has important features: shortening query processing time and avoiding collisions between a query and query responses. We evaluate this method using the ns-2 simulator. The experimental results show that this method can achieve both collision avoidance and fast query processing at the same time. The success rate of data collection at a sink node executing this method is 100%. Its running time is about 35 percent faster than that of the round-robin method, and its memory size is reduced to about 10% of that of the depth-first search method.

  11. Branch-Based Centralized Data Collection for Smart Grids Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Seong-il

    2015-01-01

    A smart grid is one of the most important applications in smart cities. In a smart grid, a smart meter acts as a sensor node in a sensor network, and a central device collects power usage from every smart meter. This paper focuses on a centralized data collection problem of how to collect every power usage from every meter without collisions in an environment in which the time synchronization among smart meters is not guaranteed. To solve the problem, we divide a tree that a sensor network constructs into several branches. A conflict-free query schedule is generated based on the branches. Each power usage is collected according to the schedule. The proposed method has important features: shortening query processing time and avoiding collisions between a query and query responses. We evaluate this method using the ns-2 simulator. The experimental results show that this method can achieve both collision avoidance and fast query processing at the same time. The success rate of data collection at a sink node executing this method is 100%. Its running time is about 35 percent faster than that of the round-robin method, and its memory size is reduced to about 10% of that of the depth-first search method. PMID:26007734

  12. A novel LTE scheduling algorithm for green technology in smart grid.

    PubMed

    Hindia, Mohammad Nour; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Chayon, Muhammad Hasibur Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Smart grid (SG) application is being used nowadays to meet the demand of increasing power consumption. SG application is considered as a perfect solution for combining renewable energy resources and electrical grid by means of creating a bidirectional communication channel between the two systems. In this paper, three SG applications applicable to renewable energy system, namely, distribution automation (DA), distributed energy system-storage (DER) and electrical vehicle (EV), are investigated in order to study their suitability in Long Term Evolution (LTE) network. To compensate the weakness in the existing scheduling algorithms, a novel bandwidth estimation and allocation technique and a new scheduling algorithm are proposed. The technique allocates available network resources based on application's priority, whereas the algorithm makes scheduling decision based on dynamic weighting factors of multi-criteria to satisfy the demands (delay, past average throughput and instantaneous transmission rate) of quality of service. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed mechanism achieves higher throughput, lower delay and lower packet loss rate for DA and DER as well as provide a degree of service for EV. In terms of fairness, the proposed algorithm shows 3%, 7 % and 9% better performance compared to exponential rule (EXP-Rule), modified-largest weighted delay first (M-LWDF) and exponential/PF (EXP/PF), respectively.

  13. A Novel LTE Scheduling Algorithm for Green Technology in Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Hindia, Mohammad Nour; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Chayon, Muhammad Hasibur Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Smart grid (SG) application is being used nowadays to meet the demand of increasing power consumption. SG application is considered as a perfect solution for combining renewable energy resources and electrical grid by means of creating a bidirectional communication channel between the two systems. In this paper, three SG applications applicable to renewable energy system, namely, distribution automation (DA), distributed energy system-storage (DER) and electrical vehicle (EV), are investigated in order to study their suitability in Long Term Evolution (LTE) network. To compensate the weakness in the existing scheduling algorithms, a novel bandwidth estimation and allocation technique and a new scheduling algorithm are proposed. The technique allocates available network resources based on application’s priority, whereas the algorithm makes scheduling decision based on dynamic weighting factors of multi-criteria to satisfy the demands (delay, past average throughput and instantaneous transmission rate) of quality of service. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed mechanism achieves higher throughput, lower delay and lower packet loss rate for DA and DER as well as provide a degree of service for EV. In terms of fairness, the proposed algorithm shows 3%, 7 % and 9% better performance compared to exponential rule (EXP-Rule), modified-largest weighted delay first (M-LWDF) and exponential/PF (EXP/PF), respectively. PMID:25830703

  14. Multiport power router and its impact on future smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kado, Yuichi; Shichijo, Daiki; Wada, Keiji; Iwatsuki, Katsumi

    2016-07-01

    We propose a Y configuration power router as a unit cell to easily construct a power delivery system that can meet many types of user requirements. The Y configuration power router controls the direction and magnitude of power flows between three ports regardless of DC or AC. We constructed a prototype three-way isolated DC/DC converter that is the core unit of the Y configuration power router. The electrical insulation between three ports assures safety and reliability for power network systems. We then tested the operation of power flow control. The experimental results revealed that our methodology based on a governing equation was appropriate to control the power flow of the three-way DC/DC converter. In addition, a distribution network composed of power routers had the ability to easily enable interchanges of electrical power between autonomous microgrid cells. We also explored the requirements for communication between energy routers to achieve dynamic adjustments of energy flows in a coordinated manner and their impact on resilient power grid systems.

  15. Power management and frequency regulation for microgrid and smart grid: A real-time demand response approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmousavi Kani, Seyyed Ali

    Future power systems (known as smart grid) will experience a high penetration level of variable distributed energy resources to bring abundant, affordable, clean, efficient, and reliable electric power to all consumers. However, it might suffer from the uncertain and variable nature of these generations in terms of reliability and especially providing required balancing reserves. In the current power system structure, balancing reserves (provided by spinning and non-spinning power generation units) usually are provided by conventional fossil-fueled power plants. However, such power plants are not the favorite option for the smart grid because of their low efficiency, high amount of emissions, and expensive capital investments on transmission and distribution facilities, to name a few. Providing regulation services in the presence of variable distributed energy resources would be even more difficult for islanded microgrids. The impact and effectiveness of demand response are still not clear at the distribution and transmission levels. In other words, there is no solid research reported in the literature on the evaluation of the impact of DR on power system dynamic performance. In order to address these issues, a real-time demand response approach along with real-time power management (specifically for microgrids) is proposed in this research. The real-time demand response solution is utilized at the transmission (through load-frequency control model) and distribution level (both in the islanded and grid-tied modes) to provide effective and fast regulation services for the stable operation of the power system. Then, multiple real-time power management algorithms for grid-tied and islanded microgrids are proposed to economically and effectively operate microgrids. Extensive dynamic modeling of generation, storage, and load as well as different controller design are considered and developed throughout this research to provide appropriate models and simulation

  16. Optimisation of sensing time and transmission time in cognitive radio-based smart grid networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Fu, Yuli; Yang, Junjie

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive radio (CR)-based smart grid (SG) networks have been widely recognised as emerging communication paradigms in power grids. However, a sufficient spectrum resource and reliability are two major challenges for real-time applications in CR-based SG networks. In this article, we study the traffic data collection problem. Based on the two-stage power pricing model, the power price is associated with the efficient received traffic data in a metre data management system (MDMS). In order to minimise the system power price, a wideband hybrid access strategy is proposed and analysed, to share the spectrum between the SG nodes and CR networks. The sensing time and transmission time are jointly optimised, while both the interference to primary users and the spectrum opportunity loss of secondary users are considered. Two algorithms are proposed to solve the joint optimisation problem. Simulation results show that the proposed joint optimisation algorithms outperform the fixed parameters (sensing time and transmission time) algorithms, and the power cost is reduced efficiently.

  17. Optimum Aggregation and Control of Spatially Distributed Flexible Resources in Smart Grid

    DOE PAGES

    Bhattarai, Bishnu; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Myers, Kurt S.; ...

    2017-03-24

    This paper presents an algorithm to optimally aggregate spatially distributed flexible resources at strategic microgrid/smart-grid locations. The aggregation reduces a distribution network having thousands of nodes to an equivalent network with a few aggregated nodes, thereby enabling distribution system operators (DSOs) to make faster operational decisions. Moreover, the aggregation enables flexibility from small distributed flexible resources to be traded to different power and energy markets. A hierarchical control architecture comprising a combination of centralized and decentralized control approaches is proposed to practically deploy the aggregated flexibility. The proposed method serves as a great operational tool for DSOs to decide themore » exact amount of required flexibilities from different network section(s) for solving grid constraint violations. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through simulation of three operational scenarios in a real low voltage distribution system having high penetrations of electric vehicles and heat pumps. Finally, the simulation results demonstrated that the aggregation helps DSOs not only in taking faster operational decisions, but also in effectively utilizing the available flexibility.« less

  18. Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition Based Signal Analysis and Efficient-Storage in Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lu; Albright, Austin P; Rahimpour, Alireza; Guo, Jiandong; Qi, Hairong; Liu, Yilu

    2017-01-01

    Wide-area-measurement systems (WAMSs) are used in smart grid systems to enable the efficient monitoring of grid dynamics. However, the overwhelming amount of data and the severe contamination from noise often impede the effective and efficient data analysis and storage of WAMS generated measurements. To solve this problem, we propose a novel framework that takes advantage of Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition (MEMD), a fully data-driven approach to analyzing non-stationary signals, dubbed MEMD based Signal Analysis (MSA). The frequency measurements are considered as a linear superposition of different oscillatory components and noise. The low-frequency components, corresponding to the long-term trend and inter-area oscillations, are grouped and compressed by MSA using the mean shift clustering algorithm. Whereas, higher-frequency components, mostly noise and potentially part of high-frequency inter-area oscillations, are analyzed using Hilbert spectral analysis and they are delineated by statistical behavior. By conducting experiments on both synthetic and real-world data, we show that the proposed framework can capture the characteristics, such as trends and inter-area oscillation, while reducing the data storage requirements

  19. Smart vehicular transportation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.Q.; Wilson, C.W.

    1997-05-01

    This work builds upon established Sandia intelligent systems technology to develop a unique approach for the integration of intelligent system control into the US Highway and urban transportation systems. The Sandia developed concept of the COPILOT controller integrates a human driver with computer control to increase human performance while reducing reliance on detailed driver attention. This research extends Sandia expertise in sensor based, real-time control of robotics systems to high speed transportation systems. Knowledge in the form of maps and performance characteristics of vehicles provides the automatic decision making intelligence needed to plan optimum routes, maintain safe driving speeds and distances, avoid collisions, and conserve fuel.

  20. Vehicular applications of smart material systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, Donald J.; Weddle, Craig; Naganathan, Ganapathy; Buckley, Stephen J.

    1998-06-01

    The results of an initial investigation in the use of smart material system for automobiles are presented. For this work, a smart material system is defined as a network of embedded electromechanical devices that are able to sense and affect their environment and autonomously adapt to changes in operating conditions. The development of smart material system for production vehicles has the potential for compact, lightweight subsystems that reduce vehicle weight and improve vehicle performance. This paper presents an overview of current technology and how it contrasts with the development of highly integrated smart material systems. Automotive design requirements are examined to highlight practical constraints associated with integrating smart material technology into automobiles. Representative examples of a embedded sensor-actuator system for camless engines and a smart automotive seat are presented to illustrate the design concepts.

  1. Smart panels with SISO or MIMO velocity feedback control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardonio, Paolo; Elliott, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    This paper summarizes and contrasts the research work that has been carried out on two types of smart panels with ASAC control systems: first, a SISO velocity feedback control system with a sensor that detects the volumetric component of the vibration of the panel and an actuator that exerts a uniform force over the surface of the panel and, second, a MIMO decentralized feedback control system using a grid of sensors that measure the point velocities of the panel and a grid of actuators that generates point excitations in the locations of the sensors. Both theoretical predictions and experimental results are presented for a reference problem of control of sound radiation by a rectangular panel clamped along the perimeter. The simulations carried out for the two systems have shown that the smart panel with the volume velocity sensor and uniform force actuator can in principle give better control performance than the smart panel with the sixteen decentralized control units. However, the practical implementation of the smart panel with the volume velocity sensor and uniform force actuator is limited by stability problems which are instead a minor issue for the panel with 16 decentralized velocity feedback control units.

  2. Decentralized control of units in smart grids for the support of renewable energy supply

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenschein, Michael; Lünsdorf, Ontje; Bremer, Jörg; Tröschel, Martin

    2015-04-15

    Due to the significant environmental impact of power production from fossil fuels and nuclear fission, future energy systems will increasingly rely on distributed and renewable energy sources (RES). The electrical feed-in from photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind energy converters (WEC) varies greatly both over short and long time periods (from minutes to seasons), and (not only) by this effect the supply of electrical power from RES and the demand for electrical power are not per se matching. In addition, with a growing share of generation capacity especially in distribution grids, the top-down paradigm of electricity distribution is gradually replaced by a bottom-up power supply. This altogether leads to new problems regarding the safe and reliable operation of power grids. In order to address these challenges, the notion of Smart Grids has been introduced. The inherent flexibilities, i.e. the set of feasible power schedules, of distributed power units have to be controlled in order to support demand–supply matching as well as stable grid operation. Controllable power units are e.g. combined heat and power plants, power storage systems such as batteries, and flexible power consumers such as heat pumps. By controlling the flexibilities of these units we are particularly able to optimize the local utilization of RES feed-in in a given power grid by integrating both supply and demand management measures with special respect to the electrical infrastructure. In this context, decentralized systems, autonomous agents and the concept of self-organizing systems will become key elements of the ICT based control of power units. In this contribution, we first show how a decentralized load management system for battery charging/discharging of electrical vehicles (EVs) can increase the locally used share of supply from PV systems in a low voltage grid. For a reliable demand side management of large sets of appliances, dynamic clustering of these appliances into uniformly

  3. Smart Vehicle System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahadiya, Pallavi; Gupta, Rajni

    2010-11-01

    An approach to overcome the accidental problem happens in the night, while the driver is drunk or feels sleepy. This system controls the speed of the vehicle at steep turns. It is designed, to provide the information to the driver, whether the next turn is right/left, is there any traffic jam or land sliding in the coming way. It also assists during heavy rains and mist conditions. It may be implemented by using computer or by using a dedicated microcontroller. If we have a group of vehicles connected with the system then we can locate them by using the cameras, at different places. Information regarding any vehicle can be transmitted anywhere using Internet provided at the monitoring system, so as to prevent accidents or provide information during any calamity.

  4. 'Smart' Irrigation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Brodrick, James

    2012-08-31

    The article discusses the ASHRAE Standard 189, with mandatory and optional provisions related to water use efficiency, then focuses on the use of water efficient irrigation systems and the use of recycled water such as air conditioner condensate for landscaping irrigation. Benefits of such practices include both water and energy savings.

  5. Comparative advantage between traditional and smart navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jeongkyu; Kim, Pan-Jun; Kim, Seunghwan

    2013-03-01

    The smart navigation system that refers to real-time traffic data is believed to be superior to traditional navigation systems. To verify this belief, we created an agent-based traffic model and examined the effect of changing market share of the traditional shortest-travel-time algorithm based navigation and the smart navigation system. We tested our model on the grid and actual metropolitan road network structures. The result reveals that the traditional navigation system have better performance than the smart one as the market share of the smart navigation system exceeds a critical value, which is contrary to conventional expectation. We suggest that the superiority inversion between agent groups is strongly related to the traffic weight function form, and is general. We also found that the relationship of market share, traffic flow density and travel time is determined by the combination of congestion avoidance behavior of the smartly navigated agents and the inefficiency of shortest-travel-time based navigated agents. Our results can be interpreted with the minority game and extended to the diverse topics of opinion dynamics. This work was supported by the Original Technology Research Program for Brain Science through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology(No. 2010-0018847).

  6. On Using Cloud Platforms in a Software Architecture for Smart Energy Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Giakkoupis, Michail; Cao, Baohua; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2010-11-30

    Increasing concern about energy consumption is leading to infrastructure that continuously monitors consumer energy usage and allow power utilities to provide dynamic feedback to curtail peak power load. Smart Grid infrastructure being deployed globally needs scalable software platforms to rapidly integrate and analyze information streaming from millions of smart meters, forecast power usage and respond to operational events. Cloud platforms are well suited to support such data and compute intensive, always-on applications. We examine opportunities and challenges of using cloud platforms for such applications in the emerging domain of energy informatics.

  7. VOLTTRON™: An Agent Platform for Integrating Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Haack, Jereme N.; Akyol, Bora A.; Tenney, Nathan D.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Pratt, Richard M.; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2013-12-06

    The VOLTTRON™ platform provides a secure environment for the deployment of intelligent applications in the smart grid. VOLTTRON design is based on the needs of control applications running on small form factor devices, namely security and resource guarantees. Services such as resource discovery, secure agent mobility, and interacting with smart and legacy devices are provided by the platform to ease the development of control applications and accelerate their deployment. VOLTTRON platform has been demonstrated in several different domains that influenced and enhanced its capabilities. This paper will discuss the features of VOLTTRON and highlight its usage to coordinate electric vehicle charging with home energy usage

  8. Smart Grids for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES): a case study for the Amsterdam Zuidas district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaxa-Rozen, Marc; Bloemendal, Martin; Rostampour, Vahab

    2017-04-01

    In the context of increasingly strict requirements for building energy efficiency, Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) systems have emerged as an effective means to reduce energy demand for space heating and cooling in larger buildings. In the Netherlands, over 2000 systems are currently active, which has already raised issues with spatial planning in some areas; current planning schemes may lack the flexibility to properly address variations in ATES operation, which are driven by uncertainties across a broad range of time scales - from daily changes in building energy demand, to decadal trends for climate or groundwater conditions. This work is therefore part of a broader research effort on ATES Smart Grids (ATES-SG), which has focused on more adaptive methods for ATES management and control. In particular, improved control schemes which allow for coordination between neighboring ATES systems may offer more robust performance under uncertainty (Rostampour & Keviczky, 2016). The case studies for the ATES-SG project have so far focused on idealized cases, and on a historical simulation of ATES development in the city center of Utrecht. This poster will present an additional case study for the city center of Amsterdam, which poses several geohydrological challenges for ATES: for instance, variable density flow due to salinity gradients in the local aquifer, and varying depths for ATES systems due to the thickness of the aquifer. To study the effect of these conditions, this case uses an existing 15-layer geohydrological model of the Amsterdam region, cropped to an area of 4500m x 2500m around the Amsterdam Zuidas district. This rapidly developing business district is one of the densest areas of ATES use in Amsterdam, with 32 well doublets and 53 monowells currently registered. The geohydrological model is integrated with GIS data to accurately represent ATES spatial planning; simulated well flows are provided by a model predictive control component. This model is

  9. SACRB-MAC: A High-Capacity MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks in Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhutian; Shi, Zhenguo; Jin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    The Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN) is considered as a viable solution to enhance various aspects of the electric power grid and to realize a smart grid. However, several challenges for CRSNs are generated due to the harsh wireless environment in a smart grid. As a result, throughput and reliability become critical issues. On the other hand, the spectrum aggregation technique is expected to play an important role in CRSNs in a smart grid. By using spectrum aggregation, the throughput of CRSNs can be improved efficiently, so as to address the unique challenges of CRSNs in a smart grid. In this regard, we proposed Spectrum Aggregation Cognitive Receiver-Based MAC (SACRB-MAC), which employs the spectrum aggregation technique to improve the throughput performance of CRSNs in a smart grid. Moreover, SACRB-MAC is a receiver-based MAC protocol, which can provide a good reliability performance. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that SACRB-MAC is a promising solution for CRSNs in a smart grid. PMID:27043573

  10. QoS Differential Scheduling in Cognitive-Radio-Based Smart Grid Networks: An Adaptive Dynamic Programming Approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rong; Zhong, Weifeng; Xie, Shengli; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun

    2016-02-01

    As the next-generation power grid, smart grid will be integrated with a variety of novel communication technologies to support the explosive data traffic and the diverse requirements of quality of service (QoS). Cognitive radio (CR), which has the favorable ability to improve the spectrum utilization, provides an efficient and reliable solution for smart grid communications networks. In this paper, we study the QoS differential scheduling problem in the CR-based smart grid communications networks. The scheduler is responsible for managing the spectrum resources and arranging the data transmissions of smart grid users (SGUs). To guarantee the differential QoS, the SGUs are assigned to have different priorities according to their roles and their current situations in the smart grid. Based on the QoS-aware priority policy, the scheduler adjusts the channels allocation to minimize the transmission delay of SGUs. The entire transmission scheduling problem is formulated as a semi-Markov decision process and solved by the methodology of adaptive dynamic programming. A heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) architecture is established for the scheduling problem. By the online network training, the HDP can learn from the activities of primary users and SGUs, and adjust the scheduling decision to achieve the purpose of transmission delay minimization. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed priority policy ensures the low transmission delay of high priority SGUs. In addition, the emergency data transmission delay is also reduced to a significantly low level, guaranteeing the differential QoS in smart grid.

  11. SACRB-MAC: A High-Capacity MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks in Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhutian; Shi, Zhenguo; Jin, Chunlin

    2016-03-31

    The Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN) is considered as a viable solution to enhance various aspects of the electric power grid and to realize a smart grid. However, several challenges for CRSNs are generated due to the harsh wireless environment in a smart grid. As a result, throughput and reliability become critical issues. On the other hand, the spectrum aggregation technique is expected to play an important role in CRSNs in a smart grid. By using spectrum aggregation, the throughput of CRSNs can be improved efficiently, so as to address the unique challenges of CRSNs in a smart grid. In this regard, we proposed Spectrum Aggregation Cognitive Receiver-Based MAC (SACRB-MAC), which employs the spectrum aggregation technique to improve the throughput performance of CRSNs in a smart grid. Moreover, SACRB-MAC is a receiver-based MAC protocol, which can provide a good reliability performance. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that SACRB-MAC is a promising solution for CRSNs in a smart grid.

  12. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    herein to any specific commercial product, process , or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer , or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute...Control Plot and Smart Plot at Building 1100.................................28 Figure 6. Process Flow Diagram for Operation of the Smart Water...Conservation System.....31 Figure 7. Process Flow Diagram for Operation of the Traditional Irrigation System .............33 Figure 8. Calsense 2000E

  13. Enhancing the cyber-security of smart grids with applications to synchrophasor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Seemita

    In the power grids, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are used as part of the Energy Management System (EMS) for enabling grid monitoring, control and protection. In recent times, with the ongoing installation of thousands of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), system operators are becoming increasingly reliant on PMU-generated synchrophasor measurements for executing wide-area monitoring and real-time control. The availability of PMU data facilitates dynamic state estimation of the system, thus improving the efficiency and resiliency of the grid. Since the SCADA and PMU data are used to make critical control decisions including actuation of physical systems, the timely availability and integrity of this networked data is of paramount importance. Absence or wrong control actions can potentially lead to disruption of operations, monetary loss, damage to equipments or surroundings or even blackout. This has posed new challenges to information security especially in this age of ever-increasing cyber-attacks. In this thesis, potential cyber-attacks on smart grids are presented and effective and implementable schemes are proposed for detecting them. The focus is mainly on three kinds of cyber-attacks and their detection: (i) gray-hole attacks on synchrophasor systems, (ii) PMU data manipulation attacks and (iii) data integrity attacks on SCADA systems. In the case of gray-hole attacks, also known as packet-drop attacks, the adversary may arbitrarily drop PMU data packets as they traverse the network, resulting in unavailability of time-sensitive data for the various critical power system applications. The fundamental challenge is to distinguish packets dropped by the adversary from those that occur naturally due to network congestion.The proposed gray-hole attack detection technique is based on exploiting the inherent timing information in the GPS time-stamped PMU data packets and using the temporal trends of the latencies to classify the cause of

  14. Renewable energy sources, the internet of things and the third industrial revolution: Smart grid and contemporary information and communication technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitsios, Aristidis; Bousakas, Konstantinos; Salame, Takla; Bogno, Bachirou; Papageorgas, Panagiotis; Vokas, Georgios A.; Mauffay, Fabrice; Petit, Pierre; Aillerie, Michel; Charles, Jean-Pierre

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the energy efficiency of a contemporary Smart Grid that is based on Distributed Renewable Energy Sources (DRES) is examined under the scope of the communication systems utilized between the energy loads and the energy sources. What is evident is that the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies that are based on the existing Web infrastructure can be heavily introduced in this direction especially when combined with long range low bandwidth networking technologies, power line communication technologies and optimization methodologies for renewable energy generation. The renewable energy generation optimization will be based on devices embedded in the PV panels and the wind power generators, which will rely on bidirectional communications with local gateways and remote control stations for achieving energy efficiency. Smart meters and DRES combined with IoT communications will be the enabling technologies for the ultimate fusion of Internet technology and renewable energy generation realizing the Energy Internet.

  15. Threshold-Based Random Charging Scheme for Decentralized PEV Charging Operation in a Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ojin; Kim, Pilkee; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Smart grids have been introduced to replace conventional power distribution systems without real time monitoring for accommodating the future market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). When a large number of PEVs require simultaneous battery charging, charging coordination techniques have become one of the most critical factors to optimize the PEV charging performance and the conventional distribution system. In this case, considerable computational complexity of a central controller and exchange of real time information among PEVs may occur. To alleviate these problems, a novel threshold-based random charging (TBRC) operation for a decentralized charging system is proposed. Using PEV charging thresholds and random access rates, the PEVs themselves can participate in the charging requests. As PEVs with a high battery state do not transmit the charging requests to the central controller, the complexity of the central controller decreases due to the reduction of the charging requests. In addition, both the charging threshold and the random access rate are statistically calculated based on the average of supply power of the PEV charging system that do not require a real time update. By using the proposed TBRC with a tolerable PEV charging degradation, a 51% reduction of the PEV charging requests is achieved. PMID:28035963

  16. Threshold-Based Random Charging Scheme for Decentralized PEV Charging Operation in a Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ojin; Kim, Pilkee; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2016-12-26

    Smart grids have been introduced to replace conventional power distribution systems without real time monitoring for accommodating the future market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). When a large number of PEVs require simultaneous battery charging, charging coordination techniques have become one of the most critical factors to optimize the PEV charging performance and the conventional distribution system. In this case, considerable computational complexity of a central controller and exchange of real time information among PEVs may occur. To alleviate these problems, a novel threshold-based random charging (TBRC) operation for a decentralized charging system is proposed. Using PEV charging thresholds and random access rates, the PEVs themselves can participate in the charging requests. As PEVs with a high battery state do not transmit the charging requests to the central controller, the complexity of the central controller decreases due to the reduction of the charging requests. In addition, both the charging threshold and the random access rate are statistically calculated based on the average of supply power of the PEV charging system that do not require a real time update. By using the proposed TBRC with a tolerable PEV charging degradation, a 51% reduction of the PEV charging requests is achieved.

  17. 75 FR 18819 - Second DRAFT NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628, Smart Grid Cyber Security Strategy and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ...The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) seeks comments on the second draft of NISTIR 7628, Smart Grid Cyber Security Strategy and Requirements. This second draft has been updated to address the comments submitted. In addition, the privacy, vulnerability categories, bottom-up analysis, individual logical interface diagrams, and the cyber security strategy sections have all been updated and expanded and the requirements section has been revised to include requirements for the entire Smart Grid. Finally, there are new sections on research and development, standards assessment, and an overall logical functional architecture. This is the second draft of NISTIR 7628; the final version is scheduled to be posted in the spring of 2010.

  18. NB-PLC channel modelling with cyclostationary noise addition & OFDM implementation for smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Togis; Gupta, K. K.

    2016-03-01

    Power line communication (PLC) technology can be a viable solution for the future ubiquitous networks because it provides a cheaper alternative to other wired technology currently being used for communication. In smart grid Power Line Communication (PLC) is used to support communication with low rate on low voltage (LV) distribution network. In this paper, we propose the channel modelling of narrowband (NB) PLC in the frequency range 5 KHz to 500 KHz by using ABCD parameter with cyclostationary noise addition. Behaviour of the channel was studied by the addition of 11KV/230V transformer, by varying load location and load. Bit error rate (BER) Vs signal to noise ratio SNR) was plotted for the proposed model by employing OFDM. Our simulation results based on the proposed channel model show an acceptable performance in terms of bit error rate versus signal to noise ratio, which enables communication required for smart grid applications.

  19. 75 FR 26203 - Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... response to attacks or natural disasters. But the Smart Grid also presents new challenges. In particular..., 2009). \\11\\ Cyber Security: Before the S. Comm. On Energy and Natural Resources, 111th Cong. 1 (May 7... Cyber Security: Strategy and Requirements.\\15\\ This Draft NISTIR was developed by members of the Smart...

  20. OpenADR Open Source Toolkit: Developing Open Source Software for the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    McParland, Charles

    2011-02-01

    Demand response (DR) is becoming an increasingly important part of power grid planning and operation. The advent of the Smart Grid, which mandates its use, further motivates selection and development of suitable software protocols to enable DR functionality. The OpenADR protocol has been developed and is being standardized to serve this goal. We believe that the development of a distributable, open source implementation of OpenADR will benefit this effort and motivate critical evaluation of its capabilities, by the wider community, for providing wide-scale DR services

  1. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Grant Project Technologies: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of energy storage technologies deployed in the SGIG projects.

  2. Ubiquitous Robotic Technology for Smart Manufacturing System.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenshan; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Liyu; Qiu, Qiang; Cao, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    As the manufacturing tasks become more individualized and more flexible, the machines in smart factory are required to do variable tasks collaboratively without reprogramming. This paper for the first time discusses the similarity between smart manufacturing systems and the ubiquitous robotic systems and makes an effort on deploying ubiquitous robotic technology to the smart factory. Specifically, a component based framework is proposed in order to enable the communication and cooperation of the heterogeneous robotic devices. Further, compared to the service robotic domain, the smart manufacturing systems are often in larger size. So a hierarchical planning method was implemented to improve the planning efficiency. A test bed of smart factory is developed. It demonstrates that the proposed framework is suitable for industrial domain, and the hierarchical planning method is able to solve large problems intractable with flat methods.

  3. Ubiquitous Robotic Technology for Smart Manufacturing System

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Liyu; Qiu, Qiang; Cao, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    As the manufacturing tasks become more individualized and more flexible, the machines in smart factory are required to do variable tasks collaboratively without reprogramming. This paper for the first time discusses the similarity between smart manufacturing systems and the ubiquitous robotic systems and makes an effort on deploying ubiquitous robotic technology to the smart factory. Specifically, a component based framework is proposed in order to enable the communication and cooperation of the heterogeneous robotic devices. Further, compared to the service robotic domain, the smart manufacturing systems are often in larger size. So a hierarchical planning method was implemented to improve the planning efficiency. A test bed of smart factory is developed. It demonstrates that the proposed framework is suitable for industrial domain, and the hierarchical planning method is able to solve large problems intractable with flat methods. PMID:27446206

  4. Cooperative Strategy for Optimal Management of Smart Grids by Wavelet RNNs and Cloud Computing.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Christian; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Tina, Giuseppe Marco; Tramontana, Emiliano

    2016-08-01

    Advanced smart grids have several power sources that contribute with their own irregular dynamic to the power production, while load nodes have another dynamic. Several factors have to be considered when using the owned power sources for satisfying the demand, i.e., production rate, battery charge and status, variable cost of externally bought energy, and so on. The objective of this paper is to develop appropriate neural network architectures that automatically and continuously govern power production and dispatch, in order to maximize the overall benefit over a long time. Such a control will improve the fundamental work of a smart grid. For this, status data of several components have to be gathered, and then an estimate of future power production and demand is needed. Hence, the neural network-driven forecasts are apt in this paper for renewable nonprogrammable energy sources. Then, the produced energy as well as the stored one can be supplied to consumers inside a smart grid, by means of digital technology. Among the sought benefits, reduced costs and increasing reliability and transparency are paramount.

  5. End-User Tools Towards AN Efficient Electricity Consumption: the Dynamic Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamel, Fouad; Kist, Alexander A.

    2010-06-01

    Growing uncontrolled electrical demands have caused increased supply requirements. This causes volatile electrical markets and has detrimental unsustainable environmental impacts. The market is presently characterized by regular daily peak demand conditions associated with high electricity prices. A demand-side response system can limit peak demands to an acceptable level. The proposed scheme is based on energy demand and price information which is available online. An online server is used to communicate the information of electricity suppliers to users, who are able to use the information to manage and control their own demand. A configurable, intelligent switching system is used to control local loads during peak events and mange the loads at other times as necessary. The aim is to shift end user loads towards periods where energy demand and therefore also prices are at the lowest. As a result, this will flatten the load profile and avoiding load peeks which are costly for suppliers. The scheme is an endeavour towards achieving a dynamic smart grid demand-side-response environment using information-based communication and computer-controlled switching. Diffusing the scheme shall lead to improved electrical supply services and controlled energy consumption and prices.

  6. Analysis, optimization, and implementation of a hybrid DS/FFH spread-spectrum technique for smart grid communications

    SciTech Connect

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Ma, Xiao; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Teja; Smith, Stephen F.; Djouadi, Seddik M.

    2015-03-12

    In recent years, there has been great interest in using hybrid spread-spectrum (HSS) techniques for commercial applications, particularly in the Smart Grid, in addition to their inherent uses in military communications. This is because HSS can accommodate high data rates with high link integrity, even in the presence of significant multipath effects and interfering signals. A highly useful form of this transmission technique for many types of command, control, and sensing applications is the specific code-related combination of standard direct sequence modulation with fast frequency hopping, denoted hybrid DS/FFH, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time. In this paper, error-probability analyses are performed for a hybrid DS/FFH system over standard Gaussian and fading-type channels, progressively including the effects from wide- and partial-band jamming, multi-user interference, and varying degrees of Rayleigh and Rician fading. In addition, an optimization approach is formulated that minimizes the bit-error performance of a hybrid DS/FFH communication system and solves for the resulting system design parameters. The optimization objective function is non-convex and can be solved by applying the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. We also present our efforts toward exploring the design, implementation, and evaluation of a hybrid DS/FFH radio transceiver using a single FPGA. Numerical and experimental results are presented under widely varying design parameters to demonstrate the adaptability of the waveform for varied harsh smart grid RF signal environments.

  7. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  8. Optimal Energy Management for a Smart Grid using Resource-Aware Utility Maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abegaz, Brook W.; Mahajan, Satish M.; Negeri, Ebisa O.

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous energy prosumers are aggregated to form a smart grid based energy community managed by a central controller which could maximize their collective energy resource utilization. Using the central controller and distributed energy management systems, various mechanisms that harness the power profile of the energy community are developed for optimal, multi-objective energy management. The proposed mechanisms include resource-aware, multi-variable energy utility maximization objectives, namely: (1) maximizing the net green energy utilization, (2) maximizing the prosumers' level of comfortable, high quality power usage, and (3) maximizing the economic dispatch of energy storage units that minimize the net energy cost of the energy community. Moreover, an optimal energy management solution that combines the three objectives has been implemented by developing novel techniques of optimally flexible (un)certainty projection and appliance based pricing decomposition in an IBM ILOG CPLEX studio. A real-world, per-minute data from an energy community consisting of forty prosumers in Amsterdam, Netherlands is used. Results show that each of the proposed mechanisms yields significant increases in the aggregate energy resource utilization and welfare of prosumers as compared to traditional peak-power reduction methods. Furthermore, the multi-objective, resource-aware utility maximization approach leads to an optimal energy equilibrium and provides a sustainable energy management solution as verified by the Lagrangian method. The proposed resource-aware mechanisms could directly benefit emerging energy communities in the world to attain their energy resource utilization targets.

  9. Multicast Delayed Authentication For Streaming Synchrophasor Data in the Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Câmara, Sérgio; Anand, Dhananjay; Pillitteri, Victoria; Carmo, Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Multicast authentication of synchrophasor data is challenging due to the design requirements of Smart Grid monitoring systems such as low security overhead, tolerance of lossy networks, time-criticality and high data rates. In this work, we propose inf -TESLA, Infinite Timed Efficient Stream Loss-tolerant Authentication, a multicast delayed authentication protocol for communication links used to stream synchrophasor data for wide area control of electric power networks. Our approach is based on the authentication protocol TESLA but is augmented to accommodate high frequency transmissions of unbounded length. inf TESLA protocol utilizes the Dual Offset Key Chains mechanism to reduce authentication delay and computational cost associated with key chain commitment. We provide a description of the mechanism using two different modes for disclosing keys and demonstrate its security against a man-in-the-middle attack attempt. We compare our approach against the TESLA protocol in a 2-day simulation scenario, showing a reduction of 15.82% and 47.29% in computational cost, sender and receiver respectively, and a cumulative reduction in the communication overhead. PMID:28736582

  10. Multicast Delayed Authentication For Streaming Synchrophasor Data in the Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Câmara, Sérgio; Anand, Dhananjay; Pillitteri, Victoria; Carmo, Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Multicast authentication of synchrophasor data is challenging due to the design requirements of Smart Grid monitoring systems such as low security overhead, tolerance of lossy networks, time-criticality and high data rates. In this work, we propose inf -TESLA, Infinite Timed Efficient Stream Loss-tolerant Authentication, a multicast delayed authentication protocol for communication links used to stream synchrophasor data for wide area control of electric power networks. Our approach is based on the authentication protocol TESLA but is augmented to accommodate high frequency transmissions of unbounded length. inf TESLA protocol utilizes the Dual Offset Key Chains mechanism to reduce authentication delay and computational cost associated with key chain commitment. We provide a description of the mechanism using two different modes for disclosing keys and demonstrate its security against a man-in-the-middle attack attempt. We compare our approach against the TESLA protocol in a 2-day simulation scenario, showing a reduction of 15.82% and 47.29% in computational cost, sender and receiver respectively, and a cumulative reduction in the communication overhead.

  11. Stealthy false data injection attacks using matrix recovery and independent component analysis in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JiWei, Tian; BuHong, Wang; FuTe, Shang; Shuaiqi, Liu

    2017-05-01

    Exact state estimation is vital important to maintain common operations of smart grids. Existing researches demonstrate that state estimation output could be compromised by malicious attacks. However, to construct the attack vectors, a usual presumption in most works is that the attacker has perfect information regarding the topology and so on even such information is difficult to acquire in practice. Recent research shows that Independent Component Analysis (ICA) can be used for inferring topology information which can be used to originate undetectable attacks and even to alter the price of electricity for the profits of attackers. However, we found that the above ICA-based blind attack tactics is merely feasible in the environment with Gaussian noises. If there are outliers (device malfunction and communication errors), the Bad Data Detector will easily detect the attack. Hence, we propose a robust ICA based blind attack strategy that one can use matrix recovery to circumvent the outlier problem and construct stealthy attack vectors. The proposed attack strategies are tested with IEEE representative 14-bus system. Simulations verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  12. An efficient game for vehicle-to-grid coordination problems in smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xingyu; Ma, Zhongjing

    2015-11-01

    Emerging plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), as distributed energy sources, are promising to provide vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services for power grids, like frequency and voltage regulations, by coordinating their active and reactive power rates. However, due to the autonomy of PEVs, it is challenging how to efficiently schedule the coordination behaviours among these units in a distributed way. In this paper, we formulate the underlying coordination problems as a novel class of Vickrey-Clarke-Groves style (VCG-style) auction games where players, power grids and PEVs do not report a full cost or valuation function but only a multidimensional bid signal: the maximum active and reactive power quantities that a power grid wants and the maximum per unit prices it is willing to pay, and the maximum active and reactive power quantities that a PEV can provide and the minimum per unit prices it asks for. We show the existence of the efficient Nash equilibrium (NE) for the underlying auction games, though there may exist other inefficient NEs. In order to deal with large-scale PEVs, we design games with aggregator players each of which submits bid profiles representing the overall utility for a collection of PEVs, and extend the so-called quantised-progressive second price mechanism to the underlying auction games to implement the efficient NE.

  13. Sparsity-Cognizant Algorithms with Applications to Communications, Signal Processing, and the Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hao

    Sparsity plays an instrumental role in a plethora of scientific fields, including statistical inference for variable selection, parsimonious signal representations, and solving under-determined systems of linear equations - what has led to the ground-breaking result of compressive sampling (CS). This Thesis leverages exciting ideas of sparse signal reconstruction to develop sparsity-cognizant algorithms, and analyze their performance. The vision is to devise tools exploiting the 'right' form of sparsity for the 'right' application domain of multiuser communication systems, array signal processing systems, and the emerging challenges in the smart power grid. Two important power system monitoring tasks are addressed first by capitalizing on the hidden sparsity. To robustify power system state estimation, a sparse outlier model is leveraged to capture the possible corruption in every datum, while the problem nonconvexity due to nonlinear measurements is handled using the semidefinite relaxation technique. Different from existing iterative methods, the proposed algorithm approximates well the global optimum regardless of the initialization. In addition, for enhanced situational awareness, a novel sparse overcomplete representation is introduced to capture (possibly multiple) line outages, and develop real-time algorithms for solving the combinatorially complex identification problem. The proposed algorithms exhibit near-optimal performance while incurring only linear complexity in the number of lines, which makes it possible to quickly bring contingencies to attention. This Thesis also accounts for two basic issues in CS, namely fully-perturbed models and the finite alphabet property. The sparse total least-squares (S-TLS) approach is proposed to furnish CS algorithms for fully-perturbed linear models, leading to statistically optimal and computationally efficient solvers. The S-TLS framework is well motivated for grid-based sensing applications and exhibits higher

  14. Smart crane ammunition transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Killough, S.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of the Smart Crane Ammunition Transfer System (SCATS) project is to demonstrate robotic/telerobotic controls technology for a mobile articulated crane for missile/ munitions handling, delivery, and reload. Missile resupply and reload have been manually intensive operations up to this time. Currently, reload missiles are delivered by truck to the site of the launcher. A crew of four to five personnel reloads the missiles from the truck to the launcher using a hydraulic-powered crane. The missiles are handled carefully for the safety of the missiles and personnel. Numerous steps are required in the reload process and the entire reload operation can take over 1 h for some missile systems. Recent U.S. Army directives require the entire operation to be accomplished in a fraction of that time. Current requirements for the development of SCATS are being based primarily on reloading Patriot missiles. The planned development approach will integrate robotic control and sensor technology with a commercially available hydraulic articulated crane. SCATS is being developed with commercially available hardware as much as possible. Development plans include adding a 3-D.F. end effector with a grapple to the articulating crane; closed-loop position control for the crane and end effector; digital microprocessor control of crane functions; simplified operator interface; and operating modes which include rectilinear movement, obstacle avoidance, and partial automated operation. The planned development will include progressive technology demonstrations. Ultimate plans are for this technology to be transferred and utilized in the military fielding process.

  15. Using Smart Grids to Enhance Use of Energy-Efficiency and Renewable-Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Paget, Maria L.; Secrest, Thomas J.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Orrell, Alice C.; Bloyd, Cary N.

    2011-05-10

    This report addresses the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) organization’s desire to minimize the learning time required to understand the implications of smart-grid concepts so APEC members can advance their thinking in a timely manner and advance strategies regarding smart approaches that can help meet their environmental-sustainability and energy-efficiency policy goals. As significant investments are needed to grow and maintain the electricity infrastructure, consideration needs to be given to how information and communications technologies can be applied to electricity infrastructure decisions that not only meet traditional needs for basic service and reliability, but also provide the flexibility for a changing the mix of generation sources with sensitivity to environmental and societal impacts.

  16. Cost-effective solutions to maintaining smart grid reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Qiu

    As the aging power systems are increasingly working closer to the capacity and thermal limits, maintaining an sufficient reliability has been of great concern to the government agency, utility companies and users. This dissertation focuses on improving the reliability of transmission and distribution systems. Based on the wide area measurements, multiple model algorithms are developed to diagnose transmission line three-phase short to ground faults in the presence of protection misoperations. The multiple model algorithms utilize the electric network dynamics to provide prompt and reliable diagnosis outcomes. Computational complexity of the diagnosis algorithm is reduced by using a two-step heuristic. The multiple model algorithm is incorporated into a hybrid simulation framework, which consist of both continuous state simulation and discrete event simulation, to study the operation of transmission systems. With hybrid simulation, line switching strategy for enhancing the tolerance to protection misoperations is studied based on the concept of security index, which involves the faulted mode probability and stability coverage. Local measurements are used to track the generator state and faulty mode probabilities are calculated in the multiple model algorithms. FACTS devices are considered as controllers for the transmission system. The placement of FACTS devices into power systems is investigated with a criterion of maintaining a prescribed level of control reconfigurability. Control reconfigurability measures the small signal combined controllability and observability of a power system with an additional requirement on fault tolerance. For the distribution systems, a hierarchical framework, including a high level recloser allocation scheme and a low level recloser placement scheme, is presented. The impacts of recloser placement on the reliability indices is analyzed. Evaluation of reliability indices in the placement process is carried out via discrete event

  17. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2013-01-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation’s electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments. PMID:25685516

  18. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments.

  19. Sacramento Municipal Utility District PV and Smart Grid Pilot at Anatolia

    SciTech Connect

    Rawson, Mark; Sanchez, Eddie Paul

    2013-12-30

    Under DE-FOA-0000085 High Penetration Solar Deployment, the U. S. Department of Energy funded agreements with SMUD and Navigant Consulting, SunPower, GridPoint, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the California Energy Commission for this pilot demonstration project. Funding was $5,962,409.00. Cost share of $500,000 was also provided by the California Energy Commission. The project has strategic implications for SMUD, other utilities and the PV and energy-storage industries in business and resource planning, technology deployment and asset management. These implications include: -At this point, no dominant business models have emerged and the industry is open for new ideas. -Demonstrated two business models for using distributed PV and energy storage, and brainstormed several dozen more, each with different pros and cons for SMUD, its customers and the industry. -Energy storage can be used to manage high penetrations of PV and mitigate potential issues such as reverse power flow, voltage control violations, power quality issues, increased wear and tear on utility equipment, and system wide power supply issues. - Smart meters are another tool utilities can use to manage high penetrations of PV. The necessary equipment and protocols exist, and the next step is to determine how to integrate the functionality with utility programs and what level of utility control is required. - Time-of-use rates for the residential customers who hosted energy storage systems did not cause a significant change in energy usage patterns. However, the rates we used were not optimized for PV and energy storage. Opportunities exist for utilities to develop new structures.

  20. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    SMART is an interactive decision analysis and refinement software system that uses evaluation criteria for discrepant conditions to automatically provide and populate a document/procedure with predefined steps necessary to repair a discrepancy safely, effectively, and efficiently. SMART can store the tacit (corporate) knowledge merging the hardware specification requirements with the actual "how to" repair methods, sequences, and required equipment, all within a user-friendly interface. Besides helping organizations retain repair knowledge in streamlined procedures and sequences, SMART can also help them in saving processing time and expense, increasing productivity, improving quality, and adhering more closely to safety and other guidelines. Though SMART was developed for Space Shuttle applications, its interface is easily adaptable to any hardware that can be broken down by component, subcomponent, discrepancy, and repair.

  1. The National Grid Project: A system overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaither, Adam; Gaither, Kelly; Jean, Brian; Remotigue, Michael; Whitmire, John; Soni, Bharat; Thompson, Joe; Dannenhoffer,, John; Weatherill, Nigel

    1995-01-01

    The National Grid Project (NGP) is a comprehensive numerical grid generation software system that is being developed at the National Science Foundation (NSF) Engineering Research Center (ERC) for Computational Field Simulation (CFS) at Mississippi State University (MSU). NGP is supported by a coalition of U.S. industries and federal laboratories. The objective of the NGP is to significantly decrease the amount of time it takes to generate a numerical grid for complex geometries and to increase the quality of these grids to enable computational field simulations for applications in industry. A geometric configuration can be discretized into grids (or meshes) that have two fundamental forms: structured and unstructured. Structured grids are formed by intersecting curvilinear coordinate lines and are composed of quadrilateral (2D) and hexahedral (3D) logically rectangular cells. The connectivity of a structured grid provides for trivial identification of neighboring points by incrementing coordinate indices. Unstructured grids are composed of cells of any shape (commonly triangles, quadrilaterals, tetrahedra and hexahedra), but do not have trivial identification of neighbors by incrementing an index. For unstructured grids, a set of points and an associated connectivity table is generated to define unstructured cell shapes and neighboring points. Hybrid grids are a combination of structured grids and unstructured grids. Chimera (overset) grids are intersecting or overlapping structured grids. The NGP system currently provides a user interface that integrates both 2D and 3D structured and unstructured grid generation, a solid modeling topology data management system, an internal Computer Aided Design (CAD) system based on Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS), a journaling language, and a grid/solution visualization system.

  2. Detecting and mitigating abnormal events in large scale networks: budget constrained placement on smart grids

    SciTech Connect

    Santhi, Nandakishore; Pan, Feng

    2010-10-19

    Several scenarios exist in the modern interconnected world which call for an efficient network interdiction algorithm. Applications are varied, including various monitoring and load shedding applications on large smart energy grids, computer network security, preventing the spread of Internet worms and malware, policing international smuggling networks, and controlling the spread of diseases. In this paper we consider some natural network optimization questions related to the budget constrained interdiction problem over general graphs, specifically focusing on the sensor/switch placement problem for large-scale energy grids. Many of these questions turn out to be computationally hard to tackle. We present a particular form of the interdiction question which is practically relevant and which we show as computationally tractable. A polynomial-time algorithm will be presented for solving this problem.

  3. Demand Side Management in the Smart Grid: Information Processing for the Power Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Alizadeh, Mahnoosh; LI, Xiao; Wang, Zhifang; Scagilone, Anna; Melton, Ronald B.

    2012-09-01

    In this article we discuss the most recent developments in the area of load management, and consider possible interaction schemes of novel architectures with distributed energy resources (DER). In order to handle the challenges faced by tomorrow’s smart grid, which are caused by volatile load and generation profiles (from the large number of plug-in EVs and from renewable integration), the conventional grid operating principle of load-following needs to be changed into load-shaping or generation-following. Demand Side Management will be a most promising and powerful solution to the above challenges. However, many other issues such as load forecasting, pricing structure, market policy, renewable integration interface, and even the AC/DC implementation at the distribution side, need to be taken into the design in order to search for the most effective and applicable solution.

  4. Modeling Electric Vehicle Benefits Connected to Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Mendes, Goncalo; Kloess, Maximillian; Cardoso, Goncalo; Mégel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2011-07-01

    Connecting electric storage technologies to smartgrids will have substantial implications in building energy systems. Local storage will enable demand response. Mobile storage devices in electric vehicles (EVs) are in direct competition with conventional stationary sources at the building. EVs will change the financial as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g. PV, or fuel cells). In order to examine the impact of EVs on building energy costs and CO2 emissions in 2020, a distributed-energy-resources adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program with minimization of annual building energy costs or CO2 emissions. The mixed-integer linear program is applied to a set of 139 different commercial buildings in California and example results as well as the aggregated economic and environmental benefits are reported. The research shows that considering second life of EV batteries might be very beneficial for commercial buildings.

  5. Consensus algorithm in smart grid and communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfagee, Husain Abdulaziz

    On a daily basis, consensus theory attracts more and more researches from different areas of interest, to apply its techniques to solve technical problems in a way that is faster, more reliable, and even more precise than ever before. A power system network is one of those fields that consensus theory employs extensively. The use of the consensus algorithm to solve the Economic Dispatch and Load Restoration Problems is a good example. Instead of a conventional central controller, some researchers have explored an algorithm to solve the above mentioned problems, in a distribution manner, using the consensus algorithm, which is based on calculation methods, i.e., non estimation methods, for updating the information consensus matrix. Starting from this point of solving these types of problems mentioned, specifically, in a distribution fashion, using the consensus algorithm, we have implemented a new advanced consensus algorithm. It is based on the adaptive estimation techniques, such as the Gradient Algorithm and the Recursive Least Square Algorithm, to solve the same problems. This advanced work was tested on different case studies that had formerly been explored, as seen in references 5, 7, and 18. Three and five generators, or agents, with different topologies, correspond to the Economic Dispatch Problem and the IEEE 16-Bus power system corresponds to the Load Restoration Problem. In all the cases we have studied, the results met our expectations with extreme accuracy, and completely matched the results of the previous researchers. There is little question that this research proves the capability and dependability of using the consensus algorithm, based on the estimation methods as the Gradient Algorithm and the Recursive Least Square Algorithm to solve such power problems.

  6. Monitoring of a micro-smart grid: Power consumption data of some machineries of an agro-industrial test site.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Enrico; Biglia, Alessandro; Branciforti, Valeria; Filippi, Marco; Barbero, Silvia; Tecco, Giuseppe; Mollo, Paolo; Molino, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    For the management of a (micro)-smart grid it is important to know the patters of the load profiles and of the generators. In this article the power consumption data obtained through a monitoring activity developed on a micro-smart grid in an agro-industrial test-site are presented. In particular, this reports the synthesis of the monitoring results of 5 loads (5 industrial machineries for crop micronization, corncob crashing and other similar processes). How these data were used within a monitoring and managing scheme of a micro-smart grid can be found in (E. Fabrizio, V. Branciforti, A. Costantino, M. Filippi, S. Barbero, G. Tecco, P. Mollo, A. Molino, 2017) [1]. The data can be useful for other researchers in order to create benchmarks of energy use input appropriate energy demand values in optimization tools for the industrial sector.

  7. Development of a Smart MicroGrid Testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wei-Jen; Wetz, David

    2013-04-25

    Demand for electricity is rapidly increasing thereby applying pressure to expand generation and distribution capacity worldwide. The expansion of traditional services not only imposes burdens on financial resources but also encounters many challenges from community residents who oppose the construction of new power generation plants or transmission facilities in their backyard. From the integrated resource planning point of view, a feasible and economical remedy is, therefore, to utilize existing dispersed generation capacity known as distributed generation (DG) and/or renewable energy resources that may exist in the vicinity of the load centers. The main criteria for selecting the type of fuel source for a DG is its local availability, conversion system technological advancement, impact on the environment, and operating cost. DG’s have existed in the market for many years. Large diesel or gas powered generation sets are used in stand-by mode to power up vital services such as hospitals, financial and commercial compounds, telecommunication centers and industrial premises. Wind turbines, photovoltaic energy sources, and fuel cells are new comers that are now competing in size and efficiency with many standard generating sets. With this in mind, they are being used in many places not only as stand-by units but as the prime source of power particularly when the $/kWhr rate is high[1-5].

  8. Automated Demand Response Approaches to Household Energy Management in a Smart Grid Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adika, Christopher Otieno

    demand response schemes that can be deployed by electricity providers to manage customer loads. This study also addresses the problem of manual demand response by proposing smart systems that will autonomously execute the DR programs without the direct involvement of the customers.

  9. A Run-Time Verification Framework for Smart Grid Applications Implemented on Simulation Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Ciraci, Selim; Sozer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, Bedir

    2013-05-18

    Smart grid applications are implemented and tested with simulation frameworks as the developers usually do not have access to large sensor networks to be used as a test bed. The developers are forced to map the implementation onto these frameworks which results in a deviation between the architecture and the code. On its turn this deviation makes it hard to verify behavioral constraints that are de- scribed at the architectural level. We have developed the ConArch toolset to support the automated verification of architecture-level behavioral constraints. A key feature of ConArch is programmable mapping for architecture to the implementation. Here, developers implement queries to identify the points in the target program that correspond to architectural interactions. ConArch generates run- time observers that monitor the flow of execution between these points and verifies whether this flow conforms to the behavioral constraints. We illustrate how the programmable mappings can be exploited for verifying behavioral constraints of a smart grid appli- cation that is implemented with two simulation frameworks.

  10. Smart electric vehicle (EV) charging and grid integration apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Gadh, Rajit; Mal, Siddhartha; Prabhu, Shivanand; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Sheikh, Omar; Chung, Ching-Yen; He, Lei; Xiao, Bingjun; Shi, Yiyu

    2015-05-05

    An expert system manages a power grid wherein charging stations are connected to the power grid, with electric vehicles connected to the charging stations, whereby the expert system selectively backfills power from connected electric vehicles to the power grid through a grid tie inverter (if present) within the charging stations. In more traditional usage, the expert system allows for electric vehicle charging, coupled with user preferences as to charge time, charge cost, and charging station capabilities, without exceeding the power grid capacity at any point. A robust yet accurate state of charge (SOC) calculation method is also presented, whereby initially an open circuit voltage (OCV) based on sampled battery voltages and currents is calculated, and then the SOC is obtained based on a mapping between a previously measured reference OCV (ROCV) and SOC. The OCV-SOC calculation method accommodates likely any battery type with any current profile.

  11. Mathematical model of an off-grid hybrid solar and wind power generating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Luca, R.; Torre, G.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of an off-grid power generating system, coupled to a storage unit and to household appliances, is described by means of an analytic hydrodynamic analog. Following this analogy, by noticing that the effux rate from a leaking bucket is described, in terms of the liquid content, by Torricelli's formula, we denote as "Torricelli's smart consumer" a user being able to calibrate its energy consumption rate with respect to the energy level in the storage unit as if the hydrodynamic model would strictly apply. Simple solutions to the nonlinear dynamic problem associated to this type of smart consumer are found and generalization to other types of smart consumers are sought.

  12. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS): adding functionality while maintaining reliability and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Ward

    2011-09-01

    An overview of the activities and progress made during the US DOE Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) solicitation, while maintaining reliability and economics is provided. The SEGIS R&D opened pathways for interconnecting PV systems to intelligent utility grids and micro-grids of the future. In addition to new capabilities are "value added" features. The new hardware designs resulted in smaller, less material-intensive products that are being viewed by utilities as enabling dispatchable generation and not just unpredictable negative loads. The technical solutions enable "advanced integrated system" concepts and "smart grid" processes to move forward in a faster and focused manner. The advanced integrated inverters/controllers can now incorporate energy management functionality, intelligent electrical grid support features and a multiplicity of communication technologies. Portals for energy flow and two-way communications have been implemented. SEGIS hardware was developed for the utility grid of today, which was designed for one-way power flow, for intermediate grid scenarios, AND for the grid of tomorrow, which will seamlessly accommodate managed two-way power flows as required by large-scale deployment of solar and other distributed generation. The SEGIS hardware and control developed for today meets existing standards and codes AND provides for future connections to a "smart grid" mode that enables utility control and optimized performance.

  13. Analysis, optimization, and implementation of a hybrid DS/FFH spread-spectrum technique for smart grid communications

    DOE PAGES

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Ma, Xiao; Killough, Stephen M.; ...

    2015-03-12

    In recent years, there has been great interest in using hybrid spread-spectrum (HSS) techniques for commercial applications, particularly in the Smart Grid, in addition to their inherent uses in military communications. This is because HSS can accommodate high data rates with high link integrity, even in the presence of significant multipath effects and interfering signals. A highly useful form of this transmission technique for many types of command, control, and sensing applications is the specific code-related combination of standard direct sequence modulation with fast frequency hopping, denoted hybrid DS/FFH, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time. Inmore » this paper, error-probability analyses are performed for a hybrid DS/FFH system over standard Gaussian and fading-type channels, progressively including the effects from wide- and partial-band jamming, multi-user interference, and varying degrees of Rayleigh and Rician fading. In addition, an optimization approach is formulated that minimizes the bit-error performance of a hybrid DS/FFH communication system and solves for the resulting system design parameters. The optimization objective function is non-convex and can be solved by applying the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. We also present our efforts toward exploring the design, implementation, and evaluation of a hybrid DS/FFH radio transceiver using a single FPGA. Numerical and experimental results are presented under widely varying design parameters to demonstrate the adaptability of the waveform for varied harsh smart grid RF signal environments.« less

  14. A novel approach to smart grid technology for electrical power transmission lines by a self-organized optical network node based on optical bistability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Soichiro; Sasaki, Wakao

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we have demonstrated a new smart grid model by our novel green photonics technology based on selforganized optical networks realizing an autonomous peer-to-peer electric power transmissions without centralized control for the power grid. In this optical network, we introduced an adaptive algorithm for concurrent peer-to-peer communications, by utilizing optical nonlinearity depending only on the signal strength passing through the network. This method is applicable for autonomous organization of functions for ad-hoc electric power distribution systems for the power grid. For this purpose, a simple optical- electrical hybrid bistable circuit composed of such as light emitting diode (LED) and photo diode (PD), has been incorporated into the network node. In the experiment, the method uses a simple, local adaptation of transmission weights at each network node, which enables self-organizing functions of the network, such as self-routing, self-optimization, self-recovery and self-protection. Based on this method, we have demonstrated experimentally a new smart grid model applicable for ad-hoc electric power distribution systems mediated by power comsumptions. In this model, electric power flow is controlled autonomously through the self-organized network nodes associated with individual power facilities having photovoltaics and electric storage devices, etc., and the nodes convert the amounts of electric power supply and/or comsumption to the light intensity values using above mentioned transmission weights at each node. As a consequence, we have experimentally demonstrated a simple shorthaul system model for ad-hoc electric power distribution with a self-organized optical network as a novel green photonics technology application for smart grid.

  15. Smart Homes and Buildings Research at the Energy Systems Integration Facility

    ScienceCinema

    Christensen, Dane; Sparn, Bethany; Hannegan, Bryan

    2016-07-12

    Watch how NREL researchers are using the unique capabilities of the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) to develop technologies that will help the “smart” homes and buildings of the future perform efficiently and communicate effectively with the electricity grid while enhancing occupants' comfort and convenience.

  16. Method and system for managing power grid data

    DOEpatents

    Yin, Jian; Akyol, Bora A.; Gorton, Ian

    2015-11-10

    A system and method of managing time-series data for smart grids is disclosed. Data is collected from a plurality of sensors. An index is modified for a newly created block. A one disk operation per read or write is performed. The one disk operation per read includes accessing and looking up the index to locate the data without movement of an arm of the disk, and obtaining the data. The one disk operation per write includes searching the disk for free space, calculating an offset, modifying the index, and writing the data contiguously into a block of the disk the index points to.

  17. A grid job monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitrescu, Catalin; Nowack, Andreas; Padhi, Sanjay; Sarkar, Subir; /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a web-based Job Monitoring framework for individual Grid sites that allows users to follow in detail their jobs in quasi-real time. The framework consists of several independent components: (a) a set of sensors that run on the site CE and worker nodes and update a database, (b) a simple yet extensible web services framework and (c) an Ajax powered web interface having a look-and-feel and control similar to a desktop application. The monitoring framework supports LSF, Condor and PBS-like batch systems. This is one of the first monitoring systems where an X.509 authenticated web interface can be seamlessly accessed by both end-users and site administrators. While a site administrator has access to all the possible information, a user can only view the jobs for the Virtual Organizations (VO) he/she is a part of. The monitoring framework design supports several possible deployment scenarios. For a site running a supported batch system, the system may be deployed as a whole, or existing site sensors can be adapted and reused with the web services components. A site may even prefer to build the web server independently and choose to use only the Ajax powered web interface. Finally, the system is being used to monitor a glideinWMS instance. This broadens the scope significantly, allowing it to monitor jobs over multiple sites.

  18. A Grid job monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, Catalin; Nowack, Andreas; Padhi, Sanjay; Sarkar, Subir

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a web-based Job Monitoring framework for individual Grid sites that allows users to follow in detail their jobs in quasi-real time. The framework consists of several independent components : (a) a set of sensors that run on the site CE and worker nodes and update a database, (b) a simple yet extensible web services framework and (c) an Ajax powered web interface having a look-and-feel and control similar to a desktop application. The monitoring framework supports LSF, Condor and PBS-like batch systems. This is one of the first monitoring systems where an X.509 authenticated web interface can be seamlessly accessed by both end-users and site administrators. While a site administrator has access to all the possible information, a user can only view the jobs for the Virtual Organizations (VO) he/she is a part of. The monitoring framework design supports several possible deployment scenarios. For a site running a supported batch system, the system may be deployed as a whole, or existing site sensors can be adapted and reused with the web services components. A site may even prefer to build the web server independently and choose to use only the Ajax powered web interface. Finally, the system is being used to monitor a glideinWMS instance. This broadens the scope significantly, allowing it to monitor jobs over multiple sites.

  19. Complex IoT Systems as Enablers for Smart Homes in a Smart City Vision.

    PubMed

    Lynggaard, Per; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2016-11-02

    The world is entering a new era, where Internet-of-Things (IoT), smart homes, and smart cities will play an important role in meeting the so-called big challenges. In the near future, it is foreseen that the majority of the world's population will live their lives in smart homes and in smart cities. To deal with these challenges, to support a sustainable urban development, and to improve the quality of life for citizens, a multi-disciplinary approach is needed. It seems evident, however, that a new, advanced Information and Communications Technology ICT infrastructure is a key feature to realize the "smart" vision. This paper proposes a specific solution in the form of a hierarchical layered ICT based infrastructure that handles ICT issues related to the "big challenges" and seamlessly integrates IoT, smart homes, and smart city structures into one coherent unit. To exemplify benefits of this infrastructure, a complex IoT system has been deployed, simulated and elaborated. This simulation deals with wastewater energy harvesting from smart buildings located in a smart city context. From the simulations, it has been found that the proposed infrastructure is able to harvest between 50% and 75% of the wastewater energy in a smart residential building. By letting the smart city infrastructure coordinate and control the harvest time and duration, it is possible to achieve considerable energy savings in the smart homes, and it is possible to reduce the peak-load for district heating plants.

  20. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end, we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.

  1. Smart Grid Maturity Model: SGMM Model Definition. Version 1.2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    historically depended upon the intelligence and skills of power system operators working with a largely analog technology base. Because electricity...monitoring, and smart relays. GO-1.4 Outage and distribution management systems linked to substation automation are being explored and evaluated (beyond...beyond SCADA implies that the system has two-way communication rather than one-way and intelligence versus just automation. GO-1.5 Safety and security

  2. Systems Engineering Building Advances Power Grid Research

    ScienceCinema

    Virden, Jud; Huang, Henry; Skare, Paul; Dagle, Jeff; Imhoff, Carl; Stoustrup, Jakob; Melton, Ron; Stiles, Dennis; Pratt, Rob

    2016-07-12

    Researchers and industry are now better equipped to tackle the nation’s most pressing energy challenges through PNNL’s new Systems Engineering Building – including challenges in grid modernization, buildings efficiency and renewable energy integration. This lab links real-time grid data, software platforms, specialized laboratories and advanced computing resources for the design and demonstration of new tools to modernize the grid and increase buildings energy efficiency.

  3. Systems Engineering Building Advances Power Grid Research

    SciTech Connect

    Virden, Jud; Huang, Henry; Skare, Paul; Dagle, Jeff; Imhoff, Carl; Stoustrup, Jakob; Melton, Ron; Stiles, Dennis; Pratt, Rob

    2015-08-19

    Researchers and industry are now better equipped to tackle the nation’s most pressing energy challenges through PNNL’s new Systems Engineering Building – including challenges in grid modernization, buildings efficiency and renewable energy integration. This lab links real-time grid data, software platforms, specialized laboratories and advanced computing resources for the design and demonstration of new tools to modernize the grid and increase buildings energy efficiency.

  4. A Multi-layer, Data-driven Advanced Reasoning Tool for Intelligent Data Mining and Analysis for Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Du, Pengwei; Greitzer, Frank L.; Guo, Xinxin; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Pomiak, Yekaterina G.

    2012-12-31

    This paper presents the multi-layer, data-driven advanced reasoning tool (M-DART), a proof-of-principle decision support tool for improved power system operation. M-DART will cross-correlate and examine different data sources to assess anomalies, infer root causes, and anneal data into actionable information. By performing higher-level reasoning “triage” of diverse data sources, M-DART focuses on early detection of emerging power system events and identifies highest priority actions for the human decision maker. M-DART represents a significant advancement over today’s grid monitoring technologies that apply offline analyses to derive model-based guidelines for online real-time operations and use isolated data processing mechanisms focusing on individual data domains. The development of the M-DART will bridge these gaps by reasoning about results obtained from multiple data sources that are enabled by the smart grid infrastructure. This hybrid approach integrates a knowledge base that is trained offline but tuned online to capture model-based relationships while revealing complex causal relationships among data from different domains.

  5. A multi-agent approach to intelligent monitoring in smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallejo, D.; Albusac, J.; Glez-Morcillo, C.; Castro-Schez, J. J.; Jiménez, L.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a scalable multi-agent architecture to give support to smart grids, paying special attention to the intelligent monitoring of distribution substations. The data gathered by multiple sensors are used by software agents that are responsible for monitoring different aspects or events of interest, such as normal voltage values or unbalanced intensity values that can end up blowing fuses and decreasing the quality of service of end consumers. The knowledge bases of these agents have been built by means of a formal model for normality analysis that has been successfully used in other surveillance domains. The architecture facilitates the integration of new agents and can be easily configured and deployed to monitor different environments. The experiments have been conducted over a power distribution network.

  6. EPPRD: An Efficient Privacy-Preserving Power Requirement and Distribution Aggregation Scheme for a Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    A Smart Grid (SG) facilitates bidirectional demand-response communication between individual users and power providers with high computation and communication performance but also brings about the risk of leaking users’ private information. Therefore, improving the individual power requirement and distribution efficiency to ensure communication reliability while preserving user privacy is a new challenge for SG. Based on this issue, we propose an efficient and privacy-preserving power requirement and distribution aggregation scheme (EPPRD) based on a hierarchical communication architecture. In the proposed scheme, an efficient encryption and authentication mechanism is proposed for better fit to each individual demand-response situation. Through extensive analysis and experiment, we demonstrate how the EPPRD resists various security threats and preserves user privacy while satisfying the individual requirement in a semi-honest model; it involves less communication overhead and computation time than the existing competing schemes. PMID:28783122

  7. EPPRD: An Efficient Privacy-Preserving Power Requirement and Distribution Aggregation Scheme for a Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jing

    2017-08-07

    A Smart Grid (SG) facilitates bidirectional demand-response communication between individual users and power providers with high computation and communication performance but also brings about the risk of leaking users' private information. Therefore, improving the individual power requirement and distribution efficiency to ensure communication reliability while preserving user privacy is a new challenge for SG. Based on this issue, we propose an efficient and privacy-preserving power requirement and distribution aggregation scheme (EPPRD) based on a hierarchical communication architecture. In the proposed scheme, an efficient encryption and authentication mechanism is proposed for better fit to each individual demand-response situation. Through extensive analysis and experiment, we demonstrate how the EPPRD resists various security threats and preserves user privacy while satisfying the individual requirement in a semi-honest model; it involves less communication overhead and computation time than the existing competing schemes.

  8. Hierarchical dispatch using two-stage optimisation for electricity markets in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Guoshan; Ma, Kai

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a hierarchical dispatch method for the electricity markets consisting of wholesale markets and retail markets. In the wholesale markets, the generators and the retailers decide the generation and the purchase according to the market-clearing price. In the retail markets, the retailers set the retail price to adjust the electricity consumption of the consumers. Due to the two-way communications in smart grid, the retailers can decide the electricity purchase from the wholesale markets based on the information on electricity usage of consumers in the retail markets. We establish the hierarchical dispatch model for the wholesale markets and the retail markets and develop distributed algorithms to search for the optimal generation, purchase, and consumption. Numerical results show the balance between the supply and demand, the profits of the retailers, and the convergence of the distributed algorithms.

  9. Optimal RTP Based Power Scheduling for Residential Load in Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Hemant I.; Pandya, Vivek J.

    2015-12-01

    To match supply and demand, shifting of load from peak period to off-peak period is one of the effective solutions. Presently flat rate tariff is used in major part of the world. This type of tariff doesn't give incentives to the customers if they use electrical energy during off-peak period. If real time pricing (RTP) tariff is used, consumers can be encouraged to use energy during off-peak period. Due to advancement in information and communication technology, two-way communications is possible between consumers and utility. To implement this technique in smart grid, home energy controller (HEC), smart meters, home area network (HAN) and communication link between consumers and utility are required. HEC interacts automatically by running an algorithm to find optimal energy consumption schedule for each consumer. However, all the consumers are not allowed to shift their load simultaneously during off-peak period to avoid rebound peak condition. Peak to average ratio (PAR) is considered while carrying out minimization problem. Linear programming problem (LPP) method is used for minimization. The simulation results of this work show the effectiveness of the minimization method adopted. The hardware work is in progress and the program based on the method described here will be made to solve real problem.

  10. Towards a Low-Cost Remote Memory Attestation for the Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xinyu; He, Xiaofei; Yu, Wei; Lin, Jie; Li, Rui; Yang, Qingyu; Song, Houbing

    2015-01-01

    In the smart grid, measurement devices may be compromised by adversaries, and their operations could be disrupted by attacks. A number of schemes to efficiently and accurately detect these compromised devices remotely have been proposed. Nonetheless, most of the existing schemes detecting compromised devices depend on the incremental response time in the attestation process, which are sensitive to data transmission delay and lead to high computation and network overhead. To address the issue, in this paper, we propose a low-cost remote memory attestation scheme (LRMA), which can efficiently and accurately detect compromised smart meters considering real-time network delay and achieve low computation and network overhead. In LRMA, the impact of real-time network delay on detecting compromised nodes can be eliminated via investigating the time differences reported from relay nodes. Furthermore, the attestation frequency in LRMA is dynamically adjusted with the compromised probability of each node, and then, the total number of attestations could be reduced while low computation and network overhead can be achieved. Through a combination of extensive theoretical analysis and evaluations, our data demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve better detection capacity and lower computation and network overhead in comparison to existing schemes. PMID:26307998

  11. Towards a Low-Cost Remote Memory Attestation for the Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyu; He, Xiaofei; Yu, Wei; Lin, Jie; Li, Rui; Yang, Qingyu; Song, Houbing

    2015-08-21

    In the smart grid, measurement devices may be compromised by adversaries, and their operations could be disrupted by attacks. A number of schemes to efficiently and accurately detect these compromised devices remotely have been proposed. Nonetheless, most of the existing schemes detecting compromised devices depend on the incremental response time in the attestation process, which are sensitive to data transmission delay and lead to high computation and network overhead. To address the issue, in this paper, we propose a low-cost remote memory attestation scheme (LRMA), which can efficiently and accurately detect compromised smart meters considering real-time network delay and achieve low computation and network overhead. In LRMA, the impact of real-time network delay on detecting compromised nodes can be eliminated via investigating the time differences reported from relay nodes. Furthermore, the attestation frequency in LRMA is dynamically adjusted with the compromised probability of each node, and then, the total number of attestations could be reduced while low computation and network overhead can be achieved. Through a combination of extensive theoretical analysis and evaluations, our data demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve better detection capacity and lower computation and network overhead in comparison to existing schemes.

  12. Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Integration Requirements Study. Providing Guidance on Technology Development and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, T.; Meintz, A.; Hardy, K.; Chen, B.; Bohn, T.; Smart, J.; Scoffield, D.; Hovsapian, R.; Saxena, S.; MacDonald, J.; Kiliccote, S.; Kahl, K.; Pratt, R.

    2015-05-28

    The report begins with a discussion of the current state of the energy and transportation systems, followed by a summary of some VGI scenarios and opportunities. The current efforts to create foundational interface standards are detailed, and the requirements for enabling PEVs as a grid resource are presented. Existing technology demonstrations that include vehicle to grid functions are summarized. The report also includes a data-based discussion on the magnitude and variability of PEVs as a grid resource, followed by an overview of existing simulation tools that vi This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. can be used to explore the expansion of VGI to larger grid functions that might offer system and customer value. The document concludes with a summary of the requirements and potential action items that would support greater adoption of VGI.

  13. Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue on 'Advanced Signal Processing Techniques and Telecommunications Network Infrastructures for Smart Grid Analysis, Monitoring, and Management'

    DOE PAGES

    Bracale, Antonio; Barros, Julio; Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara; ...

    2015-06-10

    Electrical power systems are undergoing a radical change in structure, components, and operational paradigms, and are progressively approaching the new concept of smart grids (SGs). Future power distribution systems will be characterized by the simultaneous presence of various distributed resources, such as renewable energy systems (i.e., photovoltaic power plant and wind farms), storage systems, and controllable/non-controllable loads. Control and optimization architectures will enable network-wide coordination of these grid components in order to improve system efficiency and reliability and to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, the energy flows will be bidirectional from large power plants to end users andmore » vice versa; producers and consumers will continuously interact at different voltage levels to determine in advance the requests of loads and to adapt the production and demand for electricity flexibly and efficiently also taking into account the presence of storage systems.« less

  14. Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue on 'Advanced Signal Processing Techniques and Telecommunications Network Infrastructures for Smart Grid Analysis, Monitoring, and Management'

    SciTech Connect

    Bracale, Antonio; Barros, Julio; Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara; Chang, Gary; Dall'Anese, Emiliano

    2015-06-10

    Electrical power systems are undergoing a radical change in structure, components, and operational paradigms, and are progressively approaching the new concept of smart grids (SGs). Future power distribution systems will be characterized by the simultaneous presence of various distributed resources, such as renewable energy systems (i.e., photovoltaic power plant and wind farms), storage systems, and controllable/non-controllable loads. Control and optimization architectures will enable network-wide coordination of these grid components in order to improve system efficiency and reliability and to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, the energy flows will be bidirectional from large power plants to end users and vice versa; producers and consumers will continuously interact at different voltage levels to determine in advance the requests of loads and to adapt the production and demand for electricity flexibly and efficiently also taking into account the presence of storage systems.

  15. Reliability Assessment of SMART Reactor Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Won Young, Yun; Choong Heui, Jeong; Seong Hun, Kim; Sang Yong, Lee

    2006-07-01

    Component failure rates and integrated system reliability of the SMART reactor protection system were analyzed. The analysis tool of the study was the RELEX 7 computer program developed by Relex Software Corporation. The RELEX software is a PC based computer program which includes the part stress analysis models and the RBD analysis model to calculate component and system reliability. The component failure rate data for the study was selected from the MIL-HDBK-217F. (authors)

  16. Synchrophasor Sensing and Processing based Smart Grid Security Assessment for Renewable Energy Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Huaiguang

    With the evolution of energy and power systems, the emerging Smart Grid (SG) is mainly featured by distributed renewable energy generations, demand-response control and huge amount of heterogeneous data sources. Widely distributed synchrophasor sensors, such as phasor measurement units (PMUs) and fault disturbance recorders (FDRs), can record multi-modal signals, for power system situational awareness and renewable energy integration. An effective and economical approach is proposed for wide-area security assessment. This approach is based on wavelet analysis for detecting and locating the short-term and long-term faults in SG, using voltage signals collected by distributed synchrophasor sensors. A data-driven approach for fault detection, identification and location is proposed and studied. This approach is based on matching pursuit decomposition (MPD) using Gaussian atom dictionary, hidden Markov model (HMM) of real-time frequency and voltage variation features, and fault contour maps generated by machine learning algorithms in SG systems. In addition, considering the economic issues, the placement optimization of distributed synchrophasor sensors is studied to reduce the number of the sensors without affecting the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Furthermore, because the natural hazards is a critical issue for power system security, this approach is studied under different types of faults caused by natural hazards. A fast steady-state approach is proposed for voltage security of power systems with a wind power plant connected. The impedance matrix can be calculated by the voltage and current information collected by the PMUs. Based on the impedance matrix, locations in SG can be identified, where cause the greatest impact on the voltage at the wind power plants point of interconnection. Furthermore, because this dynamic voltage security assessment method relies on time-domain simulations of faults at different locations, the proposed approach

  17. Hybrid optimal online-overnight charging coordination of plug-in electric vehicles in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoum, Mohammad A. S.; Nabavi, Seyed M. H.

    2016-10-01

    Optimal coordinated charging of plugged-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in smart grid (SG) can be beneficial for both consumers and utilities. This paper proposes a hybrid optimal online followed by overnight charging coordination of high and low priority PEVs using discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) that considers the benefits of both consumers and electric utilities. Objective functions are online minimization of total cost (associated with grid losses and energy generation) and overnight valley filling through minimization of the total load levels. The constraints include substation transformer loading, node voltage regulations and the requested final battery state of charge levels (SOCreq). The main challenge is optimal selection of the overnight starting time (toptimal-overnight,start) to guarantee charging of all vehicle batteries to the SOCreq levels before the requested plug-out times (treq) which is done by simultaneously solving the online and overnight objective functions. The online-overnight PEV coordination approach is implemented on a 449-node SG; results are compared for uncoordinated and coordinated battery charging as well as a modified strategy using cost minimizations for both online and overnight coordination. The impact of toptimal-overnight,start on performance of the proposed PEV coordination is investigated.

  18. SAM-GRID: A system utilizing grid middleware and SAM to enable full function grid computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovski, Andrew; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Lueking, Lee; Terekhov, Dane Skow Igor; Walker, Rodney

    2003-06-01

    We present a grid system, which is in development, employing an architecture comprising the primary functional components of job handling, data handling, and monitoring and information services. Each component is built using existing Grid middleware. The Job handling utilizes Condor Match Making Services to broker job submissions, Condor-G to schedule, and GRAM to submit and execute jobs on remote compute resources. The information services provide strategic information of the system including a file replica catalogue, compute availability, and network data-throughput rate predictions, which are made available to the other components. Data handling services are provided by SAM, the data management system built for the Dzero experiment at Fermilab, to optimize data delivery, and cache and replicate data as needed at the processing nodes. The SAM-Grid system is being built to provide experiments in progress at Fermilab the ability to utilize worldwide computing resources to process enormous quantities of data for complex physics analyses.

  19. Designing and Securing an Event Processing System for Smart Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zang

    2011-01-01

    Smart spaces, or smart environments, represent the next evolutionary development in buildings, banking, homes, hospitals, transportation systems, industries, cities, and government automation. By riding the tide of sensor and event processing technologies, the smart environment captures and processes information about its surroundings as well as…

  20. Designing and Securing an Event Processing System for Smart Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zang

    2011-01-01

    Smart spaces, or smart environments, represent the next evolutionary development in buildings, banking, homes, hospitals, transportation systems, industries, cities, and government automation. By riding the tide of sensor and event processing technologies, the smart environment captures and processes information about its surroundings as well as…

  1. Radix Representation of Triangular Discrete Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben, J.; Li, Y. L.; Wang, R.

    2016-11-01

    Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGSs) are spatial references that use a hierarchical tessellation of cells to partition and address the entire globe. It provides an organizational structure that permits fast integration between multiple sources of large and variable geospatial data. Although many endeavors have been done to describe certain discrete grid systems, there still lack of a uniform mathematical framework for them. This paper simplifies the planar class I aperture 4 triangular discrete grid system into a hierarchical lattice model which is proved to be a radix system in the complex number plane. Mathematical properties of the radix system reveal the discrete grid system is equivalent to the set of complex numbers with special form. The conclusion provides a potential way to build a uniform mathematical framework of DGGS and can be used to design efficient encoding and spatial operation scheme for DGGS.

  2. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite

    SciTech Connect

    Daryoush Allaei

    2006-09-08

    components include smart motor and associated electronics, resonators, and supporting structural elements. It is shown that the smart motors have an acceptable life and performance. Resonator (or motion amplifier) designs are selected based on the final system requirement and vibration characteristics. All the components for a fully functional prototype are fabricated and have been tested.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT; ULTRASONIC AQUEOUS CLEANING SYSTEMS, SMART SONIC CORPORATION, SMART SONIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a product of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Technoloy Verification (ETV) Program and is focused on the Smart Sonics Ultrasonic Aqueous Cleaning Systems. The verification is based on three main objectives. (1) The Smart Sonic Aqueous Cleaning Systems, Model 2000 and...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT; ULTRASONIC AQUEOUS CLEANING SYSTEMS, SMART SONIC CORPORATION, SMART SONIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a product of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Technoloy Verification (ETV) Program and is focused on the Smart Sonics Ultrasonic Aqueous Cleaning Systems. The verification is based on three main objectives. (1) The Smart Sonic Aqueous Cleaning Systems, Model 2000 and...

  5. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek

    2010-01-01

    SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

  6. The advanced magnetovision system for Smart application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleta, Jerzy; Wiewiórski, Przemyslaw; Lewandowski, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    An original method, measurement devices and software tool for examination of magneto-mechanical phenomena in wide range of SMART applications is proposed. In many Hi-End market constructions it is necessary to carry out examinations of mechanical and magnetic properties simultaneously. Technological processes of fabrication of modern materials (for example cutting, premagnetisation and prestress) and advanced concept of using SMART structures involves the design of next generation system for optimization of electric and magnetic field distribution. The original fast and higher than million point static resolution scanner with mulitsensor probes has been constructed to measure full components of the magnetic field intensity vector H, and to visualize them into end user acceptable variant. The scanner has also the capability to acquire electric potentials on surface to work with magneto-piezo devices. Advanced electronic subsystems have been applied for processing of results in the Magscaner Vison System and the corresponding software - Maglab has been also evaluated. The Dipole Contour Method (DCM) is provided for modeling different states between magnetic and electric coupled materials and to visually explain the information of the experimental data. Dedicated software collaborating with industrial parametric systems CAD. Measurement technique consists of acquiring a cloud of points similarly as in tomography, 3D visualisation. The actually carried verification of abilities of 3D digitizer will enable inspection of SMART actuators with the cylindrical form, pellets with miniature sizes designed for oscillations dampers in various construction, for example in vehicle industry.

  7. Multi-agent coordination algorithms for control of distributed energy resources in smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, Andres

    Sustainable energy is a top-priority for researchers these days, since electricity and transportation are pillars of modern society. Integration of clean energy technologies such as wind, solar, and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), is a major engineering challenge in operation and management of power systems. This is due to the uncertain nature of renewable energy technologies and the large amount of extra load that PEVs would add to the power grid. Given the networked structure of a power system, multi-agent control and optimization strategies are natural approaches to address the various problems of interest for the safe and reliable operation of the power grid. The distributed computation in multi-agent algorithms addresses three problems at the same time: i) it allows for the handling of problems with millions of variables that a single processor cannot compute, ii) it allows certain independence and privacy to electricity customers by not requiring any usage information, and iii) it is robust to localized failures in the communication network, being able to solve problems by simply neglecting the failing section of the system. We propose various algorithms to coordinate storage, generation, and demand resources in a power grid using multi-agent computation and decentralized decision making. First, we introduce a hierarchical vehicle-one-grid (V1G) algorithm for coordination of PEVs under usage constraints, where energy only flows from the grid in to the batteries of PEVs. We then present a hierarchical vehicle-to-grid (V2G) algorithm for PEV coordination that takes into consideration line capacity constraints in the distribution grid, and where energy flows both ways, from the grid in to the batteries, and from the batteries to the grid. Next, we develop a greedy-like hierarchical algorithm for management of demand response events with on/off loads. Finally, we introduce distributed algorithms for the optimal control of distributed energy resources, i

  8. Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    A grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. Operating costs of a PV power system are low compared to conventional power technologies. This method can displace the highest-cost electricity during times of peak demand in most climatic regions, and thus reduce grid loading. Net metering is often used, in which independent power producers such as PV power systems are connected to the utility grid via the customers main service panels and meters. When the PV power system is generating more power than required at that location, the excess power is provided to the utility grid. The customer pays the net of the power purchased when the on-site power demand is greater than the onsite power production, and the excess power is returned to the utility grid. Power generated by the PV system reduces utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical, with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics have been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy equal to the modern PV panels. The grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed, and this served to validate the basic principles developed, and the theoretical work that was performed. Grid-tied PV power systems are reliable, maintenance- free, long-life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community. Of particular value are the analytical tools and capabilities that have been successfully developed. Performance predictions can be made confidently for grid-tied PV systems of various scales. The work was done under the NASA Hybrid Power Management (HPM

  9. Making the Grid "Smart" Through "Smart" Microgrids: Real-Time Power Management of Microgrids with Multiple Distributed Generation Sources Using Intelligent Control

    SciTech Connect

    Nehrir, M. Hashem

    2016-10-20

    In this Project we collaborated with two DOE National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Lab (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBL). Dr. Hammerstrom of PNNL initially supported our project and was on the graduate committee of one of the Ph.D. students (graduated in 2014) who was supported by this project. He is also a committee member of a current graduate student of the PI who was supported by this project in the last two years (August 2014-July 2016). The graduate student is now supported be the Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) Department at Montana State University (MSU). Dr. Chris Marney of LBL provided actual load data, and the software WEBOPT developed at LBL for microgrid (MG) design for our project. NEC-Labs America, a private industry, also supported our project, providing expert support and modest financial support. We also used the software “HOMER,” originally developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the most recent version made available to us by HOMER Energy, Inc., for MG (hybrid energy system) unit sizing. We compared the findings from WebOpt and HOMER and designed appropriately sized hybrid systems for our case studies. The objective of the project was to investigate real-time power management strategies for MGs using intelligent control, considering maximum feasible energy sustainability, reliability and efficiency while, minimizing cost and undesired environmental impact (emissions). Through analytic and simulation studies, we evaluated the suitability of several heuristic and artificial-intelligence (AI)-based optimization techniques that had potential for real-time MG power management, including genetic algorithms (GA), ant colony optimization (ACO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and multi-agent systems (MAS), which is based on the negotiation of smart software-based agents. We found that PSO and MAS, in particular, distributed MAS, were more efficient and better suited for our work. We

  10. Information security threats and an easy-to-implement attack detection framework for wireless sensor network-based smart grid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuna, G.; Örenbaş, H.; Daş, R.; Kogias, D.; Baykara, M.; K, K.

    2016-03-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) when combined with various energy harvesting solutions managing to prolong the overall lifetime of the system and enhanced capabilities of the communication protocols used by modern sensor nodes are efficiently used in are efficiently used in Smart Grid (SG), an evolutionary system for the modernization of existing power grids. However, wireless communication technology brings various types of security threats. In this study, firstly the use of WSNs for SG applications is presented. Second, the security related issues and challenges as well as the security threats are presented. In addition, proposed security mechanisms for WSN-based SG applications are discussed. Finally, an easy- to-implement and simple attack detection framework to prevent attacks directed to sink and gateway nodes with web interfaces is proposed and its efficiency is proved using a case study.

  11. Spatial-Temporal Synchrophasor Data Characterization and Analytics in Smart Grid Fault Detection, Identification, and Impact Causal Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Huaiguang; Dai, Xiaoxiao; Gao, David Wenzhong; Zhang, Jun Jason; Zhang, Yingchen; Muljadi, Eduard

    2016-09-01

    An approach of big data characterization for smart grids (SGs) and its applications in fault detection, identification, and causal impact analysis is proposed in this paper, which aims to provide substantial data volume reduction while keeping comprehensive information from synchrophasor measurements in spatial and temporal domains. Especially, based on secondary voltage control (SVC) and local SG observation algorithm, a two-layer dynamic optimal synchrophasor measurement devices selection algorithm (OSMDSA) is proposed to determine SVC zones, their corresponding pilot buses, and the optimal synchrophasor measurement devices. Combining the two-layer dynamic OSMDSA and matching pursuit decomposition, the synchrophasor data is completely characterized in the spatial-temporal domain. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed characterization approach, SG situational awareness is investigated based on hidden Markov model based fault detection and identification using the spatial-temporal characteristics generated from the reduced data. To identify the major impact buses, the weighted Granger causality for SGs is proposed to investigate the causal relationship of buses during system disturbance. The IEEE 39-bus system and IEEE 118-bus system are employed to validate and evaluate the proposed approach.

  12. Real-Time Smart Grids Control for Preventing Cascading Failures and Blackout using Neural Networks: Experimental Approach for N-1-1 Contingency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrabian, Sina; Belkacemi, Rabie; Babalola, Adeniyi A.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel intelligent control is proposed based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to mitigate cascading failure (CF) and prevent blackout in smart grid systems after N-1-1 contingency condition in real-time. The fundamental contribution of this research is to deploy the machine learning concept for preventing blackout at early stages of its occurrence and to make smart grids more resilient, reliable, and robust. The proposed method provides the best action selection strategy for adaptive adjustment of generators' output power through frequency control. This method is able to relieve congestion of transmission lines and prevent consecutive transmission line outage after N-1-1 contingency condition. The proposed ANN-based control approach is tested on an experimental 100 kW test system developed by the authors to test intelligent systems. Additionally, the proposed approach is validated on the large-scale IEEE 118-bus power system by simulation studies. Experimental results show that the ANN approach is very promising and provides accurate and robust control by preventing blackout. The technique is compared to a heuristic multi-agent system (MAS) approach based on communication interchanges. The ANN approach showed more accurate and robust response than the MAS algorithm.

  13. An Interoperable GridWorkflow Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirto, Maria; Passante, Marco; Epicoco, Italo; Aloisio, Giovanni

    A WorkFlow Management System (WFMS) is a fundamental componentenabling to integrate data, applications and a wide set of project resources. Although a number of scientific WFMSs support this task, many analysis pipelines require large-scale Grid computing infrastructures to cope with their high compute and storage requirements. Such scientific workflows complicate the management of resources, especially in cases where they are offered by several resource providers, managed by different Grid middleware, since resource access must be synchronised in advance to allow reliable workflow execution. Different types of Grid middleware such as gLite, Unicore and Globus are used around the world and may cause interoperability issues if applications involve two or more of them. In this paperwe describe the ProGenGrid Workflow Management System which the main goal is to provide interoperability among these different grid middleware when executing workflows. It allows the composition of batch; parameter sweep and MPI based jobs. The ProGenGrid engine implements the logic to execute such jobs by using a standard language OGF compliant such as JSDL that has been extended for this purpose. Currently, we are testing our system on some bioinformatics case studies in the International Laboratory of Bioinformatics (LIBI) Project (www.libi.it).

  14. Complex IoT Systems as Enablers for Smart Homes in a Smart City Vision

    PubMed Central

    Lynggaard, Per; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2016-01-01

    The world is entering a new era, where Internet-of-Things (IoT), smart homes, and smart cities will play an important role in meeting the so-called big challenges. In the near future, it is foreseen that the majority of the world’s population will live their lives in smart homes and in smart cities. To deal with these challenges, to support a sustainable urban development, and to improve the quality of life for citizens, a multi-disciplinary approach is needed. It seems evident, however, that a new, advanced Information and Communications Technology ICT infrastructure is a key feature to realize the “smart” vision. This paper proposes a specific solution in the form of a hierarchical layered ICT based infrastructure that handles ICT issues related to the “big challenges” and seamlessly integrates IoT, smart homes, and smart city structures into one coherent unit. To exemplify benefits of this infrastructure, a complex IoT system has been deployed, simulated and elaborated. This simulation deals with wastewater energy harvesting from smart buildings located in a smart city context. From the simulations, it has been found that the proposed infrastructure is able to harvest between 50% and 75% of the wastewater energy in a smart residential building. By letting the smart city infrastructure coordinate and control the harvest time and duration, it is possible to achieve considerable energy savings in the smart homes, and it is possible to reduce the peak-load for district heating plants. PMID:27827851

  15. Summary of Utility Studies: Smart Grid Investment Grant Consumer Behavior Study Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Todd, Annika; Goldamn, Charles A.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program is working with a subset of the 99 SGIG projects to assess the response of mass market consumers (i.e., residential and small commercial customers) to time-varying electricity prices (referred to herein as time-based rate programs) in conjunction with the deployment of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and associated technologies. The effort provides an opportunity to advance the electric industry’s understanding of consumer behavior. In addition, DOE is attempting to apply a consistent study design and analysis framework for the SGIG Consumer Behavior Studies (CBS). The aim is to collect information across the studies on variables and impacts that have been defined in a consistent manner. This will enable Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL), as DOE’s principal investigator for these Consumer Behavior Studies, to leverage the data from the individual studies and conduct comparative analysis of the impacts of AMI, time-based rate programs and enabling technologies that facilitate customer control, automation and information/feedback on customer energy usage.

  16. Distributed Fault Detection Based on Credibility and Cooperation for WSNs in Smart Grids

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Sujie; Guo, Shaoyong; Qiu, Xuesong

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasingly important role in monitoring and data collection that sensors play, accurate and timely fault detection is a key issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in smart grids. This paper presents a novel distributed fault detection mechanism for WSNs based on credibility and cooperation. Firstly, a reasonable credibility model of a sensor is established to identify any suspicious status of the sensor according to its own temporal data correlation. Based on the credibility model, the suspicious sensor is then chosen to launch fault diagnosis requests. Secondly, the sending time of fault diagnosis request is discussed to avoid the transmission overhead brought about by unnecessary diagnosis requests and improve the efficiency of fault detection based on neighbor cooperation. The diagnosis reply of a neighbor sensor is analyzed according to its own status. Finally, to further improve the accuracy of fault detection, the diagnosis results of neighbors are divided into several classifications to judge the fault status of the sensors which launch the fault diagnosis requests. Simulation results show that this novel mechanism can achieve high fault detection ratio with a small number of fault diagnoses and low data congestion probability. PMID:28452925

  17. Distributed Fault Detection Based on Credibility and Cooperation for WSNs in Smart Grids.

    PubMed

    Shao, Sujie; Guo, Shaoyong; Qiu, Xuesong

    2017-04-28

    Due to the increasingly important role in monitoring and data collection that sensors play, accurate and timely fault detection is a key issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in smart grids. This paper presents a novel distributed fault detection mechanism for WSNs based on credibility and cooperation. Firstly, a reasonable credibility model of a sensor is established to identify any suspicious status of the sensor according to its own temporal data correlation. Based on the credibility model, the suspicious sensor is then chosen to launch fault diagnosis requests. Secondly, the sending time of fault diagnosis request is discussed to avoid the transmission overhead brought about by unnecessary diagnosis requests and improve the efficiency of fault detection based on neighbor cooperation. The diagnosis reply of a neighbor sensor is analyzed according to its own status. Finally, to further improve the accuracy of fault detection, the diagnosis results of neighbors are divided into several classifications to judge the fault status of the sensors which launch the fault diagnosis requests. Simulation results show that this novel mechanism can achieve high fault detection ratio with a small number of fault diagnoses and low data congestion probability.

  18. On the Probabilistic Deployment of Smart Grid Networks in TV White Space.

    PubMed

    Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara; Caleffi, Marcello; Paura, Luigi

    2016-05-10

    To accommodate the rapidly increasing demand for wireless broadband communications in Smart Grid (SG) networks, research efforts are currently ongoing to enable the SG networks to utilize the TV spectrum according to the Cognitive Radio paradigm. To this aim, in this letter, we develop an analytical framework for the optimal deployment of multiple closely-located SG Neighborhood Area Networks (NANs) concurrently using the same TV spectrum. The objective is to derive the optimal values for both the number of NANs and their coverage. More specifically, regarding the number of NANs, we derive the optimal closed-form expression, i.e., the closed-form expression that assures the deployment of the maximum number of NANs in the considered region satisfying a given collision constraint on the transmissions of the NANs. Regarding the NAN coverage, we derive the optimal closed-form expression, i.e., the closed-form expression of the NAN transmission range that assures the maximum coverage of each NAN in the considered region satisfying the given collision constraint. All the theoretical results are derived by adopting a stochastic approach. Finally, numerical results validate the theoretical analysis.

  19. On the Probabilistic Deployment of Smart Grid Networks in TV White Space

    PubMed Central

    Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara; Caleffi, Marcello; Paura, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    To accommodate the rapidly increasing demand for wireless broadband communications in Smart Grid (SG) networks, research efforts are currently ongoing to enable the SG networks to utilize the TV spectrum according to the Cognitive Radio paradigm. To this aim, in this letter, we develop an analytical framework for the optimal deployment of multiple closely-located SG Neighborhood Area Networks (NANs) concurrently using the same TV spectrum. The objective is to derive the optimal values for both the number of NANs and their coverage. More specifically, regarding the number of NANs, we derive the optimal closed-form expression, i.e., the closed-form expression that assures the deployment of the maximum number of NANs in the considered region satisfying a given collision constraint on the transmissions of the NANs. Regarding the NAN coverage, we derive the optimal closed-form expression, i.e., the closed-form expression of the NAN transmission range that assures the maximum coverage of each NAN in the considered region satisfying the given collision constraint. All the theoretical results are derived by adopting a stochastic approach. Finally, numerical results validate the theoretical analysis. PMID:27171099

  20. Smart actuators: Valve Health Monitor (VHM) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotti, José; Lucena, Angel; Burns, Bradley

    2006-05-01

    The health of electromechanical systems (actuators) and specifically of solenoid valves is a primary concern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). These systems control the storage and transfer of such commodities as liquid hydrogen. The potential for the failure of electromechanical systems to delay a scheduled launch or to cause personnel injury requires continual maintenance and testing of the systems to ensure their readiness. Monitoring devices need to be incorporated into these systems to verify the health and performance of the valves during real operating conditions. It is very advantageous to detect degradation and/or potential problems before they happen. This feature will not only provide safer operation but save the cost of unnecessary maintenance and inspections. Solenoid valve status indicators are often based upon microswitches that work by physically contacting a valve's poppet assembly. All of the physical contact and movement tends to be very unreliable and is subject to wear and tear of the assemblies, friction, breakage of the switch, and even leakage of the fluid (gas or liquid) in the valve. The NASA Instrumentation Branch, together with its contractor, ASRC Aerospace, has developed a solenoid valve smart current signature sensor that monitors valves in a noninvasive mode. The smart system monitors specific electrical parameters of the solenoid valves and detects and predicts the performance and health of the device. The information obtained from the electrical signatures of these valves points to not only electrical components failures in the valves but also mechanical failures and/or degradations.

  1. Smart nanogrid systems for disaster mitigation employing deployable renewable energy harvesting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.; Menendez, Michael; Minei, Brenden; Wong, Kyle; Gabrick, Caton; Thornton, Matsu; Ghorbani, Reza

    2016-04-01

    This paper explains the development of smart nanogrid systems for disaster mitigation employing deployable renewable energy harvesting, or Deployable Disaster Devices (D3), where wind turbines and solar panels are developed in modular forms, which can be tied together depending on the needed power. The D3 packages/units can be used: (1) as a standalone unit in case of a disaster where no source of power is available, (2) for a remote location such as a farm, camp site, or desert (3) for a community that converts energy usage from fossil fuels to Renewable Energy (RE) sources, or (4) in a community system as a source of renewable energy for grid-tie or off-grid operation. In Smart D3 system, the power is generated (1) for consumer energy needs, (2) charge storage devices (such as batteries, capacitors, etc.), (3) to deliver power to the network when the smart D3 nano-grid is tied to the network and when the power generation is larger than consumption and storage recharge needs, or (4) to draw power from the network when the smart D3 nano-grid is tied to the network and when the power generation is less than consumption and storage recharge needs. The power generated by the Smart D3 systems are routed through high efficiency inverters for proper DC to DC or DC to AC for final use or grid-tie operations. The power delivery from the D3 is 220v AC, 110v AC and 12v DC provide proper power for most electrical and electronic devices worldwide. The power supply is scalable, using a modular system that connects multiple units together. This are facilitated through devices such as external Input-Output or I/O ports. The size of the system can be scaled depending on how many accessory units are connected to the I/O ports on the primary unit. The primary unit is the brain of the system allowing for smart switching and load balancing of power input and smart regulation of power output. The Smart D3 systems are protected by ruggedized weather proof casings allowing for operation

  2. A three pronged approach to community scale renewable energy: Education, incremental capital investment and smart grid technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeo, Anna E.

    ; first hand exposure to technology, providing a sense of independence that strengthens communities, and developing a direct link between the energy people use and how that energy is created. Ultimately community scale renewable energy projects help bolster support for large-scale projects that are imperative to making real and lasting progress towards reducing emissions. Finally, technological advancements in renewable energy generation, energy storage and distribution systems, are imperative to replacing fossil fuels. The shift towards a higher penetration of renewable energy into the electric grid can be realized with the implementation of a more sophisticated smart grid, which uses dynamic demand response to alter demand to follow generation. Introduction of tidal power can serve to further stabilize the grid and reduce the amount of storage required. This work describes an interdisciplinary approach to addressing issues of energy, and thereby climate, through substantive efforts in three concentrations; energy literacy education, community driven renewable energy projects based on incremental capital investment and a smart, micro grid encompassing tidal power and other renewable energy source.

  3. Smart dynamic system design: an integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Mike J.; Skelton, Robert T.

    1994-05-01

    A dynamic system with satisfactory performance generally consists of a mechanical system (the plant) and a controller that drives the mechanical system to meet certain performance requirements. Traditionally the control engineer designs the controller only after the plant design is completed. This two-step approach to plant and controller design does not provide the best system design because the dynamics of the plant and the dynamics of the controller often oppose each other. This paper presents an application of the iterative system equivalent optimal mix algorithm to perform a smart design of a nine-member truss substructure and its accompanying controller. The objective of the design algorithm is to reduce the amount of energy used by the controller to maintain control performance, subject to the structure design constraints. Two unique features of the algorithm are that each iteration of the design problem is stated as a convex quadratic programming problem, and the control effort monotonically converges to its final value.

  4. The Effect of Plug-in Electric Vehicles on Harmonic Analysis of Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarian, T.; Joorabian, M.; Reza, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of plug-in electric vehicles is studied on the smart distribution system with a standard IEEE 30-bus network. At first, harmonic power flow analysis is performed by Newton-Raphson method and by considering distorted substation voltage. Afterward, proper sizes of capacitors is selected by cuckoo optimization algorithm to reduce the power losses and cost and by imposing acceptable limit for total harmonic distortion and RMS voltages. It is proposed that the impact of generated current harmonics by electric vehicle battery chargers should be factored into overall load control strategies of smart appliances. This study is generalized to the different hours of a day by using daily load curve, and then optimum time for charging of electric vehicles batteries in the parking lots are determined by cuckoo optimization algorithm. The results show that injecting harmonic currents of plug-in electric vehicles causes a drop in the voltage profile and increases power loss. Moreover, charging the vehicle batteries has more impact on increasing the power losses rather than the harmonic currents effect. Also, the findings showed that the current harmonics has a great influence on increasing of THD. Finally, optimum working times of all parking lots was obtained for the utilization cost reduction.

  5. Biomorphic systems based on smart actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Kennedy, Brett A.

    1998-06-01

    A comparative review of actuation technologies is presented. Innovative mechanisms ideas that combine high force and deflection are described. Flexible smart actuators are obtained utilizing real time adaptive biomorphic controls. Such flexible smart actuators constitute an enabling technology for a variety of biomorphic systems ranging from small, agile biomorphic explorers that emulate biological mobility to much larger humanoid or anthropomorphic system. Due to their potential ability to explore difficult, hard- to-find terrain, biomorphic explorers are promising for a variety for application in law enforcement, hazardous environment inspection, toxic waster avoidance/elimination, law enforcement, hazardous environment inspection, toxic waste avoidance/elimination, law enforcement, and search/rescue in disaster areas such as earthquake sites. The control mechanisms used for the actuators are based on biological principles. For example, a neurally inspired controller provides a mapping between the current state of the robot and a target internal configuration. Innovative fordable advanced mobility mechanisms in combination with multipod techniques inspired by peristalsis in an earthworm robot are described. Flexible actuators offer the versatility of both shape control as well as mobility attribute control.

  6. BAE systems' SMART chip camera FPA development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Louise; Auroux, Pierre-Alain; McManus, Don; Harris, D. Ahmasi; Blackwell, Richard J.; Bryant, Jeffrey; Boal, Mihir; Binkerd, Evan

    2015-06-01

    BAE Systems' SMART (Stacked Modular Architecture High-Resolution Thermal) Chip Camera provides very compact long-wave infrared (LWIR) solutions by combining a 12 μm wafer-level packaged focal plane array (FPA) with multichip-stack, application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and wafer-level optics. The key innovations that enabled this include a single-layer 12 μm pixel bolometer design and robust fabrication process, as well as wafer-level lid packaging. We used advanced packaging techniques to achieve an extremely small-form-factor camera, with a complete volume of 2.9 cm3 and a thermal core weight of 5.1g. The SMART Chip Camera supports up to 60 Hz frame rates, and requires less than 500 mW of power. This work has been supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Low Cost Thermal Imager - Manufacturing (LCTI-M) program, and BAE Systems' internal research and development investment.

  7. Optimal wavelet denoising for smart biomonitor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messer, Sheila R.; Agzarian, John; Abbott, Derek

    2001-03-01

    Future smart-systems promise many benefits for biomedical diagnostics. The ideal is for simple portable systems that display and interpret information from smart integrated probes or MEMS-based devices. In this paper, we will discuss a step towards this vision with a heart bio-monitor case study. An electronic stethoscope is used to record heart sounds and the problem of extracting noise from the signal is addressed via the use of wavelets and averaging. In our example of heartbeat analysis, phonocardiograms (PCGs) have many advantages in that they may be replayed and analysed for spectral and frequency information. Many sources of noise may pollute a PCG including foetal breath sounds if the subject is pregnant, lung and breath sounds, environmental noise and noise from contact between the recording device and the skin. Wavelets can be employed to denoise the PCG. The signal is decomposed by a discrete wavelet transform. Due to the efficient decomposition of heart signals, their wavelet coefficients tend to be much larger than those due to noise. Thus, coefficients below a certain level are regarded as noise and are thresholded out. The signal can then be reconstructed without significant loss of information in the signal. The questions that this study attempts to answer are which wavelet families, levels of decomposition, and thresholding techniques best remove the noise in a PCG. The use of averaging in combination with wavelet denoising is also addressed. Possible applications of the Hilbert Transform to heart sound analysis are discussed.

  8. Vulnerability of the large-scale future smart electric power grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiruzzaman, A. B. M.; Pota, H. R.; Akter, Most. Nahida

    2014-11-01

    The changing power flow pattern of the power system, with inclusion of large-scale renewable energy sources in the distribution side of the network, has been modeled by complex network framework based bidirectional graph. The bidirectional graph accommodates the reverse power flowing back from the distribution side to the grid in the model as a reverse edge connecting two nodes. The capacity of the reverse edge is equal to the capacity of the existing edge between the nodes in the forward directional nominal graph. Increased path in the combined model, built to facilitate grid reliability and efficiency, may serve as a bottleneck in practice with removal of certain percentage of nodes or edges. The effect of removal of critical elements has been analyzed in terms of increased path length, connectivity loss, load loss, and number of overloaded lines.

  9. Auxetics in smart systems and structures 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Fabrizio; Ruzzene, Massimo; Alderson, Andrew; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W.

    2013-08-01

    Auxetics comes from the Greek (auxetikos), meaning 'that which tends to expand'. The term indicates specifically materials and structures with negative Poisson's ratio (NPR). Although the Poisson's ratio is a mechanical property, auxetic solids have shown evidence of multifunctional characteristics, ranging from increased stiffness and indentation resistance, to energy absorption under static and dynamic loading, soundproofing qualities and dielectric tangent loss. NPR solids and structures have also been used in the past as material platforms to build smart structural systems. Auxetics in general can be considered also a part of the 'negative materials' field, which includes solids and structures exhibiting negative thermal expansion, negative stiffness and compressibility. All these unusual deformation characteristics have the potential to provide a significant contribution to the area of smart materials systems and structures. In this focus issue, we are pleased to present some examples of novel multifunctional behaviors provided by auxetic, negative stiffness and negative compressibility in smart systems and structures. Particular emphasis has been placed upon the multidisciplinary and systems approach provided by auxetics and negative materials, also with examples applied to energy absorption, vibration damping, structural health monitoring and active deployment aspects. Three papers in this focus issue provide significant new clarifications on the role of auxeticity in the mechanical behavior of shear deformation in plates (Lim), stress wave characteristics (Lim again), and thermoelastic damping (Maruszewski et al ). Kochmann and Venturini describe the performance of auxetic composites in finite strain elasticity. New types of microstructures for auxetic systems are depicted for the first time in three works by Ge et al , Zhang et al , and Kim and co-workers. Tubular auxetic structures and their mechanical performance are also analyzed by Karnessis and

  10. Grid generation using differential systems techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. F.; Mastin, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    The errors in approximating the derivatives of a function by traditional central differences at grid points of a curvilinear coordinate system were examined. The implications concerning the accuracy of the numerical solution of a partial differential equation are explained by considering several numerical examples. Although this study only considers the two dimensional case, the techniques and implications are equally valid for three dimensional grids. An interesting feature of the error analysis is its simplicity. Most of the results follow by merely working with the truncation terms of some power series expansion. These series expansions also give rise to higher order difference approximations which can significantly reduce error when the grid spacing changes rapidly, as might be the case in problems with shock waves or thin boundary layers.

  11. 5th Annual Earth System Grid Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the Fifth Annual Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Face-to-Face (F2F) Conference was to present the most recent information on the state of ESGF’s software stack and to identify and address the data needs and gaps for the climate and weather communities that ESGF supports.

  12. Recovery Act - LADWP Smart Grid Regional Demonstration Program Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Sungly; Vohra, Surendra; Abdelshehid, Emil; Szucs, David G.

    2016-09-30

    LADWP collaborated with its project partners to carry out this demonstration in the designated areas to include two university campuses – the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and the University of Southern California (USC) – surrounding neighborhoods, City of Los Angeles facilities, and LADWP power system test labs. The last project partner, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) was responsible for the cyber security aspects of the project. The program’s use cases provided insightful information to understand triggers for customers, distributors, and generators to adapt their behavior which aid in reducing system demands and costs, increasing energy efficiency, and increasing grid reliability.

  13. Yin-Yang-Zhong grid: An overset grid system for a sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Hiroshi; Kageyama, Akira

    2016-01-01

    For numerical simulations inside a sphere, an overset grid system, Yin-Yang-Zhong grid, is proposed. The Yin-Yang-Zhong grid is an extension of the Yin-Yang grid, which is widely used in various simulations in spherical shell geometry. The Yin-Yang grid is itself an overset grid system with two component grids, and a new component grid called Zhong is placed at the center of the Yin-Yang grid. The Zhong grid component is constructed on Cartesian coordinates. Parallelization is intrinsically embedded in the Yin-Yang-Zhong grid system because the Zhong grid points are defined with cuboid blocks that are decomposed domains for parallelization. The computational efficiency approaches the optimum as the process number increases. Quantitative test simulations are performed for a diffusion problem in a sphere with the Yin-Yang-Zhong grid. Correct decay rates are obtained by the simulations. Two other tests in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in a sphere are also performed. One is an MHD dynamo simulation, and the other is an MHD relaxation simulation in a sphere.

  14. Smart grids: A paradigm shift on energy generation and distribution with the emergence of a new energy management business model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, Jesus Alvaro

    An energy and environmental crisis will emerge throughout the world if we continue with our current practices of generation and distribution of electricity. A possible solution to this problem is based on the Smart grid concept, which is heavily influenced by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Although the electricity industry is mostly regulated, there are global models used as roadmaps for Smart Grids' implementation focusing on technologies and the basic generation-distribution-transmission model. This project aims to further enhance a business model for a future global deployment. It takes into consideration the many factors interacting in this energy provision process, based on the diffusion of technologies and literature surveys on the available documents in the Internet as well as peer-reviewed publications. Tariffs and regulations, distributed energy generation, integration of service providers, consumers becoming producers, self-healing devices, and many other elements are shifting this industry into a major change towards liberalization and deregulation of this sector, which has been heavily protected by the government due to the importance of electricity for consumers. We propose an Energy Management Business Model composed by four basic elements: Supply Chain, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Stakeholders Response, and the resulting Green Efficient Energy (GEE). We support the developed model based on the literature survey, we support it with the diffusion analysis of these elements, and support the overall model with two surveys: one for peers and professionals, and other for experts in the field, based on the Smart Grid Carnegie Melon Maturity Model (CMU SEI SGMM). The contribution of this model is a simple path to follow for entities that want to achieve environmental friendly energy with the involvement of technology and all stakeholders.

  15. Residential Customer Enrollment in Time-based Rate and Enabling Technology Programs: Smart Grid Investment Grant Consumer Behavior Study Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, Annika; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program is working with a subset of the 99 SGIG projects undertaking Consumer Behavior Studies (CBS), which examine the response of mass market consumers (i.e., residential and small commercial customers) to time-varying electricity prices (referred to herein as time-based rate programs) in conjunction with the deployment of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and associated technologies. The effort presents an opportunity to advance the electric industry’s understanding of consumer behavior.

  16. Methods for Procuring Power System Flexibility, Greening the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Jessica; Cochran, Jaquelin; Miller, Mackay

    2015-05-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, introduces administrative and incentive-based mechanisms for procuring a cost-effective mix of flexibility sources.

  17. Integrated geometry and grid generation system for complex configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akdag, Vedat; Wulf, Armin

    1992-01-01

    A grid generation system was developed that enables grid generation for complex configurations. The system called ICEM/CFD is described and its role in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications is presented. The capabilities of the system include full computer aided design (CAD), grid generation on the actual CAD geometry definition using robust surface projection algorithms, interfacing easily with known CAD packages through common file formats for geometry transfer, grid quality evaluation of the volume grid, coupling boundary condition set-up for block faces with grid topology generation, multi-block grid generation with or without point continuity and block to block interface requirement, and generating grid files directly compatible with known flow solvers. The interactive and integrated approach to the problem of computational grid generation not only substantially reduces manpower time but also increases the flexibility of later grid modifications and enhancements which is required in an environment where CFD is integrated into a product design cycle.

  18. Trust in smart systems: sharing driving goals and giving information to increase trustworthiness and acceptability of smart systems in cars.

    PubMed

    Verberne, Frank M F; Ham, Jaap; Midden, Cees J H

    2012-10-01

    We examine whether trust in smart systems is generated analogously to trust in humans and whether the automation level of smart systems affects trustworthiness and acceptability of those systems. Trust is an important factor when considering acceptability of automation technology. As shared goals lead to social trust, and intelligent machines tend to be treated like humans, the authors expected that shared driving goals would also lead to increased trustworthiness and acceptability of adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. In an experiment, participants (N = 57) were presented with descriptions of three ACCs with different automation levels that were described as systems that either shared their driving goals or did not. Trustworthiness and acceptability of all the ACCs were measured. ACCs sharing the driving goals of the user were more trustworthy and acceptable than were ACCs not sharing the driving goals of the user. Furthermore, ACCs that took over driving tasks while providing information were more trustworthy and acceptable than were ACCs that took over driving tasks without providing information. Trustworthiness mediated the effects of both driving goals and automation level on acceptability of ACCs. As when trusting other humans, trusting smart systems depends on those systems sharing the user's goals. Furthermore, based on their description, smart systems that take over tasks are judged more trustworthy and acceptable when they also provide information. For optimal acceptability of smart systems, goals of the user should be shared by the smart systems, and smart systems should provide information to their user.

  19. AMIE Camera System on board SMART-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josset, J. L.; Beauvivre, S.; Amie Team

    The Advanced Moon micro-Imager Experiment AMIE on board ESA SMART-1 the first European mission to the Moon launched on 27th September 2003 is an imaging system with scientific technical and public outreach oriented objectives The science objectives are to image the Lunar Poles permanent shadow areas ice deposit eternal light crater rims ancient Lunar Non-mare volcanism local spectro-photometry and physical state of the lunar sur-face and to map high latitudes regions south mainly at far side South Pole Aitken basin The technical objectives are to perform a laserlink experiment detec-tion of laser beam emitted by ESA Tenerife ground station flight demonstration of new technologies and on-board autonomy navigation The public outreach and educational objectives are to promote planetary exploration We present the AMIE instrument and perfomances with respect to the first results

  20. Smart grid initialization reduces the computational complexity of multi-objective image registration based on a dual-dynamic transformation model to account for large anatomical differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosman, Peter A. N.; Alderliesten, Tanja

    2016-03-01

    We recently demonstrated the strong potential of using dual-dynamic transformation models when tackling deformable image registration problems involving large anatomical differences. Dual-dynamic transformation models employ two moving grids instead of the common single moving grid for the target image (and single fixed grid for the source image). We previously employed powerful optimization algorithms to make use of the additional flexibility offered by a dual-dynamic transformation model with good results, directly obtaining insight into the trade-off between important registration objectives as a result of taking a multi-objective approach to optimization. However, optimization has so far been initialized using two regular grids, which still leaves a great potential of dual-dynamic transformation models untapped: a-priori grid alignment with image structures/areas that are expected to deform more. This allows (far) less grid points to be used, compared to using a sufficiently refined regular grid, leading to (far) more efficient optimization, or, equivalently, more accurate results using the same number of grid points. We study the implications of exploiting this potential by experimenting with two new smart grid initialization procedures: one manual expert-based and one automated image-feature-based. We consider a CT test case with large differences in bladder volume with and without a multi-resolution scheme and find a substantial benefit of using smart grid initialization.

  1. Dynamic Energy Management System for a Smart Microgrid.

    PubMed

    Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar; Sharma, Ratnesh K; Gautam, Prajwal K; Ahmadi, Afshin

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the development of an intelligent dynamic energy management system (I-DEMS) for a smart microgrid. An evolutionary adaptive dynamic programming and reinforcement learning framework is introduced for evolving the I-DEMS online. The I-DEMS is an optimal or near-optimal DEMS capable of performing grid-connected and islanded microgrid operations. The primary sources of energy are sustainable, green, and environmentally friendly renewable energy systems (RESs), e.g., wind and solar; however, these forms of energy are uncertain and nondispatchable. Backup battery energy storage and thermal generation were used to overcome these challenges. Using the I-DEMS to schedule dispatches allowed the RESs and energy storage devices to be utilized to their maximum in order to supply the critical load at all times. Based on the microgrid's system states, the I-DEMS generates energy dispatch control signals, while a forward-looking network evaluates the dispatched control signals over time. Typical results are presented for varying generation and load profiles, and the performance of I-DEMS is compared with that of a decision tree approach-based DEMS (D-DEMS). The robust performance of the I-DEMS was illustrated by examining microgrid operations under different battery energy storage conditions.

  2. Optimizing Resource Utilization in Grid Batch Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellrich, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    On Grid sites, the requirements of the computing tasks (jobs) to computing, storage, and network resources differ widely. For instance Monte Carlo production jobs are almost purely CPU-bound, whereas physics analysis jobs demand high data rates. In order to optimize the utilization of the compute node resources, jobs must be distributed intelligently over the nodes. Although the job resource requirements cannot be deduced directly, jobs are mapped to POSIX UID/GID according to the VO, VOMS group and role information contained in the VOMS proxy. The UID/GID then allows to distinguish jobs, if users are using VOMS proxies as planned by the VO management, e.g. ‘role=production’ for Monte Carlo jobs. It is possible to setup and configure batch systems (queuing system and scheduler) at Grid sites based on these considerations although scaling limits were observed with the scheduler MAUI. In tests these limitations could be overcome with a home-made scheduler.

  3. Nanotechnologies for efficient solar and wind energy harvesting and storage in smart-grid and transportation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay

    2011-01-01

    A wide array of nanotechnologies can be used to improve the efficiency of energy harvest from the Sun and the wind, and the efficiency of energy storage in secondary batteries, for use in smart grid and transportation applications. High-quality nanostructured copper indium gallium selenide thin films help produce high-efficiency photovoltaic modules. Various nanotechnologies are utilized to improve the efficiency of power-generating wind turbines, including nanoparticle-containing lubricants that reduce the friction generated from the rotation of the turbines, nanocoatings for de-icing and self-cleaning technologies, and advanced nanocomposites that provide lighter and stronger wind blades. A number of nanotechnologies can be beneficial in advanced high-capacity secondary batteries for smart grid and transportation applications. These technologies include nanostructured carbon-nanotube-based and silicon-nanowire-based electrodes with ultrahigh surface areas, as well as nanoengineered β-alumina ceramic electrolytes with well-controlled grains, grain boundaries, and crystal orientation, which are used to boost the energy and power densities in secondary batteries such as lithium-ion, sodium-sulfur, flow, and dry cell batteries.

  4. Nanotechnologies for efficient solar and wind energy harvesting and storage in smart-grid and transportation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay

    2011-01-01

    A wide array of nanotechnologies can be used to improve the efficiency of energy harvest from the Sun and the wind, and the efficiency of energy storage in secondary batteries, for use in smart grid and transportation applications. High-quality nanostructured copper indium gallium selenide thin films help produce high-efficiency photovoltaic modules. Various nanotechnologies are utilized to improve the efficiency of power-generating wind turbines, including nanoparticle-containing lubricants that reduce the friction generated from the rotation of the turbines, nanocoatings for de-icing and self-cleaning technologies, and advanced nanocomposites that provide lighter and stronger wind blades. A number of nanotechnologies can be beneficial in advanced high-capacity secondary batteries for smart grid and transportation applications. These technologies include nanostructured carbon-nanotube-based and silicon-nanowire-based electrodes with ultrahigh surface areas, as well as nanoengineered β-alumina ceramic electrolytes with well-controlled grains, grain boundaries, and crystal orientation, which are used to boost the energy and power densities in secondary batteries such as lithium-ion, sodium-sulfur, flow, and dry cell batteries.

  5. Creative Visualization in Discrete Global Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemad, K.; Samavati, F.; Sherlock, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Discrete Global Grid System (DGGS) is a disruptive method for developing digital representation of the Earth. In DGGS, to create a multiresolution representation of the Earth, the surface of the Earth is discretized to a hierarchy of indexed (mostly) regular cells. In this talk, an overview of research projects and recent achievements from my group related to DGGS is provided. This covers example works in large geospatial data processing and streaming, as well as creative visualization and interaction in the context of DGGS.

  6. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Mui, Ming

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  7. Smart camera system for aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Francisco J.; White, Janis; Abernathy, Michael F.

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a new approach to situation awareness that combines video sensor technology and synthetic vision technology in a unique fashion to create a hybrid vision system. Our implementation of the technology, called "SmartCam3D" (SCS3D) has been flight tested by both NASA and the Department of Defense with excellent results. This paper details its development and flight test results. Windshields and windows add considerable weight and risk to vehicle design, and because of this, many future vehicles will employ a windowless cockpit design. This windowless cockpit design philosophy prompted us to look at what would be required to develop a system that provides crewmembers and operations personnel an appropriate level of situation awareness. The system created to date provides a real-time 3D perspective display that can be used during all-weather and visibility conditions. While the advantages of a synthetic vision only system are considerable, the major disadvantage of such a system is that it displays the synthetic scene created using "static" data acquired by an aircraft or satellite at some point in the past. The SCS3D system we are presenting in this paper is a hybrid synthetic vision system that fuses live video stream information with a computer generated synthetic scene. This hybrid system can display a dynamic, real-time scene of a region of interest, enriched by information from a synthetic environment system, see figure 1. The SCS3D system has been flight tested on several X-38 flight tests performed over the last several years and on an ARMY Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) ground control station earlier this year. Additional testing using an assortment of UAV ground control stations and UAV simulators from the Army and Air Force will be conducted later this year. We are also identifying other NASA programs that would benefit from the use of this technology.

  8. Smart Camera System for Aircraft and Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Frank; White, Janis; Abernathy, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to situation awareness that combines video sensor technology and synthetic vision technology in a unique fashion to create a hybrid vision system. Our implementation of the technology, called "SmartCam3D" (SC3D) has been flight tested by both NASA and the Department of Defense with excellent results. This paper details its development and flight test results. Windshields and windows add considerable weight and risk to vehicle design, and because of this, many future vehicles will employ a windowless cockpit design. This windowless cockpit design philosophy prompted us to look at what would be required to develop a system that provides crewmembers and awareness. The system created to date provides a real-time operations personnel an appropriate level of situation 3D perspective display that can be used during all-weather and visibility conditions. While the advantages of a synthetic vision only system are considerable, the major disadvantage of such a system is that it displays the synthetic scene created using "static" data acquired by an aircraft or satellite at some point in the past. The SC3D system we are presenting in this paper is a hybrid synthetic vision system that fuses live video stream information with a computer generated synthetic scene. This hybrid system can display a dynamic, real-time scene of a region of interest, enriched by information from a synthetic environment system, see figure 1. The SC3D system has been flight tested on several X-38 flight tests performed over the last several years and on an ARMY Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) ground control station earlier this year. Additional testing using an assortment of UAV ground control stations and UAV simulators from the Army and Air Force will be conducted later this year.

  9. 2016 Earth System Grid Federation Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2016-05-10

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) experienced a major setback in June 2015, when it experienced a security incident that brought all systems to a halt for more than half a year. However, federation developers and management committee members turned the incident into an opportunity to dramatically upgrade the system security and functionality and to develop planning and policy documents to guide ESGF evolution and success. Moreover, despite the incident, ESGF developer working teams continue to make strong and significant progress on various enhancement projects that will help ensure ESGF can meet the needs of the climate community in the coming years.

  10. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daryoush Allaei; Asim Syed Mohammed; David Tarnowski

    2003-03-01

    Initial assessment of vibrating fine screens at a taconite processing plant in Mountain Iron Minnesota showed undesirable high noise and vibration levels. This has resulted in lower screening efficiency, higher energy and maintenance cost, and lower productivity and workers safety concerns. Current material separation technology uses heavy electric motors with an unbalance rotating mass to generate the shaking. These motors along with the screens and supporting structure shake other machines and structure in the vicinity of the screens. SmartScreens{trademark} technology, based on smart materials, uses miniaturized motors to generate shaking. This technology, based on Energy Flow Control{trademark} and Vibration Control by Confinement{trademark}, can efficiently and effectively direct the energy flow and confine it to the screens. The SmartScreens{trademark} technology addresses problems related to noise and vibration, screening efficiency, productivity, maintenance cost, and worker safety. Successful development of SmartScreens{trademark} technology will bring drastic change to the screening and physical separation industry. The conceptual designs for SmartScreens{trademark} resonators have been developed. These resonators will be utilized to amplify motion generated by smart motors. Resonator designs are down selected based on the final system requirement and vibration characteristics. The most promising resonator designs are incorporated in the full system model and are analyzed through experimental testing and analysis. After a detailed review, one or two of these resonator systems will be used in the development of SmartScreens{trademark}.

  11. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    DOE PAGES

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end,more » we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.« less

  12. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Intelligent Devices/Smart Sensors Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    This project provides development and qualification of Smart Sensors capable of self-diagnosis and assessment of their capability/readiness to support operations. These sensors will provide pressure and temperature measurements for use in ground systems.

  13. Grid-connected wind and photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devabakthuni, Sindhuja

    The objective of this thesis is to design a grid connected wind and photovoltaic system. A new model of converter control was designed which maintains the voltage of the bus to grid as constant when combined system of solar and wind is connected to AC bus. The model is designed to track maximum power at each point irrespective of changes in irradiance, temperature and wind speed which affects the power supplied to grid. Solar power from the sun is not constant as it is affected by changes in irradiances and temperature. Even the wind power is affected by wind speed. A MPPT controller was designed for both systems. A boost converter is designed which uses the pulses from MPPT controller to boost the output. Wind system consists of wind turbine block from the MATLAB with a pitch angle controller to maintain optimum pitch angle. The output from wind turbine is connected to a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The unregulated DC output from the photovoltaic system is directly given to boost converter. The AC output from the wind system is given to an uncontrolled rectifier to get a unregulated DC output. The unregulated DC output goes to the boost converter. A voltage source inverter was designed which converts the rectified DC output from the boost converter to AC power. The inverter is designed to maintain constant AC bus voltage irrespective of the disturbances in the power supply. Photovoltaic and wind systems are individually designed for 5KW each in MATLAB-Simulink environment. In this thesis, the models were subjected to changes in irradiance, temperature and wind speed and the results were interpreted. The model was successful in tracking maximum at every instant and the AC bus voltage was maintained constant throughout the simulation.

  14. [The design of smart data collection system for EHR].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-yi; Yan, Zhuang-zhi; Lv, Hai-jiao

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents the design of smart data collection system to deal with the drawbacks like EHR data second hand input which is time-consuming and EHR's poor usability. The system comprises security certification, information management and data transmission modules. Through WLAN, EHR data can transmit between smart terminals and server. Also it provides a real-time communication platform for both terminal users and medical care personnel.

  15. Real time hardware implementation of power converters for grid integration of distributed generation and STATCOM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaithwa, Ishan

    Deployment of smart grid technologies is accelerating. Smart grid enables bidirectional flows of energy and energy-related communications. The future electricity grid will look very different from today's power system. Large variable renewable energy sources will provide a greater portion of electricity, small DERs and energy storage systems will become more common, and utilities will operate many different kinds of energy efficiency. All of these changes will add complexity to the grid and require operators to be able to respond to fast dynamic changes to maintain system stability and security. This thesis investigates advanced control technology for grid integration of renewable energy sources and STATCOM systems by verifying them on real time hardware experiments using two different systems: d SPACE and OPAL RT. Three controls: conventional, direct vector control and the intelligent Neural network control were first simulated using Matlab to check the stability and safety of the system and were then implemented on real time hardware using the d SPACE and OPAL RT systems. The thesis then shows how dynamic-programming (DP) methods employed to train the neural networks are better than any other controllers where, an optimal control strategy is developed to ensure effective power delivery and to improve system stability. Through real time hardware implementation it is proved that the neural vector control approach produces the fastest response time, low overshoot, and, the best performance compared to the conventional standard vector control method and DCC vector control technique. Finally the entrepreneurial approach taken to drive the technologies from the lab to market via ORANGE ELECTRIC is discussed in brief.

  16. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating Distributed Grid-Edge Control Hierarchy

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    Overview fact sheet about the OMNETRIC Group Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  17. Software systems used for unstructured grid generation at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bockelie, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    These viewgraphs provide an overview of grid generation system for 3D configurations (Euler Grids) and grid generators of viscous and inviscid flow, solution adaptive for steady and unsteady flow. The five systems presented are VGRID, FELISA, TETRA, NGP, and TGRID.

  18. Criteria for evaluation of grid generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ascoli, Edward P.; Barson, Steven L.; Decroix, Michele E.; Hsu, Wayne W.

    1993-01-01

    Many CFD grid generation systems are in use nationally, but few comparative studies have been performed to quantify their relative merits. A study was undertaken to systematically evaluate and select the best CFD grid generation codes available. Detailed evaluation criteria were established as the basis for the evaluation conducted. Descriptions of thirty-four separate criteria, grouped into eight general categories are provided. Benchmark test cases, developed to test basic features of selected codes, are described in detail. Scoring guidelines were generated to establish standards for measuring code capabilities, ensuring uniformity of ratings, and minimizing personal bias among the three code evaluators. Ten candidate codes were identified from government, industry, universities, and commercial software companies. A three phase evaluation was conducted. In Phase 1, ten codes identified were screened through conversations with code authors and other industry experts. Seven codes were carried forward into a Phase 2 evaluation in which all codes were scored according to the predefined criteria. Two codes emerged as being significantly better than the others: RAGGS and GRIDGEN. Finally, these two codes were carried forward into a Phase 3 evaluation in which complex 3-D multizone grids were generated to verify capability.

  19. Context Aware Systems, Methods and Trends in Smart Home Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Context aware applications respond and adapt to changes in the computing environment. It is the concept of leveraging information about the end user to improve the quality of the interaction. New technologies in context-enriched services will use location, presence, social attributes, and other environmental information to anticipate an end user's immediate needs, offering more-sophisticated, situation-aware and usable functions. Smart homes connect all the devices and appliances in your home so they can communicate with each other and with you. Context-awareness can be applied to Smart Home technology. In this paper, we discuss the context-aware tools for development of Smart Home Systems.

  20. Wearable smart systems: from technologies to integrated systems.

    PubMed

    Lymberis, A

    2011-01-01

    Wearable technology and integrated systems, so called Smart Wearable Systems (SWS) have demonstrated during the last 10-15 years significant advances in terms of, miniaturisation, seamless integration, data processing & communication, functionalisation and comfort. This is mainly due to the huge progress in sciences and technologies e.g. biomedical and micro & nano technologies, but also to a strong demand for new applications such as continuous personal health monitoring, healthy lifestyle support, human performance monitoring and support of professionals at risk. Development of wearable systems based of smart textile have, in addition, benefited from the eagerness of textile industry to develop new value-added apparel products like functionalized garments and smart clothing. Research and development in these areas has been strongly promoted worldwide. In Europe the major R&D activities were supported through the Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) priority of the R&D EU programs. The paper presents and discusses the main achievements towards integrated systems as well as future challenges to be met in order to reach a market with reliable and high value-added products.

  1. A probabilistic study of grid-connected wind electric conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanpurkar, Manish

    Scope and Method of Study. Purpose of the study is to model the power output of Wind Electric Conversion System (WECS) as a random variable given that wind speeds incident on them is random. The model is extended to model probability functions for combined power outputs of multiple WECS located in a wind regime. The impact of variable region in the power characteristic on the probability functions for power output of individual and multiple WECS is investigated. This model is employed in performance assessment of wind farms within probabilistic framework to obtain its load supplying capability. Smart grid functionalities and Demand Side Management (DSM) are identified to have complementary behavior beneficial for optimal operation of electric grid. This is demonstrated using the obtained model for wind farms and a possible modification of load demand distribution function. Findings and Conclusions. The power output of WECS is a mixed random variable. Impact of exponent 'n' on the probability density function (pdf) for power output of multiple WECS is "minor" for a low number of WECS. For a large number of WECS, there occurs a major redistribution of probabilities of power outputs leading to distinct pdf plots for different exponents. Increasing wind penetration leads to flatter power duration curves. Smart grid functionalities and DSM techniques if complemented in a suitable manner will assist in greater assimilation of wind energy into the grid.

  2. Is there a case for broadband utility communications networks? Valuing and pricing incremental communications capacity on electric utility smart grid networks

    SciTech Connect

    Heidell, James; Ware, Harold

    2010-01-15

    Analysis of the potential for selling non-utility uses of broadband capability constructed in conjunction with Smart Grid/AMI deserves careful consideration. These services can be provided in a manner that neither creates unfair competition nor results in cross-subsidization of unregulated services by regulated services. (author)

  3. VersiCharge-SG - Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) for Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Dong; Haas, Harry; Terricciano, Paul

    2015-09-30

    some real life experimentation and sporadic deployment of these technologies [14]. By many accounts, the second decade of the 21st Century is expected to be the time when mass volume production and popular usage of these AFV technologies, especially EV, will materialize. The current DOE request for proposals recognizes the need for major technological changes to ensure that the above national goal is realizable. Two major challenges have been identified: (1) major reduction in the cost of ownership of EVSEs, and (2) managing additional EV loads in the power grid while maintaining power quality, reliability, and affordability. We note that the two challenges are closely linked – A holistic approach to true lifecycle cost of EVSE ownership will certainly include any taxes and surcharges that can be put in place for major potential investments in the grid, and higher electricity charges in case of more frequent and longer peak periods. From a societal perspective, this cost could also include the lost GDP (computed on a local basis) and revenue for businesses at local and regional levels when the grid is no longer capable of meeting the demand and unexpected outages occur. A typical end-point electrical distribution system delivers power to a residential EVSE from the neighborhood distribution pole, as shown in Fig.1. This pole has a transformer (neighboring step-down transformer) that steps down the utility medium voltage to dual 120VAC single phase (also called 240VAC split phase). This voltage is fed through a meter into the residential load control center. The load control center consists of branch circuit breakers and distributes the power supply within various areas of the residential unit. One of the branch circuits from the load control center feeds EV charging station for the unit. An electric vehicle charger is plugged into the socket of the EV charging station and other end of this charger is connected to the vehicle during charging. Figure 1 illustrates a

  4. Design of Smart Home Systems Prototype Using MyRIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratna Wati, Dwi Ann; Abadianto, Dika

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the design of smart home systems prototype. It applies. MyRIO 1900 embedded device as the main controller of the smart home systems. The systems include wireless monitoring systems and email based notifications as well as data logging. The prototype systems use simulated sensor such as temperature sensor, push button as proximity sensor, and keypad while its simulated actuators are buzzer as alarm system, LED as light and LCD. Based on the test and analysis, the smart home systems prototype as well as the wireless monitoring systems have real time responses when input signals are available. Tbe performance of MyRIO controller is excellent and it results in a stable system.

  5. Review of current status of smart structures and integrated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Inderjit

    1996-05-01

    A smart structure involves distributed actuators and sensors, and one or more microprocessors that analyze the responses from the sensors and use distributed-parameter control theory to command the actuators to apply localized strains to minimize system response. A smart structure has the capability to respond to a changing external environment (such as loads or shape change) as well as to a changing internal environment (such as damage or failure). It incorporates smart actuators that allow the alteration of system characteristics (such as stiffness or damping) as well as of system response (such as strain or shape) in a controlled manner. Many types of actuators and sensors are being considered, such as piezoelectric materials, shape memory alloys, electrostrictive materials, magnetostrictive materials, electro- rheological fluids and fiber optics. These can be integrated with main load-carrying structures by surface bonding or embedding without causing any significant changes in the mass or structural stiffness of the system. Numerous applications of smart structures technology to various physical systems are evolving to actively control vibration, noise, aeroelastic stability, damping, shape and stress distribution. Applications range from space systems, fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft, automotive, civil structures and machine tools. Much of the early development of smart structures methodology was driven by space applications such as vibration and shape control of large flexible space structures, but now wider applications are envisaged for aeronautical and other systems. Embedded or surface-bonded smart actuators on an airplane wing or helicopter blade will induce alteration of twist/camber of airfoil (shape change), that in turn will cause variation of lift distribution and may help to control static and dynamic aeroelastic problems. Applications of smart structures technology to aerospace and other systems are expanding rapidly. Major barriers are

  6. Consumer participation in power market balancing. A real-life step towards smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Per, Lund

    2014-09-01

    With the increasing role of wind and solar power, the power balance authorities are facing a big challenge: How to manage the increasing need for fast balancing power brought on by increased penetration of variable and difficult-to-forecast renewable generation? Could more active participation by the residential customers in managing electricity demand be a smart way to go?

  7. Overview of control design methods for smart structural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Vittal S.; Sana, Sridhar

    2001-08-01

    Smart structures are a result of effective integration of control system design and signal processing with the structural systems to maximally utilize the new advances in materials for structures, actuation and sensing to obtain the best performance for the application at hand. The research in smart structures is constantly driving towards attaining self adaptive and diagnostic capabilities that biological systems possess. This has been manifested in the number of successful applications in many areas of engineering such as aerospace, civil and automotive systems. Instrumental in the development of such systems are smart materials such as piezo-electric, shape memory alloys, electrostrictive, magnetostrictive and fiber-optic materials and various composite materials for use as actuators, sensors and structural members. The need for development of control systems that maximally utilize the smart actuators and sensing materials to design highly distributed and highly adaptable controllers has spurred research in the area of smart structural modeling, identification, actuator/sensor design and placement, control systems design such as adaptive and robust controllers with new tools such a neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, linear matrix inequalities and electronics for controller implementation such as analog electronics, micro controllers, digital signal processors (DSPs) and application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) such field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and Multichip modules (MCMs) etc. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the state of control in smart structures. Different aspects of the development of smart structures such as applications, technology and theoretical advances especially in the area of control systems design and implementation will be covered.

  8. System requirements specification for SMART structures mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Specified here are the functional and informational requirements for software modules which address the geometric and data modeling needs of the aerospace structural engineer. The modules are to be included as part of the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) package developed for the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The purpose is to precisely state what the SMART Structures modules will do, without consideration of how it will be done. Each requirement is numbered for reference in development and testing.

  9. Smart Data Node in the Sky (SDNITS): communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A.; Lansing, F.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss: the steps for adequately designing such a complex telecommunications system 'Smart Data Node In The Sky (SDNITS)'; algorithm development for this process; specifications to be levied on the interfacing subsystems; type of the system e.g., the usual Radio Frequency system or a laser communications system.

  10. Smart Data Node in the Sky (SDNITS): communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A.; Lansing, F.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss: the steps for adequately designing such a complex telecommunications system 'Smart Data Node In The Sky (SDNITS)'; algorithm development for this process; specifications to be levied on the interfacing subsystems; type of the system e.g., the usual Radio Frequency system or a laser communications system.

  11. A context management system for a cost-efficient smart home platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, J.; Klein, A.; Mannweiler, C.; Schotten, H. D.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of state-of-the-art architectures for integrating wireless sensor and actuators networks into the Future Internet. Furthermore, we will address advantages and disadvantages of the different architectures. With respect to these criteria, we develop a new architecture overcoming these weaknesses. Our system, called Smart Home Context Management System, will be used for intelligent home utilities, appliances, and electronics and includes physical, logical as well as network context sources within one concept. It considers important aspects and requirements of modern context management systems for smart X applications: plug and play as well as plug and trust capabilities, scalability, extensibility, security, and adaptability. As such, it is able to control roller blinds, heating systems as well as learn, for example, the user's taste w.r.t. to home entertainment (music, videos, etc.). Moreover, Smart Grid applications and Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) functions are applicable. With respect to AAL, we included an Emergency Handling function. It assures that emergency calls (police, ambulance or fire department) are processed appropriately. Our concept is based on a centralized Context Broker architecture, enhanced by a distributed Context Broker system. The goal of this concept is to develop a simple, low-priced, multi-functional, and save architecture affordable for everybody. Individual components of the architecture are well tested. Implementation and testing of the architecture as a whole is in progress.

  12. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    the official policy or position of the Department of Defense. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process , or service by trade name...trademark, manufacturer , or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the Department of...27 Figure 5. Photographs of Control Plot and Smart Plot at Building 1100 .................................28 Figure 6. Process Flow Diagram

  13. Managing Distributed Systems with Smart Subscriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Lee, Diana D.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We describe an event-based, publish-and-subscribe mechanism based on using 'smart subscriptions' to recognize weakly-structured events. We present a hierarchy of subscription languages (propositional, predicate, temporal and agent) and algorithms for efficiently recognizing event matches. This mechanism has been applied to the management of distributed applications.

  14. Towards a smart non-invasive fluid loss measurement system.

    PubMed

    Suryadevara, N K; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Barrack, L

    2015-04-01

    In this article, a smart wireless sensing non-invasive system for estimating the amount of fluid loss, a person experiences while physical activity is presented. The system measures three external body parameters, Heart Rate, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR, or skin conductance), and Skin Temperature. These three parameters are entered into an empirically derived formula along with the user's body mass index, and estimation for the amount of fluid lost is determined. The core benefit of the developed system is the affluence usage in combining with smart home monitoring systems to care elderly people in ambient assisted living environments as well in automobiles to monitor the body parameters of a motorist.

  15. The Study on the Communication Network of Wide Area Measurement System in Electricity Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaorong, Cheng; Ying, Wang; Yangdan, Ni

    Wide area measurement system(WAMS) is a fundamental part of security defense in Smart Grid, and the communication system of WAMS is an important part of Electric power communication network. For a large regional network is concerned, the real-time data which is transferred in the communication network of WAMS will affect the safe operation of the power grid directly. Therefore, WAMS raised higher requirements for real-time, reliability and security to its communication network. In this paper, the architecture of WASM communication network was studied according to the seven layers model of the open systems interconnection(OSI), and the network architecture was researched from all levels. We explored the media of WAMS communication network, the network communication protocol and network technology. Finally, the delay of the network were analyzed.

  16. Three-grid accelerator system for an ion propulsion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus is presented for an ion engine comprising a three-grid accelerator system with the decelerator grid biased negative of the beam plasma. This arrangement substantially reduces the charge-exchange ion current reaching the accelerator grid at high tank pressures, which minimizes erosion of the accelerator grid due to charge exchange ion sputtering, known to be the major accelerator grid wear mechanism. An improved method for life testing ion engines is also provided using the disclosed apparatus. In addition, the invention can also be applied in materials processing.

  17. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daryoush Allaei; Asim Syed Mohammed; David Tarnowski

    2004-05-01

    components include smart motor and associated electronics, resonators, and supporting structural elements. It is shown that the smart motors have an acceptable life and performance. The electronics required for the smart motors are presented in this report. Resonator (or motion amplifier) designs are selected based on the final system requirement and vibration characteristics. All the components for a fully functional prototype are fabricated. The system is assembled and tested under laboratory conditions. The results are promising. The development program is on schedule. The PZT-based system and current production units performed better than expected. The results of the suspended unit were very encouraging. None of the Smart Motors failed during testing. The tests were successful. We plan to modify the supporting structure to improve system rigidity and integrity that should help improving the overall system performance. The improved supporting structure will be fabricated in the next period.

  18. Distributed Energy Systems Integration and Demand Optimization for Autonomous Operations and Electric Grid Transactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatikar, Girish; Mashayekh, Salman; Stadler, Michael; Yin, Rongxin; Liu, Zhenhua

    2015-11-29

    Distributed power systems in the U.S. and globally are evolving to provide reliable and clean energy to consumers. In California, existing regulations require significant increases in renewable generation, as well as identification of customer-side distributed energy resources (DER) controls, communication technologies, and standards for interconnection with the electric grid systems. As DER deployment expands, customer-side DER control and optimization will be critical for system flexibility and demand response (DR) participation, which improves the economic viability of DER systems. Current DER systems integration and communication challenges include leveraging the existing DER and DR technology and systems infrastructure, and enabling optimized cost, energy and carbon choices for customers to deploy interoperable grid transactions and renewable energy systems at scale. Our paper presents a cost-effective solution to these challenges by exploring communication technologies and information models for DER system integration and interoperability. This system uses open standards and optimization models for resource planning based on dynamic-pricing notifications and autonomous operations within various domains of the smart grid energy system. It identifies architectures and customer engagement strategies in dynamic DR pricing transactions to generate feedback information models for load flexibility, load profiles, and participation schedules. The models are tested at a real site in California—Fort Hunter Liggett (FHL). Furthermore, our results for FHL show that the model fits within the existing and new DR business models and networked systems for transactive energy concepts. Integrated energy systems, communication networks, and modeling tools that coordinate supply-side networks and DER will enable electric grid system operators to use DER for grid transactions in an integrated system.

  19. «Smart Grid» Concept As A Modern Technology For The Power Industry Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidyaev, Igor G.; Ivashutenko, Alexandr S.; Samburskaya, Maria A.

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses the main problems of the power industry and energy supply to the distribution networks. One of the suggested solutions for these problems is the use of intelligent energy networks on the basis of digital reality simulation, in particular, the concept of «SMART GRID». The article presents the basic points of the concept and the peculiarities of its application at the enterprises. It was demonstrated that the use of this technology eliminates power shortage, reduces the energy intensity and improves the energy efficiency throughout the operation of an enterprise as a whole.

  20. Global grid systems for geospatial information: status and thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben, Jin; Tong, Xiaochong; Ji, Song

    2007-06-01

    After brief explanation of the origin of the grid, the author firstly points out the multi-resolution partition of geo-space, which is the basic issue of the specialized spatial information grid, relates to the globe directly as the region of interest expands. And the global grid system is an efficient way to solve problems on spheres. Secondly, the author introduces achievements on geospatial information global grid systems which based on both traditional geographic coordinate system and regular, multi-resolution partitions of polyhedra. At last, this author point out the problems that remains to be studied in this field.

  1. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform – Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  2. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform – Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  3. Enabling affordable and efficiently deployed location based smart home systems.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Damian; McLoone, Sean; Dishongh, Terry

    2009-01-01

    With the obvious eldercare capabilities of smart environments it is a question of "when", rather than "if", these technologies will be routinely integrated into the design of future houses. In the meantime, health monitoring applications must be integrated into already complete home environments. However, there is significant effort involved in installing the hardware necessary to monitor the movements of an elder throughout an environment. Our work seeks to address the high infrastructure requirements of traditional location-based smart home systems by developing an extremely low infrastructure localisation technique. A study of the most efficient method of obtaining calibration data for an environment is conducted and different mobile devices are compared for localisation accuracy and cost trade-off. It is believed that these developments will contribute towards more efficiently deployed location-based smart home systems.

  4. Automated Grid Disruption Response System: Robust Adaptive Topology Control (RATC)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    GENI Project: The RATC research team is using topology control as a mechanism to improve system operations and manage disruptions within the electric grid. The grid is subject to interruption from cascading faults caused by extreme operating conditions, malicious external attacks, and intermittent electricity generation from renewable energy sources. The RATC system is capable of detecting, classifying, and responding to grid disturbances by reconfiguring the grid in order to maintain economically efficient operations while guaranteeing reliability. The RATC system would help prevent future power outages, which account for roughly $80 billion in losses for businesses and consumers each year. Minimizing the time it takes for the grid to respond to expensive interruptions will also make it easier to integrate intermittent renewable energy sources into the grid.

  5. Smart sensor systems for human health breath monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Hunter, G W; Xu, J C; Biaggi-Labiosa, A M; Laskowski, D; Dutta, P K; Mondal, S P; Ward, B J; Makel, D B; Liu, C C; Chang, C W; Dweik, R A

    2011-09-01

    Breath analysis techniques offer a potential revolution in health care diagnostics, especially if these techniques can be brought into standard use in the clinic and at home. The advent of microsensors combined with smart sensor system technology enables a new generation of sensor systems with significantly enhanced capabilities and minimal size, weight and power consumption. This paper discusses the microsensor/smart sensor system approach and provides a summary of efforts to migrate this technology into human health breath monitoring applications. First, the basic capability of this approach to measure exhaled breath associated with exercise physiology is demonstrated. Building from this foundation, the development of a system for a portable asthma home health care system is described. A solid-state nitric oxide (NO) sensor for asthma monitoring has been identified, and efforts are underway to miniaturize this NO sensor technology and integrate it into a smart sensor system. It is concluded that base platform microsensor technology combined with smart sensor systems can address the needs of a range of breath monitoring applications and enable new capabilities for healthcare.

  6. Maturity Models 101: A Primer for Applying Maturity Models to Smart Grid Security, Resilience, and Interoperability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Quality Is Free: The Art of Making Quality Certain. Mentor, 1980. [ Deming 1952] Deming , W. Edwards. Elementary Principles of the Statistical...evaluate software contractors. Humphrey based this framework on the earlier Quality Management Maturity Grid developed by Philip B. Crosby in his book... Quality Is Free: The Art of Making Quality Certain [Crosby 1980]. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the SEI developed the Capability Maturity Model

  7. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-Fitted Grid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

    1995-01-01

    To be truly compatible with structured grids, an AMR algorithm should employ a block structure for the refined grids to allow flow solvers to take advantage of the strengths of unstructured grid systems, such as efficient solution algorithms for implicit discretizations and multigrid schemes. One such algorithm, the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella, has been applied to and adapted for use with body-fitted structured grid systems. Results are presented for a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil (AGARD-03 test case) and a reflection of a shock over a double wedge.

  8. Interconnection of a photovoltaic power generation system with the grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbefin, R.; Vacelet, G.

    Converting photovoltaic system-generated power into a form compatible with grid-furnished power and simultaneously ensuring that maximal power is drawn from the solar system is discussed. A converter is interposed between the solar-derived electricity and the grid lines, allowing the user to apply the power to a load, feed excess power to the grid, and receive power from the grid when the photovoltaic output is too low to fill demand. A dc-ac converter is described, with microprocessor controlled transistorized switching to adapt the solar output to the load amplitude on demand, while maintaining constant voltage. An adaptor allows the converter to take its amplitude, phase, and frequency regulation from the grid, and also assures that power will flow only toward the grid.

  9. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance U.S. Army – Project 214 Analysis of Regulations Associated with Implementation of a Rocky Mountain Secure Smart-Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, William M.

    2010-09-30

    This document describes technical assistance provided by PNNL to further develop a smart grid technologies concept to provide a basis for policies and plans for the US Army. The effort was to analyze the potential to utilize emerging smart grid technologies along with indigenous renewable and other resources to meet the emergency and other power needs of Department of Defense facilities in Colorado and Wyoming.

  10. Security-Oriented and Load-Balancing Wireless Data Routing Game in the Integration of Advanced Metering Infrastructure Network in Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    He, Fulin; Cao, Yang; Zhang, Jun Jason; Wei, Jiaolong; Zhang, Yingchen; Muljadi, Eduard; Gao, Wenzhong

    2016-11-21

    Ensuring flexible and reliable data routing is indispensable for the integration of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) networks, we propose a secure-oriented and load-balancing wireless data routing scheme. A novel utility function is designed based on security routing scheme. Then, we model the interactive security-oriented routing strategy among meter data concentrators or smart grid meters as a mixed-strategy network formation game. Finally, such problem results in a stable probabilistic routing scheme with proposed distributed learning algorithm. One contributions is that we studied that different types of applications affect the routing selection strategy and the strategy tendency. Another contributions is that the chosen strategy of our mixed routing can adaptively to converge to a new mixed strategy Nash equilibrium (MSNE) during the learning process in the smart grid.

  11. The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carenton-Madiec, Nicolas; Denvil, Sébastien; Greenslade, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Peer-to-Peer (P2P) enterprise system is a collaboration that develops, deploys and maintains software infrastructure for the management, dissemination, and analysis of model output and observational data. ESGF's primary goal is to facilitate advancements in Earth System Science. It is an interagency and international effort led by the US Department of Energy (DOE), and co-funded by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Science Foundation (NSF), Infrastructure for the European Network of Earth System Modelling (IS-ENES) and international laboratories such as the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) german Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ), the Australian National University (ANU) National Computational Infrastructure (NCI), Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL), and the British Atmospheric Data Center (BADC). Its main mission is to support current CMIP5 activities and prepare for future assesments. The ESGF architecture is based on a system of autonomous and distributed nodes, which interoperate through common acceptance of federation protocols and trust agreements. Data is stored at multiple nodes around the world, and served through local data and metadata services. Nodes exchange information about their data holdings and services, trust each other for registering users and establishing access control decisions. The net result is that a user can use a web browser, connect to any node, and seamlessly find and access data throughout the federation. This type of collaborative working organization and distributed architecture context en-lighted the need of integration and testing processes definition to ensure the quality of software releases and interoperability. This presentation will introduce the ESGF project and demonstrate the range of tools and processes that have been set up to support release management activities.

  12. Large-scale smart passive system for civil engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hyung-Jo; Jang, Dong-Doo; Lee, Heon-Jae; Cho, Sang-Won

    2008-03-01

    The smart passive system consisting of a magnetorheological (MR) damper and an electromagnetic induction (EMI) part has been recently proposed. An EMI part can generate the input current for an MR damper from vibration of a structure according to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. The control performance of the smart passive system has been demonstrated mainly by numerical simulations. It was verified from the numerical results that the system could be effective to reduce the structural responses in the cases of civil engineering structures such as buildings and bridges. On the other hand, the experimental validation of the system is not sufficiently conducted yet. In this paper, the feasibility of the smart passive system to real-scale structures is investigated. To do this, the large-scale smart passive system is designed, manufactured, and tested. The system consists of the large-capacity MR damper, which has a maximum force level of approximately +/-10,000N, a maximum stroke level of +/-35mm and the maximum current level of 3 A, and the large-scale EMI part, which is designed to generate sufficient induced current for the damper. The applicability of the smart passive system to large real-scale structures is examined through a series of shaking table tests. The magnitudes of the induced current of the EMI part with various sinusoidal excitation inputs are measured. According to the test results, the large-scale EMI part shows the possibility that it could generate the sufficient current or power for changing the damping characteristics of the large-capacity MR damper.

  13. Solar energy grid integration systems : final report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team.

    SciTech Connect

    Ropp, Michael; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Schaffer, Alan; Katz, Stanley; Perkinson, Jim; Bower, Ward Isaac; Prestero, Mark; Casey, Leo; Moaveni, Houtan; Click, David; Davis, Kristopher; Reedy, Robert; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the program have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding utility-scale penetration and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories have successfully collaborated to complete the work under the third and final stage of the SEGIS initiative. The SEGIS program was a three-year, three-stage project that include conceptual design and market analysis in Stage 1, prototype development and testing in Stage 2, and moving toward commercialization in Stage 3. Under this program, the FSEC SEGIS team developed a comprehensive vision that has guided technology development that sets one methodology for merging photovoltaic (PV) and smart-grid technologies. The FSEC team's objective in the SEGIS project is to remove barriers to large-scale general integration of PV and to enhance the value proposition of photovoltaic energy by enabling PV to act as much as possible as if it were at the very least equivalent to a conventional utility power plant. It was immediately apparent that the advanced power electronics of these advanced inverters will go far beyond conventional power plants, making high penetrations of PV not just acceptable, but desirable. This report summarizes a three-year effort to develop, validate and commercialize Grid-Smart Inverters for wider photovoltaic utilization, particularly in the utility sector.

  14. Optimization of electrostatic dual-grid beam-deflection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Lathem, W. C.; Power, J. L.; Banks, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were performed to minimize accelerator grid erosion of a 5-cm diameter Kaufman ion thruster due to direct beam impingement. Several different screen hole diameters, pillow-shape-square screen holes, and dished screen grids were tried. The optimization was accomplished by copper plating the accelerator grid before testing each grid configuration on a thruster for a 2-hour run. The thruster beam sputtered copper and molybdenum from the accelerator grid where the beam impinged. The observed erosion patterns and measured accelerator currents were used to determine how to modify the accelerator system. The lowest erosion was obtained for a 50-percent open area pillow-shape-square-aperture screen grid, dished 0.043 centimeter convex toward the accelerator grid, which was positioned with the center of the screen grid 0.084 centimeter from the accelerator grid. During this investigation the accelerator current was reduced from 120 to 55 microamperes and was also more uniformly distributed over the area of the accelerator grid.

  15. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daryoush Allaei; Angus Morison; David Tarnowski; Asim Syed Mohammed

    2005-09-01

    components include smart motor and associated electronics, resonators, and supporting structural elements. It is shown that the smart motors have an acceptable life and performance. Resonator (or motion amplifier) designs are selected based on the final system requirement and vibration characteristics. All the components for a fully functional prototype are fabricated. The development program is on schedule. The last semi-annual report described the process of FE model validation and correlation with experimental data in terms of dynamic performance and predicted stresses. It also detailed efforts into making the supporting structure less important to system performance. Finally, an introduction into the dry application concept was presented. Since then, the design refinement phase was completed. This has resulted in a Smart Screen design that meets performance targets both in the dry condition and with taconite slurry flow using PZT motors. Furthermore, this system was successfully demonstrated for the DOE and partner companies at the Coleraine Mineral Research Laboratory in Coleraine, Minnesota.

  16. Review of "Spend Smart: Fix Our Broken School Funding System"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    ConnCAN's Spend Smart: "Fix Our Broken School Funding System" was released concurrently with a bill introduced in the Connecticut legislature, based on the principles outlined in the report. However, the report is of negligible value to the policy debate over Connecticut school finance because it provides little or no support for any of…

  17. Smart Payload Development for High Data Rate Instrument Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Norton, Charles D.

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of smart payloads instruments systems with high data rates. On-board computation has become a bottleneck for advanced science instrument and engineering capabilities. In order to improve the computation capability on board, smart payloads have been proposed. A smart payload is a Localized instrument, that can offload the flight processor of extensive computing cycles, simplify the interfaces, and minimize the dependency of the instrument on the flight system. This has been proposed for the Mars mission, Mars Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (MATMOS). The design of this system is discussed; the features of the Virtex-4, are discussed, and the technical approach is reviewed. The proposed Hybrid Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology has been shown to deliver breakthrough performance by tightly coupling hardware and software. Smart Payload designs for instruments such as MATMOS can meet science data return requirements with more competitive use of available on-board resources and can provide algorithm acceleration in hardware leading to implementation of better (more advanced) algorithms in on-board systems for improved science data return

  18. Experimental Verification and Integration of a Next Generation Smart Power Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmer, Tavis B.

    With the increase in energy demand by the residential community in this country and the diminishing fossil fuel resources being used for electric energy production there is a need for a system to efficiently manage power within a residence. The Smart Green Power Node (SGPN) is a next generation energy management system that automates on-site energy production, storage, consumption, and grid usage to yield the most savings for both the utility and the consumer. Such a system automatically manages on-site distributed generation sources such as a PhotoVoltaic (PV) input and battery storage to curtail grid energy usage when the price is high. The SGPN high level control features an advanced modular algorithm that incorporates weather data for projected PV generation, battery health monitoring algorithms, user preferences for load prioritization within the home in case of an outage, Time of Use (ToU) grid power pricing, and status of on-site resources to intelligently schedule and manage power flow between the grid, loads, and the on-site resources. The SGPN has a scalable, modular architecture such that it can be customized for user specific applications. This drove the topology for the SGPN which connects on-site resources at a low voltage DC microbus; a two stage bi-directional inverter/rectifier then couples the AC load and residential grid connect to on-site generation. The SGPN has been designed, built, and is undergoing testing. Hardware test results obtained are consistent with the design goals set and indicate that the SGPN is a viable system with recommended changes and future work.

  19. GET SMARTE: A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM TO REVITALIZE COMMUNITIES - CABERNET 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools - electronic (SMARTe), is an open-source, web-based, decision support system for developing and evaluating future reuse scenarios for potentially contaminated land. SMARTe contains information and analysis tools for all a...

  20. GET SMARTE: A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM TO REVITALIZE COMMUNITIES - CABERNET 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools - electronic (SMARTe), is an open-source, web-based, decision support system for developing and evaluating future reuse scenarios for potentially contaminated land. SMARTe contains information and analysis tools for all a...

  1. Numerical investigation of smart base isolation system employing MR elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, M.; Sung, S. H.; Jang, D. D.; Jung, H. J.; Koo, J. H.

    2009-02-01

    This paper evaluates the dynamic performance of a newly proposed smart base isolation system employing Magneto-Rheological Elastomers (MREs). MREs belong to a class of smart materials whose elastic modulus or stiffness can be adjusted by varying the magnitude of the magnetic field. The base isolation systems are considered as one of the most effective devices for vibration reduction of civil engineering structures in the event of earthquakes. The proposed base isolation system strives to enhance the performance of the conventional base-isolation system by using controllable MREs. To validate the effectiveness of the MRE-based isolation system, an extensive simulation study has been performed using a five degree-of-freedom structure under several historical earthquake excitations. The results show that the proposed system outperformed the conventional system in reducing the responses of the structure in all the seismic excitations considered in the study.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daminov, Ildar; Tarasova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Tatyana; Avazov, Artur

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt) and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  3. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daryoush Allaei; Ryan Wartman; David Tarnowski; Asim Syed Mohammed

    2006-03-01

    components include smart motor and associated electronics, resonators, and supporting structural elements. It is shown that the smart motors have an acceptable life and performance. Resonator (or motion amplifier) designs are selected based on the final system requirement and vibration characteristics. All the components for a fully functional prototype are fabricated. The development program is on schedule. The last semi-annual report described the completion of the design refinement phase. This phase resulted in a Smart Screen design that meets performance targets both in the dry condition and with taconite slurry flow using PZT motors. This system was successfully demonstrated for the DOE and partner companies at the Coleraine Mineral Research Laboratory in Coleraine, Minnesota. Since then, the fabrication of the dry application prototype (incorporating an electromagnetic drive mechanism and a new deblinding concept) has been completed and successfully tested at QRDC's lab.

  4. Application of Smart Cards in the Colombian Navy Personnel Management System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    and procedural efficiency of the personnel management system and suggests ways in which smart cards might improve its efficiency. Smart card capabilities...in improving the personnel management are described. Recommendations are offered for the implementation of a demonstration prototype. A plan for implementing a smart card system throughout the Colombian Navy is suggested.

  5. PUCK: An Automated Prompting System for Smart Environments

    PubMed Central

    Das, Barnan; Cook, Diane J.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Seelye, Adriana M.

    2014-01-01

    The growth in popularity of smart environments has been quite steep in the last decade and so has the demand for smart health assistance systems. A smart home-based prompting system can enhance these technologies to deliver in-home interventions to users for timely reminders or brief instructions describing the way a task should be done for successful completion. This technology is in high demand given the desire of people who have physical or cognitive limitations to live independently in their homes. In this paper, with the introduction of the “PUCK” prompting system, we take an approach to automate prompting-based interventions without any predefined rule sets or user feedback. Unlike other approaches, we use simple off-the-shelf sensors and learn the timing for prompts based on real data that is collected with volunteer participants in our smart home test bed. The data mining approaches taken to solve this problem come with the challenge of an imbalanced class distribution that occurs naturally in the data. We propose a variant of an existing sampling technique, SMOTE, to deal with the class imbalance problem. To validate the approach, a comparative analysis with Cost Sensitive Learning is performed. PMID:25364323

  6. Optimal decentralized charging control algorithm for electrified vehicles connected to smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Changsun; Li, Chiao-Ting; Peng, Huei

    Electrified vehicles (EV) and renewable power sources are two important technologies for sustainable ground transportation. If left unmitigated, the additional electric load could over-burden the electric grid. Meanwhile, a challenge for integrating renewable power sources into the grid lies in the fact their intermittency requires more regulation services which makes them expensive to deploy. Fortunately, EVs are controllable loads and the charging process can be interrupted. This flexibility makes it possible to manipulate EV charging to reduce the additional electric load and accommodate the intermittency of renewable power sources. To illustrate this potential, a two-level optimal charging algorithm is designed, which achieves both load shifting and frequency regulation. Load shifting can be realized through coordination of power generation and vehicle charging while reducing power generation cost and carbon dioxide emissions. To ensure practicality, a decentralized charging algorithm for load shifting is formulated by emulating the charging pattern identified through linear programming optimization solutions. The frequency regulation is also designed based on frequency droop that can be implemented in a decentralized way. The two control objectives can be integrated because they are functionally separated by time scale. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed decentralized algorithm.

  7. 75 FR 33611 - Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... detailed energy information in electronic form--including real-time information from smart meters... information from smart meters, historical consumption data, and pricing and billing information. (75 FR...

  8. Stochastic and Statistical Analysis of Utility Revenues and Weather Data Analysis for Consumer Demand Estimation in Smart Grids.

    PubMed

    Ali, S M; Mehmood, C A; Khan, B; Jawad, M; Farid, U; Jadoon, J K; Ali, M; Tareen, N K; Usman, S; Majid, M; Anwar, S M

    2016-01-01

    In smart grid paradigm, the consumer demands are random and time-dependent, owning towards stochastic probabilities. The stochastically varying consumer demands have put the policy makers and supplying agencies in a demanding position for optimal generation management. The utility revenue functions are highly dependent on the consumer deterministic stochastic demand models. The sudden drifts in weather parameters effects the living standards of the consumers that in turn influence the power demands. Considering above, we analyzed stochastically and statistically the effect of random consumer demands on the fixed and variable revenues of the electrical utilities. Our work presented the Multi-Variate Gaussian Distribution Function (MVGDF) probabilistic model of the utility revenues with time-dependent consumer random demands. Moreover, the Gaussian probabilities outcome of the utility revenues is based on the varying consumer n demands data-pattern. Furthermore, Standard Monte Carlo (SMC) simulations are performed that validated the factor of accuracy in the aforesaid probabilistic demand-revenue model. We critically analyzed the effect of weather data parameters on consumer demands using correlation and multi-linear regression schemes. The statistical analysis of consumer demands provided a relationship between dependent (demand) and independent variables (weather data) for utility load management, generation control, and network expansion.

  9. Stochastic and Statistical Analysis of Utility Revenues and Weather Data Analysis for Consumer Demand Estimation in Smart Grids

    PubMed Central

    Ali, S. M.; Mehmood, C. A; Khan, B.; Jawad, M.; Farid, U; Jadoon, J. K.; Ali, M.; Tareen, N. K.; Usman, S.; Majid, M.; Anwar, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    In smart grid paradigm, the consumer demands are random and time-dependent, owning towards stochastic probabilities. The stochastically varying consumer demands have put the policy makers and supplying agencies in a demanding position for optimal generation management. The utility revenue functions are highly dependent on the consumer deterministic stochastic demand models. The sudden drifts in weather parameters effects the living standards of the consumers that in turn influence the power demands. Considering above, we analyzed stochastically and statistically the effect of random consumer demands on the fixed and variable revenues of the electrical utilities. Our work presented the Multi-Variate Gaussian Distribution Function (MVGDF) probabilistic model of the utility revenues with time-dependent consumer random demands. Moreover, the Gaussian probabilities outcome of the utility revenues is based on the varying consumer n demands data-pattern. Furthermore, Standard Monte Carlo (SMC) simulations are performed that validated the factor of accuracy in the aforesaid probabilistic demand-revenue model. We critically analyzed the effect of weather data parameters on consumer demands using correlation and multi-linear regression schemes. The statistical analysis of consumer demands provided a relationship between dependent (demand) and independent variables (weather data) for utility load management, generation control, and network expansion. PMID:27314229

  10. Study on Power Loss Reduction Considering Load Variation with Large Penetration of Distributed Generation in Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Lv, Xiangyu; Guo, Li; Cai, Lixia; Jie, Jinxing; Su, Kuo

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing of penetration of distributed in the smart grid, the problems that the power loss increasing and short circuit capacity beyond the rated capicity of circuit breaker will become more serious. In this paper, a methodology (Modified BPSO) is presented for network reconfiguration which is based on hybrid approach of Tabu Search and BPSO algorithms to prevent the local convergence and to decrease the calculation time using double fitnesses to consider the constraints. Moreover, an average load simulated method (ALS method) load variation considered is proposed that the average load value is used to instead of the actual load to calculation. Finally, from a case study, the results of simulation certify the approaches will decrease drastically the losses and improve the voltage profiles obviously, at the same time, the short circuit capacity is also decreased into less the shut-off capacity of circuit breaker. The power losses won’t be increased too much even if the short circuit capacity constraint is considered; voltage profiles are better with the constraint of short circuit capacity considering. The ALS method is simple and calculated time is speed.

  11. SMART SCREENING SYSTEM (S3) IN TACONITE PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Daryoush Allaei; Asim Syed Mohammed

    2004-04-01

    components include: smart motors and resonators. It is shown that the smart motors have a good life and performance. The resonators are utilized to amplify motion generated by smart motors. Resonator designs are selected based on the final system requirement and vibration characteristics. In addition, a tabletop demo unit was developed and demonstrated during a conference in 2003. This demo is reviewed in this report. The concept has shown promise and the program is on schedule.

  12. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating the Grid Benefits of Connected Devices

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    Overview fact sheet about the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the University of Delaware Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  13. Programmable performance - One aspect of smart sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Programmable performance is the ability to flexibly alter basic spatial, spectral, and radiometric system response as a function of time. In this paper programmable performance is defined as a functional element of smart sensor systems for the 1990's. The uses and benefits of these classes of sensor systems are discussed with reference to multispectral scanners of the earth's surface. An overall technology trend is identified which couples a high degree of sensor performance flexibility to a need for advanced device technology developments.

  14. Smart cards--the key to trustworthy health information systems.

    PubMed Central

    Neame, R.

    1997-01-01

    Some 20 years after they were first developed, "smart cards" are set to play a crucial part in healthcare systems. Last year about a billion were supplied, mainly for use in the financial sector, but their special features make them of particular strategic importance for the health sector, where they offer a ready made solution to some key problems of security and confidentiality. This article outlines what smart cards are and why they are so important in managing health information. I discuss some of the unique features of smart cards that are of special importance in the development of secure and trustworthy health information systems. Smart cards would enable individuals' identities to be authenticated and communications to be secured and would provide the mechanisms for implementing strong security, differential access to data, and definitive audit trails. Patient cards can also with complete security carry personal details, data on current health problems and medications, emergency care data, and pointers to where medical records for the patient can be found. Provider cards can in addition carry authorisations and information on computer set up. PMID:9055719

  15. The Smart Drug Delivery System and Its Clinical Potential

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Fang; Xiong, Fei; Gu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    With the unprecedented progresses of biomedical nanotechnology during the past few decades, conventional drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been involved into smart DDSs with stimuli-responsive characteristics. Benefiting from the response to specific internal or external triggers, those well-defined nanoplatforms can increase the drug targeting efficacy, in the meantime, reduce side effects/toxicities of payloads, which are key factors for improving patient compliance. In academic field, variety of smart DDSs have been abundantly demonstrated for various intriguing systems, such as stimuli-responsive polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, metals/metal oxides, and exosomes. However, these nanoplatforms are lack of standardized manufacturing method, toxicity assessment experience, and clear relevance between the pre-clinical and clinical studies, resulting in the huge difficulties to obtain regulatory and ethics approval. Therefore, such relatively complex stimulus-sensitive nano-DDSs are not currently approved for clinical use. In this review, we highlight the recent advances of smart nanoplatforms for targeting drug delivery. Furthermore, the clinical translation obstacles faced by these smart nanoplatforms have been reviewed and discussed. We also present the future directions and perspectives of stimuli-sensitive DDS in clinical applications. PMID:27375781

  16. The Smart Drug Delivery System and Its Clinical Potential.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Fang; Xiong, Fei; Gu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    With the unprecedented progresses of biomedical nanotechnology during the past few decades, conventional drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been involved into smart DDSs with stimuli-responsive characteristics. Benefiting from the response to specific internal or external triggers, those well-defined nanoplatforms can increase the drug targeting efficacy, in the meantime, reduce side effects/toxicities of payloads, which are key factors for improving patient compliance. In academic field, variety of smart DDSs have been abundantly demonstrated for various intriguing systems, such as stimuli-responsive polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, metals/metal oxides, and exosomes. However, these nanoplatforms are lack of standardized manufacturing method, toxicity assessment experience, and clear relevance between the pre-clinical and clinical studies, resulting in the huge difficulties to obtain regulatory and ethics approval. Therefore, such relatively complex stimulus-sensitive nano-DDSs are not currently approved for clinical use. In this review, we highlight the recent advances of smart nanoplatforms for targeting drug delivery. Furthermore, the clinical translation obstacles faced by these smart nanoplatforms have been reviewed and discussed. We also present the future directions and perspectives of stimuli-sensitive DDS in clinical applications.

  17. Smart systems, dumb data: impact on ISR operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creech, Gregory S.

    2013-05-01

    Just as we face a global environment where the latest technology is most needed by Department of Defense (DoD) and the Intelligence Community (IC), we find ourselves hindered by the lack of smart, useful data that our intelligent systems and workforce can fully exploit. Consider the ISR Enterprise "system of systems." Our inability to properly populate metadata fields for making data discoverable and useful is as harmful to system performance as putting lowgrade fuel in a race car. In order for our downstream ISR Enterprise systems (and analysts) to achieve their full performance potential, we must take measures upstream to make the data stream smart. This paper will examine the challenges and ongoing efforts that will benefit analysts at all echelons.

  18. Smart health monitoring systems: an overview of design and modeling.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; Gholamhosseini, Hamid

    2013-04-01

    Health monitoring systems have rapidly evolved during the past two decades and have the potential to change the way health care is currently delivered. Although smart health monitoring systems automate patient monitoring tasks and, thereby improve the patient workflow management, their efficiency in clinical settings is still debatable. This paper presents a review of smart health monitoring systems and an overview of their design and modeling. Furthermore, a critical analysis of the efficiency, clinical acceptability, strategies and recommendations on improving current health monitoring systems will be presented. The main aim is to review current state of the art monitoring systems and to perform extensive and an in-depth analysis of the findings in the area of smart health monitoring systems. In order to achieve this, over fifty different monitoring systems have been selected, categorized, classified and compared. Finally, major advances in the system design level have been discussed, current issues facing health care providers, as well as the potential challenges to health monitoring field will be identified and compared to other similar systems.

  19. Ocean Observing using SMART subsea telecommunications cable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Planning is underway to integrate ocean sensors into SMART subsea cable systems providing basin and ultimately global array coverage within the next decades (SMART: Scientific Monitoring And Reliable Telecommunications). SMART cables will: contribute to the understanding of ocean dynamics and climate; improve knowledge of earthquakes and forecasting of tsunamis; and complement and enhance existing satellite and in-situ observing systems. SMART cables will be a first order addition to the ocean observing system, with unique contributions, strengthening and complementing satellite and in situ systems. Cables spanning the ocean basins with repeaters every ~50 km will host sensors/mini-observatories, providing power and real-time communications. The current global infrastructure of commercial submarine telecommunications cable systems consists of 1 Gm of cable with ~20,000 repeaters (to boost optical signals); the overall system is refreshed and expanded on time scales of 10 - 20 years and individual systems have lifetimes in excess of 25 years. Initial instrumentation of the cables with bottom temperature, pressure and acceleration sensors will provide unique information for monitoring and studying climate change and for improved tsunami and earthquake warning. These systems will be a new highly reliable, long-lived component of the ocean observing system, complementing satellite, float and other in situ platforms and measurements. Several UN agencies, the International Telecommunication Union, the World Meteorological Organization, and the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission have formed a Joint Task Force to move this concept to fruition (ITU/WMO/IOC JTF; http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/climatechange/task-force-sc). A review of the overall planning effort and two NASA-funded workshops focusing on the ocean circulation and climate is presented. [Funding provided by NASA.

  20. Real-Time Simulation of a Smart Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiagarajan, Ramanathan

    With the increasing penetration of Photovoltaic inverters, there is a necessity for recent PV inverters to have smart grid support features for increased power system reliability and security. The grid support features include voltage support, active and reactive power control. These support features mean that inverters should have bidirectional power and communication capabilities. The inverter should be able to communicate with the grid utility and other inverter modules. This thesis studies the real time simulation of smart inverters using PLECS Real Time Box. The real time simulation is performed as a Controller Hardware in the Loop (CHIL) real time simulation. In this thesis, the power stage of the smart inverter is emulated in the PLECS Real Time Box and the controller stage of the inverter is programmed in the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) connected to the real time box. The power stage emulated in the real time box and the controller implemented in the DSP form a closed loop smart inverter. This smart inverter, with power stage and controller together, is then connected to an OPAL-RT simulator which emulates the power distribution system of the Arizona State University Poly campus. The smart inverter then sends and receives commands to supply power and support the grid. The results of the smart inverter with the PLECS Real time box and the smart inverter connected to an emulated distribution system are discussed under various conditions based on the commands received by the smart inverter.