Science.gov

Sample records for smart grid systems

  1. Smart Grid Communications System Blueprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Adrian; Pavlovski, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Telecommunications operators are well versed in deploying 2G and 3G wireless networks. These networks presently support the mobile business user and/or retail consumer wishing to place conventional voice calls and data connections. The electrical power industry has recently commenced transformation of its distribution networks by deploying smart monitoring and control devices throughout their networks. This evolution of the network into a `smart grid' has also motivated the need to deploy wireless technologies that bridge the communication gap between the smart devices and information technology systems. The requirements of these networks differ from traditional wireless networks that communications operators have deployed, which have thus far forced energy companies to consider deploying their own wireless networks. We present our experience in deploying wireless networks to support the smart grid and highlight the key properties of these networks. These characteristics include application awareness, support for large numbers of simultaneous cell connections, high service coverage and prioritized routing of data. We also outline our target blueprint architecture that may be useful to the industry in building wireless and fixed networks to support the smart grid. By observing our experiences, telecommunications operators and equipment manufacturers will be able to augment their current networks and products in a way that accommodates the needs of the emerging industry of smart grids and intelligent electrical networks.

  2. Cyber-Physical System Security of Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-01-31

    Abstract—This panel presentation will provide perspectives of cyber-physical system security of smart grids. As smart grid technologies are deployed, the interconnected nature of these systems is becoming more prevalent and more complex, and the cyber component of this cyber-physical system is increasing in importance. Studying system behavior in the face of failures (e.g., cyber attacks) allows a characterization of the systems’ response to failure scenarios, loss of communications, and other changes in system environment (such as the need for emergent updates and rapid reconfiguration). The impact of such failures on the availability of the system can be assessed and mitigation strategies considered. Scenarios associated with confidentiality, integrity, and availability are considered. The cyber security implications associated with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 in the United States are discussed.

  3. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Troxell, Wade

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3) Simulation of

  4. Adapting a commercial power system simulator for smart grid based system study and vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navaratne, Uditha Sudheera

    The smart grid is the future of the power grid. Smart meters and the associated network play a major role in the distributed system of the smart grid. Advance Metering Infrastructure (AMI) can enhance the reliability of the grid, generate efficient energy management opportunities and many innovations around the future smart grid. These innovations involve intense research not only on the AMI network itself but as also on the influence an AMI network can have upon the rest of the power grid. This research describes a smart meter testbed with hardware in loop that can facilitate future research in an AMI network. The smart meters in the testbed were developed such that their functionality can be customized to simulate any given scenario such as integrating new hardware components into a smart meter or developing new encryption algorithms in firmware. These smart meters were integrated into the power system simulator to simulate the power flow variation in the power grid on different AMI activities. Each smart meter in the network also provides a communication interface to the home area network. This research delivers a testbed for emulating the AMI activities and monitoring their effect on the smart grid.

  5. Economic evaluation of distribution system smart grid investments

    SciTech Connect

    Onen, Ahmet; Cheng, Danling; Broadwater, Robert P.; Scirbona, Charlie; Cocks, George; Hamilton, Stephanie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Roark, Jeffrey

    2014-12-31

    This paper investigates economic benefits of smart grid automation investments. A system consisting of 7 substations and 14 feeders is used in the evaluation. Here benefits that can be quantified in terms of dollar savings are considered, termed “hard dollar” benefits. Smart Grid investment evaluations to be considered include investments in improved efficiency, more cost effective use of existing system capacity with automated switches, and coordinated control of capacitor banks and voltage regulators. These Smart Grid evaluations are sequentially ordered, resulting in a series of incremental hard dollar benefits. Hard dollar benefits come from improved efficiency, delaying large capital equipment investments, shortened storm restoration times, and reduced customer energy use. Analyses used in the evaluation involve hourly power flow analysis over multiple years and Monte Carlo simulations of switching operations during storms using a reconfiguration for restoration algorithm. The economic analysis uses the time varying value of the Locational Marginal Price. Algorithms used include reconfiguration for restoration involving either manual or automated switches and coordinated control involving two modes of control. Field validations of phase balancing and capacitor design results are presented. The evaluation shows that investments in automation can improve performance while at the same time lowering costs.

  6. Economic evaluation of distribution system smart grid investments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Onen, Ahmet; Cheng, Danling; Broadwater, Robert P.; Scirbona, Charlie; Cocks, George; Hamilton, Stephanie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Roark, Jeffrey

    2014-12-31

    This paper investigates economic benefits of smart grid automation investments. A system consisting of 7 substations and 14 feeders is used in the evaluation. Here benefits that can be quantified in terms of dollar savings are considered, termed “hard dollar” benefits. Smart Grid investment evaluations to be considered include investments in improved efficiency, more cost effective use of existing system capacity with automated switches, and coordinated control of capacitor banks and voltage regulators. These Smart Grid evaluations are sequentially ordered, resulting in a series of incremental hard dollar benefits. Hard dollar benefits come from improved efficiency, delaying large capital equipmentmore » investments, shortened storm restoration times, and reduced customer energy use. Analyses used in the evaluation involve hourly power flow analysis over multiple years and Monte Carlo simulations of switching operations during storms using a reconfiguration for restoration algorithm. The economic analysis uses the time varying value of the Locational Marginal Price. Algorithms used include reconfiguration for restoration involving either manual or automated switches and coordinated control involving two modes of control. Field validations of phase balancing and capacitor design results are presented. The evaluation shows that investments in automation can improve performance while at the same time lowering costs.« less

  7. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  8. Communication Security for Control Systems in Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    As an example of Control System, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems can be relatively simple, such as one that monitors environmental conditions of a small office building, or incredibly complex, such as a system that monitors all the activity in a nuclear power plant or the activity of a municipal water system. SCADA systems are basically Process Control Systems, designed to automate systems such as traffic control, power grid management, waste processing etc. Connecting SCADA to the Internet can provide a lot of advantages in terms of control, data viewing and generation. SCADA infrastructures like electricity can also be a part of a Smart Grid. Connecting SCADA to a public network can bring a lot of security issues. To answer the security issues, a SCADA communication security solution is proposed.

  9. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  10. Study of Security Attributes of Smart Grid Systems- Current Cyber Security Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne F. Boyer; Scott A. McBride

    2009-04-01

    This document provides information for a report to congress on Smart Grid security as required by Section 1309 of Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The security of any future Smart Grid is dependent on successfully addressing the cyber security issues associated with the nation’s current power grid. Smart Grid will utilize numerous legacy systems and technologies that are currently installed. Therefore, known vulnerabilities in these legacy systems must be remediated and associated risks mitigated in order to increase the security and success of the Smart Grid. The implementation of Smart Grid will include the deployment of many new technologies and multiple communication infrastructures. This report describes the main technologies that support Smart Grid and summarizes the status of implementation into the existing U.S. electrical infrastructure.

  11. Distribution System Reliability Analysis for Smart Grid Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljohani, Tawfiq Masad

    Reliability of power systems is a key aspect in modern power system planning, design, and operation. The ascendance of the smart grid concept has provided high hopes of developing an intelligent network that is capable of being a self-healing grid, offering the ability to overcome the interruption problems that face the utility and cost it tens of millions in repair and loss. To address its reliability concerns, the power utilities and interested parties have spent extensive amount of time and effort to analyze and study the reliability of the generation and transmission sectors of the power grid. Only recently has attention shifted to be focused on improving the reliability of the distribution network, the connection joint between the power providers and the consumers where most of the electricity problems occur. In this work, we will examine the effect of the smart grid applications in improving the reliability of the power distribution networks. The test system used in conducting this thesis is the IEEE 34 node test feeder, released in 2003 by the Distribution System Analysis Subcommittee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society. The objective is to analyze the feeder for the optimal placement of the automatic switching devices and quantify their proper installation based on the performance of the distribution system. The measures will be the changes in the reliability system indices including SAIDI, SAIFI, and EUE. The goal is to design and simulate the effect of the installation of the Distributed Generators (DGs) on the utility's distribution system and measure the potential improvement of its reliability. The software used in this work is DISREL, which is intelligent power distribution software that is developed by General Reliability Co.

  12. Some characteristics of emerging distribution systems considering the smart grid initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Hilary E.; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Heydt, Gerald T.

    2010-06-15

    Modernization of the electric power system in the United States is driven by the Smart Grid Initiative. Many changes are planned in the coming years to the distribution side of the U.S. electricity delivery infrastructure to embody the idea of ''smart distribution systems.'' However, no functional or technical definition of a smart distribution system has yet been accepted by all. (author)

  13. Estimating System-wide Impacts of Smart Grid Demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Lightner, Eric M.; Fuller, Jason C.

    2015-03-01

    Quantifying the impact of a new technology on a single specific distribution feeder is relatively easy, but it does not provide insight into the complexities and variations of a system-wide deployment. It is the inability to extrapolate system-wide impacts that hinders the deployment of many promising new technologies. This paper presents a method of extrapolating technology impacts, either simulated or from a field demonstration, from a limited number of distribution feeders to a system-wide impact. The size of the system can vary from the service territory of a single utility, to a region, or to an entire country. The paper will include an example analysis using the United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects, extrapolating their benefits to a national level.

  14. Understanding The Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of what the Smart Grid is and what is being done to define and implement it. The electric industry is preparing to undergo a transition from a centralized, producer-controlled network to a decentralized, user-interactive one. Not only will the technology involved in the electric grid change, but the entire business model of the industry will change too. A major objective of the report is to identify the changes that the Smart Grid will bring about so that industry participants can be prepared to face them. A concise overview of the development of the Smart Grid is provided. It presents an understanding of what the Smart Grid is, what new business opportunities or risks might come about due to its introduction, and what activities are already taking place regarding defining or implementing the Smart Grid. This report will be of interest to the utility industry, energy service providers, aggregators, and regulators. It will also be of interest to home/building automation vendors, information technology vendors, academics, consultants, and analysts. The scope of the report includes an overview of the Smart Grid which identifies the main components of the Smart Grid, describes its characteristics, and describes how the Smart Grid differs from the current electric grid. The overview also identifies the key concepts involved in the transition to the Smart Grid and explains why a Smart Grid is needed by identifying the deficiencies of the current grid and the need for new investment. The report also looks at the impact of the Smart Grid, identifying other industries which have gone through a similar transition, identifying the overall benefits of the Smart Grid, and discussing the impact of the Smart Grid on industry participants. Furthermore, the report looks at current activities to implement the Smart Grid including utility projects, industry collaborations, and government initiatives. Finally, the report takes a look at key technology

  15. Customer Engagement in AEP gridSMART Residential Transactive System

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Marinovici, Maria C.; Fuller, Jason C.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chassin, David P.; Somani, Abhishek

    2014-12-31

    — In 2013, AEP Ohio (AEP) operated a 5-minute real-time price (RTP) electricity market system on 4 distribution feeders as part of their gridSMART® demonstration project. The RTP households were billed for their electricity usage according to an RTP tariff approved by the Public Utility Commission of Ohio. They were given the incentive that their annual bill would be no greater than if they were on the flat-rate tariff, but they had financial incentives to shift consumption from high price periods to low price periods. Incentives were also available for response under high prices from local events, such as reaching the distribution feeder capacity or a critical peak pricing event. An analysis of this transactive system experiment was completed in early 2014. This paper describes the incentive provided to the customer, the nature of their interaction with the smart thermostat that provided automated response to the transactive signal, and their level of satisfaction with the program.

  16. Securing smart grid technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaitanya Krishna, E.; Kosaleswara Reddy, T.; Reddy, M. YogaTeja; Reddy G. M., Sreerama; Madhusudhan, E.; AlMuhteb, Sulaiman

    2013-03-01

    In the developing countries electrical energy is very important for its all-round improvement by saving thousands of dollars and investing them in other sector for development. For Growing needs of power existing hierarchical, centrally controlled grid of the 20th Century is not sufficient. To produce and utilize effective power supply for industries or people we should have Smarter Electrical grids that address the challenges of the existing power grid. The Smart grid can be considered as a modern electric power grid infrastructure for enhanced efficiency and reliability through automated control, high-power converters, modern communications infrastructure along with modern IT services, sensing and metering technologies, and modern energy management techniques based on the optimization of demand, energy and network availability and so on. The main objective of this paper is to provide a contemporary look at the current state of the art in smart grid communications as well as critical issues on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of information and communication technology (ICT) issues like security, efficiency to communications layer field. In this paper we propose new model for security in Smart Grid Technology that contains Security Module(SM) along with DEM which will enhance security in Grid. It is expected that this paper will provide a better understanding of the technologies, potential advantages and research challenges of the smart grid and provoke interest among the research community to further explore this promising research area.

  17. The biometric-based module of smart grid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Ermoshkina, A.

    2015-10-01

    Within Smart Grid concept the flexible biometric-based module base on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and selective Neural Network is developed. The formation of the selective Neural Network the biometric-based module uses the method which includes three main stages: preliminary processing of the image, face localization and face recognition. Experiments on the Yale face database show that (i) selective Neural Network exhibits promising classification capability for face detection, recognition problems; and (ii) the proposed biometric-based module achieves near real-time face detection, recognition speed and the competitive performance, as compared to some existing subspaces-based methods.

  18. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-10-15

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  19. Towards Smart Grid Dynamic Ratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheema, Jamal; Clark, Adrian; Kilimnik, Justin; Pavlovski, Chris; Redman, David; Vu, Maria

    2011-08-01

    The energy distribution industry is giving greater attention to smart grid solutions as a means for increasing the capabilities, efficiency and reliability of the electrical power network. The smart grid makes use of intelligent monitoring and control devices throughout the distribution network to report on electrical properties such as voltage, current and power, as well as raising network alarms and events. A further aspect of the smart grid embodies the dynamic rating of electrical assets of the network. This fundamentally involves a rating of the load current capacity of electrical assets including feeders, transformers and switches. The mainstream approach to rate assets is to apply the vendor plate rating, which often under utilizes assets, or in some cases over utilizes when environmental conditions reduce the effective rated capacity, potentially reducing lifetime. Using active intelligence we have developed a rating system that rates assets in real time based upon several events. This allows for a far more efficient and reliable electrical grid that is able to extend further the life and reliability of the electrical network. In this paper we describe our architecture, the observations made during development and live deployment of the solution into operation. We also illustrate how this solution blends with the smart grid by proposing a dynamic rating system for the smart grid.

  20. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Rabari, Anil; Fadipe, Oloruntomi

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  1. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  2. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  3. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  4. Unlocking the smart grid

    SciTech Connect

    Rokach, Joshua Z.

    2010-10-15

    The country has progressed in a relatively short time from rotary dial phones to computers, cell phones, and iPads. With proper planning and orderly policy implementation, the same will happen with the Smart Grid. Here are some suggestions on how to proceed. (author)

  5. APEC Smart Grid Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2012-03-01

    This brief paper describes the activities of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Smart Grid Initiative (ASGI) which is being led by the U.S. and developed by the APEC Energy Working Group. In the paper, I describe the origin of the initiative and briefly mention the four major elements of the initiative along with existing APEC projects which support it.

  6. NREL Smart Grid Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Hambrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    Although implementing Smart Grid projects at the distribution level provides many advantages and opportunities for advanced operation and control, a number of significant challenges must be overcome to maintain the high level of safety and reliability that the modern grid must provide. For example, while distributed generation (DG) promises to provide opportunities to increase reliability and efficiency and may provide grid support services such as volt/var control, the presence of DG can impact distribution operation and protection schemes. Additionally, the intermittent nature of many DG energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) can present a number of challenges to voltage regulation, etc. This presentation provides an overview a number of Smart Grid projects being performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) along with utility, industry, and academic partners. These projects include modeling and analysis of high penetration PV scenarios (with and without energy storage), development and testing of interconnection and microgrid equipment, as well as the development and implementation of advanced instrumentation and data acquisition used to analyze the impacts of intermittent renewable resources. Additionally, standards development associated with DG interconnection and analysis as well as Smart Grid interoperability will be discussed.

  7. Evaluation of security availability of data components for a renewable energy micro Smart Grid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera Zambrano, Leonel

    In this thesis, we study the development and security testing of photovoltaic data collection system. With the introduction of the smart grid concept, a lot of research has been done on the communication aspect of energy production and distribution throughout the power network. For Smart Grid, Internet is used as the communication medium for specific required services and for data collection. Despite all the advantages of the Smart Grid infrastructure, there is also some security concern regarding the vulnerabilities associated with internet access. In this thesis, we consider security testing of the two most popular and globally deployed web server platforms Apache running on Red Had Linux 5 and IIS on Windows Server 2008, and their performance under Distributed Denial of Service Attacks. Furthermore we stress test the data collection services provided by MySQL running on both Windows and Linux Servers when it is also under DDoS attacks.

  8. Future evolution of distributed systems for smart grid - The challenges and opportunities to using decentralized energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    A decentralized energy system is a relatively new approach in the power industry. Decentralized energy systems provide promising opportunities for deploying renewable energy sources locally available as well as for expanding access to clean energy services to remote communities. The electricity system of the future must produce and distribute electricity that is reliable and affordable. To accomplish these goals, both the electricity grid and the existing regulatory system must be smarter. In this paper, the major issues and challenges in distributed systems for smart grid are discussed and future trends are presented. The smart grid technologies and distributed generation systems are explored. A general overview of the comparison of the traditional grid and smart grid is also included.

  9. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Craig; Carroll, Paul; Bell, Abigail

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  10. National Smart Water Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water crossing the US

  11. Scalable Real Time Data Management for Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Jian; Kulkarni, Anand V.; Purohit, Sumit; Gorton, Ian; Akyol, Bora A.

    2011-12-16

    This paper presents GridMW, a scalable and reliable data middleware for smart grids. Smart grids promise to improve the efficiency of power grid systems and reduce green house emissions through incorporating power generation from renewable sources and shaping demand to match the supply. As a result, power grid systems will become much more dynamic and require constant adjustments, which requires analysis and decision making applications to improve the efficiency and reliability of smart grid systems.

  12. Effect of electromagnetic disturbance on the practical QKD system in the smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang-Yi; Wang, Dong; Wang, Shuang; Li, Mo; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-12-01

    To improve the security of the smart grid, quantum key distribution (QKD) is an excellent choice. The rapid fluctuations on the power aerial optical cable and electromagnetic disturbance in substations are two main challenges for implementation of QKD. Due to insensitivity to birefringence of the channel, the stable phase-coding Faraday—Michelson QKD system is very practical in the smart grid. However, the electromagnetic disturbance in substations on this practical QKD system should be considered. The disturbance might change the rotation angle of the Faraday mirror, and would introduce an additional quantum bit error rate (QBER). We derive the new fringe visibility of the system and the additional QBER from the electromagnetic disturbance. In the worst case, the average additional QBER only increases about 0.17% due to the disturbance, which is relatively small to normal QBER values. We also find the way to degrade the electromagnetic disturbance on the QKD system.

  13. Design of a Multi-agent System for Personalized Service in the Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Jinhee; Shin, In-Hye; Park, Gyung-Leen; Kwak, Ho-Yong; Ahn, Khi-Jung

    This paper designs a multi-agent system capable of providing personalized services in the smart grid, defining the relevant agent modules. The proposed system provides electricity consumers with personalized power purchase recommendation. Our framework consists of four agents and seven object categories. For the operation center which manages and controls the whole system, an adaptive agent, a coordination agent, and a filtering agent are defined, while a consumer agent is define for each home to collect the history of power consumption. Based on the analysis of the consumer, power market, residence, power consumption, appliance, family member, and electric vehicle objects, those agents autonomously cooperate to provide a personalized power service to each smart grid entity. In addition, adaptive learning capability further improves the recommendation quality.

  14. 78 FR 22846 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee Meeting Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ..., Smart Grid and Cyber-Physical Systems Program Office, National Institute of Standards and Technology... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee Meeting Cancellation...

  15. Unlocking the potential of the smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    The smart grid refers to describe a next-generation electrical power system that is typified by the increased use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the whole delivery electrical energy process. The generation, delivery and consumption energy, all the steps for power transmission and distribution make the smart grid a complex system. The question is if the amount, diversity, and uses of such data put the smart grid in the category of Big Data applications, followed by the natural question of what is the true value of such data. In this paper an initial answer to this question is provided, the current state of data generation of the Polish grid is analyzed, and a future realistic scenario is illustrated. The analysis shows that the amount of data generated in smart grid is comparable to some of Big Data system examples.

  16. A Framework for Testing Automated Detection, Diagnosis, and Remediation Systems on the Smart Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Shing-hon

    2011-01-01

    America's electrical grid is currently undergoing a multi-billion dollar modernization effort aimed at producing a highly reliable critical national infrastructure for power - a Smart Grid. While the goals for the Smart Grid include upgrades to accommodate large quantities of clean, but transient, renewable energy and upgrades to provide customers with real-time pricing information, perhaps the most important objective is to create an electrical grid with a greatly increased robustness.

  17. Development of a smart DC grid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimunthe, Amty Ma'rufah Ardhiyah; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2016-03-01

    Smart grid and distributed generation should be the solution of the global climate change and the crisis energy of the main source of electrical power generation which is fossil fuel. In order to meet the rising electrical power demand and increasing service quality demands, as well as reduce pollution, the existing power grid infrastructure should be developed into a smart grid and distributed power generation which provide a great opportunity to address issues related to energy efficiency, energy security, power quality and aging infrastructure systems. The conventional of the existing distributed generation system is an AC grid while for a renewable resources requires a DC grid system. This paper explores the model of smart DC grid by introducing a model of smart DC grid with the stable power generation give a minimal and compressed circuitry that can be implemented very cost-effectively with simple components. The PC based application software for controlling was developed to show the condition of the grid and to control the grid become `smart'. The model is then subjected to a severe system perturbation, such as incremental change in loads to test the performance of the system again stability. It is concluded that the system able to detect and controlled the voltage stability which indicating the ability of power system to maintain steady voltage within permissible rangers in normal condition.

  18. Smart Grid as Multi-layer Interacting System for Complex Decision Makings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bompard, Ettore; Han, Bei; Masera, Marcelo; Pons, Enrico

    This chapter presents an approach to the analysis of Smart Grids based on a multi-layer representation of their technical, cyber, social and decision-making aspects, as well as the related environmental constraints. In the Smart Grid paradigm, self-interested active customers (prosumers), system operators and market players interact among themselves making use of an extensive cyber infrastructure. In addition, policy decision makers define regulations, incentives and constraints to drive the behavior of the competing operators and prosumers, with the objective of ensuring the global desired performance (e.g. system stability, fair prices). For these reasons, the policy decision making is more complicated than in traditional power systems, and needs proper modeling and simulation tools for assessing "in vitro" and ex-ante the possible impacts of the decisions assumed. In this chapter, we consider the smart grids as multi-layered interacting complex systems. The intricacy of the framework, characterized by several interacting layers, cannot be captured by closed-form mathematical models. Therefore, a new approach using Multi Agent Simulation is described. With case studies we provide some indications about how to develop agent-based simulation tools presenting some preliminary examples.

  19. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Clements, Samuel L.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kirkham, Harold; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Smith, David L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gardner, Chris; Varney, Jeff

    2014-07-01

    A smart grid uses digital power control and communication technology to improve the reliability, security, flexibility, and efficiency of the electric system, from large generation through the delivery systems to electricity consumers and a growing number of distributed generation and storage resources. To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. The Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report defines and examines 21 metrics that collectively provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This appendix presents papers covering each of the 21 metrics identified in Section 2.1 of the Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report. These metric papers were prepared in advance of the main body of the report and collectively form its informational backbone.

  20. Using System Dynamics to Define, Study, and Implement Smart Control Strategies on the Electric Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle G. Roybal; Robert F Jeffers

    2013-07-01

    The United States electric power grid is the most complex and expansive control system in the world. Local generation control occurs at individual units based on response time and unit economics, larger regional control coordinates unit response to error conditions, and high level large-area regional control is ultimately administered by a network of humans guided by economic and resiliency related factors. Under normal operating conditions, the grid is a relatively slow moving entity that exhibits high inertia to outside stimuli, and behaves along repeatable diurnal and seasonal patterns. However, that paradigm is quickly changing because of the increasing implementation of renewable generation sources. Renewable generators by nature cannot be tightly controlled or scheduled. They appear like a negative load to the system with all of the variability associated with load on a larger scale. Also, grid-reactive loads (i.e. smart devices) can alter their consumption based on price or demand rules adding more variability to system behavior. This paper demonstrates how a systems dynamic modeling approach capable of operating over multiple time scales, can provide valuable insight into developing new “smart-grid” control strategies and devices needed to accommodate renewable generation and regulate the frequency of the grid.

  1. Electricity Markets, Smart Grids and Smart Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcey, Jonathan M.

    A smart grid is an electricity network that accommodates two-way power flows, and utilizes two-way communications and increased measurement, in order to provide more information to customers and aid in the development of a more efficient electricity market. The current electrical network is outdated and has many shortcomings relating to power flows, inefficient electricity markets, generation/supply balance, a lack of information for the consumer and insufficient consumer interaction with electricity markets. Many of these challenges can be addressed with a smart grid, but there remain significant barriers to the implementation of a smart grid. This paper proposes a novel method for the development of a smart grid utilizing a bottom up approach (starting with smart buildings/campuses) with the goal of providing the framework and infrastructure necessary for a smart grid instead of the more traditional approach (installing many smart meters and hoping a smart grid emerges). This novel approach involves combining deterministic and statistical methods in order to accurately estimate building electricity use down to the device level. It provides model users with a cheaper alternative to energy audits and extensive sensor networks (the current methods of quantifying electrical use at this level) which increases their ability to modify energy consumption and respond to price signals The results of this method are promising, but they are still preliminary. As a result, there is still room for improvement. On days when there were no missing or inaccurate data, this approach has R2 of about 0.84, sometimes as high as 0.94 when compared to measured results. However, there were many days where missing data brought overall accuracy down significantly. In addition, the development and implementation of the calibration process is still underway and some functional additions must be made in order to maximize accuracy. The calibration process must be completed before a reliable

  2. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

  3. Co-Simulation of Detailed Whole Building with the Power System to Study Smart Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Fuller, Jason C.; Srivastava, Viraj; Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.

    2014-12-24

    Modernization of the power system in a way that ensures a sustainable energy system is arguably one of the most pressing concerns of our time. Buildings are important components in the power system. First, they are the main consumers of electricity and secondly, they do not have constant energy demand. Conventionally, electricity has been difficult to store and should be consumed as it is generated. Therefore, maintaining the demand and supply is critical in the power system. However, to reduce the complexity of power models, buildings (i.e., end-use loads) are traditionally modeled and represented as aggregated “dumb” nodes in the power system. This means we lack effective detailed whole building energy models that can support requirements and emerging technologies of the smart power grid. To gain greater insight into the relationship between building energy demand and power system performance, it is important to constitute a co-simulation framework to support detailed building energy modeling and simulation within the power system to study capabilities promised by the modern power grid. This paper discusses ongoing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and presents underlying tools and framework needed to enable co-simulation of building, building energy systems and their control in the power system to study applications such as demand response, grid-based HVAC control, and deployment of buildings for ancillary services. The optimal goal is to develop an integrated modeling and simulation platform that is flexible, reusable, and scalable. Results of this work will contribute to future building and power system studies, especially those related to the integrated ‘smart grid’. Results are also expected to advance power resiliency and local (micro) scale grid studies where several building and renewable energy systems transact energy directly. This paper also reviews some applications that can be supported and studied using the framework introduced

  4. Power system voltage stability and agent based distribution automation in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Cuong Phuc

    2011-12-01

    Our interconnected electric power system is presently facing many challenges that it was not originally designed and engineered to handle. The increased inter-area power transfers, aging infrastructure, and old technologies, have caused many problems including voltage instability, widespread blackouts, slow control response, among others. These problems have created an urgent need to transform the present electric power system to a highly stable, reliable, efficient, and self-healing electric power system of the future, which has been termed "smart grid". This dissertation begins with an investigation of voltage stability in bulk transmission networks. A new continuation power flow tool for studying the impacts of generator merit order based dispatch on inter-area transfer capability and static voltage stability is presented. The load demands are represented by lumped load models on the transmission system. While this representation is acceptable in traditional power system analysis, it may not be valid in the future smart grid where the distribution system will be integrated with intelligent and quick control capabilities to mitigate voltage problems before they propagate into the entire system. Therefore, before analyzing the operation of the whole smart grid, it is important to understand the distribution system first. The second part of this dissertation presents a new platform for studying and testing emerging technologies in advanced Distribution Automation (DA) within smart grids. Due to the key benefits over the traditional centralized approach, namely flexible deployment, scalability, and avoidance of single-point-of-failure, a new distributed approach is employed to design and develop all elements of the platform. A multi-agent system (MAS), which has the three key characteristics of autonomy, local view, and decentralization, is selected to implement the advanced DA functions. The intelligent agents utilize a communication network for cooperation and

  5. Assistive Awareness in Smart Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourazeri, Aikaterini; Almajano, Pablo; Rodriguez, Inmaculada; Lopez-Sanchez, Maite

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Background * The User-Infrastructure Interface * User Engagement through Assistive Awareness * Research Impact * Serious Games for Smart Grids * Serious Game Technology * Game scenario * Game mechanics * Related Work * Summary and Conclusions

  6. Novel Directional Protection Scheme for the FREEDM Smart Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nitish

    This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level PSCAD model which is used to validate component models for different time-scale platforms, to provide a virtual testing platform for the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. It is also used to validate the cases of power system protection, renewable energy integration and storage, and load profiles. The protection of the FREEDM system against any abnormal condition is one of the important tasks. The addition of distributed generation and power electronic based solid state transformer adds to the complexity of the protection. The FREEDM loop system has a fault current limiter and in addition, the Solid State Transformer (SST) limits the fault current at 2.0 per unit. Former students at ASU have developed the protection scheme using fiber-optic cable. However, during the NSF-FREEDM site visit, the National Science Foundation (NSF) team regarded the system incompatible for the long distances. Hence, a new protection scheme with a wireless scheme is presented in this thesis. The use of wireless communication is extended to protect the large scale meshed distributed generation from any fault. The trip signal generated by the pilot protection system is used to trigger the FID (fault isolation device) which is an electronic circuit breaker operation (switched off/opening the FIDs). The trip signal must be received and accepted by the SST, and it must block the SST operation immediately. A comprehensive protection system for the large scale meshed distribution system has been developed in PSCAD with the ability to quickly detect the faults. The validation of the protection system is performed by building a hardware model using commercial relays at the ASU power laboratory.

  7. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    ScienceCinema

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2016-07-12

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  8. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-03-03

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  9. Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration, a Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Yinger, Robert; Irwin, Mark

    2015-12-29

    ISGD was a comprehensive demonstration that spanned the electricity delivery system and extended into customer homes. The project used phasor measurement technology to enable substation-level situational awareness, and demonstrated SCE’s next-generation substation automation system. It extended beyond the substation to evaluate the latest generation of distribution automation technologies, including looped 12-kV distribution circuit topology using URCIs. The project team used DVVC capabilities to demonstrate CVR. In customer homes, the project evaluated HAN devices such as smart appliances, programmable communicating thermostats, and home energy management components. The homes were also equipped with energy storage, solar PV systems, and a number of energy efficiency measures (EEMs). The team used one block of homes to evaluate strategies and technologies for achieving ZNE. A home achieves ZNE when it produces at least as much renewable energy as the amount of energy it consumes annually. The project also assessed the impact of device-specific demand response (DR), as well as load management capabilities involving energy storage devices and plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. In addition, the ISGD project sought to better understand the impact of ZNE homes on the electric grid. ISGD’s SENet enabled end-to-end interoperability between multiple vendors’ systems and devices, while also providing a level of cybersecurity that is essential to smart grid development and adoption across the nation. The ISGD project includes a series of sub-projects grouped into four logical technology domains: Smart Energy Customer Solutions, Next-Generation Distribution System, Interoperability and Cybersecurity, and Workforce of the Future. Section 2.3 provides a more detailed overview of these domains.

  10. Secure Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) Considerations for Smart Grid Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Aldridge, Hal; Duren, Mike; Ricci, Tracy; Bertino, Elisa; Kulatunga, Athula; Navaratne, Uditha Sudheera

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine some unique challenges associated with key management in the Smart Grid and concomitant research initiatives: 1) effectively model security requirements and their implementations, and 2) manage keys and key distribution for very large scale deployments such as Smart Meters over a long period of performance. This will set the stage to: 3) develop innovative, low cost methods to protect keying material, and 4) provide high assurance authentication services. We will present our perspective on key management and will discuss some key issues within the life cycle of a cryptographic key designed to achieve the following: 1) control systems designed, installed, operated, and maintained to survive an intentional cyber assault with no loss of critical function, and 2) widespread implementation of methods for secure communication between remote access devices and control centers that are scalable and cost-effective to deploy.

  11. Improving Cyber-Security of Smart Grid Systems via Anomaly Detection and Linguistic Domain Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2012-08-01

    The planned large scale deployment of smart grid network devices will generate a large amount of information exchanged over various types of communication networks. The implementation of these critical systems will require appropriate cyber-security measures. A network anomaly detection solution is considered in this work. In common network architectures multiple communications streams are simultaneously present, making it difficult to build an anomaly detection solution for the entire system. In addition, common anomaly detection algorithms require specification of a sensitivity threshold, which inevitably leads to a tradeoff between false positives and false negatives rates. In order to alleviate these issues, this paper proposes a novel anomaly detection architecture. The designed system applies the previously developed network security cyber-sensor method to individual selected communication streams allowing for learning accurate normal network behavior models. Furthermore, the developed system dynamically adjusts the sensitivity threshold of each anomaly detection algorithm based on domain knowledge about the specific network system. It is proposed to model this domain knowledge using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic rules, which linguistically describe the relationship between various features of the network communication and the possibility of a cyber attack. The proposed method was tested on experimental smart grid system demonstrating enhanced cyber-security.

  12. Modeling Framework and Validation of a Smart Grid and Demand Response System for Wind Power Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Broeer, Torsten; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, David P.; Djilali, Ned

    2014-01-31

    Electricity generation from wind power and other renewable energy sources is increasing, and their variability introduces new challenges to the power system. The emergence of smart grid technologies in recent years has seen a paradigm shift in redefining the electrical system of the future, in which controlled response of the demand side is used to balance fluctuations and intermittencies from the generation side. This paper presents a modeling framework for an integrated electricity system where loads become an additional resource. The agent-based model represents a smart grid power system integrating generators, transmission, distribution, loads and market. The model incorporates generator and load controllers, allowing suppliers and demanders to bid into a Real-Time Pricing (RTP) electricity market. The modeling framework is applied to represent a physical demonstration project conducted on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA, and validation simulations are performed using actual dynamic data. Wind power is then introduced into the power generation mix illustrating the potential of demand response to mitigate the impact of wind power variability, primarily through thermostatically controlled loads. The results also indicate that effective implementation of Demand Response (DR) to assist integration of variable renewable energy resources requires a diversity of loads to ensure functionality of the overall system.

  13. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed A; Eltamaly, Ali M; Alolah, Abdulrahman I

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers. PMID:27513000

  14. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed A; Eltamaly, Ali M; Alolah, Abdulrahman I

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers.

  15. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Eltamaly, Ali M.; Alolah, Abdulrahman I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers. PMID:27513000

  16. Feasibility analysis of a smart grid photovoltaics system for the subarctic rural region in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lei

    A smart grid photovoltaics system was developed to demonstrate that the system is feasible for a similar off-grid rural community in the subarctic region in Alaska. A system generation algorithm and a system business model were developed to determine feasibility. Based on forecasts by the PV F-Chart software, a 70° tilt angle in winter, and a 34° tilt angle in summer were determined to be the best angles for electrical output. The proposed system's electricity unit cost was calculated at 32.3 cents/kWh that is cheaper than current unsubsidized electricity price (46.8 cents/kWh) in off-grid rural communities. Given 46.8 cents/kWh as the electricity unit price, the system provider can break even when 17.3 percent of the total electrical revenue through power generated by the proposed system is charged. Given these results, the system can be economically feasible during the life-cycle period. With further incentives, the system may have a competitive advantage.

  17. Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Saifur

    2014-08-31

    Since the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 was enacted, there has been a large number of websites that discusses smart grid and relevant information, including those from government, academia, industry, private sector and regulatory. These websites collect information independently. Therefore, smart grid information was quite scattered and dispersed. The objective of this work was to develop, populate, manage and maintain the public Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC) web portal. The information in the SGIC website is comprehensive that includes smart grid information, research & development, demonstration projects, technical standards, costs & benefit analyses, business cases, legislation, policy & regulation, and other information on lesson learned and best practices. The content in the SGIC website is logically grouped to allow easily browse, search and sort. In addition to providing the browse and search feature, the SGIC web portal also allow users to share their smart grid information with others though our online content submission platform. The Clearinghouse web portal, therefore, serves as the first stop shop for smart grid information that collects smart grid information in a non-bias, non-promotional manner and can provide a missing link from information sources to end users and better serve users’ needs. The web portal is available at www.sgiclearinghouse.org. This report summarizes the work performed during the course of the project (September 2009 – August 2014). Section 2.0 lists SGIC Advisory Committee and User Group members. Section 3.0 discusses SGIC information architecture and web-based database application functionalities. Section 4.0 summarizes SGIC features and functionalities, including its search, browse and sort capabilities, web portal social networking, online content submission platform and security measures implemented. Section 5.0 discusses SGIC web portal contents, including smart grid 101, smart grid projects

  18. Smart Grid Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad Lopez, Carlos Adrian

    Current electricity infrastructure is being stressed from several directions -- high demand, unreliable supply, extreme weather conditions, accidents, among others. Infrastructure planners have, traditionally, focused on only the cost of the system; today, resilience and sustainability are increasingly becoming more important. In this dissertation, we develop computational tools for efficiently managing electricity resources to help create a more reliable and sustainable electrical grid. The tools we present in this work will help electric utilities coordinate demand to allow the smooth and large scale integration of renewable sources of energy into traditional grids, as well as provide infrastructure planners and operators in developing countries a framework for making informed planning and control decisions in the presence of uncertainty. Demand-side management is considered as the most viable solution for maintaining grid stability as generation from intermittent renewable sources increases. Demand-side management, particularly demand response (DR) programs that attempt to alter the energy consumption of customers either by using price-based incentives or up-front power interruption contracts, is more cost-effective and sustainable in addressing short-term supply-demand imbalances when compared with the alternative that involves increasing fossil fuel-based fast spinning reserves. An essential step in compensating participating customers and benchmarking the effectiveness of DR programs is to be able to independently detect the load reduction from observed meter data. Electric utilities implementing automated DR programs through direct load control switches are also interested in detecting the reduction in demand to efficiently pinpoint non-functioning devices to reduce maintenance costs. We develop sparse optimization methods for detecting a small change in the demand for electricity of a customer in response to a price change or signal from the utility

  19. From the grid to the smart grid, topologically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2016-05-01

    In its more visionary acceptation, the smart grid is a model of energy management in which the users are engaged in producing energy as well as consuming it, while having information systems fully aware of the energy demand-response of the network and of dynamically varying prices. A natural question is then: to make the smart grid a reality will the distribution grid have to be upgraded? We assume a positive answer to the question and we consider the lower layers of medium and low voltage to be the most affected by the change. In our previous work, we analyzed samples of the Dutch distribution grid (Pagani and Aiello, 2011) and we considered possible evolutions of these using synthetic topologies modeled after studies of complex systems in other technological domains (Pagani and Aiello, 2014). In this paper, we take an extra important step by defining a methodology for evolving any existing physical power grid to a good smart grid model, thus laying the foundations for a decision support system for utilities and governmental organizations. In doing so, we consider several possible evolution strategies and apply them to the Dutch distribution grid. We show how increasing connectivity is beneficial in realizing more efficient and reliable networks. Our proposal is topological in nature, enhanced with economic considerations of the costs of such evolutions in terms of cabling expenses and economic benefits of evolving the grid.

  20. 75 FR 55306 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Smart Grid... provide an update on NIST's Smart Grid program. The agenda may change to accommodate Committee...

  1. 76 FR 12711 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Smart Grid... will be posted on the Smart Grid Web site at http://www.nist.gov/smartgrid . DATES: The SGAC will...

  2. 76 FR 46279 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Smart Grid... should be sent to Office of the National Coordinator for Smart Grid Interoperability, National...

  3. The Development of a Smart Distribution Grid Testbed for Integrated Information Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Du, Pengwei; Paulson, Patrick R.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Guo, Xinxin; Hadley, Mark D.

    2011-07-28

    This paper presents a smart distribution grid testbed to test or compare designs of integrated information management systems (I2MSs). An I2MS extracts and synthesizes information from a wide range of data sources to detect abnormal system behaviors, identify possible causes, assess the system status, and provide grid operators with response suggestions. The objective of the testbed is to provide a modeling environment with sufficient data sources for the I2MS design. The testbed includes five information layers and a physical layer; it generates multi-layer chronological data based on actual measurement playbacks or simulated data sets produced by the physical layer. The testbed models random hardware failures, human errors, extreme weather events, and deliberate tampering attempts to allow users to evaluate the performance of different I2MS designs. Initial results of I2MS performance tests showed that the testbed created a close-to-real-world environment that allowed key performance metrics of the I2MS to be evaluated.

  4. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Kirkham, Harold

    2014-07-01

    To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. It measures 21 metrics to provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This report looks across a spectrum of smart grid concerns to measure the status of smart grid deployment and impacts.

  5. A Study of Energy Management Systems and its Failure Modes in Smart Grid Power Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musani, Aatif

    The subject of this thesis is distribution level load management using a pricing signal in a smart grid infrastructure. The project relates to energy management in a spe-cialized distribution system known as the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. Energy management through demand response is one of the key applications of smart grid. Demand response today is envisioned as a method in which the price could be communicated to the consumers and they may shift their loads from high price periods to the low price periods. The development and deployment of the FREEDM system necessitates controls of energy and power at the point of end use. In this thesis, the main objective is to develop the control model of the Energy Management System (EMS). The energy and power management in the FREEDM system is digitally controlled therefore all signals containing system states are discrete. The EMS is modeled as a discrete closed loop transfer function in the z-domain. A breakdown of power and energy control devices such as EMS components may result in energy con-sumption error. This leads to one of the main focuses of the thesis which is to identify and study component failures of the designed control system. Moreover, H-infinity ro-bust control method is applied to ensure effectiveness of the control architecture. A focus of the study is cyber security attack, specifically bad data detection in price. Test cases are used to illustrate the performance of the EMS control design, the effect of failure modes and the application of robust control technique. The EMS was represented by a linear z-domain model. The transfer function be-tween the pricing signal and the demand response was designed and used as a test bed. EMS potential failure modes were identified and studied. Three bad data detection meth-odologies were implemented and a voting policy was used to declare bad data. The run-ning mean and standard deviation analysis method proves to be

  6. Cloud Computing for the Grid: GridControl: A Software Platform to Support the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-08

    GENI Project: Cornell University is creating a new software platform for grid operators called GridControl that will utilize cloud computing to more efficiently control the grid. In a cloud computing system, there are minimal hardware and software demands on users. The user can tap into a network of computers that is housed elsewhere (the cloud) and the network runs computer applications for the user. The user only needs interface software to access all of the cloud’s data resources, which can be as simple as a web browser. Cloud computing can reduce costs, facilitate innovation through sharing, empower users, and improve the overall reliability of a dispersed system. Cornell’s GridControl will focus on 4 elements: delivering the state of the grid to users quickly and reliably; building networked, scalable grid-control software; tailoring services to emerging smart grid uses; and simulating smart grid behavior under various conditions.

  7. 76 FR 70412 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Smart Grid... agenda may change to accommodate Committee business. The final agenda will be posted on the Smart...

  8. Development of Smart Grid for Community and Cyber based Landslide Hazard Monitoring and Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnawati, D.; Wilopo, W.; Fathani, T. F.; Fukuoka, H.; Andayani, B.

    2012-12-01

    A Smart Grid is a cyber-based tool to facilitate a network of sensors for monitoring and communicating the landslide hazard and providing the early warning. The sensor is designed as an electronic sensor installed in the existing monitoring and early warning instruments, and also as the human sensors which comprise selected committed-people at the local community, such as the local surveyor, local observer, member of the local task force for disaster risk reduction, and any person at the local community who has been registered to dedicate their commitments for sending reports related to the landslide symptoms observed at their living environment. This tool is designed to be capable to receive up to thousands of reports/information at the same time through the electronic sensors, text message (mobile phone), the on-line participatory web as well as various social media such as Twitter and Face book. The information that should be recorded/ reported by the sensors is related to the parameters of landslide symptoms, for example the progress of cracks occurrence, ground subsidence or ground deformation. Within 10 minutes, this tool will be able to automatically elaborate and analyse the reported symptoms to predict the landslide hazard and risk levels. The predicted level of hazard/ risk can be sent back to the network of electronic and human sensors as the early warning information. The key parameters indicating the symptoms of landslide hazard were recorded/ monitored by the electrical and the human sensors. Those parameters were identified based on the investigation on geological and geotechnical conditions, supported with the laboratory analysis. The cause and triggering mechanism of landslide in the study area was also analysed in order to define the critical condition to launch the early warning. However, not only the technical but also social system were developed to raise community awareness and commitments to serve the mission as the human sensors, which will

  9. 75 FR 63462 - Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Docket Designation for Smart Grid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Docket Designation for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards October 7, 2010. 1. The Energy Independence and Security Act...

  10. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  11. Protecting the Smart Grid: A Risk Based Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Samuel L.; Kirkham, Harold; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai

    2011-10-10

    This paper describes a risk-based approach to security that has been used for years in protecting physical assets, and shows how it could be modified to help secure the digital aspects of the smart grid and control systems in general. One way the smart grid has been said to be vulnerable is that mass load fluctuations could be created by quickly turning off and on large quantities of smart meters. We investigate the plausibility.

  12. Technology Readiness and the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, Harold; Marinovici, Maria C.

    2013-02-27

    Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) originated as a way for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to monitor the development of systems being readied for space. The technique has found wide application as part of the more general topic of system engineering. In this paper, we consider the applicability of TRLs to systems being readied for the smart grid. We find that there are many useful parallels, and much to be gained by this application. However, TRLs were designed for a developer who was also a user. That is not usually the case for smart grid developments. We consider the matter from the point of view of the company responsible for implementation, typically a utility, and we find that there is a need for connecting the many standards in the industry. That connection is explored, and some new considerations are introduced.

  13. 77 FR 38768 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... to Office of the National Coordinator for Smart Grid Interoperability, National Institute of... participate are invited to submit written statements to the Office of the National Coordinator for Smart Grid... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. Application of optical fiber sensors in Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruirui

    2013-12-01

    Smart Grid is a promising power delivery infrastructure integrated with communication and information technologies. By incorporating monitoring, analysis, control and communications facilities, it is possible to optimize the performance of the power system, allowing electricity to be delivered more efficiently. In the transmission and distribution sector, online monitoring of transmission lines and primary equipments is of vital importance, which can improve the reliability of power systems effectively. Optical fiber sensors can provide an alternative to conventional electrical sensors for such applications, with high accuracy, long term stability, streamlined installation, and premium performance under harsh environmental conditions. These optical fiber sensors offer immunity to EMI and extraordinary resistance to mechanical fatigue and therefore they will have great potential in on-line monitoring applications in Smart Grid. In this paper, we present a summary of the on-line monitoring needs of Smart Grid and explore the use of optical fiber sensors in Smart Grid. First, the on-line monitoring needs of Smart Grid is summarized. Second, a review on optical fiber sensor technology is given. Third, the application of optical fiber sensors in Smart Grid is discussed, including transmission line monitoring, primary equipment monitoring and substation perimeter intrusion detection. Finally, future research directions of optical fiber sensors for power systems are discussed. Compared to other traditional electrical sensors, the application of optical fiber sensors in Smart Grid has unique advantages.

  15. A smart grid simulation testbed using Matlab/Simulink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallapuram, Sriharsha; Moulema, Paul; Yu, Wei

    2014-06-01

    The smart grid is the integration of computing and communication technologies into a power grid with a goal of enabling real time control, and a reliable, secure, and efficient energy system [1]. With the increased interest of the research community and stakeholders towards the smart grid, a number of solutions and algorithms have been developed and proposed to address issues related to smart grid operations and functions. Those technologies and solutions need to be tested and validated before implementation using software simulators. In this paper, we developed a general smart grid simulation model in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, which integrates renewable energy resources, energy storage technology, load monitoring and control capability. To demonstrate and validate the effectiveness of our simulation model, we created simulation scenarios and performed simulations using a real-world data set provided by the Pecan Street Research Institute.

  16. VOLTTRON - An Intelligent Agent Platform for the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-23

    The distributed nature of the Smart Grid, such as responsive loads, solar and wind generation, and automation in the distribution system present a complex environment not easily controlled in a centralized manner.

  17. VOLTTRON - An Intelligent Agent Platform for the Smart Grid

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The distributed nature of the Smart Grid, such as responsive loads, solar and wind generation, and automation in the distribution system present a complex environment not easily controlled in a centralized manner.

  18. Cloud computing for energy management in smart grid - an application survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveen, P.; Kiing Ing, Wong; Kobina Danquah, Michael; Sidhu, Amandeep S.; Abu-Siada, Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    The smart grid is the emerging energy system wherein the application of information technology, tools and techniques that make the grid run more efficiently. It possesses demand response capacity to help balance electrical consumption with supply. The challenges and opportunities of emerging and future smart grids can be addressed by cloud computing. To focus on these requirements, we provide an in-depth survey on different cloud computing applications for energy management in the smart grid architecture. In this survey, we present an outline of the current state of research on smart grid development. We also propose a model of cloud based economic power dispatch for smart grid.

  19. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model Beta Version

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Drummond, R.; Giroti, Tony; Houseman, Doug; Knight, Mark; Levinson, Alex; longcore, Wayne; Lowe, Randy; Mater, J.; Oliver, Terry V.; Slack, Phil; Tolk, Andreas; Montgomery, Austin

    2011-12-02

    The GridWise Architecture Council was formed by the U.S. Department of Energy to promote and enable interoperability among the many entities that interact with the electric power system. This balanced team of industry representatives proposes principles for the development of interoperability concepts and standards. The Council provides industry guidance and tools that make it an available resource for smart grid implementations. In the spirit of advancing interoperability of an ecosystem of smart grid devices and systems, this document presents a model for evaluating the maturity of the artifacts and processes that specify the agreement of parties to collaborate across an information exchange interface. You are expected to have a solid understanding of large, complex system integration concepts and experience in dealing with software component interoperation. Those without this technical background should read the Executive Summary for a description of the purpose and contents of the document. Other documents, such as checklists, guides, and whitepapers, exist for targeted purposes and audiences. Please see the www.gridwiseac.org website for more products of the Council that may be of interest to you.

  20. Advancing Smart Grid Interoperability and Implementing NIST's Interoperability Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Basso,T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2010-04-01

    The IEEE American National Standards project P2030TM addressing smart grid interoperability and the IEEE 1547 series of standards addressing distributed resources interconnection with the grid have been identified in priority action plans in the Report to NIST on the Smart Grid Interoperability Standards Roadmap. This paper presents the status of the IEEE P2030 development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards publications and drafts, and provides insight on systems integration and grid infrastructure. The P2030 and 1547 series of standards are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21.

  1. Smart grid as a service: a discussion on design issues.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hung-Lin; Tsai, Chen-Chou; Hsiung, Pao-Ann; Chou, I-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid allows the integration of distributed renewable energy resources into the conventional electricity distribution power grid such that the goals of reduction in power cost and in environment pollution can be met through an intelligent and efficient matching between power generators and power loads. Currently, this rapidly developing infrastructure is not as "smart" as it should be because of the lack of a flexible, scalable, and adaptive structure. As a solution, this work proposes smart grid as a service (SGaaS), which not only allows a smart grid to be composed out of basic services, but also allows power users to choose between different services based on their own requirements. The two important issues of service-level agreements and composition of services are also addressed in this work. Finally, we give the details of how SGaaS can be implemented using a FIPA-compliant JADE multiagent system. PMID:25243214

  2. Smart grid as a service: a discussion on design issues.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hung-Lin; Tsai, Chen-Chou; Hsiung, Pao-Ann; Chou, I-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid allows the integration of distributed renewable energy resources into the conventional electricity distribution power grid such that the goals of reduction in power cost and in environment pollution can be met through an intelligent and efficient matching between power generators and power loads. Currently, this rapidly developing infrastructure is not as "smart" as it should be because of the lack of a flexible, scalable, and adaptive structure. As a solution, this work proposes smart grid as a service (SGaaS), which not only allows a smart grid to be composed out of basic services, but also allows power users to choose between different services based on their own requirements. The two important issues of service-level agreements and composition of services are also addressed in this work. Finally, we give the details of how SGaaS can be implemented using a FIPA-compliant JADE multiagent system.

  3. GridOPTICS(TM): A Design for Plug-and-Play Smart Grid Software Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan; Yin, Jian

    2012-06-03

    As the smart grid becomes reality, software architectures for integrating legacy systems with new innovative approaches for grid management are needed. These architectures must exhibit flexibility, extensibility, interoperability and scalability. In this position paper, we describe our preliminary work to design such an architecture, known as GridOPTICS, that will enable the deployment and integration of new software tools in smart grid operations. Our preliminary design is based upon use cases from PNNL’s Future Power Grid Initiative, which is a developing a collection of advanced software technologies for smart grid management and control. We describe the motivations for GridOPTICS, and the preliminary design that we are currently prototyping for several distinct use cases.

  4. SMART FUEL CELL OPERATED RESIDENTIAL MICRO-GRID COMMUNITY

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam University of South Alabama ECE Department, EEB 75 Mobile, AL 36688-0002 Phone: 251-460-6117 Fax: 251-460-6028

    2005-04-13

    To build on the work of year one by expanding the smart control algorithm developed to a micro-grid of ten houses; to perform a cost analysis; to evaluate alternate energy sources; to study system reliability; to develop the energy management algorithm, and to perform micro-grid software and hardware simulations.

  5. Unlocking the potential of smart grid technologies with behavioral science

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sintov, Nicole D.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2015-04-09

    Smart grid systems aim to provide a more stable and adaptable electricity infrastructure, and to maximize energy efficiency. Grid-linked technologies vary widely in form and function, but generally share common potentials: to reduce energy consumption via efficiency and/or curtailment, to shift use to off-peak times of day, and to enable distributed storage and generation options. Although end users are central players in these systems, they are sometimes not central considerations in technology or program design, and in some cases, their motivations for participating in such systems are not fully appreciated. Behavioral science can be instrumental in engaging end-users and maximizingmore » the impact of smart grid technologies. In this study, we present emerging technologies made possible by a smart grid infrastructure, and for each we highlight ways in which behavioral science can be applied to enhance their impact on energy savings.« less

  6. Unlocking the potential of smart grid technologies with behavioral science.

    PubMed

    Sintov, Nicole D; Schultz, P Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Smart grid systems aim to provide a more stable and adaptable electricity infrastructure, and to maximize energy efficiency. Grid-linked technologies vary widely in form and function, but generally share common potentials: to reduce energy consumption via efficiency and/or curtailment, to shift use to off-peak times of day, and to enable distributed storage and generation options. Although end users are central players in these systems, they are sometimes not central considerations in technology or program design, and in some cases, their motivations for participating in such systems are not fully appreciated. Behavioral science can be instrumental in engaging end-users and maximizing the impact of smart grid technologies. In this paper, we present emerging technologies made possible by a smart grid infrastructure, and for each we highlight ways in which behavioral science can be applied to enhance their impact on energy savings.

  7. Unlocking the potential of smart grid technologies with behavioral science

    PubMed Central

    Sintov, Nicole D.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Smart grid systems aim to provide a more stable and adaptable electricity infrastructure, and to maximize energy efficiency. Grid-linked technologies vary widely in form and function, but generally share common potentials: to reduce energy consumption via efficiency and/or curtailment, to shift use to off-peak times of day, and to enable distributed storage and generation options. Although end users are central players in these systems, they are sometimes not central considerations in technology or program design, and in some cases, their motivations for participating in such systems are not fully appreciated. Behavioral science can be instrumental in engaging end-users and maximizing the impact of smart grid technologies. In this paper, we present emerging technologies made possible by a smart grid infrastructure, and for each we highlight ways in which behavioral science can be applied to enhance their impact on energy savings. PMID:25914666

  8. Unlocking the potential of smart grid technologies with behavioral science.

    PubMed

    Sintov, Nicole D; Schultz, P Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Smart grid systems aim to provide a more stable and adaptable electricity infrastructure, and to maximize energy efficiency. Grid-linked technologies vary widely in form and function, but generally share common potentials: to reduce energy consumption via efficiency and/or curtailment, to shift use to off-peak times of day, and to enable distributed storage and generation options. Although end users are central players in these systems, they are sometimes not central considerations in technology or program design, and in some cases, their motivations for participating in such systems are not fully appreciated. Behavioral science can be instrumental in engaging end-users and maximizing the impact of smart grid technologies. In this paper, we present emerging technologies made possible by a smart grid infrastructure, and for each we highlight ways in which behavioral science can be applied to enhance their impact on energy savings. PMID:25914666

  9. Unlocking the potential of smart grid technologies with behavioral science

    SciTech Connect

    Sintov, Nicole D.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2015-04-09

    Smart grid systems aim to provide a more stable and adaptable electricity infrastructure, and to maximize energy efficiency. Grid-linked technologies vary widely in form and function, but generally share common potentials: to reduce energy consumption via efficiency and/or curtailment, to shift use to off-peak times of day, and to enable distributed storage and generation options. Although end users are central players in these systems, they are sometimes not central considerations in technology or program design, and in some cases, their motivations for participating in such systems are not fully appreciated. Behavioral science can be instrumental in engaging end-users and maximizing the impact of smart grid technologies. In this study, we present emerging technologies made possible by a smart grid infrastructure, and for each we highlight ways in which behavioral science can be applied to enhance their impact on energy savings.

  10. GridLAB-D: An Agent-Based Simulation Framework for Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Djilali, Ned

    2014-06-23

    Simulation of smart grid technologies requires a fundamentally new approach to integrated modeling of power systems, energy markets, building technologies, and the plethora of other resources and assets that are becoming part of modern electricity production, delivery, and consumption systems. As a result, the US Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity commissioned the development of a new type of power system simulation tool called GridLAB-D that uses an agent-based approach to simulating smart grids. This paper presents the numerical methods and approach to time-series simulation used by GridLAB-D and reviews applications in power system studies, market design, building control system design, and integration of wind power in a smart grid.

  11. Maui Smart Grid Demonstration Project Managing Distribution System Resources for Improved Service Quality and Reliability, Transmission Congestion Relief, and Grid Support Functions

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-09-30

    The Maui Smart Grid Project (MSGP) is under the leadership of the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The project team includes Maui Electric Company, Ltd. (MECO), Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. (HECO), Sentech (a division of SRA International, Inc.), Silver Spring Networks (SSN), Alstom Grid, Maui Economic Development Board (MEDB), University of Hawaii-Maui College (UHMC), and the County of Maui. MSGP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC26-08NT02871, with approximately 50% co-funding supplied by MECO. The project was designed to develop and demonstrate an integrated monitoring, communications, database, applications, and decision support solution that aggregates renewable energy (RE), other distributed generation (DG), energy storage, and demand response technologies in a distribution system to achieve both distribution and transmission-level benefits. The application of these new technologies and procedures will increase MECO’s visibility into system conditions, with the expected benefits of enabling more renewable energy resources to be integrated into the grid, improving service quality, increasing overall reliability of the power system, and ultimately reducing costs to both MECO and its customers.

  12. A New Approach to Design of an optimized Grid Tied Smart Solar Photovoltaic (PV) System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhad, M. Mehedi; Ali, M. Mohammad; Iqbal, M. Asif; Islam, N. Nahar; Ashraf, N.

    2012-11-01

    Energy is the key element for the economical development of a country. With the increasing concern about the global demand for Renewable Energy (RE) energy, it is very much important to reduce the cost of the whole solar photovoltaic (PV) system. Still now most of the solar photovoltaic (PV) system is highly expensive. In this paper we have shown that grid tied solar system can be developed by omitting the energy storage device like large capacity battery bank. It will not only reduce the internallosses for charging and discharging of battery bank but also at the same time a large amount of cost of the battery will be reduced. So, the system maintenance cost will be reduced also. We have proposed a new approach to design a photovoltaic (PV) solar power system which can be operated by feeding the solar power to the national grid along with the residential load. Again if there is an extra power demand for residential load along with the solar power then this system can also provide an opportunity to consume the power from the national grid. The total system is controlled with the help of some the sensors and a microcontroller. As a whole a significant reduction in the system costs and efficient system performance can be realized.

  13. Bus.py: A GridLAB-D Communication Interface for Smart Distribution Grid Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Timothy M.; Palmintier, Bryan; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Maciejewski, Anthony A.; Siegel, Howard Jay

    2015-07-03

    As more Smart Grid technologies (e.g., distributed photovoltaic, spatially distributed electric vehicle charging) are integrated into distribution grids, static distribution simulations are no longer sufficient for performing modeling and analysis. GridLAB-D is an agent-based distribution system simulation environment that allows fine-grained end-user models, including geospatial and network topology detail. A problem exists in that, without outside intervention, once the GridLAB-D simulation begins execution, it will run to completion without allowing the real-time interaction of Smart Grid controls, such as home energy management systems and aggregator control. We address this lack of runtime interaction by designing a flexible communication interface, Bus.py (pronounced bus-dot-pie), that uses Python to pass messages between one or more GridLAB-D instances and a Smart Grid simulator. This work describes the design and implementation of Bus.py, discusses its usefulness in terms of some Smart Grid scenarios, and provides an example of an aggregator-based residential demand response system interacting with GridLAB-D through Bus.py. The small scale example demonstrates the validity of the interface and shows that an aggregator using said interface is able to control residential loads in GridLAB-D during runtime to cause a reduction in the peak load on the distribution system in (a) peak reduction and (b) time-of-use pricing cases.

  14. GridLAB-D: An Agent-Based Simulation Framework for Smart Grids

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chassin, David P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Djilali, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Simulation of smart grid technologies requires a fundamentally new approach to integrated modeling of power systems, energy markets, building technologies, and the plethora of other resources and assets that are becoming part of modern electricity production, delivery, and consumption systems. As a result, the US Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity commissioned the development of a new type of power system simulation tool called GridLAB-D that uses an agent-based approach to simulating smart grids. This paper presents the numerical methods and approach to time-series simulation used by GridLAB-D and reviews applications in power system studies, market design, building control systemmore » design, and integration of wind power in a smart grid.« less

  15. Identifying emerging smart grid impacts to upstream and midstream natural gas operations.

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Annie

    2010-09-01

    The Smart Grid has come to describe a next-generation electrical power system that is typified by the increased use of communications and information technology in the generation, delivery and consumption of electrical energy. Much of the present Smart Grid analysis focuses on utility and consumer interaction. i.e. smart appliances, home automation systems, rate structures, consumer demand response, etc. An identified need is to assess the upstream and midstream operations of natural gas as a result of the smart grid. The nature of Smart Grid, including the demand response and role of information, may require changes in upstream and midstream natural gas operations to ensure availability and efficiency. Utility reliance on natural gas will continue and likely increase, given the backup requirements for intermittent renewable energy sources. Efficient generation and delivery of electricity on Smart Grid could affect how natural gas is utilized. Things that we already know about Smart Grid are: (1) The role of information and data integrity is increasingly important. (2) Smart Grid includes a fully distributed system with two-way communication. (3) Smart Grid, a complex network, may change the way energy is supplied, stored, and in demand. (4) Smart Grid has evolved through consumer driven decisions. (5) Smart Grid and the US critical infrastructure will include many intermittent renewables.

  16. Cyber-Security Considerations for the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Samuel L.; Kirkham, Harold

    2010-07-26

    The electrical power grid is evolving into the “smart grid”. The goal of the smart grid is to improve efficiency and availability of power by adding more monitoring and control capabilities. These new technologies and mechanisms are certain to introduce vulnerabilities into the power grid. In this paper we provide an overview of the cyber security state of the electrical power grid. We highlight some of the vulnerabilities that already exist in the power grid including limited capacity systems, implicit trust and the lack of authentication. We also address challenges of complexity, scale, added capabilities and the move to multipurpose hardware and software as the power grid is upgraded. These changes create vulnerabilities that did not exist before and bring increased risks. We conclude the paper by showing that there are a number mitigation strategies that can help keep the risk at an acceptable level.

  17. Smart Grid as a Service: A Discussion on Design Issues

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chen-Chou; Chou, I-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid allows the integration of distributed renewable energy resources into the conventional electricity distribution power grid such that the goals of reduction in power cost and in environment pollution can be met through an intelligent and efficient matching between power generators and power loads. Currently, this rapidly developing infrastructure is not as “smart” as it should be because of the lack of a flexible, scalable, and adaptive structure. As a solution, this work proposes smart grid as a service (SGaaS), which not only allows a smart grid to be composed out of basic services, but also allows power users to choose between different services based on their own requirements. The two important issues of service-level agreements and composition of services are also addressed in this work. Finally, we give the details of how SGaaS can be implemented using a FIPA-compliant JADE multiagent system. PMID:25243214

  18. Secure Interoperable Open Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, Thoman

    2014-12-31

    The Consolidated Edison, Inc., of New York (Con Edison) Secure Interoperable Open Smart Grid Demonstration Project (SGDP), sponsored by the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), demonstrated that the reliability, efficiency, and flexibility of the grid can be improved through a combination of enhanced monitoring and control capabilities using systems and resources that interoperate within a secure services framework. The project demonstrated the capability to shift, balance, and reduce load where and when needed in response to system contingencies or emergencies by leveraging controllable field assets. The range of field assets includes curtailable customer loads, distributed generation (DG), battery storage, electric vehicle (EV) charging stations, building management systems (BMS), home area networks (HANs), high-voltage monitoring, and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). The SGDP enables the seamless integration and control of these field assets through a common, cyber-secure, interoperable control platform, which integrates a number of existing legacy control and data systems, as well as new smart grid (SG) systems and applications. By integrating advanced technologies for monitoring and control, the SGDP helps target and reduce peak load growth, improves the reliability and efficiency of Con Edison’s grid, and increases the ability to accommodate the growing use of distributed resources. Con Edison is dedicated to lowering costs, improving reliability and customer service, and reducing its impact on the environment for its customers. These objectives also align with the policy objectives of New York State as a whole. To help meet these objectives, Con Edison’s long-term vision for the distribution grid relies on the successful integration and control of a growing penetration of distributed resources, including demand response (DR) resources, battery storage units, and DG. For example, Con Edison is expecting significant long-term growth of DG

  19. SmartGrid: Quarterly Data Summaries from the Data Hub and SmartGrid Project Information (from OpenEI and SmartGrid.gov)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Both OpenEI and SmartGrid.gov are DOE portals to a wealth of information about the federal initiatives that support the development of the technologies, policies and projects transforming the electric power industry. Projects funded through the U.S. Recovery Act are organized by type and pinned to an interactive map at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Smart_Grid. Each project title links to more detailed information. The Quarterly Data Summaries from the Data Hub at SmartGrid.gov are also available on OpenEI at http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/928. In addition, the SmartGrid Information Center contains documents and reports that can be searched or browsed. Smart Grid Resources introduces international SmartGrid programs and sites, while OpenEI encourages users to add SmartGrid information to the repository.

  20. Grid integration and smart grid implementation of emerging technologies in electric power systems through approximate dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jingjie

    A key hurdle for implementing real-time pricing of electricity is a lack of consumers' responses. Solutions to overcome the hurdle include the energy management system that automatically optimizes household appliance usage such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging (and discharging with vehicle-to-grid) via a two-way communication with the grid. Real-time pricing, combined with household automation devices, has a potential to accommodate an increasing penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. In addition, the intelligent energy controller on the consumer-side can help increase the utilization rate of the intermittent renewable resource, as the demand can be managed to match the output profile of renewables, thus making the intermittent resource such as wind and solar more economically competitive in the long run. One of the main goals of this dissertation is to present how real-time retail pricing, aided by control automation devices, can be integrated into the wholesale electricity market under various uncertainties through approximate dynamic programming. What distinguishes this study from the existing work in the literature is that whole- sale electricity prices are endogenously determined as we solve a system operator's economic dispatch problem on an hourly basis over the entire optimization horizon. This modeling and algorithm framework will allow a feedback loop between electricity prices and electricity consumption to be fully captured. While we are interested in a near-optimal solution using approximate dynamic programming; deterministic linear programming benchmarks are use to demonstrate the quality of our solutions. The other goal of the dissertation is to use this framework to provide numerical evidence to the debate on whether real-time pricing is superior than the current flat rate structure in terms of both economic and environmental impacts. For this purpose, the modeling and algorithm framework is tested on a large-scale test case

  1. Challenges and opportunities of power systems from smart homes to super-grids.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Philipp; Huber, Matthias; Dorfner, Johannes; Hamacher, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The world's power systems are facing a structural change including liberalization of markets and integration of renewable energy sources. This paper describes the challenges that lie ahead in this process and points out avenues for overcoming different problems at different scopes, ranging from individual homes to international super-grids. We apply energy system models at those different scopes and find a trade-off between technical and social complexity. Small-scale systems would require technological breakthroughs, especially for storage, but individual agents can and do already start to build and operate such systems. In contrast, large-scale systems could potentially be more efficient from a techno-economic point of view. However, new political frameworks are required that enable long-term cooperation among sovereign entities through mutual trust. Which scope first achieves its breakthrough is not clear yet. PMID:26667060

  2. Challenges and opportunities of power systems from smart homes to super-grids.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Philipp; Huber, Matthias; Dorfner, Johannes; Hamacher, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The world's power systems are facing a structural change including liberalization of markets and integration of renewable energy sources. This paper describes the challenges that lie ahead in this process and points out avenues for overcoming different problems at different scopes, ranging from individual homes to international super-grids. We apply energy system models at those different scopes and find a trade-off between technical and social complexity. Small-scale systems would require technological breakthroughs, especially for storage, but individual agents can and do already start to build and operate such systems. In contrast, large-scale systems could potentially be more efficient from a techno-economic point of view. However, new political frameworks are required that enable long-term cooperation among sovereign entities through mutual trust. Which scope first achieves its breakthrough is not clear yet.

  3. Smart Grid Legislative and Regulatory Policies and Case Studies

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a number of U.S. states have adopted or are considering smart grid related laws, regulations, and voluntary or mandatory requirements. At the same time, the number of smart grid pilot projects has been increasing rapidly. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) commissioned SAIC to research the development of smart grid in the United States and abroad. The research produced several documents that will help guide EIA as it considers how best to track smart grid developments.

  4. Intelligent and robust optimization frameworks for smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhansri, Naren Reddy

    A smart grid implies a cyberspace real-time distributed power control system to optimally deliver electricity based on varying consumer characteristics. Although smart grids solve many of the contemporary problems, they give rise to new control and optimization problems with the growing role of renewable energy sources such as wind or solar energy. Under highly dynamic nature of distributed power generation and the varying consumer demand and cost requirements, the total power output of the grid should be controlled such that the load demand is met by giving a higher priority to renewable energy sources. Hence, the power generated from renewable energy sources should be optimized while minimizing the generation from non renewable energy sources. This research develops a demand-based automatic generation control and optimization framework for real-time smart grid operations by integrating conventional and renewable energy sources under varying consumer demand and cost requirements. Focusing on the renewable energy sources, the intelligent and robust control frameworks optimize the power generation by tracking the consumer demand in a closed-loop control framework, yielding superior economic and ecological benefits and circumvent nonlinear model complexities and handles uncertainties for superior real-time operations. The proposed intelligent system framework optimizes the smart grid power generation for maximum economical and ecological benefits under an uncertain renewable wind energy source. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework is a viable approach to integrate various energy sources for real-time smart grid implementations. The robust optimization framework results demonstrate the effectiveness of the robust controllers under bounded power plant model uncertainties and exogenous wind input excitation while maximizing economical and ecological performance objectives. Therefore, the proposed framework offers a new worst-case deterministic

  5. 78 FR 18322 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National... Smart Grid Advisory Committee (SGAC or Committee), will meet in open session on Friday, April 19, 2013... Smart Grid Program Plan. The agenda may change to accommodate Committee business. The final agenda...

  6. 77 FR 71169 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National... Smart Grid Advisory Committee (SGAC or Committee), will meet in open session on Tuesday, December 18... NIST Smart Grid Program Plan. The agenda may change to accommodate Committee business. The final...

  7. Smart Grid Cybersecurity: Job Performance Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Assante, Michael; Tobey, David

    2012-08-01

    This is the project report to DOE OE-30 for the completion of Phase 1 of a 3 phase report. This report outlines the work done to develop a smart grid cybersecurity certification. This work is being done with the subcontractor NBISE.

  8. Multipath Routing of Fragmented Data Transfer in a Smart Grid Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgohain, Tuhin; Borgohain, Amardeep; Borgohain, Rajdeep; Sanyal, Sugata

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to do a general survey on the existing communication modes inside a smart grid, the existing security loopholes and their countermeasures. Then we suggest a detailed countermeasure, building upon the Jigsaw based secure data transfer [8] for enhanced security of the data flow inside the communication system of a smart grid. The paper has been written without the consideration of any factor of inoperability between the various security techniques inside a smart grid

  9. PLL Based Energy Efficient PV System with Fuzzy Logic Based Power Tracker for Smart Grid Applications.

    PubMed

    Rohini, G; Jamuna, V

    2016-01-01

    This work aims at improving the dynamic performance of the available photovoltaic (PV) system and maximizing the power obtained from it by the use of cascaded converters with intelligent control techniques. Fuzzy logic based maximum power point technique is embedded on the first conversion stage to obtain the maximum power from the available PV array. The cascading of second converter is needed to maintain the terminal voltage at grid potential. The soft-switching region of three-stage converter is increased with the proposed phase-locked loop based control strategy. The proposed strategy leads to reduction in the ripple content, rating of components, and switching losses. The PV array is mathematically modeled and the system is simulated and the results are analyzed. The performance of the system is compared with the existing maximum power point tracking algorithms. The authors have endeavored to accomplish maximum power and improved reliability for the same insolation of the PV system. Hardware results of the system are also discussed to prove the validity of the simulation results.

  10. PLL Based Energy Efficient PV System with Fuzzy Logic Based Power Tracker for Smart Grid Applications.

    PubMed

    Rohini, G; Jamuna, V

    2016-01-01

    This work aims at improving the dynamic performance of the available photovoltaic (PV) system and maximizing the power obtained from it by the use of cascaded converters with intelligent control techniques. Fuzzy logic based maximum power point technique is embedded on the first conversion stage to obtain the maximum power from the available PV array. The cascading of second converter is needed to maintain the terminal voltage at grid potential. The soft-switching region of three-stage converter is increased with the proposed phase-locked loop based control strategy. The proposed strategy leads to reduction in the ripple content, rating of components, and switching losses. The PV array is mathematically modeled and the system is simulated and the results are analyzed. The performance of the system is compared with the existing maximum power point tracking algorithms. The authors have endeavored to accomplish maximum power and improved reliability for the same insolation of the PV system. Hardware results of the system are also discussed to prove the validity of the simulation results. PMID:27294189

  11. PLL Based Energy Efficient PV System with Fuzzy Logic Based Power Tracker for Smart Grid Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rohini, G.; Jamuna, V.

    2016-01-01

    This work aims at improving the dynamic performance of the available photovoltaic (PV) system and maximizing the power obtained from it by the use of cascaded converters with intelligent control techniques. Fuzzy logic based maximum power point technique is embedded on the first conversion stage to obtain the maximum power from the available PV array. The cascading of second converter is needed to maintain the terminal voltage at grid potential. The soft-switching region of three-stage converter is increased with the proposed phase-locked loop based control strategy. The proposed strategy leads to reduction in the ripple content, rating of components, and switching losses. The PV array is mathematically modeled and the system is simulated and the results are analyzed. The performance of the system is compared with the existing maximum power point tracking algorithms. The authors have endeavored to accomplish maximum power and improved reliability for the same insolation of the PV system. Hardware results of the system are also discussed to prove the validity of the simulation results. PMID:27294189

  12. Bio-Inspired Cyber Security for Smart Grid Deployments

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, Archibald D.; Thompson, Seth R.; Doroshchuk, Ruslan A.; Fink, Glenn A.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2013-05-01

    mart grid technologies are transforming the electric power grid into a grid with bi-directional flows of both power and information. Operating millions of new smart meters and smart appliances will significantly impact electric distribution systems resulting in greater efficiency. However, the scale of the grid and the new types of information transmitted will potentially introduce several security risks that cannot be addressed by traditional, centralized security techniques. We propose a new bio-inspired cyber security approach. Social insects, such as ants and bees, have developed complex-adaptive systems that emerge from the collective application of simple, light-weight behaviors. The Digital Ants framework is a bio-inspired framework that uses mobile light-weight agents. Sensors within the framework use digital pheromones to communicate with each other and to alert each other of possible cyber security issues. All communication and coordination is both localized and decentralized thereby allowing the framework to scale across the large numbers of devices that will exist in the smart grid. Furthermore, the sensors are light-weight and therefore suitable for implementation on devices with limited computational resources. This paper will provide a brief overview of the Digital Ants framework and then present results from test bed-based demonstrations that show that Digital Ants can identify a cyber attack scenario against smart meter deployments.

  13. Smart Grid Development Issues for Terrestrial and Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, James F.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the so called Smart Grid has as many definitions as individuals working in the area. Based on the technology or technologies that are of interest, be it high speed communication, renewable generation, smart meters, energy storage, advanced sensors, etc. they can become the individual defining characteristic of the Smart Grid. In reality the smart grid encompasses all of these items and quite at bit more. This discussion attempts to look at what the needs are for the grid of the future, such as the issues of increased power flow capability, use of renewable energy, increased security and efficiency and common power and data standards. It also shows how many of these issues are common with the needs of NASA for future exploration programs. A common theme to address both terrestrial and space exploration issues is to develop micro-grids that advertise the ability to enable the load leveling of large power generation facilities. However, for microgrids to realize their promise there needs to a holistic systems approach to their development and integration. The overall system integration issues are presented along with potential solution methodologies.

  14. Smart Grid Development Issues for Terrestrial and Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, James F.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the so called Smart Grid has as many definitions as individuals working in the area. Based on the technology or technologies that are of interest, be it high speed communication, renewable generation, smart meters, energy storage, advanced sensors, etc. they can become the individual defining characteristic of the Smart Grid. In reality the smart grid encompasses all of these items and quite at bit more. This discussion attempts to look at what the needs are for the grid of the future, such as the issues of increased power flow capability, use of renewable energy, increased security and efficiency and common power and data standards. It also shows how many of these issues are common with the needs of NASA for future exploration programs. A common theme to address both terrestrial and space exploration issues is to develop micro-grids that advertise the ability to enable the load leveling of large power generation facilities. However, for microgrids to realize their promise there needs to a holistic systems approach to their development and integration. The overall system integration issues are presented along with potential solution methodologies.

  15. A Measurement and Power Line Communication System Design for Renewable Smart Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabalci, E.; Kabalci, Y.

    2013-10-01

    The data communication over the electric power lines can be managed easily and economically since the grid connections are already spread around all over the world. This paper investigates the applicability of Power Line Communication (PLC) in an energy generation system that is based on photovoltaic (PV) panels with the modeling study in Matlab/Simulink. The Simulink model covers the designed PV panels, boost converter with Perturb and Observe (P&O) control algorithm, full bridge inverter, and the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modem that is utilized to transfer the measured data over the power lines. This study proposes a novel method to use the electrical power lines not only for carrying the line voltage but also to transmit the measurements of the renewable energy generation plants. Hence, it is aimed at minimizing the additional monitoring costs such as SCADA, Ethernet-based or GSM based systems by using the proposed technique. Although this study is performed with solar power plants, the proposed model can be applied to other renewable generation systems. Consequently, the usage of the proposed technique instead of SCADA or Ethernet-based systems eliminates additional monitoring costs.

  16. Maturity Model for Advancing Smart Grid Interoperability

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Mark; Widergren, Steven E.; Mater, J.; Montgomery, Austin

    2013-10-28

    Abstract—Interoperability is about the properties of devices and systems to connect and work properly. Advancing interoperability eases integration and maintenance of the resulting interconnection. This leads to faster integration, lower labor and component costs, predictability of projects and the resulting performance, and evolutionary paths for upgrade. When specifications are shared and standardized, competition and novel solutions can bring new value streams to the community of stakeholders involved. Advancing interoperability involves reaching agreement for how things join at their interfaces. The quality of the agreements and the alignment of parties involved in the agreement present challenges that are best met with process improvement techniques. The GridWise® Architecture Council (GWAC) sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is supporting an effort to use concepts from capability maturity models used in the software industry to advance interoperability of smart grid technology. An interoperability maturity model has been drafted and experience is being gained through trials on various types of projects and community efforts. This paper describes the value and objectives of maturity models, the nature of the interoperability maturity model and how it compares with other maturity models, and experiences gained with its use.

  17. Survey of cyber security issues in smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Thomas M.

    2010-04-01

    The future smart grid will enable cost savings and lower energy use by means of smart appliances and smart meters which support dynamic load management and real-time monitoring of energy use and distribution. The introduction of two-way communications and control into power grid introduces security and privacy concerns. This talk will survey the security and privacy issues in smart grids using the NIST reference model, and relate these issues to cyber security in the Internet.

  18. An Informatics Approach to Demand Response Optimization in Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Aman, Saima; Cao, Baohua; Giakkoupis, Mike; Kumbhare, Alok; Zhou, Qunzhi; Paul, Donald; Fern, Carol; Sharma, Aditya; Prasanna, Viktor K

    2011-03-03

    Power utilities are increasingly rolling out “smart” grids with the ability to track consumer power usage in near real-time using smart meters that enable bidirectional communication. However, the true value of smart grids is unlocked only when the veritable explosion of data that will become available is ingested, processed, analyzed and translated into meaningful decisions. These include the ability to forecast electricity demand, respond to peak load events, and improve sustainable use of energy by consumers, and are made possible by energy informatics. Information and software system techniques for a smarter power grid include pattern mining and machine learning over complex events and integrated semantic information, distributed stream processing for low latency response,Cloud platforms for scalable operations and privacy policies to mitigate information leakage in an information rich environment. Such an informatics approach is being used in the DoE sponsored Los Angeles Smart Grid Demonstration Project, and the resulting software architecture will lead to an agile and adaptive Los Angeles Smart Grid.

  19. Home Area Networks and the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Samuel L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Hadley, Mark D.

    2011-04-01

    With the wide array of home area network (HAN) options being presented as solutions to smart grid challenges for the home, it is time to compare and contrast their strengths and weaknesses. This white paper examines leading and emerging HAN technologies. The emergence of the smart grid is bringing more networking players into the field. The need for low consistent bandwidth usage differs enough from the traditional information technology world to open the door to new technologies. The predominant players currently consist of a blend of the old and new. Within the wired world Ethernet and HomePlug Green PHY are leading the way with an advantage to HomePlug because it doesn't require installing new wires. In the wireless the realm there are many more competitors but WiFi and ZigBee seem to have the most momentum.

  20. Comprehensive Smart Grid Planning in a Regulated Utility Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Matthew; Liao, Yuan; Du, Yan

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the tools and exercises used during the Kentucky Smart Grid Roadmap Initiative in a collaborative electric grid planning process involving state regulators, public utilities, academic institutions, and private interest groups. The mandate of the initiative was to assess the existing condition of smart grid deployments in Kentucky, to enhance understanding of smart grid concepts by stakeholders, and to develop a roadmap for the deployment of smart grid technologies by the jurisdictional utilities of Kentucky. Through involvement of many important stakeholder groups, the resultant Smart Grid Deployment Roadmap proposes an aggressive yet achievable strategy and timetable designed to promote enhanced availability, security, efficiency, reliability, affordability, sustainability and safety of the electricity supply throughout the state while maintaining Kentucky's nationally competitive electricity rates. The models and methods developed for this exercise can be utilized as a systematic process for the planning of coordinated smart grid deployments.

  1. OPNET/Simulink Based Testbed for Disturbance Detection in the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Sadi, Mohammad A. H.; Dasgupta, Dipankar; Ali, Mohammad Hassan; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    The important backbone of the smart grid is the cyber/information infrastructure, which is primarily used to communicate with different grid components. A smart grid is a complex cyber physical system containing a numerous and variety number of sources, devices, controllers and loads. Therefore, the smart grid is vulnerable to grid related disturbances. For such dynamic system, disturbance and intrusion detection is a paramount issue. This paper presents a Simulink and Opnet based co-simulated platform to carry out a cyber-intrusion in cyber network for modern power systems and the smart grid. The IEEE 30 bus power system model is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the simulated testbed. The experiments were performed by disturbing the circuit breakers reclosing time through a cyber-attack. Different disturbance situations in the considered test system are considered and the results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed co-simulated scheme.

  2. Study on the SMES Application Solutions for Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jian Xun; Chen, Xiao Yuan

    This paper proposes the application solutions of the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) technology for using in future smart grids. The compensation power arrangements in hybrid energy storage systems (ESSs) using small-scale SMESs have been discussed. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to solve the Pareto optimal solution set in distributed SMES (D-SMES) solution. The practical application schemes for micro grid, flexible AC transmission and distribution systems, and the whole power system including the power generation side, power transmission side, power distribution side and power consumer side have then been proposed and discussed.

  3. IEEE Smart Grid Series of Standards IEEE 2030 (Interoperability) and IEEE 1547 (Interconnection) Status: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2012-04-01

    The IEEE American National Standards smart grid publications and standards development projects IEEE 2030, which addresses smart grid interoperability, and IEEE 1547TM, which addresses distributed resources interconnection with the grid, have made substantial progress since 2009. The IEEE 2030TM and 1547 standards series focus on systems-level aspects and cover many of the technical integration issues involved in a mature smart grid. The status and highlights of these two IEEE series of standards, which are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21), are provided in this paper.

  4. Toward Real Time Data Analysis for Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Jian; Gorton, Ian; Sharma, Poorva

    2012-11-10

    This paper describes the architecture and design of a novel system for supporting large-scale real-time data analysis for future power grid systems. The widespread deployment of renewable generation, smart grid controls, energy storage, plug-in hybrids, and new conducting materials will require fundamental changes in the operational concepts and principal components of the grid. As a result, the whole system becomes highly dynamic and requires constant adjusting based on real time data. Even though millions of sensors such as phase measurement units (PMU) and smart meters are being widely deployed, a data layer that can analyze this amount of data in real time is needed. Unlike the data fabric in other cloud services, the data layer for smart grids has some unique design requirements. First, this layer must provide real time guarantees. Second, this layer must be scalable to allow a large number of applications to access the data from millions of sensors in real time. Third, reliability is critical and this layer must be able to continue to provide service in face of failures. Fourth, this layer must be secure. We address these challenges though a scalable system architecture that integrates the I/O and data processing capability in a devise set of devices. Data process operations can be placed anywhere from sensors, data storage devices, to control centers. We further employ compression to improve performance. We design a lightweight compression customized for power grid data. Our system can reduce end-to-end response time by reduce I/O overhead through compression and overlap compression operations with I/O. The initial prototype of our system was demonstrated with several use cases from PNNL’s FPGI and show that our system can provide real time guarantees to a diverse set of applications.

  5. Evaluation of the Netherlands' International Test Facility for Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Palmintier, Bryan; Pratt, Annabelle

    2015-06-01

    The Netherlands Enterprise Agency (Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland, or RVO) engaged the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for two primary purposes: to evaluate the International Test Facility for Smart Grids (ITF) sponsored by RVO and to learn best practices for integrated test facilities from NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF). This report covers the ITF evaluation and is largely based on a one-week visit to the Netherlands in November 2014.

  6. Designing power system simulators for the smart grid: combining controls, communications, and electro-mechanical dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J

    2011-01-01

    Open source software has a leading role in research on simulation technology for electrical power systems. Research simulators demonstrate new features for which there is nascent but growing demand not yet provided for by commercial simulators. Of particular interest is the inclusion of models of software-intensive and communication-intensive controls in simulations of power system transients. This paper describes two features of the ORNL power system simulator that help it meet this need. First is its use of discrete event simulation for all aspects of the model: control, communication, and electro-mechanical dynamics. Second is an interoperability interface that enables the ORNL power system simulator to be integrated with existing, discrete event simulators of digital communication systems. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of how these aspects of the ORNL power system simulator might be inserted into production-grade simulation tools.

  7. Flow Battery Solution for Smart Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-30

    To address future grid requirements, a U.S. Department of Energy ARRA Storage Demonstration program was launched in 2009 to commercialize promising technologies needed for stronger and more renewables-intensive grids. Raytheon Ktech and EnerVault received a cost-share grant award from the U.S. Department of Energy to develop a grid-scale storage system based on EnerVault’s iron-chromium redox flow battery technology.

  8. Volttron: An Agent Platform for the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Haack, Jereme N.; Akyol, Bora A.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Tews, Cody W.; Foglesong, Lance W.

    2013-05-06

    VOLLTRON platform enables the deployment of intelligent sensors and controllers in the smart grid and provides a stable, secure and flexible framework that expands the sensing and control capabilities. VOLTTRON platform provides services fulfilling the essential requirements of resource management and security for agent operation in the power grid. The facilities provided by the platform allow agent developers to focus on the implementation of their agent system and not on the necessary "plumbing' code. For example, a simple collaborative demand response application was written in less than 200 lines of Python.

  9. Achieving Resiliency by Eliminating Common Mode Failures in the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-01-19

    Abstract—This panel presentation will provide perspectives of resiliency as it relates to smart grids. As smart grid technologies are deployed, the interconnected nature of these systems is becoming more prevalent and more complex, and while resilience is expected to be enhanced, the presence of common mode failures will thwart the ability of the smart grid to achieve full levels of resilience. Studying system behavior in the face of failures (e.g., cyber attacks) allows a characterization of the systems’ response to failure scenarios, loss of communications, and other changes in system environment (such as the need for emergent updates and rapid reconfiguration). The impact of such failures on the availability of the system can be assessed and mitigation strategies considered. This panel will consider measures to identify and eliminate common mode failure mechanisms that might be present in the deployment of smart grid systems.

  10. A Study of the Relationship between Weather Variables and Electric Power Demand inside a Smart Grid/Smart World Framework

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Luis; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M.; Calavia, Lorena; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio; Cook, Diane J.; Chinarro, David; Gómez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges of today's society is the need to fulfill at the same time the two sides of the dichotomy between the growing energy demand and the need to look after the environment. Smart Grids are one of the answers: intelligent energy grids which retrieve data about the environment through extensive sensor networks and react accordingly to optimize resource consumption. In order to do this, the Smart Grids need to understand the existing relationship between energy demand and a set of relevant climatic variables. All smart “systems” (buildings, cities, homes, consumers, etc.) have the potential to employ their intelligence for self-adaptation to climate conditions. After introducing the Smart World, a global framework for the collaboration of these smart systems, this paper presents the relationship found at experimental level between a range of relevant weather variables and electric power demand patterns, presenting a case study using an agent-based system, and emphasizing the need to consider this relationship in certain Smart World (and specifically Smart Grid and microgrid) applications.

  11. Flexible Residential Smart Grid Simulation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Wang

    Different scheduling and coordination algorithms controlling household appliances' operations can potentially lead to energy consumption reduction and/or load balancing in conjunction with different electricity pricing methods used in smart grid programs. In order to easily implement different algorithms and evaluate their efficiency against other ideas, a flexible simulation framework is desirable in both research and business fields. However, such a platform is currently lacking or underdeveloped. In this thesis, we provide a simulation framework to focus on demand side residential energy consumption coordination in response to different pricing methods. This simulation framework, equipped with an appliance consumption library using realistic values, aims to closely represent the average usage of different types of appliances. The simulation results of traditional usage yield close matching values compared to surveyed real life consumption records. Several sample coordination algorithms, pricing schemes, and communication scenarios are also implemented to illustrate the use of the simulation framework.

  12. Role of Smart Grids in Integrating Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Speer, B.; Miller, M.; Schaffer, W.; Gueran, L.; Reuter, A.; Jang, B.; Widegren, K.

    2015-05-27

    This report was prepared for the International Smart Grid Action Network (ISGAN), which periodically publishes briefs and discussion papers on key topics of smart grid development globally. The topic of this report was selected by a multilateral group of national experts participating in ISGAN Annex 4, a working group that aims to produce synthesis insights for decision makers. This report is an update of a 2012 ISGAN Annex 4 report entitled “Smart Grid Contributions to Variable Renewable Resource Integration.” That report and other past publications of ISGAN Annexes can be found at www.iea-isgan.org and at www.cleanenergysolutions.org.

  13. Frequency versus time domain immunity testing of Smart Grid components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronwald, F.

    2014-11-01

    Smart Grid components often are subject to considerable conducted current disturbances in the frequency range 2-150 kHz and, as a consequence, it is necessary to provide reliable immunity test methods. The relevant basic standard IEC 61000-4-19 that is currently under discussion focusses on frequency domain test methods. It is remarked in this contribution that in the context of frequency domain testing the chosen frequency spacing is related to the resonance response of the system under test which, in turn, is characterized in terms of resonance frequencies and quality factors. These notions apply well to physical system but it is pointed out by the example of an actual smart meter immunity test that smart grid components may exhibit susceptibilities that do not necessarily follow a resonance pattern and, additionally, can be narrowband. As a consequence it is suggested to supplement the present frequency domain test methods by time domain tests which utilize damped sinusoidal excitations with corresponding spectra that properly cover the frequency range 2-150 kHz, as exemplified by the military standard MIL-STD-461.

  14. Data processing of high-rate low-voltage distribution grid recordings for smart grid monitoring and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaß, Heiko; Cakmak, Hüseyin Kemal; Bach, Felix; Mikut, Ralf; Harrabi, Aymen; Süß, Wolfgang; Jakob, Wilfried; Stucky, Karl-Uwe; Kühnapfel, Uwe G.; Hagenmeyer, Veit

    2015-12-01

    Power networks will change from a rigid hierarchic architecture to dynamic interconnected smart grids. In traditional power grids, the frequency is the controlled quantity to maintain supply and load power balance. Thereby, high rotating mass inertia ensures for stability. In the future, system stability will have to rely more on real-time measurements and sophisticated control, especially when integrating fluctuating renewable power sources or high-load consumers like electrical vehicles to the low-voltage distribution grid.

  15. Smart signal processing for an evolving electric grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Leandro Rodrigues Manso; Duque, Calos Augusto; Ribeiro, Paulo F.

    2015-12-01

    Electric grids are interconnected complex systems consisting of generation, transmission, distribution, and active loads, recently called prosumers as they produce and consume electric energy. Additionally, these encompass a vast array of equipment such as machines, power transformers, capacitor banks, power electronic devices, motors, etc. that are continuously evolving in their demand characteristics. Given these conditions, signal processing is becoming an essential assessment tool to enable the engineer and researcher to understand, plan, design, and operate the complex and smart electronic grid of the future. This paper focuses on recent developments associated with signal processing applied to power system analysis in terms of characterization and diagnostics. The following techniques are reviewed and their characteristics and applications discussed: active power system monitoring, sparse representation of power system signal, real-time resampling, and time-frequency (i.e., wavelets) applied to power fluctuations.

  16. A decision support system using combined-classifier for high-speed data stream in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hang; Li, Peng; He, Zhian; Guo, Xiaobin; Fong, Simon; Chen, Huajun

    2016-11-01

    Large volume of high-speed streaming data is generated by big power grids continuously. In order to detect and avoid power grid failure, decision support systems (DSSs) are commonly adopted in power grid enterprises. Among all the decision-making algorithms, incremental decision tree is the most widely used one. In this paper, we propose a combined classifier that is a composite of a cache-based classifier (CBC) and a main tree classifier (MTC). We integrate this classifier into a stream processing engine on top of the DSS such that high-speed steaming data can be transformed into operational intelligence efficiently. Experimental results show that our proposed classifier can return more accurate answers than other existing ones.

  17. GRID INDEPENDENT FUEL CELL OPERATED SMART HOME

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam

    2003-12-07

    A fuel cell power plant, which utilizes a smart energy management and control (SEMaC) system, supplying the power need of laboratory based ''home'' has been purchased and installed. The ''home'' consists of two rooms, each approximately 250 sq. ft. Every appliance and power outlet is under the control of a host computer, running the SEMaC software package. It is possible to override the computer, in the event that an appliance or power outage is required. Detailed analysis and simulation of the fuel cell operated smart home has been performed. Two journal papers has been accepted for publication and another journal paper is under review. Three theses have been completed and three additional theses are in progress.

  18. Exploiting the Potential of Data Centers in the Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yu-An; Liu, Xiaojing; Cao, Tengfei

    As the number of cloud computing data centers grows rapidly in recent years, from the perspective of smart grid, they are really large and noticeable electric load. In this paper, we focus on the important role and the potential of data centers as controllable loads in the smart grid. We reviewed relevant research in the area of letting data centers participate in the ancillary services market and demand response programs of the grid, and further investigate the possibility of exploiting the impact of data center placement on the grid. Various opportunities and challenges are summarized, which could provide more chances for researches to explore this field.

  19. Elliptic Curve Cryptography-Based Authentication with Identity Protection for Smart Grids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Tang, Shanyu; Luo, He

    2016-01-01

    In a smart grid, the power service provider enables the expected power generation amount to be measured according to current power consumption, thus stabilizing the power system. However, the data transmitted over smart grids are not protected, and then suffer from several types of security threats and attacks. Thus, a robust and efficient authentication protocol should be provided to strength the security of smart grid networks. As the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system provides the security protection between the control center and substations in most smart grid environments, we focus on how to secure the communications between the substations and smart appliances. Existing security approaches fail to address the performance-security balance. In this study, we suggest a mitigation authentication protocol based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography with privacy protection by using a tamper-resistant device at the smart appliance side to achieve a delicate balance between performance and security of smart grids. The proposed protocol provides some attractive features such as identity protection, mutual authentication and key agreement. Finally, we demonstrate the completeness of the proposed protocol using the Gong-Needham-Yahalom logic. PMID:27007951

  20. Elliptic Curve Cryptography-Based Authentication with Identity Protection for Smart Grids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Tang, Shanyu; Luo, He

    2016-01-01

    In a smart grid, the power service provider enables the expected power generation amount to be measured according to current power consumption, thus stabilizing the power system. However, the data transmitted over smart grids are not protected, and then suffer from several types of security threats and attacks. Thus, a robust and efficient authentication protocol should be provided to strength the security of smart grid networks. As the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system provides the security protection between the control center and substations in most smart grid environments, we focus on how to secure the communications between the substations and smart appliances. Existing security approaches fail to address the performance-security balance. In this study, we suggest a mitigation authentication protocol based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography with privacy protection by using a tamper-resistant device at the smart appliance side to achieve a delicate balance between performance and security of smart grids. The proposed protocol provides some attractive features such as identity protection, mutual authentication and key agreement. Finally, we demonstrate the completeness of the proposed protocol using the Gong-Needham-Yahalom logic.

  1. Elliptic Curve Cryptography-Based Authentication with Identity Protection for Smart Grids

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liping; Tang, Shanyu; Luo, He

    2016-01-01

    In a smart grid, the power service provider enables the expected power generation amount to be measured according to current power consumption, thus stabilizing the power system. However, the data transmitted over smart grids are not protected, and then suffer from several types of security threats and attacks. Thus, a robust and efficient authentication protocol should be provided to strength the security of smart grid networks. As the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system provides the security protection between the control center and substations in most smart grid environments, we focus on how to secure the communications between the substations and smart appliances. Existing security approaches fail to address the performance-security balance. In this study, we suggest a mitigation authentication protocol based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography with privacy protection by using a tamper-resistant device at the smart appliance side to achieve a delicate balance between performance and security of smart grids. The proposed protocol provides some attractive features such as identity protection, mutual authentication and key agreement. Finally, we demonstrate the completeness of the proposed protocol using the Gong-Needham- Yahalom logic. PMID:27007951

  2. High-Performance Computing for Advanced Smart Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu

    2012-07-06

    The power grid is becoming far more complex as a result of the grid evolution meeting an information revolution. Due to the penetration of smart grid technologies, the grid is evolving as an unprecedented speed and the information infrastructure is fundamentally improved with a large number of smart meters and sensors that produce several orders of magnitude larger amounts of data. How to pull data in, perform analysis, and put information out in a real-time manner is a fundamental challenge in smart grid operation and planning. The future power grid requires high performance computing to be one of the foundational technologies in developing the algorithms and tools for the significantly increased complexity. New techniques and computational capabilities are required to meet the demands for higher reliability and better asset utilization, including advanced algorithms and computing hardware for large-scale modeling, simulation, and analysis. This chapter summarizes the computational challenges in smart grid and the need for high performance computing, and present examples of how high performance computing might be used for future smart grid operation and planning.

  3. Optimal Operation Method of Smart House by Controllable Loads based on Smart Grid Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoza, Akihiro; Uchida, Kosuke; Yona, Atsushi; Senju, Tomonobu

    2013-08-01

    From the perspective of global warming suppression and depletion of energy resources, renewable energy such as wind generation (WG) and photovoltaic generation (PV) are getting attention in distribution systems. Additionally, all electrification apartment house or residence such as DC smart house have increased in recent years. However, due to fluctuating power from renewable energy sources and loads, supply-demand balancing fluctuations of power system become problematic. Therefore, "smart grid" has become very popular in the worldwide. This article presents a methodology for optimal operation of a smart grid to minimize the interconnection point power flow fluctuations. To achieve the proposed optimal operation, we use distributed controllable loads such as battery and heat pump. By minimizing the interconnection point power flow fluctuations, it is possible to reduce the maximum electric power consumption and the electric cost. This system consists of photovoltaics generator, heat pump, battery, solar collector, and load. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, MATLAB is used in simulations.

  4. Information Theoretically Secure, Enhanced Johnson Noise Based Key Distribution over the Smart Grid with Switched Filters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions. PMID:23936164

  5. Information theoretically secure, enhanced Johnson noise based key distribution over the smart grid with switched filters.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Elias; Kish, Laszlo B; Balog, Robert S; Enjeti, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions.

  6. Information theoretically secure, enhanced Johnson noise based key distribution over the smart grid with switched filters.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Elias; Kish, Laszlo B; Balog, Robert S; Enjeti, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a protocol with a reconfigurable filter system to create non-overlapping single loops in the smart power grid for the realization of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise secure key distribution system. The protocol is valid for one-dimensional radial networks (chain-like power line) which are typical of the electricity distribution network between the utility and the customer. The speed of the protocol (the number of steps needed) versus grid size is analyzed. When properly generalized, such a system has the potential to achieve unconditionally secure key distribution over the smart power grid of arbitrary geometrical dimensions. PMID:23936164

  7. AVQS: Attack Route-Based Vulnerability Quantification Scheme for Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Seokjun; Shon, Taeshik

    2014-01-01

    A smart grid is a large, consolidated electrical grid system that includes heterogeneous networks and systems. Based on the data, a smart grid system has a potential security threat in its network connectivity. To solve this problem, we develop and apply a novel scheme to measure the vulnerability in a smart grid domain. Vulnerability quantification can be the first step in security analysis because it can help prioritize the security problems. However, existing vulnerability quantification schemes are not suitable for smart grid because they do not consider network vulnerabilities. We propose a novel attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme using a network vulnerability score and an end-to-end security score, depending on the specific smart grid network environment to calculate the vulnerability score for a particular attack route. To evaluate the proposed approach, we derive several attack scenarios from the advanced metering infrastructure domain. The experimental results of the proposed approach and the existing common vulnerability scoring system clearly show that we need to consider network connectivity for more optimized vulnerability quantification. PMID:25152923

  8. AVQS: attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme for smart grid.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jongbin; Lim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Seokjun; Shon, Taeshik

    2014-01-01

    A smart grid is a large, consolidated electrical grid system that includes heterogeneous networks and systems. Based on the data, a smart grid system has a potential security threat in its network connectivity. To solve this problem, we develop and apply a novel scheme to measure the vulnerability in a smart grid domain. Vulnerability quantification can be the first step in security analysis because it can help prioritize the security problems. However, existing vulnerability quantification schemes are not suitable for smart grid because they do not consider network vulnerabilities. We propose a novel attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme using a network vulnerability score and an end-to-end security score, depending on the specific smart grid network environment to calculate the vulnerability score for a particular attack route. To evaluate the proposed approach, we derive several attack scenarios from the advanced metering infrastructure domain. The experimental results of the proposed approach and the existing common vulnerability scoring system clearly show that we need to consider network connectivity for more optimized vulnerability quantification.

  9. AVQS: attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme for smart grid.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jongbin; Lim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Seokjun; Shon, Taeshik

    2014-01-01

    A smart grid is a large, consolidated electrical grid system that includes heterogeneous networks and systems. Based on the data, a smart grid system has a potential security threat in its network connectivity. To solve this problem, we develop and apply a novel scheme to measure the vulnerability in a smart grid domain. Vulnerability quantification can be the first step in security analysis because it can help prioritize the security problems. However, existing vulnerability quantification schemes are not suitable for smart grid because they do not consider network vulnerabilities. We propose a novel attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme using a network vulnerability score and an end-to-end security score, depending on the specific smart grid network environment to calculate the vulnerability score for a particular attack route. To evaluate the proposed approach, we derive several attack scenarios from the advanced metering infrastructure domain. The experimental results of the proposed approach and the existing common vulnerability scoring system clearly show that we need to consider network connectivity for more optimized vulnerability quantification. PMID:25152923

  10. Faces of the Recovery Act: The Impact of Smart Grid

    ScienceCinema

    President Obama

    2016-07-12

    On October 27th, Baltimore Gas & Electric was selected to receive $200 million for Smart Grid innovation projects under the Recovery Act. Watch as members of their team, along with President Obama, explain how building a smarter grid will help consumers cut their utility bills, battle climate change and create jobs.

  11. Argonne National Laboratory Smart Grid Technology Interactive Model

    ScienceCinema

    Ted Bohn

    2016-07-12

    As our attention turns to new cars that run partially or completely on electricity, how can we redesign our electric grid to not only handle the new load, but make electricity cheap and efficient for everyone? Argonne engineer Ted Bohn explains a model of a "smart grid" that gives consumers the power to choose their own prices and sources of electricity.

  12. Faces of the Recovery Act: The Impact of Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    President Obama

    2009-11-24

    On October 27th, Baltimore Gas & Electric was selected to receive $200 million for Smart Grid innovation projects under the Recovery Act. Watch as members of their team, along with President Obama, explain how building a smarter grid will help consumers cut their utility bills, battle climate change and create jobs.

  13. Argonne National Laboratory Smart Grid Technology Interactive Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Bohn

    2009-10-13

    As our attention turns to new cars that run partially or completely on electricity, how can we redesign our electric grid to not only handle the new load, but make electricity cheap and efficient for everyone? Argonne engineer Ted Bohn explains a model of a "smart grid" that gives consumers the power to choose their own prices and sources of electricity.

  14. Feature combination analysis in smart grid based using SOM for Sudan national grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohari, Z. H.; Yusof, M. A. M.; Jali, M. H.; Sulaima, M. F.; Nasir, M. N. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the investigation of power grid security, the cascading failure in multicontingency situations has been a test because of its topological unpredictability and computational expense. Both system investigations and burden positioning routines have their limits. In this project, in view of sorting toward Self Organizing Maps (SOM), incorporated methodology consolidating spatial feature (distance)-based grouping with electrical attributes (load) to evaluate the vulnerability and cascading impact of various part sets in the force lattice. Utilizing the grouping result from SOM, sets of overwhelming stacked beginning victimized people to perform assault conspires and asses the consequent falling impact of their failures, and this SOM-based approach viably distinguishes the more powerless sets of substations than those from the conventional burden positioning and other bunching strategies. The robustness of power grids is a central topic in the design of the so called "smart grid". In this paper, to analyze the measures of importance of the nodes in a power grid under cascading failure. With these efforts, we can distinguish the most vulnerable nodes and protect them, improving the safety of the power grid. Also we can measure if a structure is proper for power grids.

  15. Data Grid Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.; Jagatheesan, Arun; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael; Schroeder, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The "Grid" is an emerging infrastructure for coordinating access across autonomous organizations to distributed, heterogeneous computation and data resources. Data grids are being built around the world as the next generation data handling systems for sharing, publishing, and preserving data residing on storage systems located in multiple administrative domains. A data grid provides logical namespaces for users, digital entities and storage resources to create persistent identifiers for controlling access, enabling discovery, and managing wide area latencies. This paper introduces data grids and describes data grid use cases. The relevance of data grids to digital libraries and persistent archives is demonstrated, and research issues in data grids and grid dataflow management systems are discussed.

  16. Information Security Risk Assessment of Smart Grid Based on Absorbing Markov Chain and SPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianye, Zhang; Qinshun, Zeng; Yiyang, Song; Cunbin, Li

    2014-12-01

    To assess and prevent the smart grid information security risks more effectively, this paper provides risk index quantitative calculation method based on absorbing Markov chain to overcome the deficiencies that links between system components were not taken into consideration and studies mostly were limited to static evaluation. The method avoids the shortcomings of traditional Expert Score with significant subjective factors and also considers the links between information system components, which make the risk index system closer to the reality. Then, a smart grid information security risk assessment model on the basis of set pair analysis improved by Markov chain was established. Using the identity, discrepancy, and contradiction of connection degree to dynamically reflect the trend of smart grid information security risk and combining with the Markov chain to calculate connection degree of the next period, the model implemented the smart grid information security risk assessment comprehensively and dynamically. Finally, this paper proves that the established model is scientific, effective, and feasible to dynamically evaluate the smart grid information security risks.

  17. Smart Sensor Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Stetter, J. R.; Hesketh, P. J.; Liu, C. C.

    Sensors and sensor systems are vital to our awareness of our surroundings and provide safety, security, and surveillance, as well as enable monitoring of our health and environment. A transformative advance in the field of sensor technology has been the development of "Smart Sensor Systems". The definition of a Smart Sensor may vary, but typically at a minimum a Smart Sensor is the combination of a sensing element with processing capabilities provided by a microprocessor. That is, Smart Sensors are basic sensing elements with embedded intelligence. The sensor signal is fed to the microprocessor, which processes the data and provides an informative output to an external user. A more expansive view of a Smart Sensor System, which is used in this article, is illustrated in Fig. 19.1: a complete self-contained sensor system that includes the capabilities for logging, processing with a model of sensor response and other data, self-contained power, and an ability to transmit or display informative data to an outside user. The fundamental idea of a smart sensor is that the integration of silicon microprocessors with sensor technology cannot only provide interpretive power and customized outputs, but also significantly improve sensor system performance and capabilities.

  18. 76 FR 4102 - Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Supplemental Notice of Technical... Technical Conference on Smart Grid Interoperability Standards will be held on Monday, January 31,...

  19. Smart distribution systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jiang, Yazhou; Liu, Chen -Ching; Xu, Yin

    2016-04-19

    The increasing importance of system reliability and resilience is changing the way distribution systems are planned and operated. To achieve a distribution system self-healing against power outages, emerging technologies and devices, such as remote-controlled switches (RCSs) and smart meters, are being deployed. The higher level of automation is transforming traditional distribution systems into the smart distribution systems (SDSs) of the future. The availability of data and remote control capability in SDSs provides distribution operators with an opportunity to optimize system operation and control. In this paper, the development of SDSs and resulting benefits of enhanced system capabilities are discussed. Amore » comprehensive survey is conducted on the state-of-the-art applications of RCSs and smart meters in SDSs. Specifically, a new method, called Temporal Causal Diagram (TCD), is used to incorporate outage notifications from smart meters for enhanced outage management. To fully utilize the fast operation of RCSs, the spanning tree search algorithm is used to develop service restoration strategies. Optimal placement of RCSs and the resulting enhancement of system reliability are discussed. Distribution system resilience with respect to extreme events is presented. Furthermore, test cases are used to demonstrate the benefit of SDSs. Active management of distributed generators (DGs) is introduced. Future research in a smart distribution environment is proposed.« less

  20. 75 FR 57006 - Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... solutions being developed by the Smart Grid Subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council's... series of RFIs issued by DOE regarding smart grid implementation. Prior RFIs sought comment on data access, data usage and privacy issues, and on communications requirements for the smart grid. In this...

  1. 75 FR 62515 - Notice of Availability of Report on the Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Smart Grid and how they may be met. 75 FR 26206. The RFI sought to collect information and open a... of Availability of Report on the Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies AGENCY..., ``Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies.'' In this report, DOE sets forth recommendations...

  2. Smart Grid Integrity Attacks: Characterizations and Countermeasures

    SciTech Connect

    Annarita Giani; Eilyan Bitar; Miles McQueen; Pramod Khargonekar; Kameshwar Poolla

    2011-10-01

    Real power injections at loads and generators, and real power flows on selected lines in a transmission network are monitored, transmitted over a SCADA network to the system operator, and used in state estimation algorithms to make dispatch, re-balance and other energy management system [EMS] decisions. Coordinated cyber attacks of power meter readings can be arranged to be undetectable by any bad data detection algorithm. These unobservable attacks present a serious threat to grid operations. Of particular interest are sparse attacks that involve the compromise of a modest number of meter readings. An efficient algorithm to find all unobservable attacks [under standard DC load flow approximations] involving the compromise of exactly two power injection meters and an arbitrary number of power meters on lines is presented. This requires O(n2m) flops for a power system with n buses and m line meters. If all lines are metered, there exist canonical forms that characterize all 3, 4, and 5-sparse unobservable attacks. These can be quickly detected in power systems using standard graph algorithms. Known secure phase measurement units [PMUs] can be used as countermeasures against an arbitrary collection of cyber attacks. Finding the minimum number of necessary PMUs is NP-hard. It is shown that p + 1 PMUs at carefully chosen buses are sufficient to neutralize a collection of p cyber attacks.

  3. Smart-Grid Backbone Network Real-Time Delay Reduction via Integer Programming.

    PubMed

    Pagadrai, Sasikanth; Yilmaz, Muhittin; Valluri, Pratyush

    2016-08-01

    This research investigates an optimal delay-based virtual topology design using integer linear programming (ILP), which is applied to the current backbone networks such as smart-grid real-time communication systems. A network traffic matrix is applied and the corresponding virtual topology problem is solved using the ILP formulations that include a network delay-dependent objective function and lightpath routing, wavelength assignment, wavelength continuity, flow routing, and traffic loss constraints. The proposed optimization approach provides an efficient deterministic integration of intelligent sensing and decision making, and network learning features for superior smart grid operations by adaptively responding the time-varying network traffic data as well as operational constraints to maintain optimal virtual topologies. A representative optical backbone network has been utilized to demonstrate the proposed optimization framework whose simulation results indicate that superior smart-grid network performance can be achieved using commercial networks and integer programming.

  4. Smart-Grid Backbone Network Real-Time Delay Reduction via Integer Programming.

    PubMed

    Pagadrai, Sasikanth; Yilmaz, Muhittin; Valluri, Pratyush

    2016-08-01

    This research investigates an optimal delay-based virtual topology design using integer linear programming (ILP), which is applied to the current backbone networks such as smart-grid real-time communication systems. A network traffic matrix is applied and the corresponding virtual topology problem is solved using the ILP formulations that include a network delay-dependent objective function and lightpath routing, wavelength assignment, wavelength continuity, flow routing, and traffic loss constraints. The proposed optimization approach provides an efficient deterministic integration of intelligent sensing and decision making, and network learning features for superior smart grid operations by adaptively responding the time-varying network traffic data as well as operational constraints to maintain optimal virtual topologies. A representative optical backbone network has been utilized to demonstrate the proposed optimization framework whose simulation results indicate that superior smart-grid network performance can be achieved using commercial networks and integer programming. PMID:25935050

  5. 75 FR 7526 - Consumer Interface With the Smart Grid

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... responses via electronic mail. Electronic mail responses will be re-posted on the online forum. DATES... following methods: Smart Grid Forum: http://www.nist.gov/smartgrid/ . Via E-mail: smartgrid@ostp.gov . Mail... confidential nature, such as sensitive personal information or proprietary information. If you submit an...

  6. 75 FR 6414 - Consumer Interface With the Smart Grid

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... electronic mail. Electronic mail responses will be re-posted on the online forum. Instructions are provided...://blog.ostp.gov/category/smart-grid . Via E-mail: smartgrid@ostp.gov . Mail: Office of Science and... sensitive personal information or proprietary information. If you submit an e-mail comment, your...

  7. A Theoretical Secure Enterprise Architecture for Multi Revenue Generating Smart Grid Sub Electric Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Hina

    2013-01-01

    This study is a part of the smart grid initiative providing electric vehicle charging infrastructure. It is a refueling structure, an energy generating photovoltaic system and charge point electric vehicle charging station. The system will utilize advanced design and technology allowing electricity to flow from the site's normal electric service…

  8. What can the smart grid Do for you? and what can You Do for the smart grid?

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.

    2010-06-15

    The intersection of technology and economics is where all the Smart Grid benefits arise. If we do one without the other, then utilities and consumers hardly see any enduring benefit at all and the investment made in the underlying infrastructure justified on the basis of those benefits is wasted. (author)

  9. Distributed Smart Grid Asset Control Strategies for Providing Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Moya, Christian; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2013-10-30

    implementing real load control programs. The promise of autonomous, Grid Friendly™ response by smart appliances in the form of under-frequency load shedding was demonstrated in the GridWise Olympic Peninsula Demonstration in 2006. Each controller monitored the power grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow under-frequency event, which was an average of one event per day and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Another objective of this project was to perform extensive simulation studies to investigate the impact of a population of Grid Friendly™ Appliances (GFAs) on the bulk power system frequency stability. The GFAs considered in this report are represented as demonstration units with water heaters individually modeled.

  10. Enhancement of Voltage Stability of DC Smart Grid During Islanded Mode by Load Shedding Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassor, Thabit Salim; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the voltage stability of a DC smart grid based on renewable energy resources during grid connected and isolated modes. During the islanded mode the load shedding, based on the state of charge of the battery and distribution line voltage, was proposed for voltage stability and reservation of critical load power. The analyzed power system comprises a wind turbine, a photovoltaic generator, storage battery as controllable load, DC loads, and power converters. A fuzzy logic control strategy was applied for power consumption control of controllable loads and the grid-connected dual active bridge series resonant converters. The proposed DC Smart Grid operation has been verified by simulation using MATLAB® and PLECS® Blockset. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Impact of SolarSmart Subdivisions on SMUD's Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, P.; Hambrick, J.; Keesee, M.; Brown, D.

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes the distribution impacts of high penetrations of grid-integrated renewable energy systems, specifically photovoltaic (PV) equipped SolarSmart Homes found in the Anatolia III Residential Community.

  12. Control and prediction for blackouts caused by frequency collapse in smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengwei; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2016-09-01

    The electric power system is one of the cornerstones of modern society. One of its most serious malfunctions is the blackout, a catastrophic event that may disrupt a substantial portion of the system, playing havoc to human life and causing great economic losses. Thus, understanding the mechanisms leading to blackouts and creating a reliable and resilient power grid has been a major issue, attracting the attention of scientists, engineers, and stakeholders. In this paper, we study the blackout problem in power grids by considering a practical phase-oscillator model. This model allows one to simultaneously consider different types of power sources (e.g., traditional AC power plants and renewable power sources connected by DC/AC inverters) and different types of loads (e.g., consumers connected to distribution networks and consumers directly connected to power plants). We propose two new control strategies based on our model, one for traditional power grids and another one for smart grids. The control strategies show the efficient function of the fast-response energy storage systems in preventing and predicting blackouts in smart grids. This work provides innovative ideas which help us to build up a robuster and more economic smart power system.

  13. The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and CO2 Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Robert G.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Katipamula, Srinivas; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-01-15

    This report articulates nine mechanisms by which the smart grid can reduce energy use and carbon impacts associated with electricity generation and delivery. The quantitative estimates of potential reductions in electricity sector energy and associated CO2 emissions presented are based on a survey of published results and simple analyses. This report does not attempt to justify the cost effectiveness of the smart grid, which to date has been based primarily upon the twin pillars of cost-effective operation and improved reliability. Rather, it attempts to quantify the additional energy and CO2 emission benefits inherent in the smart grid’s potential contribution to the nation’s goal of mitigating climate change by reducing the carbon footprint of the electric power system.

  14. The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and CO2 Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Robert G.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Katipamula, Srinivas; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-01-27

    This report articulates nine mechanisms by which the smart grid can reduce energy use and carbon impacts associated with electricity generation and delivery. The quantitative estimates of potential reductions in electricity sector energy and associated CO2 emissions presented are based on a survey of published results and simple analyses. This report does not attempt to justify the cost effectiveness of the smart grid, which to date has been based primarily upon the twin pillars of cost-effective operation and improved reliability. Rather, it attempts to quantify the additional energy and CO2 emission benefits inherent in the smart grid’s potential contribution to the nation’s goal of mitigating climate change by reducing the carbon footprint of the electric power system.

  15. A Current Sensor Based on the Giant Magnetoresistance Effect: Design and Potential Smart Grid Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Yong; He, Jinliang; Hu, Jun; Wang, Shan X.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced sensing and measurement techniques are key technologies to realize a smart grid. The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect has revolutionized the fields of data storage and magnetic measurement. In this work, a design of a GMR current sensor based on a commercial analog GMR chip for applications in a smart grid is presented and discussed. Static, dynamic and thermal properties of the sensor were characterized. The characterizations showed that in the operation range from 0 to ±5 A, the sensor had a sensitivity of 28 mV·A−1, linearity of 99.97%, maximum deviation of 2.717%, frequency response of −1.5 dB at 10 kHz current measurement, and maximum change of the amplitude response of 0.0335%·°C−1 with thermal compensation. In the distributed real-time measurement and monitoring of a smart grid system, the GMR current sensor shows excellent performance and is cost effective, making it suitable for applications such as steady-state and transient-state monitoring. With the advantages of having a high sensitivity, high linearity, small volume, low cost, and simple structure, the GMR current sensor is promising for the measurement and monitoring of smart grids. PMID:23202221

  16. A current sensor based on the giant magnetoresistance effect: design and potential smart grid applications.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yong; He, Jinliang; Hu, Jun; Wang, Shan X

    2012-11-09

    Advanced sensing and measurement techniques are key technologies to realize a smart grid. The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect has revolutionized the fields of data storage and magnetic measurement. In this work, a design of a GMR current sensor based on a commercial analog GMR chip for applications in a smart grid is presented and discussed. Static, dynamic and thermal properties of the sensor were characterized. The characterizations showed that in the operation range from 0 to ±5 A, the sensor had a sensitivity of 28 mV·A(-1), linearity of 99.97%, maximum deviation of 2.717%, frequency response of −1.5 dB at 10 kHz current measurement, and maximum change of the amplitude response of 0.0335%·°C(-1) with thermal compensation. In the distributed real-time measurement and monitoring of a smart grid system, the GMR current sensor shows excellent performance and is cost effective, making it suitable for applications such as steady-state and transient-state monitoring. With the advantages of having a high sensitivity, high linearity, small volume, low cost, and simple structure, the GMR current sensor is promising for the measurement and monitoring of smart grids.

  17. A current sensor based on the giant magnetoresistance effect: design and potential smart grid applications.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yong; He, Jinliang; Hu, Jun; Wang, Shan X

    2012-01-01

    Advanced sensing and measurement techniques are key technologies to realize a smart grid. The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect has revolutionized the fields of data storage and magnetic measurement. In this work, a design of a GMR current sensor based on a commercial analog GMR chip for applications in a smart grid is presented and discussed. Static, dynamic and thermal properties of the sensor were characterized. The characterizations showed that in the operation range from 0 to ±5 A, the sensor had a sensitivity of 28 mV·A(-1), linearity of 99.97%, maximum deviation of 2.717%, frequency response of −1.5 dB at 10 kHz current measurement, and maximum change of the amplitude response of 0.0335%·°C(-1) with thermal compensation. In the distributed real-time measurement and monitoring of a smart grid system, the GMR current sensor shows excellent performance and is cost effective, making it suitable for applications such as steady-state and transient-state monitoring. With the advantages of having a high sensitivity, high linearity, small volume, low cost, and simple structure, the GMR current sensor is promising for the measurement and monitoring of smart grids. PMID:23202221

  18. GridMan: A grid manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Wang, Zhu

    1992-01-01

    GridMan is an interactive grid manipulation system. It operates on grids to produce new grids which conform to user demands. The input grids are not constrained to come from any particular source. They may be generated by algebraic methods, elliptic methods, hyperbolic methods, parabolic methods, or some combination of methods. The methods are included in the various available structured grid generation codes. These codes perform the basic assembly function for the various elements of the initial grid. For block structured grids, the assembly can be quite complex due to a large number of clock corners, edges, and faces for which various connections and orientations must be properly identified. The grid generation codes are distinguished among themselves by their balance between interactive and automatic actions and by their modest variations in control. The basic form of GridMan provides a much more substantial level of grid control and will take its input from any of the structured grid generation codes. The communication link to the outside codes is a data file which contains the grid or section of grid.

  19. Machine Learning Methods for Attack Detection in the Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Ozay, Mete; Esnaola, Inaki; Yarman Vural, Fatos Tunay; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R; Poor, H Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Attack detection problems in the smart grid are posed as statistical learning problems for different attack scenarios in which the measurements are observed in batch or online settings. In this approach, machine learning algorithms are used to classify measurements as being either secure or attacked. An attack detection framework is provided to exploit any available prior knowledge about the system and surmount constraints arising from the sparse structure of the problem in the proposed approach. Well-known batch and online learning algorithms (supervised and semisupervised) are employed with decision- and feature-level fusion to model the attack detection problem. The relationships between statistical and geometric properties of attack vectors employed in the attack scenarios and learning algorithms are analyzed to detect unobservable attacks using statistical learning methods. The proposed algorithms are examined on various IEEE test systems. Experimental analyses show that machine learning algorithms can detect attacks with performances higher than attack detection algorithms that employ state vector estimation methods in the proposed attack detection framework.

  20. Machine Learning Methods for Attack Detection in the Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Ozay, Mete; Esnaola, Inaki; Yarman Vural, Fatos Tunay; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R; Poor, H Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Attack detection problems in the smart grid are posed as statistical learning problems for different attack scenarios in which the measurements are observed in batch or online settings. In this approach, machine learning algorithms are used to classify measurements as being either secure or attacked. An attack detection framework is provided to exploit any available prior knowledge about the system and surmount constraints arising from the sparse structure of the problem in the proposed approach. Well-known batch and online learning algorithms (supervised and semisupervised) are employed with decision- and feature-level fusion to model the attack detection problem. The relationships between statistical and geometric properties of attack vectors employed in the attack scenarios and learning algorithms are analyzed to detect unobservable attacks using statistical learning methods. The proposed algorithms are examined on various IEEE test systems. Experimental analyses show that machine learning algorithms can detect attacks with performances higher than attack detection algorithms that employ state vector estimation methods in the proposed attack detection framework. PMID:25807571

  1. 75 FR 18819 - Second DRAFT NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628, Smart Grid Cyber Security Strategy and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ...) Dynamic optimization of grid operations and resources, with full cyber-security * * *'' With the Smart... Grid. NIST published a request for public comments in the Federal Register on October 9, 2009 (74 FR... to address emerging threats, Smart Grid paradigms and other changing elements of security....

  2. The Smart Power Lab at the Energy Systems Integration Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Dane; Sparn, Bethany; Hannegan, Brian

    2015-06-11

    Watch how NREL researchers are using the Smart Power Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) to develop technologies that will help the "smart homes" of the future perform efficiently and communicate effectively with the electricity grid while enhancing occupants' comfort and convenience.

  3. 75 FR 66752 - Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Technical Conference.../FERC Collaborative on Smart Response (Collaborative), in the International D Ballroom at the Omni...

  4. Small-Scale Smart Grid Construction and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surface, Nicholas James

    The smart grid (SG) is a commonly used catch-phrase in the energy industry yet there is no universally accepted definition. The objectives and most useful concepts have been investigated extensively in economic, environmental and engineering research by applying statistical knowledge and established theories to develop simulations without constructing physical models. In this study, a small-scale version (SSSG) is constructed to physically represent these ideas so they can be evaluated. Results of construction show data acquisition three times more expensive than the grid itself although mainly due to the incapability to downsize 70% of data acquisition costs to small-scale. Experimentation on the fully assembled grid exposes the limitations of low cost modified sine wave power, significant enough to recommend pure sine wave investment in future SSSG iterations. Findings can be projected to full-size SG at a ratio of 1:10, based on the appliance representing average US household peak daily load. However this exposes disproportionalities in the SSSG compared with previous SG investigations and recommended changes for future iterations are established to remedy this issue. Also discussed are other ideas investigated in the literature and their suitability for SSSG incorporation. It is highly recommended to develop a user-friendly bidirectional charger to more accurately represent vehicle-to-grid (V2G) infrastructure. Smart homes, BEV swap stations and pumped hydroelectric storage can also be researched on future iterations of the SSSG.

  5. Power Prediction in Smart Grids with Evolutionary Local Kernel Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Oliver; Satzger, Benjamin; Lässig, Jörg

    Electric grids are moving from a centralized single supply chain towards a decentralized bidirectional grid of suppliers and consumers in an uncertain and dynamic scenario. Soon, the growing smart meter infrastructure will allow the collection of terabytes of detailed data about the grid condition, e.g., the state of renewable electric energy producers or the power consumption of millions of private customers, in very short time steps. For reliable prediction strong and fast regression methods are necessary that are able to cope with these challenges. In this paper we introduce a novel regression technique, i.e., evolutionary local kernel regression, a kernel regression variant based on local Nadaraya-Watson estimators with independent bandwidths distributed in data space. The model is regularized with the CMA-ES, a stochastic non-convex optimization method. We experimentally analyze the load forecast behavior on real power consumption data. The proposed method is easily parallelizable, and therefore well appropriate for large-scale scenarios in smart grids.

  6. Towards High Performance Discrete-Event Simulations of Smart Electric Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S; Nutaro, James J; Yoginath, Srikanth B

    2011-01-01

    Future electric grid technology is envisioned on the notion of a smart grid in which responsive end-user devices play an integral part of the transmission and distribution control systems. Detailed simulation is often the primary choice in analyzing small network designs, and the only choice in analyzing large-scale electric network designs. Here, we identify and articulate the high-performance computing needs underlying high-resolution discrete event simulation of smart electric grid operation large network scenarios such as the entire Eastern Interconnect. We focus on the simulator's most computationally intensive operation, namely, the dynamic numerical solution for the electric grid state, for both time-integration as well as event-detection. We explore solution approaches using general-purpose dense and sparse solvers, and propose a scalable solver specialized for the sparse structures of actual electric networks. Based on experiments with an implementation in the THYME simulator, we identify performance issues and possible solution approaches for smart grid experimentation in the large.

  7. Smart Operations in Distributed Energy Resources System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Li; Jie, Shu; Zhang-XianYong; Qing, Zhou

    Smart grid capabilities are being proposed to help solve the challenges concerning system operations due to that the trade-offs between energy and environmental needs will be constantly negotiated while a reliable supply of electricity needs even greater assurance in case of that threats of disruption have risen. This paper mainly explores models for distributed energy resources system (DG, storage, and load),and also reviews the evolving nature of electricity markets to deal with this complexity and a change of emphasis on signals from these markets to affect power system control. Smart grid capabilities will also impact reliable operations, while cyber security issues must be solved as a culture change that influences all system design, implementation, and maintenance. Lastly, the paper explores significant questions for further research and the need for a simulation environment that supports such investigation and informs deployments to mitigate operational issues as they arise.

  8. Synchronization in complex oscillator networks and smart grids.

    PubMed

    Dörfler, Florian; Chertkov, Michael; Bullo, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    The emergence of synchronization in a network of coupled oscillators is a fascinating topic in various scientific disciplines. A widely adopted model of a coupled oscillator network is characterized by a population of heterogeneous phase oscillators, a graph describing the interaction among them, and diffusive and sinusoidal coupling. It is known that a strongly coupled and sufficiently homogeneous network synchronizes, but the exact threshold from incoherence to synchrony is unknown. Here, we present a unique, concise, and closed-form condition for synchronization of the fully nonlinear, nonequilibrium, and dynamic network. Our synchronization condition can be stated elegantly in terms of the network topology and parameters or equivalently in terms of an intuitive, linear, and static auxiliary system. Our results significantly improve upon the existing conditions advocated thus far, they are provably exact for various interesting network topologies and parameters; they are statistically correct for almost all networks; and they can be applied equally to synchronization phenomena arising in physics and biology as well as in engineered oscillator networks, such as electrical power networks. We illustrate the validity, the accuracy, and the practical applicability of our results in complex network scenarios and in smart grid applications.

  9. Synchronization in complex oscillator networks and smart grids

    PubMed Central

    Dörfler, Florian; Chertkov, Michael; Bullo, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of synchronization in a network of coupled oscillators is a fascinating topic in various scientific disciplines. A widely adopted model of a coupled oscillator network is characterized by a population of heterogeneous phase oscillators, a graph describing the interaction among them, and diffusive and sinusoidal coupling. It is known that a strongly coupled and sufficiently homogeneous network synchronizes, but the exact threshold from incoherence to synchrony is unknown. Here, we present a unique, concise, and closed-form condition for synchronization of the fully nonlinear, nonequilibrium, and dynamic network. Our synchronization condition can be stated elegantly in terms of the network topology and parameters or equivalently in terms of an intuitive, linear, and static auxiliary system. Our results significantly improve upon the existing conditions advocated thus far, they are provably exact for various interesting network topologies and parameters; they are statistically correct for almost all networks; and they can be applied equally to synchronization phenomena arising in physics and biology as well as in engineered oscillator networks, such as electrical power networks. We illustrate the validity, the accuracy, and the practical applicability of our results in complex network scenarios and in smart grid applications. PMID:23319658

  10. Synchronization in Complex Oscillator Networks and Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfler, Florian; Chertkov, Michael; Bullo, Francesco

    2012-07-24

    The emergence of synchronization in a network of coupled oscillators is a fascinating topic in various scientific disciplines. A coupled oscillator network is characterized by a population of heterogeneous oscillators and a graph describing the interaction among them. It is known that a strongly coupled and sufficiently homogeneous network synchronizes, but the exact threshold from incoherence to synchrony is unknown. Here we present a novel, concise, and closed-form condition for synchronization of the fully nonlinear, non-equilibrium, and dynamic network. Our synchronization condition can be stated elegantly in terms of the network topology and parameters, or equivalently in terms of an intuitive, linear, and static auxiliary system. Our results significantly improve upon the existing conditions advocated thus far, they are provably exact for various interesting network topologies and parameters, they are statistically correct for almost all networks, and they can be applied equally to synchronization phenomena arising in physics and biology as well as in engineered oscillator networks such as electric power networks. We illustrate the validity, the accuracy, and the practical applicability of our results in complex networks scenarios and in smart grid applications.

  11. Optimal Operation and Management for Smart Grid Subsumed High Penetration of Renewable Energy, Electric Vehicle, and Battery Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigenobu, Ryuto; Noorzad, Ahmad Samim; Muarapaz, Cirio; Yona, Atsushi; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2016-04-01

    Distributed generators (DG) and renewable energy sources have been attracting special attention in distribution systems in all over the world. Renewable energies, such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbine generators are considered as green energy. However, a large amount of DG penetration causes voltage deviation beyond the statutory range and reverse power flow at interconnection points in the distribution system. If excessive voltage deviation occurs, consumer's electric devices might break and reverse power flow will also has a negative impact on the transmission system. Thus, mass interconnections of DGs has an adverse effect on both of the utility and the customer. Therefore, reactive power control method is proposed previous research by using inverters attached DGs for prevent voltage deviations. Moreover, battery energy storage system (BESS) is also proposed for resolve reverse power flow. In addition, it is possible to supply high quality power for managing DGs and BESSs. Therefore, this paper proposes a method to maintain voltage, active power, and reactive power flow at interconnection points by using cooperative controlled of PVs, house BESSs, EVs, large BESSs, and existing voltage control devices. This paper not only protect distribution system, but also attain distribution loss reduction and effectivity management of control devices. Therefore mentioned control objectives are formulated as an optimization problem that is solved by using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Modified scheduling method is proposed in order to improve convergence probability of scheduling scheme. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by case studies results and by using numerical simulations in MATLAB®.

  12. Smart energy management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Aniruddha; Singh, Jugdutt

    2010-04-01

    Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on seamless integration of existing wired and wireless communication technologies combined with smart context-aware software which offers a complete solution for automation of energy measurement and device control. The persuasive software presents users with easy-to-assimilate visual cues identifying problem areas and time periods and encourages a behavioural change to conserve energy. The system allows analysis of real-time/statistical consumption data with the ability to drill down into detailed analysis of power consumption, CO2 emissions and cost. The system generates intelligent projections and suggests potential methods (e.g. reducing standby, tuning heating/cooling temperature, etc.) of reducing energy consumption. The user interface is accessible using web enabled devices such as PDAs, PCs, etc. or using SMS, email, and instant messaging. Successful real-world trial of the system has demonstrated the potential to save 20 to 30% energy consumption on an average. Low cost of deployment and the ability to easily manage consumption from various web enabled devices offers gives this system a high penetration and impact capability offering a sustainable solution to act on climate change today.

  13. An overview of distributed microgrid state estimation and control for smart grids.

    PubMed

    Rana, Md Masud; Li, Li

    2015-02-12

    Given the significant concerns regarding carbon emission from the fossil fuels, global warming and energy crisis, the renewable distributed energy resources (DERs) are going to be integrated in the smart grid. This grid can spread the intelligence of the energy distribution and control system from the central unit to the long-distance remote areas, thus enabling accurate state estimation (SE) and wide-area real-time monitoring of these intermittent energy sources. In contrast to the traditional methods of SE, this paper proposes a novel accuracy dependent Kalman filter (KF) based microgrid SE for the smart grid that uses typical communication systems. Then this article proposes a discrete-time linear quadratic regulation to control the state deviations of the microgrid incorporating multiple DERs. Therefore, integrating these two approaches with application to the smart grid forms a novel contributions in green energy and control research communities. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed KF based microgrid SE and control algorithm provides an accurate SE and control compared with the existing method.

  14. An overview of distributed microgrid state estimation and control for smart grids.

    PubMed

    Rana, Md Masud; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Given the significant concerns regarding carbon emission from the fossil fuels, global warming and energy crisis, the renewable distributed energy resources (DERs) are going to be integrated in the smart grid. This grid can spread the intelligence of the energy distribution and control system from the central unit to the long-distance remote areas, thus enabling accurate state estimation (SE) and wide-area real-time monitoring of these intermittent energy sources. In contrast to the traditional methods of SE, this paper proposes a novel accuracy dependent Kalman filter (KF) based microgrid SE for the smart grid that uses typical communication systems. Then this article proposes a discrete-time linear quadratic regulation to control the state deviations of the microgrid incorporating multiple DERs. Therefore, integrating these two approaches with application to the smart grid forms a novel contributions in green energy and control research communities. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed KF based microgrid SE and control algorithm provides an accurate SE and control compared with the existing method. PMID:25686316

  15. An Overview of Distributed Microgrid State Estimation and Control for Smart Grids

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Md Masud; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Given the significant concerns regarding carbon emission from the fossil fuels, global warming and energy crisis, the renewable distributed energy resources (DERs) are going to be integrated in the smart grid. This grid can spread the intelligence of the energy distribution and control system from the central unit to the long-distance remote areas, thus enabling accurate state estimation (SE) and wide-area real-time monitoring of these intermittent energy sources. In contrast to the traditional methods of SE, this paper proposes a novel accuracy dependent Kalman filter (KF) based microgrid SE for the smart grid that uses typical communication systems. Then this article proposes a discrete-time linear quadratic regulation to control the state deviations of the microgrid incorporating multiple DERs. Therefore, integrating these two approaches with application to the smart grid forms a novel contributions in green energy and control research communities. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed KF based microgrid SE and control algorithm provides an accurate SE and control compared with the existing method. PMID:25686316

  16. Key Management Challenges in Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Frederick T; Duren, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Agenda Awarded in February 2011 Team of industry and research organizations Project Objectives Address difficult issues Complexity Diversity of systems Scale Longevity of solution Participate in standards efforts and working groups Develop innovative key management solutions Modeling and simulation ORNL Cyber Security Econometric Enterprise System Demonstrate effectiveness of solution Demonstrate scalability

  17. Barriers and Solutions to Smart Water Grid Development.

    PubMed

    Cheong, So-Min; Choi, Gye-Woon; Lee, Ho-Sun

    2016-03-01

    This limited review of smart water grid (SWG) development, challenges, and solutions provides an initial assessment of early attempts at operating SWGs. Though the cost and adoption issues are critical, potential benefits of SWGs such as efficient water conservation and distribution sustain the development of SWGs around the world. The review finds that the keys to success are the new regulations concerning data access and ownership to solve problems of security and privacy; consumer literacy to accept and use SWGs; active private sector involvement to coordinate SWG development; government-funded pilot projects and trial centers; and integration with sustainable water management.

  18. Barriers and Solutions to Smart Water Grid Development.

    PubMed

    Cheong, So-Min; Choi, Gye-Woon; Lee, Ho-Sun

    2016-03-01

    This limited review of smart water grid (SWG) development, challenges, and solutions provides an initial assessment of early attempts at operating SWGs. Though the cost and adoption issues are critical, potential benefits of SWGs such as efficient water conservation and distribution sustain the development of SWGs around the world. The review finds that the keys to success are the new regulations concerning data access and ownership to solve problems of security and privacy; consumer literacy to accept and use SWGs; active private sector involvement to coordinate SWG development; government-funded pilot projects and trial centers; and integration with sustainable water management. PMID:26608885

  19. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Project Technologies: Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jason C.; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of a limited number of demand response technologies and implementations deployed in the SGIG projects.

  20. Marine-current power generation model for smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachogiannis, John G.

    2014-03-01

    This short communication introduces the first marine-current power generation model to be integrated into power flow studies of smart grids. The stochastic aspect of marine-current velocity affecting the real power output of marine-current generators is provided by a closed formula. Also, a new closed formula for power coefficient of marine-current generators versus marine-current velocities is set up. The introduced marine-current power generation model is validated on real measurements obtained in the sub-sea areas of Alderney Race (Channel Islands) in UK and Gun-barrel passage in Fiji.

  1. Barriers and Solutions to Smart Water Grid Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, So-Min; Choi, Gye-Woon; Lee, Ho-Sun

    2016-03-01

    This limited review of smart water grid (SWG) development, challenges, and solutions provides an initial assessment of early attempts at operating SWGs. Though the cost and adoption issues are critical, potential benefits of SWGs such as efficient water conservation and distribution sustain the development of SWGs around the world. The review finds that the keys to success are the new regulations concerning data access and ownership to solve problems of security and privacy; consumer literacy to accept and use SWGs; active private sector involvement to coordinate SWG development; government-funded pilot projects and trial centers; and integration with sustainable water management.

  2. An Open Framework for Low-Latency Communications across the Smart Grid Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, John Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The recent White House (2011) policy paper for the Smart Grid that was released on June 13, 2011, "A Policy Framework for the 21st Century Grid: Enabling Our Secure Energy Future," defines four major problems to be solved and the one that is addressed in this dissertation is Securing the Grid. Securing the Grid is referred to as one of…

  3. Short-term load forecasting using neural network for future smart grid application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zennamo, Joseph Anthony, III

    Short-term load forecasting of power system has been a classic problem for a long time. Not merely it has been researched extensively and intensively, but also a variety of forecasting methods has been raised. This thesis outlines some aspects and functions of smart meter. It also presents different policies and current statuses as well as future projects and objectives of SG development in several countries. Then the thesis compares main aspects about latest products of smart meter from different companies. Lastly, three types of prediction models are established in MATLAB to emulate the functions of smart grid in the short-term load forecasting, and then their results are compared and analyzed in terms of accuracy. For this thesis, more variables such as dew point temperature are used in the Neural Network model to achieve more accuracy for better short-term load forecasting results.

  4. Dynamic Line Rating Oncor Electric Delivery Smart Grid Program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Justin; Smith, Cale; Young, Mike; Donohoo, Ken; Owen, Ross; Clark, Eddit; Espejo, Raul; Aivaliotis, Sandy; Stelmak, Ron; Mohr, Ron; Barba, Cristian; Gonzalez, Guillermo; Malkin, Stuart; Dimitrova, Vessela; Ragsdale, Gary; Mitchem, Sean; Jeirath, Nakul; Loomis, Joe; Trevino, Gerardo; Syracuse, Steve; Hurst, Neil; Mereness, Matt; Johnson, Chad; Bivens, Carrie

    2013-05-04

    Electric transmission lines are the lifeline of the electric utility industry, delivering its product from source to consumer. This critical infrastructure is often constrained such that there is inadequate capacity on existing transmission lines to efficiently deliver the power to meet demand in certain areas or to transport energy from high-generation areas to high-consumption regions. When this happens, the cost of the energy rises; more costly sources of power are used to meet the demand or the system operates less reliably. These economic impacts are known as congestion, and they can amount to substantial dollars for any time frame of reference: hour, day or year. There are several solutions to the transmission constraint problem, including: construction of new generation, construction of new transmission facilities, rebuilding and reconductoring of existing transmission assets, and Dynamic Line Rating (DLR). All of these options except DLR are capital intensive, have long lead times and often experience strong public and regulatory opposition. The Smart Grid Demonstration Program (SGDP) project co-funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Oncor Electric Delivery Company developed and deployed the most extensive and advanced DLR installation to demonstrate that DLR technology is capable of resolving many transmission capacity constraint problems with a system that is reliable, safe and very cost competitive. The SGDP DLR deployment is the first application of DLR technology to feed transmission line real-time dynamic ratings directly into the system operation’s State Estimator and load dispatch program, which optimizes the matching of generation with load demand on a security, reliability and economic basis. The integrated Dynamic Line Rating (iDLR)1 collects transmission line parameters at remote locations on the lines, calculates the real-time line rating based on the equivalent conductor temperature, ambient temperature and influence of wind and solar

  5. 75 FR 1595 - Establishment of NIST Smart Grid Advisory Committee and Solicitation of Nominations for Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Establishment of NIST Smart Grid Advisory Committee and.... ACTION: Notice of establishment of the NIST Smart Grid Advisory Committee and solicitation of...

  6. Results from the Operational Testing of the Eaton Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Brion

    2014-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Eaton smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Eaton for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Eaton smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  7. Results from Operational Testing of the Siemens Smart Grid-Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Brion

    2015-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Siemens smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Siemens for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Siemens smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  8. On a simulation study for reliable and secured smart grid communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallapuram, Sriharsha; Moulema, Paul; Yu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Demand response is one of key smart grid applications that aims to reduce power generation at peak hours and maintain a balance between supply and demand. With the support of communication networks, energy consumers can become active actors in the energy management process by adjusting or rescheduling their electricity usage during peak hours based on utilities pricing incentives. Nonetheless, the integration of communication networks expose the smart grid to cyber-attacks. In this paper, we developed a smart grid simulation test-bed and designed evaluation scenarios. By leveraging the capabilities of Matlab and ns-3 simulation tools, we conducted a simulation study to evaluate the impact of cyber-attacks on demand response application. Our data shows that cyber-attacks could seriously disrupt smart grid operations, thus confirming the need of secure and resilient communication networks for supporting smart grid operations.

  9. 78 FR 9678 - Multi-stakeholder Process To Develop a Voluntary Code of Conduct for Smart Grid Data Privacy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ...-stakeholder Process To Develop a Voluntary Code of Conduct for Smart Grid Data Privacy AGENCY: Office of... convene the first meeting of the smart grid data privacy multistakeholder process concerning the..., Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE OE) hosted the Smart Grid Privacy Workshop...

  10. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  11. Smart Grids and their Applicability for the Development of the Electricity Sector for Colombia in the year 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, J.; Aceros, C.

    2016-07-01

    Smart Grids are a technology that can be used to implement a sustainable energy scheme of a country. Therefore, this paper proposes the development of a prospective analysis of Smart Grids as a tool to ensure energetic security in Colombia in 2050. Using LEAP software, a base scenario for Colombian energy demand has developed according to current policies, with a time horizon from 2012 to 2050. The energy analysis is based on three scenarios, taking into account the impact of cogeneration in the residential and industrial sector using renewable energy and the power quality indicators. The results show that the implementation of Smart Grids generate energy savings and increasing the coverage of the national electricity system, ensuring energetic security of the country by 2050.

  12. Smart Energy Management and Control for Fuel Cell Based Micro-Grid Connected Neighborhoods

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam

    2006-03-15

    Fuel cell power generation promises to be an efficient, pollution-free, reliable power source in both large scale and small scale, remote applications. DOE formed the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance with the intention of breaking one of the last barriers remaining for cost effective fuel cell power generation. The Alliance’s goal is to produce a core solid-state fuel cell module at a cost of no more than $400 per kilowatt and ready for commercial application by 2010. With their inherently high, 60-70% conversion efficiencies, significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and negligible emissions of other pollutants, fuel cells will be the obvious choice for a broad variety of commercial and residential applications when their cost effectiveness is improved. In a research program funded by the Department of Energy, the research team has been investigating smart fuel cell-operated residential micro-grid communities. This research has focused on using smart control systems in conjunction with fuel cell power plants, with the goal to reduce energy consumption, reduce demand peaks and still meet the energy requirements of any household in a micro-grid community environment. In Phases I and II, a SEMaC was developed and extended to a micro-grid community. In addition, an optimal configuration was determined for a single fuel cell power plant supplying power to a ten-home micro-grid community. In Phase III, the plan is to expand this work to fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhoods (mini-grid). The economic implications of hydrogen cogeneration will be investigated. These efforts are consistent with DOE’s mission to decentralize domestic electric power generation and to accelerate the onset of the hydrogen economy. A major challenge facing the routine implementation and use of a fuel cell based mini-grid is the varying electrical demand of the individual micro-grids, and, therefore, analyzing these issues is vital. Efforts are needed to determine

  13. A comprehensive WSN-based approach to efficiently manage a Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sandoval, Ruben; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Haro, Joan; Flynn, David

    2014-10-10

    The Smart Grid (SG) is conceived as the evolution of the current electrical grid representing a big leap in terms of efficiency, reliability and flexibility compared to today's electrical network. To achieve this goal, the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are considered by the scientific/engineering community to be one of the most suitable technologies to apply SG technology to due to their low-cost, collaborative and long-standing nature. However, the SG has posed significant challenges to utility operators-mainly very harsh radio propagation conditions and the lack of appropriate systems to empower WSN devices-making most of the commercial widespread solutions inadequate. In this context, and as a main contribution, we have designed a comprehensive ad-hoc WSN-based solution for the Smart Grid (SENSED-SG) that focuses on specific implementations of the MAC, the network and the application layers to attain maximum performance and to successfully deal with any arising hurdles. Our approach has been exhaustively evaluated by computer simulations and mathematical analysis, as well as validation within real test-beds deployed in controlled environments. In particular, these test-beds cover two of the main scenarios found in a SG; on one hand, an indoor electrical substation environment, implemented in a High Voltage AC/DC laboratory, and, on the other hand, an outdoor case, deployed in the Transmission and Distribution segment of a power grid. The results obtained show that SENSED-SG performs better and is more suitable for the Smart Grid than the popular ZigBee WSN approach.

  14. A comprehensive WSN-based approach to efficiently manage a Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sandoval, Ruben; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Haro, Joan; Flynn, David

    2014-01-01

    The Smart Grid (SG) is conceived as the evolution of the current electrical grid representing a big leap in terms of efficiency, reliability and flexibility compared to today's electrical network. To achieve this goal, the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are considered by the scientific/engineering community to be one of the most suitable technologies to apply SG technology to due to their low-cost, collaborative and long-standing nature. However, the SG has posed significant challenges to utility operators-mainly very harsh radio propagation conditions and the lack of appropriate systems to empower WSN devices-making most of the commercial widespread solutions inadequate. In this context, and as a main contribution, we have designed a comprehensive ad-hoc WSN-based solution for the Smart Grid (SENSED-SG) that focuses on specific implementations of the MAC, the network and the application layers to attain maximum performance and to successfully deal with any arising hurdles. Our approach has been exhaustively evaluated by computer simulations and mathematical analysis, as well as validation within real test-beds deployed in controlled environments. In particular, these test-beds cover two of the main scenarios found in a SG; on one hand, an indoor electrical substation environment, implemented in a High Voltage AC/DC laboratory, and, on the other hand, an outdoor case, deployed in the Transmission and Distribution segment of a power grid. The results obtained show that SENSED-SG performs better and is more suitable for the Smart Grid than the popular ZigBee WSN approach. PMID:25310468

  15. A Comprehensive WSN-Based Approach to Efficiently Manage a Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Sandoval, Ruben; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Haro, Joan; Flynn, David

    2014-01-01

    The Smart Grid (SG) is conceived as the evolution of the current electrical grid representing a big leap in terms of efficiency, reliability and flexibility compared to today's electrical network. To achieve this goal, the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are considered by the scientific/engineering community to be one of the most suitable technologies to apply SG technology to due to their low-cost, collaborative and long-standing nature. However, the SG has posed significant challenges to utility operators—mainly very harsh radio propagation conditions and the lack of appropriate systems to empower WSN devices—making most of the commercial widespread solutions inadequate. In this context, and as a main contribution, we have designed a comprehensive ad-hoc WSN-based solution for the Smart Grid (SENSED-SG) that focuses on specific implementations of the MAC, the network and the application layers to attain maximum performance and to successfully deal with any arising hurdles. Our approach has been exhaustively evaluated by computer simulations and mathematical analysis, as well as validation within real test-beds deployed in controlled environments. In particular, these test-beds cover two of the main scenarios found in a SG; on one hand, an indoor electrical substation environment, implemented in a High Voltage AC/DC laboratory, and, on the other hand, an outdoor case, deployed in the Transmission and Distribution segment of a power grid. The results obtained show that SENSED-SG performs better and is more suitable for the Smart Grid than the popular ZigBee WSN approach. PMID:25310468

  16. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yin

    In this thesis, in order to investigate the impact of charging load from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a stochastic model is developed in Matlab. In this model, two main types of PHEVs are defined: public transportation vehicles and private vehicles. Different charging time schedule, charging speed and battery capacity are considered for each type of vehicles. The simulation results reveal that there will be two load peaks (at noon and in evening) when the penetration level of PHEVs increases continuously to 30% in 2030. Therefore, optimization tool is utilized to shift load peaks. This optimization process is based on real time pricing and wind power output data. With the help of smart grid, power allocated to each vehicle could be controlled. As a result, this optimization could fulfill the goal of shifting load peaks to valley areas where real time price is low or wind output is high.

  17. Smart Grid Communications Security Project, U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Frank

    2012-09-01

    There were four groups that worked on this project in different areas related to Smart Girds and Security. They included faculty and students from electric computer and energy engineering, law, business and sociology. The results of the work are summarized in a verity of reports, papers and thesis. A major report to the Governor of Colorado’s energy office with contributions from all the groups working on this project is given bellow. Smart Grid Deployment in Colorado: Challenges and Opportunities, Report to Colorado Governor’s Energy Office and Colorado Smart Grid Task Force(2010) (Kevin Doran, Frank Barnes, and Puneet Pasrich, eds.) This report includes information on the state of the grid cyber security, privacy, energy storage and grid stability, workforce development, consumer behavior with respect to the smart grid and safety issues.

  18. The Evolution of the Internet Community and the"Yet-to-Evolve" Smart Grid Community: Parallels and Lessons-to-be-Learned

    SciTech Connect

    McParland, Charles

    2009-11-06

    The Smart Grid envisions a transformed US power distribution grid that enables communicating devices, under human supervision, to moderate loads and increase overall system stability and security. This vision explicitly promotes increased participation from a community that, in the past, has had little involvement in power grid operations -the consumer. The potential size of this new community and its member's extensive experience with the public Internet prompts an analysis of the evolution and current state of the Internet as a predictor for best practices in the architectural design of certain portions of the Smart Grid network. Although still evolving, the vision of the Smart Grid is that of a community of communicating and cooperating energy related devices that can be directed to route power and modulate loads in pursuit of an integrated, efficient and secure electrical power grid. The remaking of the present power grid into the Smart Grid is considered as fundamentally transformative as previous developments such as modern computing technology and high bandwidth data communications. However, unlike these earlier developments, which relied on the discovery of critical new technologies (e.g. the transistor or optical fiber transmission lines), the technologies required for the Smart Grid currently exist and, in many cases, are already widely deployed. In contrast to other examples of technical transformations, the path (and success) of the Smart Grid will be determined not by its technology, but by its system architecture. Fortunately, we have a recent example of a transformative force of similar scope that shares a fundamental dependence on our existing communications infrastructure - namely, the Internet. We will explore several ways in which the scale of the Internet and expectations of its users have shaped the present Internet environment. As the presence of consumers within the Smart Grid increases, some experiences from the early growth of the Internet

  19. Modeling and distributed gain scheduling strategy for load frequency control in smart grids with communication topology changes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shichao; Liu, Xiaoping P; El Saddik, Abdulmotaleb

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the modeling and distributed control problems for the load frequency control (LFC) in a smart grid. In contrast with existing works, we consider more practical and real scenarios, where the communication topology of the smart grid changes because of either link failures or packet losses. These topology changes are modeled as a time-varying communication topology matrix. By using this matrix, a new closed-loop power system model is proposed to integrate the communication topology changes into the dynamics of a physical power system. The globally asymptotical stability of this closed-loop power system is analyzed. A distributed gain scheduling LFC strategy is proposed to compensate for the potential degradation of dynamic performance (mean square errors of state vectors) of the power system under communication topology changes. In comparison to conventional centralized control approaches, the proposed method can improve the robustness of the smart grid to the variation of the communication network as well as to reduce computation load. Simulation results show that the proposed distributed gain scheduling approach is capable to improve the robustness of the smart grid to communication topology changes.

  20. AEP Ohio gridSMART Demonstration Project Real-Time Pricing Demonstration Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.; Somani, Abhishek; Marinovici, Maria C.; Hammerstrom, Janelle L.

    2014-02-01

    This report contributes initial findings from an analysis of significant aspects of the gridSMART® Real-Time Pricing (RTP) – Double Auction demonstration project. Over the course of four years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) worked with American Electric Power (AEP), Ohio and Battelle Memorial Institute to design, build, and operate an innovative system to engage residential consumers and their end-use resources in a participatory approach to electric system operations, an incentive-based approach that has the promise of providing greater efficiency under normal operating conditions and greater flexibility to react under situations of system stress. The material contained in this report supplements the findings documented by AEP Ohio in the main body of the gridSMART report. It delves into three main areas: impacts on system operations, impacts on households, and observations about the sensitivity of load to price changes.

  1. 75 FR 81605 - Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Technical Conference December 21, 2010. Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a...

  2. Inspection Robot Based Mobile Sensing and Power Line Tracking for Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Byambasuren, Bat-erdene; Kim, Donghan; Oyun-Erdene, Mandakh; Bold, Chinguun; Yura, Jargalbaatar

    2016-01-01

    Smart sensing and power line tracking is very important in a smart grid system. Illegal electricity usage can be detected by remote current measurement on overhead power lines using an inspection robot. There is a need for accurate detection methods of illegal electricity usage. Stable and correct power line tracking is a very prominent issue. In order to correctly track and make accurate measurements, the swing path of a power line should be previously fitted and predicted by a mathematical function using an inspection robot. After this, the remote inspection robot can follow the power line and measure the current. This paper presents a new power line tracking method using parabolic and circle fitting algorithms for illegal electricity detection. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking method by simulation and experimental results. PMID:26907274

  3. Inspection Robot Based Mobile Sensing and Power Line Tracking for Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Byambasuren, Bat-Erdene; Kim, Donghan; Oyun-Erdene, Mandakh; Bold, Chinguun; Yura, Jargalbaatar

    2016-02-19

    Smart sensing and power line tracking is very important in a smart grid system. Illegal electricity usage can be detected by remote current measurement on overhead power lines using an inspection robot. There is a need for accurate detection methods of illegal electricity usage. Stable and correct power line tracking is a very prominent issue. In order to correctly track and make accurate measurements, the swing path of a power line should be previously fitted and predicted by a mathematical function using an inspection robot. After this, the remote inspection robot can follow the power line and measure the current. This paper presents a new power line tracking method using parabolic and circle fitting algorithms for illegal electricity detection. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking method by simulation and experimental results.

  4. Inspection Robot Based Mobile Sensing and Power Line Tracking for Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Byambasuren, Bat-Erdene; Kim, Donghan; Oyun-Erdene, Mandakh; Bold, Chinguun; Yura, Jargalbaatar

    2016-01-01

    Smart sensing and power line tracking is very important in a smart grid system. Illegal electricity usage can be detected by remote current measurement on overhead power lines using an inspection robot. There is a need for accurate detection methods of illegal electricity usage. Stable and correct power line tracking is a very prominent issue. In order to correctly track and make accurate measurements, the swing path of a power line should be previously fitted and predicted by a mathematical function using an inspection robot. After this, the remote inspection robot can follow the power line and measure the current. This paper presents a new power line tracking method using parabolic and circle fitting algorithms for illegal electricity detection. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking method by simulation and experimental results. PMID:26907274

  5. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Grant Project Technologies: Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ruchi; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of addition of renewable resources- solar and wind in the distribution system as deployed in the SGIG projects.

  6. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  7. Some advanced parametric methods for assessing waveform distortion in a smart grid with renewable generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfieri, Luisa

    2015-12-01

    Power quality (PQ) disturbances are becoming an important issue in smart grids (SGs) due to the significant economic consequences that they can generate on sensible loads. However, SGs include several distributed energy resources (DERs) that can be interconnected to the grid with static converters, which lead to a reduction of the PQ levels. Among DERs, wind turbines and photovoltaic systems are expected to be used extensively due to the forecasted reduction in investment costs and other economic incentives. These systems can introduce significant time-varying voltage and current waveform distortions that require advanced spectral analysis methods to be used. This paper provides an application of advanced parametric methods for assessing waveform distortions in SGs with dispersed generation. In particular, the Standard International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC) method, some parametric methods (such as Prony and Estimation of Signal Parameters by Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT)), and some hybrid methods are critically compared on the basis of their accuracy and the computational effort required.

  8. Parameter identification of aggregated thermostatically controlled loads for smart grids using PDE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Scott; Bendtsen, Jan; Ruiz, Victor

    2014-07-01

    This paper develops methods for model identification of aggregated thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) in smart grids, via partial differential equation (PDE) techniques. Control of aggregated TCLs provides a promising opportunity to mitigate the mismatch between power generation and demand, thus enhancing grid reliability and enabling renewable energy penetration. To this end, this paper focuses on developing parameter identification algorithms for a PDE-based model of aggregated TCLs. First, a two-state boundary-coupled hyperbolic PDE model for homogenous TCL populations is derived. This model is extended to heterogeneous populations by including a diffusive term, which provides an elegant control-oriented model. Next, a passive parameter identification scheme and a swapping-based identification scheme are derived for the PDE model structure. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of each method under various autonomous and non-autonomous scenarios. The proposed models can subsequently be employed to provide system critical information for power system monitoring and control.

  9. Incentive-compatible demand-side management for smart grids based on review strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jie; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2015-12-01

    Demand-side load management is able to significantly improve the energy efficiency of smart grids. Since the electricity production cost depends on the aggregate energy usage of multiple consumers, an important incentive problem emerges: self-interested consumers want to increase their own utilities by consuming more than the socially optimal amount of energy during peak hours since the increased cost is shared among the entire set of consumers. To incentivize self-interested consumers to take the socially optimal scheduling actions, we design a new class of protocols based on review strategies. These strategies work as follows: first, a review stage takes place in which a statistical test is performed based on the daily prices of the previous billing cycle to determine whether or not the other consumers schedule their electricity loads in a socially optimal way. If the test fails, the consumers trigger a punishment phase in which, for a certain time, they adjust their energy scheduling in such a way that everybody in the consumer set is punished due to an increased price. Using a carefully designed protocol based on such review strategies, consumers then have incentives to take the socially optimal load scheduling to avoid entering this punishment phase. We rigorously characterize the impact of deploying protocols based on review strategies on the system's as well as the users' performance and determine the optimal design (optimal billing cycle, punishment length, etc.) for various smart grid deployment scenarios. Even though this paper considers a simplified smart grid model, our analysis provides important and useful insights for designing incentive-compatible demand-side management schemes based on aggregate energy usage information in a variety of practical scenarios.

  10. ATES Smart Grids research project overview and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemendal, Martin; Jaxa-Rozen, Marc; Rostampour, Vahab

    2016-04-01

    Background: ATES is application is growing Application of seasonal Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) contributes to energy saving and Greenhouse Gas (GHG)-reduction goals (CBS, 2015; EU, 2010, 2014). Recently it was shown that ATES is applicable in several parts of the world (Bloemendal et al., 2015). While in most parts of the world adoption is just beginning, in the Netherlands progressive building energy efficiency regulation already caused the adoption of ATES to take off (Heekeren and Bakema, 2015; Sommer et al., 2015). As a result of the large number of ATES systems in the Netherlands, the subsurface plays a crucial role in the energy saving objectives of The Netherlands (Kamp, 2015; SER, 2013). Problem: suboptimal use of the subsurface for energy storage ATES systems accumulate in urban areas, as can be expected with a large growth of ATES systems; at many locations in Dutch cities demand for ATES transcends the available space in the subsurface (Li, 2014; Sommer et al., 2015). Within in the Dutch legal framework and state of technology optimal use of the subsurface is not secured; i.e. minimizing the total GHG emissions in a certain area. (Bloemendal et al., 2014; Li, 2014). The most important aspects in this problem are A) the permanent and often unused claim resulting from static permits and B) excessive safety zones around wells to prevent interaction. Both aspects result in an artificial reduction of subsurface space for potential new ATES systems. Recent research has shown that ground energy storage systems could be placed much closer to each other (Bakr et al., 2013; Sommer et al., 2015), and a controlled/limited degree of interaction between them can actually benefit the overall energy savings of an entire area. Solution: the approach and first results of our research project on ATES Smart Grids The heating and cooling demand of buildings is a dynamic and hard to predict process, due to effects such as weather, climate change, changing function

  11. Ring-like reliable PON planning with physical constraints for a smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Due to the high reliability requirements in the communication networks of a smart grid, a ring-like reliable PON is an ideal choice to carry power distribution information. Economical network planning is also very important for the smart grid communication infrastructure. Although the ring-like reliable PON has been widely used in the real applications, as far as we know, little research has been done on the network optimization subject of the ring-like reliable PON. Most PON planning research studies only consider a star-like topology or cascaded PON network, which barely guarantees the reliability requirements of the smart grid. In this paper, we mainly investigate the economical network planning problem for the ring-like reliable PON of the smart grid. To address this issue, we built a mathematical model for the planning problem of the ring-like reliable PON, and the objective was to minimize the total deployment costs under physical constraints. The model is simplified such that all of the nodes have the same properties, except OLT, because each potential splitter site can be located in the same ONU position in power communication networks. The simplified model is used to construct an optimal main tree topology in the complete graph and a backup-protected tree topology in the residual graph. An efficient heuristic algorithm, called the Constraints and Minimal Weight Oriented Fast Searching Algorithm (CMW-FSA), is proposed. In CMW-FSA, a feasible solution can be obtained directly with oriented constraints and a few recursive search processes. From the simulation results, the proposed planning model and CMW-FSA are verified to be accurate (the error rates are less than 0.4%) and effective compared with the accurate solution (CAESA), especially in small and sparse scenarios. The CMW-FSA significantly reduces the computation time compared with the CAESA. The time complexity algorithm of the CMW-FSA is acceptable and calculated as T(n) = O(n3). After evaluating the

  12. Metrics for Assessment of Smart Grid Data Integrity Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Annarita Giani; Miles McQueen; Russell Bent; Kameshwar Poolla; Mark Hinrichs

    2012-07-01

    There is an emerging consensus that the nation’s electricity grid is vulnerable to cyber attacks. This vulnerability arises from the increasing reliance on using remote measurements, transmitting them over legacy data networks to system operators who make critical decisions based on available data. Data integrity attacks are a class of cyber attacks that involve a compromise of information that is processed by the grid operator. This information can include meter readings of injected power at remote generators, power flows on transmission lines, and relay states. These data integrity attacks have consequences only when the system operator responds to compromised data by redispatching generation under normal or contingency protocols. These consequences include (a) financial losses from sub-optimal economic dispatch to service loads, (b) robustness/resiliency losses from placing the grid at operating points that are at greater risk from contingencies, and (c) systemic losses resulting from cascading failures induced by poor operational choices. This paper is focused on understanding the connections between grid operational procedures and cyber attacks. We first offer two examples to illustrate how data integrity attacks can cause economic and physical damage by misleading operators into taking inappropriate decisions. We then focus on unobservable data integrity attacks involving power meter data. These are coordinated attacks where the compromised data are consistent with the physics of power flow, and are therefore passed by any bad data detection algorithm. We develop metrics to assess the economic impact of these attacks under re-dispatch decisions using optimal power flow methods. These metrics can be use to prioritize the adoption of appropriate countermeasures including PMU placement, encryption, hardware upgrades, and advance attack detection algorithms.

  13. PNNL Future Power Grid Initiative-developed GridOPTICS Software System (GOSS)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-03

    The power grid is changing and evolving. One aspect of this change is the growing use of smart meters and other devices, which are producing large volumes of useful data. However, in many cases, the data can’t be translated quickly into actionable guidance to improve grid performance. There's a need for innovative tools. The GridOPTICS(TM) Software System, or GOSS, developed through PNNL's Future Power Grid Initiative, is open source and became publicly available in spring 2014. The value of this middleware is that it easily integrates grid applications with sources of data and facilitates communication between them. Such a capability provides a foundation for developing a range of applications to improve grid management.

  14. ATES Smart Grids research project overview and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemendal, Martin; Jaxa-Rozen, Marc; Rostampour, Vahab

    2016-04-01

    Background: ATES is application is growing Application of seasonal Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) contributes to energy saving and Greenhouse Gas (GHG)-reduction goals (CBS, 2015; EU, 2010, 2014). Recently it was shown that ATES is applicable in several parts of the world (Bloemendal et al., 2015). While in most parts of the world adoption is just beginning, in the Netherlands progressive building energy efficiency regulation already caused the adoption of ATES to take off (Heekeren and Bakema, 2015; Sommer et al., 2015). As a result of the large number of ATES systems in the Netherlands, the subsurface plays a crucial role in the energy saving objectives of The Netherlands (Kamp, 2015; SER, 2013). Problem: suboptimal use of the subsurface for energy storage ATES systems accumulate in urban areas, as can be expected with a large growth of ATES systems; at many locations in Dutch cities demand for ATES transcends the available space in the subsurface (Li, 2014; Sommer et al., 2015). Within in the Dutch legal framework and state of technology optimal use of the subsurface is not secured; i.e. minimizing the total GHG emissions in a certain area. (Bloemendal et al., 2014; Li, 2014). The most important aspects in this problem are A) the permanent and often unused claim resulting from static permits and B) excessive safety zones around wells to prevent interaction. Both aspects result in an artificial reduction of subsurface space for potential new ATES systems. Recent research has shown that ground energy storage systems could be placed much closer to each other (Bakr et al., 2013; Sommer et al., 2015), and a controlled/limited degree of interaction between them can actually benefit the overall energy savings of an entire area. Solution: the approach and first results of our research project on ATES Smart Grids The heating and cooling demand of buildings is a dynamic and hard to predict process, due to effects such as weather, climate change, changing function

  15. Open Automated Demand Response Technologies for Dynamic Pricing and Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatikar, Girish; Mathieu, Johanna L.; Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-06-02

    We present an Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specifications (OpenADR) data model capable of communicating real-time prices to electricity customers. We also show how the same data model could be used to for other types of dynamic pricing tariffs (including peak pricing tariffs, which are common throughout the United States). Customers participating in automated demand response programs with building control systems can respond to dynamic prices by using the actual prices as inputs to their control systems. Alternatively, prices can be mapped into"building operation modes," which can act as inputs to control systems. We present several different strategies customers could use to map prices to operation modes. Our results show that OpenADR can be used to communicate dynamic pricing within the Smart Grid and that OpenADR allows for interoperability with existing and future systems, technologies, and electricity markets.

  16. GridLAB-D/SG

    SciTech Connect

    2011-08-30

    GridLAB-D is a new power system simulation tool that provides valuable information to users who design and operate electric power transmission and distribution systems, and to utilities that wish to take advantage of the latest smart grid technology. This special release of GridLAB-D was developed to study the proposed Smart Grid technology that is used by Battelle Memorial Institute in the AEP gridSMART demonstration project in Northeast Columbus, Ohio.

  17. Solar energy grid integration systems "SEGIS"

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-10-01

    The inevitable transformation of the electrical grid to a more distributed generation configuration requires solar system capabilities well beyond simple net-metered, grid-connected approaches. Time-of-use and peak-demand rate structures will require more sophisticated systems designs that integrate energy management and/or energy storage into the system architecture. Controlling power flow into and from the utility grid will be required to ensure grid reliability and power quality. Alternative protection strategies will also be required to accommodate large numbers of distributed energy sources. This document provides an overview of the R&D needs and describes some pathways to promising solutions. The solutions will, in many cases, require R&D of new components, innovative inverter/controllers, energy management systems, innovative energy storage and a suite of advanced control algorithms, technical methodologies, protocols and the associated communications. It is expected that these solutions will help to push the “advanced integrated system” and “smart grid” evolutionary processes forward in a faster but focused manner.

  18. 75 FR 62514 - Notice of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies AGENCY... Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies.'' In this report, DOE discusses existing trends, consensus, and potential best practices emerging as States use or adapt existing legal regimes...

  19. Results from the Operational Testing of the General Electric Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Barney Carlson; Don Scoffield; Brion Bennett

    2013-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the General Electric (GE) smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from GE for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the GE smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  20. Recovery Act-SmartGrid regional demonstration transmission and distribution (T&D) Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, Edward T.

    2015-01-31

    This document represents the Final Technical Report for the Kansas City Power & Light Company (KCP&L) Green Impact Zone SmartGrid Demonstration Project (SGDP). The KCP&L project is partially funded by Department of Energy (DOE) Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project cooperative agreement DE-OE0000221 in the Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure application area. This Final Technical Report summarizes the KCP&L SGDP as of April 30, 2015 and includes summaries of the project design, implementation, operations, and analysis performed as of that date.

  1. Smart vehicular transportation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.Q.; Wilson, C.W.

    1997-05-01

    This work builds upon established Sandia intelligent systems technology to develop a unique approach for the integration of intelligent system control into the US Highway and urban transportation systems. The Sandia developed concept of the COPILOT controller integrates a human driver with computer control to increase human performance while reducing reliance on detailed driver attention. This research extends Sandia expertise in sensor based, real-time control of robotics systems to high speed transportation systems. Knowledge in the form of maps and performance characteristics of vehicles provides the automatic decision making intelligence needed to plan optimum routes, maintain safe driving speeds and distances, avoid collisions, and conserve fuel.

  2. 'Smart' Irrigation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Brodrick, James

    2012-08-31

    The article discusses the ASHRAE Standard 189, with mandatory and optional provisions related to water use efficiency, then focuses on the use of water efficient irrigation systems and the use of recycled water such as air conditioner condensate for landscaping irrigation. Benefits of such practices include both water and energy savings.

  3. Ultrafast Power Processor for Smart Grid Power Module Development

    SciTech Connect

    MAITRA, ARINDAM; LITWIN, RAY; lai, Jason; Syracuse, David

    2012-12-30

    This project’s goal was to increase the switching speed and decrease the losses of the power semiconductor devices and power switch modules necessary to enable Smart Grid energy flow and control equipment such as the Ultra-Fast Power Processor. The primary focus of this project involves exploiting the new silicon-based Super-GTO (SGTO) technology and build on prototype modules already being developed. The prototype super gate-turn-off thyristor (SGTO) has been tested fully under continuously conducting and double-pulse hard-switching conditions for conduction and switching characteristics evaluation. The conduction voltage drop measurement results indicate that SGTO has excellent conduction characteristics despite inconsistency among some prototype devices. Tests were conducted with two conditions: (1) fixed gate voltage and varying anode current condition, and (2) fixed anode current and varying gate voltage condition. The conduction voltage drop is relatively a constant under different gate voltage condition. In terms of voltage drop as a function of the load current, there is a fixed voltage drop about 0.5V under zero current condition, and then the voltage drop is linearly increased with the current. For a 5-kV voltage blocking device that may operate under 2.5-kV condition, the projected voltage drop is less than 2.5 V under 50-A condition, or 0.1%. If the device is adopted in a converter operating under soft-switching condition, then the converter can achieve an ultrahigh efficiency, typically above 99%. The two-pulse switching test results indicate that SGTO switching speed is very fast. The switching loss is relatively low as compared to that of the insulated-gate-bipolar-transistors (IGBTs). A special phenomenon needs to be noted is such a fast switching speed for the high-voltage switching tends to create an unexpected Cdv/dt current, which reduces the turn-on loss because the dv/dt is negative and increases the turn-off loss because the dv/dt is

  4. A Novel LTE Scheduling Algorithm for Green Technology in Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Hindia, Mohammad Nour; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Chayon, Muhammad Hasibur Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Smart grid (SG) application is being used nowadays to meet the demand of increasing power consumption. SG application is considered as a perfect solution for combining renewable energy resources and electrical grid by means of creating a bidirectional communication channel between the two systems. In this paper, three SG applications applicable to renewable energy system, namely, distribution automation (DA), distributed energy system-storage (DER) and electrical vehicle (EV), are investigated in order to study their suitability in Long Term Evolution (LTE) network. To compensate the weakness in the existing scheduling algorithms, a novel bandwidth estimation and allocation technique and a new scheduling algorithm are proposed. The technique allocates available network resources based on application’s priority, whereas the algorithm makes scheduling decision based on dynamic weighting factors of multi-criteria to satisfy the demands (delay, past average throughput and instantaneous transmission rate) of quality of service. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed mechanism achieves higher throughput, lower delay and lower packet loss rate for DA and DER as well as provide a degree of service for EV. In terms of fairness, the proposed algorithm shows 3%, 7 % and 9% better performance compared to exponential rule (EXP-Rule), modified-largest weighted delay first (M-LWDF) and exponential/PF (EXP/PF), respectively. PMID:25830703

  5. A novel LTE scheduling algorithm for green technology in smart grid.

    PubMed

    Hindia, Mohammad Nour; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Chayon, Muhammad Hasibur Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Smart grid (SG) application is being used nowadays to meet the demand of increasing power consumption. SG application is considered as a perfect solution for combining renewable energy resources and electrical grid by means of creating a bidirectional communication channel between the two systems. In this paper, three SG applications applicable to renewable energy system, namely, distribution automation (DA), distributed energy system-storage (DER) and electrical vehicle (EV), are investigated in order to study their suitability in Long Term Evolution (LTE) network. To compensate the weakness in the existing scheduling algorithms, a novel bandwidth estimation and allocation technique and a new scheduling algorithm are proposed. The technique allocates available network resources based on application's priority, whereas the algorithm makes scheduling decision based on dynamic weighting factors of multi-criteria to satisfy the demands (delay, past average throughput and instantaneous transmission rate) of quality of service. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed mechanism achieves higher throughput, lower delay and lower packet loss rate for DA and DER as well as provide a degree of service for EV. In terms of fairness, the proposed algorithm shows 3%, 7 % and 9% better performance compared to exponential rule (EXP-Rule), modified-largest weighted delay first (M-LWDF) and exponential/PF (EXP/PF), respectively.

  6. A novel LTE scheduling algorithm for green technology in smart grid.

    PubMed

    Hindia, Mohammad Nour; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Chayon, Muhammad Hasibur Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Smart grid (SG) application is being used nowadays to meet the demand of increasing power consumption. SG application is considered as a perfect solution for combining renewable energy resources and electrical grid by means of creating a bidirectional communication channel between the two systems. In this paper, three SG applications applicable to renewable energy system, namely, distribution automation (DA), distributed energy system-storage (DER) and electrical vehicle (EV), are investigated in order to study their suitability in Long Term Evolution (LTE) network. To compensate the weakness in the existing scheduling algorithms, a novel bandwidth estimation and allocation technique and a new scheduling algorithm are proposed. The technique allocates available network resources based on application's priority, whereas the algorithm makes scheduling decision based on dynamic weighting factors of multi-criteria to satisfy the demands (delay, past average throughput and instantaneous transmission rate) of quality of service. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed mechanism achieves higher throughput, lower delay and lower packet loss rate for DA and DER as well as provide a degree of service for EV. In terms of fairness, the proposed algorithm shows 3%, 7 % and 9% better performance compared to exponential rule (EXP-Rule), modified-largest weighted delay first (M-LWDF) and exponential/PF (EXP/PF), respectively. PMID:25830703

  7. Branch-Based Centralized Data Collection for Smart Grids Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Seong-il

    2015-01-01

    A smart grid is one of the most important applications in smart cities. In a smart grid, a smart meter acts as a sensor node in a sensor network, and a central device collects power usage from every smart meter. This paper focuses on a centralized data collection problem of how to collect every power usage from every meter without collisions in an environment in which the time synchronization among smart meters is not guaranteed. To solve the problem, we divide a tree that a sensor network constructs into several branches. A conflict-free query schedule is generated based on the branches. Each power usage is collected according to the schedule. The proposed method has important features: shortening query processing time and avoiding collisions between a query and query responses. We evaluate this method using the ns-2 simulator. The experimental results show that this method can achieve both collision avoidance and fast query processing at the same time. The success rate of data collection at a sink node executing this method is 100%. Its running time is about 35 percent faster than that of the round-robin method, and its memory size is reduced to about 10% of that of the depth-first search method. PMID:26007734

  8. Branch-based centralized data collection for smart grids using wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Seong-il

    2015-05-21

    A smart grid is one of the most important applications in smart cities. In a smart grid, a smart meter acts as a sensor node in a sensor network, and a central device collects power usage from every smart meter. This paper focuses on a centralized data collection problem of how to collect every power usage from every meter without collisions in an environment in which the time synchronization among smart meters is not guaranteed. To solve the problem, we divide a tree that a sensor network constructs into several branches. A conflict-free query schedule is generated based on the branches. Each power usage is collected according to the schedule. The proposed method has important features: shortening query processing time and avoiding collisions between a query and query responses. We evaluate this method using the ns-2 simulator. The experimental results show that this method can achieve both collision avoidance and fast query processing at the same time. The success rate of data collection at a sink node executing this method is 100%. Its running time is about 35 percent faster than that of the round-robin method, and its memory size is reduced to about 10% of that of the depth-first search method.

  9. Comparative advantage between traditional and smart navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jeongkyu; Kim, Pan-Jun; Kim, Seunghwan

    2013-03-01

    The smart navigation system that refers to real-time traffic data is believed to be superior to traditional navigation systems. To verify this belief, we created an agent-based traffic model and examined the effect of changing market share of the traditional shortest-travel-time algorithm based navigation and the smart navigation system. We tested our model on the grid and actual metropolitan road network structures. The result reveals that the traditional navigation system have better performance than the smart one as the market share of the smart navigation system exceeds a critical value, which is contrary to conventional expectation. We suggest that the superiority inversion between agent groups is strongly related to the traffic weight function form, and is general. We also found that the relationship of market share, traffic flow density and travel time is determined by the combination of congestion avoidance behavior of the smartly navigated agents and the inefficiency of shortest-travel-time based navigated agents. Our results can be interpreted with the minority game and extended to the diverse topics of opinion dynamics. This work was supported by the Original Technology Research Program for Brain Science through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology(No. 2010-0018847).

  10. Power management and frequency regulation for microgrid and smart grid: A real-time demand response approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmousavi Kani, Seyyed Ali

    Future power systems (known as smart grid) will experience a high penetration level of variable distributed energy resources to bring abundant, affordable, clean, efficient, and reliable electric power to all consumers. However, it might suffer from the uncertain and variable nature of these generations in terms of reliability and especially providing required balancing reserves. In the current power system structure, balancing reserves (provided by spinning and non-spinning power generation units) usually are provided by conventional fossil-fueled power plants. However, such power plants are not the favorite option for the smart grid because of their low efficiency, high amount of emissions, and expensive capital investments on transmission and distribution facilities, to name a few. Providing regulation services in the presence of variable distributed energy resources would be even more difficult for islanded microgrids. The impact and effectiveness of demand response are still not clear at the distribution and transmission levels. In other words, there is no solid research reported in the literature on the evaluation of the impact of DR on power system dynamic performance. In order to address these issues, a real-time demand response approach along with real-time power management (specifically for microgrids) is proposed in this research. The real-time demand response solution is utilized at the transmission (through load-frequency control model) and distribution level (both in the islanded and grid-tied modes) to provide effective and fast regulation services for the stable operation of the power system. Then, multiple real-time power management algorithms for grid-tied and islanded microgrids are proposed to economically and effectively operate microgrids. Extensive dynamic modeling of generation, storage, and load as well as different controller design are considered and developed throughout this research to provide appropriate models and simulation

  11. GridOPTICS Software System

    2014-02-24

    GridOPTICS Software System (GOSS) is a middleware that facilitates creation of new, modular and flexible operational and planning platforms that can meet the challenges of the next generation power grid. GOSS enables Department of Energy, power system utilities, and vendors to build better tools faster. GOSS makes it possible to integrate Future Power Grid Initiative software products/prototypes into existing power grid software systems, including the PNNL PowerNet and EIOC environments. GOSS is designed to allowmore » power grid applications developed for different underlying software platforms installed in different utilities to communicate with ease. This can be done in compliance with existing security and data sharing policies between the utilities. GOSS not only supports one-to-one data transfer between applications, but also publisher/subscriber scheme. To support interoperability requirements of future EMS, GOSS is designed for CIM compliance. In addition to this, it supports authentication and authorization capabilities to protect the system from cyber threats. In summary, the contributions of the GOSS middleware are as follows: • A platform to support future EMS development. • A middleware that promotes interoperability between power grid applications. • A distributed architecture that separates data sources from power grid applications. • Support for data exchange with either one-to-one or publisher/subscriber interfaces. • An authentication and authorization scheme for limiting the access to data between utilities.« less

  12. GridOPTICS Software System

    SciTech Connect

    Akyol, Bora A; Ciraci, PNNL Selim; Gibson, PNNL Tara; Rice, PNNL Mark; Sharma, PNNL Poorva; Yin, PNNL Jian; Allwardt, PNNL Craig; PNNL,

    2014-02-24

    GridOPTICS Software System (GOSS) is a middleware that facilitates creation of new, modular and flexible operational and planning platforms that can meet the challenges of the next generation power grid. GOSS enables Department of Energy, power system utilities, and vendors to build better tools faster. GOSS makes it possible to integrate Future Power Grid Initiative software products/prototypes into existing power grid software systems, including the PNNL PowerNet and EIOC environments. GOSS is designed to allow power grid applications developed for different underlying software platforms installed in different utilities to communicate with ease. This can be done in compliance with existing security and data sharing policies between the utilities. GOSS not only supports one-to-one data transfer between applications, but also publisher/subscriber scheme. To support interoperability requirements of future EMS, GOSS is designed for CIM compliance. In addition to this, it supports authentication and authorization capabilities to protect the system from cyber threats. In summary, the contributions of the GOSS middleware are as follows: • A platform to support future EMS development. • A middleware that promotes interoperability between power grid applications. • A distributed architecture that separates data sources from power grid applications. • Support for data exchange with either one-to-one or publisher/subscriber interfaces. • An authentication and authorization scheme for limiting the access to data between utilities.

  13. Optimisation of sensing time and transmission time in cognitive radio-based smart grid networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Fu, Yuli; Yang, Junjie

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive radio (CR)-based smart grid (SG) networks have been widely recognised as emerging communication paradigms in power grids. However, a sufficient spectrum resource and reliability are two major challenges for real-time applications in CR-based SG networks. In this article, we study the traffic data collection problem. Based on the two-stage power pricing model, the power price is associated with the efficient received traffic data in a metre data management system (MDMS). In order to minimise the system power price, a wideband hybrid access strategy is proposed and analysed, to share the spectrum between the SG nodes and CR networks. The sensing time and transmission time are jointly optimised, while both the interference to primary users and the spectrum opportunity loss of secondary users are considered. Two algorithms are proposed to solve the joint optimisation problem. Simulation results show that the proposed joint optimisation algorithms outperform the fixed parameters (sensing time and transmission time) algorithms, and the power cost is reduced efficiently.

  14. Spectrum survey for reliable communications of cognitive radio based smart grid network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah Aqilah, Wan; Jayavalan, Shanjeevan; Mohd Aripin, Norazizah; Mohamad, Hafizal; Ismail, Aiman

    2013-06-01

    The smart grid (SG) system is expected to involve huge amount of data with different levels of priorities to different applications or users. The traditional grid which tend to deploy propriety networks with limited coverage and bandwidth, is not sufficient to support large scale SG network. Cognitive radio (CR) is a promising communication platform for SG network by utilizing potentially all available spectrum resources, subject to interference constraint. In order to develop a reliable communication framework for CR based SG network, thorough investigations on the current radio spectrum are required. This paper presents the spectrum utilization in Malaysia, specifically in the UHF/VHF bands, cellular (GSM 900, GSM 1800 and 3G), WiMAX, ISM and LTE band. The goal is to determine the potential spectrum that can be exploit by the CR users in the SG network. Measurements was conducted for 24 hours to quantify the average spectrum usage and the amount of available bandwidth. The findings in this paper are important to provide insight of actual spectrum utilization prior to developing a reliable communication platform for CR based SG network.

  15. Decentralized control of units in smart grids for the support of renewable energy supply

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenschein, Michael; Lünsdorf, Ontje; Bremer, Jörg; Tröschel, Martin

    2015-04-15

    Due to the significant environmental impact of power production from fossil fuels and nuclear fission, future energy systems will increasingly rely on distributed and renewable energy sources (RES). The electrical feed-in from photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind energy converters (WEC) varies greatly both over short and long time periods (from minutes to seasons), and (not only) by this effect the supply of electrical power from RES and the demand for electrical power are not per se matching. In addition, with a growing share of generation capacity especially in distribution grids, the top-down paradigm of electricity distribution is gradually replaced by a bottom-up power supply. This altogether leads to new problems regarding the safe and reliable operation of power grids. In order to address these challenges, the notion of Smart Grids has been introduced. The inherent flexibilities, i.e. the set of feasible power schedules, of distributed power units have to be controlled in order to support demand–supply matching as well as stable grid operation. Controllable power units are e.g. combined heat and power plants, power storage systems such as batteries, and flexible power consumers such as heat pumps. By controlling the flexibilities of these units we are particularly able to optimize the local utilization of RES feed-in in a given power grid by integrating both supply and demand management measures with special respect to the electrical infrastructure. In this context, decentralized systems, autonomous agents and the concept of self-organizing systems will become key elements of the ICT based control of power units. In this contribution, we first show how a decentralized load management system for battery charging/discharging of electrical vehicles (EVs) can increase the locally used share of supply from PV systems in a low voltage grid. For a reliable demand side management of large sets of appliances, dynamic clustering of these appliances into uniformly

  16. Ubiquitous Robotic Technology for Smart Manufacturing System.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenshan; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Liyu; Qiu, Qiang; Cao, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    As the manufacturing tasks become more individualized and more flexible, the machines in smart factory are required to do variable tasks collaboratively without reprogramming. This paper for the first time discusses the similarity between smart manufacturing systems and the ubiquitous robotic systems and makes an effort on deploying ubiquitous robotic technology to the smart factory. Specifically, a component based framework is proposed in order to enable the communication and cooperation of the heterogeneous robotic devices. Further, compared to the service robotic domain, the smart manufacturing systems are often in larger size. So a hierarchical planning method was implemented to improve the planning efficiency. A test bed of smart factory is developed. It demonstrates that the proposed framework is suitable for industrial domain, and the hierarchical planning method is able to solve large problems intractable with flat methods. PMID:27446206

  17. Ubiquitous Robotic Technology for Smart Manufacturing System

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Liyu; Qiu, Qiang; Cao, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    As the manufacturing tasks become more individualized and more flexible, the machines in smart factory are required to do variable tasks collaboratively without reprogramming. This paper for the first time discusses the similarity between smart manufacturing systems and the ubiquitous robotic systems and makes an effort on deploying ubiquitous robotic technology to the smart factory. Specifically, a component based framework is proposed in order to enable the communication and cooperation of the heterogeneous robotic devices. Further, compared to the service robotic domain, the smart manufacturing systems are often in larger size. So a hierarchical planning method was implemented to improve the planning efficiency. A test bed of smart factory is developed. It demonstrates that the proposed framework is suitable for industrial domain, and the hierarchical planning method is able to solve large problems intractable with flat methods. PMID:27446206

  18. VOLTTRON™: An Agent Platform for Integrating Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Haack, Jereme N.; Akyol, Bora A.; Tenney, Nathan D.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Pratt, Richard M.; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2013-12-06

    The VOLTTRON™ platform provides a secure environment for the deployment of intelligent applications in the smart grid. VOLTTRON design is based on the needs of control applications running on small form factor devices, namely security and resource guarantees. Services such as resource discovery, secure agent mobility, and interacting with smart and legacy devices are provided by the platform to ease the development of control applications and accelerate their deployment. VOLTTRON platform has been demonstrated in several different domains that influenced and enhanced its capabilities. This paper will discuss the features of VOLTTRON and highlight its usage to coordinate electric vehicle charging with home energy usage

  19. SACRB-MAC: A High-Capacity MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks in Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhutian; Shi, Zhenguo; Jin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    The Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN) is considered as a viable solution to enhance various aspects of the electric power grid and to realize a smart grid. However, several challenges for CRSNs are generated due to the harsh wireless environment in a smart grid. As a result, throughput and reliability become critical issues. On the other hand, the spectrum aggregation technique is expected to play an important role in CRSNs in a smart grid. By using spectrum aggregation, the throughput of CRSNs can be improved efficiently, so as to address the unique challenges of CRSNs in a smart grid. In this regard, we proposed Spectrum Aggregation Cognitive Receiver-Based MAC (SACRB-MAC), which employs the spectrum aggregation technique to improve the throughput performance of CRSNs in a smart grid. Moreover, SACRB-MAC is a receiver-based MAC protocol, which can provide a good reliability performance. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that SACRB-MAC is a promising solution for CRSNs in a smart grid. PMID:27043573

  20. SACRB-MAC: A High-Capacity MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks in Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhutian; Shi, Zhenguo; Jin, Chunlin

    2016-03-31

    The Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN) is considered as a viable solution to enhance various aspects of the electric power grid and to realize a smart grid. However, several challenges for CRSNs are generated due to the harsh wireless environment in a smart grid. As a result, throughput and reliability become critical issues. On the other hand, the spectrum aggregation technique is expected to play an important role in CRSNs in a smart grid. By using spectrum aggregation, the throughput of CRSNs can be improved efficiently, so as to address the unique challenges of CRSNs in a smart grid. In this regard, we proposed Spectrum Aggregation Cognitive Receiver-Based MAC (SACRB-MAC), which employs the spectrum aggregation technique to improve the throughput performance of CRSNs in a smart grid. Moreover, SACRB-MAC is a receiver-based MAC protocol, which can provide a good reliability performance. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that SACRB-MAC is a promising solution for CRSNs in a smart grid.

  1. QoS Differential Scheduling in Cognitive-Radio-Based Smart Grid Networks: An Adaptive Dynamic Programming Approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rong; Zhong, Weifeng; Xie, Shengli; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun

    2016-02-01

    As the next-generation power grid, smart grid will be integrated with a variety of novel communication technologies to support the explosive data traffic and the diverse requirements of quality of service (QoS). Cognitive radio (CR), which has the favorable ability to improve the spectrum utilization, provides an efficient and reliable solution for smart grid communications networks. In this paper, we study the QoS differential scheduling problem in the CR-based smart grid communications networks. The scheduler is responsible for managing the spectrum resources and arranging the data transmissions of smart grid users (SGUs). To guarantee the differential QoS, the SGUs are assigned to have different priorities according to their roles and their current situations in the smart grid. Based on the QoS-aware priority policy, the scheduler adjusts the channels allocation to minimize the transmission delay of SGUs. The entire transmission scheduling problem is formulated as a semi-Markov decision process and solved by the methodology of adaptive dynamic programming. A heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) architecture is established for the scheduling problem. By the online network training, the HDP can learn from the activities of primary users and SGUs, and adjust the scheduling decision to achieve the purpose of transmission delay minimization. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed priority policy ensures the low transmission delay of high priority SGUs. In addition, the emergency data transmission delay is also reduced to a significantly low level, guaranteeing the differential QoS in smart grid.

  2. SACRB-MAC: A High-Capacity MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks in Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhutian; Shi, Zhenguo; Jin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    The Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN) is considered as a viable solution to enhance various aspects of the electric power grid and to realize a smart grid. However, several challenges for CRSNs are generated due to the harsh wireless environment in a smart grid. As a result, throughput and reliability become critical issues. On the other hand, the spectrum aggregation technique is expected to play an important role in CRSNs in a smart grid. By using spectrum aggregation, the throughput of CRSNs can be improved efficiently, so as to address the unique challenges of CRSNs in a smart grid. In this regard, we proposed Spectrum Aggregation Cognitive Receiver-Based MAC (SACRB-MAC), which employs the spectrum aggregation technique to improve the throughput performance of CRSNs in a smart grid. Moreover, SACRB-MAC is a receiver-based MAC protocol, which can provide a good reliability performance. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that SACRB-MAC is a promising solution for CRSNs in a smart grid. PMID:27043573

  3. Enhancing the cyber-security of smart grids with applications to synchrophasor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Seemita

    In the power grids, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are used as part of the Energy Management System (EMS) for enabling grid monitoring, control and protection. In recent times, with the ongoing installation of thousands of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), system operators are becoming increasingly reliant on PMU-generated synchrophasor measurements for executing wide-area monitoring and real-time control. The availability of PMU data facilitates dynamic state estimation of the system, thus improving the efficiency and resiliency of the grid. Since the SCADA and PMU data are used to make critical control decisions including actuation of physical systems, the timely availability and integrity of this networked data is of paramount importance. Absence or wrong control actions can potentially lead to disruption of operations, monetary loss, damage to equipments or surroundings or even blackout. This has posed new challenges to information security especially in this age of ever-increasing cyber-attacks. In this thesis, potential cyber-attacks on smart grids are presented and effective and implementable schemes are proposed for detecting them. The focus is mainly on three kinds of cyber-attacks and their detection: (i) gray-hole attacks on synchrophasor systems, (ii) PMU data manipulation attacks and (iii) data integrity attacks on SCADA systems. In the case of gray-hole attacks, also known as packet-drop attacks, the adversary may arbitrarily drop PMU data packets as they traverse the network, resulting in unavailability of time-sensitive data for the various critical power system applications. The fundamental challenge is to distinguish packets dropped by the adversary from those that occur naturally due to network congestion.The proposed gray-hole attack detection technique is based on exploiting the inherent timing information in the GPS time-stamped PMU data packets and using the temporal trends of the latencies to classify the cause of

  4. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  5. 75 FR 42747 - Smart Grid Update; Notice of Commissioner and Staff Attendance at FERC/NARUC Collaborative on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Smart Grid Update; Notice of Commissioner and Staff Attendance at FERC/NARUC Collaborative on Smart Response Meeting July 15, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby...

  6. 76 FR 66040 - NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Release 2.0 (Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... 25, 2011. ADDRESSES: Written comments may be sent to Office of the National Coordinator for Smart... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid...

  7. 75 FR 33611 - Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... information from smart meters, historical consumption data, and pricing and billing information. (75 FR 26203... Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party... information from interested parties to assist DOE in understanding current and potential practices...

  8. NB-PLC channel modelling with cyclostationary noise addition & OFDM implementation for smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Togis; Gupta, K. K.

    2016-03-01

    Power line communication (PLC) technology can be a viable solution for the future ubiquitous networks because it provides a cheaper alternative to other wired technology currently being used for communication. In smart grid Power Line Communication (PLC) is used to support communication with low rate on low voltage (LV) distribution network. In this paper, we propose the channel modelling of narrowband (NB) PLC in the frequency range 5 KHz to 500 KHz by using ABCD parameter with cyclostationary noise addition. Behaviour of the channel was studied by the addition of 11KV/230V transformer, by varying load location and load. Bit error rate (BER) Vs signal to noise ratio SNR) was plotted for the proposed model by employing OFDM. Our simulation results based on the proposed channel model show an acceptable performance in terms of bit error rate versus signal to noise ratio, which enables communication required for smart grid applications.

  9. OpenADR Open Source Toolkit: Developing Open Source Software for the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    McParland, Charles

    2011-02-01

    Demand response (DR) is becoming an increasingly important part of power grid planning and operation. The advent of the Smart Grid, which mandates its use, further motivates selection and development of suitable software protocols to enable DR functionality. The OpenADR protocol has been developed and is being standardized to serve this goal. We believe that the development of a distributable, open source implementation of OpenADR will benefit this effort and motivate critical evaluation of its capabilities, by the wider community, for providing wide-scale DR services

  10. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Grant Project Technologies: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of energy storage technologies deployed in the SGIG projects.

  11. Optimal Energy Consumption Model for Smart Grid Households With Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekharan, Jayaprakash; Koivunen, Visa

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose to model the energy consumption of smart grid households with energy storage systems as an intertemporal trading economy. Intertemporal trade refers to transaction of goods across time when an agent, at any time, is faced with the option of consuming or saving with the aim of using the savings in the future or spending the savings from the past. Smart homes define optimal consumption as either balancing/leveling consumption such that the utility company is presented with a uniform demand or as minimizing consumption costs by storing energy during off-peak time periods when prices are lower and use the stored energy during peak time periods when prices are higher. Due to the varying nature of energy requirements of household and market energy prices over different time periods in a day, households face a trade-off between consuming to meet their current energy requirements and/or storing energy for future consumption and/or spending energy stored in the past. These trade-offs or consumption preferences of the household are modeled as utility functions using consumer theory. We introduce two different utility functions, one for cost minimization and another for consumption balancing/leveling, that are maximized subject to respective budget, consumption, storage and savings constraints to solve for the optimum consumption profile. The optimization problem of a household with energy storage is formulated as a geometric program for consumption balancing/leveling, while cost minimization is formulated as a linear programming problem. Simulation results show that the proposed model achieves extremely low peak to average ratio in the consumption balancing/leveling scheme with about 8% reduction in consumption costs and the least possible amount for electricity bill with about 12% reduction in consumption costs in the cost minimization scheme.

  12. Cooperative Strategy for Optimal Management of Smart Grids by Wavelet RNNs and Cloud Computing.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Christian; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Tina, Giuseppe Marco; Tramontana, Emiliano

    2016-08-01

    Advanced smart grids have several power sources that contribute with their own irregular dynamic to the power production, while load nodes have another dynamic. Several factors have to be considered when using the owned power sources for satisfying the demand, i.e., production rate, battery charge and status, variable cost of externally bought energy, and so on. The objective of this paper is to develop appropriate neural network architectures that automatically and continuously govern power production and dispatch, in order to maximize the overall benefit over a long time. Such a control will improve the fundamental work of a smart grid. For this, status data of several components have to be gathered, and then an estimate of future power production and demand is needed. Hence, the neural network-driven forecasts are apt in this paper for renewable nonprogrammable energy sources. Then, the produced energy as well as the stored one can be supplied to consumers inside a smart grid, by means of digital technology. Among the sought benefits, reduced costs and increasing reliability and transparency are paramount. PMID:26540716

  13. Cooperative Strategy for Optimal Management of Smart Grids by Wavelet RNNs and Cloud Computing.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Christian; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Tina, Giuseppe Marco; Tramontana, Emiliano

    2016-08-01

    Advanced smart grids have several power sources that contribute with their own irregular dynamic to the power production, while load nodes have another dynamic. Several factors have to be considered when using the owned power sources for satisfying the demand, i.e., production rate, battery charge and status, variable cost of externally bought energy, and so on. The objective of this paper is to develop appropriate neural network architectures that automatically and continuously govern power production and dispatch, in order to maximize the overall benefit over a long time. Such a control will improve the fundamental work of a smart grid. For this, status data of several components have to be gathered, and then an estimate of future power production and demand is needed. Hence, the neural network-driven forecasts are apt in this paper for renewable nonprogrammable energy sources. Then, the produced energy as well as the stored one can be supplied to consumers inside a smart grid, by means of digital technology. Among the sought benefits, reduced costs and increasing reliability and transparency are paramount.

  14. Smart crane ammunition transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Killough, S.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of the Smart Crane Ammunition Transfer System (SCATS) project is to demonstrate robotic/telerobotic controls technology for a mobile articulated crane for missile/ munitions handling, delivery, and reload. Missile resupply and reload have been manually intensive operations up to this time. Currently, reload missiles are delivered by truck to the site of the launcher. A crew of four to five personnel reloads the missiles from the truck to the launcher using a hydraulic-powered crane. The missiles are handled carefully for the safety of the missiles and personnel. Numerous steps are required in the reload process and the entire reload operation can take over 1 h for some missile systems. Recent U.S. Army directives require the entire operation to be accomplished in a fraction of that time. Current requirements for the development of SCATS are being based primarily on reloading Patriot missiles. The planned development approach will integrate robotic control and sensor technology with a commercially available hydraulic articulated crane. SCATS is being developed with commercially available hardware as much as possible. Development plans include adding a 3-D.F. end effector with a grapple to the articulating crane; closed-loop position control for the crane and end effector; digital microprocessor control of crane functions; simplified operator interface; and operating modes which include rectilinear movement, obstacle avoidance, and partial automated operation. The planned development will include progressive technology demonstrations. Ultimate plans are for this technology to be transferred and utilized in the military fielding process.

  15. End-User Tools Towards AN Efficient Electricity Consumption: the Dynamic Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamel, Fouad; Kist, Alexander A.

    2010-06-01

    Growing uncontrolled electrical demands have caused increased supply requirements. This causes volatile electrical markets and has detrimental unsustainable environmental impacts. The market is presently characterized by regular daily peak demand conditions associated with high electricity prices. A demand-side response system can limit peak demands to an acceptable level. The proposed scheme is based on energy demand and price information which is available online. An online server is used to communicate the information of electricity suppliers to users, who are able to use the information to manage and control their own demand. A configurable, intelligent switching system is used to control local loads during peak events and mange the loads at other times as necessary. The aim is to shift end user loads towards periods where energy demand and therefore also prices are at the lowest. As a result, this will flatten the load profile and avoiding load peeks which are costly for suppliers. The scheme is an endeavour towards achieving a dynamic smart grid demand-side-response environment using information-based communication and computer-controlled switching. Diffusing the scheme shall lead to improved electrical supply services and controlled energy consumption and prices.

  16. Analysis, optimization, and implementation of a hybrid DS/FFH spread-spectrum technique for smart grid communications

    SciTech Connect

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Ma, Xiao; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Teja; Smith, Stephen F.; Djouadi, Seddik M.

    2015-03-12

    In recent years, there has been great interest in using hybrid spread-spectrum (HSS) techniques for commercial applications, particularly in the Smart Grid, in addition to their inherent uses in military communications. This is because HSS can accommodate high data rates with high link integrity, even in the presence of significant multipath effects and interfering signals. A highly useful form of this transmission technique for many types of command, control, and sensing applications is the specific code-related combination of standard direct sequence modulation with fast frequency hopping, denoted hybrid DS/FFH, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time. In this paper, error-probability analyses are performed for a hybrid DS/FFH system over standard Gaussian and fading-type channels, progressively including the effects from wide- and partial-band jamming, multi-user interference, and varying degrees of Rayleigh and Rician fading. In addition, an optimization approach is formulated that minimizes the bit-error performance of a hybrid DS/FFH communication system and solves for the resulting system design parameters. The optimization objective function is non-convex and can be solved by applying the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. We also present our efforts toward exploring the design, implementation, and evaluation of a hybrid DS/FFH radio transceiver using a single FPGA. Numerical and experimental results are presented under widely varying design parameters to demonstrate the adaptability of the waveform for varied harsh smart grid RF signal environments.

  17. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    SMART is an interactive decision analysis and refinement software system that uses evaluation criteria for discrepant conditions to automatically provide and populate a document/procedure with predefined steps necessary to repair a discrepancy safely, effectively, and efficiently. SMART can store the tacit (corporate) knowledge merging the hardware specification requirements with the actual "how to" repair methods, sequences, and required equipment, all within a user-friendly interface. Besides helping organizations retain repair knowledge in streamlined procedures and sequences, SMART can also help them in saving processing time and expense, increasing productivity, improving quality, and adhering more closely to safety and other guidelines. Though SMART was developed for Space Shuttle applications, its interface is easily adaptable to any hardware that can be broken down by component, subcomponent, discrepancy, and repair.

  18. An efficient game for vehicle-to-grid coordination problems in smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xingyu; Ma, Zhongjing

    2015-11-01

    Emerging plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), as distributed energy sources, are promising to provide vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services for power grids, like frequency and voltage regulations, by coordinating their active and reactive power rates. However, due to the autonomy of PEVs, it is challenging how to efficiently schedule the coordination behaviours among these units in a distributed way. In this paper, we formulate the underlying coordination problems as a novel class of Vickrey-Clarke-Groves style (VCG-style) auction games where players, power grids and PEVs do not report a full cost or valuation function but only a multidimensional bid signal: the maximum active and reactive power quantities that a power grid wants and the maximum per unit prices it is willing to pay, and the maximum active and reactive power quantities that a PEV can provide and the minimum per unit prices it asks for. We show the existence of the efficient Nash equilibrium (NE) for the underlying auction games, though there may exist other inefficient NEs. In order to deal with large-scale PEVs, we design games with aggregator players each of which submits bid profiles representing the overall utility for a collection of PEVs, and extend the so-called quantised-progressive second price mechanism to the underlying auction games to implement the efficient NE.

  19. Using Smart Grids to Enhance Use of Energy-Efficiency and Renewable-Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Paget, Maria L.; Secrest, Thomas J.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Orrell, Alice C.; Bloyd, Cary N.

    2011-05-10

    This report addresses the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) organization’s desire to minimize the learning time required to understand the implications of smart-grid concepts so APEC members can advance their thinking in a timely manner and advance strategies regarding smart approaches that can help meet their environmental-sustainability and energy-efficiency policy goals. As significant investments are needed to grow and maintain the electricity infrastructure, consideration needs to be given to how information and communications technologies can be applied to electricity infrastructure decisions that not only meet traditional needs for basic service and reliability, but also provide the flexibility for a changing the mix of generation sources with sensitivity to environmental and societal impacts.

  20. Cost-effective solutions to maintaining smart grid reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Qiu

    As the aging power systems are increasingly working closer to the capacity and thermal limits, maintaining an sufficient reliability has been of great concern to the government agency, utility companies and users. This dissertation focuses on improving the reliability of transmission and distribution systems. Based on the wide area measurements, multiple model algorithms are developed to diagnose transmission line three-phase short to ground faults in the presence of protection misoperations. The multiple model algorithms utilize the electric network dynamics to provide prompt and reliable diagnosis outcomes. Computational complexity of the diagnosis algorithm is reduced by using a two-step heuristic. The multiple model algorithm is incorporated into a hybrid simulation framework, which consist of both continuous state simulation and discrete event simulation, to study the operation of transmission systems. With hybrid simulation, line switching strategy for enhancing the tolerance to protection misoperations is studied based on the concept of security index, which involves the faulted mode probability and stability coverage. Local measurements are used to track the generator state and faulty mode probabilities are calculated in the multiple model algorithms. FACTS devices are considered as controllers for the transmission system. The placement of FACTS devices into power systems is investigated with a criterion of maintaining a prescribed level of control reconfigurability. Control reconfigurability measures the small signal combined controllability and observability of a power system with an additional requirement on fault tolerance. For the distribution systems, a hierarchical framework, including a high level recloser allocation scheme and a low level recloser placement scheme, is presented. The impacts of recloser placement on the reliability indices is analyzed. Evaluation of reliability indices in the placement process is carried out via discrete event

  1. QoS Differential Scheduling in Cognitive-Radio-Based Smart Grid Networks: An Adaptive Dynamic Programming Approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rong; Zhong, Weifeng; Xie, Shengli; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun

    2016-02-01

    As the next-generation power grid, smart grid will be integrated with a variety of novel communication technologies to support the explosive data traffic and the diverse requirements of quality of service (QoS). Cognitive radio (CR), which has the favorable ability to improve the spectrum utilization, provides an efficient and reliable solution for smart grid communications networks. In this paper, we study the QoS differential scheduling problem in the CR-based smart grid communications networks. The scheduler is responsible for managing the spectrum resources and arranging the data transmissions of smart grid users (SGUs). To guarantee the differential QoS, the SGUs are assigned to have different priorities according to their roles and their current situations in the smart grid. Based on the QoS-aware priority policy, the scheduler adjusts the channels allocation to minimize the transmission delay of SGUs. The entire transmission scheduling problem is formulated as a semi-Markov decision process and solved by the methodology of adaptive dynamic programming. A heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) architecture is established for the scheduling problem. By the online network training, the HDP can learn from the activities of primary users and SGUs, and adjust the scheduling decision to achieve the purpose of transmission delay minimization. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed priority policy ensures the low transmission delay of high priority SGUs. In addition, the emergency data transmission delay is also reduced to a significantly low level, guaranteeing the differential QoS in smart grid. PMID:25910254

  2. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments. PMID:25685516

  3. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments.

  4. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2013-01-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation’s electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments. PMID:25685516

  5. The GridShare solution: a smart grid approach to improve service provision on a renewable energy mini-grid in Bhutan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quetchenbach, T. G.; Harper, M. J.; Robinson, J., IV; Hervin, K. K.; Chase, N. A.; Dorji, C.; Jacobson, A. E.

    2013-03-01

    This letter reports on the design and pilot installation of GridShares, devices intended to alleviate brownouts caused by peak power use on isolated, village-scale mini-grids. A team consisting of the authors and partner organizations designed, built and field-tested GridShares in the village of Rukubji, Bhutan. The GridShare takes an innovative approach to reducing brownouts by using a low cost device that communicates the state of the grid to its users and regulates usage before severe brownouts occur. This demand-side solution encourages users to distribute the use of large appliances more evenly throughout the day, allowing power-limited systems to provide reliable, long-term renewable electricity to these communities. In the summer of 2011, GridShares were installed in every household and business connected to the Rukubji micro-hydro mini-grid, which serves approximately 90 households with a 40 kW nominal capacity micro-hydro system. The installation was accompanied by an extensive education program. Following the installation of the GridShares, the occurrence and average length of severe brownouts, which had been caused primarily by the use of electric cooking appliances during meal preparation, decreased by over 92%. Additionally, the majority of residents surveyed stated that now they are more certain that their rice will cook well and that they would recommend installing GridShares in other villages facing similar problems.

  6. Sacramento Municipal Utility District PV and Smart Grid Pilot at Anatolia

    SciTech Connect

    Rawson, Mark; Sanchez, Eddie Paul

    2013-12-30

    Under DE-FOA-0000085 High Penetration Solar Deployment, the U. S. Department of Energy funded agreements with SMUD and Navigant Consulting, SunPower, GridPoint, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the California Energy Commission for this pilot demonstration project. Funding was $5,962,409.00. Cost share of $500,000 was also provided by the California Energy Commission. The project has strategic implications for SMUD, other utilities and the PV and energy-storage industries in business and resource planning, technology deployment and asset management. These implications include: -At this point, no dominant business models have emerged and the industry is open for new ideas. -Demonstrated two business models for using distributed PV and energy storage, and brainstormed several dozen more, each with different pros and cons for SMUD, its customers and the industry. -Energy storage can be used to manage high penetrations of PV and mitigate potential issues such as reverse power flow, voltage control violations, power quality issues, increased wear and tear on utility equipment, and system wide power supply issues. - Smart meters are another tool utilities can use to manage high penetrations of PV. The necessary equipment and protocols exist, and the next step is to determine how to integrate the functionality with utility programs and what level of utility control is required. - Time-of-use rates for the residential customers who hosted energy storage systems did not cause a significant change in energy usage patterns. However, the rates we used were not optimized for PV and energy storage. Opportunities exist for utilities to develop new structures.

  7. Detecting and mitigating abnormal events in large scale networks: budget constrained placement on smart grids

    SciTech Connect

    Santhi, Nandakishore; Pan, Feng

    2010-10-19

    Several scenarios exist in the modern interconnected world which call for an efficient network interdiction algorithm. Applications are varied, including various monitoring and load shedding applications on large smart energy grids, computer network security, preventing the spread of Internet worms and malware, policing international smuggling networks, and controlling the spread of diseases. In this paper we consider some natural network optimization questions related to the budget constrained interdiction problem over general graphs, specifically focusing on the sensor/switch placement problem for large-scale energy grids. Many of these questions turn out to be computationally hard to tackle. We present a particular form of the interdiction question which is practically relevant and which we show as computationally tractable. A polynomial-time algorithm will be presented for solving this problem.

  8. Demand Side Management in the Smart Grid: Information Processing for the Power Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Alizadeh, Mahnoosh; LI, Xiao; Wang, Zhifang; Scagilone, Anna; Melton, Ronald B.

    2012-09-01

    In this article we discuss the most recent developments in the area of load management, and consider possible interaction schemes of novel architectures with distributed energy resources (DER). In order to handle the challenges faced by tomorrow’s smart grid, which are caused by volatile load and generation profiles (from the large number of plug-in EVs and from renewable integration), the conventional grid operating principle of load-following needs to be changed into load-shaping or generation-following. Demand Side Management will be a most promising and powerful solution to the above challenges. However, many other issues such as load forecasting, pricing structure, market policy, renewable integration interface, and even the AC/DC implementation at the distribution side, need to be taken into the design in order to search for the most effective and applicable solution.

  9. Modeling Electric Vehicle Benefits Connected to Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Mendes, Goncalo; Kloess, Maximillian; Cardoso, Goncalo; Mégel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2011-07-01

    Connecting electric storage technologies to smartgrids will have substantial implications in building energy systems. Local storage will enable demand response. Mobile storage devices in electric vehicles (EVs) are in direct competition with conventional stationary sources at the building. EVs will change the financial as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g. PV, or fuel cells). In order to examine the impact of EVs on building energy costs and CO2 emissions in 2020, a distributed-energy-resources adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program with minimization of annual building energy costs or CO2 emissions. The mixed-integer linear program is applied to a set of 139 different commercial buildings in California and example results as well as the aggregated economic and environmental benefits are reported. The research shows that considering second life of EV batteries might be very beneficial for commercial buildings.

  10. Development of a Smart MicroGrid Testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wei-Jen; Wetz, David

    2013-04-25

    Demand for electricity is rapidly increasing thereby applying pressure to expand generation and distribution capacity worldwide. The expansion of traditional services not only imposes burdens on financial resources but also encounters many challenges from community residents who oppose the construction of new power generation plants or transmission facilities in their backyard. From the integrated resource planning point of view, a feasible and economical remedy is, therefore, to utilize existing dispersed generation capacity known as distributed generation (DG) and/or renewable energy resources that may exist in the vicinity of the load centers. The main criteria for selecting the type of fuel source for a DG is its local availability, conversion system technological advancement, impact on the environment, and operating cost. DG’s have existed in the market for many years. Large diesel or gas powered generation sets are used in stand-by mode to power up vital services such as hospitals, financial and commercial compounds, telecommunication centers and industrial premises. Wind turbines, photovoltaic energy sources, and fuel cells are new comers that are now competing in size and efficiency with many standard generating sets. With this in mind, they are being used in many places not only as stand-by units but as the prime source of power particularly when the $/kWhr rate is high[1-5].

  11. Automated Demand Response Approaches to Household Energy Management in a Smart Grid Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adika, Christopher Otieno

    demand response schemes that can be deployed by electricity providers to manage customer loads. This study also addresses the problem of manual demand response by proposing smart systems that will autonomously execute the DR programs without the direct involvement of the customers.

  12. The National Grid Project: A system overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaither, Adam; Gaither, Kelly; Jean, Brian; Remotigue, Michael; Whitmire, John; Soni, Bharat; Thompson, Joe; Dannenhoffer,, John; Weatherill, Nigel

    1995-01-01

    The National Grid Project (NGP) is a comprehensive numerical grid generation software system that is being developed at the National Science Foundation (NSF) Engineering Research Center (ERC) for Computational Field Simulation (CFS) at Mississippi State University (MSU). NGP is supported by a coalition of U.S. industries and federal laboratories. The objective of the NGP is to significantly decrease the amount of time it takes to generate a numerical grid for complex geometries and to increase the quality of these grids to enable computational field simulations for applications in industry. A geometric configuration can be discretized into grids (or meshes) that have two fundamental forms: structured and unstructured. Structured grids are formed by intersecting curvilinear coordinate lines and are composed of quadrilateral (2D) and hexahedral (3D) logically rectangular cells. The connectivity of a structured grid provides for trivial identification of neighboring points by incrementing coordinate indices. Unstructured grids are composed of cells of any shape (commonly triangles, quadrilaterals, tetrahedra and hexahedra), but do not have trivial identification of neighbors by incrementing an index. For unstructured grids, a set of points and an associated connectivity table is generated to define unstructured cell shapes and neighboring points. Hybrid grids are a combination of structured grids and unstructured grids. Chimera (overset) grids are intersecting or overlapping structured grids. The NGP system currently provides a user interface that integrates both 2D and 3D structured and unstructured grid generation, a solid modeling topology data management system, an internal Computer Aided Design (CAD) system based on Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS), a journaling language, and a grid/solution visualization system.

  13. A Run-Time Verification Framework for Smart Grid Applications Implemented on Simulation Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Ciraci, Selim; Sozer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, Bedir

    2013-05-18

    Smart grid applications are implemented and tested with simulation frameworks as the developers usually do not have access to large sensor networks to be used as a test bed. The developers are forced to map the implementation onto these frameworks which results in a deviation between the architecture and the code. On its turn this deviation makes it hard to verify behavioral constraints that are de- scribed at the architectural level. We have developed the ConArch toolset to support the automated verification of architecture-level behavioral constraints. A key feature of ConArch is programmable mapping for architecture to the implementation. Here, developers implement queries to identify the points in the target program that correspond to architectural interactions. ConArch generates run- time observers that monitor the flow of execution between these points and verifies whether this flow conforms to the behavioral constraints. We illustrate how the programmable mappings can be exploited for verifying behavioral constraints of a smart grid appli- cation that is implemented with two simulation frameworks.

  14. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end, we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.

  15. Smart electric vehicle (EV) charging and grid integration apparatus and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Gadh, Rajit; Mal, Siddhartha; Prabhu, Shivanand; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Sheikh, Omar; Chung, Ching-Yen; He, Lei; Xiao, Bingjun; Shi, Yiyu

    2015-05-05

    An expert system manages a power grid wherein charging stations are connected to the power grid, with electric vehicles connected to the charging stations, whereby the expert system selectively backfills power from connected electric vehicles to the power grid through a grid tie inverter (if present) within the charging stations. In more traditional usage, the expert system allows for electric vehicle charging, coupled with user preferences as to charge time, charge cost, and charging station capabilities, without exceeding the power grid capacity at any point. A robust yet accurate state of charge (SOC) calculation method is also presented, whereby initially an open circuit voltage (OCV) based on sampled battery voltages and currents is calculated, and then the SOC is obtained based on a mapping between a previously measured reference OCV (ROCV) and SOC. The OCV-SOC calculation method accommodates likely any battery type with any current profile.

  16. Analysis, optimization, and implementation of a hybrid DS/FFH spread-spectrum technique for smart grid communications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Ma, Xiao; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Teja; Smith, Stephen F.; Djouadi, Seddik M.

    2015-03-12

    In recent years, there has been great interest in using hybrid spread-spectrum (HSS) techniques for commercial applications, particularly in the Smart Grid, in addition to their inherent uses in military communications. This is because HSS can accommodate high data rates with high link integrity, even in the presence of significant multipath effects and interfering signals. A highly useful form of this transmission technique for many types of command, control, and sensing applications is the specific code-related combination of standard direct sequence modulation with fast frequency hopping, denoted hybrid DS/FFH, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time. Inmore » this paper, error-probability analyses are performed for a hybrid DS/FFH system over standard Gaussian and fading-type channels, progressively including the effects from wide- and partial-band jamming, multi-user interference, and varying degrees of Rayleigh and Rician fading. In addition, an optimization approach is formulated that minimizes the bit-error performance of a hybrid DS/FFH communication system and solves for the resulting system design parameters. The optimization objective function is non-convex and can be solved by applying the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. We also present our efforts toward exploring the design, implementation, and evaluation of a hybrid DS/FFH radio transceiver using a single FPGA. Numerical and experimental results are presented under widely varying design parameters to demonstrate the adaptability of the waveform for varied harsh smart grid RF signal environments.« less

  17. Mathematical model of an off-grid hybrid solar and wind power generating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Luca, R.; Torre, G.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of an off-grid power generating system, coupled to a storage unit and to household appliances, is described by means of an analytic hydrodynamic analog. Following this analogy, by noticing that the effux rate from a leaking bucket is described, in terms of the liquid content, by Torricelli's formula, we denote as "Torricelli's smart consumer" a user being able to calibrate its energy consumption rate with respect to the energy level in the storage unit as if the hydrodynamic model would strictly apply. Simple solutions to the nonlinear dynamic problem associated to this type of smart consumer are found and generalization to other types of smart consumers are sought.

  18. A novel approach to smart grid technology for electrical power transmission lines by a self-organized optical network node based on optical bistability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Soichiro; Sasaki, Wakao

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we have demonstrated a new smart grid model by our novel green photonics technology based on selforganized optical networks realizing an autonomous peer-to-peer electric power transmissions without centralized control for the power grid. In this optical network, we introduced an adaptive algorithm for concurrent peer-to-peer communications, by utilizing optical nonlinearity depending only on the signal strength passing through the network. This method is applicable for autonomous organization of functions for ad-hoc electric power distribution systems for the power grid. For this purpose, a simple optical- electrical hybrid bistable circuit composed of such as light emitting diode (LED) and photo diode (PD), has been incorporated into the network node. In the experiment, the method uses a simple, local adaptation of transmission weights at each network node, which enables self-organizing functions of the network, such as self-routing, self-optimization, self-recovery and self-protection. Based on this method, we have demonstrated experimentally a new smart grid model applicable for ad-hoc electric power distribution systems mediated by power comsumptions. In this model, electric power flow is controlled autonomously through the self-organized network nodes associated with individual power facilities having photovoltaics and electric storage devices, etc., and the nodes convert the amounts of electric power supply and/or comsumption to the light intensity values using above mentioned transmission weights at each node. As a consequence, we have experimentally demonstrated a simple shorthaul system model for ad-hoc electric power distribution with a self-organized optical network as a novel green photonics technology application for smart grid.

  19. FPGA based Smart Wireless MIMO Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman Ali, Syed M.; Hussain, Sajid; Akber Siddiqui, Ali; Arshad, Jawad Ali; Darakhshan, Anjum

    2013-12-01

    In our present work, we have successfully designed, and developed an FPGA based smart wireless MIMO (Multiple Input & Multiple Output) system capable of controlling multiple industrial process parameters such as temperature, pressure, stress and vibration etc. To achieve this task we have used Xilin x Spartan 3E FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) instead of conventional microcontrollers. By employing FPGA kit to PC via RF transceivers which has a working range of about 100 meters. The developed smart system is capable of performing the control task assigned to it successfully. We have also provided a provision to our proposed system that can be accessed for monitoring and control through the web and GSM as well. Our proposed system can be equally applied to all the hazardous and rugged industrial environments where a conventional system cannot work effectively.

  20. Method and system for managing power grid data

    DOEpatents

    Yin, Jian; Akyol, Bora A.; Gorton, Ian

    2015-11-10

    A system and method of managing time-series data for smart grids is disclosed. Data is collected from a plurality of sensors. An index is modified for a newly created block. A one disk operation per read or write is performed. The one disk operation per read includes accessing and looking up the index to locate the data without movement of an arm of the disk, and obtaining the data. The one disk operation per write includes searching the disk for free space, calculating an offset, modifying the index, and writing the data contiguously into a block of the disk the index points to.

  1. A Grid job monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, Catalin; Nowack, Andreas; Padhi, Sanjay; Sarkar, Subir

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a web-based Job Monitoring framework for individual Grid sites that allows users to follow in detail their jobs in quasi-real time. The framework consists of several independent components : (a) a set of sensors that run on the site CE and worker nodes and update a database, (b) a simple yet extensible web services framework and (c) an Ajax powered web interface having a look-and-feel and control similar to a desktop application. The monitoring framework supports LSF, Condor and PBS-like batch systems. This is one of the first monitoring systems where an X.509 authenticated web interface can be seamlessly accessed by both end-users and site administrators. While a site administrator has access to all the possible information, a user can only view the jobs for the Virtual Organizations (VO) he/she is a part of. The monitoring framework design supports several possible deployment scenarios. For a site running a supported batch system, the system may be deployed as a whole, or existing site sensors can be adapted and reused with the web services components. A site may even prefer to build the web server independently and choose to use only the Ajax powered web interface. Finally, the system is being used to monitor a glideinWMS instance. This broadens the scope significantly, allowing it to monitor jobs over multiple sites.

  2. A grid job monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitrescu, Catalin; Nowack, Andreas; Padhi, Sanjay; Sarkar, Subir; /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a web-based Job Monitoring framework for individual Grid sites that allows users to follow in detail their jobs in quasi-real time. The framework consists of several independent components: (a) a set of sensors that run on the site CE and worker nodes and update a database, (b) a simple yet extensible web services framework and (c) an Ajax powered web interface having a look-and-feel and control similar to a desktop application. The monitoring framework supports LSF, Condor and PBS-like batch systems. This is one of the first monitoring systems where an X.509 authenticated web interface can be seamlessly accessed by both end-users and site administrators. While a site administrator has access to all the possible information, a user can only view the jobs for the Virtual Organizations (VO) he/she is a part of. The monitoring framework design supports several possible deployment scenarios. For a site running a supported batch system, the system may be deployed as a whole, or existing site sensors can be adapted and reused with the web services components. A site may even prefer to build the web server independently and choose to use only the Ajax powered web interface. Finally, the system is being used to monitor a glideinWMS instance. This broadens the scope significantly, allowing it to monitor jobs over multiple sites.

  3. Designing and Securing an Event Processing System for Smart Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zang

    2011-01-01

    Smart spaces, or smart environments, represent the next evolutionary development in buildings, banking, homes, hospitals, transportation systems, industries, cities, and government automation. By riding the tide of sensor and event processing technologies, the smart environment captures and processes information about its surroundings as well as…

  4. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite

    SciTech Connect

    Daryoush Allaei

    2006-09-08

    components include smart motor and associated electronics, resonators, and supporting structural elements. It is shown that the smart motors have an acceptable life and performance. Resonator (or motion amplifier) designs are selected based on the final system requirement and vibration characteristics. All the components for a fully functional prototype are fabricated and have been tested.

  5. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek

    2010-01-01

    SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT; ULTRASONIC AQUEOUS CLEANING SYSTEMS, SMART SONIC CORPORATION, SMART SONIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a product of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Technoloy Verification (ETV) Program and is focused on the Smart Sonics Ultrasonic Aqueous Cleaning Systems. The verification is based on three main objectives. (1) The Smart Sonic Aqueous Cleaning Systems, Model 2000 and...

  7. Hierarchical dispatch using two-stage optimisation for electricity markets in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Guoshan; Ma, Kai

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a hierarchical dispatch method for the electricity markets consisting of wholesale markets and retail markets. In the wholesale markets, the generators and the retailers decide the generation and the purchase according to the market-clearing price. In the retail markets, the retailers set the retail price to adjust the electricity consumption of the consumers. Due to the two-way communications in smart grid, the retailers can decide the electricity purchase from the wholesale markets based on the information on electricity usage of consumers in the retail markets. We establish the hierarchical dispatch model for the wholesale markets and the retail markets and develop distributed algorithms to search for the optimal generation, purchase, and consumption. Numerical results show the balance between the supply and demand, the profits of the retailers, and the convergence of the distributed algorithms.

  8. A multi-agent approach to intelligent monitoring in smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallejo, D.; Albusac, J.; Glez-Morcillo, C.; Castro-Schez, J. J.; Jiménez, L.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a scalable multi-agent architecture to give support to smart grids, paying special attention to the intelligent monitoring of distribution substations. The data gathered by multiple sensors are used by software agents that are responsible for monitoring different aspects or events of interest, such as normal voltage values or unbalanced intensity values that can end up blowing fuses and decreasing the quality of service of end consumers. The knowledge bases of these agents have been built by means of a formal model for normality analysis that has been successfully used in other surveillance domains. The architecture facilitates the integration of new agents and can be easily configured and deployed to monitor different environments. The experiments have been conducted over a power distribution network.

  9. Optimal RTP Based Power Scheduling for Residential Load in Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Hemant I.; Pandya, Vivek J.

    2015-12-01

    To match supply and demand, shifting of load from peak period to off-peak period is one of the effective solutions. Presently flat rate tariff is used in major part of the world. This type of tariff doesn't give incentives to the customers if they use electrical energy during off-peak period. If real time pricing (RTP) tariff is used, consumers can be encouraged to use energy during off-peak period. Due to advancement in information and communication technology, two-way communications is possible between consumers and utility. To implement this technique in smart grid, home energy controller (HEC), smart meters, home area network (HAN) and communication link between consumers and utility are required. HEC interacts automatically by running an algorithm to find optimal energy consumption schedule for each consumer. However, all the consumers are not allowed to shift their load simultaneously during off-peak period to avoid rebound peak condition. Peak to average ratio (PAR) is considered while carrying out minimization problem. Linear programming problem (LPP) method is used for minimization. The simulation results of this work show the effectiveness of the minimization method adopted. The hardware work is in progress and the program based on the method described here will be made to solve real problem.

  10. Towards a Low-Cost Remote Memory Attestation for the Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyu; He, Xiaofei; Yu, Wei; Lin, Jie; Li, Rui; Yang, Qingyu; Song, Houbing

    2015-08-21

    In the smart grid, measurement devices may be compromised by adversaries, and their operations could be disrupted by attacks. A number of schemes to efficiently and accurately detect these compromised devices remotely have been proposed. Nonetheless, most of the existing schemes detecting compromised devices depend on the incremental response time in the attestation process, which are sensitive to data transmission delay and lead to high computation and network overhead. To address the issue, in this paper, we propose a low-cost remote memory attestation scheme (LRMA), which can efficiently and accurately detect compromised smart meters considering real-time network delay and achieve low computation and network overhead. In LRMA, the impact of real-time network delay on detecting compromised nodes can be eliminated via investigating the time differences reported from relay nodes. Furthermore, the attestation frequency in LRMA is dynamically adjusted with the compromised probability of each node, and then, the total number of attestations could be reduced while low computation and network overhead can be achieved. Through a combination of extensive theoretical analysis and evaluations, our data demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve better detection capacity and lower computation and network overhead in comparison to existing schemes.

  11. Towards a Low-Cost Remote Memory Attestation for the Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyu; He, Xiaofei; Yu, Wei; Lin, Jie; Li, Rui; Yang, Qingyu; Song, Houbing

    2015-01-01

    In the smart grid, measurement devices may be compromised by adversaries, and their operations could be disrupted by attacks. A number of schemes to efficiently and accurately detect these compromised devices remotely have been proposed. Nonetheless, most of the existing schemes detecting compromised devices depend on the incremental response time in the attestation process, which are sensitive to data transmission delay and lead to high computation and network overhead. To address the issue, in this paper, we propose a low-cost remote memory attestation scheme (LRMA), which can efficiently and accurately detect compromised smart meters considering real-time network delay and achieve low computation and network overhead. In LRMA, the impact of real-time network delay on detecting compromised nodes can be eliminated via investigating the time differences reported from relay nodes. Furthermore, the attestation frequency in LRMA is dynamically adjusted with the compromised probability of each node, and then, the total number of attestations could be reduced while low computation and network overhead can be achieved. Through a combination of extensive theoretical analysis and evaluations, our data demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve better detection capacity and lower computation and network overhead in comparison to existing schemes. PMID:26307998

  12. Towards a Low-Cost Remote Memory Attestation for the Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xinyu; He, Xiaofei; Yu, Wei; Lin, Jie; Li, Rui; Yang, Qingyu; Song, Houbing

    2015-01-01

    In the smart grid, measurement devices may be compromised by adversaries, and their operations could be disrupted by attacks. A number of schemes to efficiently and accurately detect these compromised devices remotely have been proposed. Nonetheless, most of the existing schemes detecting compromised devices depend on the incremental response time in the attestation process, which are sensitive to data transmission delay and lead to high computation and network overhead. To address the issue, in this paper, we propose a low-cost remote memory attestation scheme (LRMA), which can efficiently and accurately detect compromised smart meters considering real-time network delay and achieve low computation and network overhead. In LRMA, the impact of real-time network delay on detecting compromised nodes can be eliminated via investigating the time differences reported from relay nodes. Furthermore, the attestation frequency in LRMA is dynamically adjusted with the compromised probability of each node, and then, the total number of attestations could be reduced while low computation and network overhead can be achieved. Through a combination of extensive theoretical analysis and evaluations, our data demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve better detection capacity and lower computation and network overhead in comparison to existing schemes. PMID:26307998

  13. Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Integration Requirements Study. Providing Guidance on Technology Development and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, T.; Meintz, A.; Hardy, K.; Chen, B.; Bohn, T.; Smart, J.; Scoffield, D.; Hovsapian, R.; Saxena, S.; MacDonald, J.; Kiliccote, S.; Kahl, K.; Pratt, R.

    2015-05-28

    The report begins with a discussion of the current state of the energy and transportation systems, followed by a summary of some VGI scenarios and opportunities. The current efforts to create foundational interface standards are detailed, and the requirements for enabling PEVs as a grid resource are presented. Existing technology demonstrations that include vehicle to grid functions are summarized. The report also includes a data-based discussion on the magnitude and variability of PEVs as a grid resource, followed by an overview of existing simulation tools that vi This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. can be used to explore the expansion of VGI to larger grid functions that might offer system and customer value. The document concludes with a summary of the requirements and potential action items that would support greater adoption of VGI.

  14. Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue on 'Advanced Signal Processing Techniques and Telecommunications Network Infrastructures for Smart Grid Analysis, Monitoring, and Management'

    SciTech Connect

    Bracale, Antonio; Barros, Julio; Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara; Chang, Gary; Dall'Anese, Emiliano

    2015-06-10

    Electrical power systems are undergoing a radical change in structure, components, and operational paradigms, and are progressively approaching the new concept of smart grids (SGs). Future power distribution systems will be characterized by the simultaneous presence of various distributed resources, such as renewable energy systems (i.e., photovoltaic power plant and wind farms), storage systems, and controllable/non-controllable loads. Control and optimization architectures will enable network-wide coordination of these grid components in order to improve system efficiency and reliability and to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, the energy flows will be bidirectional from large power plants to end users and vice versa; producers and consumers will continuously interact at different voltage levels to determine in advance the requests of loads and to adapt the production and demand for electricity flexibly and efficiently also taking into account the presence of storage systems.

  15. Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue on 'Advanced Signal Processing Techniques and Telecommunications Network Infrastructures for Smart Grid Analysis, Monitoring, and Management'

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bracale, Antonio; Barros, Julio; Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara; Chang, Gary; Dall'Anese, Emiliano

    2015-06-10

    Electrical power systems are undergoing a radical change in structure, components, and operational paradigms, and are progressively approaching the new concept of smart grids (SGs). Future power distribution systems will be characterized by the simultaneous presence of various distributed resources, such as renewable energy systems (i.e., photovoltaic power plant and wind farms), storage systems, and controllable/non-controllable loads. Control and optimization architectures will enable network-wide coordination of these grid components in order to improve system efficiency and reliability and to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, the energy flows will be bidirectional from large power plants to end users andmore » vice versa; producers and consumers will continuously interact at different voltage levels to determine in advance the requests of loads and to adapt the production and demand for electricity flexibly and efficiently also taking into account the presence of storage systems.« less

  16. Systems Engineering Building Advances Power Grid Research

    SciTech Connect

    Virden, Jud; Huang, Henry; Skare, Paul; Dagle, Jeff; Imhoff, Carl; Stoustrup, Jakob; Melton, Ron; Stiles, Dennis; Pratt, Rob

    2015-08-19

    Researchers and industry are now better equipped to tackle the nation’s most pressing energy challenges through PNNL’s new Systems Engineering Building – including challenges in grid modernization, buildings efficiency and renewable energy integration. This lab links real-time grid data, software platforms, specialized laboratories and advanced computing resources for the design and demonstration of new tools to modernize the grid and increase buildings energy efficiency.

  17. Synchrophasor Sensing and Processing based Smart Grid Security Assessment for Renewable Energy Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Huaiguang

    With the evolution of energy and power systems, the emerging Smart Grid (SG) is mainly featured by distributed renewable energy generations, demand-response control and huge amount of heterogeneous data sources. Widely distributed synchrophasor sensors, such as phasor measurement units (PMUs) and fault disturbance recorders (FDRs), can record multi-modal signals, for power system situational awareness and renewable energy integration. An effective and economical approach is proposed for wide-area security assessment. This approach is based on wavelet analysis for detecting and locating the short-term and long-term faults in SG, using voltage signals collected by distributed synchrophasor sensors. A data-driven approach for fault detection, identification and location is proposed and studied. This approach is based on matching pursuit decomposition (MPD) using Gaussian atom dictionary, hidden Markov model (HMM) of real-time frequency and voltage variation features, and fault contour maps generated by machine learning algorithms in SG systems. In addition, considering the economic issues, the placement optimization of distributed synchrophasor sensors is studied to reduce the number of the sensors without affecting the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Furthermore, because the natural hazards is a critical issue for power system security, this approach is studied under different types of faults caused by natural hazards. A fast steady-state approach is proposed for voltage security of power systems with a wind power plant connected. The impedance matrix can be calculated by the voltage and current information collected by the PMUs. Based on the impedance matrix, locations in SG can be identified, where cause the greatest impact on the voltage at the wind power plants point of interconnection. Furthermore, because this dynamic voltage security assessment method relies on time-domain simulations of faults at different locations, the proposed approach

  18. Hybrid optimal online-overnight charging coordination of plug-in electric vehicles in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoum, Mohammad A. S.; Nabavi, Seyed M. H.

    2016-10-01

    Optimal coordinated charging of plugged-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in smart grid (SG) can be beneficial for both consumers and utilities. This paper proposes a hybrid optimal online followed by overnight charging coordination of high and low priority PEVs using discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) that considers the benefits of both consumers and electric utilities. Objective functions are online minimization of total cost (associated with grid losses and energy generation) and overnight valley filling through minimization of the total load levels. The constraints include substation transformer loading, node voltage regulations and the requested final battery state of charge levels (SOCreq). The main challenge is optimal selection of the overnight starting time (toptimal-overnight,start) to guarantee charging of all vehicle batteries to the SOCreq levels before the requested plug-out times (treq) which is done by simultaneously solving the online and overnight objective functions. The online-overnight PEV coordination approach is implemented on a 449-node SG; results are compared for uncoordinated and coordinated battery charging as well as a modified strategy using cost minimizations for both online and overnight coordination. The impact of toptimal-overnight,start on performance of the proposed PEV coordination is investigated.

  19. HWIL testing of smart weapon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamp, Michael; Havlicsek, Howard

    2005-05-01

    The increase in sophistication of shoulder and gun launched smart weapon systems have increased the demands placed on the flight motion simulator. The high spin rate and accelerations seen during launch drastically exceed the capability of the roll axes on today"s motion simulators. Improvements are necessary to the bearing and drive system to support these requirements. This paper documents the requirements, design, and testing of a flight motion simulator produced to meet these challenges. This design can be incorporated into a new flight motion simulator, or as this paper describes, can be retrofitted into an existing flight motion simulator to improve its capability.

  20. Multi-agent coordination algorithms for control of distributed energy resources in smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, Andres

    Sustainable energy is a top-priority for researchers these days, since electricity and transportation are pillars of modern society. Integration of clean energy technologies such as wind, solar, and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), is a major engineering challenge in operation and management of power systems. This is due to the uncertain nature of renewable energy technologies and the large amount of extra load that PEVs would add to the power grid. Given the networked structure of a power system, multi-agent control and optimization strategies are natural approaches to address the various problems of interest for the safe and reliable operation of the power grid. The distributed computation in multi-agent algorithms addresses three problems at the same time: i) it allows for the handling of problems with millions of variables that a single processor cannot compute, ii) it allows certain independence and privacy to electricity customers by not requiring any usage information, and iii) it is robust to localized failures in the communication network, being able to solve problems by simply neglecting the failing section of the system. We propose various algorithms to coordinate storage, generation, and demand resources in a power grid using multi-agent computation and decentralized decision making. First, we introduce a hierarchical vehicle-one-grid (V1G) algorithm for coordination of PEVs under usage constraints, where energy only flows from the grid in to the batteries of PEVs. We then present a hierarchical vehicle-to-grid (V2G) algorithm for PEV coordination that takes into consideration line capacity constraints in the distribution grid, and where energy flows both ways, from the grid in to the batteries, and from the batteries to the grid. Next, we develop a greedy-like hierarchical algorithm for management of demand response events with on/off loads. Finally, we introduce distributed algorithms for the optimal control of distributed energy resources, i

  1. New online voltage stability margins and risk assessment for multi-bus smart power grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldeen, M.; Saha, S.; Alpcan, T.; Evans, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a quantitative framework for assessment of voltage stability in smart power networks. First, new stability indices similar to gain and phase margins in linear time invariant control systems are introduced. These indices can be computed online in conjunction with load-flow calculations. Then, a novel risk assessment framework incorporating the new stability indices is developed to methodologically quantify the voltage stability risks a power system faces at any given operating condition. In contrast to existing local stability indices and qualitative risk approaches, the indices and framework introduced provide analytical and quantitative evaluation of voltage stability and associated risks. The results are illustrated with a numerical example.

  2. Information security threats and an easy-to-implement attack detection framework for wireless sensor network-based smart grid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuna, G.; Örenbaş, H.; Daş, R.; Kogias, D.; Baykara, M.; K, K.

    2016-03-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) when combined with various energy harvesting solutions managing to prolong the overall lifetime of the system and enhanced capabilities of the communication protocols used by modern sensor nodes are efficiently used in are efficiently used in Smart Grid (SG), an evolutionary system for the modernization of existing power grids. However, wireless communication technology brings various types of security threats. In this study, firstly the use of WSNs for SG applications is presented. Second, the security related issues and challenges as well as the security threats are presented. In addition, proposed security mechanisms for WSN-based SG applications are discussed. Finally, an easy- to-implement and simple attack detection framework to prevent attacks directed to sink and gateway nodes with web interfaces is proposed and its efficiency is proved using a case study.

  3. Smart nanogrid systems for disaster mitigation employing deployable renewable energy harvesting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.; Menendez, Michael; Minei, Brenden; Wong, Kyle; Gabrick, Caton; Thornton, Matsu; Ghorbani, Reza

    2016-04-01

    This paper explains the development of smart nanogrid systems for disaster mitigation employing deployable renewable energy harvesting, or Deployable Disaster Devices (D3), where wind turbines and solar panels are developed in modular forms, which can be tied together depending on the needed power. The D3 packages/units can be used: (1) as a standalone unit in case of a disaster where no source of power is available, (2) for a remote location such as a farm, camp site, or desert (3) for a community that converts energy usage from fossil fuels to Renewable Energy (RE) sources, or (4) in a community system as a source of renewable energy for grid-tie or off-grid operation. In Smart D3 system, the power is generated (1) for consumer energy needs, (2) charge storage devices (such as batteries, capacitors, etc.), (3) to deliver power to the network when the smart D3 nano-grid is tied to the network and when the power generation is larger than consumption and storage recharge needs, or (4) to draw power from the network when the smart D3 nano-grid is tied to the network and when the power generation is less than consumption and storage recharge needs. The power generated by the Smart D3 systems are routed through high efficiency inverters for proper DC to DC or DC to AC for final use or grid-tie operations. The power delivery from the D3 is 220v AC, 110v AC and 12v DC provide proper power for most electrical and electronic devices worldwide. The power supply is scalable, using a modular system that connects multiple units together. This are facilitated through devices such as external Input-Output or I/O ports. The size of the system can be scaled depending on how many accessory units are connected to the I/O ports on the primary unit. The primary unit is the brain of the system allowing for smart switching and load balancing of power input and smart regulation of power output. The Smart D3 systems are protected by ruggedized weather proof casings allowing for operation

  4. Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    A grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. Operating costs of a PV power system are low compared to conventional power technologies. This method can displace the highest-cost electricity during times of peak demand in most climatic regions, and thus reduce grid loading. Net metering is often used, in which independent power producers such as PV power systems are connected to the utility grid via the customers main service panels and meters. When the PV power system is generating more power than required at that location, the excess power is provided to the utility grid. The customer pays the net of the power purchased when the on-site power demand is greater than the onsite power production, and the excess power is returned to the utility grid. Power generated by the PV system reduces utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical, with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics have been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy equal to the modern PV panels. The grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed, and this served to validate the basic principles developed, and the theoretical work that was performed. Grid-tied PV power systems are reliable, maintenance- free, long-life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community. Of particular value are the analytical tools and capabilities that have been successfully developed. Performance predictions can be made confidently for grid-tied PV systems of various scales. The work was done under the NASA Hybrid Power Management (HPM

  5. On the Probabilistic Deployment of Smart Grid Networks in TV White Space

    PubMed Central

    Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara; Caleffi, Marcello; Paura, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    To accommodate the rapidly increasing demand for wireless broadband communications in Smart Grid (SG) networks, research efforts are currently ongoing to enable the SG networks to utilize the TV spectrum according to the Cognitive Radio paradigm. To this aim, in this letter, we develop an analytical framework for the optimal deployment of multiple closely-located SG Neighborhood Area Networks (NANs) concurrently using the same TV spectrum. The objective is to derive the optimal values for both the number of NANs and their coverage. More specifically, regarding the number of NANs, we derive the optimal closed-form expression, i.e., the closed-form expression that assures the deployment of the maximum number of NANs in the considered region satisfying a given collision constraint on the transmissions of the NANs. Regarding the NAN coverage, we derive the optimal closed-form expression, i.e., the closed-form expression of the NAN transmission range that assures the maximum coverage of each NAN in the considered region satisfying the given collision constraint. All the theoretical results are derived by adopting a stochastic approach. Finally, numerical results validate the theoretical analysis. PMID:27171099

  6. On the Probabilistic Deployment of Smart Grid Networks in TV White Space.

    PubMed

    Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara; Caleffi, Marcello; Paura, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    To accommodate the rapidly increasing demand for wireless broadband communications in Smart Grid (SG) networks, research efforts are currently ongoing to enable the SG networks to utilize the TV spectrum according to the Cognitive Radio paradigm. To this aim, in this letter, we develop an analytical framework for the optimal deployment of multiple closely-located SG Neighborhood Area Networks (NANs) concurrently using the same TV spectrum. The objective is to derive the optimal values for both the number of NANs and their coverage. More specifically, regarding the number of NANs, we derive the optimal closed-form expression, i.e., the closed-form expression that assures the deployment of the maximum number of NANs in the considered region satisfying a given collision constraint on the transmissions of the NANs. Regarding the NAN coverage, we derive the optimal closed-form expression, i.e., the closed-form expression of the NAN transmission range that assures the maximum coverage of each NAN in the considered region satisfying the given collision constraint. All the theoretical results are derived by adopting a stochastic approach. Finally, numerical results validate the theoretical analysis. PMID:27171099

  7. On the Probabilistic Deployment of Smart Grid Networks in TV White Space.

    PubMed

    Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara; Caleffi, Marcello; Paura, Luigi

    2016-05-10

    To accommodate the rapidly increasing demand for wireless broadband communications in Smart Grid (SG) networks, research efforts are currently ongoing to enable the SG networks to utilize the TV spectrum according to the Cognitive Radio paradigm. To this aim, in this letter, we develop an analytical framework for the optimal deployment of multiple closely-located SG Neighborhood Area Networks (NANs) concurrently using the same TV spectrum. The objective is to derive the optimal values for both the number of NANs and their coverage. More specifically, regarding the number of NANs, we derive the optimal closed-form expression, i.e., the closed-form expression that assures the deployment of the maximum number of NANs in the considered region satisfying a given collision constraint on the transmissions of the NANs. Regarding the NAN coverage, we derive the optimal closed-form expression, i.e., the closed-form expression of the NAN transmission range that assures the maximum coverage of each NAN in the considered region satisfying the given collision constraint. All the theoretical results are derived by adopting a stochastic approach. Finally, numerical results validate the theoretical analysis.

  8. `Smart` system solves case of terminal pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Kratch, K.

    1995-06-01

    Building the United Airlines terminal at Chicago`s O`Hare International Airport marked O`Hare`s entry into the ``Era of the Smart Building.`` Behind its aesthetically pleasing exterior lie the ``brains`` of Terminal 1, the only terminal at O`Hare with ``system-controllable equipment.`` A state-of-the-art indoor-air filtration system is one example of the so-called smart equipment. During the next two years, 82 new air-handling units similar to those used in Terminal 1 are scheduled to be installed. Regardless of where outdoor-air intakes are placed, simply increasing outside ventilation rates will not improve indoor air quality. It is necessary, instead, to clean the air. After outdoor air passes through bird screens and dampers, it enters a mixing chamber and forms a ratio of about 80 percent recirculated air and 20 percent outdoor air. The dirty air then passes through a three-stage purification process that removes up to 95 percent of airborne contaminants.

  9. BAE systems' SMART chip camera FPA development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Louise; Auroux, Pierre-Alain; McManus, Don; Harris, D. Ahmasi; Blackwell, Richard J.; Bryant, Jeffrey; Boal, Mihir; Binkerd, Evan

    2015-06-01

    BAE Systems' SMART (Stacked Modular Architecture High-Resolution Thermal) Chip Camera provides very compact long-wave infrared (LWIR) solutions by combining a 12 μm wafer-level packaged focal plane array (FPA) with multichip-stack, application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and wafer-level optics. The key innovations that enabled this include a single-layer 12 μm pixel bolometer design and robust fabrication process, as well as wafer-level lid packaging. We used advanced packaging techniques to achieve an extremely small-form-factor camera, with a complete volume of 2.9 cm3 and a thermal core weight of 5.1g. The SMART Chip Camera supports up to 60 Hz frame rates, and requires less than 500 mW of power. This work has been supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Low Cost Thermal Imager - Manufacturing (LCTI-M) program, and BAE Systems' internal research and development investment.

  10. Auxetics in smart systems and structures 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Fabrizio; Ruzzene, Massimo; Alderson, Andrew; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W.

    2013-08-01

    Auxetics comes from the Greek (auxetikos), meaning 'that which tends to expand'. The term indicates specifically materials and structures with negative Poisson's ratio (NPR). Although the Poisson's ratio is a mechanical property, auxetic solids have shown evidence of multifunctional characteristics, ranging from increased stiffness and indentation resistance, to energy absorption under static and dynamic loading, soundproofing qualities and dielectric tangent loss. NPR solids and structures have also been used in the past as material platforms to build smart structural systems. Auxetics in general can be considered also a part of the 'negative materials' field, which includes solids and structures exhibiting negative thermal expansion, negative stiffness and compressibility. All these unusual deformation characteristics have the potential to provide a significant contribution to the area of smart materials systems and structures. In this focus issue, we are pleased to present some examples of novel multifunctional behaviors provided by auxetic, negative stiffness and negative compressibility in smart systems and structures. Particular emphasis has been placed upon the multidisciplinary and systems approach provided by auxetics and negative materials, also with examples applied to energy absorption, vibration damping, structural health monitoring and active deployment aspects. Three papers in this focus issue provide significant new clarifications on the role of auxeticity in the mechanical behavior of shear deformation in plates (Lim), stress wave characteristics (Lim again), and thermoelastic damping (Maruszewski et al ). Kochmann and Venturini describe the performance of auxetic composites in finite strain elasticity. New types of microstructures for auxetic systems are depicted for the first time in three works by Ge et al , Zhang et al , and Kim and co-workers. Tubular auxetic structures and their mechanical performance are also analyzed by Karnessis and

  11. California Smart Traveler System. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The report describes how audiotex and videotex information systems can be used to develop new modes of public transportation (e.g., parataxis or single-trip carpools) and how these new modes can be integrated with conventional transit, paratransit and ridesharing modes to reduce traffic congestion, gasoline consumption, air pollution and mobility problems at a low cost to taxpayers. This report also describes how these telephone-based information services can be used to develop low-cost, user-friendly Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) that will tell drivers and riders the 'best' ways to get between any two points in an area via either private vehicle or public transportation. The proposed California Smart Traveler (CST) System will enable travelers to obtain more timely and accurate information on which to base their local or regional travel decisions.

  12. An Interoperable GridWorkflow Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirto, Maria; Passante, Marco; Epicoco, Italo; Aloisio, Giovanni

    A WorkFlow Management System (WFMS) is a fundamental componentenabling to integrate data, applications and a wide set of project resources. Although a number of scientific WFMSs support this task, many analysis pipelines require large-scale Grid computing infrastructures to cope with their high compute and storage requirements. Such scientific workflows complicate the management of resources, especially in cases where they are offered by several resource providers, managed by different Grid middleware, since resource access must be synchronised in advance to allow reliable workflow execution. Different types of Grid middleware such as gLite, Unicore and Globus are used around the world and may cause interoperability issues if applications involve two or more of them. In this paperwe describe the ProGenGrid Workflow Management System which the main goal is to provide interoperability among these different grid middleware when executing workflows. It allows the composition of batch; parameter sweep and MPI based jobs. The ProGenGrid engine implements the logic to execute such jobs by using a standard language OGF compliant such as JSDL that has been extended for this purpose. Currently, we are testing our system on some bioinformatics case studies in the International Laboratory of Bioinformatics (LIBI) Project (www.libi.it).

  13. A three pronged approach to community scale renewable energy: Education, incremental capital investment and smart grid technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeo, Anna E.

    ; first hand exposure to technology, providing a sense of independence that strengthens communities, and developing a direct link between the energy people use and how that energy is created. Ultimately community scale renewable energy projects help bolster support for large-scale projects that are imperative to making real and lasting progress towards reducing emissions. Finally, technological advancements in renewable energy generation, energy storage and distribution systems, are imperative to replacing fossil fuels. The shift towards a higher penetration of renewable energy into the electric grid can be realized with the implementation of a more sophisticated smart grid, which uses dynamic demand response to alter demand to follow generation. Introduction of tidal power can serve to further stabilize the grid and reduce the amount of storage required. This work describes an interdisciplinary approach to addressing issues of energy, and thereby climate, through substantive efforts in three concentrations; energy literacy education, community driven renewable energy projects based on incremental capital investment and a smart, micro grid encompassing tidal power and other renewable energy source.

  14. The Effect of Plug-in Electric Vehicles on Harmonic Analysis of Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarian, T.; Joorabian, M.; Reza, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of plug-in electric vehicles is studied on the smart distribution system with a standard IEEE 30-bus network. At first, harmonic power flow analysis is performed by Newton-Raphson method and by considering distorted substation voltage. Afterward, proper sizes of capacitors is selected by cuckoo optimization algorithm to reduce the power losses and cost and by imposing acceptable limit for total harmonic distortion and RMS voltages. It is proposed that the impact of generated current harmonics by electric vehicle battery chargers should be factored into overall load control strategies of smart appliances. This study is generalized to the different hours of a day by using daily load curve, and then optimum time for charging of electric vehicles batteries in the parking lots are determined by cuckoo optimization algorithm. The results show that injecting harmonic currents of plug-in electric vehicles causes a drop in the voltage profile and increases power loss. Moreover, charging the vehicle batteries has more impact on increasing the power losses rather than the harmonic currents effect. Also, the findings showed that the current harmonics has a great influence on increasing of THD. Finally, optimum working times of all parking lots was obtained for the utilization cost reduction.

  15. Vulnerability of the large-scale future smart electric power grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiruzzaman, A. B. M.; Pota, H. R.; Akter, Most. Nahida

    2014-11-01

    The changing power flow pattern of the power system, with inclusion of large-scale renewable energy sources in the distribution side of the network, has been modeled by complex network framework based bidirectional graph. The bidirectional graph accommodates the reverse power flowing back from the distribution side to the grid in the model as a reverse edge connecting two nodes. The capacity of the reverse edge is equal to the capacity of the existing edge between the nodes in the forward directional nominal graph. Increased path in the combined model, built to facilitate grid reliability and efficiency, may serve as a bottleneck in practice with removal of certain percentage of nodes or edges. The effect of removal of critical elements has been analyzed in terms of increased path length, connectivity loss, load loss, and number of overloaded lines.

  16. Dynamic Energy Management System for a Smart Microgrid.

    PubMed

    Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar; Sharma, Ratnesh K; Gautam, Prajwal K; Ahmadi, Afshin

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the development of an intelligent dynamic energy management system (I-DEMS) for a smart microgrid. An evolutionary adaptive dynamic programming and reinforcement learning framework is introduced for evolving the I-DEMS online. The I-DEMS is an optimal or near-optimal DEMS capable of performing grid-connected and islanded microgrid operations. The primary sources of energy are sustainable, green, and environmentally friendly renewable energy systems (RESs), e.g., wind and solar; however, these forms of energy are uncertain and nondispatchable. Backup battery energy storage and thermal generation were used to overcome these challenges. Using the I-DEMS to schedule dispatches allowed the RESs and energy storage devices to be utilized to their maximum in order to supply the critical load at all times. Based on the microgrid's system states, the I-DEMS generates energy dispatch control signals, while a forward-looking network evaluates the dispatched control signals over time. Typical results are presented for varying generation and load profiles, and the performance of I-DEMS is compared with that of a decision tree approach-based DEMS (D-DEMS). The robust performance of the I-DEMS was illustrated by examining microgrid operations under different battery energy storage conditions. PMID:26800554

  17. Dynamic Energy Management System for a Smart Microgrid.

    PubMed

    Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar; Sharma, Ratnesh K; Gautam, Prajwal K; Ahmadi, Afshin

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the development of an intelligent dynamic energy management system (I-DEMS) for a smart microgrid. An evolutionary adaptive dynamic programming and reinforcement learning framework is introduced for evolving the I-DEMS online. The I-DEMS is an optimal or near-optimal DEMS capable of performing grid-connected and islanded microgrid operations. The primary sources of energy are sustainable, green, and environmentally friendly renewable energy systems (RESs), e.g., wind and solar; however, these forms of energy are uncertain and nondispatchable. Backup battery energy storage and thermal generation were used to overcome these challenges. Using the I-DEMS to schedule dispatches allowed the RESs and energy storage devices to be utilized to their maximum in order to supply the critical load at all times. Based on the microgrid's system states, the I-DEMS generates energy dispatch control signals, while a forward-looking network evaluates the dispatched control signals over time. Typical results are presented for varying generation and load profiles, and the performance of I-DEMS is compared with that of a decision tree approach-based DEMS (D-DEMS). The robust performance of the I-DEMS was illustrated by examining microgrid operations under different battery energy storage conditions.

  18. Smart Camera System for Aircraft and Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Frank; White, Janis; Abernathy, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to situation awareness that combines video sensor technology and synthetic vision technology in a unique fashion to create a hybrid vision system. Our implementation of the technology, called "SmartCam3D" (SC3D) has been flight tested by both NASA and the Department of Defense with excellent results. This paper details its development and flight test results. Windshields and windows add considerable weight and risk to vehicle design, and because of this, many future vehicles will employ a windowless cockpit design. This windowless cockpit design philosophy prompted us to look at what would be required to develop a system that provides crewmembers and awareness. The system created to date provides a real-time operations personnel an appropriate level of situation 3D perspective display that can be used during all-weather and visibility conditions. While the advantages of a synthetic vision only system are considerable, the major disadvantage of such a system is that it displays the synthetic scene created using "static" data acquired by an aircraft or satellite at some point in the past. The SC3D system we are presenting in this paper is a hybrid synthetic vision system that fuses live video stream information with a computer generated synthetic scene. This hybrid system can display a dynamic, real-time scene of a region of interest, enriched by information from a synthetic environment system, see figure 1. The SC3D system has been flight tested on several X-38 flight tests performed over the last several years and on an ARMY Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) ground control station earlier this year. Additional testing using an assortment of UAV ground control stations and UAV simulators from the Army and Air Force will be conducted later this year.

  19. Smart camera system for aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Francisco J.; White, Janis; Abernathy, Michael F.

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a new approach to situation awareness that combines video sensor technology and synthetic vision technology in a unique fashion to create a hybrid vision system. Our implementation of the technology, called "SmartCam3D" (SCS3D) has been flight tested by both NASA and the Department of Defense with excellent results. This paper details its development and flight test results. Windshields and windows add considerable weight and risk to vehicle design, and because of this, many future vehicles will employ a windowless cockpit design. This windowless cockpit design philosophy prompted us to look at what would be required to develop a system that provides crewmembers and operations personnel an appropriate level of situation awareness. The system created to date provides a real-time 3D perspective display that can be used during all-weather and visibility conditions. While the advantages of a synthetic vision only system are considerable, the major disadvantage of such a system is that it displays the synthetic scene created using "static" data acquired by an aircraft or satellite at some point in the past. The SCS3D system we are presenting in this paper is a hybrid synthetic vision system that fuses live video stream information with a computer generated synthetic scene. This hybrid system can display a dynamic, real-time scene of a region of interest, enriched by information from a synthetic environment system, see figure 1. The SCS3D system has been flight tested on several X-38 flight tests performed over the last several years and on an ARMY Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) ground control station earlier this year. Additional testing using an assortment of UAV ground control stations and UAV simulators from the Army and Air Force will be conducted later this year. We are also identifying other NASA programs that would benefit from the use of this technology.

  20. Smart grids: A paradigm shift on energy generation and distribution with the emergence of a new energy management business model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, Jesus Alvaro

    An energy and environmental crisis will emerge throughout the world if we continue with our current practices of generation and distribution of electricity. A possible solution to this problem is based on the Smart grid concept, which is heavily influenced by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Although the electricity industry is mostly regulated, there are global models used as roadmaps for Smart Grids' implementation focusing on technologies and the basic generation-distribution-transmission model. This project aims to further enhance a business model for a future global deployment. It takes into consideration the many factors interacting in this energy provision process, based on the diffusion of technologies and literature surveys on the available documents in the Internet as well as peer-reviewed publications. Tariffs and regulations, distributed energy generation, integration of service providers, consumers becoming producers, self-healing devices, and many other elements are shifting this industry into a major change towards liberalization and deregulation of this sector, which has been heavily protected by the government due to the importance of electricity for consumers. We propose an Energy Management Business Model composed by four basic elements: Supply Chain, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Stakeholders Response, and the resulting Green Efficient Energy (GEE). We support the developed model based on the literature survey, we support it with the diffusion analysis of these elements, and support the overall model with two surveys: one for peers and professionals, and other for experts in the field, based on the Smart Grid Carnegie Melon Maturity Model (CMU SEI SGMM). The contribution of this model is a simple path to follow for entities that want to achieve environmental friendly energy with the involvement of technology and all stakeholders.

  1. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daryoush Allaei; Asim Syed Mohammed; David Tarnowski

    2003-03-01

    Initial assessment of vibrating fine screens at a taconite processing plant in Mountain Iron Minnesota showed undesirable high noise and vibration levels. This has resulted in lower screening efficiency, higher energy and maintenance cost, and lower productivity and workers safety concerns. Current material separation technology uses heavy electric motors with an unbalance rotating mass to generate the shaking. These motors along with the screens and supporting structure shake other machines and structure in the vicinity of the screens. SmartScreens{trademark} technology, based on smart materials, uses miniaturized motors to generate shaking. This technology, based on Energy Flow Control{trademark} and Vibration Control by Confinement{trademark}, can efficiently and effectively direct the energy flow and confine it to the screens. The SmartScreens{trademark} technology addresses problems related to noise and vibration, screening efficiency, productivity, maintenance cost, and worker safety. Successful development of SmartScreens{trademark} technology will bring drastic change to the screening and physical separation industry. The conceptual designs for SmartScreens{trademark} resonators have been developed. These resonators will be utilized to amplify motion generated by smart motors. Resonator designs are down selected based on the final system requirement and vibration characteristics. The most promising resonator designs are incorporated in the full system model and are analyzed through experimental testing and analysis. After a detailed review, one or two of these resonator systems will be used in the development of SmartScreens{trademark}.

  2. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end,more » we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.« less

  3. Smart grid initialization reduces the computational complexity of multi-objective image registration based on a dual-dynamic transformation model to account for large anatomical differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosman, Peter A. N.; Alderliesten, Tanja

    2016-03-01

    We recently demonstrated the strong potential of using dual-dynamic transformation models when tackling deformable image registration problems involving large anatomical differences. Dual-dynamic transformation models employ two moving grids instead of the common single moving grid for the target image (and single fixed grid for the source image). We previously employed powerful optimization algorithms to make use of the additional flexibility offered by a dual-dynamic transformation model with good results, directly obtaining insight into the trade-off between important registration objectives as a result of taking a multi-objective approach to optimization. However, optimization has so far been initialized using two regular grids, which still leaves a great potential of dual-dynamic transformation models untapped: a-priori grid alignment with image structures/areas that are expected to deform more. This allows (far) less grid points to be used, compared to using a sufficiently refined regular grid, leading to (far) more efficient optimization, or, equivalently, more accurate results using the same number of grid points. We study the implications of exploiting this potential by experimenting with two new smart grid initialization procedures: one manual expert-based and one automated image-feature-based. We consider a CT test case with large differences in bladder volume with and without a multi-resolution scheme and find a substantial benefit of using smart grid initialization.

  4. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Mui, Ming

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  5. Active smart material control system for buffet alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheta, Essam F.; Moses, Robert W.; Huttsell, Lawrence J.

    2006-05-01

    Vertical tail buffeting is a serious multidisciplinary problem that limits the performance and maneuverability of twin-tail fighter aircraft. The buffet problem occurs at high angles of attack when the vortical flow breaks down ahead of the vertical tails resulting in unsteady and unbalanced loads on the tails leading to their premature fatigue failure. An active smart material control system, using distributed piezoelectric (PZT) actuators, is developed for buffet alleviation and is presented. The surfaces of the vertical tail are equipped with PZT actuators to control the buffet responses in the first bending and torsion modes. The electrodynamics of the PZT actuators are modeled using a finite-element model. A single-input/single-output controller is designed to drive the active PZT actuators. High-fidelity analysis modules for the fluid dynamics, structural dynamics, electrodynamics of the PZT actuators, control law, fluid-structure interfacing, and grid motion are integrated into a multidisciplinary computing environment that controls the temporal synchronization of the analysis modules. The results of this study indicate that the actively controlled PZT actuators are an effective tool for buffet alleviation over wide range of angels of attack. Peak values of power spectral density of tail-tip acceleration are reduced by as much as 22% in the first bending mode and by as much as 82% in the first torsion mode. The root mean square values of tail-tip acceleration are reduced by as much as 12%.

  6. Methods for Procuring Power System Flexibility, Greening the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Jessica; Cochran, Jaquelin; Miller, Mackay

    2015-05-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, introduces administrative and incentive-based mechanisms for procuring a cost-effective mix of flexibility sources.

  7. Integrated geometry and grid generation system for complex configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akdag, Vedat; Wulf, Armin

    1992-01-01

    A grid generation system was developed that enables grid generation for complex configurations. The system called ICEM/CFD is described and its role in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications is presented. The capabilities of the system include full computer aided design (CAD), grid generation on the actual CAD geometry definition using robust surface projection algorithms, interfacing easily with known CAD packages through common file formats for geometry transfer, grid quality evaluation of the volume grid, coupling boundary condition set-up for block faces with grid topology generation, multi-block grid generation with or without point continuity and block to block interface requirement, and generating grid files directly compatible with known flow solvers. The interactive and integrated approach to the problem of computational grid generation not only substantially reduces manpower time but also increases the flexibility of later grid modifications and enhancements which is required in an environment where CFD is integrated into a product design cycle.

  8. Wearable smart systems: from technologies to integrated systems.

    PubMed

    Lymberis, A

    2011-01-01

    Wearable technology and integrated systems, so called Smart Wearable Systems (SWS) have demonstrated during the last 10-15 years significant advances in terms of, miniaturisation, seamless integration, data processing & communication, functionalisation and comfort. This is mainly due to the huge progress in sciences and technologies e.g. biomedical and micro & nano technologies, but also to a strong demand for new applications such as continuous personal health monitoring, healthy lifestyle support, human performance monitoring and support of professionals at risk. Development of wearable systems based of smart textile have, in addition, benefited from the eagerness of textile industry to develop new value-added apparel products like functionalized garments and smart clothing. Research and development in these areas has been strongly promoted worldwide. In Europe the major R&D activities were supported through the Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) priority of the R&D EU programs. The paper presents and discusses the main achievements towards integrated systems as well as future challenges to be met in order to reach a market with reliable and high value-added products.

  9. Context Aware Systems, Methods and Trends in Smart Home Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Context aware applications respond and adapt to changes in the computing environment. It is the concept of leveraging information about the end user to improve the quality of the interaction. New technologies in context-enriched services will use location, presence, social attributes, and other environmental information to anticipate an end user's immediate needs, offering more-sophisticated, situation-aware and usable functions. Smart homes connect all the devices and appliances in your home so they can communicate with each other and with you. Context-awareness can be applied to Smart Home technology. In this paper, we discuss the context-aware tools for development of Smart Home Systems.

  10. Nanotechnologies for efficient solar and wind energy harvesting and storage in smart-grid and transportation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay

    2011-01-01

    A wide array of nanotechnologies can be used to improve the efficiency of energy harvest from the Sun and the wind, and the efficiency of energy storage in secondary batteries, for use in smart grid and transportation applications. High-quality nanostructured copper indium gallium selenide thin films help produce high-efficiency photovoltaic modules. Various nanotechnologies are utilized to improve the efficiency of power-generating wind turbines, including nanoparticle-containing lubricants that reduce the friction generated from the rotation of the turbines, nanocoatings for de-icing and self-cleaning technologies, and advanced nanocomposites that provide lighter and stronger wind blades. A number of nanotechnologies can be beneficial in advanced high-capacity secondary batteries for smart grid and transportation applications. These technologies include nanostructured carbon-nanotube-based and silicon-nanowire-based electrodes with ultrahigh surface areas, as well as nanoengineered β-alumina ceramic electrolytes with well-controlled grains, grain boundaries, and crystal orientation, which are used to boost the energy and power densities in secondary batteries such as lithium-ion, sodium-sulfur, flow, and dry cell batteries.

  11. Optimizing Resource Utilization in Grid Batch Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellrich, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    On Grid sites, the requirements of the computing tasks (jobs) to computing, storage, and network resources differ widely. For instance Monte Carlo production jobs are almost purely CPU-bound, whereas physics analysis jobs demand high data rates. In order to optimize the utilization of the compute node resources, jobs must be distributed intelligently over the nodes. Although the job resource requirements cannot be deduced directly, jobs are mapped to POSIX UID/GID according to the VO, VOMS group and role information contained in the VOMS proxy. The UID/GID then allows to distinguish jobs, if users are using VOMS proxies as planned by the VO management, e.g. ‘role=production’ for Monte Carlo jobs. It is possible to setup and configure batch systems (queuing system and scheduler) at Grid sites based on these considerations although scaling limits were observed with the scheduler MAUI. In tests these limitations could be overcome with a home-made scheduler.

  12. Overview of control design methods for smart structural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Vittal S.; Sana, Sridhar

    2001-08-01

    Smart structures are a result of effective integration of control system design and signal processing with the structural systems to maximally utilize the new advances in materials for structures, actuation and sensing to obtain the best performance for the application at hand. The research in smart structures is constantly driving towards attaining self adaptive and diagnostic capabilities that biological systems possess. This has been manifested in the number of successful applications in many areas of engineering such as aerospace, civil and automotive systems. Instrumental in the development of such systems are smart materials such as piezo-electric, shape memory alloys, electrostrictive, magnetostrictive and fiber-optic materials and various composite materials for use as actuators, sensors and structural members. The need for development of control systems that maximally utilize the smart actuators and sensing materials to design highly distributed and highly adaptable controllers has spurred research in the area of smart structural modeling, identification, actuator/sensor design and placement, control systems design such as adaptive and robust controllers with new tools such a neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, linear matrix inequalities and electronics for controller implementation such as analog electronics, micro controllers, digital signal processors (DSPs) and application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) such field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and Multichip modules (MCMs) etc. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the state of control in smart structures. Different aspects of the development of smart structures such as applications, technology and theoretical advances especially in the area of control systems design and implementation will be covered.

  13. Managing Distributed Systems with Smart Subscriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Lee, Diana D.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We describe an event-based, publish-and-subscribe mechanism based on using 'smart subscriptions' to recognize weakly-structured events. We present a hierarchy of subscription languages (propositional, predicate, temporal and agent) and algorithms for efficiently recognizing event matches. This mechanism has been applied to the management of distributed applications.

  14. Real time hardware implementation of power converters for grid integration of distributed generation and STATCOM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaithwa, Ishan

    Deployment of smart grid technologies is accelerating. Smart grid enables bidirectional flows of energy and energy-related communications. The future electricity grid will look very different from today's power system. Large variable renewable energy sources will provide a greater portion of electricity, small DERs and energy storage systems will become more common, and utilities will operate many different kinds of energy efficiency. All of these changes will add complexity to the grid and require operators to be able to respond to fast dynamic changes to maintain system stability and security. This thesis investigates advanced control technology for grid integration of renewable energy sources and STATCOM systems by verifying them on real time hardware experiments using two different systems: d SPACE and OPAL RT. Three controls: conventional, direct vector control and the intelligent Neural network control were first simulated using Matlab to check the stability and safety of the system and were then implemented on real time hardware using the d SPACE and OPAL RT systems. The thesis then shows how dynamic-programming (DP) methods employed to train the neural networks are better than any other controllers where, an optimal control strategy is developed to ensure effective power delivery and to improve system stability. Through real time hardware implementation it is proved that the neural vector control approach produces the fastest response time, low overshoot, and, the best performance compared to the conventional standard vector control method and DCC vector control technique. Finally the entrepreneurial approach taken to drive the technologies from the lab to market via ORANGE ELECTRIC is discussed in brief.

  15. Towards a smart non-invasive fluid loss measurement system.

    PubMed

    Suryadevara, N K; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Barrack, L

    2015-04-01

    In this article, a smart wireless sensing non-invasive system for estimating the amount of fluid loss, a person experiences while physical activity is presented. The system measures three external body parameters, Heart Rate, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR, or skin conductance), and Skin Temperature. These three parameters are entered into an empirically derived formula along with the user's body mass index, and estimation for the amount of fluid lost is determined. The core benefit of the developed system is the affluence usage in combining with smart home monitoring systems to care elderly people in ambient assisted living environments as well in automobiles to monitor the body parameters of a motorist.

  16. SMART reliability mechanism for very large storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dongjian; Zhong, Haifeng; Pei, Canhao; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Chengfeng

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the reliability in a petabyte scale storage system built from thousands of Object-Based Storage Devices and study the mechanisms to protect data loss when disk failure happens. We delve in two underlying redundancy mechanisms: 2-way mirroring, 3-way mirroring. To accelerate data reconstruction, Fast Mirroring Copy is employed where the reconstructed objects are stored on different OBSDs throughout the system. A SMART reliability for enhancing the reliability in very large-scale storage system is proposed. Results show that our SMART Reliability Mechanism can utilize the spare resources (including processing, network, and storage resources) to improve the reliability in very large storage systems.

  17. A context management system for a cost-efficient smart home platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, J.; Klein, A.; Mannweiler, C.; Schotten, H. D.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of state-of-the-art architectures for integrating wireless sensor and actuators networks into the Future Internet. Furthermore, we will address advantages and disadvantages of the different architectures. With respect to these criteria, we develop a new architecture overcoming these weaknesses. Our system, called Smart Home Context Management System, will be used for intelligent home utilities, appliances, and electronics and includes physical, logical as well as network context sources within one concept. It considers important aspects and requirements of modern context management systems for smart X applications: plug and play as well as plug and trust capabilities, scalability, extensibility, security, and adaptability. As such, it is able to control roller blinds, heating systems as well as learn, for example, the user's taste w.r.t. to home entertainment (music, videos, etc.). Moreover, Smart Grid applications and Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) functions are applicable. With respect to AAL, we included an Emergency Handling function. It assures that emergency calls (police, ambulance or fire department) are processed appropriately. Our concept is based on a centralized Context Broker architecture, enhanced by a distributed Context Broker system. The goal of this concept is to develop a simple, low-priced, multi-functional, and save architecture affordable for everybody. Individual components of the architecture are well tested. Implementation and testing of the architecture as a whole is in progress.

  18. VersiCharge-SG - Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) for Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Dong; Haas, Harry; Terricciano, Paul

    2015-09-30

    some real life experimentation and sporadic deployment of these technologies [14]. By many accounts, the second decade of the 21st Century is expected to be the time when mass volume production and popular usage of these AFV technologies, especially EV, will materialize. The current DOE request for proposals recognizes the need for major technological changes to ensure that the above national goal is realizable. Two major challenges have been identified: (1) major reduction in the cost of ownership of EVSEs, and (2) managing additional EV loads in the power grid while maintaining power quality, reliability, and affordability. We note that the two challenges are closely linked – A holistic approach to true lifecycle cost of EVSE ownership will certainly include any taxes and surcharges that can be put in place for major potential investments in the grid, and higher electricity charges in case of more frequent and longer peak periods. From a societal perspective, this cost could also include the lost GDP (computed on a local basis) and revenue for businesses at local and regional levels when the grid is no longer capable of meeting the demand and unexpected outages occur. A typical end-point electrical distribution system delivers power to a residential EVSE from the neighborhood distribution pole, as shown in Fig.1. This pole has a transformer (neighboring step-down transformer) that steps down the utility medium voltage to dual 120VAC single phase (also called 240VAC split phase). This voltage is fed through a meter into the residential load control center. The load control center consists of branch circuit breakers and distributes the power supply within various areas of the residential unit. One of the branch circuits from the load control center feeds EV charging station for the unit. An electric vehicle charger is plugged into the socket of the EV charging station and other end of this charger is connected to the vehicle during charging. Figure 1 illustrates a

  19. Consumer participation in power market balancing. A real-life step towards smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Per, Lund

    2014-09-01

    With the increasing role of wind and solar power, the power balance authorities are facing a big challenge: How to manage the increasing need for fast balancing power brought on by increased penetration of variable and difficult-to-forecast renewable generation? Could more active participation by the residential customers in managing electricity demand be a smart way to go?

  20. Detection of Component Failures for Smart Structure Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Hiroshi

    Uncertainties in the dynamics model of a smart structure are often of significance due to model errors caused by parameter identification errors and reduced-order modeling of the system. Design of a model-based Failure Detection and Isolation (FDI) system for smart structures, therefore, needs careful consideration regarding robustness with respect to such model uncertainties. In this paper, we proposes a new method of robust fault detection that is insensitive to the disturbances caused by unknown modeling errors while it is highly sensitive to the component failures. The capability of the robust detection algorithm is examined for the sensor failure of a flexible smart beam control system. It is shown by numerical simulations that the proposed method suppresses the disturbances due to model errors and markedly improves the detection performance.

  1. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform – Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  2. Enabling affordable and efficiently deployed location based smart home systems.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Damian; McLoone, Sean; Dishongh, Terry

    2009-01-01

    With the obvious eldercare capabilities of smart environments it is a question of "when", rather than "if", these technologies will be routinely integrated into the design of future houses. In the meantime, health monitoring applications must be integrated into already complete home environments. However, there is significant effort involved in installing the hardware necessary to monitor the movements of an elder throughout an environment. Our work seeks to address the high infrastructure requirements of traditional location-based smart home systems by developing an extremely low infrastructure localisation technique. A study of the most efficient method of obtaining calibration data for an environment is conducted and different mobile devices are compared for localisation accuracy and cost trade-off. It is believed that these developments will contribute towards more efficiently deployed location-based smart home systems.

  3. Electricity Storage Systems and the Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, Ruth

    2007-04-01

    Demand for electricity varies seasonally, daily, and on much shorter time scales. Renewable energy sources such as solar or wind power are naturally intermittent. Nuclear power plants can respond to a narrow range of fluctuating demand quickly and to larger fluctuations in hours. However, they are most efficient when operated at a constant power output. Thus implementing either nuclear power as baseline power or power from renewables requires either a system for storage of electrical energy that can respond quickly to demand or a back-up power source, usually a gas turbine plant that has a quick response time. We have studied six technologies for storing electrical energy from the grid: pumped hydropower, compressed air storage, batteries, flywheels, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and electrochemical capacitors. In addition, the power conversion systems (PCS) that connect storage to the grid are both expensive and critical to the success of a storage technology. Each of these six technologies offers different benefits, is at a different stage of readiness for commercial use, and offers opportunities for research. Advantages and disadvantages for each of the technologies and PCS will be discussed.

  4. A services oriented system for bioinformatics applications on the grid.

    PubMed

    Aloisio, Giovanni; Cafaro, Massimo; Epicoco, Italo; Fiore, Sandro; Mirto, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of the main services of the ProGenGrid (Proteomics & Genomics Grid) system, a distributed and ubiquitous grid environment ("virtual laboratory"), based on Workflow and supporting the design, execution and monitoring of "in silico" experiments in bioinformatics.ProGenGrid is a Grid-based Problem Solving Environment that allows the composition of data sources and bioinformatics programs wrapped as Web Services (WS). The use of WS provides ease of use and fosters re-use. The resulting workflow of WS is then scheduled on the Grid, leveraging Grid-middleware services. In particular, ProGenGrid offers a modular bag of services and currently is focused on the biological simulation of two important bioinformatics problems: prediction of the secondary structure of proteins, and sequence alignment of proteins. Both services are based on an enhanced data access service.

  5. The Study on the Communication Network of Wide Area Measurement System in Electricity Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaorong, Cheng; Ying, Wang; Yangdan, Ni

    Wide area measurement system(WAMS) is a fundamental part of security defense in Smart Grid, and the communication system of WAMS is an important part of Electric power communication network. For a large regional network is concerned, the real-time data which is transferred in the communication network of WAMS will affect the safe operation of the power grid directly. Therefore, WAMS raised higher requirements for real-time, reliability and security to its communication network. In this paper, the architecture of WASM communication network was studied according to the seven layers model of the open systems interconnection(OSI), and the network architecture was researched from all levels. We explored the media of WAMS communication network, the network communication protocol and network technology. Finally, the delay of the network were analyzed.

  6. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daryoush Allaei; Angus Morison; David Tarnowski; Asim Syed Mohammed

    2005-09-01

    components include smart motor and associated electronics, resonators, and supporting structural elements. It is shown that the smart motors have an acceptable life and performance. Resonator (or motion amplifier) designs are selected based on the final system requirement and vibration characteristics. All the components for a fully functional prototype are fabricated. The development program is on schedule. The last semi-annual report described the process of FE model validation and correlation with experimental data in terms of dynamic performance and predicted stresses. It also detailed efforts into making the supporting structure less important to system performance. Finally, an introduction into the dry application concept was presented. Since then, the design refinement phase was completed. This has resulted in a Smart Screen design that meets performance targets both in the dry condition and with taconite slurry flow using PZT motors. Furthermore, this system was successfully demonstrated for the DOE and partner companies at the Coleraine Mineral Research Laboratory in Coleraine, Minnesota.

  7. Smart Payload Development for High Data Rate Instrument Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Norton, Charles D.

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of smart payloads instruments systems with high data rates. On-board computation has become a bottleneck for advanced science instrument and engineering capabilities. In order to improve the computation capability on board, smart payloads have been proposed. A smart payload is a Localized instrument, that can offload the flight processor of extensive computing cycles, simplify the interfaces, and minimize the dependency of the instrument on the flight system. This has been proposed for the Mars mission, Mars Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (MATMOS). The design of this system is discussed; the features of the Virtex-4, are discussed, and the technical approach is reviewed. The proposed Hybrid Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology has been shown to deliver breakthrough performance by tightly coupling hardware and software. Smart Payload designs for instruments such as MATMOS can meet science data return requirements with more competitive use of available on-board resources and can provide algorithm acceleration in hardware leading to implementation of better (more advanced) algorithms in on-board systems for improved science data return

  8. Review of "Spend Smart: Fix Our Broken School Funding System"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    ConnCAN's Spend Smart: "Fix Our Broken School Funding System" was released concurrently with a bill introduced in the Connecticut legislature, based on the principles outlined in the report. However, the report is of negligible value to the policy debate over Connecticut school finance because it provides little or no support for any of the…

  9. Three-grid accelerator system for an ion propulsion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus is presented for an ion engine comprising a three-grid accelerator system with the decelerator grid biased negative of the beam plasma. This arrangement substantially reduces the charge-exchange ion current reaching the accelerator grid at high tank pressures, which minimizes erosion of the accelerator grid due to charge exchange ion sputtering, known to be the major accelerator grid wear mechanism. An improved method for life testing ion engines is also provided using the disclosed apparatus. In addition, the invention can also be applied in materials processing.

  10. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daryoush Allaei; Ryan Wartman; David Tarnowski; Asim Syed Mohammed

    2006-03-01

    components include smart motor and associated electronics, resonators, and supporting structural elements. It is shown that the smart motors have an acceptable life and performance. Resonator (or motion amplifier) designs are selected based on the final system requirement and vibration characteristics. All the components for a fully functional prototype are fabricated. The development program is on schedule. The last semi-annual report described the completion of the design refinement phase. This phase resulted in a Smart Screen design that meets performance targets both in the dry condition and with taconite slurry flow using PZT motors. This system was successfully demonstrated for the DOE and partner companies at the Coleraine Mineral Research Laboratory in Coleraine, Minnesota. Since then, the fabrication of the dry application prototype (incorporating an electromagnetic drive mechanism and a new deblinding concept) has been completed and successfully tested at QRDC's lab.

  11. GET SMARTE: A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM TO REVITALIZE COMMUNITIES - CABERNET 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools - electronic (SMARTe), is an open-source, web-based, decision support system for developing and evaluating future reuse scenarios for potentially contaminated land. SMARTe contains information and analysis tools for all a...

  12. Experimental Verification and Integration of a Next Generation Smart Power Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmer, Tavis B.

    With the increase in energy demand by the residential community in this country and the diminishing fossil fuel resources being used for electric energy production there is a need for a system to efficiently manage power within a residence. The Smart Green Power Node (SGPN) is a next generation energy management system that automates on-site energy production, storage, consumption, and grid usage to yield the most savings for both the utility and the consumer. Such a system automatically manages on-site distributed generation sources such as a PhotoVoltaic (PV) input and battery storage to curtail grid energy usage when the price is high. The SGPN high level control features an advanced modular algorithm that incorporates weather data for projected PV generation, battery health monitoring algorithms, user preferences for load prioritization within the home in case of an outage, Time of Use (ToU) grid power pricing, and status of on-site resources to intelligently schedule and manage power flow between the grid, loads, and the on-site resources. The SGPN has a scalable, modular architecture such that it can be customized for user specific applications. This drove the topology for the SGPN which connects on-site resources at a low voltage DC microbus; a two stage bi-directional inverter/rectifier then couples the AC load and residential grid connect to on-site generation. The SGPN has been designed, built, and is undergoing testing. Hardware test results obtained are consistent with the design goals set and indicate that the SGPN is a viable system with recommended changes and future work.

  13. The Smart Drug Delivery System and Its Clinical Potential.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Fang; Xiong, Fei; Gu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    With the unprecedented progresses of biomedical nanotechnology during the past few decades, conventional drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been involved into smart DDSs with stimuli-responsive characteristics. Benefiting from the response to specific internal or external triggers, those well-defined nanoplatforms can increase the drug targeting efficacy, in the meantime, reduce side effects/toxicities of payloads, which are key factors for improving patient compliance. In academic field, variety of smart DDSs have been abundantly demonstrated for various intriguing systems, such as stimuli-responsive polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, metals/metal oxides, and exosomes. However, these nanoplatforms are lack of standardized manufacturing method, toxicity assessment experience, and clear relevance between the pre-clinical and clinical studies, resulting in the huge difficulties to obtain regulatory and ethics approval. Therefore, such relatively complex stimulus-sensitive nano-DDSs are not currently approved for clinical use. In this review, we highlight the recent advances of smart nanoplatforms for targeting drug delivery. Furthermore, the clinical translation obstacles faced by these smart nanoplatforms have been reviewed and discussed. We also present the future directions and perspectives of stimuli-sensitive DDS in clinical applications. PMID:27375781

  14. The Smart Drug Delivery System and Its Clinical Potential

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Fang; Xiong, Fei; Gu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    With the unprecedented progresses of biomedical nanotechnology during the past few decades, conventional drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been involved into smart DDSs with stimuli-responsive characteristics. Benefiting from the response to specific internal or external triggers, those well-defined nanoplatforms can increase the drug targeting efficacy, in the meantime, reduce side effects/toxicities of payloads, which are key factors for improving patient compliance. In academic field, variety of smart DDSs have been abundantly demonstrated for various intriguing systems, such as stimuli-responsive polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, metals/metal oxides, and exosomes. However, these nanoplatforms are lack of standardized manufacturing method, toxicity assessment experience, and clear relevance between the pre-clinical and clinical studies, resulting in the huge difficulties to obtain regulatory and ethics approval. Therefore, such relatively complex stimulus-sensitive nano-DDSs are not currently approved for clinical use. In this review, we highlight the recent advances of smart nanoplatforms for targeting drug delivery. Furthermore, the clinical translation obstacles faced by these smart nanoplatforms have been reviewed and discussed. We also present the future directions and perspectives of stimuli-sensitive DDS in clinical applications. PMID:27375781

  15. Smart cards--the key to trustworthy health information systems.

    PubMed Central

    Neame, R.

    1997-01-01

    Some 20 years after they were first developed, "smart cards" are set to play a crucial part in healthcare systems. Last year about a billion were supplied, mainly for use in the financial sector, but their special features make them of particular strategic importance for the health sector, where they offer a ready made solution to some key problems of security and confidentiality. This article outlines what smart cards are and why they are so important in managing health information. I discuss some of the unique features of smart cards that are of special importance in the development of secure and trustworthy health information systems. Smart cards would enable individuals' identities to be authenticated and communications to be secured and would provide the mechanisms for implementing strong security, differential access to data, and definitive audit trails. Patient cards can also with complete security carry personal details, data on current health problems and medications, emergency care data, and pointers to where medical records for the patient can be found. Provider cards can in addition carry authorisations and information on computer set up. PMID:9055719

  16. Smart systems, dumb data: impact on ISR operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creech, Gregory S.

    2013-05-01

    Just as we face a global environment where the latest technology is most needed by Department of Defense (DoD) and the Intelligence Community (IC), we find ourselves hindered by the lack of smart, useful data that our intelligent systems and workforce can fully exploit. Consider the ISR Enterprise "system of systems." Our inability to properly populate metadata fields for making data discoverable and useful is as harmful to system performance as putting lowgrade fuel in a race car. In order for our downstream ISR Enterprise systems (and analysts) to achieve their full performance potential, we must take measures upstream to make the data stream smart. This paper will examine the challenges and ongoing efforts that will benefit analysts at all echelons.

  17. Smart health monitoring systems: an overview of design and modeling.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; Gholamhosseini, Hamid

    2013-04-01

    Health monitoring systems have rapidly evolved during the past two decades and have the potential to change the way health care is currently delivered. Although smart health monitoring systems automate patient monitoring tasks and, thereby improve the patient workflow management, their efficiency in clinical settings is still debatable. This paper presents a review of smart health monitoring systems and an overview of their design and modeling. Furthermore, a critical analysis of the efficiency, clinical acceptability, strategies and recommendations on improving current health monitoring systems will be presented. The main aim is to review current state of the art monitoring systems and to perform extensive and an in-depth analysis of the findings in the area of smart health monitoring systems. In order to achieve this, over fifty different monitoring systems have been selected, categorized, classified and compared. Finally, major advances in the system design level have been discussed, current issues facing health care providers, as well as the potential challenges to health monitoring field will be identified and compared to other similar systems.

  18. Automated Grid Disruption Response System: Robust Adaptive Topology Control (RATC)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    GENI Project: The RATC research team is using topology control as a mechanism to improve system operations and manage disruptions within the electric grid. The grid is subject to interruption from cascading faults caused by extreme operating conditions, malicious external attacks, and intermittent electricity generation from renewable energy sources. The RATC system is capable of detecting, classifying, and responding to grid disturbances by reconfiguring the grid in order to maintain economically efficient operations while guaranteeing reliability. The RATC system would help prevent future power outages, which account for roughly $80 billion in losses for businesses and consumers each year. Minimizing the time it takes for the grid to respond to expensive interruptions will also make it easier to integrate intermittent renewable energy sources into the grid.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daminov, Ildar; Tarasova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Tatyana; Avazov, Artur

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt) and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  20. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance U.S. Army – Project 214 Analysis of Regulations Associated with Implementation of a Rocky Mountain Secure Smart-Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, William M.

    2010-09-30

    This document describes technical assistance provided by PNNL to further develop a smart grid technologies concept to provide a basis for policies and plans for the US Army. The effort was to analyze the potential to utilize emerging smart grid technologies along with indigenous renewable and other resources to meet the emergency and other power needs of Department of Defense facilities in Colorado and Wyoming.

  1. Ocean Observing using SMART subsea telecommunications cable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Planning is underway to integrate ocean sensors into SMART subsea cable systems providing basin and ultimately global array coverage within the next decades (SMART: Scientific Monitoring And Reliable Telecommunications). SMART cables will: contribute to the understanding of ocean dynamics and climate; improve knowledge of earthquakes and forecasting of tsunamis; and complement and enhance existing satellite and in-situ observing systems. SMART cables will be a first order addition to the ocean observing system, with unique contributions, strengthening and complementing satellite and in situ systems. Cables spanning the ocean basins with repeaters every ~50 km will host sensors/mini-observatories, providing power and real-time communications. The current global infrastructure of commercial submarine telecommunications cable systems consists of 1 Gm of cable with ~20,000 repeaters (to boost optical signals); the overall system is refreshed and expanded on time scales of 10 - 20 years and individual systems have lifetimes in excess of 25 years. Initial instrumentation of the cables with bottom temperature, pressure and acceleration sensors will provide unique information for monitoring and studying climate change and for improved tsunami and earthquake warning. These systems will be a new highly reliable, long-lived component of the ocean observing system, complementing satellite, float and other in situ platforms and measurements. Several UN agencies, the International Telecommunication Union, the World Meteorological Organization, and the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission have formed a Joint Task Force to move this concept to fruition (ITU/WMO/IOC JTF; http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/climatechange/task-force-sc). A review of the overall planning effort and two NASA-funded workshops focusing on the ocean circulation and climate is presented. [Funding provided by NASA.

  2. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daryoush Allaei; Asim Syed Mohammed; David Tarnowski

    2004-09-01

    components include smart motor and associated electronics, resonators, and supporting structural elements. It is shown that the smart motors have an acceptable life and performance. Resonator (or motion amplifier) designs are selected based on the final system requirement and vibration characteristics. All the components for a fully functional prototype are fabricated. The system is assembled and tested under laboratory and field conditions. The lab results are promising and the field test resulted in system performance drop due to plant structure not able to provide the required stiffness. The PZT-based Smart Motors performed better than expected. None of the Smart Motors failed during testing and the results were very encouraging. The development program is on schedule. Supporting structure was modified to improve system rigidity and integrity to help improve overall system performance. The improved supporting structure was fabricated and tested in the lab and in field. Results showed a significant improvement in reducing undesirable supporting structure vibration, better system performance and ease of installation. We plan to work on system installation sensitivity to relax plant structure foundation requirement. This would be necessary for the PZT-based system to perform better and not loose energy into the plant structure.

  3. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-Fitted Grid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

    1995-01-01

    To be truly compatible with structured grids, an AMR algorithm should employ a block structure for the refined grids to allow flow solvers to take advantage of the strengths of unstructured grid systems, such as efficient solution algorithms for implicit discretizations and multigrid schemes. One such algorithm, the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella, has been applied to and adapted for use with body-fitted structured grid systems. Results are presented for a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil (AGARD-03 test case) and a reflection of a shock over a double wedge.

  4. Adaptive mesh refinement in curvilinear body-fitted grid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

    1995-10-01

    To be truly compatible with structured grids, an AMR algorithm should employ a block structure for the refined grids to allow flow solvers to take advantage of the strengths of unstructured grid systems, such as efficient solution algorithms for implicit discretizations and multigrid schemes. One such algorithm, the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella, has been applied to and adapted for use with body-fitted structured grid systems. Results are presented for a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil (AGARD-03 test case) and a reflection of a shock over a double wedge.

  5. High throughput optoelectronic smart pixel systems using diffractive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Hao

    1999-12-01

    Recent developments in digital video, multimedia technology and data networks have greatly increased the demand for high bandwidth communication channels and high throughput data processing. Electronics is particularly suited for switching, amplification and logic functions, while optics is more suitable for interconnections and communications with lower energy and crosstalk. In this research, we present the design, testing, integration and demonstration of several optoelectronic smart pixel devices and system architectures. These systems integrate electronic switching/processing capability with parallel optical interconnections to provide high throughput network communication and pipeline data processing. The Smart Pixel Array Cellular Logic processor (SPARCL) is designed in 0.8 m m CMOS and hybrid integrated with Multiple-Quantum-Well (MQW) devices for pipeline image processing. The Smart Pixel Network Interface (SAPIENT) is designed in 0.6 m m GaAs and monolithically integrated with LEDs to implement a highly parallel optical interconnection network. The Translucent Smart Pixel Array (TRANSPAR) design is implemented in two different versions. The first version, TRANSPAR-MQW, is designed in 0.5 m m CMOS and flip-chip integrated with MQW devices to provide 2-D pipeline processing and translucent networking using the Carrier- Sense-MultipleAccess/Collision-Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol. The other version, TRANSPAR-VM, is designed in 1.2 m m CMOS and discretely integrated with VCSEL-MSM (Vertical-Cavity-Surface- Emitting-Laser and Metal-Semiconductor-Metal detectors) chips and driver/receiver chips on a printed circuit board. The TRANSPAR-VM provides an option of using the token ring network protocol in addition to the embedded functions of TRANSPAR-MQW. These optoelectronic smart pixel systems also require micro-optics devices to provide high resolution, high quality optical interconnections and external source arrays. In this research, we describe an innovative

  6. Solar energy grid integration systems : final report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team.

    SciTech Connect

    Ropp, Michael; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Schaffer, Alan; Katz, Stanley; Perkinson, Jim; Bower, Ward Isaac; Prestero, Mark; Casey, Leo; Moaveni, Houtan; Click, David; Davis, Kristopher; Reedy, Robert; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the program have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding utility-scale penetration and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories have successfully collaborated to complete the work under the third and final stage of the SEGIS initiative. The SEGIS program was a three-year, three-stage project that include conceptual design and market analysis in Stage 1, prototype development and testing in Stage 2, and moving toward commercialization in Stage 3. Under this program, the FSEC SEGIS team developed a comprehensive vision that has guided technology development that sets one methodology for merging photovoltaic (PV) and smart-grid technologies. The FSEC team's objective in the SEGIS project is to remove barriers to large-scale general integration of PV and to enhance the value proposition of photovoltaic energy by enabling PV to act as much as possible as if it were at the very least equivalent to a conventional utility power plant. It was immediately apparent that the advanced power electronics of these advanced inverters will go far beyond conventional power plants, making high penetrations of PV not just acceptable, but desirable. This report summarizes a three-year effort to develop, validate and commercialize Grid-Smart Inverters for wider photovoltaic utilization, particularly in the utility sector.

  7. Smart Vest: wearable multi-parameter remote physiological monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Pandian, P S; Mohanavelu, K; Safeer, K P; Kotresh, T M; Shakunthala, D T; Gopal, Parvati; Padaki, V C

    2008-05-01

    The wearable physiological monitoring system is a washable shirt, which uses an array of sensors connected to a central processing unit with firmware for continuously monitoring physiological signals. The data collected can be correlated to produce an overall picture of the wearer's health. In this paper, we discuss the wearable physiological monitoring system called 'Smart Vest'. The Smart Vest consists of a comfortable to wear vest with sensors integrated for monitoring physiological parameters, wearable data acquisition and processing hardware and remote monitoring station. The wearable data acquisition system is designed using microcontroller and interfaced with wireless communication and global positioning system (GPS) modules. The physiological signals monitored are electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), body temperature, blood pressure, galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate. The acquired physiological signals are sampled at 250samples/s, digitized at 12-bit resolution and transmitted wireless to a remote physiological monitoring station along with the geo-location of the wearer. The paper describes a prototype Smart Vest system used for remote monitoring of physiological parameters and the clinical validation of the data are also presented.

  8. Smart Vest: wearable multi-parameter remote physiological monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Pandian, P S; Mohanavelu, K; Safeer, K P; Kotresh, T M; Shakunthala, D T; Gopal, Parvati; Padaki, V C

    2008-05-01

    The wearable physiological monitoring system is a washable shirt, which uses an array of sensors connected to a central processing unit with firmware for continuously monitoring physiological signals. The data collected can be correlated to produce an overall picture of the wearer's health. In this paper, we discuss the wearable physiological monitoring system called 'Smart Vest'. The Smart Vest consists of a comfortable to wear vest with sensors integrated for monitoring physiological parameters, wearable data acquisition and processing hardware and remote monitoring station. The wearable data acquisition system is designed using microcontroller and interfaced with wireless communication and global positioning system (GPS) modules. The physiological signals monitored are electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), body temperature, blood pressure, galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate. The acquired physiological signals are sampled at 250samples/s, digitized at 12-bit resolution and transmitted wireless to a remote physiological monitoring station along with the geo-location of the wearer. The paper describes a prototype Smart Vest system used for remote monitoring of physiological parameters and the clinical validation of the data are also presented. PMID:17869159

  9. The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carenton-Madiec, Nicolas; Denvil, Sébastien; Greenslade, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Peer-to-Peer (P2P) enterprise system is a collaboration that develops, deploys and maintains software infrastructure for the management, dissemination, and analysis of model output and observational data. ESGF's primary goal is to facilitate advancements in Earth System Science. It is an interagency and international effort led by the US Department of Energy (DOE), and co-funded by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Science Foundation (NSF), Infrastructure for the European Network of Earth System Modelling (IS-ENES) and international laboratories such as the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) german Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ), the Australian National University (ANU) National Computational Infrastructure (NCI), Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL), and the British Atmospheric Data Center (BADC). Its main mission is to support current CMIP5 activities and prepare for future assesments. The ESGF architecture is based on a system of autonomous and distributed nodes, which interoperate through common acceptance of federation protocols and trust agreements. Data is stored at multiple nodes around the world, and served through local data and metadata services. Nodes exchange information about their data holdings and services, trust each other for registering users and establishing access control decisions. The net result is that a user can use a web browser, connect to any node, and seamlessly find and access data throughout the federation. This type of collaborative working organization and distributed architecture context en-lighted the need of integration and testing processes definition to ensure the quality of software releases and interoperability. This presentation will introduce the ESGF project and demonstrate the range of tools and processes that have been set up to support release management activities.

  10. Optimization of electrostatic dual-grid beam-deflection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Lathem, W. C.; Power, J. L.; Banks, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were performed to minimize accelerator grid erosion of a 5-cm diameter Kaufman ion thruster due to direct beam impingement. Several different screen hole diameters, pillow-shape-square screen holes, and dished screen grids were tried. The optimization was accomplished by copper plating the accelerator grid before testing each grid configuration on a thruster for a 2-hour run. The thruster beam sputtered copper and molybdenum from the accelerator grid where the beam impinged. The observed erosion patterns and measured accelerator currents were used to determine how to modify the accelerator system. The lowest erosion was obtained for a 50-percent open area pillow-shape-square-aperture screen grid, dished 0.043 centimeter convex toward the accelerator grid, which was positioned with the center of the screen grid 0.084 centimeter from the accelerator grid. During this investigation the accelerator current was reduced from 120 to 55 microamperes and was also more uniformly distributed over the area of the accelerator grid.

  11. Stochastic and Statistical Analysis of Utility Revenues and Weather Data Analysis for Consumer Demand Estimation in Smart Grids

    PubMed Central

    Ali, S. M.; Mehmood, C. A; Khan, B.; Jawad, M.; Farid, U; Jadoon, J. K.; Ali, M.; Tareen, N. K.; Usman, S.; Majid, M.; Anwar, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    In smart grid paradigm, the consumer demands are random and time-dependent, owning towards stochastic probabilities. The stochastically varying consumer demands have put the policy makers and supplying agencies in a demanding position for optimal generation management. The utility revenue functions are highly dependent on the consumer deterministic stochastic demand models. The sudden drifts in weather parameters effects the living standards of the consumers that in turn influence the power demands. Considering above, we analyzed stochastically and statistically the effect of random consumer demands on the fixed and variable revenues of the electrical utilities. Our work presented the Multi-Variate Gaussian Distribution Function (MVGDF) probabilistic model of the utility revenues with time-dependent consumer random demands. Moreover, the Gaussian probabilities outcome of the utility revenues is based on the varying consumer n demands data-pattern. Furthermore, Standard Monte Carlo (SMC) simulations are performed that validated the factor of accuracy in the aforesaid probabilistic demand-revenue model. We critically analyzed the effect of weather data parameters on consumer demands using correlation and multi-linear regression schemes. The statistical analysis of consumer demands provided a relationship between dependent (demand) and independent variables (weather data) for utility load management, generation control, and network expansion. PMID:27314229

  12. Stochastic and Statistical Analysis of Utility Revenues and Weather Data Analysis for Consumer Demand Estimation in Smart Grids.

    PubMed

    Ali, S M; Mehmood, C A; Khan, B; Jawad, M; Farid, U; Jadoon, J K; Ali, M; Tareen, N K; Usman, S; Majid, M; Anwar, S M

    2016-01-01

    In smart grid paradigm, the consumer demands are random and time-dependent, owning towards stochastic probabilities. The stochastically varying consumer demands have put the policy makers and supplying agencies in a demanding position for optimal generation management. The utility revenue functions are highly dependent on the consumer deterministic stochastic demand models. The sudden drifts in weather parameters effects the living standards of the consumers that in turn influence the power demands. Considering above, we analyzed stochastically and statistically the effect of random consumer demands on the fixed and variable revenues of the electrical utilities. Our work presented the Multi-Variate Gaussian Distribution Function (MVGDF) probabilistic model of the utility revenues with time-dependent consumer random demands. Moreover, the Gaussian probabilities outcome of the utility revenues is based on the varying consumer n demands data-pattern. Furthermore, Standard Monte Carlo (SMC) simulations are performed that validated the factor of accuracy in the aforesaid probabilistic demand-revenue model. We critically analyzed the effect of weather data parameters on consumer demands using correlation and multi-linear regression schemes. The statistical analysis of consumer demands provided a relationship between dependent (demand) and independent variables (weather data) for utility load management, generation control, and network expansion.

  13. Stochastic and Statistical Analysis of Utility Revenues and Weather Data Analysis for Consumer Demand Estimation in Smart Grids.

    PubMed

    Ali, S M; Mehmood, C A; Khan, B; Jawad, M; Farid, U; Jadoon, J K; Ali, M; Tareen, N K; Usman, S; Majid, M; Anwar, S M

    2016-01-01

    In smart grid paradigm, the consumer demands are random and time-dependent, owning towards stochastic probabilities. The stochastically varying consumer demands have put the policy makers and supplying agencies in a demanding position for optimal generation management. The utility revenue functions are highly dependent on the consumer deterministic stochastic demand models. The sudden drifts in weather parameters effects the living standards of the consumers that in turn influence the power demands. Considering above, we analyzed stochastically and statistically the effect of random consumer demands on the fixed and variable revenues of the electrical utilities. Our work presented the Multi-Variate Gaussian Distribution Function (MVGDF) probabilistic model of the utility revenues with time-dependent consumer random demands. Moreover, the Gaussian probabilities outcome of the utility revenues is based on the varying consumer n demands data-pattern. Furthermore, Standard Monte Carlo (SMC) simulations are performed that validated the factor of accuracy in the aforesaid probabilistic demand-revenue model. We critically analyzed the effect of weather data parameters on consumer demands using correlation and multi-linear regression schemes. The statistical analysis of consumer demands provided a relationship between dependent (demand) and independent variables (weather data) for utility load management, generation control, and network expansion. PMID:27314229

  14. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daryoush Allaei; Asim Syed Mohammed; David Tarnowski; Angus Morison

    2005-03-01

    components include smart motor and associated electronics, resonators, and supporting structural elements. It is shown that the smart motors have an acceptable life and performance. Resonator (or motion amplifier) designs are selected based on the final system requirement and vibration characteristics. All the components for a fully functional prototype are fabricated. The development program is on schedule. The last semi-annual report described the need and the work accomplished to design a supporting structure. The modified supporting structure design improved system rigidity and integrity and helped improve overall system performance. Lab test results showed a significant improvement in reducing undesired supporting structure vibration, better system performance and ease of installation. However the system performance suffered severe losses due to installation requirement. Since then significant work was completed both in terms of analysis and experimentation to minimize system installation sensitivity and to relax plant structure foundation requirement. Lab test on the modified system are near completion and we plan to test the system in field in early next quarter. With the assistance of Albany Research center, strain measurements were successfully completed on the S3i-101 unit. This report also includes the work initiated to investigate feasibility of inserting SmartScreens{trademark} technology in the field of dry applications.

  15. Spatial service delivery system for smart licensing & enforcement management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahap, N. A.; Ismail, N. M.; Nor, N. M.; Ahmad, N.; Omar, M. F.; Termizi, A. A. A.; Zainal, D.; Noordin, N. M.; Mansor, S.

    2016-06-01

    Spatial information has introduced a new sense of urgency for a better understanding of the public needs in term of what, when and where they need services and through which devices, platform or physical locations they need them. The objective of this project is to value- add existing license management process for business premises which comes under the responsibility of Local Authority (PBT). Manipulation of geospatial and tracing technology via mobile platform allows enforcement officers to work in real-time, use a standardized system, improve service delivery, and optimize operation management. This paper will augment the scope and capabilities of proposed concept namely, Smart Licensing/Enforcement Management (SLEm). It will review the current licensing and enforcement practice of selected PBT in comparison to the enhanced method. As a result, the new enhanced system is expected to offer a total solution for licensing/enforcement management whilst increasing efficiency and transparency for smart city management and governance.

  16. Rigel: An interactive structured grid generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Hachfeld, W.D.; Khamayseh, A.K.; Hansen, G.A.

    1998-02-01

    An interactive structured grid generation application that facilitates the construction of complex, discretized, simulation models directly from the original CAD geometry specifications is presented. The application, named Rigel, reads physical model descriptions generated by modern CAD packages. Rigel includes a suite of interactive geometry editing functions to assist the user in the construction of a topologically correct geometry from the original CAD specification. Once a topologically correct geometry is created, an interactively steered grid generation capability is provided to facilitate the construction of an appropriate discretization for the simulation. Grid quality enhancement is supported with the application of user-directed elliptic smoothing, refinement, and coarsening operators. After a grid is completed, various output filters are supplied to write an input file for the target simulation code. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the mechanics of this process and to highlight some of the novel algorithms and techniques employed.

  17. SMARTe 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools - electronic (SMARTe), is an open-source, web-based, decision support system for developing and evaluating future reuse scenarios for potentially contaminated land. SMARTe contains resources and analysis tools for all asp...

  18. SMARTe 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools - electronic (SMARTe), is an open-source, web-based, decisions support system for developing and evaluating future reuse scenarios for potentially contaminated land. SMARTe contains resources and analysis tools for all a...

  19. SMARTE 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools-electronic (SMARTe), is an open-source, web-based, decision support system for developing and evaluating future reuse scenarios for potentially contaminated land. SMARTe contains guidance and analysis tools for all aspect...

  20. Occupant-responsive optimal control of smart facade systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Cheol-Soo

    Windows provide occupants with daylight, direct sunlight, visual contact with the outside and a feeling of openness. Windows enable the use of daylighting and offer occupants a outside view. Glazing may also cause a number of problems: undesired heat gain/loss in winter. An over-lit window can cause glare, which is another major complaint by occupants. Furthermore, cold or hot window surfaces induce asymmetric thermal radiation which can result in thermal discomfort. To reduce the potential problems of window systems, double skin facades and airflow window systems have been introduced in the 1970s. They typically contain interstitial louvers and ventilation openings. The current problem with double skin facades and airflow windows is that their operation requires adequate dynamic control to reach their expected performance. Many studies have recognized that only an optimal control enables these systems to truly act as active energy savers and indoor environment controllers. However, an adequate solution for this dynamic optimization problem has thus far not been developed. The primary objective of this study is to develop occupant responsive optimal control of smart facade systems. The control could be implemented as a smart controller that operates the motorized Venetian blind system and the opening ratio of ventilation openings. The objective of the control is to combine the benefits of large windows with low energy demands for heating and cooling, while keeping visual well-being and thermal comfort at an optimal level. The control uses a simulation model with an embedded optimization routine that allows occupant interaction via the Web. An occupant can access the smart controller from a standard browser and choose a pre-defined mode (energy saving mode, visual comfort mode, thermal comfort mode, default mode, nighttime mode) or set a preferred mode (user-override mode) by moving preference sliders on the screen. The most prominent feature of these systems is the

  1. Smart Antenna UKM Testbed for Digital Beamforming System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Misran, Norbahiah; Yatim, Baharudin

    2009-12-01

    A new design of smart antenna testbed developed at UKM for digital beamforming purpose is proposed. The smart antenna UKM testbed developed based on modular design employing two novel designs of L-probe fed inverted hybrid E-H (LIEH) array antenna and software reconfigurable digital beamforming system (DBS). The antenna is developed based on using the novel LIEH microstrip patch element design arranged into [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] uniform linear array antenna. An interface board is designed to interface to the ADC board with the RF front-end receiver. The modular concept of the system provides the capability to test the antenna hardware, beamforming unit, and beamforming algorithm in an independent manner, thus allowing the smart antenna system to be developed and tested in parallel, hence reduces the design time. The DBS was developed using a high-performance [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] floating-point DSP board and a 4-channel RF front-end receiver developed in-house. An interface board is designed to interface to the ADC board with the RF front-end receiver. A four-element receiving array testbed at 1.88-2.22 GHz frequency is constructed, and digital beamforming on this testbed is successfully demonstrated.

  2. Enabling active and healthy ageing decision support systems with the smart collection of TV usage patterns.

    PubMed

    Billis, Antonis S; Batziakas, Asterios; Bratsas, Charalampos; Tsatali, Marianna S; Karagianni, Maria; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    Smart monitoring of seniors behavioural patterns and more specifically activities of daily living have attracted immense research interest in recent years. Development of smart decision support systems to support the promotion of health smart homes has also emerged taking advantage of the plethora of smart, inexpensive and unobtrusive monitoring sensors, devices and software tools. To this end, a smart monitoring system has been used in order to extract meaningful information about television (TV) usage patterns and subsequently associate them with clinical findings of experts. The smart TV operating state remote monitoring system was installed in four elderly women homes and gathered data for more than 11 months. Results suggest that TV daily usage (time the TV is turned on) can predict mental health change. Conclusively, the authors suggest that collection of smart device usage patterns could strengthen the inference capabilities of existing health DSSs applied in uncontrolled settings such as real senior homes.

  3. Enabling active and healthy ageing decision support systems with the smart collection of TV usage patterns

    PubMed Central

    Billis, Antonis S.; Batziakas, Asterios; Bratsas, Charalampos; Tsatali, Marianna S.; Karagianni, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Smart monitoring of seniors behavioural patterns and more specifically activities of daily living have attracted immense research interest in recent years. Development of smart decision support systems to support the promotion of health smart homes has also emerged taking advantage of the plethora of smart, inexpensive and unobtrusive monitoring sensors, devices and software tools. To this end, a smart monitoring system has been used in order to extract meaningful information about television (TV) usage patterns and subsequently associate them with clinical findings of experts. The smart TV operating state remote monitoring system was installed in four elderly women homes and gathered data for more than 11 months. Results suggest that TV daily usage (time the TV is turned on) can predict mental health change. Conclusively, the authors suggest that collection of smart device usage patterns could strengthen the inference capabilities of existing health DSSs applied in uncontrolled settings such as real senior homes. PMID:27284457

  4. SMART: a system supporting medical activities in real-time.

    PubMed

    Pisanelli, D M; Consorti, F; Merialdo, P

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the system SMART whose goal is real-time assistance to physicians who execute diagnostic or therapeutic protocols in a clinical context. SMART is able to retrieve a protocol from its knowledge base and to monitor its execution step by step for a single patient. Different protocols for different patients can be followed at the same time in a health care structure. The prototype realized supports the execution of protocols for evaluating surgical risks. It has been implemented according to the specifications given by the 4th Surgical Clinic of "Policlinico Umberto I" and reflects the activities actually performed in that hospital. However, the protocol model defined is general purpose and we envisage an easy application to other contexts and therefore to the informatization of other protocols.

  5. Distributing Power Grid State Estimation on HPC Clusters A System Architecture Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; Jiang, Wei; Jin, Shuangshuang; Rice, Mark J.; Chen, Yousu

    2012-08-20

    The future power grid is expected to further expand with highly distributed energy sources and smart loads. The increased size and complexity lead to increased burden on existing computational resources in energy control centers. Thus the need to perform real-time assessment on such systems entails efficient means to distribute centralized functions such as state estimation in the power system. In this paper, we present our early prototype of a system architecture that connects distributed state estimators individually running parallel programs to solve non-linear estimation procedure. The prototype consists of a middleware and data processing toolkits that allows data exchange in the distributed state estimation. We build a test case based on the IEEE 118 bus system and partition the state estimation of the whole system model to available HPC clusters. The measurement from the testbed demonstrates the low overhead of our solution.

  6. Architecture and grid application of cluster computing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yi; Yu, Shuiqin; Mao, Youju

    2004-11-01

    Recently, people pay more attention to the grid technology. It can not only connect all kinds of resources in the network, but also put them into a super transparent computing environment for customers to realize mete-computing which can share computing resources. Traditional parallel computing system, such as SMP(Symmetrical multiprocessor) and MPP(massively parallel processor), use multi-processors to raise computing speed in a close coupling way, so the flexible and scalable performance of the system are limited, as a result of it, the system can't meet the requirement of the grid technology. In this paper, the architecture of cluster computing system applied in grid nodes is introduced. It mainly includes the following aspects. First, the network architecture of cluster computing system in grid nodes is analyzed and designed. Second, how to realize distributing computing (including coordinating computing and sharing computing) of cluster computing system in grid nodes to construct virtual node computers is discussed. Last, communication among grid nodes is analyzed. In other words, it discusses how to realize single reflection to let all the service requirements from customers be met through sending to the grid nodes.

  7. Telematics and smart cards in integrated health information system.

    PubMed

    Sicurello, F; Nicolosi, A

    1997-01-01

    Telematics and information technology are the base on which it will be possible to build an integrated health information system to support population and improve their quality of life. This system should be based on record linkage of all data based on the interactions of the patients with the health structures, such as general practitioners, specialists, health institutes and hospitals, pharmacies, etc. The record linkage can provide the connection and integration of various records, thanks to the use of telematic technology (either urban or geographical local networks, such as the Internet) and electronic data cards. Particular emphasis should be placed on the introduction of smart cards, such as portable health cards, which will contain a standardized data set and will be sufficient to access different databases found in various health services. The inter-operability of the social-health records (including multimedia types) and the smart cards (which are one of the most important prerequisites for the homogenization and wide diffusion of these cards at an European level) should be strongly taken into consideration. In this framework a project is going to be developed aiming towards the integration of various data bases distributed territorially, from the reading of the software and the updating of the smart cards to the complete management of the patients' evaluation records, to the quality of the services offered and to the health planning. The applications developed will support epidemiological investigation software and data analysis. The inter-connection of all the databases of the various structures involved will take place through a coordination center, the most important system of which we will call "record linkage" or "integrated database". Smart cards will be distributed to a sample group of possible users and the necessary smart card management tools will be installed in all the structures involved. All the final users (the patients) in the whole

  8. How to engage end-users in smart energy behaviour?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkering, Pieter; Laes, Erik; Kessels, Kris; Uyterlinde, Matthijs; Straver, Koen

    2014-12-01

    End users will play a crucial role in up-coming smart grids that aim to link end-users and energy providers in a better balanced and more efficient electricity system. Within this context, this paper aims to deliver a coherent view on current good practice in end-user engagement in smart grid projects. It draws from a recent review of theoretical insights from sustainable consumption behaviour, social marketing and innovation systems and empirical insights from recent smart grid projects to create an inventory of common motivators, enablers and barriers of behavioural change, and the end-user engagement principles that can be derived from that. We conclude with identifying current research challenges as input for a research agenda on end-user engagement in smart grids.

  9. Semantic Registration and Discovery System of Subsystems and Services within an Interoperable Coordination Platform in Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Gregorio; Martínez, José Fernán; Gómez, David; Li, Xin

    2016-06-24

    Smart subsystems like traffic, Smart Homes, the Smart Grid, outdoor lighting, etc. are built in many urban areas, each with a set of services that are offered to citizens. These subsystems are managed by self-contained embedded systems. However, coordination and cooperation between them are scarce. An integration of these systems which truly represents a "system of systems" could introduce more benefits, such as allowing the development of new applications and collective optimization. The integration should allow maximum reusability of available services provided by entities (e.g., sensors or Wireless Sensor Networks). Thus, it is of major importance to facilitate the discovery and registration of available services and subsystems in an integrated way. Therefore, an ontology-based and automatic system for subsystem and service registration and discovery is presented. Using this proposed system, heterogeneous subsystems and services could be registered and discovered in a dynamic manner with additional semantic annotations. In this way, users are able to build customized applications across different subsystems by using available services. The proposed system has been fully implemented and a case study is presented to show the usefulness of the proposed method.

  10. Semantic Registration and Discovery System of Subsystems and Services within an Interoperable Coordination Platform in Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Gregorio; Martínez, José Fernán; Gómez, David; Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Smart subsystems like traffic, Smart Homes, the Smart Grid, outdoor lighting, etc. are built in many urban areas, each with a set of services that are offered to citizens. These subsystems are managed by self-contained embedded systems. However, coordination and cooperation between them are scarce. An integration of these systems which truly represents a "system of systems" could introduce more benefits, such as allowing the development of new applications and collective optimization. The integration should allow maximum reusability of available services provided by entities (e.g., sensors or Wireless Sensor Networks). Thus, it is of major importance to facilitate the discovery and registration of available services and subsystems in an integrated way. Therefore, an ontology-based and automatic system for subsystem and service registration and discovery is presented. Using this proposed system, heterogeneous subsystems and services could be registered and discovered in a dynamic manner with additional semantic annotations. In this way, users are able to build customized applications across different subsystems by using available services. The proposed system has been fully implemented and a case study is presented to show the usefulness of the proposed method. PMID:27347965

  11. Design of Grid Portal System Based on RIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Caifeng; Luo, Jianguo; Qiu, Zhixin

    Grid portal is an important branch of grid research. In order to solve the weak expressive force, the poor interaction, the low operating efficiency and other insufficiencies of the first and second generation of grid portal system, RIA technology was introduced to it. A new portal architecture was designed based on RIA and Web service. The concrete realizing scheme of portal system was presented by using Adobe Flex/Flash technology, which formed a new design pattern. In system architecture, the design pattern has B/S and C/S superiorities, balances server and its client side, optimizes the system performance, realizes platform irrelevance. In system function, the design pattern realizes grid service call, provides client interface with rich user experience, integrates local resources by using FABridge, LCDS, Flash player and some other components.

  12. Adaptive control design for hysteretic smart systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahan, Jerry A.; Smith, Ralph C.

    2011-04-01

    Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic actuators are being considered for a range of industrial, aerospace, aeronautic and biomedical applications due to their unique transduction capabilities. However, they also exhibit hysteretic and nonlinear behavior that must be accommodated in models and control designs. If uncompensated, these effects can yield reduced system performance and, in the worst case, can produce unpredictable behavior of the control system. In this paper, we address the development of adaptive control designs for hysteretic systems. We review an MRAC-like adaptive control algorithm used to track a reference trajectory while computing online estimates for certain model parameters. This method is incorporated in a composite control algorithm to improve the tracking capabilities of the system. Issues arising in the implementation of these algorithms are addressed, and a numerical example is presented, comparing the results of each method.

  13. Higher Education Facilities: The SmartGrid Earns a Doctorate in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tysseling, John C.; Zibelman, Audrey; Freifeld, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Most higher education facilities have already accomplished some measure of a "microgrid" investment with building control systems (BCS), energy management systems (EMS), and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) installations. Available energy production facilities may include boilers, chillers, cogeneration, thermal storage, electrical…

  14. Two examples of intelligent systems based on smart materials

    SciTech Connect

    Unsworth, J.

    1994-12-31

    Two intelligent systems are described which are based on smart materials. The operation of the systems also rely on conventional well known technologies such as electronics, signal conditioning, signal processing, microprocessors and engineering design. However without the smart materials the development and integration into the intelligent systems would not have been possible. System 1 is a partial discharge monitor for on-line continuous checking of the condition of electrical power transformers. The ultrasonic and radio frequency detectors in this system rely on special piezoelectric composite integrated with a compact annular metal ring. Partial discharges set up ultrasonic and radio frequency signals which are received by the integrated detectors. The signals are amplified, conditioned, signal processed, the time interval between the two signals measured and the level of partial discharge activity averaged and assessed for numerous pairs and alarms triggered on remote control panels if the level is dangerous. The system has the capability of initiating automatic shutdown of the transformer once it is linked into the control computers of the electrical power authority. System 2 is called a Security Cradle and is an intelligent 3D shield designed to use the properties of electro active polymers to prevent hardware hackers from stealing valuable of sensitive information from memory devices (e.g., EPROMS) housed in computer or microprocessor installations.

  15. Study of a close-grid geodynamic measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Clogeos (Close-Grid Geodynamic Measurement System) concept, a complete range or range-rate measurement terminal installed in a satellite in a near-polar orbit with a network of relatively simple transponders or retro-reflectors on the ground at intervals of 0.1 to 10 km was reviewed. The distortion of the grid was measured in three dimensions to accuracies of + or - 1 cm with important applications to geodynamics, glaciology, and geodesy. User requirements are considered, and a typical grid, designed for earthquake prediction, was laid out along the San Andreas, Hayward, and Calaceras faults in southern California. The sensitivity of both range and range-rate measurements to small grid motions was determined by a simplified model. Variables in the model are satellite altitude and elevation angle plus grid displacements in latitude, and height.

  16. Semantic Registration and Discovery System of Subsystems and Services within an Interoperable Coordination Platform in Smart Cities

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Gregorio; Martínez, José Fernán; Gómez, David; Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Smart subsystems like traffic, Smart Homes, the Smart Grid, outdoor lighting, etc. are built in many urban areas, each with a set of services that are offered to citizens. These subsystems are managed by self-contained embedded systems. However, coordination and cooperation between them are scarce. An integration of these systems which truly represents a “system of systems” could introduce more benefits, such as allowing the development of new applications and collective optimization. The integration should allow maximum reusability of available services provided by entities (e.g., sensors or Wireless Sensor Networks). Thus, it is of major importance to facilitate the discovery and registration of available services and subsystems in an integrated way. Therefore, an ontology-based and automatic system for subsystem and service registration and discovery is presented. Using this proposed system, heterogeneous subsystems and services could be registered and discovered in a dynamic manner with additional semantic annotations. In this way, users are able to build customized applications across different subsystems by using available services. The proposed system has been fully implemented and a case study is presented to show the usefulness of the proposed method. PMID:27347965

  17. Models for the modern power grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardelli, Pedro H. J.; Rubido, Nicolas; Wang, Chengwei; Baptista, Murilo S.; Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos; Cardieri, Paulo; Latva-aho, Matti

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews different kinds of models for the electric power grid that can be used to understand the modern power system, the smart grid. From the physical network to abstract energy markets, we identify in the literature different aspects that co-determine the spatio-temporal multilayer dynamics of power system. We start our review by showing how the generation, transmission and distribution characteristics of the traditional power grids are already subject to complex behaviour appearing as a result of the the interplay between dynamics of the nodes and topology, namely synchronisation and cascade effects. When dealing with smart grids, the system complexity increases even more: on top of the physical network of power lines and controllable sources of electricity, the modernisation brings information networks, renewable intermittent generation, market liberalisation, prosumers, among other aspects. In this case, we forecast a dynamical co-evolution of the smart grid and other kind of networked systems that cannot be understood isolated. This review compiles recent results that model electric power grids as complex systems, going beyond pure technological aspects. From this perspective, we then indicate possible ways to incorporate the diverse co-evolving systems into the smart grid model using, for example, network theory and multi-agent simulation.

  18. Valve Health Monitoring System Utilizing Smart Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Scott L.; Drouant, George J.

    2006-01-01

    The valve monitoring system is a stand alone unit with network capabilities for integration into a higher level health management system. The system is designed for aiding in failure predictions of high-geared ball valves and linearly actuated valves. It performs data tracking and archiving for identifying degraded performance. The data collection types are cryogenic cycles, total cycles, inlet temperature, body temperature torsional strain, linear bonnet strain, preload position, total travel and total directional changes. Events are recorded and time stamped in accordance with the IRIG B True Time. The monitoring system is designed for use in a Class 1 Division II explosive environment. The basic configuration consists of several instrumentation sensor units and a base station. The sensor units are self contained microprocessor controlled and remotely mountable in three by three by two inches. Each unit is potted in a fire retardant substance without any cavities and limited to low operating power for maintaining safe operation in a hydrogen environment. The units are temperature monitored to safeguard against operation outside temperature limitations. Each contains 902-928 MHz band digital transmitters which meet Federal Communication Commission's requirements and are limited to a 35 foot transmission radius for preserving data security. The base-station controller correlates data from the sensor units and generates data event logs on a compact flash memory module for database uploading. The entries are also broadcast over an Ethernet network. Nitrogen purged National Electrical Manufactures Association (NEMA) Class 4 enclosures are used to house the base-station

  19. Smart data acquisition system for utilities metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ileana, I.; Risteiu, M.; Tulbure, A.; Rusu, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper approaches the task of automatically reading and recognition of registered data on the utility meters of the users and is a part of a more complex project of our team concerning the remote data acquisition from industrial processes. A huge amount of utility meters in our country is of mechanical type without remote acquiring facilities and as an intermediate solution we propose an intelligent optical acquisition system which will store the read values in desktop and mobile devices. The main requirements of such a system are: portability, data reading accuracy, fast processing and energy independence. The paper analyses several solutions (including Artificial Neural Networks approach) tested by our team and present the experimental results and our conclusions.

  20. Valve health monitoring system utilizing smart instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Scott L.; Drouant, George J.

    2006-05-01

    The valve monitoring system is a stand alone unit with network capabilities for integration into a higher level health management system. The system is designed for aiding in failure predictions of high-geared ball valves and linearly actuated valves. It performs data tracking and archiving for identifying degraded performance. The data collection types are: cryogenic cycles, total cycles, inlet temperature, outlet temperature, body temperature, torsional strain, linear bonnet strain, preload position, total travel, and total directional changes. Events are recorded and time stamped in accordance with the IRIG B True Time. The monitoring system is designed for use in a Class 1 Division II explosive environment. The basic configuration consists of several instrumentation sensor units and a base station. The sensor units are self contained microprocessor controlled and remotely mountable in three by three by two inches. Each unit is potted in a fire retardant substance without any cavities and limited to low operating power for maintaining safe operation in a hydrogen environment. The units are temperature monitored to safeguard against operation outside temperature limitations. Each contains 902-928 MHz band digital transmitters which meet Federal Communication Commissions requirements and are limited to a 35 foot transmission radius for preserving data security. The base-station controller correlates related data from the sensor units and generates data event logs on a compact flash memory module for database uploading. The entries are also broadcast over an Ethernet network. Nitrogen purged National Electrical Manufactures Association (NEMA) Class 4 Enclosures are used to house the base-station.

  1. Research on Novel Algorithms for Smart Grid Reliability Assessment and Economic Dispatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wenjin

    In this dissertation, several studies of electric power system reliability and economy assessment methods are presented. To be more precise, several algorithms in evaluating power system reliability and economy are studied. Furthermore, two novel algorithms are applied to this field and their simulation results are compared with conventional results. As the electrical power system develops towards extra high voltage, remote distance, large capacity and regional networking, the application of a number of new technique equipments and the electric market system have be gradually established, and the results caused by power cut has become more and more serious. The electrical power system needs the highest possible reliability due to its complication and security. In this dissertation the Boolean logic Driven Markov Process (BDMP) method is studied and applied to evaluate power system reliability. This approach has several benefits. It allows complex dynamic models to be defined, while maintaining its easy readability as conventional methods. This method has been applied to evaluate IEEE reliability test system. The simulation results obtained are close to IEEE experimental data which means that it could be used for future study of the system reliability. Besides reliability, modern power system is expected to be more economic. This dissertation presents a novel evolutionary algorithm named as quantum evolutionary membrane algorithm (QEPS), which combines the concept and theory of quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm and membrane computation, to solve the economic dispatch problem in renewable power system with on land and offshore wind farms. The case derived from real data is used for simulation tests. Another conventional evolutionary algorithm is also used to solve the same problem for comparison. The experimental results show that the proposed method is quick and accurate to obtain the optimal solution which is the minimum cost for electricity supplied by wind

  2. A smart control system for electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Arikara, M.P.; Dickinson, B.E.; Branum, B.

    1993-12-31

    A smart control system for electric vehicle (EV) batteries was designed and its performance was evaluated. The hardware for the system was based on the Motorola MC68HC11ENB micro controller. A zinc bromide (Zn/Br{sub 2}) battery was chosen since it is a good candidate as an EV battery and has a large number of user variable parameters that affect its performance. The flexibility of the system arises from the fact that the system can be programmed to do a wide variety of jobs. The use of real time interrupts and other features makes the system safe for use along with the battery systems. Test data indicates that real time control of the different parameters can increase the performance of the battery by 15%. In addition to optimizing the performance of the battery the control system incorporates essential safety features.

  3. Designing of smart home automation system based on Raspberry Pi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Wattanawisuth, Nattapol; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn

    2016-03-01

    Locally networked or remotely controlled home automation system becomes a popular paradigm because of the numerous advantages and is suitable for academic research. This paper proposes a method for an implementation of Raspberry Pi based home automation system presented with an android phone access interface. The power consumption profile across the connected load is measured accurately through programming. Users can access the graph of total power consumption with respect to time worldwide using their Dropbox account. An android application has been developed to channelize the monitoring and controlling operation of home appliances remotely. This application facilitates controlling of operating pins of Raspberry Pi by pressing the corresponding key for turning "on" and "off" of any desired appliance. Systems can range from the simple room lighting control to smart microcontroller based hybrid systems incorporating several other additional features. Smart home automation systems are being adopted to achieve flexibility, scalability, security in the sense of data protection through the cloud-based data storage protocol, reliability, energy efficiency, etc.

  4. Design and implementation of a smart card based healthcare information system.

    PubMed

    Kardas, Geylani; Tunali, E Turhan

    2006-01-01

    Smart cards are used in information technologies as portable integrated devices with data storage and data processing capabilities. As in other fields, smart card use in health systems became popular due to their increased capacity and performance. Their efficient use with easy and fast data access facilities leads to implementation particularly widespread in security systems. In this paper, a smart card based healthcare information system is developed. The system uses smart card for personal identification and transfer of health data and provides data communication via a distributed protocol which is particularly developed for this study. Two smart card software modules are implemented that run on patient and healthcare professional smart cards, respectively. In addition to personal information, general health information about the patient is also loaded to patient smart card. Health care providers use their own smart cards to be authenticated on the system and to access data on patient cards. Encryption keys and digital signature keys stored on smart cards of the system are used for secure and authenticated data communication between clients and database servers over distributed object protocol. System is developed on Java platform by using object oriented architecture and design patterns.

  5. From alarm systems to smart houses.

    PubMed

    Vlaskamp, F J

    1992-01-01

    The percentage of senior citizens in the Netherlands will rise in coming years. The expected percentage for the year 2010 of persons over age 65 in the total population is 15%. More persons over age 65 than ever before will continue to live in their own environment. Emergency response systems (ERS) can support independent living. The most common type of organization distributing ERS is a small, partly subsidized local alarm organization run by a social welfare office for the elderly. Government subsidy has been reduced in recent years which has motivated small organizations to join together into larger regional organizations in order to get a more solid financial base. On the other hand new semi-commercial and commercial organizations have come into being. These developments are part of the growing importance of home care, leading to more medical applications of ERS. User satisfaction with ERS is high. Portable triggers can enhance the effectiveness of the system. However, many users do not wear the portable trigger when feeling well. Future technical developments will result in multifunctionality of ERS-devices. In the long term the hardware of today will be integrated in a multimedia home terminal replacing the telephone. The portable trigger will remain the only specific hardware at home for ERS.

  6. Autonomous Dispersed Control System for Independent Micro Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Kensuke; Matsumura, Shigenori; Iwabu, Koichi; Fujimura, Naoto; Iima, Takahito

    In this paper, we show an autonomous dispersed control system for independent micro grid of which performance has been substantiated in China by Shikoku Electric Power Co. and its subsidiary companies under the trust of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization). For the control of grid interconnected generators, the exclusive information line is very important to save fuel cost and maintain high frequency quality on electric power supply, but it is relatively expensive in such small micro grid. We contrived an autonomous dispersed control system without any exclusive information line for dispatching control and adjusting supply control. We have confirmed through the substantiation project in China that this autonomous dispersed control system for independent micro grid has a well satisfactory characteristic from the view point of less fuel consumption and high electric quality.

  7. Smart structures and intelligent systems: Volume 1917, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hagood, N.W.; Knowles, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    Smart structures technology incorporates elements of structural actuation and/or sensing with processing into a multifunctional system capable of monitoring and potentially providing controlled response to its environment. This technology offers unique solutions to problems in diverse areas ranging from structural vibration suppression and aeroservoelasticity, to structural acoustics and adaptive optics. The technology of smart structures has emerged in recent years as a unified discipline synthesized from a multidisciplinary blend of diverse technologies in the area of transducer materials, control theory, experimental mechanics, and optics, to name a few. The defining capability of the technology is the ability of the structure or system to respond to stimuli, either derived externally from environmental effects of internally through application of control processes. This conference was intended as a forum and a catalyst for the multidisciplinary work needed to realize and develop this capability. The Smart Structures and Intelligent Systems conference was divided into 16 sessions. The sessions can be loosely grouped into component technology development and adaptive structures applications. The component technology sessions encompassed the mechanics of actuation and sensing using active materials such as piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, and shape memory alloys; adaptive structures modeling and identification; and mechanics of active laminates. The applications sessions encompassed control of flexible structures, adaptive lifting surface and rotorcraft applications, space applications and experiments, active acoustic applications, and structural health monitoring and damage detection. The conference is divided into 2 parts. Part 1 covers the first 9 sessions. Part 2 covers the last 8 sessions. Separate abstracts were prepared for 53 papers in Part 1.

  8. Smart Optical Material Characterization System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed is a system and method for characterizing optical materials, using steps and equipment for generating a coherent laser light, filtering the light to remove high order spatial components, collecting the filtered light and forming a parallel light beam, splitting the parallel beam into a first direction and a second direction wherein the parallel beam travelling in the second direction travels toward the material sample so that the parallel beam passes through the sample, applying various physical quantities to the sample, reflecting the beam travelling in the first direction to produce a first reflected beam, reflecting the beam that passes through the sample to produce a second reflected beam that travels back through the sample, combining the second reflected beam after it travels back though the sample with the first reflected beam, sensing the light beam produced by combining the first and second reflected beams, and processing the sensed beam to determine sample characteristics and properties.

  9. Smart and precise alignment of optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langehanenberg, Patrik; Heinisch, Josef; Stickler, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    For the assembly of any kind of optical systems the precise centration of every single element is of particular importance. Classically the precise alignment of optical components is based on the precise centering of all components to an external axis (usually a high-precision rotary spindle axis). Main drawback of this timeconsuming process is that it is significantly sensitive to misalignments of the reference (e.g. the housing) axis. In order to facilitate process in this contribution we present a novel alignment strategy for the TRIOPTICS OptiCentric® instrument family that directly aligns two elements with respect to each other by measuring the first element's axis and using this axis as alignment reference without the detour of considering an external reference. According to the optical design any axis in the system can be chosen as target axis. In case of the alignment to a barrel this axis is measured by using a distance sensor (e.g., the classically used dial indicator). Instead of fine alignment the obtained data is used for the calculation of its orientation within the setup. Alternatively, the axis of an optical element (single lens or group of lenses) whose orientation is measured with the standard OptiCentric MultiLens concept can be used as a reference. In the instrument's software the decentering of the adjusting element to the calculated axis is displayed in realtime and indicated by a target mark that can be used for the manual alignment. In addition, the obtained information can also be applied for active and fully automated alignment of lens assemblies with the help of motorized actuators.

  10. Earth System Grid and EGI interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raciazek, J.; Petitdidier, M.; Gemuend, A.; Schwichtenberg, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Earth Science data centers have developed a data grid called Earth Science Grid Federation (ESGF) to give the scientific community world wide access to CMIP5 (Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5) climate data. The CMIP5 data will permit to evaluate the impact of climate change in various environmental and societal areas, such as regional climate, extreme events, agriculture, insurance… The ESGF grid provides services like searching, browsing and downloading of datasets. At the security level, ESGF data access is protected by an authentication mechanism. An ESGF trusted X509 Short-Lived EEC certificate with the correct roles/attributes is required to get access to the data in a non-interactive way (e.g. from a worker node). To access ESGF from EGI (i.e. by earth science applications running on EGI infrastructure), the security incompatibility between the two grids is the challenge: the EGI proxy certificate is not ESGF trusted nor it contains the correct roles/attributes. To solve this problem, we decided to use a Credential Translation Service (CTS) to translate the EGI X509 proxy certificate into the ESGF Short-Lived EEC certificate (the CTS will issue ESGF certificates based on EGI certificate authentication). From the end user perspective, the main steps to use the CTS are: the user binds his two identities (EGI and ESGF) together in the CTS using the CTS web interface (this steps has to be done only once) and then request an ESGF Short-Lived EEC certificate every time is needed, using a command-line tools. The implementation of the CTS is on-going. It is based on the open source MyProxy software stack, which is used in many grid infrastructures. On the client side, the "myproxy-logon" command-line tools is used to request the certificate translation. A new option has been added to "myproxy-logon" to select the original certificate (in our case, the EGI one). On the server side, MyProxy server operates in Certificate Authority mode, with a new module

  11. Application of Smart Infrastructure Systems approach to precision medicine

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraju, Diddahally R.; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    2015-01-01

    All biological variation is hierarchically organized dynamic network system of genomic components, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, individuals, families, populations and metapopulations. Individuals are axial in this hierarchy, as they represent antecedent, attendant and anticipated aspects of health, disease, evolution and medical care. Humans show individual specific genetic and clinical features such as complexity, cooperation, resilience, robustness, vulnerability, self-organization, latent and emergent behavior during their development, growth and senescence. Accurate collection, measurement, organization and analyses of individual specific data, embedded at all stratified levels of biological, demographic and cultural diversity – the big data – is necessary to make informed decisions on health, disease and longevity; which is a central theme of precision medicine initiative (PMI). This initiative also calls for the development of novel analytical approaches to handle complex multidimensional data. Here we suggest the application of Smart Infrastructure Systems (SIS) approach to accomplish some of the goals set forth by the PMI on the premise that biological systems and the SIS share many common features. The latter has been successfully employed in managing complex networks of non-linear adaptive controls, commonly encountered in smart engineering systems. We highlight their concordance and discuss the utility of the SIS approach in precision medicine programs. PMID:27054084

  12. Smart measurement system for an environmental radiation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wanno; Kim, Hee-Reyoung; Chung, Kun-Ho; Kim, Eun-Han; Cho, Young Hyun; Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2007-08-01

    A smart measurement system for an on-line gamma monitoring has been developed to overcome the problems of a conventional system which cannot automatically restore the previous-lost data of several posts by a radio telemetry. It is similar to the conventional system except for a new electronic circuit board and an integrated operation program. The new electronic circuit board is able to store the radiation data with a time tag of 6 or more months if the recording interval time is 10 s. The operation program automatically sends the time correction command to the six monitoring posts for a daily synchronization between the monitoring posts and the central control computer as a Korean mean time. The previous-lost radiation data for 6 or more months could be restored by using two components with the functions of a time tag and a daily synchronization without any additional equipment. It was tested for more than 1 year, from which the test results, the data collection rate was dramatically improved without any tedious manual work, which was almost about 100% for 1 year. The smart measurement system has been applied for an effective gamma monitoring around the nuclear facilities at KAERI since it was developed and tested in 2003.

  13. Smart Aeronautical Chart Management System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakdil, M. E.; Celik, R. N.; Kaya, Ö.; Konak, Y. C.; Guney, C.

    2015-10-01

    Civil aviation is developing rapidly, and the number of domestic and international operations is increasing exponentially every year than the previous one. Airline companies with increased air traffic and the number of passengers increase the demand of new aircrafts. An aircraft needs not only fuel but also pilot and aeronautical information (charts, digital navigation information, flight plan, and etc.) to perform flight operation. One of the most important components in aeronautical information is the terminal chart. Authorized institution in every state is responsible to publish their terminal charts for certain periods. Although these charts are produced in accordance with ICAO's Annex 4 and Annex 15, cartographic representation and page layout differs in each state's publication. This situation makes difficult to read them by pilots. In this paper, standard instrument departure (SID) charts are analysed to produce by use of cutting-edge and competitive technologies instead of classical computer-aided drawing and vector based graphic applications that are currently used by main chart producers. The goal is to design efficient and commercial chart management system that is able to produce aeronautical charts with same cartographic representation for all states.

  14. FINAL REPORT - CENTER FOR GRID MODERNIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Markiewicz, Daniel R

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the CGM was to develop high-priority grid modernization technologies in advanced sensors, communications, controls and smart systems to enable use of real-time or near real-time information for monitoring, analyzing and managing distribution and transmission grid conditions. The key strategic approach to carry out individual CGM research and development (R&D) projects was through partnerships, primarily with the GridApp™ Consortium utility members.

  15. Solar energy grid integration systems - Energy storage (SEGIS-ES)

    SciTech Connect

    Ton, Dan; Peek, Georgianne H.; Hanley, Charles; Boyes, John

    2008-05-01

    In late 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a series of studies to address issues related to potential high penetration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation systems on our nation’s electric grid. This Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) initiative resulted in the publication of 14 reports and an Executive Summary that defined needs in areas related to utility planning tools and business models, new grid architectures and PV systems configurations, and models to assess market penetration and the effects of high-penetration PV systems. As a result of this effort, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program was initiated in early 2008. SEGIS is an industry-led effort to develop new PV inverters, controllers, and energy management systems that will greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems.

  16. MEMS- and NEMS-based smart devices and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.

    2001-11-01

    The microelectronics industry has seen explosive growth during the last thirty years. Extremely large markets for logic and memory devices have driven the development of new materials, and technologies for the fabrication of even more complex devices with features sized now don at the sub micron and nanometer level. Recent interest has arisen in employing these materials, tools and technologies for the fabrication of miniature sensors and actuators and their integration with electronic circuits to produce smart devices and systems. This effort offers the promise of: 1) increasing the performance and manufacturability of both sensors and actuators by exploiting new batch fabrication processes developed including micro stereo lithographic an micro molding techniques; 2) developing novel classes of materials and mechanical structures not possible previously, such as diamond like carbon, silicon carbide and carbon nanotubes, micro-turbines and micro-engines; 3) development of technologies for the system level and wafer level integration of micro components at the nanometer precision, such as self-assembly techniques and robotic manipulation; 4) development of control and communication systems for MEMS devices, such as optical and RF wireless, and power delivery systems, etc. A novel composite structure can be tailored by functionalizing carbon nano tubes and chemically bonding them with the polymer matrix e.g. block or graft copolymer, or even cross-linked copolymer, to impart exceptional structural, electronic and surface properties. Bio- and Mechanical-MEMS devices derived from this hybrid composite provide a new avenue for future smart systems. The integration of NEMS (NanoElectroMechanical Systems), MEMS, IDTs (Interdigital Transducers) and required microelectronics and conformal antenna in the multifunctional smart materials and composites results in a smart system suitable for sensing and control of a variety functions in automobile, aerospace, marine and civil

  17. Smart LED light source driver for machine vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2008-02-01

    The unique properties of LEDs offer significant advantages in terms of lifetime, intensity and color control, response time and efficiency, all of which are very important for illumination in machine vision applications. However, there are some drawbacks of LEDs, such as the high thermal dependency and temporal degradation of the intensity and color. Dealing with these drawbacks requires complex LED drivers, which are able to compensate for the abovementioned changes in the intensity and color, thereby maintaining higher stability over a wide range of ambient temperature throughout the lifetime of a LED light source. Moreover, state-of-the-art machine vision systems usually consist of a large number of independent LED light sources that enable real-time switching between different illumination setups at frequencies of up to 100 kHz. In this paper, we discuss the concepts of smart LED drivers with the emphasis on the flexibility and applicability. All the most important characteristics are being considered and discussed in detail: the accurate generation of high frequency waveforms, the efficiency of the current driver, thermal and temporal stabilization of the LED intensity and color, communication with a camera and personal computer or embedded system, and practicalities of implementing a large number of independent drive channels. Finally, a practical solution addressing all of the abovementioned issues is proposed with the aim of providing a flexible and highly stable smart LED light source driver for state-of-the-art machine vision systems.

  18. Reliable Detection and Smart Deletion of Malassez Counting Chamber Grid in Microscopic White Light Images for Microbiological Applications.

    PubMed

    Denimal, Emmanuel; Marin, Ambroise; Guyot, Stéphane; Journaux, Ludovic; Molin, Paul

    2015-08-01

    In biology, hemocytometers such as Malassez slides are widely used and are effective tools for counting cells manually. In a previous work, a robust algorithm was developed for grid extraction in Malassez slide images. This algorithm was evaluated on a set of 135 images and grids were accurately detected in most cases, but there remained failures for the most difficult images. In this work, we present an optimization of this algorithm that allows for 100% grid detection and a 25% improvement in grid positioning accuracy. These improvements make the algorithm fully reliable for grid detection. This optimization also allows complete erasing of the grid without altering the cells, which eases their segmentation.

  19. Domain connectivity among systems of overset grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    This progress report describes research performed to achieve algorithmic improvements in the use of overset grids for the computation of unsteady flowfields about geometrically complex and moving component configurations. A hole-map computational method is detailed that reduces computational demand and corresponding demand on human resources. Results indicate that the method is both efficient and flexible for use in complex simulation cases. Tests were performed on shuttle orbiter/external tank, wing/store, and V-22 tilt-rotor configurations. The number of simulated points and the corresponding time on a SGI 4D-210 workstation are presented.

  20. Open-phase operating modes of power flow control topologies in a Smart Grid Distribution Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashev, M. G.; Novikov, M. A.; Panfilov, D. I.; Rashitov, P. A.; Remizevich, T. V.; Fedorova, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The power flow regulating circuit node in an alternating current system is reviewed. The circuit node is accomplished based on a thyristor controlled phase angle regulator (TCPAR) with controlled thyristor switch. Research results of the individual phase control of the output voltage for the TCPAR are presented. Analytical expressions for the overvoltage factor calculation in the thyristor switch circuit for open-phase operating modes are received. Based on evaluation of overvoltage in operational and emergency modes, the implementability conditions of the individual phase control of the output voltage are determined. Under these conditions, maximal performance and complete controllability are provided.

  1. NASA Capabilities That Could Impact Terrestrial Smart Grids of the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Raymond F.

    2015-01-01

    Incremental steps to steadily build, test, refine, and qualify capabilities that lead to affordable flight elements and a deep space capability. Potential Deep Space Vehicle Power system characteristics: power 10 kilowatts average; two independent power channels with multi-level cross-strapping; solar array power 24 plus kilowatts; multi-junction arrays; lithium Ion battery storage 200 plus ampere-hours; sized for deep space or low lunar orbit operation; distribution120 volts secondary (SAE AS 5698); 2 kilowatt power transfer between vehicles.

  2. SimpleVisGrid: Grid Services for Visualization of Diverse Biomedical Knowledge and Molecular Systems Data

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Todd H.; Wang, May D.

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical data visualization is a great challenge due to the scale, complexity, and diversity of systems, system component interactions and experimental data. Standards for interoperable data are a good start to addressing these problems, but standardization of visualization technologies is an emerging topic. SimpleVisGrid builds on Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) common infrastructure for cancer research, and clearly specifies and extends three standard data formats for inputs and outputs to grid services: comma-separated values (CSV), Portable Network Graphics (PNG), and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG). Four prototype visualizations are available: 2D array data quality visualization, correlation heatmaps between high-dimensional data and associated meta-data, feature landscapes, and biochemical or semantic network graphs. The services and data model are prepared for submission for caBIG Silver-level compatibility review and for integration into automated research workflows. Making these tools available to caBIG developers and ultimately to biomedical researchers can (1) help with biomedical communication, discovery, and decision-making, (2) encourage more research on standardization of visualization formats, and (3) improve the efficiency of large data transfers across the grid. PMID:19964624

  3. Smart Sensors' Role in Integrated System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M.; Mata, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a major effort in the aerospace industry to reduce the cost per pond of payload and become competitive in the international market. Competition from Europe, Japan, and China has reduced this cost to almost a third from 1990 to 2000. This cost has leveled in recent years to an average price of around $12,000/pound of payload. One of NASA's goals is to promote the development of technologies to reduce this cost by a factor of 10 or more Exploration of space, specially manned exploration missions, involves very complex launch and flight vehicles, associated ground support systems, and extensive human support during all phases of the mission. When considering the Space Shuttle Program, we can see that vehicle and ground support systems' processing, operation, and maintenance represent a large percentage of the program cost and time. Reducing operating, processing and maintenance costs will greatly reduce the cost of Exploration programs. The Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) concept is one of the technologies that will help reduce these operating, processing and maintenance costs. ISHM is an integrated health monitoring system applicable to both flight and ground systems. It automatically and autonomously acquires information from sensors and actuators and processes that information using the ISHM-embedded knowledge. As a result, it establishes the health of the system based on the acquired information and its prior knowledge. When this concept is fully implemented, ISHM systems shall be able to perform failure prediction and remediation before actual hard failures occurs, preventing its costly consequences. Data sources, sensors, and their associated data acquisition systems, constitute the foundation of the system. A smart sensing architecture is required to support the acquisition of reliable, high quality data, required by the ISHM. A thorough definition of the smart sensor architectures, their embedded diagnostic

  4. Smart packaging systems for food applications: a review.

    PubMed

    Biji, K B; Ravishankar, C N; Mohan, C O; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2015-10-01

    Changes in consumer preference for safe food have led to innovations in packaging technologies. This article reviews about different smart packaging systems and their applications in food packaging, packaging research with latest innovations. Active and intelligent packing are such packaging technologies which offer to deliver safer and quality products. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additives into the package with the aim of maintaining or extending the product quality and shelf life. The intelligent systems are those that monitor the condition of packaged food to give information regarding the quality of the packaged food during transportation and storage. These technologies are designed to the increasing demand for safer foods with better shelf life. The market for active and intelligent packaging systems is expected to have a promising future by their integration into packaging materials or systems. PMID:26396360

  5. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Charles

    2015-05-15

    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical information

  6. Energy Harvesting from the Stray Electromagnetic Field around the Electrical Power Cable for Smart Grid Applications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    For wireless sensor node (WSN) applications, this paper presents the harvesting of energy from the stray electromagnetic field around an electrical power line. Inductive and capacitive types of electrodynamic energy harvesters are developed and reported. For the produced energy harvesters, solid core and split-core designs are adopted. The inductive energy harvester comprises a copper wound coil which is produced on a mild steel core. However, the capacitive prototypes comprise parallel, annular discs separated by Teflon spacers. Moreover, for the inductive energy harvesters' wound coil and core, the parametric analysis is also performed. A Teflon housing is incorporated to protect the energy harvester prototypes from the harsh environmental conditions. Among the inductive energy harvesters, prototype-5 has performed better than the other harvesters and produces a maximum rms voltage of 908 mV at the current level of 155 A in the power line. However, at the same current flow, the capacitive energy harvesters produce a maximum rms voltage of 180 mV. The alternating output of the prototype-5 is rectified, and a super capacitor (1 F, 5.5 V) and rechargeable battery (Nickel-Cadmium, 3.8 V) are charged with it. Moreover, with the utilization of a prototype-5, a self-powered wireless temperature sensing and monitoring system for an electrical transformer is also developed and successfully implemented. PMID:27579343

  7. Energy Harvesting from the Stray Electromagnetic Field around the Electrical Power Cable for Smart Grid Applications.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farid Ullah

    2016-01-01

    For wireless sensor node (WSN) applications, this paper presents the harvesting of energy from the stray electromagnetic field around an electrical power line. Inductive and capacitive types of electrodynamic energy harvesters are developed and reported. For the produced energy harvesters, solid core and split-core designs are adopted. The inductive energy harvester comprises a copper wound coil which is produced on a mild steel core. However, the capacitive prototypes comprise parallel, annular discs separated by Teflon spacers. Moreover, for the inductive energy harvesters' wound coil and core, the parametric analysis is also performed. A Teflon housing is incorporated to protect the energy harvester prototypes from the harsh environmental conditions. Among the inductive energy harvesters, prototype-5 has performed better than the other harvesters and produces a maximum rms voltage of 908 mV at the current level of 155 A in the power line. However, at the same current flow, the capacitive energy harvesters produce a maximum rms voltage of 180 mV. The alternating output of the prototype-5 is rectified, and a super capacitor (1 F, 5.5 V) and rechargeable battery (Nickel-Cadmium, 3.8 V) are charged with it. Moreover, with the utilization of a prototype-5, a self-powered wireless temperature sensing and monitoring system for an electrical transformer is also developed and successfully implemented. PMID:27579343

  8. Energy Harvesting from the Stray Electromagnetic Field around the Electrical Power Cable for Smart Grid Applications.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farid Ullah

    2016-01-01

    For wireless sensor node (WSN) applications, this paper presents the harvesting of energy from the stray electromagnetic field around an electrical power line. Inductive and capacitive types of electrodynamic energy harvesters are developed and reported. For the produced energy harvesters, solid core and split-core designs are adopted. The inductive energy harvester comprises a copper wound coil which is produced on a mild steel core. However, the capacitive prototypes comprise parallel, annular discs separated by Teflon spacers. Moreover, for the inductive energy harvesters' wound coil and core, the parametric analysis is also performed. A Teflon housing is incorporated to protect the energy harvester prototypes from the harsh environmental conditions. Among the inductive energy harvesters, prototype-5 has performed better than the other harvesters and produces a maximum rms voltage of 908 mV at the current level of 155 A in the power line. However, at the same current flow, the capacitive energy harvesters produce a maximum rms voltage of 180 mV. The alternating output of the prototype-5 is rectified, and a super capacitor (1 F, 5.5 V) and rechargeable battery (Nickel-Cadmium, 3.8 V) are charged with it. Moreover, with the utilization of a prototype-5, a self-powered wireless temperature sensing and monitoring system for an electrical transformer is also developed and successfully implemented.

  9. To Begin the World Anew: Smart Grids and the Need for a Comprehensive U.S. Energy Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Nikolas AF

    2011-12-01

    The United States is in the midst of a monumental transformation of its electric power grid. Advances in information and communication technologies and grid measurement and control devices have initiated the transition toward a more resilient, sustainable and efficient future power grid. Deployment of these technologies is being driven by policies encouraging the shift to a greener grid, incorporating clean and low carbon energy; as well as rising consumer demand for smarter ways to use existing resources.

  10. Next generation internet architecture and cyber-assisted energy efficiency in smart grids of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Robb Alex

    Northern Minnesota's iron mines are the starting point for the majority of the steel that gets produced in the United States. Their taconite processing plants use heat in furnaces to oxidize and indurate iron in the final stage of making a taconite pellet. Facilities can increase efficiencies when refractory service life is maintained. Efficiencies gained include: less fuel used, better quality control, better furnace control, and less mechanical component maintenance. Furnace refractory linings fail when the cracks that develop in them are uncontrolled or too large. These failures allow heat and gases retained by the lining to reach structural or mechanical components. Furnace control and efficiencies are also compromised when heat and gases are allowed to short circuit or escape the system. These failures are primarily the result of thermal of shock and expansion. It is common place to add stainless steel needle reinforcement to a monolithic refractory in an effort to counteract these effects. This study used several standard ASTM testing procedures to test 65% alumina mullite based refractory samples with 304 and 406 grade stainless steel needles. Mechanical property data gathered was used to analyze performance. The study found that adding reinforcement does not increase initial Compression and Cold Modulus of Ruptures strengths, however, after prolonged heat and thermal shock exposure, needles help maintain integrity and mechanical properties of samples. The study also found that corrosion due to oxidation was a major contributing factor to the way needles performed; and concluded that a concentration of 3% 406 "Alfa 1" stainless steel reinforcing needles added to the working lining of a taconite furnace is recommended.

  11. Grid-connected PV systems - How and where they fit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M. G.; Jones, G. J.

    The use of grid-connected photovoltaic systems requires substantial improvements in system economics. By integrating anticipated improvements in economics with consumer needs and perceptions, the various potential applications have been order-ranked. Third-party ownership of large systems appears to have the largest potential, residential has a modest potential, and the intermediate dedicated-load application potential appears to be small.

  12. A Grid storage accounting system based on DGAS and HLRmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofori, A.; Fattibene, E.; Gaido, L.; Guarise, A.; Veronesi, P.

    2012-12-01

    Accounting in a production-level Grid infrastructure is of paramount importance in order to measure the utilization of the available resources. While several CPU accounting systems are deployed within the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI), storage accounting systems, stable enough to be adopted in a production environment are not yet available. As a consequence, there is a growing interest in storage accounting and work on this is being carried out in the Open Grid Forum (OGF) where a Usage Record (UR) definition suitable for storage resources has been proposed for standardization. In this paper we present a storage accounting system which is composed of three parts: a sensor layer, a data repository with a transport layer (Distributed Grid Accounting System - DGAS) and a web portal providing graphical and tabular reports (HLRmon). The sensor layer is responsible for the creation of URs according to the schema (described in this paper) that is currently being discussed within OGF. DGAS is one of the CPU accounting systems used within EGI, in particular by the Italian Grid Infrastructure (IGI) and some other National Grid Initiatives (NGIs) and projects. DGAS architecture is evolving in order to collect Usage Records for different types of resources. This improvement allows DGAS to be used as a ‘general’ data repository and transport layer. HLRmon is the web portal acting as an interface to DGAS. It has been improved to retrieve storage accounting data from the DGAS repository and create reports in an easy way. This is very useful not only for the Grid users and administrators but also for the stakeholders.

  13. The application of autostereoscopic display in smart home system based on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Ling, Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Smart home is a system to control home devices which are more and more popular in our daily life. Mobile intelligent terminals based on smart homes have been developed, make remote controlling and monitoring possible with smartphones or tablets. On the other hand, 3D stereo display technology developed rapidly in recent years. Therefore, a iPad-based smart home system adopts autostereoscopic display as the control interface is proposed to improve the userfriendliness of using experiences. In consideration of iPad's limited hardware capabilities, we introduced a 3D image synthesizing method based on parallel processing with Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) implemented it with OpenGL ES Application Programming Interface (API) library on IOS platforms for real-time autostereoscopic displaying. Compared to the traditional smart home system, the proposed system applied autostereoscopic display into smart home system's control interface enhanced the reality, user-friendliness and visual comfort of interface.

  14. Positron Emission Tomography imaging with the SmartPET system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. J.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Grint, A. N.; Harkness, L. J.; Nolan, P. J.; Oxley, D. C.; Scraggs, D. P.; Mather, A. R.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J.

    2009-07-01

    The Small Animal Reconstruction Tomograph for Positron Emission Tomography (SmartPET) project is the development of a small animal Positron Emission Tomography (PET) demonstrator based on the use of High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors and state of the art digital electronics. The experimental results presented demonstrate the current performance of this unique system. By performing high precision measurements of one of the SmartPET HPGe detectors with a range of finely collimated gamma-ray beams the response of the detector as a function of gamma-ray interaction position has been quantified, facilitating the development of parametric Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) techniques and algorithms for the correction of imperfections in detector performance. These algorithms have then been applied to data from PET imaging measurements using two such detectors in conjunction with a specially designed rotating gantry. In this paper we show how the use of parametric PSA approaches allows over 60% of coincident events to be processed and how the nature and complexity of an event has direct implications for the quality of the resulting image.

  15. Development of smart toothbrush monitoring system for ubiquitous healthcare.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Whan; Lee, Kang-Hwi; Kim, Kyeong-Seop; Kim, Dong-Jun; Kim, Kyungho

    2006-01-01

    The design of an intelligent toothbrush, capable of monitoring brushing motion, orientation through the grip axis, during toothbrushing is described. Inappropriate tooth-brushing styles, even in adults, sometimes cause dental problems, cavities, gingivitis, etc. This smart system provides user to monitor his or her brushing pattern using accelerometer and magnetic sensors for evaluation of toothbrushing style. Directional information of toothbrush with respect to the earth's magnetic field and activity data were measured by a miniaturized low-power micro-controller, MSP430 and transmitted to personal computer by 2.4 GHz radio transmitter, nRF2401. A personal computer provides an on-line display of activity and orientation measurements during toothbrushing. The signal trace is then analyzed to extract clinically relevant information. This preliminary study showed that the proposed monitoring system was conceived to aid dental care personnel in patient education and instruction in oral hygiene regarding brushing style. PMID:17945966

  16. Smart surface-enhanced Raman scattering traceable drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Tang, Yonghong; Dai, Sheng; Kleitz, Freddy; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2016-07-01

    A novel smart nanoparticle-based system has been developed for tracking intracellular drug delivery through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This new drug delivery system (DDS) shows targeted cytotoxicity towards cancer cells via pH-cleavable covalent carboxylic hydrazone links and the SERS tracing capability based on gold@silica nanocarriers. Doxorubicin, as a model anticancer drug, was employed to compare SERS with conventional fluorescence tracing approaches. It is evident that SERS demonstrates higher sensitivity and resolution, revealing intracellular details, as the strengths of the original Raman signals can be amplified by SERS. Importantly, non-destructive SERS will provide the designed DDS with great autonomy and potential to study the dynamic procedures of non-fluorescent drug delivery into living cells. PMID:27297745

  17. E-Smart System for In-Situ Detection of Environmental Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    S. Leffler

    2000-03-01

    A team of industrial, academic, and government organizations participated in the development of the Environmental Systems Management, Analysis and Reporting Network (E-SMART). E-SMART integrates diverse monitoring and control technologies by means of a modular, ''building block'' design approach to allow for flexible system configuration. The E-SMART network treats each smart device-whether a sensor, sampler, or actuator- as a black box that obeys the standard communication protocols and electrical interfaces for the network. This approach allows multiple vendors to produce different sensors which meet the same functional specification and which can be interchanged on the network without affecting operation. The project further developed and advanced the E-SMART standardized network protocol to include new sensors, sampling systems, and graphical user interfaces. Specifically, the E-SMART team developed the following three system elements: (1) Base technology for a new class of smart , highly sensitive, chemically-specific, in-situ, multichannel microsensors utilizing integrated optical interferometry technology, (2) A set of additional E-SMART-compatible sensors adapted from commercial off-the-shelf technologies, and (3) A Data Management and Analysis System (DMAS), including network management components and the user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) for data evaluation and visualization.

  18. Smart surface-enhanced Raman scattering traceable drug delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Tang, Yonghong; Dai, Sheng; Kleitz, Freddy; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2016-06-01

    A novel smart nanoparticle-based system has been developed for tracking intracellular drug delivery through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This new drug delivery system (DDS) shows targeted cytotoxicity towards cancer cells via pH-cleavable covalent carboxylic hydrazone links and the SERS tracing capability based on gold@silica nanocarriers. Doxorubicin, as a model anticancer drug, was employed to compare SERS with conventional fluorescence tracing approaches. It is evident that SERS demonstrates higher sensitivity and resolution, revealing intracellular details, as the strengths of the original Raman signals can be amplified by SERS. Importantly, non-destructive SERS will provide the designed DDS with great autonomy and potential to study the dynamic procedures of non-fluorescent drug delivery into living cells.A novel smart nanoparticle-based system has been developed for tracking intracellular drug delivery through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This new drug delivery system (DDS) shows targeted cytotoxicity towards cancer cells via pH-cleavable covalent carboxylic hydrazone links and the SERS tracing capability based on gold@silica nanocarriers. Doxorubicin, as a model anticancer drug, was employed to compare SERS with conventional fluorescence tracing approaches. It is evident that SERS demonstrates higher sensitivity and resolution, revealing intracellular details, as the strengths of the original Raman signals can be amplified by SERS. Importantly, non-destructive SERS will provide the designed DDS with great autonomy and potential to study the dynamic procedures of non-fluorescent drug delivery into living cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03869g

  19. WWW + smart card: towards a mobile health care management system.

    PubMed

    Chan, A T

    2000-07-01

    This paper highlights the benefits of combining the World Wide Web and smart card technologies to support a highly mobile health management framework. In particular, we describe an approach using the SmartCard-Web Gateway Interface (SGI) as a common interface to communicate and access the medical records residing in a smart card. Importantly, by employing HTTP as the baseline protocol to access information on the smart card, SGI promotes the use of de facto standard web browsers as the common client user interface. The initial implementation of the framework has demonstrated the feasibility of the concept in facilitating a truly mobile access of patient's medical records based on SGI.

  20. An automatic, unstructured grid-generation system for geologically complex reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Kocberber, S.

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents an automatic, 3D, locally unstructured hybrid-grid generation system for sloping faults. This gridding system replaces a portion of an existing finite-difference grid around sloping faults with a finite-element grid made of tetrahedrons. This innovative approach retains the finite-difference character of the grid and minimizes the decrease in computational efficiency. This paper discusses the details of the gridding techniques used and provides several example grids that demonstrate that locally unstructured grids can accurately represent geologically complex reservoirs.

  1. Addressing the Challenges of Anomaly Detection for Cyber Physical Energy Grid Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A; Melin, Alexander M; Czejdo, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of cyber communications networks and physical control systems within the energy smart grid introduces a number of new risks. Unfortunately, these risks are largely unknown and poorly understood, yet include very high impact losses from attack and component failures. One important aspect of risk management is the detection of anomalies and changes. However, anomaly detection within cyber security remains a difficult, open problem, with special challenges in dealing with false alert rates and heterogeneous data. Furthermore, the integration of cyber and physical dynamics is often intractable. And, because of their broad scope, energy grid cyber-physical systems must be analyzed at multiple scales, from individual components, up to network level dynamics. We describe an improved approach to anomaly detection that combines three important aspects. First, system dynamics are modeled using a reduced order model for greater computational tractability. Second, a probabilistic and principled approach to anomaly detection is adopted that allows for regulation of false alerts and comparison of anomalies across heterogeneous data sources. Third, a hierarchy of aggregations are constructed to support interactive and automated analyses of anomalies at multiple scales.

  2. Accounting and Accountability for Distributed and Grid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thigpen, William; McGinnis, Laura F.; Hacker, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    While the advent of distributed and grid computing systems will open new opportunities for scientific exploration, the reality of such implementations could prove to be a system administrator's nightmare. A lot of effort is being spent on identifying and resolving the obvious problems of security, scheduling, authentication and authorization. Lurking in the background, though, are the largely unaddressed issues of accountability and usage accounting: (1) mapping resource usage to resource users; (2) defining usage economies or methods for resource exchange; (3) describing implementation standards that minimize and compartmentalize the tasks required for a site to participate in a grid.

  3. Distributed Flexibility Characterization and Resource Allocation Strategies for Multi-zone Commercial Buildings in the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, He; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2015-12-15

    The HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning) system of commercial buildings is a complex system with a large number of dynamically interacting components. In particular, the thermal dynamics of each zone are coupled with those of the neighboring zones. In this paper, we study a multi-agent based approach to model and control commercial building HVAC system for providing grid services. In the multi-agent system (MAS), individual zones are modeled as agents that can communicate, interact, and negotiate with one another to achieve a common objective. We first propose a distributed characterization method on the aggregated airflow (and thus fan power) flexibility that the HVAC system can provide to the ancillary service market. Then, we propose a Nash-bargaining based airflow allocation strategy to track a dispatch signal (that is within the offered flexibility limit) while respecting the preference and flexibility of individual zones. Moreover, we devise a distributed algorithm to obtain the Nash bargaining solution via dual decomposition and average consensus. Numerical simulations illustrate that the proposed distributed protocols are much more scalable than the centralized approaches especially when the system becomes larger and more complex.

  4. Reliable Detection and Smart Deletion of Malassez Counting Chamber Grid in Microscopic White Light Images for Microbiological Applications.

    PubMed

    Denimal, Emmanuel; Marin, Ambroise; Guyot, Stéphane; Journaux, Ludovic; Molin, Paul

    2015-08-01

    In biology, hemocytometers such as Malassez slides are widely used and are effective tools for counting cells manually. In a previous work, a robust algorithm was developed for grid extraction in Malassez slide images. This algorithm was evaluated on a set of 135 images and grids were accurately detected in most cases, but there remained failures for the most difficult images. In this work, we present an optimization of this algorithm that allows for 100% grid detection and a 25% improvement in grid positioning accuracy. These improvements make the algorithm fully reliable for grid detection. This optimization also allows complete erasing of the grid without altering the cells, which eases their segmentation. PMID:26072694

  5. A Simple Case Study of a Grid Performance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aydt, Ruth; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Smith, Warren; Taylor, Valerie; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents a simple case study of a Grid performance system based on the Grid Monitoring Architecture (GMA) being developed by the Grid Forum Performance Working Group. It describes how the various system components would interact for a very basic monitoring scenario, and is intended to introduce people to the terminology and concepts presented in greater detail in other Working Group documents. We believe that by focusing on the simple case first, working group members can familiarize themselves with terminology and concepts, and productively join in the ongoing discussions of the group. In addition, prototype implementations of this basic scenario can be built to explore the feasibility of the proposed architecture and to expose possible shortcomings. Once the simple case is understood and agreed upon, complexities can be added incrementally as warranted by cases not addressed in the most basic implementation described here. Following the basic performance monitoring scenario discussion, unresolved issues are introduced for future discussion.

  6. A System for Monitoring and Management of Computational Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As organizations begin to deploy large computational grids, it has become apparent that systems for observation and control of the resources, services, and applications that make up such grids are needed. Administrators must observe the operation of resources and services to ensure that they are operating correctly and they must control the resources and services to ensure that their operation meets the needs of users. Users are also interested in the operation of resources and services so that they can choose the most appropriate ones to use. In this paper we describe a prototype system to monitor and manage computational grids and describe the general software framework for control and observation in distributed environments that it is based on.

  7. Research of smart real-time robot navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Budi; Harjoko, A.; Priyambodo, T. K.; Aprilianto, H.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper described how the humanoid robot measures its distance to the orange ball on green floor. We trained the robot camera (CMUcam5) to detect and track the block color of the orange ball. The block color also used to estimate the distance of the camera toward the ball by comparing its block color size when its in the end of field of view and when its near of the camera. Then, using the pythagoras equation we calculate the distance estimation between the whole humanoid robot toward the ball. The distance will be used to estimate how many step the robot must perform to approach the ball and doing another task like kick the ball. The result shows that our method can be used as one of smart navigation system using a camera as the only one sensor to perceive the information of environtment.

  8. Smart sprayer project: sensor-based selective herbicide application system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lei F.; Steward, Brian L.; Tang, Lie

    2000-12-01

    The smart sprayer, a local-vision-sensor-based precision chemical application system, was developed and tested. The long-term objectives of this project were to develop new technologies to estimate weed density and size in real-time, to realize site-specific weed control, and to effectively reduce the amount of herbicide applied to major crop fields. This research integrated a real-time machine vision sensing system and individual nozzle controlling device with a commercial map-driven-ready herbicide sprayer to create an intelligent sensing and spraying system. The machine vision system was specially designed to work under outdoor variable lighting conditions. Multiple vision sensors were used to cover the target area. Instead of trying to identify each individual plant in the field, weed infestation conditions in each control zone (management zone) were detected. To increase the delivery accuracy, each individual spray nozzle was controlled separately. The integrated system was tested to evaluate the effectiveness and performance under varying commercial field conditions. Using the on-board differential GPS, geo-referenced chemical input maps (equivalent to weed maps) were also recorded in real-time. The maps generated with this system have been compared with other sensing and referencing systems.

  9. Spacecraft attitude control using a smart control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Brian; Wheatcraft, Louis

    1992-01-01

    Traditionally, spacecraft attitude control has been implemented using control loops written in native code for a space hardened processor. The Naval Research Lab has taken this approach during the development of the Attitude Control Electronics (ACE) package. After the system was developed and delivered, NRL decided to explore alternate technologies to accomplish this same task more efficiently. The approach taken by NRL was to implement the ACE control loops using systems technologies. The purpose of this effort was to: (1) research capabilities required of an expert system in processing a classic closed-loop control algorithm; (2) research the development environment required to design and test an embedded expert systems environment; (3) research the complexity of design and development of expert systems versus a conventional approach; and (4) test the resulting systems against the flight acceptance test software for both response and accuracy. Two expert systems were selected to implement the control loops. Criteria used for the selection of the expert systems included that they had to run in both embedded systems and ground based environments. Using two different expert systems allowed a comparison of the real-time capabilities, inferencing capabilities, and the ground-based development environment. The two expert systems chosen for the evaluation were Spacecraft Command Language (SCL), and NEXTPERT Object. SCL is a smart control system produced for the NRL by Interface and Control Systems (ICS). SCL was developed to be used for real-time command, control, and monitoring of a new generation of spacecraft. NEXPERT Object is a commercially available product developed by Neuron Data. Results of the effort were evaluated using the ACE test bed. The ACE test bed had been developed and used to test the original flight hardware and software using simulators and flight-like interfaces. The test bed was used for testing the expert systems in a 'near-flight' environment

  10. Establishment of key grid-connected performance index system for integrated PV-ES system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Yuan, X. D.; Qi, Q.; Liu, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    In order to further promote integrated optimization operation of distributed new energy/ energy storage/ active load, this paper studies the integrated photovoltaic-energy storage (PV-ES) system which is connected with the distribution network, and analyzes typical structure and configuration selection for integrated PV-ES generation system. By combining practical grid- connected characteristics requirements and technology standard specification of photovoltaic generation system, this paper takes full account of energy storage system, and then proposes several new grid-connected performance indexes such as paralleled current sharing characteristic, parallel response consistency, adjusting characteristic, virtual moment of inertia characteristic, on- grid/off-grid switch characteristic, and so on. A comprehensive and feasible grid-connected performance index system is then established to support grid-connected performance testing on integrated PV-ES system.

  11. Energy efficiency design strategies for buildings with grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yimprayoon, Chanikarn

    some states. Data from this study provides insight of impacts from applying energy efficiency design strategies in buildings with grid-connected PV systems. With the current transition from traditional electric grids to future smart grids, this information plus large database of various building conditions allow possible investigations needed by governments or utilities in large scale communities for implementing various measures and policies.

  12. OVERSMART Reporting Tool for Flow Computations Over Large Grid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David L.; Chan, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Structured grid solvers such as NASA's OVERFLOW compressible Navier-Stokes flow solver can generate large data files that contain convergence histories for flow equation residuals, turbulence model equation residuals, component forces and moments, and component relative motion dynamics variables. Most of today's large-scale problems can extend to hundreds of grids, and over 100 million grid points. However, due to the lack of efficient tools, only a small fraction of information contained in these files is analyzed. OVERSMART (OVERFLOW Solution Monitoring And Reporting Tool) provides a comprehensive report of solution convergence of flow computations over large, complex grid systems. It produces a one-page executive summary of the behavior of flow equation residuals, turbulence model equation residuals, and component forces and moments. Under the automatic option, a matrix of commonly viewed plots such as residual histograms, composite residuals, sub-iteration bar graphs, and component forces and moments is automatically generated. Specific plots required by the user can also be prescribed via a command file or a graphical user interface. Output is directed to the user s computer screen and/or to an html file for archival purposes. The current implementation has been targeted for the OVERFLOW flow solver, which is used to obtain a flow solution on structured overset grids. The OVERSMART framework allows easy extension to other flow solvers.

  13. Optimal system sizing in grid-connected photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoens, H. M.; Baert, D. H.; de Mey, G.

    A costs/benefits analysis for optimizing the combination of photovoltaic (PV) panels, batteries and an inverter for grid interconnected systems at a 500 W/day Belgian residence is presented. It is assumed that some power purchases from the grid will always be necessary, and that excess PV power can be fed into the grid. A minimal value for the cost divided by the performance is defined for economic optimization. Shortages and excesses are calculated for PV panels of 0.5-10 kWp output, with consideration given to the advantages of a battery back-up. The minimal economic value is found to increase with the magnitude of PV output, and an inverter should never be rated at more than half the array maximum output. A maximum panel size for the Belgian residence is projected to be 6 kWp.

  14. A Grid-Based Image Archival and Analysis System

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Shannon; Oster, Scott; Langella, Stephen; Kurc, Tahsin M.; Pan, Tony; Catalyurek, Umit V.; Saltz, Joel H.

    2005-01-01

    Here the authors present a Grid-aware middleware system, called GridPACS, that enables management and analysis of images in a massive scale, leveraging distributed software components coupled with interconnected computation and storage platforms. The need for this infrastructure is driven by the increasing biomedical role played by complex datasets obtained through a variety of imaging modalities. The GridPACS architecture is designed to support a wide range of biomedical applications encountered in basic and clinical research, which make use of large collections of images. Imaging data yield a wealth of metabolic and anatomic information from macroscopic (e.g., radiology) to microscopic (e.g., digitized slides) scale. Whereas this information can significantly improve understanding of disease pathophysiology as well as the noninvasive diagnosis of disease in patients, the need to process, analyze, and store large amounts of image data presents a great challenge. PMID:15684129

  15. A COMPARISON OF INTERCELL METRICS ON DISCRETE GLOBAL GRID SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A discrete global grid system (DGGS) is a spatial data model that aids in global research by serving as a framework for environmental modeling, monitoring and sampling across the earth at multiple spatial scales. Topological and geometric criteria have been proposed to evaluate a...

  16. Design of an ion thruster movable grid thrust vectoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kural, Aleksander; Leveque, Nicolas; Welch, Chris; Wolanski, Piotr

    2004-08-01

    Several reasons justify the development of an ion propulsion system thrust vectoring system. Spacecraft launched to date have used ion thrusters mounted on gimbals to control the thrust vector within a range of about ±5°. Such devices have large mass and dimensions, hence the need exists for a more compact system, preferably mounted within the thruster itself. Since the 1970s several thrust vectoring systems have been developed, with the translatable accelerator grid electrode being considered the most promising. Laboratory models of this system have already been built and successfully tested, but there is still room for improvement in their mechanical design. This work aims to investigate possibilities of refining the design of such movable grid thrust vectoring systems. Two grid suspension designs and three types of actuators were evaluated. The actuators examined were a micro electromechanical system, a NanoMuscle shape memory alloy actuator and a piezoelectric driver. Criteria used for choosing the best system included mechanical simplicity (use of the fewest mechanical parts), accuracy, power consumption and behaviour in space conditions. Designs of systems using these actuators are proposed. In addition, a mission to Mercury using the system with piezoelectric drivers has been modelled and its performance presented.

  17. A policy system for Grid Management and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagni, Federico; Santinelli, Roberto; LHCb Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    Organizations using a Grid computing model are faced with non-traditional administrative challenges: the heterogeneous nature of the underlying resources requires professionals acting as Grid Administrators. Members of a Virtual Organization (VO) can use a subset of available resources and services in the grid infrastructure and in an ideal world, the more resoures are exploited the better. In the real world, the less faulty services, the better: experienced Grid administrators apply procedures for adding and removing services, based on their status, as it is reported by an ever-growing set of monitoring tools. When a procedure is agreed and well-exercised, a formal policy could be derived. For this reason, using the DIRAC framework in the LHCb collaboration, we developed a policy system that can enforce management and operational policies, in a VO-specific fashion. A single policy makes an assessment on the status of a subject, relative to one or more monitoring information. Subjects of the policies are monitored entities of an established Grid ontology. The status of a same entity is evaluated against a number of policies, whose results are then combined by a Policy Decision Point. Such results are enforced in a Policy Enforcing Point, which provides plug-ins for actions, like raising alarms, sending notifications, automatic addition and removal of services and resources from the Grid mask. Policy results are shown in the web portal, and site-specific views are provided also. This innovative system provides advantages in terms of procedures automation, information aggregation and problem solving.

  18. Grid-connected distributed solar power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyle, R.; Chernoff, H.; Schweizer, T.

    This paper discusses some important, though often ignored, technical and economic issues of distributed solar power systems: protection of the utility system and nonsolar customers requires suitable interfaced equipment. Purchase criteria must mirror reality; most analyses use life-cycle costing with low discount rates - most buyers use short payback periods. Distributing, installing, and marketing small, distributed solar systems is more costly than most analyses estimate. Results show that certain local conditions and uncommon purchase considerations can combine to make small, distributed solar power attractive, but lower interconnect costs (per kW), lower marketing and product distribution costs, and more favorable purchase criteria make large, centralized solar energy more attractive. Specifically, the value of dispersed solar systems to investors and utilities can be higher than $2000/kw. However, typical residential owners place a value of well under $1000 on the installed system.

  19. Smart health monitoring system for a prestressed concrete bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan; Wang, Ming L.; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Han; Zhou, Lily L.

    2004-07-01

    Smart Health Monitoring System (SHMS) is a set of integrated system of hardware and software designed to automatically collect and analyze the data from a faraway bridge. The real-time data can be preprocessed in the sub-workstation on the bridge then transferred to the main server with a wired or wireless internet access. SHMS is based on the statistical analysis of the static and dynamic characteristics of structures. In order to automate the procedure of processing and analyzing all the raw data, a rule-based expert system was developed for the monitoring system with Bootstrap Method. In general, the estimation of parameters from measurement always contains systematic perturbations and random fluctuations. The systematic perturbations mainly come from periodic environmental factors, especially temperature. Random fluctuations result from irregular disturbance including instrumentation sources and numerical processing algorithms. The former can be identified and characterized. Based on the historical data, a set of correction models have been built to remove the influence from systematic perturbations. Random fluctuations are difficult to be characterized by traditional statistical methods. But with Bootstrap Method, we can minimize the random error.

  20. Preliminary study to facilitate smart structure systems in bridge girders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Thomas C.; Peterson, Danford O.; Rossi, Peter J.; Ray, Laura R.; Livingston, Richard A.

    1999-05-01

    Sensors are currently available and used to monitor structural performance and loads incurred by bridges already in service. However, there has been limited research concerning the stresses that steel bridge girders endure during transport from the manufacturer to the job site and during the installation process. This paper reports the measured stresses on steel bridge girders during transportation from Lancaster, PA to Hanover, NH and during construction of the Ledyard Bridge on the New Hampshire - Vermont border. Two different monitoring system were developed for this data acquisition in a mobile environment. The first, a fiber optic strain monitoring system, utilizing Bragg grating technology. The second utilized an electrical- resistive foil strain gage network, in conjunction with wireless telemetry equipment. Together, these two systems formed a smart structure system for monitoring bridge girders while confirming the accuracy of data gathered through redundancy. Result conclusively demonstrated for the first time, that stresses in beams during transportation are significant and approach the factor of safety margin in girder design.

  1. GRID2D/3D: A computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. Part 1: Theory and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Bailey, R. T.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient computer program, called GRID2D/3D was developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3-D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation in which the distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions. All single grid systems generated by GRID2D/3D can have grid lines that are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order. Also, grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For continuous composite grid systems, the grid lines are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order except at interfaces where different single grid systems meet. At interfaces where different single grid systems meet, the grid lines are only differentiable up to the first-order. For 2-D spatial domains, the boundary curves are described by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3-D spatial domains, the boundary surfaces are described by using either linear Coon's interpolation, bi-hyperbolic spline interpolation, or a new technique referred to as 3-D bi-directional Hermite interpolation. Since grid systems generated by algebraic methods can have grid lines that overlap one another, GRID2D/3D contains a graphics package for evaluating the grid systems generated. With the graphics package, the user can generate grid systems in an interactive manner with the grid generation part of GRID2D/3D. GRID2D/3D is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be run on any IBM PC, XT, or AT compatible computer. In order to use GRID2D/3D on workstations or mainframe computers, some minor modifications must be made in the graphics part of the program; no

  2. Smart Sensing System for the Prognostic Monitoring of Bone Health

    PubMed Central

    Afsarimanesh, Nasrin; Zia, Asif I.; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Kruger, Marlena; Yu, Pak-Lam; Kosel, Jurgen; Kovacs, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report a novel non-invasive, real-time, and label-free smart assay technique for the prognostic detection of bone loss by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The proposed system incorporated an antibody-antigen-based sensor functionalization to induce selectivity for the C-terminal telopeptide type one collagen (CTx-I) molecules—a bone loss biomarker. Streptavidin agarose was immobilized on the sensing area of a silicon substrate-based planar sensor, patterned with gold interdigital electrodes, to capture the antibody-antigen complex. Calibration experiments were conducted with various known CTx-I concentrations in a buffer solution to obtain a reference curve that was used to quantify the concentration of an analyte in the unknown serum samples. Multivariate chemometric analyses were done to determine the performance viability of the developed system. The analyses suggested that a frequency of 710 Hz is the most discriminating regarding the system sensitivity. A detection limit of 0.147 ng/mL was achieved for the proposed sensor and the corresponding reference curve was linear in the range of 0.147 ng/mL to 2.669 ng/mL. Two sheep blood samples were tested by the developed technique and the results were validated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results from the proposed technique match those from the ELISA. PMID:27347968

  3. Smart Sensing System for the Prognostic Monitoring of Bone Health.

    PubMed

    Afsarimanesh, Nasrin; Zia, Asif I; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Kruger, Marlena; Yu, Pak-Lam; Kosel, Jurgen; Kovacs, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report a novel non-invasive, real-time, and label-free smart assay technique for the prognostic detection of bone loss by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The proposed system incorporated an antibody-antigen-based sensor functionalization to induce selectivity for the C-terminal telopeptide type one collagen (CTx-I) molecules-a bone loss biomarker. Streptavidin agarose was immobilized on the sensing area of a silicon substrate-based planar sensor, patterned with gold interdigital electrodes, to capture the antibody-antigen complex. Calibration experiments were conducted with various known CTx-I concentrations in a buffer solution to obtain a reference curve that was used to quantify the concentration of an analyte in the unknown serum samples. Multivariate chemometric analyses were done to determine the performance viability of the developed system. The analyses suggested that a frequency of 710 Hz is the most discriminating regarding the system sensitivity. A detection limit of 0.147 ng/mL was achieved for the proposed sensor and the corresponding reference curve was linear in the range of 0.147 ng/mL to 2.669 ng/mL. Two sheep blood samples were tested by the developed technique and the results were validated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results from the proposed technique match those from the ELISA. PMID:27347968

  4. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-12-01

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more difficult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to fill the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more effective or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. We conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.

  5. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-10-08

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more di cult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to ll the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more e ective or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. Lastly, we conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.

  6. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-10-08

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more di cult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to ll the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more e ectivemore » or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. Lastly, we conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.« less

  7. Applications of internal translating mass technologies to smart weapons systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Jonathan

    The field of guided projectile research has continually grown over the past several decades. Guided projectiles, typically encompassing bullets, mortars, and artillery shells, incorporate some sort of guidance and control mechanism to generate trajectory alterations. This serves to increase accuracy and decrease collateral damage. Control mechanisms for smart weapons must be able to withstand extreme acceleration loads at launch while remaining simple to reduce cost and enhance reliability. Controllable internal moving masses can be incorporated into the design of smart weapons as a mechanism to directly apply control force, to actively alter static stability in flight, and to protect sensitive components within sensor packages. This dissertation examined techniques for using internal translating masses (ITM's) for smart weapon flight control. It was first shown that oscillating a mass orthogonal to the projectile axis of symmetry generates reasonable control force in statically-stable rounds. Trade studies examined the impact of mass size, mass offset from the center of gravity, and reductions in static stability on control authority. A more detailed analysis followed in which a physical internal translating mass control mechanism was designed that minimizes force and power required using a vibrating beam as the internal moving mass. Results showed that this relatively simple mechanism provides adequate control authority while requiring low on-board power. Trade studies revealed the affect of varying beam lengths, stiffness, and damping properties. Then, the topic of static margin control through mass center modification was explored. This is accomplished by translating a mass in flight along the projectile axis of symmetry. Results showed that this system allows for greater control authority and reduced throw-off error at launch. Finally, a nonlinear sliding mode controller was designed for a projectile equipped with an internal moving mass as well as for a

  8. Smart Infrared Inspection System Field Operational Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Siekmann, Adam; Capps, Gary J; Franzese, Oscar; Lascurain, Mary Beth

    2011-06-01

    The Smart InfraRed Inspection System (SIRIS) is a tool designed to assist inspectors in determining which vehicles passing through the SIRIS system are in need of further inspection by measuring the thermal data from the wheel components. As a vehicle enters the system, infrared cameras on the road measure temperatures of the brakes, tires, and wheel bearings on both wheel ends of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in motion. This thermal data is then presented to enforcement personal inside of the inspection station on a user friendly interface. Vehicles that are suspected to have a violation are automatically alerted to the enforcement staff. The main goal of the SIRIS field operational test (FOT) was to collect data to evaluate the performance of the prototype system and determine the viability of such a system being used for commercial motor vehicle enforcement. From March 2010 to September 2010, ORNL facilitated the SIRIS FOT at the Greene County Inspection Station (IS) in Greeneville, Tennessee. During the course of the FOT, 413 CMVs were given a North American Standard (NAS) Level-1 inspection. Of those 413 CMVs, 384 were subjected to a SIRIS screening. A total of 36 (9.38%) of the vehicles were flagged by SIRIS as having one or more thermal issues; with brakes issues making up 33 (91.67%) of those. Of the 36 vehicles flagged as having thermal issues, 31 (86.11%) were found to have a violation and 30 (83.33%) of those vehicles were placed out-of-service (OOS). Overall the enforcement personnel who have used SIRIS for screening purposes have had positive feedback on the potential of SIRIS. With improvements in detection algorithms and stability, the system will be beneficial to the CMV enforcement community and increase overall trooper productivity by accurately identifying a higher percentage of CMVs to be placed OOS with minimal error. No future evaluation of SIRIS has been deemed necessary and specifications for a production system will soon be drafted.

  9. Printable low-cost sensor systems for healthcare smart textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Pratyush; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Smart textiles-based wearable health monitoring systems (ST-HMS) have been presented as elegant solutions to the requirements of individuals across a wide range of ages. They can be used to monitor young or elderly recuperating /convalescent patients either in hospital or at home, or they can be used by young athletes to monitor important physiological parameters to better design their training or fitness program. Business and academic interests, all over the world, have fueled a great deal of work in the development of this technology since 1990. However, two important impediments to the development of ST-HMS are:-integration of flexible electrodes, flexible sensors, signal conditioning circuits and data logging or wireless transmission devices into a seamless garment and a means to mass manufacture the same, while keeping the costs low. Roll-to-roll printing and screen printing are two low cost methods for large scale manufacturing on flexible substrates and can be extended to textiles as well. These two methods are, currently, best suited for planar structures. The sensors, integrated with wireless telemetry, facilitate development of a ST-HMS that allows for unobtrusive health monitoring. In this paper, we present our results with planar screen printable sensors based on conductive inks which can be used to monitor EKG, abdominal respiration effort, blood pressure, pulse rate and body temperature. The sensor systems were calibrated, and tested for sensitivity, reliability and robustness to ensure reuse after washing cycles.

  10. Demonstration of the smart crane ammunition transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Killough, S.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of the Smart Crane Ammunition Transfer System (SCATS) project is to demonstrate robotic/telerobotic controls technology for a mobile articulated crane for missile/munitions handling, delivery, and reload. Missile resupply and reload have been manually intensive operations up to this time. Currently, reload missiles are delivered by truck to the site of the launcher. A crew of four to five personnel reloads the missiles from the truck to the launcher using a hydraulic-powered crane. The missiles are handled carefully for the safety of the missiles and personnel. Numerous steps are required in the reload process and the entire reload operation can take over an hour for some missile systems. Recent US Army directives require the entire operation to be accomplished in a fraction of that time. Current development of SCATS is being based primarily on reloading Patriot missiles. This paper summarizes the current status of the SCATS project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Additional information on project background and requirements has been described previously (Bradley, et al., 1995).

  11. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

    2008-07-29

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

  12. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

    2008-07-01

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

  13. Thread Group Multithreading: Accelerating the Computation of an Agent-Based Power System Modeling and Simulation Tool -- C GridLAB-D

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Shuangshuang; Chassin, David P.

    2014-01-06

    GridLAB-DTM is an open source next generation agent-based smart-grid simulator that provides unprecedented capability to model the performance of smart grid technologies. Over the past few years, GridLAB-D has been used to conduct important analyses of smart grid concepts, but it is still quite limited by its computational performance. In order to break through the performance bottleneck to meet the need for large scale power grid simulations, we develop a thread group mechanism to implement highly granular multithreaded computation in GridLAB-D. We achieve close to linear speedups on multithreading version compared against the single-thread version of the same code running on general purpose multi-core commodity for a benchmark simple house model. The performance of the multithreading code shows favorable scalability properties and resource utilization, and much shorter execution time for large-scale power grid simulations.

  14. Fuel Cost Estimation for Sumatra Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liun, Edwaren

    2010-06-01

    Sumatra has a high growth rate electricity energy demand from the first decade in this century. At the medium of this decade the growth is 11% per annum. On the other side capability of Government of Indonesia cq. PLN authority is limited, while many and most old existing power plants will be retired. The electricity demand growth of Sumatra is increasing the fuel consumption for several next decades. Based on several cases by vary growth scenarios and economic parameters, it shown that some kinds of fossil fuel keep to be required until next several decades. Although Sumatra has abundant coal resource, however, the other fuel types such as fuel oil, diesel, gas and nuclear are needed. On the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%, the Sumatra System will require 11.6 million tones of coal until 2030 producing 866 TWh with cost of US10558 million. Nuclear plants produce about 501 TWh or 32% by cost of US3.1 billion. On the High Scenario and discount rate 10%, the coal consumption becomes 486.6 million tones by fuel cost of US12.7 billion producing 1033 TWh electricity energy. Nuclear fuel cost required in this scenario is US7.06 billion. The other fuel in large amount consumed is natural gas for combined cycle plants by cost of US1.38 billion producing 11.7 TWh of electricity energy on the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%. In the High Scenario and discount rate 10% coal plants take role in power generation in Sumatra producing about 866 TWh or 54% of electricity energy. Coal consumption will be the highest on the Base Scenario with discount rate of 12% producing 756 TWh and required cost of US17.1 billion. Nuclear plants will not applicable in this scenario due to its un-competitiveness. The fuel cost will depend on nuclear power role in Sumatra system. Fuel cost will increase correspond to the increasing of coal consumption on the case where nuclear power plants not appear.

  15. Application of Metamaterials to the Optimization of Smart Antenna Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Jeffery Wayne

    Recent developments in engineered electromagnetic materials called metamaterials have opened the door to a whole new class of devices and improved performance in existing systems using electromagnetic properties that are beyond those found in nature. These materials can be designed to have spatially varying anisotropic electromagnetic properties which include positive and negative permeability and permittivity values. The objective of this research was to explore how these newly available degrees of freedom in material parameters can be exploited to improve the performance of smart antenna systems. In this dissertation, we examined adaptive null/beam forming phased array systems in the presence of metamaterial superstrates. While these systems have been studied extensively from a system engineering point-of-view, understanding the system from a material engineering prospective will help define the role that these new materials can play in these systems and how they maybe designed to enhance the overall system performance. One specific area further explored is how to steer the available performance of these systems, preferentially to regions of the scan space where interferers/jammers are most likely to occur, thus improving the system's anti-jamming or interference mitigation capabilities. New performance gains can also be suggested by including the behavior of sources and accompanying material properties in the transformations optics methodology to modify space through material design. This can be achieved using source transformations. Chapter 1 introduces the basic theory of phased array systems and radomes, background of previous work carried out, Controlled Radiation Pattern Antennas, Global Position Systems and a short overview of transformation optics and metamaterials. In Chapter 2, we present analytical, ray tracing and full-wave electromagnetic simulation models to analyze the effect of a quasi-optical element on the array performance. We use these models

  16. Smart Sensor Systems for Aerospace Applications: From Sensor Development to Application Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Dungan, L. K.; Ward, B. J.; Rowe, S.; Williams, J.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Chang, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    The application of Smart Sensor Systems for aerospace applications is a multidisciplinary process consisting of sensor element development, element integration into Smart Sensor hardware, and testing of the resulting sensor systems in application environments. This paper provides a cross-section of these activities for multiple aerospace applications illustrating the technology challenges involved. The development and application testing topics discussed are: 1) The broadening of sensitivity and operational range of silicon carbide (SiC) Schottky gas sensor elements; 2) Integration of fire detection sensor technology into a "Lick and Stick" Smart Sensor hardware platform for Crew Exploration Vehicle applications; 3) Extended testing for zirconia based oxygen sensors in the basic "Lick and Stick" platform for environmental monitoring applications. It is concluded that that both core sensor platform technology and a basic hardware platform can enhance the viability of implementing smart sensor systems in aerospace applications.

  17. A real-time smart sensor for high-resolution frequency estimation in power systems.

    PubMed

    Granados-Lieberman, David; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J; Cabal-Yepez, Eduardo; Osornio-Rios, Roque A; Franco-Gasca, Luis A

    2009-01-01

    Power quality monitoring is a theme in vogue and accurate frequency measurement of the power line is a major issue. This problem is particularly relevant for power generating systems since the generated signal must comply with restrictive standards. The novelty of this work is the development of a smart sensor for real-time high-resolution frequency measurement in accordance with international standards for power quality monitoring. The proposed smart sensor utilizes commercially available current clamp, hall-effect sensor or resistor as primary sensor. The signal processing is carried out through the chirp z-transform. Simulations and experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed smart sensor.

  18. SmartBuild-a truly plug-n-play modular microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2008-08-01

    In this Technical Note, for the first time, a truly "plug-n-play" modular microfluidic system (SmartBuild Plug-n-Play Modular Microfluidic System) is presented for designing and building integrated modular microfluidic systems for biological and chemical applications. The modular microfluidic system can be built by connecting multiple microfluidic components together to form a larger integrated system. The SmartBuild System comprises of a motherboard with interconnect channels/grooves, fitting components, microchannel inserts with different configurations and microchips/modules with different functionalities. Also, heaters, micropumps and valving systems can be designed and used in the system. Examples of an integrated mixing system and reaction systems are presented here to demonstrate the versatility of the SmartBuild System. PMID:18651081

  19. Rethinking the Future Grid: Integrated Nuclear Renewable Energy Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Boardman, R.; Ruth, M.; Zinaman, O.; Forsberg, C.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, to meet both grid demand and thermal energy needs in the industrial sector. One concept under consideration by the DOE-NE and DOE-EERE is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a 'hybrid system' that is capable of apportioning thermal and electrical energy to first meet the grid demand (with appropriate power conversion systems), then utilizing excess thermal and, in some cases, electrical energy to drive a process that results in an additional product.

  20. Controlling of grid connected photovoltaic lighting system with fuzzy logic

    SciTech Connect

    Saglam, Safak; Ekren, Nazmi; Erdal, Hasan

    2010-02-15

    In this study, DC electrical energy produced by photovoltaic panels is converted to AC electrical energy and an indoor area is illuminated using this energy. System is controlled by fuzzy logic algorithm controller designed with 16 rules. Energy is supplied from accumulator which is charged by photovoltaic panels if its energy would be sufficient otherwise it is supplied from grid. During the 1-week usage period at the semester time, 1.968 kWh energy is used from grid but designed system used 0.542 kWh energy from photovoltaic panels at the experiments. Energy saving is determined by calculations and measurements for one education year period (9 months) 70.848 kWh. (author)