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Sample records for smoking food products

  1. Chemical characterization of commercial liquid smoke products

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Naim; Oliveira, Alexandra CM; Himelbloom, Brian H; Leigh, Mary Beth; Crapo, Charles A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine important chemical characteristics of a full-strength liquid smoke, Code 10-Poly, and three refined liquid smoke products (AM-3, AM-10 and 1291) commercially available (Kerry Ingredients and Flavors, Monterey, TN). The pH of the products were significantly different (P < 0.05) and ranged from 2.3 (Code 10-Poly) to 5.7 (1291). The pH was inversely correlated with titratable acidity (R2 = 0.87), which was significantly different (P < 0.05) among products ranging from 10.3% acetic acid (Code 10-Poly) to 0.7% acetic acid (1291). Total phenol content was quantified using the Gibbs reaction; the only liquid smoke containing appreciable level of phenolic compounds was Code 10-Poly at 3.22 mg mL−1. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of liquid smoke dichloromethane extracts revealed that carbonyl-containing compounds were major constituents of all products, in which 1-hydroxy-2-butanone, 2(5H)-furanone, propanal and cyclopentenone predominated. Organic acids were detected by GC-MS in all extracts and correlated positively (R2 = 0.98) with titratable acidity. The GC-MS data showed that phenolic compounds constituted a major portion of Code 10-Poly, and were detected only in trace quantities in 1291. The refined liquid smokes had lighter color, lower acidity, and reduced level of carbonyl-containing compounds and organic acids. Our study revealed major differences in pH, titratable acidity, total phenol content, color and chemical make-up of the full-strength and refined liquid smokes. The three refined liquid smoke products studied have less flavor and color active compounds, when compared with the full-strength product. Furthermore, the three refined products studied have unique chemical characteristics and will impart specific sensorial properties to food systems. Understanding the chemical composition of liquid smokes, be these refined or full-strength products, is an important step to

  2. Smoking cessation products and programs.

    PubMed

    Lando, H A

    1996-01-01

    Behavioral treatment techniques have facilitated smoking cessation, with intensive multicomponent interventions sometimes producing long-term abstinence rates approaching 50%. There is little evidence that either hypnosis or acupuncture are effective. Both nicotine gum and nicotine patch significantly improve treatment outcomes, although patch is easier for patients to use correctly. Self-help programs may be of benefit, however, smoking cessation products other than nicotine replacement show little evidence of effectiveness. Health professionals should be informed consumers and should be skeptical in evaluating claims for commercial programs or products. Additional information and materials are available from a number of sources including the National Cancer Institute, the U.S. Office on Smoking and Health, and the voluntary health organizations.

  3. Functionality of liquid smoke as an all-natural antimicrobial in food preservation.

    PubMed

    Lingbeck, Jody M; Cordero, Paola; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2014-06-01

    The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas.

  4. 76 FR 50226 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... tobacco products and tobacco smoke. This information will assist the Agency in establishing a list of HPHCs in tobacco products and tobacco smoke (the HPHC list). DATES: Submit either electronic or written...

  5. 77 FR 20034 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Established List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Products and Tobacco Smoke; Established List AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products and tobacco smoke (the established HPHC list) as... appropriate, ``a list of harmful and potentially harmful constituents, including smoke constituents, to health...

  6. Nicotine and Food Deprivation Decrease the Ability to Resist Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.; White, Marney A.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Attempts to simultaneously control food intake and smoking may lead to smoking cessation failure. We sought to model this relationship using a human laboratory paradigm of smoking lapse behavior. Objectives We examined the combined effect of food and nicotine deprivation, compared to nicotine deprivation alone, on the ability to resist smoking and on subsequent ad libitum smoking. Methods In a between-subjects design, daily smokers (N = 30) were all deprived of nicotine for 18 hours and were either food deprived (12 hrs) or not during a laboratory session. Following exposure to individualized food cues, participants had the option of initiating tobacco self-administration or delaying up to 50 minutes in exchange for monetary reinforcement. Subsequently, the tobacco self-administration period consisted of one-hour in which participants could choose to smoke or receive monetary reinforcement for cigarettes not smoked. Results Smokers who had been deprived of food and nicotine smoked their first cigarette sooner and were more likely to smoke at some point during the laboratory session, compared to those who were only nicotine deprived. Those who were food and nicotine deprived smoked slightly more cigarettes than those who were nicotine deprived only, although this difference was not statistically significant. There were no sex differences in outcomes. Hunger and food craving ratings while trying to resist smoking were greater in the food + nicotine deprived group. Tobacco craving was predictive of outcome in both conditions. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that food deprivation can undermine a smoker’s ability to resist smoking. PMID:20585761

  7. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Workers in Accommodation and Food Services--United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Syamlal, Girija; Jamal, Ahmed; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2015-07-31

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. One of the Healthy People 2020 objectives calls for reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12% (objective TU-1.1). Despite progress in reducing smoking prevalence over the past several decades, nearly one in five U.S. adults, including millions of workers, still smoke cigarettes. During 2004-2010, nearly one fifth (19.6%) of U.S. working adults aged ≥18 years smoked cigarettes, and of all the industry sectors, current smoking prevalence among the accommodation and food services sector workers (30%) was the highest. CDC analyzed National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for 2011-2013 to estimate current cigarette smoking prevalence among adults working in the accommodation and food services sector, and found that these workers had higher cigarette smoking prevalence (25.9%) than all other workers (17.3%). Among workers in accommodation and food services sector, the highest smoking prevalences were observed among males, non-Hispanic whites, those aged 25-44 years, those with a high school diploma or a General Educational Development (GED) certificate and no college education, those with an annual family income <$35,000, those with no health insurance, and those working in the food services and drinking places industry. These results indicate a need to better understand the reasons for higher smoking prevalence observed among accommodation and food services workers (e.g., workplace culture), so that appropriate intervention strategies can be developed and implemented. Evidence suggests that smoke-free worksites and workplace cessation programs, including comprehensive worksite smoke-free policies, health promotion, access to smoking cessation programs, and increasing the cost of tobacco products, can substantially reduce smoking among workers.

  8. Food Production Info Sharing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-12

    Bryan Onate, Advanced Plant Habitat project manager, with the Exploration Research and Technology Directorate, brainstorms innovative approaches to food production with industry representatives inside a laboratory at the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

  9. Food Production Info Sharing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-13

    Scientists in the Exploration Research and Technology Directorate brainstorm innovative approaches to food production with industry representatives at the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

  10. Food Product Dating

    MedlinePlus

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  11. Smoking Abstinence, Eating Style, and Food Intake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joanne; Hall, Sharon M.

    1988-01-01

    Administered the Eating Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to smoking subjects assigned to cigarette abstinence or to continued smoking. Found abstinent smokers with high Disinhibition Scale scores overate more than did nonabstinent smokers or abstinent smokers with lower scores when participating in a subsequent ice cream tasting…

  12. Smoking Abstinence, Eating Style, and Food Intake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joanne; Hall, Sharon M.

    1988-01-01

    Administered the Eating Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to smoking subjects assigned to cigarette abstinence or to continued smoking. Found abstinent smokers with high Disinhibition Scale scores overate more than did nonabstinent smokers or abstinent smokers with lower scores when participating in a subsequent ice cream tasting…

  13. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  14. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  15. Changes in food reward following smoking cessation: a pharmacogenetic investigation.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Caryn; Berrettini, Wade; Pinto, Angela; Patterson, Freda; Crystal-Mansour, Susan; Wileyto, E Paul; Restine, Stephanie L; Leonard, Debra G B; Shields, Peter G; Epstein, Leonard H

    2004-08-01

    Despite the high prevalence and public health significance of weight gain following smoking cessation, little is known about the underlying bio-behavioral mechanisms or effective therapies. We evaluated the effects of bupropion on food reward following smoking abstinence and the moderating influence of genotype. Seventy-one smokers of European ancestry were genotyped for the dopamine D2 receptor ( DRD2) Taq1 polymorphism and randomized to treatment with bupropion (300 mg) or placebo for smoking cessation. Subjects participated in two behavioral laboratory sessions during which the rewarding value of food was assessed using a behavioral economics measure: session 1 occurred prior to medication and before cessation of smoking; session 2 occurred following 3 weeks of medication and 1 week of sustained abstinence. Carriers of the DRD2 A1 minor allele exhibited significant increases in the rewarding value of food following abstinence from smoking, and these effects were attenuated by bupropion treatment ( P=0.03 for medication by genotype interaction). Further, higher levels of food reward at session 2 (post-quit) predicted a significant increase in weight by 6-month follow-up in the placebo group, but not in the bupropion-treated group ( P=0.006 for medication by food reward interaction). These results provide new evidence that the increase in body weight that occurs following smoking cessation is related to increases in food reward, and that food reward is partly determined by genetic factors. Bupropion's efficacy in attenuating abstinence-induced weight gain may be attributable, in part, to decreasing food reward.

  16. Food Production Info Sharing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-12

    During a brainstorming session on innovative approaches to food production, an industry participant looks at plants growing inside a laboratory in the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The workshop was hosted by the Exploration Research and Technology Directorate.

  17. 77 FR 70955 - FDA Actions Related to Nicotine Replacement Therapies and Smoking-Cessation Products; Report to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... Therapies and Smoking-Cessation Products; Report to Congress on Innovative Products and Treatments for... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and..., including nicotine-containing gums, patches, and lozenges, are already marketed for smoking cessation....

  18. Deeming Tobacco Products To Be Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as Amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Restrictions on the Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Required Warning Statements for Tobacco Products. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to deem products meeting the statutory definition of "tobacco product,'' except accessories of the newly deemed tobacco products, to be subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). The Tobacco Control Act provides FDA authority to regulate cigarettes, cigarette tobacco, roll-your-own tobacco, smokeless tobacco, and any other tobacco products that the Agency by regulation deems to be subject to the law. With this final rule, FDA is extending the Agency's "tobacco product'' authorities in the FD&C Act to all other categories of products that meet the statutory definition of "tobacco product" in the FD&C Act, except accessories of such newly deemed tobacco products. This final rule also prohibits the sale of "covered tobacco products" to individuals under the age of 18 and requires the display of health warnings on cigarette tobacco, roll-your own tobacco, and covered tobacco product packages and in advertisements. FDA is taking this action to reduce the death and disease from tobacco products. In accordance with the Tobacco Control Act, we consider and intend the extension of our authorities over tobacco products and the various requirements and prohibitions established by this rule to be severable.

  19. Changes in Food Intake and Activity after Quitting Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated changes in food intake and activity levels among 95 subjects who quit smoking. Found significant increases in calories, sucrose, and fats 2 weeks after quitting. Total sugars changes were less consistent. Activity levels did not change significantly. At week 26, caloric intake for abstinent women was approximately equal to baseline…

  20. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  1. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  2. Changes in Food Intake and Activity after Quitting Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated changes in food intake and activity levels among 95 subjects who quit smoking. Found significant increases in calories, sucrose, and fats 2 weeks after quitting. Total sugars changes were less consistent. Activity levels did not change significantly. At week 26, caloric intake for abstinent women was approximately equal to baseline…

  3. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposures associated with cigarette smoking: implications for risk assessment of food and flavoring workers.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jennifer S; Abelmann, Anders; Spicer, Lauren J; Adams, Rebecca E; Finley, Brent L

    2014-05-01

    Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione inhalation have been suggested as causes of severe respiratory disease, including bronchiolitis obliterans, in food/flavoring manufacturing workers. Both compounds are present in many food items, tobacco, and other consumer products, but estimates of exposures associated with the use of these goods are scant. A study was conducted to characterize exposures to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione associated with cigarette smoking. The yields (μg/cigarette) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke were evaluated for six tobacco products under three smoking regimens (ISO, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, and Health Canada Intense) using a standard smoking machine. Mean diacetyl concentrations in MS smoke ranged from 250 to 361 ppm for all tobacco products and smoking regimens, and mean cumulative exposures associated with 1 pack-year ranged from 1.1 to 1.9 ppm-years. Mean 2,3-pentanedione concentrations in MS smoke ranged from 32.2 to 50.1 ppm, and mean cumulative exposures associated with 1 pack-year ranged from 0.14 to 0.26 ppm-years. We found that diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposures from cigarette smoking far exceed occupational exposures for most food/flavoring workers who smoke. This suggests that previous claims of a significant exposure-response relationship between diacetyl inhalation and respiratory disease in food/flavoring workers were confounded, because none of the investigations considered or quantified the non-occupational diacetyl exposure from cigarette smoke, yet all of the cohorts evaluated had considerable smoking histories. Further, because smoking has not been shown to be a risk factor for bronchiolitis obliterans, our findings are inconsistent with claims that diacetyl and/or 2,3-pentanedione exposure are risk factors for this disease.

  4. Integrated wetlands for food production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ray Zhuangrui; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-07-01

    The widespread use of compound pelleted feeds and chemical fertilizers in modern food production contribute to a vast amount of residual nutrients into the production system and adjacent ecosystem are major factors causing eutrophication. Furthermore, the extensive development and application of chemical compounds (such as chemical pesticides, disinfectants and hormones used in enhancing productivity) in food production process are hazardous to the ecosystems, as well as human health. These unsustainable food production patterns cannot sustain human living in the long run. Wetlands are perceived as self-decontamination ecosystems with high productivities. This review gives an overview about wetlands which are being integrated with food production processes, focusing on aquaculture.

  5. Role of abstinence and visual cues on food and smoking craving.

    PubMed

    Alsene, K M; Li, Y; Chaverneff, F; de Wit, H

    2003-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship between cravings for food and cravings for cigarettes by presenting smoking-related or food-related visual cues to smokers who were either smoking-deprived or food-deprived. Fifteen regular cigarette smokers participated in this four-session, within-subject study in which they rated their craving for cigarettes and craving for food under four conditions: after abstaining from smoking, after abstaining from eating, after abstaining from both smoking and eating, or after no abstinence. We found that before presentation of the cues, overnight smoking abstinence increased craving for cigarettes, and overnight food abstinence increased craving for food. In each condition, presentation of cues further increased craving for the object of deprivation: smoking cues further increased craving for cigarettes after smoking abstinence, and food cues further increased craving for food after abstaining from food. Smoking abstinence did not affect craving for food, but food abstinence modestly increased smoking craving. These results indicate that craving for cigarettes or food is specifically increased by both deprivation from the substance and by presentation of substance-related cues.

  6. Use of iodized salt in processed Philippine food products.

    PubMed

    Azanza, P; Cariaso, K; Dela Cerna, M C; de Ocampo, C; Galvez, F; Moises, M; Pujanes, K

    1998-06-01

    The effects of iodized salt use on the quality of processed Philippine food products were evaluated. Samples for the study included dried-salted and smoked fish products, nitrite-cured pork, and fermented plain and flavored shrimp pastes. Generally, no significant differences were detected between the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the test products prepared with iodized and unfortified NaCl salts. The salting process in each food operation significantly increased the iodine content of the test products. However, subsequent losses in the absorbed iodine were recorded due to the boiling, smoking, drying, fermenting and heating processes in the different operations. It was recommended that studies be undertaken on the addition of iodine to semi-processed or completely processed food products to lessen iodine losses.

  7. Food Production & Service Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide deals with planning and implementing a course in food production and service. Addressed in the course are the following topics: using basic food service processes; performing the tasks of a kitchen helper, stock clerk, baker's helper, pastry helper, cook's helper, pantry goods maker, short order cook, cook, dining room…

  8. Is organic food production feasible?

    PubMed

    Leckie, J

    1999-01-01

    The problems of modern agriculture and whether organic methods of food production offer a practical solution in modern society are reviewed and discussed, with frank admission of drawbacks in organic methods.

  9. Cigarette Smoking Among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Young Adults in Association With Food Insecurity and Other Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tsoh, Janice Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low socioeconomic status is associated with high rates of cigarette smoking, and socioeconomic differences in cigarette smoking tend to emerge during young adulthood. To further our understanding of socioeconomic differences in smoking among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking, with attention to multiple socioeconomic indicators that have not been examined in this population. Methods We analyzed data from the 2011–2012 California Health Interview Survey. The analytic sample consisted of young adults aged 18–30 years who were considered socioeconomically disadvantaged as measured by education and poverty. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with smoking status in this group, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine correlates of smoking frequency. Results In this sample (N = 1,511; 48% female, 66% Hispanic/Latino, 18% non-Hispanic white), 39.7% reported experiencing food insecurity in the past year. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher among young adults who reported being food insecure (26.9%) than among those who reported being food secure (16.4%). Past-year food insecurity was significantly associated with current smoking, independent of sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol use. Specifically, food insecurity was significantly associated with daily but not nondaily smoking. Conclusion Socioeconomically disadvantaged young adults with food insecurity may be considered a high-risk group with respect to cigarette smoking. Efforts to reduce tobacco-related health disparities should address diverse sources of socioeconomic influences, including experiences of food insecurity. PMID:26766849

  10. The economics of food production.

    PubMed

    Upton, M

    1993-01-01

    Although world average food production per person is increasing there are many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where production has fallen in recent decades. The economic analysis of the world food problem concerns the dynamics of production, income, growth, demand and trade. The 'law of diminishing returns' suggests that labour incomes fall as population density increases. Capital investment and technological change, particularly with a land-saving bias, can overcome this effect. Such land-saving innovations are less appropriate where population densities are lower, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Innovations which reduce risk, such as stress- and disease-resistant crop varieties, may be more attractive to farmers. Communal or government action is required to ensure sustainability of food production; to reduce risk, through price stabilization, possibly crop insurance and contingency plans for famine relief; to promote equity and to ensure competitive market conditions. Public funding of agricultural research is necessary to promote growth in food supplies. If increases in supply do not keep pace with growth in demand, food prices rise, attracting resources into food production. If supply grows faster, food prices and farm incomes fall, driving resources out of agriculture. Resources may not move fast enough to correct imbalances. Primary producers are likely to face deteriorating terms of trade. Linkages between food production and other sectors are weak, so primary exports are not a good basis for economic development. Import substitution strategies may damage agriculture. Structural adjustment regimes have been adopted in some countries to correct imbalances and provide an incentive for farmers to increase production. Associated reductions in public expenditure may have a contrary impact.

  11. 78 FR 277 - Food and Drug Administration Actions Related to Nicotine Replacement Therapies and Smoking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... Therapies and Smoking-Cessation Products; Report to Congress on Innovative Products and Treatments for... marketed for smoking cessation. Section 918(b) requires that the Secretary of HHS, after consultation...

  12. Food production -- problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Anifowoshe, T O

    1990-03-01

    Improvements are needed in balancing the problems associated with population growth and food production. A review of the problems of rapid population growth and declining food production and suggestions for resolution are given. World population has increased over the past 10 years by 760 million, which is equal to adding the combined population of Africa and South America. Future increases are expected to bring total population to 6.1 billion by the year 2000 and 8.2 billion in 2025 (exponential increases). Food production/capita has declined since 1971 in the world and in Nigeria, particularly in the recent past. The food production problem is technical, environmental, social, political, and economic. Various scientific and technological methods for increasing food production are identified: mechanization, irrigation, use of fertilizers, control of weeds and insects, new varieties of farm animals or high-yielding strains of grain, land reclamation, soil conservation, river basin development, adequate storage facilities, infrastructure development, and birth control. Economic and social approaches involve short-term and long-term strategies in social readjustment and institutional change. For instance, large scale farmers should become contract growers for certain firms. Bureaucratic red tape should be eliminated in institutions which provide agricultural services. Environmental problems need urgent attention. Some of these problems are soil erosion from mechanization, water salinization from irrigation, accumulation of DDT in food and water and animal life from pesticide use, and water pollution from chemical fertilizers. Food production can be increased with more ecologically sound practices. Information about weather and weather forecasting allows for more suitable land management. The influence of rainfall (the amount and distribution) in Nigeria is greater than any other climatic factor. Solar radiation is a significant feature in production of dry matter and

  13. Analysis of Mount Atlas mastic smoke: a potential food preservative.

    PubMed

    Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Ghasemi, Younes

    2010-09-01

    Pistacia terebinthus L. smoke has been used traditionally in Iran as disinfectant and air purifier. Smoke was collected by a simple method, and the chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the smoke were analyzed. The chemical constituents of the smoke were alpha-pinene (65.1%), limonene (11.5%) and allo-ocimene (2.8%). The non polar phase of smoke noticeably inhibited the growth of different microorganisms. MIC test shows that non polar fraction of smoke can inhibit the growth of some bacteria. The results indicating that the properties of the smoke as a flavoring and preservative agent could be a potential subject for future studies.

  14. Examining the effects of cigarette smoking on food cravings and intake, depressive symptoms, and stress.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ariana M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among smoking status and total and specific types of food cravings (i.e., high-fats, sweets, fast-food fats, and complex carbohydrates/starches) and the influence of demographic, clinical, and psychological factors on this relationship. Seven-hundred and twelve adults completed measures of food cravings, dietary intake, and smoking history. Heights and weights were measured. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses while adjusting for demographic, clinical, and psychological covariates. Compared to never smokers, current smokers reported more frequent cravings for high-fat foods and fast-food fats, after controlling for depression, stress, BMI and demographic factors. Current smokers also reported consuming more high-fat foods and fast-food fats. The association between cigarette smoking and total food craving was no longer significant after accounting for depression and stress, suggesting that depression and stress may account for the relationship between smoking and total food craving. Smoking did not moderate the relationship between food cravings and food intake. Nicotine dependence was positively correlated with the frequency of general food cravings and cravings for high fats, sweets, and carbohydrates/starches. Cigarette smokers, and especially those with higher nicotine dependence, may have greater difficulties in addressing food craving and changing eating habits, particularly in the context of depression and stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Workplace smoking related absenteeism and productivity costs in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, S; Wen, C; Hu, S; Cheng, T; Huang, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To estimate productivity losses and financial costs to employers caused by cigarette smoking in the Taiwan workplace. Methods: The human capital approach was used to calculate lost productivity. Assuming the value of lost productivity was equal to the wage/salary rate and basing the calculations on smoking rate in the workforce, average days of absenteeism, average wage/salary rate, and increased risk and absenteeism among smokers obtained from earlier research, costs due to smoker absenteeism were estimated. Financial losses caused by passive smoking, smoking breaks, and occupational injuries were calculated. Results: Using a conservative estimate of excess absenteeism from work, male smokers took off an average of 4.36 sick days and male non-smokers took off an average of 3.30 sick days. Female smokers took off an average of 4.96 sick days and non-smoking females took off an average of 3.75 sick days. Excess absenteeism caused by employee smoking was estimated to cost US$178 million per annum for males and US$6 million for females at a total cost of US$184 million per annum. The time men and women spent taking smoking breaks amounted to nine days per year and six days per year, respectively, resulting in reduced output productivity losses of US$733 million. Increased sick leave costs due to passive smoking were approximately US$81 million. Potential costs incurred from occupational injuries among smoking employees were estimated to be US$34 million. Conclusions: Financial costs caused by increased absenteeism and reduced productivity from employees who smoke are significant in Taiwan. Based on conservative estimates, total costs attributed to smoking in the workforce were approximately US$1032 million. PMID:15923446

  16. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product...

  17. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product...

  18. Food production & availability - Essential prerequisites for sustainable food security

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, M.S.; Bhavani, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this. PMID:24135188

  19. Food production & availability--essential prerequisites for sustainable food security.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M S; Bhavani, R V

    2013-09-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this.

  20. Food Products Procurement, Receiving and Storage Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Association of School Business Officials, Haysville.

    This guide is intended as a resource document for the beginner in food services and food purchasing. The publication is divided topically by (1) purchasing procedures, (2) specifications and evaluation, (3) sources for purchasing food products, (4) storage of food products and inventory procedures, (5) type of food service management, and (6)…

  1. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  2. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  3. Cigarette Smoking among Women Who Are Homeless or Unstably Housed: Examining the Role of Food Insecurity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin E; Flentje, Annesa; Tsoh, Janice Y; Riley, Elise D

    2017-08-01

    Smoking prevalence remains high among individuals who are homeless, partly due to stressors related to homelessness. Beyond housing insecurity, homelessness involves financial stresses and unmet subsistence needs. In particular, food insecurity contributes to negative health outcomes and other health risks. This study examined associations between food insecurity severity and smoking among homeless and marginally housed women in San Francisco, California. We used data from 247 women from a longitudinal cohort study. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate longitudinal associations between study factors and smoking based on data from five biannual assessment points between 2009 and 2012. The longitudinal adjusted odds of smoking were higher among severely food insecure individuals compared to those who were not food insecure (AOR = 1.68, 95% CI [1.02, 2.78]), while associations with other study factors, including demographics, time, HIV status, mental health, and substance use (except marijuana use), did not reach levels of significance. Similar adjusted longitudinal results were observed when food insecurity was the dependent variable and smoking an independent variable, suggesting the possibility of a bidirectional association. Considering unmet needs, such as food and hunger, may improve comprehensive smoking cessation strategies targeting individuals for whom mainstream tobacco control efforts have not been effective. Similarly, offering improved access to smoking cessation resources should be considered in efforts to address food insecurity among individuals experiencing homelessness.

  4. Benzo(a)pyrene penetration on a smoked meat product during smoking time.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, E; Rendueles, M; Díaz, M

    2014-01-01

    The Codex Alimentarius gives recommendations to prevent carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (represented by benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)) contamination during processing of meat products, including the control of smoking time. The influence of direct smoking time (0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days) on the relationship between the BaP and moisture content of a typical Spanish smoked meat product called chorizo and the mechanism of BaP penetration and water release from four different depths in the product was studied. Chorizo was studied from the Principality of Asturias, a location never before tested. An analytical method was developed for this purpose consisting of PAH extraction assisted by sonication followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample clean-up and analytical determination using GC-MS. Results show that an increase in smoking time produced contradictory and independent effects on the moisture and BaP content (µg kg⁻¹) of chorizos. The moisture content decreased from 49.9% to 31.3%. On the other hand, the BaP content increased from less than 0.24 µg kg⁻¹ to 0.75 µg kg⁻¹, finally stabilising after 5 days of smoking. After this time, the natural pores of the casing could be blocked by the large size tar particles from smoke, preventing the continued penetration of PAHs. The BaP content decreased and the moisture content increased progressively from the casing to the centre of the meat product. BaP mainly accumulated in the smoked casing, being four times in excess of the legal limit. This paper analyses the mechanism for preventing PAHs contamination during the process of smoking meat products.

  5. The effect of smoking two cigarettes on resting metabolic rate with and without food.

    PubMed

    Warwick, P M; Chapple, R S; Thomson, E S

    1987-01-01

    Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured using a ventilated hood apparatus in 15 subjects before (BMR) and for 5 h after (5HEE) four treatments. In 10 smokers (five occasional and five habitual) the treatments were: food (600 kcal (2.51 MJ) breakfast) with and without smoking two cigarettes (F +/- S) and no food with and without smoking (NF +/- S). In five non-smokers duplicate measurements of food (F-S) and no food (NF-S) were made. In non-smokers the thermic effect of food (TEF) averaged 9.35 per cent of the ingested energy. Duplicate measures of 5HEE showed good reproducibility both with and without food (c.v. 2.5 and 1.3 per cent respectively). In smokers, RMR did not increase after smoking even during the first 15-30 min. There were no apparent differences in response between occasional and habitual smokers. 5HEE and delta 5HEE (5HEE minus BMR) were significantly lower after food with smoking than without smoking (-16 kcal (67 kJ)/5 h, P less than 0.001 and -14 kcal (59 kJ)/5 h, P less than 0.02 respectively) but not significantly lower after smoking without food. TEF was lower with smoking (8.6 per cent of ingested energy) than without smoking (10.0 per cent of ingested energy) but the difference was not significant (P = 0.23). TEF in smokers regardless of treatment averaged 9.3 per cent of the ingested energy. We conclude that any effects of smoking two cigarettes in isolation after overnight deprivation are too small or too variable to consistently influence RMR or the thermic effect of food.

  6. [Smoking. Analysis of the scientific production in the SEPAR smoking area in 2009].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A; Reina, Segismundo Solano; López, Cristina Esquinas; Rebollo, José Carlos Serrano

    2010-03-01

    The SEPAR Smoking Area was started in the year 1995. Its main aims were to increase awareness of the problem of smoking among the members of our scientific society, to improve their scientific knowledge on this problem, to help in diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in smokers, and finally, to promote interventions for the prevention and treatment of smoking by the health and political administrations. Nowadays, it is the most dynamic areas of SEPAR and has more than 400 members. Throughout the year 2009, the health professionals of the SEPAR smoking area have carried out intense research work that has led to a reasonable scientific production that has covered different aspects of the discipline of smoking. The most impressive studies were those that tried to determine the impact that Law 28/2005 has had in the prevalence of smoking in Spain, the studies that assessed the scientific productivity of the area members and the numerous articles that published the results from different smoking units that are led by Spanish pneumologists. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neumología y Cirugía Torácica. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring Smoking Stigma, Alternative Tobacco Product Use, & Quit Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G.; Popova, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Investigate smoking stigma among different tobacco user types. Methods US adults (N=1,812) responded to an online survey, including non-smokers, smokeless tobacco users, exclusive smokers, and smokeless and cigarette “dual users”. Results Dual users perceived the highest smoking stigma. Stigma was higher for smokers open to quitting by switching to smokeless. E-cigarette users (smokers) reported higher stigma than non-users. Making a past-year quit attempt was predicted by smoking stigma, and smokeless and/or e-cigarette use. Conclusions Smoking stigma and dual use of smokeless tobacco and/or e-cigarettes with cigarettes predict quit attempts. However, smoking stigma might prevent smokers from consulting doctors and induce use of alternative tobacco products as cessation aids. PMID:27088103

  8. Beyond cigarette smoking: smoke-free home rules and use of alternative tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Kuo, Daphne; Piper, Megan

    2016-01-01

    A smoke-free home rule has been associated with reduced cigarette consumption; however, it is unknown whether a home rule is associated with the use of alternative tobacco products (ATP) such as smokeless tobacco products, regular and water pipes, and cigars. This study examined the association between the smoke-free home rules and ever and current use of ATP. Data from the 2010-2011 US Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey were analysed using multivariable logistic regressions, including variables related to smoke-free home rules. Overall, 83.9% respondents reported a smoke-free home rule inside their homes; 20.6% of respondents had tried at least one type of ATP, and 3.9% were current users in 2010-2011. Having a smoke-free home rule was associated with lower likelihood of current versus never use of any ATP (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77-0.83). Among ever users of any ATP, the existence of a smoke-free home rule was associated with lower odds of being a current user (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.43-0.56). Similar associations were observed for each type of ATP examined (p < 0.05). Smoke-free home rules are associated with lower current ATP use among the US population. Future research should examine whether promoting smoke-free home rules could help to reduce ATP use and related diseases. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  9. Food production and service in UK hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed; Jones, Eleri; Redmond, Elizabeth; Hewedi, Mahmoud; Wingert, Andreas; Gad El Rab, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply value stream mapping holistically to hospital food production/service systems focused on high-quality food. Multiple embedded case study of three (two private-sector and one public-sector) hospitals in the UK. The results indicated various issues affecting hospital food production including: the menu and nutritional considerations; food procurement; food production; foodservice; patient perceptions/expectations. Value stream mapping is a new approach for food production systems in UK hospitals whether private or public hospitals. The paper identifies opportunities for enhancing hospital food production systems. The paper provides a theoretical basis for process enhancement of hospital food production and the provision of high-quality hospital food.

  10. Effects of smoking cessation on consumption of alcohol and sweet, high-fat foods.

    PubMed

    Perkins, K A; Epstein, L H; Sexton, J E; Pastor, S

    1990-01-01

    Smoking cessation may have significant effects on consumption of certain foods and other substances which may influence health. This study of seven young female smokers examined consumption of alcohol, coffee, soda, and sweets (sweet, high-fat foods) across 3 weeks, involving baseline ad lib smoking (week 1), complete cessation (week 2), and resumption of smoking (week 3). TV watching (i.e., nondietary activity) and subjective measures of craving and tension-anxiety also were assessed. Results showed increased intake of sweets and, to a lesser extent, alcohol after cessation which was reversed upon resumption of smoking. There were no significant changes across weeks in other substances. The changes in alcohol and sweet intake did not appear to be related directly to the subjective changes. These findings indicate that smoking cessation, a behavior change which promotes health, may lead to alterations in consumption of other substances, which may have adverse effects on health risk.

  11. Adolescent Smoking Prevention: Feasibility and Effect of Participatory Video Production.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunhee; Kulbok, Pamela A; Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Drake, Emily; Kennedy, Michael J

    This study tested whether a youth participatory video production program for smoking prevention is feasible and effective. A participatory video production program was implemented in eight twice-weekly sessions at a youth summer camp in a community center in a low-income neighborhood. Twenty-three youths participated. Descriptive statistics and a qualitative analysis were conducted to test the feasibility of the program by assessing attendance rates, the time and resources required, reasons for participation, and program satisfaction using checklists and interviews. Smoking intention was measured via pre- and post-intervention surveys and a quantitative analysis utilizing a Wilcoxon Signed Rank test to detect differences in intention for non-smoking. Participants worked in groups to produce four video clips containing anti-smoking messages. Three main themes (active engagement, participation for community health, and personal growth and healthy development) emerged from the qualitative interview data. >75% of the participants considered the program excellent and stated that it met their expectations. Significant positive changes were also found from baseline to post-intervention in intention not to smoke. This study demonstrated the effect of a participatory digital media production approach and confirmed its feasibility for youth health promotion and health education. Participants' active involvement in producing anti-smoking videos for a community health-promotion campaign decreased their intention to smoke and empowered them as advocates for a non-smoking community. These findings confirm the feasibility and utility of digital media use and interactive technology for actively engaging young people in health promotion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Is household smoking status associated with expenditure on food at restaurants, alcohol, gambling and insurance? Results from the 1998–99 Household Expenditure Survey, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Siahpush, M; Borland, R; Scollo, M

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To examine how household expenditure on food at restaurants, alcohol, gambling and insurance vary between smoking and non-smoking households. Design: Cross sectional survey of households from private dwellings, conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), using a stratified multistage area sample design. Setting: Australia, 1998–99. Participants: Nationally representative sample of households (n = 6892). Main outcome measures: Expenditure on meals at restaurants, alcohol, alcoholic beverages at licensed premises, gambling, and insurance. Results: The odds of reporting expenditure on restaurant food and health insurance were 20% and 40% smaller for smoking than non-smoking households, respectively. The odds of reporting expenditure on alcohol (not including expenditure at licensed premises), drinking at licensed premises, and gambling were 100%, 50%, and 40% greater for smoking than for non-smoking households, respectively. Conclusions: The study suggests that smokers are more likely to engage in risky behaviour. Implementing smoking bans in licensed premises and gambling venues can provide an opportunity to reduce smoking prevalence. Quitting or cutting down smoking can provide opportunities for expenditure on other products or services, and enhance standards of living. PMID:15564627

  13. New Food Product Development Assistance for Rural Food Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, William F.

    1988-01-01

    This article describes examples of new food product development activities engaged in at the University of Minnesota Technical College with local industry, showing how they have been used as teaching models in the classroom. These activities have led to a program of New Product Development Assistance for small food companies in southeastern…

  14. New Food Product Development Assistance for Rural Food Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, William F.

    1988-01-01

    This article describes examples of new food product development activities engaged in at the University of Minnesota Technical College with local industry, showing how they have been used as teaching models in the classroom. These activities have led to a program of New Product Development Assistance for small food companies in southeastern…

  15. Microbial bioinformatics for food safety and production

    PubMed Central

    Alkema, Wynand; Boekhorst, Jos; Wels, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    In the production of fermented foods, microbes play an important role. Optimization of fermentation processes or starter culture production traditionally was a trial-and-error approach inspired by expert knowledge of the fermentation process. Current developments in high-throughput ‘omics’ technologies allow developing more rational approaches to improve fermentation processes both from the food functionality as well as from the food safety perspective. Here, the authors thematically review typical bioinformatics techniques and approaches to improve various aspects of the microbial production of fermented food products and food safety. PMID:26082168

  16. Microbial bioinformatics for food safety and production.

    PubMed

    Alkema, Wynand; Boekhorst, Jos; Wels, Michiel; van Hijum, Sacha A F T

    2016-03-01

    In the production of fermented foods, microbes play an important role. Optimization of fermentation processes or starter culture production traditionally was a trial-and-error approach inspired by expert knowledge of the fermentation process. Current developments in high-throughput 'omics' technologies allow developing more rational approaches to improve fermentation processes both from the food functionality as well as from the food safety perspective. Here, the authors thematically review typical bioinformatics techniques and approaches to improve various aspects of the microbial production of fermented food products and food safety.

  17. Effect of fuel and kiln type on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in smoked shrimp, a Beninese food condiment.

    PubMed

    Kpoclou, Euloge Yénoukounmè; Anihouvi, Victor Bienvenu; Azokpota, Paulin; Soumanou, Mohamed Mansourou; Douny, Caroline; Brose, François; Hounhouigan, Djidjoho Joseph; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-01

    Smoked shrimp is a food condiment widely used in Beninese local cooking practices. A previous study revealed that this product is highly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The present study explored possibilities to reduce PAH levels in shrimp smoked using cottage industry smoking techniques with barrel and chorkor kilns, by replacing wood by charcoal from Acacia auriculiformis and Mangifera indica, as fuels. Results showed that only shrimp smoked using acacia charcoal in a chorkor kiln had PAH levels (benzo[a]pyrene = 5 µg kg(-1) and sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benzo[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene = 28 µg kg(-1)) in accordance with a European standard of 5 and 30 µg kg(-1), respectively, and suitable physicochemical characteristics for good storage (moisture content = 11.9% ± 1.5%; water activity = 0.46 ± 0.03). However, further investigations still needs to be done to reduce the duration of product contact with combustion gasses in order to reduce the PAH content of smoked shrimp to safer levels, largely below standards.

  18. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    PubMed

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2015-08-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ.

  19. Impact of smoking status on workplace absenteeism and productivity

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, M.; Shikiar, R.; Rentz, A.; Khan, Z.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To: evaluate the impact of smoking status on objective productivity and absenteeism measures; evaluate the impact of smoking status on subjective measures of productivity; and assess the correlation between subjective and objective productivity measures.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study in a workplace environment.
SUBJECTS—Approximately 300 employees (100 each of former, current, and never smokers) at a reservation office of a large US airline.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Objective productivity and absenteeism data were supplied by the employer. Subjective assessments of productivity were collected using a self report instrument, the Health and Work Questionnaire (HWQ).
RESULTS—Current smokers had significantly greater absenteeism than did never smokers, with former smokers having intermediate values; among former smokers, absenteeism showed a significant decline with years following cessation. Former smokers showed an increase in seven of 10 objective productivity measures as compared to current smokers, with a mean increase of 4.5%. While objective productivity measures for former smokers decreased compared to measures for current smokers during the first year following cessation, values for former smokers were greater than those for current smokers by 1-4 years following cessation. Subjective assessments of "productivity evaluation by others" and "personal life satisfaction" showed significant trends with highest values for never smokers, lowest for current smokers, and intermediate for former smokers.
CONCLUSIONS—Workplace productivity is increased and absenteeism is decreased among former smokers as compared to current smokers. Productivity among former smokers increases over time toward values seen among never smokers. Subjective measures of productivity provide indications of novel ways of productivity assessment that are sensitive to smoking status.


Keywords: smoking cessation; workplace; absenteeism; productivity

  20. Food Production for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia

    2017-01-01

    The desire for exploration is deeply ingrained in the human psyche. However, as we push the frontiers of discovery, the challenges we face become equally daunting. The overall goal of this section is to address one of the most critical concerns, How do we reliably feed those humans we send into space? Currently, all supplies consumed by space missions must be sent via exorbitantly expensive rockets that necessarily prevent us from venturing too far from Earth. Astro-agriculture aims to address this problem in several ways. This talk will describe future food production systems for space and focus on the Veggie system on ISS as a way to answer the many questions that remain to enable exploration to Mars and beyond.

  1. Biotechnology in Food Production and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Dietrich; Sinskey, Anthony J.

    1985-09-01

    The food processing industry is the oldest and largest industry using biotechnological processes. Further development of food products and processes based on biotechnology depends upon the improvement of existing processes, such as fermentation, immobilized biocatalyst technology, and production of additives and processing aids, as well as the development of new opportunities for food biotechnology. Improvements are needed in the characterization, safety, and quality control of food materials, in processing methods, in waste conversion and utilization processes, and in currently used food microorganism and tissue culture systems. Also needed are fundamental studies of the structure-function relationship of food materials and of the cell physiology and biochemistry of raw materials.

  2. Alternative Tobacco Product Use and Smoking Cessation: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. Methods. A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. Results. Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. Conclusions. Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited. PMID:23488521

  3. Alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation: a national study.

    PubMed

    Popova, Lucy; Ling, Pamela M

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited.

  4. Unconventional food regeneration in space - Opportunities for microbial food production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Gene R.; Schubert, Wayne W.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, Eric H.

    1987-01-01

    The possible role of microbial species in regenerating food is considered, and three areas where microbial systems can be used in controlled ecological life support systems are discussed. Microbial species can serve as the biological portion of hybrid chemical/biological schemes for primary food products, as a means more fully to utilize waste materials from agronomical food production, and as a source of nutritional supplements to conventional plant foods. Work accomplished in each of these areas is described. The role of microgravity fermenters in this technology is addressed.

  5. Unconventional food regeneration in space - Opportunities for microbial food production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Gene R.; Schubert, Wayne W.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, Eric H.

    1987-01-01

    The possible role of microbial species in regenerating food is considered, and three areas where microbial systems can be used in controlled ecological life support systems are discussed. Microbial species can serve as the biological portion of hybrid chemical/biological schemes for primary food products, as a means more fully to utilize waste materials from agronomical food production, and as a source of nutritional supplements to conventional plant foods. Work accomplished in each of these areas is described. The role of microgravity fermenters in this technology is addressed.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated persistent organic pollutants in canned fish and seafood products: smoked versus non-smoked products.

    PubMed

    Drabova, Lucie; Pulkrabova, Jana; Kalachova, Kamila; Tomaniova, Monika; Kocourek, Vladimir; Hajslova, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In this study, levels of several groups of environmental contaminants represented by PAHs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were determined in various types of canned smoked and non-smoked fish and seafood products (54 samples) obtained from the Czech market. PAHs were detected in all of the studied samples, and at least one of the target halogenated persistent organic pollutants was present above the LOQ in 85% of the samples. The levels of PAHs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (mainly DDTs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers found in the canned products varied in the range of 1.4-116 µg kg(-1), 0.6-59.6 µg kg(-1), 0.6-82.7 µg kg(-1) and 0.1-2.1 µg kg(-1) can content, respectively. Smoked sprats were the most contaminated fish product (n = 12) in which the highest levels of both PAHs and persistent organic pollutants were found. In 67% of the samples of smoked sprats in oil, the level of benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the maximum level of 5 µg kg(-1) established for smoked fish by European Union legislation. The distribution of target analytes between oil and fish fractions was also assessed. Significantly higher levels of PAHs were measured in the oil fraction.

  7. Food Production and the Energy Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Pimentel, David

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the energy inputs in United States and green revolution crop production techniques, using corn as a typical crop. Examines the energy needs for a world food supply that depends on modern energy intensive agriculture, and considers alternatives in crop production technology which might reduce energy inputs in food production. (CC)

  8. Food Production and the Energy Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Pimentel, David

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the energy inputs in United States and green revolution crop production techniques, using corn as a typical crop. Examines the energy needs for a world food supply that depends on modern energy intensive agriculture, and considers alternatives in crop production technology which might reduce energy inputs in food production. (CC)

  9. Linking vegetation patterns to potential smoke production and fire hazard

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Ottmar; Ernesto Alvarado

    2004-01-01

    During the past 80 years, various disturbances (such as wildfire and wind events) and management actions (including fire exclusion, logging, and domestic livestock grazing) have significantly modified the composition and structure of forests and ranges across the western United States. The resulting fuel loadings directly influence potential smoke production from...

  10. Encapsulates for Food Bioconversions and Metabolite Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breguet, Véronique; Vojinovic, Vojislav; Marison, Ian W.

    The control of production costs in the food industry must be very strict as a result of the relatively low added value of food products. Since a wide variety of enzymes and/or cells are employed in the food industry for starch processing, cheese making, food preservation, lipid hydrolysis and other applications, immobilization of the cells and/or enzymes has been recognized as an attractive approach to improving food processes while minimizing costs. This is due to the fact that biocatalyst immobilization allows for easier separation/purification of the product and reutilization of the biocatalyst. The advantages of the use of immobilized systems are many, and they have a special relevance in the area of food technology, especially because industrial processes using immobilized biosystems are usually characterized by lower capital/energy costs and better logistics. The main applications of immobilization, related to the major processes of food bioconversions and metabolite production, will be described and discussed in this chapter.

  11. Food products for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cope, P. S.; Larson, R. W.

    1968-01-01

    Specially-prepared foodstuffs supply an astronaut with a diet containing his basic nutritional requirements in a form that is useful in his enironment. Several edible coatings preserve foods and give loose foods form and firmness. These coatings aid in packaging and give the food slip for easy removal from the package.

  12. [How to increase food production?].

    PubMed

    Gahamanyi, L

    1984-12-01

    Pressure of population on cultivable land, serious soil erosion, and low productivity due to scarcity of inputs have hampered efforts to provide an adequate diet for the population of Rwanda. Until the present, production has increased about as rapidly as population, but Rwanda is not totally self-sufficient in food, future climatic conditions may be less favorable than those of the past, technical and resource constraints are likely to increase, and little new land will be available for cultivation. Between 1970-80, hectares devoted to bananas and beans have increased considerably, but the marginal nature of much new land has seriously lowered productivity. Sweet potatoes are more extensively grown but their productivity is limited, and productivity of manioc has stagnated despite efforts to increase it. Peas are less frequently cultivated because the fallow land on they they are grown has almost disappeared due to population pressure. Agriculture in Rwanda has always been associated with herding, but population pressure is eliminating pastureland. Firewood for cooking is also becoming more scarce and reforestation is not proceeding rapidly enough to fill projected demand. Between 1978-80 and the year 2000, preliminary goals are to increase production in tons from 2,005,900 to 3,375,000 for bananas, from 177,400 to 330,000 for beans, from 15,200 to 45,500 for ground nuts, from 4000 to 25,000 for soybeans, from 174,800 to 288,000 for sorghum, from 81,300 to 250,000 for maize, from 3700 to 45,000 for rice, from 837,100 to 2,148,000 for sweet potatoes, from 506,600 to 1,200,000 for manioc, and from 216,000 to 600,000 for potatoes. Reaching these goals will require doubling of overall productivity per hectare. Different strategies will be required for increasing the yields of the principal crops. Priority should be given to developing strains of beans that will grow well in the poor soils, dry or cold regions, and acidic soils where they are usually planted in Rwanda

  13. Preservation of food products by irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McGivney, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of irradiation to preserve food has the potential to significantly enhance our capacity to maximize the quality and quantity of the food we consume. In a world in which distribution of food occurs across continents and in which malnourished populations are in dire need of basic food products, any safe, effective, and efficient means of preserving food is more than welcome. Irradiation, as a method for food preservation, has been studied for more than 30 years. This discussion focuses on this most recent method for the preservation of food with particular emphasis on its effects on the safety, nutritive, and aesthetic values of the food preserved by irradiation. The use of ionizing radiation as a method to preserve foods is one that has been demonstrated to be effective for a variety of food classes. Irradiation offers a means to decontaminate, disinfest, and retard the spoilage of the food supply. At the same time, it appears that the wholesomeness of these food products is maintained. Nutritive value can be sustained by use of effective doses of radiation. Concerns over the safety of irradiated food are rooted in questions regarding the potential induction of radioactivity, harmful radiolytic products, and pathogenic radiation-resistant or mutant strains of microorganisms. Research findings have allayed concerns over safety. However, more research is necessary to conclusively resolve these safety issues. Food irradiation is a promising technology that has and will contribute to our ability to feed the people of this world. This technology is but one of many available ways to preserve our greatest natural resource, the food supply. Enhancement of the ability to preserve food by irradiation will facilitate the distribution of food from fertile developed regions to the malnourished peoples of underdeveloped countries. 21 references.

  14. Cold smoking of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets with smoke condensate--an alternative processing technology for the production of smoked salmon.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, S; Skåra, T

    2008-08-01

    Two different protocols for the production of cold smoked salmon were investigated. All fillets were dry salted (18 h, 4 degrees C) before being allotted to a smoke condensate/liquid smoke protocol (SCP), which included drenching (1 min) in smoke condensate [1:3 (v/v) smoke:water] and drying (150 min, 28.4 +/- 2.2 degrees C) or a wood chips protocol (WCP) that included drying and smoking in a regular smoking chamber (23 degrees C, 480 min) using wood chips for smoke production. Quality assessments were performed on the smoked fillets at day 0 and after 7, 14, and 31 d of storage (3.4 +/- 0.7 degrees C). Application of the SCP resulted in a significantly higher (P<0.01) processing yield (89.6% +/- 0.7%) as compared to the WCP (88.6% +/- 0.5%). On day 0, the SCP fillets were significantly (P<0.01) less light (L*) and yellow (b*) and had a lower chroma (C*) and hue (h*) compared to the fillets processed with WCP. From 7 d until the end of storage time, small differences in color were observed. After 31 d of storage, the SCP fillets had a significantly higher (P<0.05) intensity of oily texture and lower intensity of salty and smoke taste. Texture profile analysis (TPA) showed few significant differences between the processing protocols, although the WCP fillets were significantly harder than the SCP fillets when recording the force at 60% compression of the fillet height. The use of smoke condensate and drenching technology is a way of producing cold smoked salmon with quality characteristics quite similar to those found in commercial "traditional" products, although processors who want to use this technology have to optimize the drying step and the smoke condensate formulation to their specifications.

  15. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. ... of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. ...

  16. Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production

    PubMed Central

    Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Nedovic, Viktor; Goyal, Arun; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2013-01-01

    Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their potential future impact, which is also highlighted and assessed. PMID:24288597

  17. Immobilization technologies in probiotic food production.

    PubMed

    Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Nedovic, Viktor; Goyal, Arun; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2013-01-01

    Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their potential future impact, which is also highlighted and assessed.

  18. Food and farm products surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section.

  19. Smoking, food, and alcohol cues on subsequent behavior: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2015-03-01

    Although craving is a frequent phenomenon in addictive behaviors, and laboratory paradigms have robustly established that presentation of cues can elicit self-reported craving responses, extant work has not established whether cue exposure influences subsequent behavior. We systematically review extant literature assessing the effects of cue exposure to smoking, food, and alcohol cues on behavioral outcomes framed by three questions: (1) Is there value in distinguishing between the effects of cue exposure on behavior from the responses to cues (e.g., self-reported craving) predicting behavior?; (2) What are the effect of cues on behavior beyond lapse, such as broadly considering both target-syntonic (e.g., do cigarette cues predict smoking-related behaviors) and target-dystonic behaviors (e.g., do cigarette cues predict other outcomes besides smoking)?; (3) What are the lessons to be learned from examining cue exposure studies across smoking, food and alcohol domains? Evidence generally indicates an effect of cue exposure on both target-syntonic and target-dystonic behavior, and that self-report cue-reactivity predicts immediate target-syntonic outcomes. Effects of smoking, food and alcohol cues on behavior are compared to elucidate generalizations about the effects of cue exposure as well as methodological differences that may serve the study of craving in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Food insecurity, cigarette smoking, and acculturation among Latinos: data from NHANES 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Rios, Lisbeth; Bromberg, Julie E; Moser, Richard P; Augustson, Erik M

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of food insecurity (FI) among Latinos in the United States is almost double the national average. To better understand FI among Latinos, potential risk factors beyond poverty, including acculturation indicators and smoking status, were explored. Cross-sectional data from 6,681 Latino adults from the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used. Partial proportional odds (PPO) models were used to estimate associations of FI, including cigarette smoking and acculturation. The PPO models indicated that compared with never smokers, current smokers had significantly higher odds of FI (odds ratios ranged from 1.32 to 1.51 across models). Lower levels of acculturation and poverty and being a younger or middle-aged adult were also significantly associated with FI. Among Latinos, current smoking and low acculturation are important risk factors for FI. Current smoking and low acculturation may exacerbate nutritional deprivation in a population that is already disproportionally affected by poverty and poor health outcomes.

  1. Reducing human nitrogen use for food production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junguo; Ma, Kun; Ciais, Philippe; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen (N) is created in order to sustain food production, but only a small fraction of this N ends up being consumed as food, the rest being lost to the environment. We calculated that the total N input (TN) of global food production was 171 Tg N yr−1 in 2000. The production of animal products accounted for over 50% of the TN, against 17% for global calories production. Under current TN per unit of food production and assuming no change in agricultural practices and waste-to-food ratios, we estimate that an additional TN of 100 Tg N yr−1 will be needed by 2030 for a baseline scenario that would meet hunger alleviation targets for over 9 billion people. Increased animal production will have the largest impact on increasing TN, which calls for new food production systems with better N-recycling, such as cooperation between crop and livestock producing farms. Increased N-use efficiency, healthier diet and decreased food waste could mitigate this increase and even reduce TN in 2030 by 8% relative to the 2000 level. Achieving a worldwide reduction of TN is a major challenge that requires sustained actions to improve nitrogen management practices and reduce nitrogen losses into the environment. PMID:27445108

  2. Reducing human nitrogen use for food production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junguo; Ma, Kun; Ciais, Philippe; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-07-22

    Reactive nitrogen (N) is created in order to sustain food production, but only a small fraction of this N ends up being consumed as food, the rest being lost to the environment. We calculated that the total N input (TN) of global food production was 171 Tg N yr(-1) in 2000. The production of animal products accounted for over 50% of the TN, against 17% for global calories production. Under current TN per unit of food production and assuming no change in agricultural practices and waste-to-food ratios, we estimate that an additional TN of 100 Tg N yr(-1) will be needed by 2030 for a baseline scenario that would meet hunger alleviation targets for over 9 billion people. Increased animal production will have the largest impact on increasing TN, which calls for new food production systems with better N-recycling, such as cooperation between crop and livestock producing farms. Increased N-use efficiency, healthier diet and decreased food waste could mitigate this increase and even reduce TN in 2030 by 8% relative to the 2000 level. Achieving a worldwide reduction of TN is a major challenge that requires sustained actions to improve nitrogen management practices and reduce nitrogen losses into the environment.

  3. Reducing human nitrogen use for food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junguo; Ma, Kun; Ciais, Philippe; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    Reactive nitrogen (N) is created in order to sustain food production, but only a small fraction of this N ends up being consumed as food, the rest being lost to the environment. We calculated that the total N input (TN) of global food production was 171 Tg N yr-1 in 2000. The production of animal products accounted for over 50% of the TN, against 17% for global calories production. Under current TN per unit of food production and assuming no change in agricultural practices and waste-to-food ratios, we estimate that an additional TN of 100 Tg N yr-1 will be needed by 2030 for a baseline scenario that would meet hunger alleviation targets for over 9 billion people. Increased animal production will have the largest impact on increasing TN, which calls for new food production systems with better N-recycling, such as cooperation between crop and livestock producing farms. Increased N-use efficiency, healthier diet and decreased food waste could mitigate this increase and even reduce TN in 2030 by 8% relative to the 2000 level. Achieving a worldwide reduction of TN is a major challenge that requires sustained actions to improve nitrogen management practices and reduce nitrogen losses into the environment.

  4. Comparing Trends Between Food Insecurity and Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States, 1998 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Matthew C; Shafer, Paul R

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that cigarette smoking is associated with higher rates and severity of food insecurity but do not address how population-level smoking rates change in response to changes in food security. Trend analysis of serial cross-sectional data. Data from a representative survey of US households. Adults within households participating in both the Food Security Supplement and Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey during 5 overlapping administrations from 1998 to 2011. A "current smoker" is defined as someone who indicated that they currently smoke on "some days" or "every day." A household's food security is coded as "secure" or "insecure," according to responses to a food security scale, interpreted using a US Department of Agriculture standard. Descriptive comparison of the roughly triennial trends in the prevalence of food insecurity and current smoking from 1998 to 2011. The prevalence of food insecurity increased by 30% among adults overall versus 54% among current smokers, with most of the changes occurring following the economic recession of 2008 and 2009. Over this same period, the prevalence of current smoking declined by 33% among food-secure adults and only 14% among food-insecure adults. Food insecurity increased more markedly among adult smokers than nonsmokers, and the prevalence of smoking declined more slowly in food-insecure households, indicating that more low-income smokers are facing hunger, which may at least partly be due to buying cigarettes.

  5. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development.

  6. Reactivity to smoking- and food-related cues in currently dieting and non-dieting young women smokers.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Rebecca A; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-04-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that young women dieters who smoke experience greater cigarette cravings in the presence of food-related related cues. The aim of this experiment was to examine reactivity to both smoking-related and water cues by dieting and non-dieting women smokers in the presence or absence of food cues. Eighteen female undergraduates attended two sessions (food present and food absent). At each session, participants were presented with a cigarette and water cue in a counterbalanced order. Pre- and post-cue measures included the brief version of the Questionnaire for Smoking Urges, heart rate and self-reported mood. All smokers showed enhanced reactivity (increased craving and heart rate) to smoking versus water cues. For dieters there was a larger increase in cigarette craving and heart rate in response to the smoking-related cues in the presence of food compared with the absence of food, whereas for non-dieters there was a smaller increase in cigarette craving and heart rate in response to the smoking-related cues in the presence of food compared with the absence of food. Mood and appetite ratings were not significantly affected by either cue type or session. The results suggest that cue reactivity to smoking-related cues is modulated by the presence of incentive stimuli relevant to the individual.

  7. Careers in Organic Food Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibler, Adam

    2010-01-01

    New technology developed over the past several decades have allowed farmers to grow more food using fewer resources. Compared with 60 years ago, today's farm can supply more than three times more corn per acre, and the average dairy cow produces almost four times more milk. Even as technology improves farm yields, however, many consumers are…

  8. Product samples stimulate choice of unfamiliar healthful food products.

    PubMed

    Schickenberg, B; van Assema, P; Brug, J; de Vries, N K

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the availability of a product sample of an unfamiliar low-fat or fruit and vegetable products stimulates choice for this product among food neophobic young adults. The study had a 2 (experimental vs. control group) by 4 (low-fat bread spread, low-fat cheese, fruit juice, fruit and vegetable juice) between subjects design with a pre-and post-experiment questionnaire. The study was conducted in restaurant rooms of several educational institutions in the Netherlands among a convenience sample of 197 food neophobic young adults aged 17-25 years. A small bite or sip-sized sample of the target product was provided as an intervention. The effect measure was choice of either an unfamiliar healthful food product or a traditional food product. Offering a sample of an unfamiliar healthful food product resulted in 51% of the participants in the experimental group choosing this product vs. 36.4% in the control group. Providing food product samples seems to be a promising strategy in healthy diet promotion programs for food neophobic young adults to increase first-time trial of unfamiliar low-fat and fruit and vegetable products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. USDA Branded Food Products Database, Release 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA Branded Food Products Database is the ongoing result of a Public-Private Partnership (PPP), whose goal is to enhance public health and the sharing of open data by complementing the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) with nutrient composition of branded foods and pri...

  10. Climate change and sustainable food production.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J

    2013-02-01

    One of the greatest challenges we face in the twenty-first century is to sustainably feed nine to ten billion people by 2050 while at the same time reducing environmental impact (e.g. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, biodiversity loss, land use change and loss of ecosystem services). To this end, food security must be delivered. According to the United Nations definition, 'food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life'. At the same time as delivering food security, we must also reduce the environmental impact of food production. Future climate change will make an impact upon food production. On the other hand, agriculture contributes up to about 30% of the anthropogenic GHG emissions that drive climate change. The aim of this review is to outline some of the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture, the mitigation measures available within agriculture to reduce GHG emissions and outlines the very significant challenge of feeding nine to ten billion people sustainably under a future climate, with reduced emissions of GHG. Each challenge is in itself enormous, requiring solutions that co-deliver on all aspects. We conclude that the status quo is not an option, and tinkering with the current production systems is unlikely to deliver the food and ecosystems services we need in the future; radical changes in production and consumption are likely to be required over the coming decades.

  11. Pharmacokinetic Drug Interactions with Tobacco, Cannabinoids and Smoking Cessation Products.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gail D; Chan, Lingtak-Neander

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco smoke contains a large number of compounds in the form of metals, volatile gases and insoluble particles, as well as nicotine, a highly addictive alkaloid. Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug of abuse in the world, with a significant increase in the USA due to the increasing number of states that allow medical and recreational use. Of the over 70 phytocannabinoids in marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannibinol are the three main constituents. Both marijuana and tobacco smoking induce cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 through activation of the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor, and the induction effect between the two products is additive. Smoking cessation is associated with rapid downregulation of CYP1A enzymes. On the basis of the estimated half-life of CYP1A2, dose reduction of CYP1A drugs may be necessary as early as the first few days after smoking cessation to prevent toxicity, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. Nicotine is a substrate of CYP2A6, which is induced by oestrogen, resulting in lower concentrations of nicotine in females than in males, especially in females taking oral contraceptives. The significant effects of CYP3A4 inducers and inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of Δ(9)THC/CBD oromucosal spray suggest that CYP3A4 is the primary enzyme responsible for the metabolism of Δ(9)THC and CBD. Limited data also suggest that CBD may significantly inhibit CYP2C19. With the increasing use of marijuana and cannabis products, clinical studies are needed in order to determine the effects of other drugs on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

  12. Further amendments to general regulations of the Food and Drug Administration to incorporate tobacco products. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-02-02

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending certain of its general regulations to include tobacco products, where appropriate, in light of FDA's authority to regulate these products under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). With these amendments, tobacco products are subject to the same general requirements that apply to other FDA-regulated products.

  13. Acid preservation systems for food products

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberio, J. E.; Cirigiano, M. C.

    1984-10-16

    Fumaric acid is used in combination with critical amounts of acetic acid to preserve acid containing food products from microbiological spoilage in the absence of or at reduced levels of chemical preservative.

  14. Rice Breeding and World Food Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Peter R.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the relation of technology to the green revolution, the role of plant breeders in inducing change in stagnant agriculture and the tools required by production scientists to increase yields of basic food crops in developing countries. (BR)

  15. Rice Breeding and World Food Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Peter R.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the relation of technology to the green revolution, the role of plant breeders in inducing change in stagnant agriculture and the tools required by production scientists to increase yields of basic food crops in developing countries. (BR)

  16. Nutrigenomics of taste - impact on food preferences and food production.

    PubMed

    El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Stewart, Lindsay; Khataan, Nora; Fontaine-Bisson, Bénédicte; Kwong, Pauline; Ozsungur, Stephen; Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2007-01-01

    Food preferences are influenced by a number of factors such as personal experiences, cultural adaptations and perceived health benefits. Taste, however, is the most important determinant of how much a food is liked or disliked. Based on the response to bitter-tasting compounds such as phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) or 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), individuals can be classified as supertasters, tasters or nontasters. Sensitivity to bitter-tasting compounds is a genetic trait that has been recognized for more than 70 years. Genetic differences in bitter taste perception may account for individual differences in food preferences. Other factors such as age, sex and ethnicity may also modify the response to bitter-tasting compounds. There are several members of the TAS2R receptor gene family that encode taste receptors on the tongue, and genetic polymorphisms of TAS2R38 have been associated with marked differences in the perception of PTC and PROP. However, the association between TAS2R38 genotypes and aversion to bitter-tasting foods is not clear. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in other taste receptor genes have recently been identified, but their role in bitter taste perception is not known. Establishing a genetic basis for food likes/dislikes may explain, in part, some of the inconsistencies among epidemiologic studies relating diet to risk of chronic diseases. Identifying populations with preferences for particular flavors or foods may lead to the development of novel food products targeted to specific genotypes or ethnic populations.

  17. [Dietary fibers and new food products].

    PubMed

    Dudkin, M S; Shchelkunov, L F

    1998-01-01

    On purpose to preventive measures, and in some cases treatment of every possible diseases, plenty of the food additives and biologically active substance is used. A problem of a filling a deficient of rough vegetable food in the human ration has got rapid development lately. In this connection, in many countries are led studies of structure, composition, properties food fibres, technologies of their extraction from source vegetable raw material, use them as one of the components when making products of therapeutic and preventive nutrition. Nowadays importance of ensuring a sufficient contents food fibres in the human ration without doubts. To reach this possible two ways: either by inclusion to the diet of vegetables, fruits, berries, special sorts of bread, or manufacturing of concentrates of homogeneous and heterogeneous food fibres and addition them in formulae of various products.

  18. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319.881 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver...

  19. Food product design: emerging evidence for food policy.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamdani, Mohammed; Smith, Steven

    2017-03-01

    The research on the impact of specific brand elements such as food descriptors and package colors is underexplored. We tested whether a "light" color and a "low-calorie" descriptor on food packages gain favorable consumer perception ratings as compared with regular packages. Our online experiment recruited 406 adults in a 3 (product type: Chips versus Juice versus Yoghurt) × 2 (descriptor type: regular versus low-calorie) × 2 (color type: regular versus light) mixed design. Dependent variables were sensory (evaluations of the product's nutritional value and quality), product-based (evaluations of the product's physical appeal), and consumer-based (evaluations of the potential consumers of the product) scales. "Low-calorie" descriptors were found to increase sensory ratings as compared with regular descriptors and light-colored packages received higher product-based ratings as compared with their regular-colored counterparts. Food package color and descriptors present a promising venue for understanding preventative measures against obesity.[Formula: see text].

  20. Smoking as alternative to eating among restrained eaters: effect of food prime on young adult female smokers.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Michelle A; Correa, John B; Brandon, Thomas H

    2014-10-01

    Restrained eaters attempt to employ cognitive control over decisions to eat, which leaves them prone to eat in a disinhibited manner. This eating style is associated with elevated rates of smoking compared to the general population. The current study merged smoking and eating research methodology to investigate a mechanism that may underlie this association by testing whether a food prime, which has been found to elicit disinhibited eating in restrained eaters, could also motivate smoking as an alternative to eating. Using a randomized, 2-arm (Prime/No-Prime) between-subjects design, it was hypothesized that young adult female smokers who endorsed elevated dietary restraint and received a food prime would smoke more when given the option, compared to smokers who did not receive the food prime. As predicted, restraint score moderated the effect of the food prime upon smoking behavior (latency to first puff, β = 1, t = 3.8, df = 123, p < .001) and cigarette craving (β = -.79, t = -2.9, df = 127, p < .005), suggesting that after a food prime, restrained-eating smokers may opt to smoke to prevent further food intake. This study identified a pathway, namely violation of dietary restraint, linking eating and smoking behaviors that may contribute to the population-based covariance between disordered eating and tobacco use.

  1. Climate Change and Food Safety: Beyond Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziska, L. H.; Crimmins, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    There is merited interest in determining the extent of climate disruption on agricultural production and food security. However, additional aspects of food security, including food safety, nutrition and distribution have, overall, received less attention. Beginning in 2013, the U.S. Global Change Research Program as part of the ongoing National Climate Assessment, began a directed effort to evaluate the vulnerability of climate change to these under-represented aspects of food security for developed countries. Based on this extensive review of current science, several key findings were developed: (a) Climate change, including rising temperatures and changes in weather extremes, is expected to increase the exposure of food to certain pathogens and toxins; (b) Climate change will increase human exposure to chemical contaminants in food through several pathways; (c) The nutritional value of agriculturally important food crops, including cereals, will decrease in response to the ongoing increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide; (d) Increases in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events associated with climate change may disrupt food distribution. These findings will be presented as a means to describe the state of the science and expand on food security research in the broader context of public health and climate change.

  2. Skin advanced glycation end-products evaluation in infants according to the type of feeding and mother’s smoking habits

    PubMed Central

    Federico, Giovanni; Gori, Martina; Randazzo, Emioli; Vierucci, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to assess whether formula-fed infants had increased skin advanced glycation end-products compared with breastfed ones. We also evaluated the effect of maternal smoke during pregnancy and lactation on infant skin advanced glycation end-products accumulation. Methods: Advanced glycation end-product–linked skin autofluorescence was measured in 101 infants. Results: In infants born from non-smoking mothers, advanced glycation end-products were higher in formula-fed subjects than in breastfed subjects (0.80 (0.65–0.90) vs 1.00 (0.85–1.05), p < 0.001). Advanced glycation end-products in breastfed infants from smoking mothers were higher than in those from non-smoking mothers (0.80 (0.65–0.90) vs 1.00 (0.90–1.17), p = 0.009). Conclusion: Formula-fed infants had increased amounts of advanced glycation end-products compared with the breastfed ones, confirming that breast milk represents the best food for infants. Breastfed infants from mothers smoking during pregnancy and lactation had increased skin advanced glycation end-products, suggesting that smoke-related advanced glycation end-products transfer throughout breast milk. Moreover, advanced glycation end-products may already increase during gestation, possibly affecting fetal development. Thus, we reinforced that smoking must be stopped during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:28210490

  3. Electron irradiation of dry food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, Th.

    The interest of the industrial food producer is increasing in having the irradiation facility installed in the food processing chain. The throughput of the irradiator should be high and the residence time of the product in the facility should be short. These conditions can be accomplished by electron irradiators. To clarify the irradiation conditions spices taken out of the industrial process, food grade salt, sugar, and gums as models of dry food products were irradiated. With a radiation dose of 10 kGy microbial load can be reduced on 10∗∗4 microorganisms/g. The sensory properties of the spices were not changed in an atypical way. For food grade salt and sugar changes of colour were observed which are due to lattice defects or initiated browning. The irradiation of several gums led only in some cases to an improvement of the thickness properties in the application below 50°C, in most cases the thickness effect was reduced. The products were packaged before irradiation. But it would be possible also to irradiate the products without packaging moving the product through the iradiation field in a closed conveyor system.

  4. [Academic production on food labeling in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Câmara, Maria Clara Coelho; Marinho, Carmem Luisa Cabral; Guilam, Maria Cristina; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia

    2008-01-01

    To review and discuss academic production (theses and dissertations) on the topic of labeling of prepackaged foods in Brazil. A search of the database maintained by the Coordination for the Development of Higher Education Professionals (CAPES), one of the two Brazilian government research funding and support agencies, was conducted on the following keywords: "rotulagem" (labeling), "rotulagem nutricional" (food labeling) and "rótulo de alimentos" (food labels). The search covered the years 1987 (earliest year available) to 2004. We identified 49 studies on this topic. Content analysis identified three major themes: the extent to which food labels meet specific legal requirements (57.2%); the degree to which consumers understand the information on labels (22.4%); and the labeling of transgenic or genetically-modified foods (20.4%). Food labeling is a frequent topic and is adequately covered by the Brazilian academic production. In most of the studies, ineffective law enforcement appears to be the main factor in the lack of compliance with and disrespect for the food labeling rules and regulations in Brazil.

  5. Association between Smoking Status and Food and Nutrient Consumption in Japanese: a Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Endoh, Kaori; Kuriki, Kiyonori; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, in comparison with the rest of the world the death rate of lung cancer is low although the smoking rate is relatively high. This is the so-called "Japanese smoking paradox". A healthy diet is proposed to attenuate the risk without quitting smoking. We here examined the relationships between smoking status (SS) and the consumption of food and nutrient in Japan. Totals of 5,587 men and 2,718 women were divided into three (non-smokers, smokers and heavy smokers) and two (non-smokers and smokers) groups, respectively, according to pack-year, which represents the amount of smoking over a long period. Food and nutrient consumption was estimated with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Using general linear models, food and nutrient consumption was estimated for each group in men and women, separately. In men, SS was positively related to consumption of rice, 3 alcoholic beverages, carbohydrate, alcohol and other 8 foods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all) and negatively to those of protein animal, fat, fatty acids, dietary fiber, isoflavones and 36 other foods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all). In women, SS was positively associated with intake of 13 foods/nutrients, while being negatively associated with those of rice, energy, dietary fiber, and 14 other foods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all). Our results support lower intake of vegetables and fruits rich in antioxidants, which are thought as preventive factors for many diseases, in smokers.

  6. Association Between Food Distress and Smoking Among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Adults, Schenectady, New York, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Isaac H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Smoking and poor nutrition are 2 leading preventable causes of death. This study investigated associations between smoking and indicators of individual- and neighborhood-level food distress among racially and ethnically diverse urban adults. Methods We analyzed data from a health interview survey and a food environment assessment collected in 2013 and 2014 in Schenectady, New York. We constructed logistic regression models for current smoking with 6 indicators of food distress as exposure variables and sociodemographic characteristics, depression, anxiety, perceived stress, alcohol binge drinking, and disability as covariates. Results The analytic sample consisted of 1,917 adults; 59.4% were female, more than half were racial/ethnic minorities (26.2% non-Hispanic black, 10.3% Hispanic, 10.9% Guyanese, 4.0% multiracial and other), and 37.1% were current smokers. All indicators of food distress remained in the parsimonious final model: consuming 0 or 1 serving of fruits and vegetables daily more than doubled the odds of smoking, compared with consuming 5 or more servings (odds ratio [OR], 2.05). Food insecurity (OR, 1.77), receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits (OR, 1.79), using a food pantry (OR, 1.41), living in a neighborhood with low access to healthy food (OR, 1.40), and shopping for food often at a store with limited healthy food choices (OR, 1.38) were also associated with significantly higher odds of smoking. Conclusion Recognizing that smoking and food distress are independently associated would lead to innovative public health intervention strategies. We suggest stronger collaboration between tobacco and nutrition public health professionals to synergistically reduce tobacco use and improve nutrition behavior and food environments in communities. PMID:28840822

  7. Association Between Food Distress and Smoking Among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Adults, Schenectady, New York, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Hosler, Akiko S; Michaels, Isaac H

    2017-08-24

    Smoking and poor nutrition are 2 leading preventable causes of death. This study investigated associations between smoking and indicators of individual- and neighborhood-level food distress among racially and ethnically diverse urban adults. We analyzed data from a health interview survey and a food environment assessment collected in 2013 and 2014 in Schenectady, New York. We constructed logistic regression models for current smoking with 6 indicators of food distress as exposure variables and sociodemographic characteristics, depression, anxiety, perceived stress, alcohol binge drinking, and disability as covariates. The analytic sample consisted of 1,917 adults; 59.4% were female, more than half were racial/ethnic minorities (26.2% non-Hispanic black, 10.3% Hispanic, 10.9% Guyanese, 4.0% multiracial and other), and 37.1% were current smokers. All indicators of food distress remained in the parsimonious final model: consuming 0 or 1 serving of fruits and vegetables daily more than doubled the odds of smoking, compared with consuming 5 or more servings (odds ratio [OR], 2.05). Food insecurity (OR, 1.77), receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits (OR, 1.79), using a food pantry (OR, 1.41), living in a neighborhood with low access to healthy food (OR, 1.40), and shopping for food often at a store with limited healthy food choices (OR, 1.38) were also associated with significantly higher odds of smoking. Recognizing that smoking and food distress are independently associated would lead to innovative public health intervention strategies. We suggest stronger collaboration between tobacco and nutrition public health professionals to synergistically reduce tobacco use and improve nutrition behavior and food environments in communities.

  8. Soya--the medicine food product.

    PubMed

    Moţa, Maria; Gârgavu, Sigina; Popa, Simona; Schiopu, Simona; Panduru, N M; Moţa, E

    2007-01-01

    Soya, cultivated for more than 3000 years, is both a drug and a food product. It has numerous nutritional benefits, given by its content of isoflavones, essential amino acids, fibers, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. The use of soy reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases: it has an antioxidant effect, reduces cholesterol levels and modulates the endothelial function; the soy foods, rich in isoflavones, reduce the risk of breast cancer; men with heredocolateral cancer antecedents or with minimal increase of prostate antigen must consider the consumption of soy and soy foods. Soy and soy foods play an important role in reducing the incidence of osteoporosis and controlling the pre- and postmenopausal symptoms; the soy ingestion has benefic metabolic effects in patients with Diabetes Mellitus and overweight. Taking into consideration the nutritional profile of soy, the nutritionists should encourage the population to consume more soy and soy foods. Nevertheless, long term studies are needed to discover a possible "dark side" of soy consumption. Among the most popular soy foods we mention: soymilk, soy cheese (tofu), soy meat (pie, salami, textured soy in granule form). Most of the products are soy flour derivatives, while tofu is obtained by curdling soymilk.

  9. Effect of restricted food supply to pregnant rats inhaling carbon monoxide on fetal weight, compared with cigarette smoke exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tachi, N.; Aoyama, M.

    1986-12-01

    Although many studies have shown that cigarette smoking during gestation retarded the intrauterine fetal growth, resulting in the decreased birth weight in babies born to smoking mothers, neither causal substance nor mechanism of action to disturb fetal growth has been firmly established yet. Based on the human and animal studies, researchers have implied that fetal hypoxia induced by carbon monoxide (CO) in the cigarette smoke to be responsible for the event. A shortage in energy intake in smoking mothers also has been suspected to cause the retardation in fetal development. In the previous results (Tachi and Aoyama 1983), the weight increment in CO exposed animals was greater than that in the smoke exposed group. The phenomenon seemed to indicate that the reduction in the food intake occurs in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, and induces the disturbance of fetal development in association with CO. In the present study, so as to evaluate the role of energy intake upon the fetal development in utero, the experiment of paired feeding with pregnant rats exposed to cigarette smoke is designed in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, CO, or room air, following after the observation of the quantity of food taken by mothers exposed to cigarette smoke, CO, or room air.

  10. Food Production, Management, and Services. Production. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, LeRoy

    This teacher's guide contains 20 units of instruction for a course in production in the food production, management, and services area. Units of instruction are designed for use in more than one lesson or class period of instruction. Introductory materials include the following: a competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic…

  11. Food Production, Management, and Services. Production. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, LeRoy

    This teacher's guide contains 20 units of instruction for a course in production in the food production, management, and services area. Units of instruction are designed for use in more than one lesson or class period of instruction. Introductory materials include the following: a competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic…

  12. Sustainable potato production and global food security

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potato (Solanum spp.) is currently the leading non-grain commodity in the global food system with production exceeding 329 million metric tonnes in 2009. The extraordinary adaptive range of this species complex combined with ease of cultivation and high nutritional content have promoted steady i...

  13. Food Production, Management, and Services Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This food production, management, and services curriculum guide provides information needed by teachers. It begins with a list of the competencies and subcompetencies that are the essential elements and the sub-elements prescribed in the Texas Administrative Codes for Vocational Home Economics. Each chapter consists of teaching strategies. They…

  14. Food Production, Management, and Services: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumme, Debbie; Koukel, Sonja

    This curriculum guide provides occupationally specific training designed to develop knowledge and skills for employment in the area of food production, management, and services. Contents include the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEAKS); sample course outlines; instructional strategies organized topically by chapters, each containing a…

  15. Food Production, Management, and Services Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This food production, management, and services curriculum guide provides information needed by teachers. It begins with a list of the competencies and subcompetencies that are the essential elements and the sub-elements prescribed in the Texas Administrative Codes for Vocational Home Economics. Each chapter consists of teaching strategies. They…

  16. Food Production, Management, and Services: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumme, Debbie; Koukel, Sonja

    This curriculum guide provides occupationally specific training designed to develop knowledge and skills for employment in the area of food production, management, and services. Contents include the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEAKS); sample course outlines; instructional strategies organized topically by chapters, each containing a…

  17. Virtual Nitrogen Losses from Organic Food Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattell Noll, L.; Galloway, J. N.; Leach, A. M.; Seufert, V.; Atwell, B.; Shade, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is necessary for crop and animal production, but when it is lost to the environment, it creates a cascade of detrimental environmental impacts. The nitrogen challenge is to maximize the food production benefits of Nr, while minimizing losses to the environment. The first nitrogen footprint tool was created in 2012 to help consumers learn about the Nr losses to the environment that result from an individual's lifestyle choices. The nitrogen lost during food production was estimated with virtual nitrogen factors (VNFs) that quantify the amount of nitrogen lost to the environment per unit nitrogen consumed. Alternative agricultural systems, such as USDA certified organic farms, utilize practices that diverge from conventional production. In order to evaluate the potential sustainability of these alternative agricultural systems, our team calculated VNFs that reflect organic production. Initial data indicate that VNFs for organic grains and organic starchy roots are comparable to, but slightly higher than conventional (+10% and +20% respectively). In contrast, the VNF for organic vegetables is significantly higher (+90%) and the VNF for organic legumes is significantly lower (-90%). Initial data on organic meat production shows that organic poultry and organic pigmeat are comparable to conventional production (both <5% difference), but that the organic beef VNF is significantly higher (+30%). These data show that in some cases organic and conventional production are comparable in terms of nitrogen efficiency. However, since conventional production relies heavily on the creation of new reactive nitrogen (Haber-Bosch, biological nitrogen fixation) and organic production primarily utilizes already existing reactive nitrogen (manure, crop residue, compost), the data also show that organic production contributes less new reactive nitrogen to the environment than conventional production (approximately 70% less). Therefore, we conclude that on a local

  18. Effect of cigarette smoke on body weight, food intake and reproductive organs in adult albino rats.

    PubMed

    Audi, Sumedha S; Abraham, Marjorie E; Borker, Abhaya S

    2006-07-01

    One hour daily exposure to cigarette smoke for two months significantly decreased the body weight and food intake in male and female albino rats. The latency for conception increased significantly and the litter size decreased. Mortality rate per litter increased and grayish discoloration of the skin in the experimental group was the only congenital anomaly seen. Testes and ovaries showed a significant decrease in weight. The stroma of the ovaries were occupied by very few Graafian follicles. Testes showed disruption of the normal orderly progression of the spermatogonia. The tubules showed only one layer of spermatogonia and very few germinal cells. The number of sperms was less in the testes. The results show that exposure to cigarette smoke is detrimental to the reproductivity in both, male and female albino rats.

  19. Bioactive Peptides in Animal Food Products

    PubMed Central

    Albenzio, Marzia; Santillo, Antonella; Caroprese, Mariangela; della Malva, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria

    2017-01-01

    Proteins of animal origin represent physiologically active components in the human diet; they exert a direct action or constitute a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis upon food processing and consumption. Bioactive peptides may descend from the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, enzymes endogenous to raw food materials, and enzymes from microorganisms added during food processing. Milk proteins have different polymorphisms for each dairy species that influence the amount and the biochemical characteristics (e.g., amino acid chain, phosphorylation, and glycosylation) of the protein. Milk from other species alternative to cow has been exploited for their role in children with cow milk allergy and in some infant pathologies, such as epilepsy, by monitoring the immune status. Different mechanisms concur for bioactive peptides generation from meat and meat products, and their functionality and application as functional ingredients have proven effects on consumer health. Animal food proteins are currently the main source of a range of biologically-active peptides which have gained special interest because they may also influence numerous physiological responses in the organism. The addition of probiotics to animal food products represent a strategy for the increase of molecules with health and functional properties. PMID:28486398

  20. Bioactive Peptides in Animal Food Products.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, Marzia; Santillo, Antonella; Caroprese, Mariangela; Della Malva, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria

    2017-05-09

    Proteins of animal origin represent physiologically active components in the human diet; they exert a direct action or constitute a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis upon food processing and consumption. Bioactive peptides may descend from the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, enzymes endogenous to raw food materials, and enzymes from microorganisms added during food processing. Milk proteins have different polymorphisms for each dairy species that influence the amount and the biochemical characteristics (e.g., amino acid chain, phosphorylation, and glycosylation) of the protein. Milk from other species alternative to cow has been exploited for their role in children with cow milk allergy and in some infant pathologies, such as epilepsy, by monitoring the immune status. Different mechanisms concur for bioactive peptides generation from meat and meat products, and their functionality and application as functional ingredients have proven effects on consumer health. Animal food proteins are currently the main source of a range of biologically-active peptides which have gained special interest because they may also influence numerous physiological responses in the organism. The addition of probiotics to animal food products represent a strategy for the increase of molecules with health and functional properties.

  1. Marine biotechnology for production of food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Rosalee S; Morrissey, Michael T

    2007-01-01

    The marine world represents a largely untapped reservoir of bioactive ingredients that can be applied to numerous aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Due to the wide range of environments they survive in, marine organisms have developed unique properties and bioactive compounds that, in some cases, are unparalleled by their terrestrial counterparts. Enzymes extracted from fish and marine microorganisms can provide numerous advantages over traditional enzymes used in food processing due to their ability to function at extremes of temperature and pH. Fish proteins such as collagens and their gelatin derivatives operate at relatively low temperatures and can be used in heat-sensitive processes such as gelling and clarifying. Polysaccharides derived from algae, including algins, carrageenans, and agar, are widely used for their ability to form gels and act as thickeners and stabilizers in a variety of foods. Besides applications in food processing, a number of marine-derived compounds, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and photosynthetic pigments, are important to the nutraceutical industry. These bioactive ingredients provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of coronary heart disease, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activity. Despite the vast possibilities for the use of marine organisms in the food industry, tools of biotechnology are required for successful cultivation and isolation of these unique bioactive compounds. In this chapter, recent developments and upcoming areas of research that utilize advances in biotechnology in the production of food ingredients from marine sources are introduced and discussed.

  2. Relative exposure to beta-carbolines norharman and harman from foods and tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, T

    2004-11-01

    Norharman and harman are two heterocyclic beta-carboline (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) alkaloids with biological and potential toxicological activity that appear in foodstuffs and environmental sources. To assess the occurrence and distribution of these compounds and to estimate the exposure levels based on the detected amounts, numerous samples of foodstuffs and cigarette smoke were analysed by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence. The levels found of beta-carbolines were highly variable. Low processed foodstuffs (i.e. milk, yoghurt, uncooked meats and fish) did not contain norharman and harman above the detection limit. Others, however, contained relatively high concentrations (at the tens of ng g(-1) or microg l(-1) level) depending on the processing conditions as, for example, 'well-done' cooked meat and fish. The highest amounts of norharman and harman were found in brewed coffee (29-207 microg l(-1)), sauces (soy sauce and Tabasco, among others; 4-252 microg l(-1)), 'well done' cooked meat and fish (57-160 ng g(-1)), toasted bread (42-160 ng g(-1)), and fermented alcoholic beverages (n.d.-41 mug l(-1)). beta-Carbolines also occurred in a high amount in the mainstream of cigarette smoke (207-2780 ng/cigarette), which is an important contributor to daily exposure to these compounds. Based on these results, it is concluded that the daily exposure to beta-carbolines in humans might be from tens to hundreds of micrograms, with cigarette smoke, coffee, certain seasonings, cooked foods and alcoholic beverages, in this order, being the major contributors. Many other foodstuffs might also contribute with minor amounts of norharman and harman. Foods and tobacco smoke might be potential contributors to the reported endogenous presence of beta-carbolines in humans.

  3. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval does...

  4. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval does...

  5. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...

  6. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...

  7. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...

  8. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver cheese, liver spread, liver mush, liver paste, and liver pudding shall contain not...

  9. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver cheese, liver spread, liver mush, liver paste, and liver pudding shall contain not...

  10. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver cheese, liver spread, liver mush, liver paste, and liver pudding shall contain not...

  11. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver cheese, liver spread, liver mush, liver paste, and liver pudding shall contain not...

  12. Limitations in the characterisation of cigarette products using different machine smoking regimes.

    PubMed

    Purkis, Stephen W; Troude, Valerie; Duputié, Gerald; Tessier, Christian

    2010-12-01

    It is recognised that no single machine smoking regime can represent the different behaviours of individual human smokers. It has been argued that the current ISO standard regime provides machine yields that are somewhat low for certain cigarette designs compared to human intake. Various cigarette machine smoking regimes have been proposed as options for regulatory use to provide data that reflect "average" or "maximum" yields as related to human intake. Some public health representatives have proposed that the intense regime mandated for testing in Canada with 100% of the ventilation holes in the cigarette filter blocked, should be used for product characterisation and that it is not necessary that it should reflect general human smoking behaviour. We believe that this is a flawed approach because our studies and those of other workers demonstrate that the conditions generated in the cigarette when using this intense machine smoking regime are extreme in comparison to the conditions found for regimes based more realistically on human smoking. In this paper, we provide data to show that smokers modify their smoking intensity over the course of smoking in response to changes in draw resistance, smoke concentrations and smoke temperatures. We compare changes in and interactions between these parameters during puffing when smoking cigarettes of different designs. Cigarettes were smoked using various machine smoking regimes previously proposed for smoke testing as well as a regime based on human smoking data from an 'in-house' study. Puffing parameters were derived from this study to represent the 'average smoker' under laboratory conditions and equivalent to the 90th percentile when the studied smokers smoked under natural conditions. Biomarker data from human uptake studies have shown that ventilation is an effective cigarette design tool to reduce total smoke constituent uptake in humans so demonstrating that any blocking of filter ventilation is far from 100

  13. The future of sustainable food production.

    PubMed

    Ronald, Pamela; Adamchak, Raoul

    2010-03-01

    By the year 2050, the number of people on Earth is expected to increase from the current 6.7 to 9.2 billion. What is the best way to produce enough food to feed all these people? If we continue with current farming practices, vast amounts of wilderness will be lost, millions of birds and billions of insects will die, farm workers will be at increased risk for disease, and the public will lose billions of dollars as a consequence of environmental degradation. Clearly, there must be a better way to resolve the need for increased food production with the desire to minimize its impact.

  14. Research opportunities related to establishing standards for tobacco products under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S

    2012-01-01

    This paper was written in response to a request from the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The goal is to discuss some research directions related to establishing tobacco product standards under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which empowers the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to regulate tobacco products. Potential research related to tobacco product ingredients, nicotine, and harmful or potentially harmful constituents of tobacco products is discussed. Ingredients, which are additives, require less attention than nicotine and harmful or potentially harmful constituents. With respect to nicotine, the threshold level in tobacco products below which dependent users will be able to freely stop using the product if they choose to do so is a very important question. Harmful and potentially harmful constituents include various toxicants and carcinogens. An updated list of 72 carcinogens in cigarette smoke is presented. A crucial question is the appropriate levels of toxicants and carcinogens in tobacco products. The use of carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers to determine these levels is discussed. The need to establish regulatory standards for added ingredients, nicotine, and other tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents leads to many interesting and potentially highly significant research questions, which urgently need to be addressed.

  15. Research Opportunities Related to Establishing Standards for Tobacco Products Under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This paper was written in response to a request from the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The goal is to discuss some research directions related to establishing tobacco product standards under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which empowers the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to regulate tobacco products. Potential research related to tobacco product ingredients, nicotine, and harmful or potentially harmful constituents of tobacco products is discussed. Discussion: Ingredients, which are additives, require less attention than nicotine and harmful or potentially harmful constituents. With respect to nicotine, the threshold level in tobacco products below which dependent users will be able to freely stop using the product if they choose to do so is a very important question. Harmful and potentially harmful constituents include various toxicants and carcinogens. An updated list of 72 carcinogens in cigarette smoke is presented. A crucial question is the appropriate levels of toxicants and carcinogens in tobacco products. The use of carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers to determine these levels is discussed. Conclusions: The need to establish regulatory standards for added ingredients, nicotine, and other tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents leads to many interesting and potentially highly significant research questions, which urgently need to be addressed. PMID:21324834

  16. Food product tracing technology capabilities and interoperability.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Tejas; Zhang, Jianrong Janet

    2013-12-01

    Despite the best efforts of food safety and food defense professionals, contaminated food continues to enter the food supply. It is imperative that contaminated food be removed from the supply chain as quickly as possible to protect public health and stabilize markets. To solve this problem, scores of technology companies purport to have the most effective, economical product tracing system. This study sought to compare and contrast the effectiveness of these systems at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. It also determined if these systems can work together to better secure the food supply (their interoperability). Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) hypothesized that when technology providers are given a full set of supply-chain data, even for a multi-ingredient product, their systems will generally be able to trace a contaminated product forward and backward through the supply chain. However, when provided with only a portion of supply-chain data, even for a product with a straightforward supply chain, it was expected that interoperability of the systems will be lacking and that there will be difficulty collaborating to identify sources and/or recipients of potentially contaminated product. IFT provided supply-chain data for one complex product to 9 product tracing technology providers, and then compared and contrasted their effectiveness at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. A vertically integrated foodservice restaurant agreed to work with IFT to secure data from its supply chain for both a multi-ingredient and a simpler product. Potential multi-ingredient products considered included canned tuna, supreme pizza, and beef tacos. IFT ensured that all supply-chain data collected did not include any proprietary information or information that would otherwise

  17. Burning, smoke production, and smoke dispersion from oil-spill combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.; Mulholland, G.; Gross, D.; Baum, H.; Walton, W.

    1989-10-01

    The combustion of crude oil layers floated on water were studied to assess the potential of using combustion to mitigate oil spills. Burning rates for n-decane, toluene and Alberta Sweet crude oil were measured in a 1.2 m diameter pool. These were used to estimate the energy transfer rate required to vaporize the fuel as part of an energy balance at the liquid surface. Smoke emission per unit of fuel consumed was dramatically reduced in the case of burning oil layers thin enough to cause boiling in the supporting water layer. A new aging/dilution facility is described that allows for measurement of optical properties and sedimentation velocities as the smoke ages. These characteristics are important in estimating smoke properties downwind of the oil spill fire. A formulation is presented that will provide for estimates of downwind particulate deposition of the fire smoke for a steadily burning oil spill.

  18. Tobacco Industry Strategies to Minimize or Mask Cigarette Smoke: Opportunities for Tobacco Product Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Vaughan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The tobacco industry has developed technologies to reduce the aversive qualities of cigarette smoke, including secondhand smoke (SHS). While these product design changes may lessen concerns about SHS, they may not reduce health risks associated with SHS exposure. Tobacco industry patents were reviewed to understand recent industry strategies to mask or minimize cigarette smoke from traditional cigarettes. Methods: Patent records published between 1997 and 2008 that related to cigarette smoke were conducted using key word searches. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office web site was used to obtain patent awards, and the World Intellectual Property Organization’s Patentscope and Free Patents Online web sites were used to search international patents. Results: The search identified 106 relevant patents published by Japan Tobacco Incorporated, British America Tobacco, Philip Morris International, and other tobacco manufacturers or suppliers. The patents were classified by their intended purpose, including reduced smoke constituents or quantity of smoke emitted by cigarettes (58%, n = 62), improved smoke odor (25%, n = 26), and reduced visibility of smoke (16%, n = 18). Innovations used a variety of strategies including trapping or filtering smoke constituents, chemically converting gases, adding perfumes, or altering paper to improve combustion. Conclusions: The tobacco industry continues to research and develop strategies to reduce perceptions of cigarette smoke, including the use of additives to improve smoke odor. Surveillance and regulatory response to industry strategies to reduce perceptions of SHS should be implemented to ensure that the public health is adequately protected. PMID:22949571

  19. Recent developments in drying of food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valarmathi, T. N.; Sekar, S.; Purushothaman, M.; Sekar, S. D.; Rama Sharath Reddy, Maddela; Reddy, Kancham Reddy Naveen Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Drying is a dehydration process to preserve agricultural products for long period usage. The most common and cheapest method is open sun drying in which the products are simply laid on ground, road, mats, roof, etc. But the open sun drying has some disadvantages like dependent on good weather, contamination by dust, birds and animals consume a considerable quantity, slow drying rate and damages due to strong winds and rain. To overcome these difficulties solar dryers are developed with closed environment for drying agricultural products effectively. To obtain good quality food with reduced energy consumption, selection of appropriate drying process and proper input parameters is essential. In recent years several researchers across the world have developed new drying systems for improving the product quality, increasing the drying rate, decreasing the energy consumption, etc. Some of the new systems are fluidized bed, vibrated fluidized bed, desiccant, microwave, vacuum, freeze, infrared, intermittent, electro hydrodynamic and hybrid dryers. In this review the most recent progress in the field of drying of agricultural food products such as new methods, new products and modeling and optimization techniques has been presented. Challenges and future directions are also highlighted. The review will be useful for new researchers entering into this ever needed and ever growing field of engineering.

  20. Prevalence and challenge tests of Listeria monocytogenes in Belgian produced and retailed mayonnaise-based deli-salads, cooked meat products and smoked fish between 2005 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Uyttendaele, M; Busschaert, P; Valero, A; Geeraerd, A H; Vermeulen, A; Jacxsens, L; Goh, K K; De Loy, A; Van Impe, J F; Devlieghere, F

    2009-07-31

    Processed ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with a prolonged shelf-life under refrigeration are at risk products for listeriosis. This manuscript provides an overview of prevalence data (n=1974) and challenge tests (n=299) related to Listeria monocytogenes for three categories of RTE food i) mayonnaise-based deli-salads (1187 presence/absence tests and 182 challenge tests), ii) cooked meat products (639 presence/absence tests and 92 challenge tests), and iii) smoked fish (90 presence/absence tests and 25 challenge tests), based on data records obtained from various food business operators in Belgium in the frame of the validation and verification of their HACCP plans over the period 2005-2007. Overall, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in these RTE foods in the present study was lower compared to former studies in Belgium. For mayonnaise-based deli-salads, in 80 out of 1187 samples (6.7%) the pathogen was detected in 25 g. L. monocytogenes positive samples were often associated with smoked fish deli-salads. Cooked meat products showed a 1.1% (n=639) prevalence of the pathogen. For both food categories, numbers per gram never exceeded 100 CFU. L. monocytogenes was detected in 27.8% (25/90) smoked fish samples, while 4/25 positive samples failed to comply to the 100 CFU/g limit set out in EU Regulation 2073/2005. Challenge testing showed growth potential in 18/182 (9.9%) deli-salads and 61/92 (66%) cooked meat products. Nevertheless, both for deli-salads and cooked meat products, appropriate product formulation and storage conditions based upon hurdle technology could guarantee no growth of L. monocytogenes throughout the shelf-life as specified by the food business operator. Challenge testing of smoked fish showed growth of L. monocytogenes in 12/25 samples stored for 3-4 weeks at 4 degrees C. Of 45 (non-inoculated) smoked fish samples (13 of which were initially positive in 25 g) which were subjected to shelf-life testing, numbers exceeded 100 CFU/g in only one sample

  1. Reconciling Human Smoking Behavior and Machine Smoking Patterns: Implications for Understanding Smoking Behavior and the Impact on Laboratory Studies

    PubMed Central

    Marian, Catalin; O'Connor, Richard J.; Djordjevic, Mirjana; Rees, Vaughan W.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Shields, Peter G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Recent Food and Drug Administration legislation enables the mandating of product performance standards for cigarette smoke and the evaluation of manufacturers’ health claims for modified tobacco products. Laboratory studies used for these evaluations, and also to understand tobacco smoke toxicology, use machines to generate smoke. The goal of this review is to critically evaluate methods to assess human smoking behavior and replicate this in the laboratory. Methods Smoking behavior and smoking machine studies were identified using PubMed and publically available databases for internal tobacco company documents. Results The smoking machine was developed to generate smoke to allow for comparing cigarette tar and nicotine yields. The intent was to infer relative human disease risk, but this concept was flawed because humans tailor their smoking to the product and chemical yields and toxicological effects change with different smoking profiles. While smoking machines also allow for mechanistic assessments of smoking-related diseases, the interpretations also are limited. However, available methods to assess how humans puff could be used to provide better laboratory assessments, but these need to be validated. Separately, the contribution of smoke mouth-holding and inhalation to dose need to be assessed, because these parts of smoking are not captured by the smoking machine. Better comparisons of cigarettes might be done by tailoring human puff profiles to the product based on human studies and comparing results across regimens. Conclusions There are major research gaps that limit the use of smoking machine studies for informing tobacco control regulation and mechanistic studies. PMID:19959678

  2. Caregivers' interest in using smokeless tobacco products: Novel methods that may reduce children's exposure to secondhand smoke.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Theodore L; Tackett, Alayna P; Borrelli, Belinda

    2016-10-01

    The study examined caregivers' interest in using potentially reduced exposure tobacco products for smoking cessation, reduction, and to help them not smoke in places such as around their child, as all three methods would potentially lead to reduced secondhand smoke exposure for their children. A sample of 136 caregivers completed carbon monoxide testing to assess smoking status and a brief survey. Few caregivers had ever used potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (<1%), but a majority were interested in trying them as means of smoking reduction (54%), to quit/stay quit from smoking (51%), and to help them not smoke around their child or in the home (55%). Caregivers less motivated to quit smoking and with no home smoking ban were more interested in using potentially reduced exposure tobacco products to help them quit/stay quit from smoking (p < .05).

  3. International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Cambridge Filter Test (CFT) Smoking Regimen Data Comparisons in Tobacco Product Marketing Applications.

    PubMed

    Chae, Changyu; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the differences in TNCO (tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide) smoke yields generated under the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Cambridge Filter Test (CFT) smoking regimens. Twenty-nine commercial cigarette products from the US marketplace were acquired in 2015 and tested by measuring the TNCO smoke yields generated under these 2 nonintense smoking regimens. Data obtained demonstrated a linear relationship between the TNCO yields produced under the 2 smoking regimens (R(2) > 0.99). TNCO yields produced by each product were higher under the CFT smoking regimen than the ISO smoking regimen. We found that tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields were consistently 10% to 13% higher under the CFT smoking regimen than under the ISO smoking regimen. This strong correlation indicates that the 2 smoking regimens can be used to apply a correlation correction to CFT TNCO data and allow its comparison to ISO TNCO data in tobacco product marketing applications.

  4. Smoking initiation, tobacco product use, and secondhand smoke exposure among general population and sexual minority youth, Missouri, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jenna N; McElroy, Jane A; Everett, Kevin D

    2014-07-03

    Research indicates disparities in risky health behaviors between heterosexual and sexual minority (referred to as LGBQ; also known as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning) youth. Limited data are available for tobacco-use-related behaviors beyond smoking status. We compared data on tobacco age of initiation, product use, and secondhand smoke exposure between general population and LGBQ youth. Data for general population youth were from the statewide, representative 2011 Missouri Youth Tobacco Survey, and data for LGBQ youth were from the 2012 Out, Proud and Healthy survey (collected at Missouri Pride Festivals). Age-adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests were used to examine differences between general population (N = 1,547) and LGBQ (N = 410) youth, aged 14 to 18 years. Logistic regression models identified variables associated with current smoking. The 2 groups differed significantly on many tobacco-use-related factors. General population youth initiated smoking at a younger age, and LGBQ youth did not catch up in smoking initiation until age 15 or 16. LGBQ youth (41.0%) soon surpassed general population youth (11.2%) in initiation and proportion of current smokers. LGBQ youth were more likely to use cigars/cigarillos, be poly-tobacco users, and be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle (for never smokers). Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.18-1.62), female sex (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.13-2.37), LGBQ identity (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.50-5.94), other tobacco product use (OR = 8.67, 95% CI = 6.01-12.51), and SHS exposure in a vehicle (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 3.83-9.31) all significantly increased the odds of being a current smoker. This study highlights a need for the collection of data on sexual orientation on youth tobacco surveys to address health disparities among LGBQ youth.

  5. Effects of disordered eating and obesity on weight, craving, and food intake during ad libitum smoking and abstinence.

    PubMed

    Saules, Karen K; Pomerleau, Cynthia S; Snedecor, Sandy M; Brouwer, Rebecca Namenek; Rosenberg, Erin E M

    2004-11-01

    Although there is empirical support for the association between smoking, disordered eating, and subsequent weight gain upon smoking cessation, there have been no prospective studies to track changes in eating patterns during smoking abstinence and explore underlying biobehavioral processes. To help fill these gaps, we recruited four groups of women (N=48, 12/group) based on presence vs. absence of obesity and on low vs. high risk of severe dieting and/or binge-eating to participate in a laboratory study of eating in the context of ad libitum smoking and smoking abstinence. Participants [mean age 31.3 years; Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) 4.3; smoking rate 18.7 cigarettes/day] completed two sessions: one after ad libitum smoking, the other after 2 days' smoking abstinence, in counterbalanced order. After a half-day's restricted eating, participants watched a video, with measured amounts of preselected preferred food available throughout. Cigarettes were available during the ad libitum smoking session. High-risk women weighed more after 2 days' abstinence than during the ad libitum smoking condition, whereas low-risk women did not differ across conditions. Nicotine craving changed significantly more in anticipation of nicotine deprivation for high-BMI women than their low-BMI counterparts. Caloric intake was marginally attenuated during abstinence for low-BMI compared with high-BMI participants (P<.10), an effect primarily accounted for by differences in protein intake (P<.10). These findings suggest that low-BMI women may be less prone to weight gain during early abstinence, possibly because they compensate for metabolic changes induced by nicotine washout by eating less. Craving increases experienced by high-BMI women during abstinence under conditions of food deprivation may contribute to difficulty quitting in these women.

  6. Cigarette Smoking is Associated with Unhealthy Patterns of Food Consumption, Physical Activity, Sleep Impairment, and Alcohol Drinking in Chinese Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cappelli, Christopher; Li, Yawen; Tanenbaum, Hilary; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Palmer, Paula H.; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Objectives According to a recent national survey, tobacco use is a critical public health issue in China, with more than two thirds of Chinese males smoking. Findings in Western populations suggest that smoking may cluster with other health-risk behaviors. To explore these relationships in Chinese male adults, we utilized baseline data from the China Seven Cities Study (CSCS). Methods Male adults (N=12,122) were included. Smoking status was defined as never smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and current heavy smokers. Logistic regression was employed to investigate the association of cigarette smoking and patterns of food consumption, physical activity, and alcohol drinking. Results After controlling for age, socioeconomic status, and city residence, heavy smokers consumed significantly less vegetables, fruits, milk and other dairy products, spent significantly more time watching television, slept and exercised less, and got drunk or engaged in binge drinking more frequently compared to never, ex, or current smokers (p<0.05). Conclusion Findings suggest significant associations of heavy cigarette smoking with other health-risk behaviors in Chinese male adults, underscoring the need for tobacco control interventions for Chinese males. PMID:26321106

  7. Default mode network deactivation to smoking cue relative to food cue predicts treatment outcome in nicotine use disorder.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Claus, Eric D; Calhoun, Vince D; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Littlewood, Rae A; Mickey, Jessica; Arenella, Pamela B; Goodreau, Natalie; Hutchison, Kent E

    2017-02-23

    Identifying predictors of treatment outcome for nicotine use disorders (NUDs) may help improve efficacy of established treatments, like varenicline. Brain reactivity to drug stimuli predicts relapse risk in nicotine and other substance use disorders in some studies. Activity in the default mode network (DMN) is affected by drug cues and other palatable cues, but its clinical significance is unclear. In this study, 143 individuals with NUD (male n = 91, ages 18-55 years) received a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan during a visual cue task during which they were presented with a series of smoking-related or food-related video clips prior to randomization to treatment with varenicline (n = 80) or placebo. Group independent components analysis was utilized to isolate the DMN, and temporal sorting was used to calculate the difference between the DMN blood-oxygen-level dependent signal during smoke cues and that during food cues for each individual. Food cues were associated with greater deactivation compared with smoke cues in the DMN. In correcting for baseline smoking and other clinical variables, which have been shown to be related to treatment outcome in previous work, a less positive Smoke - Food difference score predicted greater smoking at 6 and 12 weeks when both treatment groups were combined (P = 0.005, β = -0.766). An exploratory analysis of executive control and salience networks demonstrated that a more positive Smoke - Food difference score for executive control network predicted a more robust response to varenicline relative to placebo. These findings provide further support to theories that brain reactivity to palatable cues, and in particular in DMN, may have a direct clinical relevance in NUD. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Experimental design-based isotope-dilution SPME-GC/MS method development for the analysis of smoke flavoring products.

    PubMed

    Giri, Anupam; Zelinkova, Zuzana; Wenzl, Thomas

    2017-09-08

    For the implementation of EU legislation related to smoke flavourings used or intended for use in or on foods (Regulation (EC) No 2065/2003) a method based on solid phase micro extraction (SPME) GC/MS was developed for the chracterisation of liquid smoke products. A statistically based experimental design (DoE) was used for method optimization. The best general conditions to quantitatively analyze the liquid smoke compounds were obtained with a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber, 60°C extraction temperature, 30 min of extraction time, 250°C desorption temperature, 180 sec of desorption time, agitation time of 15 sec and agitation speed of 250 rpm. Under the optimized condition 119 wood pyrolysis products including furan/pyran-derivatives, phenols, guaiacol, syringol, benzenediol and their derivatives, cyclic ketones and several other heterocyclic compounds were identified. The proposed method was repeatable (RSD% < 5) and the calibration functions were linear for all compounds under study. Nine isotopically labelled internal standards were used for improving quantification of analytes by compensating matrix effects that might affect headspace equilibrium and extractability of compounds. The optimized isotope dilution SPME-GC/MS based analytical method proved to be fit-for-purpose, allowing the rapid identification and quantification of volatile compounds in liquid smoke flavorings.

  9. Population Modeling of Modified Risk Tobacco Products Accounting for Smoking Reduction and Gradual Transitions of Relative Risk.

    PubMed

    Poland, Bill; Teischinger, Florian

    2017-03-27

    As suggested by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Modified Risk Tobacco Product (MRTP) Applications Draft Guidance, we developed a statistical model based on public data to explore the effect on population mortality of an MRTP resulting in reduced conventional cigarette smoking. Many cigarette smokers who try an MRTP persist as dual users while smoking fewer conventional cigarettes per day (CPD). Lower-CPD smokers have lower mortality risk based on large cohort studies. However, with little data on the effect of smoking reduction on mortality, predictive modeling is needed. We generalize prior assumptions of gradual, exponential decay of Excess Risk (ER) of death, relative to never-smokers, after quitting or reducing CPD. The same age-dependent slopes are applied to all transitions, including initiation to conventional cigarettes and to a second product (MRTP). A Monte Carlo simulation model generates random individual product use histories, including CPD, to project cumulative deaths through 2060 in a population with versus without the MRTP. Transitions are modeled to and from dual use, which affects CPD and cigarette quit rates, and to MRTP use only. Results in a hypothetical scenario showed high sensitivity of long-run mortality to CPD reduction levels and moderate sensitivity to ER transition rates. Models to project population effects of an MRTP should account for possible mortality effects of reduced smoking among dual users. In addition, studies should follow dual-user CPD histories and quit rates over long time periods to clarify long-term usage patterns and thereby improve health impact projections. We simulated mortality effects of a hypothetical Modified Risk Tobacco Product accounting for cigarette smoking reduction by smokers who add MRTP use. Data on relative mortality risk vs. cigarettes per day suggest that this reduction may have a substantial effect on mortality rates, unaccounted for in other models. This effect is weighed with additional

  10. Production of fungal glucoamylase for glucose production from food waste.

    PubMed

    Lam, Wan Chi; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2013-09-19

    The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA) production via solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd) 2.20 × 10-3minutes-1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes.

  11. Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Wan Chi; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA) production via solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd) 2.20 × 10−3 minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes. PMID:24970186

  12. Considerations for comparative tobacco product assessments based on smoke constituent yields.

    PubMed

    Belushkin, M; Jaccard, G; Kondylis, A

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of more than 8000 smoke constituents. The quantification of selected mainstream smoke constituent yields is one of the methods to evaluating and comparing the performance of different products. Numerous regulatory and scientific advisory bodies have used cigarette smoke constituent yield data for reporting and product comparison purposes. For more than a decade limitations of the indiscriminate application of traditional statistical methods such as the t-test for differences in comparative smoke constituent yield assessments lacking a specific study design, have been highlighted. In the present study, the variability of smoke constituent yields is demonstrated with data obtained under the ISO smoking regime for the Kentucky reference cigarette 3R4F and one commercial brand, analyzed on several occasions between 2007 and 2014. Specifically it is shown that statistically significant differences in the yields of selected smoke constituents do not readily translate to differences between products, and that tolerances need to be defined. To this end, two approaches have been proposed in the literature--minimal detectable differences, and the statistical equivalence. It is illustrated how both approaches provide more meaningful comparison outcomes than the statistical t-test for differences. The present study provides considerations relevant for comparative tobacco product assessments both in the scientific and regulatory contexts.

  13. The ecological background of food production.

    PubMed

    Rabbinge, R

    1993-01-01

    In the industrialized countries dramatic decreases in the number of people employed in agriculture have been made possible by a rise in soil and labour productivity. There is scope for these to improve further, particularly in developing countries. Potential yields are determined by the characteristics of the crop, local temperature and sunlight. Because the availability of nutrients and that of water are limiting for at least part of the growing season in most agricultural lands, attainable yields are lower than potential yields. Proper management of nutrient inputs, such that optimum use is made of each, can reduce this gap without causing negative environmental side-effects. Actual yields are lower than attainable yields because of growth-reducing factors, such as pests, diseases and weeds. For sustainable agriculture these should be controlled mainly by biological measures. There are many possibilities for this, thus biocides may be used as a last resort not as preventive insurance. Potential yields of rice and sugarcane can reach 30,000 kg ha-1 per year of consumable organic matter, sufficient to feed 120 people. Such yields cannot be achieved on all agricultural land, but it is estimated that world food production could support a population of 80 thousand million, if they were all vegetarian and required only 1500 m2 for non-food-related purposes. The green revolutions that occurred in the Western industrialized countries in the late 1940s and early 1950s and in Asia in the late 1960s and early 1970s need to be followed by a similar increase in agricultural productivity in Africa and West Asia to feed their rapidly growing populations. Better use of fertilizers and good water management require well-educated farmers with the financial means to implement long-term strategies. If these developments are managed properly, food production for the ever-increasing human population can be guaranteed and the burden on the environment and natural habitats reduced

  14. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    SciTech Connect

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed.

  15. Food Production Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ellen; And Others

    This curriculum guide, part of a multi-volume dietetic support personnel training program, consists of materials (15 units) for use in training future food production workers. Covered in the first part of the guide are nutrition in food production and diet therapy. The second part of the guide deals with sanitation and safety in food production.…

  16. Food Production Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ellen; And Others

    This curriculum guide, part of a multi-volume dietetic support personnel training program, consists of materials (15 units) for use in training future food production workers. Covered in the first part of the guide are nutrition in food production and diet therapy. The second part of the guide deals with sanitation and safety in food production.…

  17. Smoking: An independent risk factor for lost productivity in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Adam P; Hoehle, Lloyd P; Phillips, Katie M; Caradonna, David S; Gray, Stacey T; Sedaghat, Ahmad R

    2017-08-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is associated with a significant loss of patient productivity that costs billions of dollars every year. Smoking is associated with worsening sinonasal symptoms, but its effect on lost productivity in CRS patients has yet to be described. Therefore, we sought to determine the association between smoking and productivity in patients with CRS. Prospective cross-sectional cohort study of 140 patients with CRS. Sinonasal symptom severity was measured using the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcomes Test. Lost productivity was assessed by asking participants how many days of work and/or school they missed in the last 3 months due to CRS. Associations were sought between lost productivity and smoking. Participants missed a mean of 3.0 days (standard deviation = 12.8 days) of work or school due to CRS. Having any history of smoking was associated with 6 days of lost productivity due to CRS (adjusted β = 6.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64 to 11.77, P = .031). Although the number of active smokers in our study cohort was very small (N = 6), we performed a univariate association between smoking status, considering former smokers and active smokers separately, and found that active smoking (β = 11.75, 95% CI: 2.11 to 21.40, P = .018) had a much larger impact on CRS-related productivity loss than that experienced by former smokers (β = 4.45, 95% CI: -0.32 to 9.23, P = .070). Smoking (likely driven by active smoking) is independently associated with missed days of work or school in patients with CRS. Further study is needed to determine whether interventions directed at smoking may impact CRS-related productivity loss. 2c Laryngoscope, 127:1742-1745, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Nicotine quantity and packaging disclosure in smoked and smokeless tobacco products in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Murthy, Pratima; Shivhare, Parul

    2015-01-01

    A variety of smoked and smokeless tobacco products with varying nicotine content are accessible in India. Nicotine quantity in tobacco products has direct bearing on tobacco dependence. Our objective was to estimate nicotine content in various types of smoked and smokeless products. Disclosure for essential health warning was also checked. Liquid-liquid extraction was used for nicotine extraction and high-performance thin layer chromatography technique was applied for quantification of nicotine in seventy-one smoked and smokeless tobacco products. Significant variation in nicotine content was observed across products. In smoked tobacco, nicotine content varied from 1.01 to 13.0 mg/rod, while in smokeless tobacco products it ranged from 0.8 mg/g to 50.0 mg/g. Moisture content varied from 9% to 21%. This work lists a range of smoked and smokeless tobacco products available in this region. We report a wide variability in nicotine quantity across smoked and smokeless tobacco products. Such variation in nicotine content may have important implications for tobacco cessation interventions and policies.

  19. Acrolein Yields in Mainstream Smoke From Commercial Cigarette and Little Cigar Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Todd L; Brewer, Tim M; Young, Mimy; Holman, Matthew R

    2017-07-01

    Many carbonyls are produced from the combustion of tobacco products and many of these carbonyls are harmful or potentially harmful constituents of mainstream cigarette smoke. One carbonyl of particular interest is acrolein, which is formed from the incomplete combustion of organic matter and the most significant contributor to non-cancer respiratory effects from cigarette smoke. Sheet-wrapped cigars, also known as "little cigars," are a type of tobacco products that have not been extensively investigated in literature. This study uses standard cigarette testing protocols to determine the acrolein yields from sheet-wrapped cigars. Sheet-wrapped cigar and cigarette products were tested by derivatizing the mainstream smoke with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) solution and then quantifying the derivatives using conventional analytical systems. The results demonstrate that sheet-wrapped cigars can be tested for acrolein yields in mainstream smoke using the same methods used for the evaluation of cigarettes. The variability in the sheet-wrapped cigars and cigarettes under the International Organization for Standardization smoking regimen is statistically similar at the 95% confidence interval; however, increased variability is observed for sheet-wrapped cigar products under the Health Canada Intense (CI) smoking regimen. The amount of acrolein released by smoking sheet-wrapped cigars can be measured using standard smoking regimen currently used for cigarettes. The sheet-wrapped cigars were determined to yield similar quantity of acrolein from commercial cigarette products using two standard smoking regimens. This article reports on the measured quantity of acrolein from 15 commercial sheet-wrapped cigars using a validated standard smoking test method that derivatizes acrolein in the mainstream smoke with DNPH solution, and uses Liquid Chromatography/Ultra-Violet Detection (LC/UV) for separation and detection. These acrolein yields were similar to the levels found in

  20. An evaluation of a theatre production to encourage non-smoking among elementary age children: 2 Smart 2 Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Perry, C.; Komro, K.; Dudovitz, B.; Veblen-Mortenson, S.; Jeddeloh, R.; Koele, R.; Gallanar, I.; Farbakhsh, K.; Stigler, M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the impact of a theatre production on smoking-related attitudes, norms, and intentions of children in grades 1-6 (aged 6-12 years).
DESIGN—Seventeen schools were randomly selected among 160 that were participating in the implementation of the theatre production 2 Smart 2 Smoke. Schools that participated in the theatre production after 3 December 1997 were assigned as control schools. Assignment of schools to a given date for the theatre production was a random process. Students in grades 1-6 were surveyed before and after the theatre production and associated activities. The data were examined for pretest-posttest differences and intervention-control differences. The school was the unit of analysis.
SETTING—Elementary schools in the Twin Cities metropolitan area.
PARTICIPANTS—Students in grades 1-6 in 17 elementary schools.
INTERVENTION—Two plays 2 Smart 2 Smoke for grades 1-3 (6-8 year olds) and grades 4-6 (9-12 year olds), respectively, with follow-up activities for the classroom and home. A national theatre company performed the plays at the schools.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Intention to smoke in the future, normative expectations about how many people smoke, functional meanings of smoking, expected outcomes of smoking.
RESULTS—10% more students reported that they would never smoke a cigarette after the theatre production. Students in grades 4-6 showed changes in the functional meanings and expected outcomes of smoking. Students in grades 1-3 showed changes in normative expectations.
CONCLUSIONS—Further research on the impact of live theatre productions as a smoking prevention strategy is recommended.


Keywords: smoking prevention; children; theatre production PMID:10478401

  1. Effects of Cigarette Smoking and Family History of Alcoholism on Sweet Taste Perception and Food Cravings in Women

    PubMed Central

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Mennella, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite popular beliefs that smoking affects the sensitivity and liking of sweet-tasting foods and beverages, few psychophysical studies have examined this phenomenon and none have taken into account the individual’s family history of alcoholism (FH+), a predictor of heightened sweet preferences. Methods A within- and between-subjects study was conducted to determine the effect of both cigarette smoking and an acute exposure to nicotine on sweet taste sensitivity and preferences in women. Two groups were studied on 2 days separated by 1 week: women who were current smokers (n = 27, 18 were FH+) and those who never smoked in their lifetime (n = 22, 9 were FH+). Current smokers smoked nicotine-containing cigarettes during 1 test session and nicotine-free cigarettes during the other. The procedures were identical during both test sessions for the group of never smokers, with the exception that they did not smoke. Two-alternative staircase methods and forced-choice tracking procedures were used to assess sucrose thresholds and preferences, respectively, during both test session. Standardized questionnaires were administered to assess food cravings as well as smoking and alcohol usage and dependence. The Family Interview for Genetic Studies was used to detect alcoholism according to the DSM III criteria for family members up to second-degree relatives. Results Acute exposure to nicotine did not affect sucrose detection thresholds or preferences, but smokers had significantly higher sucrose detection thresholds than never smokers. The greater the smoking dose in pack-years, the lower the sucrose sensitivity. Regardless of smoking status, women who were FH+ preferred significantly higher sucrose concentrations and craved sweets more often than women who were not. Conclusions Both smoking and having a family history of alcoholism had differential effects on sweet taste. Smoking was associated with decreased sweet taste sensitivity whereas having a family

  2. [Comparative assessment of the cancer risk of the products of smoking and ambient air pollution].

    PubMed

    Litvichenko, O N; Chernichenko, N A; Kovalenko, T V; Zinchenko, G G

    2006-01-01

    Danger from aerogenic dose carcinogens entering the body with smoking products is shown to be essentially greater than that from aerogenic loading in industrial centers. The individual and population risks for smoking-induced cancer and the economic damage to the country, associated with the treatment of a large number of patients are given. To make a complete assessment of the carcinogenic risk of tobacco smoking, it is necessary to estimate all its carcinogenic constituents, their precursors, and possible transformation products at elevated temperatures.

  3. Changes in body weight and food choice in those attempting smoking cessation: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fear of weight gain is a barrier to smoking cessation and significant cause of relapse for many people. The provision of nutritional advice as part of a smoking cessation programme may assist some in smoking cessation and perhaps limit weight gain. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a structured programme of dietary advice on weight change and food choice, in adults attempting smoking cessation. Methods Cluster randomised controlled design. Classes randomised to intervention commenced a 24-week intervention, focussed on improving food choice and minimising weight gain. Classes randomised to control received “usual care”. Results Twenty-seven classes in Greater Glasgow were randomised between January and August 2008. Analysis, including those who continued to smoke, showed that actual weight gain and percentage weight gain was similar in both groups. Examination of data for those successful at giving up smoking showed greater mean weight gain in intervention subjects (3.9 (SD 3.1) vs. 2.7 (SD 3.7) kg). Between group differences were not significant (p = 0.23, 95% CI −0.9 to 3.5). In comparison to baseline improved consumption of fruit and vegetables and breakfast cereal were reported in the intervention group. A higher percentage of control participants continued smoking (74% vs. 66%). Conclusions The intervention was not successful at minimising weight gain in comparison to control but was successful in facilitating some sustained improvements in the dietary habits of intervention participants. Improved quit rates in the intervention group suggest that continued contact with advisors may have reduced anxieties regarding weight gain and encouraged cessation despite weight gain. Research should continue in this area as evidence suggests that the negative effects of obesity could outweigh the health benefits achieved through reductions in smoking prevalence. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN73824458 PMID

  4. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the Federal...

  5. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the Federal...

  6. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  7. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  8. Improving the Potential for Increased World Food Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A stable world food production is completely dependent on the ability of people to grow, harvest, and utilize plants as a source of food. The United Nations estimates that in order to feed the world’s increasing population that by the year 2040 agriculture will have to increase food production by a...

  9. Food, fuel, and feed production with microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.; Weissman, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    Large-scale (>10 hectares) microalgae cultures are being used in several countries around the world for the production of human food supplements and specialty animal (mainly aquaculture) feeds. Microalgae cultures are also extensively used in wastewater treatment and being produced on a small scale for soil inoculants and diagnostic reagents. In addition, microalgae cultures are being investigated for their potential in fuel production and CO{sub 2} utilization, as a method for greenhouse gas mitigation. A pilot plant effort in New Mexico, under a US Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Lab. subcontract, demonstrated the feasibility of cultivating a number of algal species in large outdoor ponds on brackish waters. Building on this experience, SeaAg, Inc. has developed a process for the mass culture of microalgae as a source of bivalve feeds. In this process, algae (diatoms) are cultured in large open ponds on seawater, and then fed to clams and oysters, which filter and convert the algal cells into high value protein. The SeaAg process is another application of a technology which promises to eventually result in large-scale commercial production of microalgae for a variety of useful products and processes.

  10. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed.

  11. Natural and synthetic products used for the treatment of smoke inhalation: a patent review.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, Fernanda Oliveira; Silva, Érika Ramos; Felipe, Fernanda Araújo; Teixeira, Luciana Garcez Barretto; Zago, Luciana Beatriz Silva; Nunes, Paula Santos; Shanmugam, Saravanan; Serafini, Mairim Russo; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza

    2017-08-01

    Inhalation injury is the leading cause of death in burn patients and is usually caused by the uninhibited absorption of smoke, which has an extremely toxic effect on the respiratory system. The physiopathology of inhalation injury covers multiple factors and the injured respiratory system may present deterioration in a few hours. Areas covered: In this present review, we analyzed patents based on both natural and synthetic products developed for the treatment of smoke inhalation. We found 14 patents in Espacenet, 25 in WIPO and none in the USPTO data search. Expert opinion: Several previous reports on treatments used for smoke inhalation are discussed. Although there are a number of research based products for this injury, there has been no review of the patents dealing with treatments for smoke inhalation. The development of novel natural or synthetic products are discussed in detail in the review.

  12. Indoor second-hand smoking could mediate the associations of foods and adult happiness: Scottish Health Survey, 2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-02-01

    There has been literature on the relationship of food and happiness, but the role of second-hand smoking is less understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine if second-hand smoking might mediate the associations of food consumption and subjective happiness in a country-wide and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the Scottish Health Survey, 2012. Information on demographics, frequency of consuming certain foods and subjective happiness was obtained by household interview. Chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic regression modelling were performed. Of the included Scottish adults aged 16-99 (n = 4815), 15.4 % (n = 677) reported that they were unhappy. It was observed that eating lots of potatoes, some meat, some oily fish and some pastries were inversely associated with unhappiness. People who consumed vegetables and fruits on the day before the health interview were also found to be less unhappy, compared to their counterparts. However, the protective effect from fruits disappeared after additionally adjusting for indoor second-hand smoking while the protective effects from other foods mentioned above have also been lessened. In addition, cumulatively people who consumed more "happy foods" (mentioned above) were more likely to report subjective happiness, compared to those who did not consume any of those. For future research, longitudinally monitoring on the associations among food, household environment and psychological well-being and both the short-term and long-term effects would be suggested. For policy implications, Removal of indoor second-hand smoking to retain the protective effects from happy foods on well-being should be encouraged.

  13. Increased Myeloid Cell Production and Lung Bacterial Clearance in Mice Exposed to Cigarette Smoke.

    PubMed

    Basilico, Paola; Cremona, Tiziana P; Oevermann, Anna; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Benarafa, Charaf

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although most patients with COPD are smokers, the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on clearance of lung bacterial pathogens and on immune and inflammatory responses are incompletely defined. Here, clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and associated immune responses were examined in mice exposed to cigarette smoke or after smoking cessation. Mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 weeks or 4 months demonstrated decreased lung bacterial burden compared with air-exposed mice when infected 16 to 24 hours after exposure. When infection was performed after smoke cessation, bacterial clearance kinetics of mice previously exposed to smoke reversed to levels comparable to those of control mice, suggesting that the observed defects were not dependent on adaptive immunological memory to bacterial determinants found in smoke. Comparing cytokine levels and myeloid cell production before infection in mice exposed to cigarette smoke with mice never exposed or after smoke cessation revealed that reduced bacterial burden was most strongly associated with higher levels of IL-1β and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the lungs and with increased neutrophil reserve and monocyte turnover in the bone marrow. Using Serpinb1a-deficient mice with reduced neutrophil numbers and treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor showed that increased neutrophil numbers contribute only in part to the effect of smoke on infection. Our findings indicate that cigarette smoke induces a temporary and reversible increase in clearance of lung pathogens, which correlates with local inflammation and increased myeloid cell output from the bone marrow.

  14. Smoking as a product of gene–environment interaction

    PubMed Central

    Oreland, Lars; Kronstrand, Robert; Leppert, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    A strong hereditary influence on smoking has been demonstrated. As one of the candidate genes in relation to smoking, the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) has been suggested, however with conflicting results. In recent studies, it has been shown that genotypic and environmental (G*E) factors interact in the shaping of a variety of phenotypic expressions. The objective of the present study was to investigate the interaction between a variation in the 5-HTTLPR and family environment in relation to smoking habits, nicotine dependence, and nicotine and cotinine levels in hair samples. A random Swedish adolescent population sample (n = 785), from which 200 individuals were stratified regarding behaviour, was genotyped for 5-HTTLPR and assessed with semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire, and hair analyses of nicotine and cotinine. The 5-HTTLPR gene interacted with a poor family environment to predict smoking habits, as well as nicotine and cotinine levels. The risk of being a smoker was increased 13 times for an individual with a combination of the 5-HTTLPR LS genotype and a poor family environment in comparison with the Homozygous Long-Long (LL) genotype and a good family environment. PMID:19396697

  15. Toxicant exposure from smoking a little cigar: further support for product regulation.

    PubMed

    Pickworth, Wallace B; Rosenberry, Zachary R; Koszowski, Bartosz

    2017-05-01

    Although numerous studies have documented the prevalence and increasing use of little cigars and other cigar products, the present study is the first direct, head-to-head laboratory comparison of little cigar and cigarette smoking. The study addressed a fundamental objective to compare exposure and use characteristics of little cigar and cigarette smoking. Smoking patterns, toxicant exposure and subjective measures were collected and analysed in 21 adults after smoking a little cigar (Winchester) and a cigarette (own brand). Participants were dual users of little cigars and cigarettes. Similar to cigarettes, little cigars delivered substantial nicotine and relatively more carbon monoxide. Puff volume, puff duration and time to smoke were significantly greater after cigarettes, but the temporal pattern of smoking more intensively at the beginning was similar in little cigars and cigarettes. Both little cigars and cigarettes reduced urge to smoke. Participants consistently mentioned that the lower cost of little cigars was a reason for initiation and continuation of their use. The results support the notion that regulation of little cigars is appropriate in light of public health considerations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. A new perspective on microbial landscapes within food production

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Lewis, Zachery T; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Mills, David A

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput, ‘next-generation’ sequencing tools offer many exciting new possibilities for food research. From investigating microbial dynamics within food fermentations to the ecosystem of the food-processing built environment, amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, and transcriptomics present novel applications for exploring microbial communities in, on, and around our foods. This review discusses the many uses of these tools for food-related and food facility-related research and highlights where they may yield nuanced insight into the microbial world of food production systems. PMID:26773388

  17. A new perspective on microbial landscapes within food production.

    PubMed

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Lewis, Zachery T; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Mills, David A

    2016-02-01

    High-throughput, 'next-generation' sequencing tools offer many exciting new possibilities for food research. From investigating microbial dynamics within food fermentations to the ecosystem of the food-processing built environment, amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, and transcriptomics present novel applications for exploring microbial communities in, on, and around our foods. This review discusses the many uses of these tools for food-related and food facility-related research and highlights where they may yield nuanced insight into the microbial world of food production systems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Safety aspects of the production of foods and food ingredients from insects.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Oliver; Rumpold, Birgit; Holzhauser, Thomas; Roth, Angelika; Vogel, Rudi F; Quasigroch, Walter; Vogel, Stephanie; Heinz, Volker; Jäger, Henry; Bandick, Nils; Kulling, Sabine; Knorr, Dietrich; Steinberg, Pablo; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2017-06-01

    At present, insects are rarely used by the European food industry, but they are a subject of growing interest as an alternative source of raw materials. The risks associated with the use of insects in the production of foods and food ingredients have not been sufficiently investigated. There is a lack of scientifically based knowledge of insect processing to ensure food safety, especially when these processes are carried out on an industrial scale. This review focuses on the safety aspects that need to be considered regarding the fractionation of insects for the production of foods and food ingredients. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Internet food marketing on popular children's websites and food product websites in Australia.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; Bochynska, Katarzyna; Kornman, Kelly; Chapman, Kathy

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the nature and extent of food marketing on popular children's websites and food product websites in Australia. Food product websites (n 119) and popular children's websites (n 196) were selected based on website traffic data and previous research on frequently marketed food brands. Coding instruments were developed to capture food marketing techniques. All references to food on popular children's websites were also classified as either branded or non-branded and according to food categories. Websites contained a range of marketing features. On food product websites these marketing features included branded education (79.0% of websites), competitions (33.6%), promotional characters (35.3%), downloadable items (35.3%), branded games (28.6%) and designated children's sections (21.8%). Food references on popular children's websites were strongly skewed towards unhealthy foods (60.8% v. 39.2% healthy food references; P<0.001), with three times more branded food references for unhealthy foods. Branded food references displayed similar marketing features to those identified on food product websites. Internet food marketing uses a range of techniques to ensure that children are immersed in brand-related information and activities for extended periods, thereby increasing brand familiarity and exposure. The relatively unregulated marketing environment and increasing use of the Internet by children point to the potential increase in food marketing via this medium. Further research is required to investigate the impact of Internet food marketing on children's food preferences and consumption, and regulatory options to protect children.

  20. Alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation among homeless youth in los angeles county.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Shadel, William G; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 70% of homeless youth smoke cigarettes, but their use of alternative tobacco products (ATPs) is unknown. This paper reports on ATP use among past-month smokers in Los Angeles County, including whether it differs by demographic characteristics, homelessness severity, past-year quit attempts, and readiness to quit smoking. Given the growing popularity of e-cigarettes, we also report on perceptions of harm and reasons for using this product. We surveyed 292 unaccompanied homeless youth who were randomly sampled from street sites. Participants had smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and 1 cigarette during the past month. Seventy-two percent of youth reported past-month ATP use (e-cigarettes = 51%; little cigars/cigarillos = 46%; hookah = 31%; other smokeless tobacco product = 24%; chewing tobacco/moist snuff = 19%). Current ATP use was unrelated to most demographic characteristics or having a past-year quit attempt. However, youth who planned to quit smoking in the next 30 days were significantly less likely to report current use of hookahs, other smokeless tobacco products, or e-cigarettes. Among lifetime e-cigarette users, the most common reasons for use included not having to go outside to smoke (38%) and being able to deal with situations or places where they cannot smoke (36%); it was less common to report using e-cigarettes to quit smoking (17%-18%). Dual use of ATPs among homeless youth smokers is common and is more likely among those who have no immediate plans to quit smoking. Effective and easily disseminable strategies for reducing all forms of tobacco use among homeless youth are urgently needed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Targets to increase food production: One Health implications.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Barry J; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus; Fahey, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    The increasing world population means that there is a requirement to expand global food production. Looking at the Republic of Ireland as an example, the risks and opportunities associated with the expansion of food production are outlined, particularly in relation to zoonoses transmission. A One Health approach to sustainable food production is required to avert a potential public health problem associated with increased agricultural expansion.

  2. Current and potential barley grain food products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Barley has been an important food source from the beginning of human civilization, and remains an important staple food crop in a few countries, although its consumption has decreased sharply with the ample availability of more palatable and versatile food crops such as rice and wheat. In many Weste...

  3. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.

  4. Effects of smoking and nicotine on human prostacyclin and thromboxane production in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, J; Ylikorkala, O; Viinikka, L

    1986-02-01

    We studied the effects of smoking and nicotine on the production of proaggregatory thromboxane A2 (TxA2), antiaggregatory prostacyclin (epoprostenol, PGI2), and on lipid peroxidation in vivo and in vitro. In the in vivo study, serum concentrations of thromboxane B2 (TxB2), a stable metabolite of TxA2, increased immediately after smoking three cigarettes but not after smoking the equivalent amount of tobacco in a pipe, whereas serum lipid peroxide values did not change in either group. In vitro, nicotine (2 X 10(-3) mol/liter) inhibited pulmonary TxB2 production by 70% and simultaneously stimulated the production of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, a stable metabolite of PGI2, by 40%, which suggest that nicotine does not exert its effect at the cyclooxygenase level. During aggregation in platelet-rich plasma, TxB2 production was inhibited by 53% with 2 X 10(-3) mol/liter of nicotine, and during whole blood clotting the inhibition was 34% with 2 X 10(-4) mol/liter of nicotine. Thus the rise in cigarette smokers' serum TxB2 was probably caused by some constituent of cigarette smoke other than nicotine. The increased production of TxA2 following cigarette smoking may provide one explanation for the increased incidence of atherosclerosis and its complications in cigarette smokers.

  5. Food Production and Antimicrobial Resistance – The Next 100 Years

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Production of food is complex and ensuring the safety of food for human consumption provides serious challenges. Since 1996 the U.S. has conducted surveillance on food borne and commensal antimicrobial resistance bacteria through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System - Enteric Bac...

  6. [Content of N-nitrosamines in smoked fish and canned food].

    PubMed

    Kim, I N; Kim, G N; Krivosheeva, L V; Khitrovo, I A

    2002-01-01

    The composition and contents of major N-nitrosoamines (NA) in the edible part of herrings and rock trouts exposed to hot and cold smoking and in the Smoked fish in oil type cans were studied. Among NA, only N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were detected in all samples. In the cold-smoked fish, the levels of NDMA and NDEA were higher than in the hot smoked fish and cans. Of all the samples, only those of cold smoked herrings and rock trouts had standardized NDMA concentration that was greater than the standard limitation and equal to 3.48 and 3.74 mukg/kg.

  7. Estimation of nicotine content in popular Indian brands of smoking and chewing tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sujatha S; Shaik, Hyder Ali K H

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the nicotine content of some popular Indian brands of smoking tobacco (cigarettes and bidis) and pan masalas (chewable tobacco). Commercially available cigarettes, bidis, and pan masalas (chewable tobacco) were obtained from local retail outlets for the study. Nicotine was estimated using gas-liquid chromatography. The analyses showed relatively higher levels of nicotine in tobacco from bidis (26.9 mg gm) as compared to cigarettes(15 mg/gm); the difference is statistically significant ( P P > 0.01). Nicotine concentration in chewing tobacco was 3.4 mg/gm. The study concludes that the nicotine content of Indian brands of smoking tobacco was slightly high compared to other international brands. Higher concentration of nicotine was found in bidis compared to cigarettes. The nicotine content in commercially available chewing tobacco products was found to be much lower than in the smoking form of tobacco, but the average daily consumption made it comparable to the smoking form.

  8. Calcium bioavailability from calcium fortified food products.

    PubMed

    Kohls, K

    1991-08-01

    The calcium balance of 12 presumed healthy human young adult subjects was assessed. Subjects consumed a constant laboratory-controlled diet supplemented with one of four calcium-fortified food products: orange juice (OJ), milk (M), experimental pasteurized processed cheese (T), soda (S), or a calcium carbonate plus vitamin D tablet (CC). Study length was 6 weeks with seven-day experimental periods (2-days allowed for adjustment with 5-days combined for purposes of analysis). All urine and fecal samples were collected by the subjects for the duration of the study. Blood samples were drawn at the end of each experimental period. Urine and fecal calcium contents were determined. Blood samples were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase. Results of this study indicate a higher fecal calcium content (mg/day) when subjects consumed CC and T, and when subjects consumed self-selected diets, than when given S, M, or OJ. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly lower when subjects consumed OJ than when they consumed M, T, or their self-selected diets. A significantly larger positive calcium balance was demonstrated when subjects consumed OJ as compared to T. Fecal transmit time did not vary significantly. Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly lower when subjects consumed T than when they consumed self-selected diets.

  9. Utilization of agricultural by-products in healthful food products: Organogelators, antioxidants, and spreadable products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It was found that several agricultural by-products could be utilized for healthful food products. Three major applications that our research group has been focusing on will be discussed: 1) plant waxes for trans-fat free, low saturated fat-containing margarine and spread products, 2) extracts of cor...

  10. Exploring water and food security: the water footprint of domestic food production in the Gaza Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Dotelli, Giovanni; Melià, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity and food security are major issues in the Gaza Strip. This area is characterized by one of the highest densities in the world and it is affected by both severe scarcity of water resources and limited trading possibilities.Given this context, the enhancement of domestic food production is considered a fundamental strategy in achieving food security in the area. For this reason, rural people play a crucial role in implementing sustainable strategies for enhancing the domestic food production while preserving water resources. In order to investigate the effectiveness of existing agricultural scenarios in achieving food security in a sustainable manner, we propose a framework to assess food production systems in terms of their contribution to the nutritional and economic conditions of rural households and their impact on water resources. In particular, the latter has been carried out through the water footprint indicator proposed by the Water Footprint Network. The case study analyzed is a sample farm located in the Gaza Strip, whose food production is based on horticulture, animal husbandry and aquaculture. The study is articulated into two main parts: first, we compare alternative scenarios of vegetal and animal food production in terms of food supply, water consumption and economic income at the household scale; then, we extend the analysis to evaluate the potential contribution of domestic food production to the food security in the whole Gaza Strip, focusing on the nutritional dimension, and providing a preliminary assessment of the environmental and economic sustainability. In particular, we evaluate water appropriation for domestic food production and compare it with the availability of water resources in the region. The outcomes highlight that the domestic food production can potentially satisfy both a basic diet and economic income for rural household, but the related appropriation of freshwater results unsustainable with respect to the fresh

  11. Interleukin-2 production of lymphocytes in food sensitive atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Agata, H; Kondo, N; Fukutomi, O; Shinoda, S; Orii, T

    1992-01-01

    The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to food antigens in 22 patients with food sensitive atopic dermatitis were significantly higher than the responses of healthy children and food sensitive children with immediate symptoms. Moreover, the activity of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in supernatants of food antigen stimulated PBMC cultures from patients with atopic dermatitis was significantly higher than that in healthy children and food sensitive children with immediate symptoms. The activity of IL-2 in culture supernatants of separated cell populations stimulated with food antigens from patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy children was investigated. The activity of IL-2 in supernatants of food antigen stimulated T cell cultures could be detected in patients with atopic dermatitis but not in healthy children. These results suggest that the increased IL-2 production after food antigen stimulation is due to increased T cell activity in food sensitive atopic dermatitis. PMID:1575549

  12. [Nanotechnology in food production: advances and problems].

    PubMed

    Vernikov, V M; Arianova, E A; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Khotimchenko, S A; Tutel'ian, V A

    2009-01-01

    Presented article is a review of the modern data on nanotechnology use in food manufacturing. There are discussed the basic scopes of nanotechnology application in food industry. One of the main problems arising in connection with introduction of nanotechnology in food, is an absence of reliable methods of identification and the control of nanoparticles is in structure of foodstuff including the control of their authenticity. Other problem is connected to necessity of an estimation of the risks connected to presence of potentially toxic nanoparticles in food. The analysis of foreign experience of researches in the given area allows to formulate methodological approaches to formation of domestic system of nanosafety.

  13. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the Federal... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed...

  14. Food Production and Services. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, EuDell H.; And Others

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a food production and services course, which is designed to provide students with an opportunity to express and practice a broad range of food production and service occupations. Major concepts covered include…

  15. Food Production and Services. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, EuDell H.; And Others

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a food production and services course, which is designed to provide students with an opportunity to express and practice a broad range of food production and service occupations. Major concepts covered include…

  16. Papago Food Production and Nutrition Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anson, Cynthia

    The Project was begun in 1979 by the Meals for Millions/Freedom from Hunger Foundation to help bring about changes leading to improvements in the food and nutrition conditions, and overall health, of Papago people living on the reservation. Goals of the Project were to initiate a comprehensive and integrated approach to food and nutrition problems…

  17. Papago Food Production and Nutrition Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anson, Cynthia

    The Project was begun in 1979 by the Meals for Millions/Freedom from Hunger Foundation to help bring about changes leading to improvements in the food and nutrition conditions, and overall health, of Papago people living on the reservation. Goals of the Project were to initiate a comprehensive and integrated approach to food and nutrition problems…

  18. Seafood Products: Food Service Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Anita H.; And Others

    The nine lessons and supplementary activities included in this seafood food service program guide are intended for use in secondary and postsecondary occupational home economics food service programs. Material covers nutrition, therapeutic diets, harvesting methods, quality assessment, fish cuts and forms, inspection, dressing, storage,…

  19. Diet modification and the development of new food products.

    PubMed

    Bursey, R G

    1983-05-01

    The development of new food products to meet the needs of the 20th century American consumer offers a greater challenge to the innovativeness of the food industry scientist than ever before. The sequence of activities that leads to the introduction of a successful new food product into today's highly competitive marketplace has its beginnings and foundation in extensive and ongoing market research. This research elicits and defines the changing consumer needs and wants. The relation of diet to health is but one of many factors that influence food purchase decisions and, thus, the stimulus for developing new food products. In addition, the extent to which existing food products may be modified or new foods developed to meet dietary goals is subject to technologic and regulatory constraints. A commitment to ethical and responsible marketing strategies is essential to the evolution of food products for special dietary needs. Despite these complex restraints, many food products with altered nutrient or ingredient composition are currently available to consumers and others enter the marketplace each year.

  20. Potential hazards due to food additives in oral hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Tuncer Budanur, Damla; Yas, Murat Cengizhan; Sepet, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  1. Simulating the impact of changing trends in smoking and obesity on productivity of an industrial population: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Bhojani, Faiyaz A; Tsai, Shan P; Wendt, Judy K; Koller, Kim L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the impact of trends in smoking and obesity prevalence on productivity loss among petrochemical employees from 1980 to 2009. Methods Smoking and obesity informations were collected during company physical examinations. Productivity loss was calculated as differential workdays lost between smokers and non-smokers, and obese and normal-weight employees. Results During 1980–2009, smoking prevalence decreased from 32% to 17%, while obesity prevalence increased from 14% to 42%. In 1982, lost productivity from obesity was an estimated 43 days/100 employees, and for smoking, 65 days/100 employees, but by 1987, workdays lost due to obesity exceeded that attributable to smoking. In 2007, workdays lost from obesity were 3.7 times higher than for smoking. Conclusions Owing to the increasing trend in obesity, the productivity impact on employers from obesity will continue to rise without effective measures supporting employee efforts to achieve healthy weight through sustainable lifestyle changes. PMID:24747795

  2. Delivering Improved Nutrition: Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid Products.

    PubMed

    Schlossman, Nina

    2016-03-01

    The United States has a long history of food assistance for humanitarian need. The Food for Peace Act of 1954 established the United States' permanent food assistance program which has fed over 3 billion people in 150 countries worldwide through thousands of partner organizations. In 60 years, the program has evolved and will continue to do so. Recently, the program has gone from a focus on quantity of food shipped to quality food assistance from improved products, programs, and processes to effectively meet the needs of different vulnerable groups. The current debate focuses on the appropriateness of using fortified blended foods to prevent and treat malnutrition during the first 1000 days of life. Dairy ingredients have been at the center of this debate; they were included initially in fortified blended, removed in the 1980s, and now reincorporated into fortified therapeutic and supplemental foods. Improved quality food baskets and effective nutrition programming to prevent and treat malnutrition were developed through multisectoral collaboration between government and nongovernment organizations. The US Agency for International Development has focused on improving nutrition through development programs often tied to health, education, and agriculture. The years since 2008 have been a particularly intense period for improvement. The Food Aid Quality Review was established to update current food aid programming products, program implementation, cost-effectiveness, and interagency processes. Trials are underway to harmonize the areas of multisectoral nutrition programming and gather more evidence on the effects of dairy ingredients in food aid products. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. [Expectations regarding nutrition information on food product packages].

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Agnieszka; Kozłowska-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Uramowska-Zyto, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Food labeling was originally developed to help consumers make the right decision in choosing at food products. It (food labeling) is also helpful in consumer's education. The aim of this study was to analyze the consumers' preferences concerning foods' labeling products. The type and the form of the information and of course the information itself were analyzed. The study was carried out in the form of a questionnaire among 295 people who were the consumers of supermarkets. The only criteria for the chosen subjects were that they agree to take part in the study and that they are the heads of their families. It came out that 54% of the subjects accepted the current information about food products. More than 23% said that they didn't understand the information provided by the food labels. 66% said that food labels should have educational information concerning the role of an ingredient in health and nutrition. Everyone wanted "negative" information, for example: "this product is not recommended for..."). More than 87% stated that they want information like "this product is recommended for...". (That kind of preference doesn't go along with the current law concerning food products). The best motivation for using food labels is sickness or illness. 89% of the subjects said that the information about the food products and the nutritional value are more important than the information about the producer. Informations concerning the nutritional values in 100 g and in 1 portion of a product were easiest to understand for 71% of the subjects. The results of this study show that food labeling is very important form of consumers education.

  4. Food production and the energy crisis.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, D; Hurd, L E; Bellotti, A C; Forster, M J; Oka, I N; Sholes, O D; Whitman, R J

    1973-11-02

    The principal raw material of modern U.S. agriculture is fossil fuel, whereas the labor input is relatively small (about 9 hours per crop acre). As agriculture is dependent upon fossil energy, crop production costs will also soar when fuel costs increase two- to fivefold. A return of 2.8 kcal of corn per 1 kcal of fuel input may then be uneconomical. Green revolution agriculture also uses high energy crop production technology, especially with respect to fertilizers and pesticides. While one may not doubt the sincerity of the U.S. effort to share its agricultural technology so that the rest of the world can live and eat as it does, one must be realistic about the resources available to accomplish this mission. In the United States we are currently using an equivalent of 80 gallons of gasoline to produce an acre of corn. With fuel shortages and high prices to come, we wonder if many developing nations will be able to afford the technology of U.S. agriculture. Problems have already occurred with green revolution crops, particularly problems related to pests (57). More critical problems are expected when there is a world energy crisis. A careful assessment should be made of the benefits, costs, and risks of high energy-demand green revolution agriculture in order to be certain that this program will not aggravate the already serious world food situation (58). To reduce energy inputs, green revolution and U.S. agriculture might employ such alternatives as rotations and green manures to reduce the high energy demand of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. U.S. agriculture might also reduce energy expenditures by substituting some manpower currently displaced by mechanization. While no one knows for certain what changes will have to be made, we can be sure that when conventional energy resources become scarce and expensive, the impact on agriculture as an industry and a way of life will be significant. This analysis is but a preliminary investigation of a significant

  5. Mismatch between Probiotic Benefits in Trials versus Food Products

    PubMed Central

    Scourboutakos, Mary J.; Franco-Arellano, Beatriz; Murphy, Sarah A.; Norsen, Sheida; Comelli, Elena M.; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2017-01-01

    Probiotic food products contain a variety of different bacterial strains and may offer different health effects. The objective was to document the prevalence and dosage of probiotic strains in the Canadian food supply and to review the literature investigating these strains in order to understand what health benefits these products may offer. The Food Label Information Program was used to identify probiotic-containing products in the food supply. PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for randomized controlled trials that tested the health effects of these strains in humans. There were six probiotic strains/strain combinations identified in the food supply. Thirty-one studies investigated these strains and found that they are associated with decreased diarrhea and constipation, improved digestive symptoms, glycemic control, antioxidant status, blood lipids, oral health, and infant breastfeeding outcomes, as well as enhanced immunity and support for Helicobacter pylori eradication. There were a limited number of studies investigating these strains. Many studies were funded by the food industry and tested dosages that were up to twenty-five times the dosage found in most food products. Probiotic food products could have health benefits not currently reported on their labels. However, many dosages are too low to provide the benefits demonstrated in clinical trials. Further research is needed to enable more effective use of these functional foods. PMID:28422059

  6. Salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase - temporal and population variability, correlations with drinking and smoking habits and activity towards aldehydes contained in food.

    PubMed

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Dziadek, Marta; Wroczyński, Piotr; Woźnicka, Katarzyna; Wojno, Barbara; Pietrzak, Monika; Wierzchowski, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Fluorimetric method based on oxidation of the fluorogenic 6-methoxy-2-naphthaldehyde was applied to evaluate temporal and population variability of the specific activity of salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and the degree of its inactivation in healthy human population. Analyzed was also its dependence on drinking and smoking habits, coffee consumption, and its sensitivity to N-acetylcysteine. Both the specific activity of salivary ALDH and the degree of its inactivation were highly variable during the day, with the highest activities recorded in the morning hours. The activities were also highly variable both intra- and interpersonally, and negatively correlated with age, and this correlation was stronger for the subgroup of volunteers declaring abstinence from alcohol and tobacco. Moderately positive correlations of salivary ALDH specific activity with alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking were also recorded (r(s) ~0.27; p=0.004 and r(s) =0.30; p=0.001, respectively). Moderate coffee consumption correlated positively with the inactivation of salivary ALDH, particularly in the subgroup of non-drinking and non-smoking volunteers. It was found that mechanical stimulation of the saliva flow increases the specific activity of salivary ALDH. The specific activity of the salivary ALDH was strongly and positively correlated with that of superoxide dismutase, and somewhat less with salivary peroxidase. The antioxidant-containing drug N-acetylcysteine increased activity of salivary ALDH presumably by preventing its inactivation in the oral cavity. Some food-related aldehydes, mainly cinnamic aldehyde and anisaldehyde, were excellent substrates of the salivary ALDH3A1 enzyme, while alkenals, particularly those with short chain, were characterized by lower affinity towards this enzyme but high catalytic constants. The protective role of salivary ALDH against aldehydes in food and those found in the cigarette smoke is discussed, as well as its participation in

  7. Antioxidant intakes and smoking status: data from the continuing survey of food intakes by individuals 1994-1996.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Hampl, J S; Betts, N M

    2000-03-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for several chronic oxidative diseases that can be ameliorated by antioxidants. This study identified the typical dietary intakes and the major food group contributors of the antioxidants beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E by smoking status. The 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) provided the current sample (n = 6749), who were categorized as non- (n = 3231), former (n = 1684), and current (n = 1834) smokers. In the CSFII, individuals' food intakes were estimated with two 24-h dietary recalls. Data were analyzed by using a chi-square test with a simultaneous Fisher's z test, analysis of variance with Scheffe's test, multivariate analysis of covariance, and analysis of covariance with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. The sample consisted of 3707 men and 3042 women. Current smokers tended to be younger with less education and lower incomes than nonsmokers and former smokers. The average body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of current smokers was 25.8, the lowest of the 3 groups. Current smokers had the lowest dietary antioxidant intake. Fatty foods such as luncheon meats, condiments and salad dressings, and ground beef contributed more to the antioxidant intakes of current smokers than to those of the other 2 groups, whereas fruit and vegetables contributed less. Current smokers consumed the fewest numbers of servings of all nutrient-bearing groups in the food guide pyramid, except the meat group. Future interventions should target the clustering of cigarette smoking and other unhealthy lifestyle habits, eg, an imprudent diet.

  8. Fungal Laccases: Production, Function, and Applications in Food Processing

    PubMed Central

    Brijwani, Khushal; Rigdon, Anne; Vadlani, Praveen V.

    2010-01-01

    Laccases are increasingly being used in food industry for production of cost-effective and healthy foods. To sustain this trend widespread availability of laccase and efficient production systems have to be developed. The present paper delineate the recent developments that have taken place in understanding the role of laccase action, efforts in overexpression of laccase in heterologous systems, and various cultivation techniques that have been developed to efficiently produce laccase at the industrial scale. The role of laccase in different food industries, particularly the recent developments in laccase application for food processing, is discussed. PMID:21048859

  9. Effect-based and chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked meat: a practical food-monitoring approach.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, K; Nowak, B; Behnke, A; Seidel, A; Lampen, A

    2009-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are generated by heat treatment and smoke curing of meat, pose a risk to human health. At present, the determination of these unwanted contaminants requires costly, time-consuming chemical analysis of smoked meat. An alternative is effect-directed high-throughput bioassays, which could also be used as a pre-screening method. The authors recently adapted the in vitro chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) assay as a rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive screening technique for compounds such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and PAHs. The aim of the present study was to apply a practical approach under realistic conditions. Custom-made meat samples produced under defined conditions with different PAH levels were analysed using this bioassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine the influence of different smoking conditions (temperature and duration) on PAH levels. It was found that cold smoking for up to 6 h did not result in strong PAH contamination, whereas hot (65 degrees C) and longer smoking times caused a considerable increase in both the bioassay response and the levels of 31 individually determined PAHs. The response in the effect-based bioassay was in good agreement with the values of chemical analysis. The bioassay made it possible to determine accurately the degree of contamination. The results show that this assay is suitable for high-throughput screening for unknown levels of toxicologically relevant PAHs in meat samples and is sensitive enough to differentiate between different PAH levels generated under various smoking conditions. Effect-based screening techniques, therefore, provide a new instrument for official food monitoring.

  10. Prediction of frozen food properties during freezing using product composition.

    PubMed

    Boonsupthip, W; Heldman, D R

    2007-06-01

    Frozen water fraction (FWF), as a function of temperature, is an important parameter for use in the design of food freezing processes. An FWF-prediction model, based on concentrations and molecular weights of specific product components, has been developed. Published food composition data were used to determine the identity and composition of key components. The model proposed in this investigation had been verified using published experimental FWF data and initial freezing temperature data, and by comparison to outputs from previously published models. It was found that specific food components with significant influence on freezing temperature depression of food products included low molecular weight water-soluble compounds with molality of 50 micromol per 100 g food or higher. Based on an analysis of 200 high-moisture food products, nearly 45% of the experimental initial freezing temperature data were within an absolute difference (AD) of +/- 0.15 degrees C and standard error (SE) of +/- 0.65 degrees C when compared to values predicted by the proposed model. The predicted relationship between temperature and FWF for all analyzed food products provided close agreements with experimental data (+/- 0.06 SE). The proposed model provided similar prediction capability for high- and intermediate-moisture food products. In addition, the proposed model provided statistically better prediction of initial freezing temperature and FWF than previous published models.

  11. Bacteriocin: safest approach to preserve food products.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Neha; Sharma, Nivedita

    2009-09-01

    Start of the 21st century with its universal call to feed the hungry is an appropriate time to refocus attention on food security and especially the impact of biopatenting on poor communities who are the primary victims of hunger in our world. Antibacterial metabolites of lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp have potential as natural preservatives to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria in food. Among them, bacteriocin is used as a preservative in food due to its heat stability, wider pH tolerance and its proteolytic activity. Due to thermo stability and pH tolerance it can withstand heat and acidity/alkanity of food during storage condition. Bacteriocin are ribosomally synthesized peptides originally defined as proteinaceous compound affecting growth or viability of closely related organisms. Research is going on extensively to explore the nascent field of biopreservation. Scientists all over the world are showing their keen interest to isolate different types of bacteriocin producing strains and characterize bacteriocin produced by them for food preservation.

  12. Food Security Through the Eyes of AVHRR: Changes and Variability of African Food Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrieling, A.; de Beurs, K. M.; Brown, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Food security is defined by FAO as a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Despite globalization and food trade, access to food remains a major problem for an important part of Africa's population. As a contribution to the food security analysis we identify at a coarse scale where trends and high interannual variability of food production occur within Africa. We use the 8-km resolution AVHRR NDVI 15-day composites of the GIMMS group (1981-2006). Two methods were applied to extract phenology indicators from the dataset. The indicators are start of season, length of season, time of maximum NDVI, maximum NDVI, and cumulated NDVI over the season. To focus the analysis on food production we spatially aggregate the annual indicators at sub-national level using a general crop mask. Persistent changes during the 26-year period were assessed using trend analysis on the yearly aggregated indicators. These trends may indicate changes in production, and consequent potential increases of food insecurity. We evaluate then where strong interannual variability of phenology indicators occurs. This relates to regular shortages of food availability. For Africa, field information on phenology or accurate time series of production figures at the sub-national scale are scarce. Validating the outcome of the AVHRR analysis is consequently difficult. We propose to use crop-specific national FAOSTAT yield statistics. For this purpose, we aggregate phenology outputs per country using specific masks for the major staple food crops. Although data quality and scale issues influence results, for several countries and crops significant positive correlations between indicators and crop production exist. We conclude that AVHRR-derived phenology information can provide useful inputs to food security analysis.

  13. Synergistic effects of mineral fibres and cigarette smoke on the production of tumour necrosis factor by alveolar macrophages of rats.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Y; Kido, M; Tanaka, I; Fujino, A; Higashi, T; Yokosaki, Y

    1993-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of mineral fibres and cigarette smoke on the production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by alveolar macrophages. Rats were exposed to cigarette smoke in vivo, and production of TNF by alveolar macrophages was measured in the presence of mineral fibres in vitro. For smoke exposure, rats were divided into two groups. Five were exposed to a daily concentration of 10 mg/m3 of cigarette smoke for an eight hour period, and five rats (controls) were not exposed to smoke. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed after exposure to smoke and the recovered alveolar macrophages were incubated with either chrysotile or ceramic fibres on a microplate for 24 hours. Activity of TNF in the supernatant was determined by the L-929 fibroblast cell bioassay. When alveolar macrophages were not stimulated by mineral fibres, production of TNF by rats exposed to smoke and unexposed rats was essentially the same. When alveolar macrophages were stimulated in vitro by chrysotile or ceramic fibres, production of TNF by alveolar macrophages from rats exposed to smoke was higher than that by alveolar macrophages from unexposed rats. The findings suggest that cigarette smoke and mineral fibres have a synergistic effect on TNF production by alveolar macrophages.

  14. Synergistic effects of mineral fibres and cigarette smoke on the production of tumour necrosis factor by alveolar macrophages of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Y; Kido, M; Tanaka, I; Fujino, A; Higashi, T; Yokosaki, Y

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of mineral fibres and cigarette smoke on the production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by alveolar macrophages. Rats were exposed to cigarette smoke in vivo, and production of TNF by alveolar macrophages was measured in the presence of mineral fibres in vitro. For smoke exposure, rats were divided into two groups. Five were exposed to a daily concentration of 10 mg/m3 of cigarette smoke for an eight hour period, and five rats (controls) were not exposed to smoke. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed after exposure to smoke and the recovered alveolar macrophages were incubated with either chrysotile or ceramic fibres on a microplate for 24 hours. Activity of TNF in the supernatant was determined by the L-929 fibroblast cell bioassay. When alveolar macrophages were not stimulated by mineral fibres, production of TNF by rats exposed to smoke and unexposed rats was essentially the same. When alveolar macrophages were stimulated in vitro by chrysotile or ceramic fibres, production of TNF by alveolar macrophages from rats exposed to smoke was higher than that by alveolar macrophages from unexposed rats. The findings suggest that cigarette smoke and mineral fibres have a synergistic effect on TNF production by alveolar macrophages. Images PMID:8217857

  15. Exposure to maternal smoking during fetal life affects food preferences in adulthood independent of the effects of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Ayres, C; Silveira, P P; Barbieri, M A; Portella, A K; Bettiol, H; Agranonik, M; Silva, A A; Goldani, M Z

    2011-06-01

    Experimental animal studies have shown that nicotine exposure during gestation alters the expression of fetal hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of appetite. We aimed to determine whether the exposure to maternal smoking during gestation in humans is associated with an altered feeding behavior of the adult offspring. A longitudinal prospective cohort study was conducted including all births from Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo, Brazil) between 1978 and 1979. At 24 years of age, a representative random sample was re-evaluated and divided into groups exposed (n = 424) or not (n = 1586) to maternal smoking during gestation. Feeding behavior was analyzed using a food frequency questionnaire. Covariance analysis was used for continuous data and the χ 2 test for categorical data. Results were adjusted for birth weight ratio, body mass index, gender, physical activity and smoking, as well as maternal and subjects' schooling. Individuals exposed to maternal smoking during gestation ate more carbohydrates than proteins (as per the carbohydrate-to-protein ratio) than non-exposed individuals. There were no differences in the consumption of the macronutrients themselves. We propose that this adverse fetal life event programs the individual's physiology and metabolism persistently, leading to an altered feeding behavior that could contribute to the development of chronic diseases in the long term.

  16. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. (/sup 14/C)NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned.

  17. Weight change following smoking cessation: the role of food intake and exercise.

    PubMed

    Rodin, J

    1987-01-01

    While much of the interest in the relationship between weight change and smoking cessation has focused on weight gain, several studies have also reported weight loss or no change. To assess determinants of the direction of weight change, this study followed middle aged smokers from before to after their participation in various local smoking cessation programs. Measures included caloric consumption, available macro- and micronutrients in the diet, taste sensitivity and hedonics, smoking behavior, mood and exercise patterns. Smoking status was confirmed by determination of salivary cotinine levels. Subjects who successfully stopped smoking could be divided in those who gained weight and those who showed no change or lost. These subjects were compared to those who continued smoking and could be divided into the same weight categories. Subjects who gained weight after cessation did not consume more calories but ate somewhat less protein and significantly more carbohydrate than quitters whose weights did not change. Percentage of calories as sugar, in particular, was increased. Regardless of weight change, subjects who stopped smoking showed increased preference for sweet taste. Subjects who gained weight engaged in significantly less aerobic activity than those who did not.

  18. Subsistence Food Production Practices: An Approach to Food Security and Good Health.

    PubMed

    Rankoana, Sejabaledi A

    2017-10-05

    Food security is a prerequisite for health. Availability and accessibility of food in rural areas is mainly achieved through subsistence production in which community members use local practices to produce and preserve food. Subsistence food production ensures self-sufficiency and reduction of poverty and hunger. The main emphasis with the present study is examining subsistence farming and collection of edible plant materials to fulfill dietary requirements, thereby ensuring food security and good health. Data collected from a purposive sample show that subsistence crops produced in the home-gardens and fields, and those collected from the wild, are sources of grain, vegetables and legumes. Sources of grain and legumes are produced in the home-gardens and fields, whereas vegetables sources are mostly collected in the wild and fewer in the home-gardens. These food sources have perceived health potential in child and maternal care of primary health care.

  19. Insect biomass to enhance food production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies have established that insects are as good source of protein as conventional animal food (between 15 and 67% dry weight content). Insects are a good source of essential amino acids and essential fatty acids. Insect fat has a higher content of polyunsaturated (essential) fatty acids and a lowe...

  20. Food Production, Management, and Services. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This curriculum guide is one of a set of four components covering the food service occupational cluster, developed for use in occupational home economics courses. Teaching strategies, teaching aids, laboratory management plans, and test questions are coordinated with the chapters in the related reference book. A variety of teaching strategies is…

  1. Informal Food Production in the Enlarged European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alber, Jens; Kohler, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    How widespread is the production of food in old and new member states of the European Union and what is the social meaning or logic of such activities? We show that growing food is (a) more widespread in former communist countries than in traditional market economies and (b) is predominantly a hobby or recreational activity in affluent countries,…

  2. Informal Food Production in the Enlarged European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alber, Jens; Kohler, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    How widespread is the production of food in old and new member states of the European Union and what is the social meaning or logic of such activities? We show that growing food is (a) more widespread in former communist countries than in traditional market economies and (b) is predominantly a hobby or recreational activity in affluent countries,…

  3. [Sanitary-and-epidemiologic examination of the food-products].

    PubMed

    Sukhanov, V B; Kerimova, M G; Elizarova, E V

    2011-01-01

    Some aspects of sanitary and epidemiologic examination of food products are considered. The examination is an important part of sanitary and epidemiologic control and surveillance in the sphere of food safety and quality, consumer rights protection, consumer market and human welfare.

  4. Control of Listeria species food safety at a poultry food production facility.

    PubMed

    Fox, Edward M; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance and control of food-borne human pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, is a critical aspect of modern food safety programs at food production facilities. This study evaluated contamination patterns of Listeria species at a poultry food production facility, and evaluated the efficacy of procedures to control the contamination and transfer of the bacteria throughout the plant. The presence of Listeria species was studied along the production chain, including raw ingredients, food-contact, non-food-contact surfaces, and finished product. All isolates were sub-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify possible entry points for Listeria species into the production chain, as well as identifying possible transfer routes through the facility. The efficacy of selected in-house sanitizers against a sub-set of the isolates was evaluated. Of the 77 different PFGE-types identified, 10 were found among two or more of the five categories/areas (ingredients, food preparation, cooking and packing, bulk packing, and product), indicating potential transfer routes at the facility. One of the six sanitizers used was identified as unsuitable for control of Listeria species. Combining PFGE data, together with information on isolate location and timeframe, facilitated identification of a persistent Listeria species contamination that had colonized the facility, along with others that were transient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Disparities in cigarette smoking and use of other tobacco products in Minnesota, 2003-14.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Raymond G; D'silva, Joanne; Stanton, Cassandra A; Carusi, Charles; Tang, Zhiqun

    2017-06-17

    Despite efforts to reduce disadvantages across society, widening health disparities have been observed in Minnesota. This research examined whether observed declines in state-wide smoking prevalence were experienced equally by all adults with varying educational attainment. Serial cross-sectional data from the 2003, 2007, 2010 and 2014 Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey (MATS) were analyzed. Weighted regression analyses for smoking status, time to first cigarette, cigarettes per day and non-cigarette other tobacco products (OTP) were conducted across education levels. Controlling for age and gender, a decreased rate of smoking among high and middle education groups was offset by an increase in the low education group. Dependence (time to first cigarette) was twice as high in the lowest education group compared to highest, yet dependence did not decline over time for any group. There was a decline in cigarettes per day in all education groups, but an increase in OTP use in the lowest and middle education groups. Given existing smoking disparities, novel efforts are urgently needed. Complementing known population-level strategies with community and individual-level approaches will be necessary to eliminate the widening gap in smoking disparities and to end the burden of tobacco-related disease.

  6. Food Production and Processing Considerations of Allergenic Food Ingredients: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Pedro A.; Boye, Joyce I.

    2012-01-01

    Although most consumers show no adverse symptoms to food allergens, health consequences for sensitized individuals can be very serious. As a result, the Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods has specified a series of allergenic ingredients/substances requiring mandatory declaration when present in processed prepackaged food products. Countries adhering to international standards are required to observe this minimum of eight substances, but additional priority allergens are included in the list in some countries. Enforcement agencies have traditionally focused their effort on surveillance of prepackaged goods, but there is a growing need to apply a bottom-up approach to allergen risk management in food manufacturing starting from primary food processing operations in order to minimize the possibility of allergen contamination in finished products. The present paper aims to review food production considerations that impact allergen risk management, and it is directed mainly to food manufacturers and policy makers. Furthermore, a series of food ingredients and the allergenic fractions identified from them, as well as the current methodology used for detection of these allergenic foods, is provided. PMID:22187573

  7. Processing- and product-related causes for food waste and implications for the food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Raak, Norbert; Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Rohm, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Reducing food waste is one of the prominent goals in the current research, which has also been set by the United Nations to achieve a more sustainable world by 2030. Given that previous studies mainly examined causes for food waste generation related to consumers, e.g., expectations regarding quality or uncertainties about edibility, this review aims at providing an overview on losses in the food industry, as well as on natural mechanisms by which impeccable food items are converted into an undesired state. For this, scientific literature was reviewed based on a keyword search, and information not covered was gathered by conducting expert interviews with representatives from 13 German food processing companies. From the available literature, three main areas of food waste generation were identified and discussed: product deterioration and spoilage during logistical operations, by-products from food processing, and consumer perception of quality and safety. In addition, expert interviews revealed causes for food waste in the processing sector, which were categorised as follows: losses resulting from processing operations and quality assurance, and products not fulfilling quality demands from trade. The interviewees explained a number of strategies to minimise food losses, starting with alternative tradeways for second choice items, and ending with emergency power supplies to compensate for power blackouts. It became clear that the concepts are not universally applicable for each company, but the overview provided in the present study may support researchers in finding appropriate solutions for individual cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Food Production, Management, and Services. Fast Foods. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, LeRoy

    These instructional materials are designed for a course in food production, management, and services for fast foods. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; 15 references; and a…

  9. A new food ingredient for adding soluble oat beta-glucan health benefits to food products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new oat food ingredient, containing 20% to 30% soluble beta-glucan, was obtained from oat bran by using natural treatments of heat and shear processing. The product is useful for reducing calories in foods while simultaneously adding health promoting benefits from its beta-glucan. It was evaluat...

  10. Food Production, Management, and Services. Fast Foods. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, LeRoy

    These instructional materials are designed for a course in food production, management, and services for fast foods. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; 15 references; and a…

  11. Food Gardeners’ Productivity in Laramie, Wyoming: More Than a Hobby

    PubMed Central

    Conk, Shannon J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified the productivity of food gardens in Laramie, Wyoming, over 3 growing seasons. Methods. From 2012 to 2014, 33 participating gardening households weighed and recorded each harvest. Academic partners measured plot sizes and converted reported harvest weights to volume in cups. Results. The yield of the average 253-square-foot plot was enough to supply an adult with the daily US Department of Agriculture–recommended amount of vegetables for 9 months. Conclusions. Gardeners produced nutritionally meaningful quantities of food; thus, food gardening offers promise as an effective public health intervention for improving food security and nutritional health. PMID:26985621

  12. Bacteriophage cocktail significantly reduces or eliminates Listeria monocytogenes contamination on lettuce, apples, cheese, smoked salmon and frozen foods.

    PubMed

    Perera, Meenu N; Abuladze, Tamar; Li, Manrong; Woolston, Joelle; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    ListShield™, a commercially available bacteriophage cocktail that specifically targets Listeria monocytogenes, was evaluated as a bio-control agent for L. monocytogenes in various Ready-To-Eat foods. ListShield™ treatment of experimentally contaminated lettuce, cheese, smoked salmon, and frozen entrèes significantly reduced (p < 0.05) L. monocytogenes contamination by 91% (1.1 log), 82% (0.7 log), 90% (1.0 log), and 99% (2.2 log), respectively. ListShield™ application, alone or combined with an antioxidant/anti-browning solution, resulted in a statistically significant (p < 0.001) 93% (1.1 log) reduction of L. monocytogenes contamination on apple slices after 24 h at 4 °C. Treatment of smoked salmon from a commercial processing facility with ListShield™ eliminated L. monocytogenes (no detectable L. monocytogenes) in both the naturally contaminated and experimentally contaminated salmon fillets. The organoleptic quality of foods was not affected by application of ListShield™, as no differences in the color, taste, or appearance were detectable. Bio-control of L. monocytogenes with lytic bacteriophage preparations such as ListShield™ can offer an environmentally-friendly, green approach for reducing the risk of listeriosis associated with the consumption of various foods that may be contaminated with L. monocytogenes.

  13. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Closing data gaps for LCA of food products: estimating the energy demand of food processing.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Neus; Stoessel, Franziska; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-01-21

    Food is one of the most energy and CO2-intensive consumer goods. While environmental data on primary agricultural products are increasingly becoming available, there are large data gaps concerning food processing. Bridging these gaps is important; for example, the food industry can use such data to optimize processes from an environmental perspective, and retailers may use this information for purchasing decisions. Producers and retailers can then market sustainable products and deliver the information demanded by governments and consumers. Finally, consumers are increasingly interested in the environmental information of foods in order to lower their consumption impacts. This study provides estimation tools for the energy demand of a representative set of food process unit operations such as dehydration, evaporation, or pasteurization. These operations are used to manufacture a variety of foods and can be combined, according to the product recipe, to quantify the heat and electricity demand during processing. In combination with inventory data on the production of the primary ingredients, this toolbox will be a basis to perform life cycle assessment studies of a large number of processed food products and to provide decision support to the stakeholders. Furthermore, a case study is performed to illustrate the application of the tools.

  15. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    PubMed

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of hydrogen cyanide concentration in mainstream smoke of tobacco products by polarography.

    PubMed

    Mahernia, Shabnam; Amanlou, Arash; Kiaee, Gita; Amanlou, Massoud

    2015-01-01

    There has been a worldwide concern for the health risks of cigarette smoking and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) considered as one of the hazardous tobacco compounds which is needed to be determined in order to reduce the dose related to smoke disease risk. In this study, we prepare the experimental procedure to entrap the HCN from mainstream smoke of different brands of Tehran cigarette, through simulating human inhalation and determine its concentration applying polarography. The HCN level of the 50 commonly consumed tobacco products (47 cigarettes and 3 cigars) obtained from local store is ranged between 17.56 ± 1.02 and 1553.98 ± 0.56 μg per stick, this acquired amount is more than FDA approval (10 μg per stick), so the harmful effects of smoking is indicative. The comparative study of the results shows that the price and the weight of each product do not indicate HCN level. As can be seen, R(2) value which is a statistical measure of how close the data are to the fitted regression line is low (R(2) < 0.2). So it should not be deceived by names such as ultra light or infinite gravity to suck, because this names or the price haven(')t effect on the amount of HCN and its destructive effects.

  18. Effect of processing technologies on the allergenicity of food products.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Benedé, Sara; Molina, Elena; López-Expósito, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Heat treatment has been used since ancient times for food processing, first to ensure the safety of food and its storage, but also to transform its characteristics (in its raw form) and obtain new textures, flavors, or novel foods. However, the transformation experienced by food components when heated, or processed, can dramatically affect the allergenicity of food, either reducing or increasing it. To date, most of the articles published dealing with the changes in the potential allergenicity of food are focused on heat treatment and the Maillard reaction. However, it is also important to give prominence to other group of new technologies developed nowadays, such as high-pressure processing, microwaves and food irradiation. These techniques are not likely to replace traditional processing methods, but they are becoming attractive for the food industry due to different reasons, and it is expected in the near future to have different products on the market processed with these new technologies at an affordable cost. Moreover, other biochemical modifications, particularly enzymatic cross-linking of proteins, have attracted wide-spread attention and will be considered as well in this review, because of its great opportunities to induce protein modification and thus affect food allergenicity. Together with the effect of processing of food allergens, this review will place special attention on gastroduodenal digestion of processed allergens, which directly affects their allergenicity.

  19. Quantitative determination of smoke and toxic product potential of materials with the AMINCO (registered) NBS smoke density chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, S.

    1975-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of smoke obscuration produced by standard area samples under high energy pyrolysis both with and without an ignition source, using a collimated vertical light beam in conjunction with an ultra-linear photomultiplier microphotometer are obtainable with the smoke density chamber. Results are expressed in dimensionless specific optical density permitting usage calculations in accordance with a geometric relationship.

  20. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    PubMed

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  1. Prototype Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies: Branded Food Products Database for Public Health Proof of Concept

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Prototype Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (Prototype FNDDS) Branded Food Products Database for Public Health is a proof of concept database. The database contains a small selection of food products which is being used to exhibit the approach for incorporation of the Branded Food ...

  2. MISR Interactive Explorer (MINX) : Production Digitizing to Retrieve Smoke Plume Heights and Validating Heights Against Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunst, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The height at which smoke from a wildfire is injected into the atmosphere is an important parameter for climatology, because it determines how far the smoke can be transported. Using the MINX program to analyze MISR (Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) data, I digitized wildfire smoke plumes to add to an existing database of these heights for use by scientists studying smoke transport and plume dynamics. In addition to using MINX to do production digitizing of heights, I assisted in gathering lidar data for an ongoing validation of MINX and helped evaluate those data.

  3. MISR Interactive Explorer (MINX) : Production Digitizing to Retrieve Smoke Plume Heights and Validating Heights Against Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunst, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The height at which smoke from a wildfire is injected into the atmosphere is an important parameter for climatology, because it determines how far the smoke can be transported. Using the MINX program to analyze MISR (Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) data, I digitized wildfire smoke plumes to add to an existing database of these heights for use by scientists studying smoke transport and plume dynamics. In addition to using MINX to do production digitizing of heights, I assisted in gathering lidar data for an ongoing validation of MINX and helped evaluate those data.

  4. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.

    PubMed

    Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czyżewska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  5. [Climate change, food production and human health].

    PubMed

    Faergeman, Ole; Østergaard, Lars

    2009-10-26

    Production of livestock accounts for 18% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Although livestock products can alleviate malnutrition in poor countries, they are associated with diseases of affluence in wealthy countries. Red meat (pork, beef, sheep and goat), especially, is associated with higher rates of death due to cardiovascular disease and cancer. A policy of reducing consumption of red meat in wealthy countries and encouraging a limited consumption increase in poor countries would benefit the climate as well as human health.

  6. Fires and Smoke Observed from the Earth Observing System MODIS Instrument: Products, Validation, and Operational Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Ichoku, C.; Giglio, L.; Korontzi, S.; Chu, D. A.; Hao, W. M.; Justice, C. O.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The MODIS sensor, launched on NASA's Terra satellite at the end of 1999, was designed with 36 spectral channels for a wide array of land, ocean, and atmospheric investigations. MODIS has a unique ability to observe fires, smoke, and burn scars globally. Its main fire detection channels saturate at high brightness temperatures: 500 K at 4 microns and 400 K at 11 microns, which can only be attained in rare circumstances at the I kin fire detection spatial resolution. Thus, unlike other polar orbiting satellite sensors with similar thermal and spatial resolutions, but much lower saturation temperatures (e.g. AVHRR and ATSR), MODIS can distinguish between low intensity ground surface fires and high intensity crown forest fires. Smoke column concentration over land is for the first time being derived from the MOMS solar channels, extending from 0.41 microns to 2.1 microns. The smoke product has been provisionally validated both globally and regionally over southern Africa and central and south America. Burn scars are observed from MODIS even in the presence of smoke, using the 1.2 to 2.1 micron channels. MODIS burned area information is used to estimate pyrogenic emissions. A wide range of these fire and related products and validation are demonstrated for the wild fires that occurred in northwestern United States in the summer of 2000. The MODIS rapid response system and direct broadcast capability is being developed to enable users to obtain and generate data in near real time. It is expected that health and land management organizations will use these systems for monitoring the occurrence of fires and the dispersion of smoke within two to six hours after data acquisition.

  7. Relationships between expected, online and remembered enjoyment for food products.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric

    2014-03-01

    How enjoyable a food product is remembered to be is likely to shape future choice. The present study tested the influence that expectations and specific moments during consumption experiences have on remembered enjoyment for food products. Sixty-four participants consumed three snack foods (savoury, sweet and savoury-sweet) and rated expected and online enjoyment for each product. Twenty-four hours later participants rated remembered enjoyment and future expected enjoyment for each product. Remembered enjoyment differed to online enjoyment for two of the three products, resulting in the foods being remembered as less enjoyable than they actually were. Both expected enjoyment and specific moments during the consumption experience (e.g. the least enjoyable mouthful) influenced remembered enjoyment. However, the factors that shaped remembered enjoyment were not consistent across the different food products. Remembered enjoyment was also shown to be a better predictor of future expected enjoyment than online enjoyment. Remembered enjoyment is likely to influence choice behaviour and can be discrepant to actual enjoyment. Specific moments during a consumption experience can have disproportionately large influence on remembered enjoyment (whilst others are neglected), but the factors that determine which moments influence remembered enjoyment are unclear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Causes and trends of water scarcity in food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porkka, Miina; Gerten, Dieter; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Siebert, Stefan; Kummu, Matti

    2016-01-01

    The insufficiency of water resources to meet the needs of food production is a pressing issue that is likely to increase in importance in the future. Improved understanding of historical developments can provide a basis for addressing future challenges. In this study we analyse how hydroclimatic variation, cropland expansion and evolving agricultural practices have influenced the potential for food self-sufficiency within the last century. We consider a food production unit (FPU) to have experienced green-blue water (GBW) scarcity if local renewable green (in soils) and blue water resources (in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, aquifers) were not sufficient for producing a reference food supply of 3000 kcal with 20% animal products for all inhabitants. The number of people living in FPUs affected by GBW scarcity has gone up from 360 million in 1905 (21% of world population at the time) to 2.2 billion (34%) in 2005. During this time, GBW scarcity has spread to large areas and become more frequent in regions where it occurs. Meanwhile, cropland expansion has increased green water availability for agriculture around the world, and advancements in agronomic practices have decreased water requirements of producing food. These efforts have improved food production potential and thus eased GBW scarcity considerably but also made possible the rapid population growth of the last century. The influence of modern agronomic practices is particularly striking: if agronomic practices of the early 1900s were applied today, it would roughly double the population under GBW scarcity worldwide.

  9. Potential and attainable food production and food security in different regions

    PubMed Central

    Vries, F. W. T. Penning de; Rabbinge, R.; Groot, J. J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Growing prosperity in the South is accompanied by human diets that will claim more natural resources per capita. This reality, combined with growing populations, may raise the global demand for food crops two- to four-fold within two generations. Considering the large volume of natural resources and potential crop yields, it seems that this demand can be met smoothly. However, this is a fallacy for the following reasons. (i) Geographic regions differ widely in their potential food security: policy choices for agricultural use of natural resources are limited in Asia. For example, to ensure national self-sufficiency and food security, most of the suitable land (China) and nearly all of the surface water (India) are needed. Degradation restricts options further. (ii) The attainable level of agricultural production depends also on socio-economic conditions. Extensive poverty keeps the attainable food production too low to achieve food security, even when the yield gap is wide, as in Africa. (iii) Bio-energy, non-food crops and nature compete with food crops for natural resources. Global and regional food security are attainable, but only with major efforts. Strategies to achieve alternative aims will be discussed.

  10. All sorts of options for food product sorting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most food products undergo significant processing before arrival at the grocery store or local market. A major component of this processing includes sorting the product according to quality attributes such as size, color, sweetness, and ripeness. In addition, removal of defects or contaminants is a ...

  11. Alternaria in Food: Ecophysiology, Mycotoxin Production and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Patriarca, Andrea; Magan, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria species are common saprophytes or pathogens of a wide range of plants pre- and post-harvest. This review considers the relative importance of Alternaria species, their ecology, competitiveness, production of mycotoxins and the prevalence of the predominant mycotoxins in different food products. The available toxicity data on these toxins and the potential future impacts of Alternaria species and their toxicity in food products pre- and post-harvest are discussed. The growth of Alternaria species is influenced by interacting abiotic factors, especially water activity (aw), temperature and pH. The boundary conditions which allow growth and toxin production have been identified in relation to different matrices including cereal grain, sorghum, cottonseed, tomato, and soya beans. The competitiveness of Alternaria species is related to their water stress tolerance, hydrolytic enzyme production and ability to produce mycotoxins. The relationship between A. tenuissima and other phyllosphere fungi has been examined and the relative competitiveness determined using both an Index of Dominance (ID) and the Niche Overlap Index (NOI) based on carbon-utilisation patterns. The toxicology of some of the Alternaria mycotoxins have been studied; however, some data are still lacking. The isolation of Alternaria toxins in different food products including processed products is reviewed. The future implications of Alternaria colonization/infection and the role of their mycotoxins in food production chains pre- and post-harvest are discussed. PMID:26190916

  12. Recent trends in bioethanol production from food processing byproducts.

    PubMed

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Stark, Benjamin C

    2016-11-01

    The widespread use of corn starch and sugarcane as sources of sugar for the production of ethanol via fermentation may negatively impact the use of farmland for production of food. Thus, alternative sources of fermentable sugars, particularly from lignocellulosic sources, have been extensively investigated. Another source of fermentable sugars with substantial potential for ethanol production is the waste from the food growing and processing industry. Reviewed here is the use of waste from potato processing, molasses from processing of sugar beets into sugar, whey from cheese production, byproducts of rice and coffee bean processing, and other food processing wastes as sugar sources for fermentation to ethanol. Specific topics discussed include the organisms used for fermentation, strategies, such as co-culturing and cell immobilization, used to improve the fermentation process, and the use of genetic engineering to improve the performance of ethanol producing fermenters.

  13. Smoking behaviour and toxin exposure during six weeks use of a potential reduced exposure product: Omni.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J R; Hecht, S S; Carmella, S G; Murphy, S E; Callas, P

    2004-06-01

    To determine smoking behaviour, acceptability, and toxin exposure when smokers switch to the potential reduced exposure product-Omni cigarette. 12 week randomised, crossover study of Omni versus own cigarettes. 19 light/ultralight and 15 regular smokers. Cigarettes/day, smoking topography, craving, withdrawal symptoms, urinary cotinine plus its glucuronide (total cotinine), nicotine plus its glucuronide (total nicotine), and carcinogen metabolites (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol plus its glucuronides and 1-hydroxypyrene). When switched to Omni, smokers smoked the same number of cigarettes/day, smoked Omni cigarettes less intensely (total puff volume = -11%) and had slightly lower total cotinine (-18%) levels than their own cigarettes, but had a slightly greater carbon monoxide boost/cig (+21%). Craving and withdrawal ratings were similar with Omni and own cigarettes. Carcinogen metabolite levels were somewhat but not significantly lower with Omni. About half of smokers rated Omni as better for their health and about two thirds stated it was weaker and worse tasting than their own cigarettes. Although Omni may be an adequate behavioural and pharmacological substitute for traditional cigarettes, it may not decrease carcinogen exposure and may increase carbon monoxide. Replications with larger sample sizes and longer follow up are needed. These results indicate the need for regulation of reduced exposure and reduced risk claims.

  14. Regulating food products without impeding innovation.

    PubMed

    Mathioudakis, B; Przyrembel, H; Hermus, R

    1999-12-01

    Industry and regulatory bodies share a common goal of making beneficial products available to consumers, but the relationship between industry and regulators can become adversarial if it is not handled properly. When industry views the regulatory process as an obstacle to product development and marketing, and regulators view petitioners as having only a profit motive, the opportunity to work together efficiently to get products to market is lost. While it is difficult to codify how industry and regulators should interact, it is worthwhile to look at some of the most provocative issues and see how they might be addressed. The discussion that follows will examine the functioning of regulatory bodies in the European Union, consider how more flexibility might be added to the regulatory process, and raise the issue of how regulatory bodies can function to serve the consumer while promoting innovation.

  15. Utilization of smoked salmon trim in extruded smoked salmon jerky.

    PubMed

    Kong, J; Dougherty, M P; Perkins, L B; Camire, M E

    2012-06-01

    During smoked salmon processing, the dark meat along the lateral line is removed before packaging; this by-product currently has little economic value. In this study, the dark meat trim was incorporated into an extruded jerky. Three formulations were processed: 100% smoked trim, 75% : 25% smoked trim : fresh salmon fillet, and 50% : 50% smoked trim : fresh salmon blends (w/w basis). The base formulation contained salmon (approximately 83.5%), tapioca starch (8%), pregelatinized potato starch (3%), sucrose (4%), salt (1.5%), sodium nitrate (0.02%), and ascorbyl palmitate (0.02% of the lipid content). Blends were extruded in a laboratory-scale twin-screw extruder and then hot-smoked for 5 h. There were no significant differences among formulations in moisture, water activity, and pH. Protein was highest in the 50 : 50 blend jerky. Ash content was highest in the jerky made with 100% trim. Total lipids and salt were higher in the 100% trim jerky than in the 50 : 50 blend. Hot smoking did not adversely affect docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content in lipids from 100% smoked trim jerky. Servings of salmon jerky made with 75% and 100% smoked trim provided at least 500 mg of EPA and DHA. The 50 : 50 formulation had the highest Intl. Commission on Illumination (CIE) L*, a*, and b* color values. Seventy consumers rated all sensory attributes as between "like slightly" and "like moderately." With some formulation and processing refinements, lateral line trim from smoked salmon processors has potential to be incorporated into acceptable, healthful snack products. Dark meat along the lateral line is typically discarded by smoked salmon processors. This omega-3 fatty acid rich by-product can be used to make a smoked salmon jerky that provides a convenient source of these healthful lipids for consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Type II pneumocytes modulate surfactant production in response to cigarette smoke constituents: restoration by vitamins A and E.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yuan; Williams, Tracy L; Li, Ting; Umbehr, Joshua; Fang, Liang; Wang, Weiqun; Baybutt, Richard C

    2005-12-01

    This study was to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke constituents upon type II pneumocyte surfactant production in vitro, and how vitamins A and E may alter the response. Freshly isolated type II pneumocytes from Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated 20 h in medium with fetal bovine serum that was or was not treated with cigarette smoke. The number of adherent cells was inversely related to the dose of smoke or benzo(a)pyrene. Despite the decreased number of treated cells, the total amount of surfactant per culture well was unchanged, whereas surfactant production per cell was significantly increased (P<0.05). Vitamin A concentration was significantly (P<0.05) lower in the smoke-treated serum compared with untreated serum. When vitamin A or E was added to the cigarette smoke-treated serum, cell adherence and surfactant production returned to control values. In conclusion, cigarette smoke constituents or benzo(a)pyrene alone decreased the number of adherent type II pneumocytes, but did not alter surfactant amounts because of an increased production of surfactant per cell. Type II pneumocytes seem to adjust surfactant production dependent upon the number of type II pneumocytes to produce it and vitamin A or E enhance cell attachment in the presence of the smoke toxins.

  17. Antismoking initiatives: effects of analysis versus production media literacy interventions on smoking-related attitude, norm, and behavioral intention.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This study developed inoculation-driven antismoking interventions aimed at changing attitudes, norms and intentions about smoking to influence smoking behavior in adolescents. This study explored the efficacy of 2 intervention approaches designed to help adolescents to refrain from smoking initiation. Participants were junior high students (6th, 7th, and 8th grade) from schools in the Northeast. Two kinds of experimental workshops and a control group were designed as stimulus material in a repeated measure nonequivalent group experimental design. The 2 intervention workshops developed included: analysis + analysis (where participants discussed and analyzed cigarette and antismoking ads) and analysis + production (where participants discussed, analyzed, and then created their own antismoking ads). The analysis + production workshop was generally more successful than the analysis + analysis workshop and control group in changing participants' behavioral intention to smoke and attitude toward smoking but not subjective norms over time. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  18. Bacterial cinnamoyl esterase activity screening for the production of a novel functional food product.

    PubMed

    Guglielmetti, Simone; De Noni, Ivano; Caracciolo, Federica; Molinari, Francesco; Parini, Carlo; Mora, Diego

    2008-02-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5 was selected for its strong cinnamoyl esterase activity on chlorogenic acid and employed for the preparation of a food product containing a high concentration of free caffeic acid. The novel food product was demonstrated to display high total antioxidant power and potential probiotic properties.

  19. Past, Present and Future of Sensors in Food Production

    PubMed Central

    Adley, Catherine C.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination management is a crucial task in the food industry. Undesirable microbial spoilage in a modern food processing plant poses a risk to consumers’ health, causing severe economic losses to the manufacturers and retailers, contributing to wastage of food and a concern to the world’s food supply. The main goal of the quality management is to reduce the time interval between the filling and the detection of a microorganism before release, from several days, to minutes or, at most, hours. This would allow the food company to stop the production, limiting the damage to just a part of the entire batch, with considerable savings in terms of product value, thereby avoiding the utilization of raw materials, packaging and strongly reducing food waste. Sensor systems offer major advantages over current systems as they are versatile and affordable but need to be integrated in the existing processing systems as a process analytical control (PAT) tool. The desire for good selectivity, low cost, portable and usable at working sites, sufficiently rapid to be used at-line or on-line, and no sample preparation devices are required. The application of biosensors in the food industry still has to compete with the standard analytical techniques in terms of cost, performance and reliability. PMID:28234333

  20. Nutritional enhancement of US Title II food aid products.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Irwin; Tilahun, Jessica; Schlossman, Nina; Bagriansky, Jack; Johnson, Quentin; Webb, Patrick; Rogers, Beatrice; Masterson, Amelia Reese

    2011-09-01

    Food aid provided by the United States has saved the lives of the vulnerable for many years. Recognizing the need for a thorough review of product formulations and specifications, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) commissioned a 2-year assessment of quality issues relating to Title II food aid products. This article presents findings and recommendations of that review relating to product enhancements. The core question addressed was: Are current commodity specifications for enriched FBFs appropriate in light of evolving nutritional science and food fortification technology, or do they need to be updated? Empirical data were derived from a number of sources, including a survey of Title II implementing partners focusing on procurement and logistics, and uses of FBFs and other foods. Input of implementing partners, civil society, and donor organizations was obtained through individual consultations, international and small group meetings. More than 400 individuals accessed the project's website. The project convened a panel of experts in food technology and science, food policy, law, industry, medicine, development and humanitarian work, and the maritime industry, and held regular joint meetings with USDA and USAID. The draft report was widely disseminated and posted on the website. The findings of this research led to the following broad areas of improvement in US Title II food aid products: 1) Improve the formulation of existing FBF products used in Title II programming. This includes the addition of a dairy source of protein to products targeted to children 6 to 24 months of age, pregnant and lactating women, wasted children, and wasted individuals undergoing HIV/AIDS treatment. 2) Upgrade the vitamin and mineral mixes used and diversify approaches to addressing micronutrient needs. Enhance the composition of premixes used to fortify blended foods as well as milled grains and vegetable oil; facilitate shipping offortificant premix with bulk

  1. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  2. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  3. When food is neither good nor bad: children's evaluations of transformed and combined food products.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Blunden, Sarah; Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly

    2011-12-01

    This study examined children's subjective perceptions of 'good' and 'bad' foods. Four interactive focus groups were conducted with 27 children aged 5-9 in South Australia. Each focus group was engaged in a food picture sorting activity. Whilst most children were able to discriminate good and bad whole foods or ingredients, they were less able to agree at a group level on the categorization of combined and transformed food products with which they are most likely to be presented in their 'everyday' lives. We discuss this confusion using Mary Douglas's (1966) theory of 'matter out of place'. Accordingly, health promotion messages should cultivate the skills required to reconcile the co-presence of 'good' and 'bad' ingredients in one product or meal.

  4. [Milk and milk products: food sources of calcium].

    PubMed

    Farré Rovira, Rosaura

    2015-04-07

    The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain.

  5. Price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Zenk, Shannon N; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-05-01

    Food and beverage price promotions may be potential targets for public health initiatives but have not been well documented. We assessed prevalence and patterns of price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores by store type, product package size, and product healthfulness. We also assessed associations of price promotions with community characteristics and product prices. In-store data collected in 2010-2012 from 8959 food stores in 468 communities spanning 46 U.S. states were used. Differences in the prevalence of price promotions were tested across stores types, product varieties, and product package sizes. Multivariable regression analyses examined associations of presence of price promotions with community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and with product prices. The prevalence of price promotions across all 44 products sampled was, on average, 13.4% in supermarkets (ranging from 9.1% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 18.2% for sugar-sweetened beverages), 4.5% in grocery stores (ranging from 2.5% for milk to 6.6% for breads and cereals), and 2.6% in limited service stores (ranging from 1.2% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 4.1% for breads and cereals). No differences were observed by community characteristics. Less-healthy versus more-healthy product varieties and larger versus smaller product package sizes generally had a higher prevalence of price promotion, particularly in supermarkets. On average, in supermarkets, price promotions were associated with 15.2% lower prices. The observed patterns of price promotions warrant more attention in public health food environment research and intervention.

  6. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1) nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2) the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3) nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4) plant disease diagnostics; 5) animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6) postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have

  7. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1) nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2) the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3) nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4) plant disease diagnostics; 5) animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6) postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have

  8. Temporal and spatial prediction of radiocaesium transfer to food products.

    PubMed

    Gillett, A G; Crout, N M; Absalom, J P; Wright, S M; Young, S D; Howard, B J; Barnett, C L; McGrath, S P; Beresford, N A; Voigt, G

    2001-09-01

    A recently developed semi-mechanistic temporal model is used to predict food product radiocaesium activity concentrations using soil characteristics available from spatial soil databases (exchangeable K, pH, percentage clay and percentage organic matter content). A raster database of soil characteristics, radiocaesium deposition, and crop production data has been developed for England and Wales and used to predict the spatial and temporal pattern of food product radiocaesium activity concentrations (Bq/kg). By combining these predictions with spatial data for agricultural production, an area's output of radiocaesium can also be estimated, we term this flux (Bq/year per unit area). Model predictions have been compared to observed data for radiocaesium contamination of cow milk in regions of England and Wales which received relatively high levels of fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl accident (Gwynedd and Cumbria). The model accounts for 56% and 80% of the observed variation in cow milk activity concentration for Gwynedd and Cumbria, respectively. Illustrative spatial results are presented and suggest that in terms of food product contamination areas in the North and West of England and Wales are those most vulnerable to radiocaesium deposition. When vulnerability is assessed using flux the spatial pattern is more complex and depends upon food product.

  9. Health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products:

    PubMed Central

    Asp, Nils-Georg; Bryngelsson, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Since 1990 certain health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products have been allowed in Sweden within the food sector's Code of Practice. The rules were developed in close dialogue with the authorities. The legal basis was a decision by the authorities not to apply the medicinal products’ legislation to “foods normally found on the dinner table” provided the rules defined in the Code were followed. The Code of Practice lists nine well-established diet–health relationships eligible for generic disease risk reduction claims in two steps and general rules regarding nutrient function claims. Since 2001, there has also been the possibility for using “product-specific physiological claims (PFP)”, subject to premarketing evaluation of the scientific dossier supporting the claim. The scientific documentation has been approved for 10 products with PFP, and another 15 products have been found to fulfil the Code's criteria for “low glycaemic index”. In the third edition of the Code, active since 2004, conditions in terms of nutritional composition were set, i.e. “nutrient profiles”, with a general reference to the Swedish National Food Administration's regulation on the use of a particular symbol, i.e. the keyhole symbol. Applying the Swedish Code of practice has provided experience useful in the implementation of the European Regulation on nutrition and health claims made on foods, effective from 2007.

  10. Inulin content of fortified food products in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaito, Chanantita; Judprasong, Kunchit; Puwastien, Prapasri

    2016-02-15

    This study examined inulin content in 266 samples. They were 126 dried, 105 liquid and 27 semi-solid of twelve commercial inulin fortified food products and 8 samples of natural dried sunchoke. For dried food products, inulin content ranged from 3.0 ±0.8g/100g fresh weight (FW) in milk powder to 83.7± 17.8g/100g FW in inulin powder. The levels in a descending order are the powder of inulin, weight control diet, coffee mixed, instant beverage, supplemented food products for pregnant and milk. For liquid fortified foods, inulin at the level of 0.3± 0.1g/100mL FW was found in UHT milk, and up to 13.5± 4.1g/100mL FW in weight control diet beverage. The level of 2.0-2.3g/100g FW of inulin was found in beverage with different flavours, soybean milk and fruit juice. For semi-solid food, cream yoghurt, inulin at 3.9± 1.1g/100g FW was found. A serving of most products contributes inulin at 11-33% of the recommended daily intake of dietary fibre.

  11. Overcoming limits set by scarce resources - role of local food production and food imports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porkka, Miina; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Siebert, Stefan; Gerten, Dieter; Kummu, Matti

    2017-04-01

    There is a fundamental tension between population growth and carrying capacity, i.e. the population that could potentially be supported using the resources and technologies available at a given time. This makes the assessments of resource use and agricultural productivity central to the debate on future food security. Local carrying capacity can be increased by expanding (e.g. through land conversion and irrigation infrastructure) or intensifying (e.g. through technologies and practices that increase efficiency) the resource use in agriculture. Food imports can be considered another way of overcoming current local limits and continuing growth beyond the local human-carrying capacity. Focusing on water as the key limiting resource, we performed a global assessment of the capacity for food self-sufficiency at sub-national and national scale for 1961-2009, taking into account the availability of both green and blue water as well as technology and management practices affecting water productivity at a given time, and using the hydrology and agriculture model LPJmL as our primary tool. Furthermore, we examined the use of food imports as a strategy to increase carrying capacity in regions where the potential for food self-sufficiency was limited by water availability and productivity. We found that the capacity for food self-sufficiency reduced notably during the study period due to the rapid population growth that outpaced the substantial improvements in water productivity. In 2009 more than a third (2.2 billion people) of the world's population lived in areas where sufficient food production to meet the needs of the population was not possible, and some 800 million people more were approaching this threshold. Food imports have nearly universally been used to overcome these local limits to growth, though the success of this strategy has been highly dependent on economic purchasing power. In the unsuccessful cases, increases in imports and local productivity have not

  12. Tobacco smoke induces production of chemokine CCL20 to promote lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-Zhen; Cheng, Xin; Li, Xin-Chun; Liu, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Xian-Quan; Shi, Xu; Wang, Zai-Yong; Guo, Yong-Qing; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Yun-Chao; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-07-10

    Tobacco kills nearly 6 million people each year, and 90% of the annual 1.59 million lung cancer deaths worldwide are caused by cigarette smoke. Clinically, a long latency is required for individuals to develop lung cancer since they were first exposed to smoking. In this study, we aimed to identify clinical relevant inflammatory factors that are critical for carcinogenesis by treating normal human lung epithelial cells with tobacco carcinogen nicotine-derived nitrosaminoketone (NNK) for a long period (60 days) and systematic screening in 84 cytokines/chemokines. We found that a chemokine CCL20 was significantly up-regulated by NNK, and in 78/173 (45.1%) patients the expression of CCL20 was higher in tumor samples than their adjacent normal lung tissues. Interestingly, CCL20 was up-regulated in 48/92 (52.2%) smoker and 29/78 (37.2%) nonsmoker patients (p = 0.05), and high CCL20 was associated with poor prognosis. NNK induced the production of CCL20, which promoted lung cancer cell proliferation and migration. In addition, an anti-inflammation drug, dexamethasone, inhibited NNK-induced CCL20 production and suppressed lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that CCL20 is crucial for tobacco smoke-caused lung cancer, and anti-CCL20 could be a rational approach to fight against this deadly disease.

  13. Knowledge of food production methods informs attitudes toward food but not food choice in adults residing in socioeconomically deprived rural areas within the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J

    2011-01-01

    Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content analyzed. Attitudes to food and health were influenced by knowledge of food production and processing. Healthful foods were considered those which were fresh and unprocessed, and taste was taken as an indicator of how the food had been produced. Despite negative views of food production, processed foods were consumed. Explanations for this tension between what people wanted to eat (unprocessed food) and what they actually chose to eat (processed food) were attributed to lifestyle compression. Dietary health promotion initiatives targeted at deprived rural dwellers should consider perceived issues regarding food production and processing that may influence views on food. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of methylcellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose food gums in food and food products: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Robert G; Deshmukh, Balasaheb K; Conklin, Jerry; Turowski, Maciej; Lynch, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    A collaborative study was performed to determine the reproducibility of a method for the determination of methylcellulose (MC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) in food. These widely used food gums possess unusual solubility characteristics and cannot accurately be determined by existing dietary fiber methods. The new method uses the enzyme-digestion procedure of AOAC Official Method 991.43. Digestate solutions must be refrigerated to fully hydrate MC or HPMC. The chilled solutions are filtered and analyzed by size-exclusion liquid chromatography. Collaborating laboratories received 28 samples containing MC or HPMC in the range of 0-100%. The sample set included blind duplicates of 5 food matrixes (bread, milk, fish, potato, and powdered juice drink). Cochran and Grubbs tests were used to eliminate outliers. For food samples containing MC, values for within-laboratory precision, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr), ranged from 4.2 to 16%, and values for among-laboratories precision, reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR), ranged from 11 to 20%. For HPMC samples, RSDr values ranged from 6.4 to 27%, and RSDR values ranged from 17 to 39%. Recoveries of MC and HPMC from the food matrixes ranged from 78 to 101%. These results show acceptable precision and reproducibility for the determination of MC and HPMC, for which no Official AOAC Methods exist. It is recommended that this method be adopted as AOAC Official First Action.

  15. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production.

    PubMed

    Bouwmeester, Hans; Dekkers, Susan; Noordam, Maryvon Y; Hagens, Werner I; Bulder, Astrid S; de Heer, Cees; ten Voorde, Sandra E C G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Marvin, Hans J P; Sips, Adriënne J A M

    2009-02-01

    Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As with most new and evolving technologies, potential benefits are emphasized, while little is known on safety of the application of nanotechnologies in the agro-food sector. This review gives an overview of scientific issues that need to be addressed with priority in order to improve the risk assessment for nanoparticles in food. The following research topics are considered to contribute pivotally to risk assessment of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in food products. Set a definition for NPs to facilitate regulatory discussions, prioritization of research and exchange of study results. Develop analytical tools for the characterization of nanoparticles in complex biological matrices like food. Establish relevant dose metrics for nanoparticles used for both interpretation of scientific studies as well as regulatory frameworks. Search for deviant behavior (kinetics) and novel effects (toxicity) of nanoparticles and assess the validity of currently used test systems following oral exposure. Estimate the consumer exposure to nanoparticles.

  16. Human health problems associated with current agricultural food production.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramesh V

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technological developments in the agricultural sectors in the recent past has resulted in increased food production and at the same time led to certain public health concerns. Unseasonal rains at the time of harvest and improper post harvest technology often results in agricultural commodities being contaminated with certain fungi and results in the production of mycotoxins. Consumption of such commodities has resulted in human disease outbreaks. Naturally occurring toxins, inherently present in foods and either consumed as such or mixed up with grains, had been responsible for disease outbreaks. Other possible causes of health concern include the application of various agrochemicals such as pesticides and the use of antibiotics in aquaculture and veterinary practices. Foodborne pathogens entering the food chain during both traditional and organic agriculture pose a challenge to public health. Modern biotechnology, producing genetically modified foods, if not regulated appropriately could pose dangers to human health. Use of various integrated food management systems like the Hazard Analysis and critical control system approach for risk prevention, monitoring and control of food hazards are being emphasized with globalization to minimise the danger posed to human health from improper agricultural practices.

  17. Advanced glycoxidation end products in commonly consumed foods.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Teresia; Cai, Weijing; Peppa, Melpomeni; Dardaine, Veronique; Baliga, Bantwal Suresh; Uribarri, Jaime; Vlassara, Helen

    2004-08-01

    Advanced glycoxidation end products (AGEs), the derivatives of glucose-protein or glucose-lipid interactions, are implicated in the complications of diabetes and aging. The objective of this article was to determine the AGE content of commonly consumed foods and to evaluate the effects of various methods of food preparation on AGE production. Two-hundred fifty foods were tested for their content in a common AGE marker (epsilon)N-carboxymethyllysine (CML), using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on an anti-CML monoclonal antibody. Lipid and protein AGEs were represented in units of AGEs per gram of food. Foods of the fat group showed the highest amount of AGE content with a mean of 100+/-19 kU/g. High values were also observed for the meat and meat-substitute group, 43+/-7 kU/g. The carbohydrate group contained the lowest values of AGEs, 3.4+/-1.8 kU/g. The amount of AGEs present in all food categories was related to cooking temperature, length of cooking time, and presence of moisture. Broiling (225 degrees C) and frying (177 degrees C) resulted in the highest levels of AGEs, followed by roasting (177 degrees C) and boiling (100 degrees C). The results indicate that diet can be a significant environmental source of AGEs, which may constitute a chronic risk factor for cardiovascular and kidney damage.

  18. Lost productivity due to premature mortality in developed and emerging countries: an application to smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Researchers and policy makers have determined that accounting for productivity costs, or “indirect costs,” may be as important as including direct medical expenditures when evaluating the societal value of health interventions. These costs are also important when estimating the global burden of disease. The estimation of indirect costs is commonly done on a country-specific basis. However, there are few studies that evaluate indirect costs across countries using a consistent methodology. Methods Using the human capital approach, we developed a model that estimates productivity costs as the present value of lifetime earnings (PVLE) lost due to premature mortality. Applying this methodology, the model estimates productivity costs for 29 selected countries, both developed and emerging. We also provide an illustration of how the inclusion of productivity costs contributes to an analysis of the societal burden of smoking. A sensitivity analysis is undertaken to assess productivity costs on the basis of the friction cost approach. Results PVLE estimates were higher for certain subpopulations, such as men, younger people, and people in developed countries. In the case study, productivity cost estimates from our model showed that productivity loss was a substantial share of the total cost burden of premature mortality due to smoking, accounting for over 75 % of total lifetime costs in the United States and 67 % of total lifetime costs in Brazil. Productivity costs were much lower using the friction cost approach among those of working age. Conclusions Our PVLE model is a novel tool allowing researchers to incorporate the value of lost productivity due to premature mortality into economic analyses of treatments for diseases or health interventions. We provide PVLE estimates for a number of emerging and developed countries. Including productivity costs in a health economics study allows for a more comprehensive analysis, and, as demonstrated by our

  19. Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J; Powles, John W; Butler, Colin D; Uauy, Ricardo

    2007-10-06

    Food provides energy and nutrients, but its acquisition requires energy expenditure. In post-hunter-gatherer societies, extra-somatic energy has greatly expanded and intensified the catching, gathering, and production of food. Modern relations between energy, food, and health are very complex, raising serious, high-level policy challenges. Together with persistent widespread under-nutrition, over-nutrition (and sedentarism) is causing obesity and associated serious health consequences. Worldwide, agricultural activity, especially livestock production, accounts for about a fifth of total greenhouse-gas emissions, thus contributing to climate change and its adverse health consequences, including the threat to food yields in many regions. Particular policy attention should be paid to the health risks posed by the rapid worldwide growth in meat consumption, both by exacerbating climate change and by directly contributing to certain diseases. To prevent increased greenhouse-gas emissions from this production sector, both the average worldwide consumption level of animal products and the intensity of emissions from livestock production must be reduced. An international contraction and convergence strategy offers a feasible route to such a goal. The current global average meat consumption is 100 g per person per day, with about a ten-fold variation between high-consuming and low-consuming populations. 90 g per day is proposed as a working global target, shared more evenly, with not more than 50 g per day coming from red meat from ruminants (ie, cattle, sheep, goats, and other digastric grazers).

  20. Problems of toxicants in marine food products

    PubMed Central

    Bagnis, R.; Berglund, F.; Elias, P. S.; van Esch, G. J.; Halstead, B. W.; Kojima, Kohei

    1970-01-01

    The expansion of marine fisheries into tropical waters, which is now occurring, will increase the risks of widespread poisonings because of the abundance of biotoxins in warm-water organisms. However, toxic marine organisms are not only a health hazard but also a possible source of new pharmaceutical products. A classification of marine intoxicants is given in this paper with special reference to the oral biotoxins which will be of primary concern in the expansion of warm-water fisheries. The biotoxins are both invertebrate (e.g., molluscs, arthropods) and vertebrate (mostly fishes) in origin. Biotoxications of vertebrate origin may be caused by the muscles, the gonads or the blood of certain fishes or by special poison glands not equipped with traumagenic devices. (Venomous fishes, having poison glands and traumagenic spines, etc., are of no direct concern as oral intoxicants.) The ichthyosarcotoxic fishes, in which the flesh is poisonous, appear to constitute the most significant health hazard. A list of fishes reported as causing ciguatera poisoning (one of the most serious and widespread forms of ichthyosarcotoxism) is included in this paper. PMID:4908418

  1. Food applications for flaxseed and its components: products and processing.

    PubMed

    Giada, Maria de Lourdes R

    2010-11-01

    Flaxseed is the richest plant source of omega-3 fatty acid (α-linolenic acid) and the phytohormone lignans. It is also an essential source of high-quality protein and dietary fiber. Additionally, flaxseed has potential to be a source of phenolic compounds. Because of the beneficial physiological effects of its components, this seed is considered a functional food. It can contribute to the reduction of several diseases such as diabetes mellitus, arteriosclerosis and cancer. Food products and processing with regards to flaxseed are presented in this article. The article also presents some promising patents on food applications for flaxseed and its components. In addition, some potential opportunity areas are also discussed along with the impact of the use of this seed and its components in foods.

  2. Effects of Food Natural Products on the Biotransformation of PCBs

    PubMed Central

    James, Margaret O.; Sacco, James C.; Faux, Laura R

    2008-01-01

    Many food products, particularly fruits and vegetables, contain natural products that affect biotransformation enzymes. These may be expected to affect the rate of biotransformation of PCBs that are metabolized by the affected enzymes. The first step in PCB metabolism is cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenation. Natural products present in cruciferous vegetables have been shown to selectively up-regulate CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 isozymes on chronic ingestion, and may lead to increased metabolism of those PCB congeners that are substrates for the induced P450s. On the other hand, several natural products selectively inhibit monooxygenation, especially in the intestine, and may lead to increased bioavailability and reduced metabolism of dietary PCBs. Food natural products are known to affect phase II pathways important in the detoxication of hydroxylated PCBs, namely UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and PAPS-sulfotransferase. Continual dietary exposure to chrysin and quercetin, found in fruits and vegetables, induces UGT1A1 and may reduce exposure to hydroxylated PCBs through increased glucuronidation. These and other natural products are also inhibitors of glucuronidation and sulfonation, potentially leading to transient decreases in the elimination of hydroxylated PCBs. In summary, the expected effects of food natural products on PCB biotransformation are complex and may be biphasic, with initial inhibition followed by enhanced biotransformation through monooxygenation and conjugation pathways. PMID:19255595

  3. China's success in increasing per capita food production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua

    2011-07-01

    China has to feed 20% of the global population with only about 5% of the planet's water resources and 7% of its arable land. With such limited natural conditions, however, China's grain production has increased from about 200 kg per capita in 1949 to about 400 kg in the early 1990s. Hunger as a social problem has largely disappeared after being prevalent in China for several thousand years with the rise and decline of dynasties. This achievement has been accompanied by a 2.5-fold increase in the population and a 4.5-fold increase in total grain production. Although total cropped land has increased slightly in some areas, land used for cropping has decreased from 0.18 hectare per capita in the 1950s to less than 0.1 hectare per capita today. Apparently, yield increase or improved land productivity is the major contributor to the increase of food production per capita. What are the major reasons for the unprecedented achievement in China's food production? Political decisions, good or bad, on land distribution and ownership changes, have caused unusual fluctuation in grain production. Technical progress, however, has maintained a long-term increasing trend. The semi-dwarf cultivars of rice and wheat, the use of heterosis in rice and maize, and the alleviation of salinized soil stress in the major grain-producing areas have all played significant roles in increasing China's food production capability.

  4. Effects of Food Natural Products on the Biotransformation of PCBs.

    PubMed

    James, Margaret O; Sacco, James C; Faux, Laura R

    2008-03-01

    Many food products, particularly fruits and vegetables, contain natural products that affect biotransformation enzymes. These may be expected to affect the rate of biotransformation of PCBs that are metabolized by the affected enzymes. The first step in PCB metabolism is cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenation. Natural products present in cruciferous vegetables have been shown to selectively up-regulate CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 isozymes on chronic ingestion, and may lead to increased metabolism of those PCB congeners that are substrates for the induced P450s. On the other hand, several natural products selectively inhibit monooxygenation, especially in the intestine, and may lead to increased bioavailability and reduced metabolism of dietary PCBs. Food natural products are known to affect phase II pathways important in the detoxication of hydroxylated PCBs, namely UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and PAPS-sulfotransferase. Continual dietary exposure to chrysin and quercetin, found in fruits and vegetables, induces UGT1A1 and may reduce exposure to hydroxylated PCBs through increased glucuronidation. These and other natural products are also inhibitors of glucuronidation and sulfonation, potentially leading to transient decreases in the elimination of hydroxylated PCBs. In summary, the expected effects of food natural products on PCB biotransformation are complex and may be biphasic, with initial inhibition followed by enhanced biotransformation through monooxygenation and conjugation pathways.

  5. Consumer preferences for food product quality attributes from Swedish agriculture.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Frykblom, Peter; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2005-06-01

    This paper employs a choice experiment to obtain consumer preferences and willingness to pay for food product quality attributes currently not available in Sweden. Data were obtained from a large mail survey and estimated with a random parameter logit model. We found evidence for intraproduct differences in consumer preferences for identical attributes, as well as interproduct discrepancies in ranking of attributes. Furthermore, we found evidence of a market failure relating to the potential use of genetically modified animal fodder. Finally, we found support for the idea that a cheap-talk script can alleviate problems of external validity of choice experiments. Our results are useful in forming product differentiation strategies within the food industry, as well as for the formation of food policy.

  6. [A virtual water analysis for agricultural production and food security].

    PubMed

    Ke, Bing; Liu, Wen-hua; Duan, Guang-ming; Yan, Yan; Deng, Hong-bing; Zhao, Jing-zhu

    2004-03-01

    Water resource demand is increasing with the population growth and economic development. Water resource problem for agriculture and food security have become one of the global focal points because of water resource scarcity. The concept of virtual water is useful to analyze and impair this problem. In this paper, virtual water implication was described, and international study progress about it was briefly reviewed. Furthermore, China's agricultural water scarcity and food security were analyzed. According to the grain import prediction and agricultural production conditions of China, the virtual water equivalents of China in 2010 and 2020 were evaluated, which were 88 x 10(9) m3 in 2010 and 95 x 10(9) m3 in 2020. With the function of virtual water to agricultural water stress, virtual water strategy was suggested to relieve agricultural production pressure from water resource and meet growing food demand as well as to promote water resource sustainability in China.

  7. [Hygienic assessment of food products in Krasnoyrsk region].

    PubMed

    Vasilovskiĭ, A M; Kurkatov, S V

    2012-01-01

    This article presents data on the prevalence of different types of sanitary violations, caused by failure to comply with sanitary regulations, on 573 enterprises that produce bakery products, confectionery, dairy, meat and fish products, drinks in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. It is shown that the greatest number of sanitary offenses are committed at manufactures of milk, fish and meat products. Finished goods at 21-37% of these enterprises do not meet the requirements of hygiene standards. The proportion of deposits of factors (such as type of food product, a form of ownership of the enterprise, the type of locality, where manufacture is) in the frequency of sanitary violations has been determined.

  8. Risk for oral cancer associated to smoking, smokeless and oral dip products.

    PubMed

    Madani, Abdoul Hossain; Dikshit, Madhurima; Bhaduri, Debanshu

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common life threatening diseases in India. Tobacco and alcohol are considered to be the most risk factors for oral cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the association of tobacco and poly-ingredient oral dip products with oral cancer. A case-control study of 350 cases and 350 controls, over a period of 19 months, between February 2005 and September 2006 was carried out in Pune, India. The self-reported information about the consumption of tobacco, poly-ingredient oral dip products, alcohol, dietary habits and demographic status were collected by a researcher made questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify the risk of substances abuse. The frequency of smoking, smokeless and oral dip products in cases were significantly higher than controls (P < 0.0001). Among smoking types, bidi (P < 0.0001, OR = 4.1 95% CI = 2.4 - 6.9), of smokeless types, chewing tobacco (P < 0.0001, OR = 8.3, 95% CI = 5.4 - 13.0) and mishiri (P < 0.0001, OR = 3.3, 95% CI =2.1 - 5.4), and of oral dip products, consumption of gutkha (P < 0.0001, OR = 12.8, 95% CI =7.0 - 23.7) and supari (P < 0.0001, OR = 6.6, 95% CI =3.0 - 14.8) indicated strong association with oral cancer upon adjustment. This study provides strong evidence that gutkha, supari -areca nut- chewing tobacco (tobacco flakes), bidi smoking and mishiri (tobacco powder, which applied as a tooth and gum cleaner) are independent risk for oral cancer.

  9. Instant food products as a source of silicon.

    PubMed

    Prescha, Anna; Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Hojka, Anna; Grajeta, Halina

    2012-12-01

    Silicon is a trace element for humans, and is absorbed from food in the form of orthosilicic acid. Instant food products are part of a constantly growing market of convenience foods, which have not been evaluated yet as sources of silicon. In this study the total and soluble silicon contents in different instant food products were determined by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). A selection of instant products commercially available in Wroclaw were analyzed: soups, main courses, coffee drinks, jellies and puddings. Total silicon contents in soups, main courses and coffee drinks ranged widely and reached the values: 0.10-30.20, 0.63-37.91 and 0.21-13.37mg/serving, respectively. These products contained 0.05-1.26mg of soluble silicon per serving. The total silicon content in jellies and puddings did not exceed 0.36mg and 2.42mg/serving, respectively. Among the analyzed desserts the highest level of soluble silicon was found in chocolate puddings: 0.36-0.41mg/serving. The silicon level in servings of the studied instant products when prepared with the appropriate amount of water was also estimated. The mean content of silicon determined in samples of drinking water from Wrocław and the vicinity, which was used for the estimation, amounted to 7.09mg/l. The total silicon content in ready-to-eat products ranged from 1.32 to 39.21mg/serving. In conclusion, some of the analyzed instant foods contained very high amounts of silicon, however the content of the soluble, and hence available, form of this element was low. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Food and beverage product reformulation as a corporate political strategy.

    PubMed

    Scott, C; Hawkins, B; Knai, C

    2017-01-01

    Product reformulation- the process of altering a food or beverage product's recipe or composition to improve the product's health profile - is a prominent response to the obesity and noncommunicable disease epidemics in the U.S. To date, reformulation in the U.S. has been largely voluntary and initiated by actors within the food and beverage industry. Similar voluntary efforts by the tobacco and alcohol industry have been considered to be a mechanism of corporate political strategy to shape public health policies and decisions to suit commercial needs. We propose a taxonomy of food and beverage industry corporate political strategies that builds on the existing literature. We then analyzed the industry's responses to a 2014 U.S. government consultation on product reformulation, run as part of the process to define the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We qualitatively coded the industry's responses for predominant narratives and framings around reformulation using a purposely-designed coding framework, and compared the results to the taxonomy. The food and beverage industry in the United States used a highly similar narrative around voluntary product reformulation in their consultation responses: that reformulation is "part of the solution" to obesity and NCDs, even though their products or industry are not large contributors to the problem, and that progress has been made despite reformulation posing significant technical challenges. This narrative and the frames used in the submissions illustrate the four categories of the taxonomy: participation in the policy process, influencing the framing of the nutrition policy debate, creating partnerships, and influencing the interpretation of evidence. These strategic uses of reformulation align with previous research on food and beverage corporate political strategy.

  11. The global potential of local peri-urban food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriewald, Steffen; Garcia Cantu Ros, Anselmo; Sterzel, Till; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    One big challenge for the rest of the 21st century will be the massive urbanisation. It is expected that more than 7 out of 10 persons will live in a city by the year 2050. Crucial developments towards a sustainable future will therefore take place in cities. One important approach for a sustainable city development is to re-localize food production and to close urban nutrient cycles through better waste management. The re-location of food production avoids CO2 emissions from transportation of food to cities and can also generate income for inhabitants. Cities are by definition locations where fertility accumulates. As cities are often built along rivers, their soils are often fertile. Furthermore, labour force and the possibility of producing fertilizer from human fecal matter within the city promises sustainable nutrients cycles. Although urban and peri-urban agriculture can be found in many cities worldwide and already have a substantial contribution to food supply, it has not jet been comprehensibly structured by research. We combine several worldwide data sets to determine the supply of cities with regional food production, where regional is defined as a production that occurs very close to the consumption within the peri-urban area. Therefore, urban areas are not defined by administrative boundaries but by connected built-up urban areas, and peri-urban area by the surrounding area with the same size multiplied with a scaling parameter. Both together accumulate to an urban-bio-region (UBR). With regard to national food consumption, a linear program achieves the best possible yield on agricultural areas and allows the computation of the fraction of population, which can be nourished. Additionally, several climate scenarios and different dietary patterns were considered. To close the gap between single case studies and to provide a quantitative overview of the global potential of peri-urban food production we used high resolution land-use data Global Land Cover

  12. Diversifying Food Systems in the Pursuit of Sustainable Food Production and Healthy Diets.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Sangam L; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T; Ceccarelli, Salvatore; Grando, Stefania; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2017-10-01

    Increasing demand for nutritious, safe, and healthy food because of a growing population, and the pledge to maintain biodiversity and other resources, pose a major challenge to agriculture that is already threatened by a changing climate. Diverse and healthy diets, largely based on plant-derived food, may reduce diet-related illnesses. Investments in plant sciences will be necessary to design diverse cropping systems balancing productivity, sustainability, and nutritional quality. Cultivar diversity and nutritional quality are crucial. We call for better cooperation between food and medical scientists, food sector industries, breeders, and farmers to develop diversified and nutritious cultivars that reduce soil degradation and dependence on external inputs, such as fertilizers and pesticides, and to increase adaptation to climate change and resistance to emerging pests. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The European role on traditional herbal medicinal products and traditional plant food supplements.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano; Anton, Robert; Delmulle, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Herbs are used in Europe as medicinal products, food, food supplements, and related products. This paper will discuss the concepts of Traditional Herbal Medicines and Traditional Plant Food Supplements, defined in European legislation under differing legal frameworks, regarding Traditional Plant Food Supplements (including Claims Regulation) and the role of the European Food Safety Authority in health claims.

  14. Peering into the secrets of food and agricultural co-products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scanning electron microscopy is a valuable tool for understanding food contamination and for directing product development of food and industrial products. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to eat. At the same time, these processed foods mus...

  15. Peering into the secrets of food and agricultural co-products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for understanding food contamination and directing product development of food and industrial products. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to eat. At the same time, these processed foods must be s...

  16. 21 CFR 20.2 - Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees. 20.2 Section 20.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... upon an officer or employee of the Food and Drug Administration commanding the production of any record...

  17. 21 CFR 20.2 - Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees. 20.2 Section 20.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... upon an officer or employee of the Food and Drug Administration commanding the production of any record...

  18. 21 CFR 20.2 - Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees. 20.2 Section 20.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... upon an officer or employee of the Food and Drug Administration commanding the production of any record...

  19. 21 CFR 20.2 - Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees. 20.2 Section 20.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... upon an officer or employee of the Food and Drug Administration commanding the production of any record...

  20. 21 CFR 20.2 - Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Production of records by Food and Drug Administration employees. 20.2 Section 20.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... upon an officer or employee of the Food and Drug Administration commanding the production of any record...

  1. [Development on a rice-based food product, for children].

    PubMed

    Segura, E; Mahecha, G; Moreno, B E; Rodríguez, G S

    1988-06-01

    An infant dehydrated rice-based food product, complemented with soybean flour, was developed. To improve its nutritional and organoleptic characteristics, fruits were also added. Ingredients were first precooked and dried in a drum-dryer, obtaining a final product, as flakes, with a 2 to 3% water content. This rehydrates easily with liquids such as milk, water or "panela" (refined and concentrated sugar cane syrup). The sensory panel did not detect any difference between formulations containing 10, 15 and 20% soybean, respectively.

  2. Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25% by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is critical for human and environmental well-being. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be utilized to enhance yields of staple crops, incre...

  3. Food Production in Africa: The Ignored Role of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otieno, Tabitha N.

    Whereas women carry the primary responsibility for food production in Africa, development agencies have devoted minimal resources to researching the impact of their policies and new techniques on the well-being of Africa's women farmers. C. K. Eicher (1995) and M. Smale (1995) call this the invisible factor because the gender-related constraints…

  4. Food Production Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food production worker component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; hygiene and…

  5. Microwave sensing of quality attributes of agricultural and food products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microwave sensors for real-time characterization of agricultural and food products have become viable solutions with recent advances in the development of calibration methods and the availability of inexpensive microwave components. The examples shown here for grain, seed, and in-shell peanuts indic...

  6. Food Production, Management, and Services. Baking. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, LeRoy

    These instructional materials are intended for a course on food production, management, and services involved in baking. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; 13 references; and a…

  7. Food Management, Production, and Service. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Food Management, Production, and Service Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) is one of a series of competency lists, verified by expert workers, that have evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from throughout Ohio. This…

  8. Food Production, Management, and Services. Baking. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, LeRoy

    These instructional materials are intended for a course on food production, management, and services involved in baking. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; 13 references; and a…

  9. Genetic improvement of drought tolerance for productivity and food safety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Production losses in agriculture during extended or severe drought episodes can be significant. Among a number of important food crops in the U.S. and many regions of the world, peanut is an important legume that is a rich source for oil, proteins, and vitamins. Drought can negatively affect yield...

  10. Standardized Curriculum for Food Production, Management and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: food production, management, and services I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA); (2) sanitation; (3) safety; (4) front of the house operations; (5) beverages; (6) food…

  11. Standardized Curriculum for Food Production, Management and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: food production, management, and services I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA); (2) sanitation; (3) safety; (4) front of the house operations; (5) beverages; (6) food…

  12. Boosted food web productivity through ocean acidification collapses under warming.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Silvan U; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Ferreira, Camilo M; Ullah, Hadayet; Connell, Sean D

    2017-10-01

    Future climate is forecast to drive bottom-up (resource driven) and top-down (consumer driven) change to food web dynamics and community structure. Yet, our predictive understanding of these changes is hampered by an over-reliance on simplified laboratory systems centred on single trophic levels. Using a large mesocosm experiment, we reveal how future ocean acidification and warming modify trophic linkages across a three-level food web: that is, primary (algae), secondary (herbivorous invertebrates) and tertiary (predatory fish) producers. Both elevated CO2 and elevated temperature boosted primary production. Under elevated CO2 , the enhanced bottom-up forcing propagated through all trophic levels. Elevated temperature, however, negated the benefits of elevated CO2 by stalling secondary production. This imbalance caused secondary producer populations to decline as elevated temperature drove predators to consume their prey more rapidly in the face of higher metabolic demand. Our findings demonstrate how anthropogenic CO2 can function as a resource that boosts productivity throughout food webs, and how warming can reverse this effect by acting as a stressor to trophic interactions. Understanding the shifting balance between the propagation of resource enrichment and its consumption across trophic levels provides a predictive understanding of future dynamics of stability and collapse in food webs and fisheries production. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Food Management, Production and Services: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This guide, which was written as an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System, outlines the suggested scope and sequence of a 2- or 3-year program in food management, production, and services. The guide consists of a course…

  14. [New fungal contaminants of food products in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Comerio, Ricardo M; Pildain, M Belén; Romero, Andrea I

    2005-03-01

    Five fungal species were isolated and identified in food products: Ascotricha chartarum, Leptosphaerulina argentinensis, Veronaea coprophila, Scolecobasidium constrictum and Coremiella cubispora. A. chartarum was isolated from paper bag containing sugar and the other four from tomato sauce. Except for L. argentinensis, the other four were new reports and the five species were isolated for the first time in Argentina.

  15. Food Production Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food production worker component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; hygiene and…

  16. Food Production, Management and Services: Service. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palan, Earl

    This food production, management, and services teacher guide contains nine units: (1) orientation; (2) types of service; (3) table settings; (4) dining room personnel; (5) dining room procedures; (6) side work; (7) guest/employee relationships; (8) sales techniques; and (9) safety and sanitation. Suggestions are included to increase reinforcement…

  17. Food Production, Management and Services: Management. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palan, Earl; Barrera, Janet

    This food production, management, and services teacher guide contains eight units: (1) orientation; (2) tools and functions of management; (3) cost controls; (4) keeping records; (5) purchasing and receiving; (6) storing and issuing; (7) personnel management; and (8) human relations. Suggestions are included to increase reinforcement of the…

  18. Food Production, Management and Services. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for food production, management, and service occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits),…

  19. Food Production, Management, and Services: Introduction. Second Edition. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palan, Earl; Feasley, Sue, Ed.

    This document contains seven units of instruction on food production, management, and services: (1) orientation; (2) applying for a job; (3) human relations; (4) communication; (5) sanitation; (6) safety; and (7) nutrition. Each instructional unit contains some or all of the following basic components: (1) unit and specific objectives; (2)…

  20. Food safety objective approach for controlling Clostridium botulinum growth and toxin production in commercially sterile foods.

    PubMed

    Anderson, N M; Larkin, J W; Cole, M B; Skinner, G E; Whiting, R C; Gorris, L G M; Rodriguez, A; Buchanan, R; Stewart, C M; Hanlin, J H; Keener, L; Hall, P A

    2011-11-01

    As existing technologies are refined and novel microbial inactivation technologies are developed, there is a growing need for a metric that can be used to judge equivalent levels of hazard control stringency to ensure food safety of commercially sterile foods. A food safety objective (FSO) is an output-oriented metric that designates the maximum level of a hazard (e.g., the pathogenic microorganism or toxin) tolerated in a food at the end of the food supply chain at the moment of consumption without specifying by which measures the hazard level is controlled. Using a risk-based approach, when the total outcome of controlling initial levels (H(0)), reducing levels (ΣR), and preventing an increase in levels (ΣI) is less than or equal to the target FSO, the product is considered safe. A cross-disciplinary international consortium of specialists from industry, academia, and government was organized with the objective of developing a document to illustrate the FSO approach for controlling Clostridium botulinum toxin in commercially sterile foods. This article outlines the general principles of an FSO risk management framework for controlling C. botulinum growth and toxin production in commercially sterile foods. Topics include historical approaches to establishing commercial sterility; a perspective on the establishment of an appropriate target FSO; a discussion of control of initial levels, reduction of levels, and prevention of an increase in levels of the hazard; and deterministic and stochastic examples that illustrate the impact that various control measure combinations have on the safety of well-established commercially sterile products and the ways in which variability all levels of control can heavily influence estimates in the FSO risk management framework. This risk-based framework should encourage development of innovative technologies that result in microbial safety levels equivalent to those achieved with traditional processing methods.

  1. The influence of smoking on radiation-induced bystander signal production in esophageal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hanu, C; Timotin, E; Wong, R; Sur, R K; Hayward, J E; Seymour, C B; Mothersill, C E

    2016-05-01

    The relevance of radiation-induced bystander effects in humans is unclear. Much of the existing data relate to cell lines but the effect of bystander signals in complex human tissues is unclear. A phase II clinical study was untaken, where blood sera from 60 patients along with 15 cancer-free volunteers were used to detect whether measurable bystander factor(s) could be found in the blood following high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Overall, there was no significant change in bystander signal production (measured in a human keratinocyte reporter system) before and after one treatment fraction of HDR brachytherapy (p>0.05). Further assessment of patient characteristics and environmental modifiable factors including smoking were also analyzed. Similar to previously published data, samples taken from smokers produced weaker signals compared to non-smokers (p<0.05). Although the number of non-smoking subjects was low, there was a clear decrease in cloning efficiency observed in keratinocyte cultures for these patients that requires further study. This study found that samples taken from smokers do not produce bystander signals, whereas samples taken from non-smokers can produce such signals following HDR brachytherapy. These findings highlight the importance of studying the interactions of multiple stressors including environmental modifiers with radiation, since some factors such as smoking may elicit protection in tumor cells which could counteract the effectiveness of radiation therapy.

  2. Asbestos exposure, smoking habits, and cancer incidence among production and maintenance workers in an electrochemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hilt, B.; Langard, S.A.; Andersen, A.; Rosenberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of cancer was studied in a cohort of 287 men who were exposed to asbestos at a nitric acid production plant from 1928 onwards. During the observation period from 1953 through 1980 all cancer cases among the cohort members were identified in The Cancer Registry. For the whole cohort 42 cases of cancer were observed versus 30.6 expected. The figures for cancer of the lungs and pleura combined were 17 observed versus 3.7 expected. The corresponding figures for a heavily exposed subcohort were 11 observed and 1.2 expected. In that group there was also an increased incidence of colon cancer with 3 cases observed against 0.8 cases expected. Within the whole cohort four cases of pleural and one case of peritoneal malignant mesothelioma were found. There was also an increased incidence of malignant melanoma of the skin with 3 cases observed against 0.6 expected. For cancer cases that were registered as of unknown origin there were 7 cases observed and 1.4 expected. There was no increased rate ratio for cancer at any site before 20 years after the first asbestos exposure. The smoking habits of all cohort members were recorded and the relative rates for lung cancer were calculated in relation to smoking habits. In common with previous studies the results indicate a multiplicative model for the interaction between asbestos exposure and smoking in regard to lung cancer risk.

  3. Determination of pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R; Jeng, J; Hsiang, W S; Hwang, B H

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco that was trapped with a C8 adsorbent cartridge and then detected by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. According to the results, the mainstream smoke contains 2-methylpropyl-benzene, 2-chloropropyl-benzene, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, 3-ethyl-phenol, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, hydroquinone, 3-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-methylcarbamate phenol, N-methyl-N-(2-phenylethyl)-acetamide, 4-(3-hydroxy-1-butenyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one, propanoic acid, N-acetylmethamphetamine, phenyl ester, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. In addition, the compounds in sidestream smoke are 2-propenyl benzene, phenylacetone, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, benzyl methyl ketoxime, 3,4-dihydro-2-naphthalenone, N-folmyamphetamine, N-acetylamphetamine, bibenzyl, N-folmylmethamphetamine, N-acetylmethamphetamine, N-propionymethamphetamine, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. Moreover, the presence of methamphetamine promotes the oxidation of the tobacco components.

  4. Tobacco company efforts to influence the Food and Drug Administration-commissioned Institute of Medicine report clearing the smoke: an analysis of documents released through litigation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Crystal E; Kyriss, Thomas; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-01-01

    Spurred by the creation of potential modified risk tobacco products, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) commissioned the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to assess the science base for tobacco "harm reduction," leading to the 2001 IOM report Clearing the Smoke. The objective of this study was to determine how the tobacco industry organized to try to influence the IOM committee that prepared the report. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents in the University of California, San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, and IOM public access files. (A limitation of this method includes the fact that the tobacco companies have withheld some possibly relevant documents.) Tobacco companies considered the IOM report to have high-stakes regulatory implications. They developed and implemented strategies with consulting and legal firms to access the IOM proceedings. When the IOM study staff invited the companies to provide information on exposure and disease markers, clinical trial design for safety and efficacy, and implications for initiation and cessation, tobacco company lawyers, consultants, and in-house regulatory staff shaped presentations from company scientists. Although the available evidence does not permit drawing cause-and-effect conclusions, and the IOM may have come to the same conclusions without the influence of the tobacco industry, the companies were pleased with the final report, particularly the recommendations for a tiered claims system (with separate tiers for exposure and risk, which they believed would ease the process of qualifying for a claim) and license to sell products comparable to existing conventional cigarettes ("substantial equivalence") without prior regulatory approval. Some principles from the IOM report, including elements of the substantial equivalence recommendation, appear in the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Tobacco companies strategically interacted with the IOM to win several

  5. Tobacco Company Efforts to Influence the Food and Drug Administration-Commissioned Institute of Medicine Report Clearing the Smoke: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Crystal E.; Kyriss, Thomas; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Spurred by the creation of potential modified risk tobacco products, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) commissioned the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to assess the science base for tobacco “harm reduction,” leading to the 2001 IOM report Clearing the Smoke. The objective of this study was to determine how the tobacco industry organized to try to influence the IOM committee that prepared the report. Methods and Findings We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents in the University of California, San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, and IOM public access files. (A limitation of this method includes the fact that the tobacco companies have withheld some possibly relevant documents.) Tobacco companies considered the IOM report to have high-stakes regulatory implications. They developed and implemented strategies with consulting and legal firms to access the IOM proceedings. When the IOM study staff invited the companies to provide information on exposure and disease markers, clinical trial design for safety and efficacy, and implications for initiation and cessation, tobacco company lawyers, consultants, and in-house regulatory staff shaped presentations from company scientists. Although the available evidence does not permit drawing cause-and-effect conclusions, and the IOM may have come to the same conclusions without the influence of the tobacco industry, the companies were pleased with the final report, particularly the recommendations for a tiered claims system (with separate tiers for exposure and risk, which they believed would ease the process of qualifying for a claim) and license to sell products comparable to existing conventional cigarettes (“substantial equivalence”) without prior regulatory approval. Some principles from the IOM report, including elements of the substantial equivalence recommendation, appear in the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Conclusions Tobacco companies

  6. Cigarette smoke condensate inhibits collagen gel contraction and prostaglandin E2 production in human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Cáceres, M; Arancibia, R; Silva, D; Couve, E; Martínez, C; Martínez, J; Smith, P C

    2015-06-01

    Granulation tissue remodeling and myofibroblastic differentiation are critically important events during wound healing. Tobacco smoking has a detrimental effect in gingival tissue repair. However, studies evaluating the effects of cigarette smoke on these events are lacking. We used gingival fibroblasts cultured within free-floating and restrained collagen gels to simulate the initial and final steps of the granulation tissue phase during tissue repair. Collagen gel contraction was stimulated with serum or transforming growth factor-β1. Cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) was used to evaluate the effects of tobacco smoke on gel contraction. Protein levels of alpha-smooth muscle actin, β1 integrin, matrix metalloproteinase-3 and connective tissue growth factor were evaluated through Western blot. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) levels were determined through ELISA. Actin organization was evaluated through confocal microscopy. CSC reduced collagen gel contraction induced by serum and transforming growth factor-β1 in restrained collagen gels. CSC also altered the development of actin stress fibers in fibroblasts cultured within restrained collagen gels. PGE(2) levels were strongly diminished by CSC in three-dimensional cell cultures. However, other proteins involved in granulation tissue remodeling and myofibroblastic differentiation such as alpha-smooth muscle actin, β1 integrin, matrix metalloproteinase-3 and connective tissue growth factor, were unmodified by CSC. CSC may alter the capacity of gingival fibroblasts to remodel and contract a collagen matrix. Inhibition of PGE(2) production and alterations of actin stress fibers in these cells may impair proper tissue maturation during wound healing in smokers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Eliciting preferences for waterpipe tobacco smoking using a discrete choice experiment: implications for product regulation.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Maziak, Wasim; Hammond, David; Nakkash, Rima; Islam, Farahnaz; Cheng, Xi; Thrasher, James F

    2015-09-09

    Waterpipe smoking is highly prevalent among university students, and has been increasing in popularity despite mounting evidence showing it is harmful to health. The aim of this study was to measure preferences for waterpipe smoking and determine which product characteristics are most important to smokers. A large university in the Southeastern USA. Adult waterpipe smokers attending the university (N=367). Participants completed an Internet-based discrete choice experiment to reveal their preferences for, and trade-offs between, the attributes of hypothetical waterpipe smoking sessions. Participants were presented with waterpipe lounge menus, each with three fruit-flavoured options and one tobacco flavoured option, in addition to an opt out option. Nicotine content and price were provided for each choice. Participants were randomised to either receive menus with a text-only health-warning message or no message. Multinomial and nested logit models were used to estimate the impact on consumer choice of attributes and between-subject assignment of health warnings respectively. On average, participants preferred fruit-flavoured varieties to tobacco flavour. They were averse to options labelled with higher nicotine content. Females and non-smokers of cigarettes were more likely than their counterparts to prefer flavoured and nicotine-free varieties. Participants exposed to a health warning were more likely to opt out. Fruit-flavoured tobacco and lower nicotine content labels, two strategies widely used by the industry, increase the demand for waterpipe smoking among young adults. Waterpipe-specific regulation should limit the availability of flavoured waterpipe tobacco and require accurate labelling of constituents. Waterpipe-specific tobacco control regulation, along with research to inform policy, is required to curb this emerging public health threat. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  8. Eliciting preferences for waterpipe tobacco smoking using a discrete choice experiment: implications for product regulation

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Maziak, Wasim; Hammond, David; Nakkash, Rima; Islam, Farahnaz; Cheng, Xi; Thrasher, James F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Waterpipe smoking is highly prevalent among university students, and has been increasing in popularity despite mounting evidence showing it is harmful to health. The aim of this study was to measure preferences for waterpipe smoking and determine which product characteristics are most important to smokers. Setting A large university in the Southeastern USA. Participants Adult waterpipe smokers attending the university (N=367). Design Participants completed an Internet-based discrete choice experiment to reveal their preferences for, and trade-offs between, the attributes of hypothetical waterpipe smoking sessions. Participants were presented with waterpipe lounge menus, each with three fruit-flavoured options and one tobacco flavoured option, in addition to an opt out option. Nicotine content and price were provided for each choice. Participants were randomised to either receive menus with a text-only health-warning message or no message. Outcome measures Multinomial and nested logit models were used to estimate the impact on consumer choice of attributes and between-subject assignment of health warnings respectively. Results On average, participants preferred fruit-flavoured varieties to tobacco flavour. They were averse to options labelled with higher nicotine content. Females and non-smokers of cigarettes were more likely than their counterparts to prefer flavoured and nicotine-free varieties. Participants exposed to a health warning were more likely to opt out. Conclusions Fruit-flavoured tobacco and lower nicotine content labels, two strategies widely used by the industry, increase the demand for waterpipe smoking among young adults. Waterpipe-specific regulation should limit the availability of flavoured waterpipe tobacco and require accurate labelling of constituents. Waterpipe-specific tobacco control regulation, along with research to inform policy, is required to curb this emerging public health threat. PMID:26353876

  9. Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about Food Production and the Origins of Common Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet; O'Mahony, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    Individual interviews were conducted with 96 K-3 students, stratified according to grade level, achievement level, and gender. The students were asked to explain land-to-hand progressions involved in bringing several common foods to our tables, identify products derived from common farm animals, explain why a pound of cereal costs more than a…

  10. Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about Food Production and the Origins of Common Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet; O'Mahony, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    Individual interviews were conducted with 96 K-3 students, stratified according to grade level, achievement level, and gender. The students were asked to explain land-to-hand progressions involved in bringing several common foods to our tables, identify products derived from common farm animals, explain why a pound of cereal costs more than a…

  11. Using the SPEI to Estimate Food Production in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husak, G. J.; Hobbins, M.; Verdin, J. P.; Peterson, P.; Funk, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors critical environmental variables that impact food production in developing countries. Due to a sparse network of observations in the developing world, many of these variables are estimated using remotely sensed data. As scientists develop new techniques to leverage available observations and remotely sensed information there are opportunities to create products that identify the environmental conditions that stress agriculture and reduce food production. FEWS NET pioneered the development of the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with stations (CHIRPS) dataset, to estimate precipitation and monitor growing conditions throughout the world. These data are used to drive land surface models, hydrologic models and basic crop models among others. A new dataset estimating the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) has been developed using inputs from the ERA-Interim GCM. This ET0 dataset stretches back to 1981, allowing for a long-term record, stretching many seasons and drought events. Combining the CHIRPS data to estimate water availability and the ET0 data to estimate evaporative demand, one can estimate the approximate water gap (surplus or deficit) over a specific time period. Normalizing this difference creates the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which presents these gaps in comparison to the historical record for a specific location and accumulation period. In this study we evaluate the SPEI as a tool to estimate crop yields for different regions of Kenya. Identifying the critical time of analysis for the SPEI is the first step in building a relationship between the water gap and food production. Once this critical period is identified, we look at the predictability of food production using the SPEI, and assess the utility of it for monitoring food security, with the goal of incorporating the SPEI in the standard monitoring suite of FEWS NET tools.

  12. ISS as testbed towards food production on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuebler, Ulrich; Thallemer, Axel; Kern, Peter; Schwarzwaelder, Achim

    Almost all major space faring nations are presently investigating concepts for the exploration of extra terrestrial planetary bodies, including Earth's Moon and Mars. One major objective to sustain any human exploration plans will be the provision of fresh food. Even if a delivery from Earth to Moon is still possible with regular preservation techniques as for the international space station, there will be a big psychological impact from the ability to grow fresh food on a Moon Basis. Various architectural and agricultural concepts have been proposed. A comprehensive summary of the related requirements and constraints shall be presented as a baseline for further studies. One presently unknown constraint is the question of the gravity threshold for the genetic stability of plants or more specifically the level of gravity which is needed for normal growth and reproduction of plants. This paper shall focus on a roadmap towards a food production facility a planetary surface using the International Space Station as a test bed. Presented will be 1.) The concept of a Food Research Rotor for the artificial gravity facility EMCS. This Rotor shall allow the investigation into the gravity dependence of growth and reproduction of nutritionally relevant plants like radishes, tomatoes, bell peppers or lettuce. An important answer from this research could be if the Moon Gravity of 1/6g is sufficient for a vegetative food production or if additional artificial gravity is needed for a Moon Greenhouse. 2.) An inflatable demonstrator for ATV as scaled down version of a proposed planetary greenhouse

  13. Climatic Extremes and Food Grain Production in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, A.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is likely to affect food and water security in India. India has witnessed tremendous growth in its food production after the green revolution. However, during the recent decades the food grain yields were significantly affected by the extreme climate and weather events. Air temperature and associated extreme events (number of hot days and hot nights, heat waves) increased significantly during the last 50 years in the majority of India. More remarkably, a substantial increase in mean and extreme temperatures was observed during the winter season in India. On the other hand, India witnessed extreme flood and drought events that have become frequent during the past few decades. Extreme rainfall during the non-monsoon season adversely affected the food grain yields and results in tremendous losses in several parts of the country. Here we evaluate the changes in hydroclimatic extremes and its linkage with the food grain production in India. We use observed food grain yield data for the period of 1980-2012 at district level. We understand the linkages between food grain yield and crop phenology obtained from the high resolution leaf area index and NDVI datasets from satellites. We used long-term observed data of daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures to evaluate changes in the extreme events. We use statistical models to develop relationships between crop yields, mean and extreme temperatures for various crops to understand the sensitivity of these crops towards changing climatic conditions. We find that some of the major crop types and predominant crop growing areas have shown a significant sensitivity towards changes in extreme climatic conditions in India.

  14. 9 CFR 354.142 - Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition. 354.142 Section 354.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Certificates § 354.142 Food product inspection certificates; issuance and...

  15. Use of gamma irradiation to prevent aflatoxin B 1 production in smoked dried fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogbadu, G. H.

    Smoked dried fish bought from the Nigerian market was inoculated with spores of barAspergillus flavus (U.I. 81) and irradiated with doses of 0.625, 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 KGy gamma irradiation. The effect of aflatoxin B 1 production on subsequent incubation for 8 days as stationary cultures was measured. The amount of aflatoxin B 1 produced was found to decrease with increased gamma irradiation dose levels. While the non-irradiated control produced significantly (at 1% level) greater amounts of aflatoxin B 1 as compared to the treated cultures.

  16. Cigarette smoke regulates the expression of TLR4 and IL-8 production by human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sarir, Hadi; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Karimi, Khalil; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Rahman, Irfan; Caldenhoven, Eric; Nijkamp, Frans P; Folkerts, Gert

    2009-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are present on monocytes and alveolar macrophages that form the first line of defense against inhaled particles. The importance of those cells in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has well been documented. Cigarette smoke contains high concentration of oxidants which can stimulate immune cells to produce reactive oxygen species, cytokines and chemokines. Methods In this study, we evaluated the effects of cigarette smoke medium (CSM) on TLR4 expression and interleukin (IL)-8 production by human macrophages investigating the involvement of ROS. Results and Discussion TLR4 surface expression was downregulated on short term exposure (1 h) of CSM. The downregulation could be explained by internalization of the TLR4 and the upregulation by an increase in TLR4 mRNA. IL-8 mRNA and protein were also increased by CSM. CSM stimulation increased intracellular ROS-production and decreased glutathione (GSH) levels. The modulation of TLR4 mRNA and surface receptors expression, IRAK activation, IκB-α degradation, IL-8 mRNA and protein, GSH depletion and ROS production were all prevented by antioxidants such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Conclusion TLR4 may be involved in the pathogenesis of lung emphysema and oxidative stress and seems to be a crucial contributor in lung inflammation. PMID:19409098

  17. Dairy food products: good or bad for cardiometabolic disease?

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, Julie A; Givens, D Ian

    2016-12-01

    Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly increasingly and is a key risk for CVD development, now recognised as the leading cause of death globally. Dietary strategies to reduce CVD development include reduction of saturated fat intake. Milk and dairy products are the largest contributors to dietary saturated fats in the UK and reduced consumption is often recommended as a strategy for risk reduction. However, overall evidence from prospective cohort studies does not confirm a detrimental association between dairy product consumption and CVD risk. The present review critically evaluates the current evidence on the association between milk and dairy products and risk of CVD, T2DM and the metabolic syndrome (collectively, cardiometabolic disease). The effects of total and individual dairy foods on cardiometabolic risk factors and new information on the effects of the food matrix on reducing fat digestion are also reviewed. It is concluded that a policy to lower SFA intake by reducing dairy food consumption to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk is likely to have limited or possibly negative effects. There remain many uncertainties, including differential effects of different dairy products and those of differing fat content. Focused and suitably designed and powered studies are needed to provide clearer evidence not only of the mechanisms involved, but how they may be beneficially influenced during milk production and processing.

  18. Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria stimulates production in Baltic food webs.

    PubMed

    Karlson, Agnes M L; Duberg, Jon; Motwani, Nisha H; Hogfors, Hedvig; Klawonn, Isabell; Ploug, Helle; Barthel Svedén, Jennie; Garbaras, Andrius; Sundelin, Brita; Hajdu, Susanna; Larsson, Ulf; Elmgren, Ragnar; Gorokhova, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria form extensive summer blooms in the Baltic Sea. Their ability to fix dissolved N2 allows cyanobacteria to circumvent the general summer nitrogen limitation, while also generating a supply of novel bioavailable nitrogen for the food web. However, the fate of the nitrogen fixed by cyanobacteria remains unresolved, as does its importance for secondary production in the Baltic Sea. Here, we synthesize recent experimental and field studies providing strong empirical evidence that cyanobacterial nitrogen is efficiently assimilated and transferred in Baltic food webs via two major pathways: directly by grazing on fresh or decaying cyanobacteria and indirectly through the uptake by other phytoplankton and microbes of bioavailable nitrogen exuded from cyanobacterial cells. This information is an essential step toward guiding nutrient management to minimize noxious blooms without overly reducing secondary production, and ultimately most probably fish production in the Baltic Sea.

  19. Quality control throughout the production process of infant food.

    PubMed

    Hamrin, Pia; Hoeft, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of infant food is a highly complex process and needs an effective quality control beyond classical in-process parameters and a final microbiological analysis. To ensure a safe end -product, various tools, such as the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), have been developed to facilitate the management of food safety. Every single infant formula ingredient must have an excellent quality and safety approach because even if an ingredient is used in very small quantities in a single product, serious consequences may arise if the quality and product safety are not taken seriously by the ingredient manufacturer. The purpose of this article was twofold: firstly, to briefly describe existing Quality Management Systems and, secondly, to highlight the consequences of non-quality.

  20. Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne's process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

  1. Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

    1992-07-01

    In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne`s process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

  2. Composition of Plant Sterols and Stanols in Supplemented Food Products.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    All fruits, vegetables, grains and other plant materials contain small amounts of plant sterols, which are essential for the function of the biological membranes in living cells. The average human consumption of plant sterols has been estimated to be about 150-350 mg/day and trace amounts of stanols (which are defined as saturated sterols such as sitostanol), but this number varies regionally and is higher for vegetarians. When consumed in the diet, plant sterols reduce the levels of serum cholesterol. In 1995 the first functional food product, Benecol spread (enriched in plant stanol fatty acid esters), was developed by Raisio and marketed, first in Finland and then globally. Since then many other functional food products have been developed and are now available globally. In addition to stanol esters, other functional food products contain plant sterol esters and/or free (unesterified) plant sterols and stanols. In essentially all of the current functional foods that are enriched in sterols and stanols, the feedstock from which the sterols and stanols are obtained is either tall oil (a byproduct/coproduct of the pulping of pine wood) or vegetable oil deodorizer distillate (a byproduct/coproduct of the refining of vegetable oils).

  3. Physicochemical Aspects of the Conversion of Proteins into Food Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstoguzov, V. B.; Braudo, E. E.; Grinberg, V. Ya; Gurov, A. N.

    1985-10-01

    A general physicochemical approach to the problem of the conversion of protein into food products is examined. The results of studies on processes involving the formation of gels from proteins and polysaccharides — the principal macromolecular components of food — are analysed. The phenomena involving the non-equilibrium formation of complexes by proteins and anionic polysaccharides as well as the limited thermodynamic compatibility in protein-polysaccharide-water and protein-protein-water systems are discussed. The applied aspects of the phenomena indicated are briefly noted. The bibliography includes 127 references.

  4. Factors influencing the dielectric properties of agricultural and food products.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Stuart O; Trabelsi, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric properties of materials are defined, and the major factors that influence these properties of agricultural and food materials, namely, frequency of the applied radiofrequency or microwave electric fields, and water content, temperature, and density of the materials, are discussed on the basis of fundamental concepts. The dependence of measured dielectric properties on these factors is illustrated graphically and discussed for a number of agricultural and food products, including examples of grain, peanuts, fruit, eggs, fresh chicken meat, whey protein gel, and a macaroni and cheese preparation. General observations are provided on the nature of the variation of the dielectric properties with the major variables.

  5. Biomass energy crop production versus food crop production in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Sammuels, G.

    1983-12-01

    The Caribbean countries have traditionally grown sugar cane, coffee and bananas as major agriculture export crops. Food crop production was sufficient in most cases for domestic consumption. In recent years powerful social and economic changes of increasing population, industrial development and higher living standards have placed pressure on local governments to provide food, clothing, shelter and energy. Energy that is mainly supplied by imported oil. Biomass, primarily as sugar cane, can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the problem. Unfortunately, the arable land area for the majority of the countries is limited. Food crop production is needed for local consumption and export. Possible energy crop production to provide local needs will place an increasing demand on arable land. The objective of this paper is to present the scope of food versus energy crop production and a suggested renewable energy crop program to help achieve a balance within the limited land resources of the Caribbean.

  6. Listeria monocytogenes in Smoked Salmon and Other Smoked Fish at Retail in Italy: Frequency of Contamination and Strain Characterization in Products from Different Manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Acciari, Vicdalia Aniela; Torresi, Marina; Iannetti, Luigi; Scattolini, Silvia; Pomilio, Francesco; Decastelli, Lucia; Colmegna, Silvia; Muliari, Riccardo; Bossù, Teresa; Proroga, Yolande; Montagna, Cosimo; Cardamone, Cinzia; Cogoni, Paola; Prencipe, Vincenza Annunziata; Migliorati, Giacomo

    2017-02-01

    Seven hundred seventy-eight samples of packaged smoked fish (774 smoked salmon and 4 smoked swordfish) on sale in Italy, from 50 different manufacturers located in 12 European Union countries, were purchased from the Italian market between May and December 2011. The surface temperatures of the samples on sale ranged from 0 to 13°C (3.4 ± 1.5°C, mean ± SD). Six hundred eighty (87.4%) of 778 samples were stored at ≤4°C. One hundred fifty-seven samples (20.2%, 95% confidence interval 17.5 to 23.1%) were contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes , with 26 samples (3.3%, 95% confidence interval 2.3 to 4.8%) at levels >100 CFU/g. The maximum level of contamination was 1.3 ×10(6) CFU/g. The differences in the level of contamination of smoked fish between countries (χ(2) = 91.54, P < 0.05) and manufacturers (χ(2) = 193.22, P < 0.05) were significant. The frequency of detection for products from different manufacturing premises ranged from 0 to 76.9%. Serotyping by serological agglutination revealed that the main serotypes detected were 1/2a (65.3%) and 1/2b (22.4%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing with restriction enzymes AscI and ApaI yielded 36 pulsotypes from 144 isolates, clustering into 17 groups. Eight main pulsotypes accounted for 70.8% of the isolates. Three of the main pulsotypes were exclusively from products of a single manufacturer. In general, products from the same manufacturer showed genetic homogeneity, with one strongly prevalent pulsotype. Different manufacturers usually showed very different levels of contamination of the final product, confirming the importance of the management of process hygiene for controlling L. monocytogenes contamination.

  7. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stefanou, Spiro E

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change.

  8. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change. PMID:26057878

  9. [Relationship between lifestyle and subjective symptoms in a food products company].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yoshiko; Ide, Reiko; Kitano, Yuka; Yamamoto, Ryoko; Higashi, Toshiaki

    2007-06-01

    Although the relationship between lifestyle and subjective symptoms has been reported in the general population, relatively few studies have looked at the link between these two in workplace. To investigate the relationship between lifestyle and subjective symptoms, a cross-sectional study was carried out using data from 4,540 workers aged 20-69 years old in a food products company. The subjective symptoms with a prevalence of more than 10% in either males or females were selected as dependent variables: fatigue, dropsical swelling of hands or feet, stiff neck or shoulders, backpain, deterioration of eye sight, dizziness, diarrhea and constipation. We used a multiple logistic regression model to calculate the odds ratio(OR) and 95% confidence interval(CI) for each subjective symptom according to lifestyle: regular physical activity, proper sleeping, nine hours or less of work, having breakfast, having a nutritionally balanced diet, no smoking and moderate drinking of alcohol. We adjusted for age and type of occupation by gender. The findings confirmed the relationship between smoking and alcohol drinking and subjective symptoms in both genders. In addition, proper sleeping was likely to prevent musculoskeletal symptoms in females.

  10. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon; Sung, Julie C; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2017-02-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug.

  11. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon; Sung, Julie C; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug.

  12. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  13. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Julie C.; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug. PMID:26962391

  14. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Julie C.; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug. PMID:28367259

  15. Microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients via metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuheng; Jain, Rachit; Yan, Yajun

    2014-04-01

    Antioxidants are biological molecules with the ability to protect vital metabolites from harmful oxidation. Due to this fascinating role, their beneficial effects on human health are of paramount importance. Traditional approaches using solvent-based extraction from food/non-food sources and chemical synthesis are often expensive, exhaustive, and detrimental to the environment. With the advent of metabolic engineering tools, the successful reconstitution of heterologous pathways in Escherichia coli and other microorganisms provides a more exciting and amenable alternative to meet the increasing demand of natural antioxidants. In this review, we elucidate the recent progress in metabolic engineering efforts for the microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients - polyphenols, carotenoids, and antioxidant vitamins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fermentative Hydrogen Production From Food Waste Without Inocula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, S.; Fujisawa, A.; Mizuno, O.; Kameda, T.; Yoshioka, T.

    2008-02-01

    The kind of seed microorganisms and its growth conditions are important factors for the hydrogen fermentation. However, there are many kinds of bacteria in food waste, and it is necessary to know their behavior if it is used as a substrate. Therefore, hydrogen fermentation of food waste was investigated in the absence of inocula with an initial pH varying from 5 to 9 and in a temperature range between 22 to 50 °C. Hydrogen production occurred when the initial pH of the solution containing the food waste was adjusted to 7-9 and the temperature was adjusted to 22 or 35 °C (maximum production was 40 ml-H2/g-TS at an initial pH of 9 and a temperature of 35 °C). However, the hydrogen production stopped when the pH decreased due to the accumulation of organic acids. In the next step, the pH was controlled by the addition of a NaOH solution between 5.0 and 9.0. When the pH was controlled between 5.0-6.0, the hydrogen production increased to a maximum of 90 ml-H2/g-TS at a pH of 5.5 and a temperature of 35 °C; more than 4 times more than for the sample without pH adjustment, due to the acceleration of butyrate fermentation.

  17. Benthic food webs support the production of sympatric flatfish ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Identifying nursery habitats is of paramount importance to define proper management and conservation strategies for flatfish species. Flatfish nursery studies usually report upon habitat occupation, but few attempted to quantify the importance of those habitats to larvae development. The reliance of two sympatric flatfish species larvae, the European flounder Platichthys flesus and the common sole Solea solea, on the estuarine food web (benthic vs. pelagic) was determined through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. The organic matter sources supporting the production of P. flesus and S. solea larvae biomass originates chiefly in the benthic food web. However, these species have significantly different ä13C and ä15N values which suggests that they prey on organisms that use a different mixture of sources or assimilate different components from similar OM pools (or both). Fisheries production is a highly-valued ecosystem service of coastal habitats globally. Developing ecological production functions to relate nursery habitat to this ecosystem service, however, has proved challenging owing to lack of techniques to effectively relate habitat use with the early life stages of fish. In this study, we demonstrate how stable isotopes can be used to evaluate nursery habitat-fish production linkages using stable isotope analysis of an estuarine food web. In particular, we show how to quantify the reliance of two commercially-important fish species to various h

  18. Planting structure adjustment and food security in major food production district: A case study on 10 main food production counties in Gansu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. J.; Yang, C. L.; Zhou, L. Y.

    2017-07-01

    This paper made an empirical study on planting structure adjustment and food security, in which main data and information came from the questionnaires of 10 main food-production counties in Gansu Province, China. The investigation results showed that: 1) During 1995 and 2014, the cultivated land area per household dropped by 2.40%, in which food crop area declined by 3.16%, yet cash crop area increased by 129% in the survey area. In the same period, the revenue per household increased by 162.99%, while food income from the revenue only increased by 17.42%; 2) In Hexi and Longzhong districts, mean wheat crop area per household shows a downtrend, while cash crop area increased significantly in the past 20 years. Especially, the household food output and income did not appear a simultaneous increase trend. In Longdong district, the household food output and income showed a simultaneous uptrend, and household income came mainly from miscellaneous grain (e.g. sorghum, bean, buckwheat, etc.); 3) In order to pursue higher economic efficiency of cultivated land, the farmers were forced to adjust planting structure and develop characteristics industries, profitable agriculture and cash crop with comparative advantage, which resulted in few food stock and impacted seriously on regional food security.

  19. The influence of menthol, e-cigarettes and other tobacco products on young adults' self-reported changes in past year smoking.

    PubMed

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Villanti, Andrea C; Wackowski, Olivia A; Gundersen, Daniel A; Giovenco, Daniel P

    2016-09-01

    Progression to regular smoking often occurs during young adulthood. This study examines self-reported changes in past year smoking among young adults and the potential influence of tobacco products on these trajectories. Respondents to the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey who smoked 100 cigarettes in their lifetime (n=909) described smoking behaviour at the time of the survey and 1 year prior. Cigarette smoking trajectories were categorised as: no change, quit, decreased smoking or increased smoking. Participants were also asked about current use of menthol cigarettes and other tobacco products (ie, cigars, smokeless tobacco, hookah) and ever use of e-cigarettes. Most young adults (73.1%) reported stable cigarette smoking behaviours, while 8.2% reported having quit, 5.8% reported that they smoke on fewer days, 5% progressed from someday to daily smoking and 8% increased from not at all to current smoking. The youngest smokers (18-20) had significantly higher odds (adjusted OR (AOR) =2.6) of increasing cigarette use over the past year compared to those aged 30-34, as did blacks versus whites (AOR=2.35). Menthol cigarette use nearly doubled (AOR=1.87) the odds of increased smoking behaviour. E-cigarette and other tobacco product (OTP) use were not associated with increasing smoking but OTP use was negatively associated with remaining quit from cigarettes. Young adulthood is a critical period for smoking interventions, particularly among those most vulnerable to increasing smoking behaviours (ie, black and younger young adults). Policy efforts to restrict menthol cigarettes may reduce young adult smoking progression. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Fate of starch in food processing: from raw materials to final food products.

    PubMed

    Delcour, Jan A; Bruneel, Charlotte; Derde, Liesbeth J; Gomand, Sara V; Pareyt, Bram; Putseys, Joke A; Wilderjans, Edith; Lamberts, Lieve

    2010-01-01

    Starch, an essential component of an equilibrated diet, is present in cereals such as common and durum wheat, maize, rice, and rye, in roots and tubers such as potato and cassava, and in legumes such as peas. During food processing, starch mainly undergoes nonchemical transformations. Here, we focus on the occurrence of starch in food raw materials, its composition and properties, and its transformations from raw material to final products. We therefore describe a number of predominant food processes and identify research needs. Nonchemical transformations that are dealt with include physical damage to starch, gelatinization, amylose-lipid complex formation, amylose crystallization, and amylopectin retrogradation. A main focus is on wheat-based processes. (Bio)chemical modifications of starch by amylolytic enzymes are dealt with only in the context of understanding the starch component in bread making.

  1. Variation in tobacco and mainstream smoke toxicant yields from selected commercial cigarette products.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, A; Betson, T R; Gama, M Vinicius; McAdam, K

    2015-04-01

    There is a drive toward the mandated lowering and reporting of selected toxicants in tobacco smoke. Several studies have quantified the mainstream cigarette emissions of toxicants, providing benchmark levels. Few, however, have examined how measured toxicant levels within a single product vary over time due to natural variation in the tobacco, manufacturing and measurement. In a single centre analysis, key toxicants were measured in the tobacco blend and smoke of 3R4F reference cigarette and three commercial products, each sampled monthly for 10 months. For most analytes, monthly variation was low (coefficient of variation <15%); but higher (⩾ 20%) for some compounds present at low (ppb) levels. Reporting toxicant emissions as a ratio to nicotine increased the monthly variation of the 9 analytes proposed for mandated lowering, by 1-2 percentage points. Variation in toxicant levels was generally 1.5-1.7-fold higher in commercial cigarettes compared with 3R4F over the 10-month period, but increased up to 3.5-fold for analytes measured at ppb level. The potential error (2CV) associated with single-point-in-time sampling averaged ∼ 20%. Together, these data demonstrate that measurement of emissions from commercial cigarettes is associated with considerable variation for low-level toxicants. This variation would increase if the analyses were conducted in more than one laboratory.

  2. A longitudinal study of smokers' exposure to cigarette smoke and the effects of spontaneous product switching.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony; Sommarström, Johan; Camacho, Oscar M; Sisodiya, Ajit S; Prasad, Krishna

    2015-06-01

    A challenge in investigating the effect of public health policies on cigarette consumption and exposure arises from variation in a smoker's exposure from cigarette to cigarette and the considerable differences between smokers. In addition, limited data are available on the effects of spontaneous product switching on a smoker's cigarette consumption and exposure to smoke constituents. Over 1000 adult smokers of the same commercial 10mg International Organization for Standardization (ISO) tar yield cigarette were recruited into the non-residential, longitudinal study across 10 cities in Germany. Cigarette consumption, mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine and biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone were measured every 6months over a 3 and a half year period. Cigarette consumption remained stable through the study period and did not vary significantly when smokers spontaneously switched products. Mouth level exposure decreased for smokers (n=111) who switched to cigarettes of 7mg ISO tar yield or lower. In addition, downward trends in mouth level exposure estimates were observed for smokers who did not switch cigarettes. Data from this study illustrate some of the challenges in measuring smokers' long-term exposure to smoke constituents in their everyday environment.

  3. Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, and lead in smoke from tobacco products other than cigarettes.

    PubMed Central

    Appel, B R; Guirguis, G; Kim, I S; Garbin, O; Fracchia, M; Flessel, C P; Kizer, K W; Book, S A; Warriner, T E

    1990-01-01

    Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and lead in mainstream smoke from cigars, roll-your-own (RYO) cigarette and pipe tobaccos were sampled to evaluate their potential health significance. Results with reference cigarettes were consistent with published values, providing support for the methodology employed. The emissions of benzene and BaP, expressed as mass emitted per gram of tobacco consumed, were similar for all products evaluated; for benzene, the mean values for cigars, RYO cigarette and pipe tobaccos were 156 +/- 52, 68 +/- 11, and 242 +/- 126 micrograms/g, respectively. Mean values for BaP were 42 +/- 7 and 48 +/- 4 ng/g for cigars and RYO cigarette tobacco, respectively. Lead values were below the limit of reliable quantitation in all cases. The mean benzene concentrations in a puff ranged from 1 to 2 x 10(5) micrograms/m3 for cigars, RYO cigarette and pipe tobaccos. For BaP, the puff concentration averaged about 60 micrograms/m3 for cigars and RYO cigarette tobacco. The results suggest that smoking cigars, pipes or RYO cigarettes leads to potential exposures which exceed the No Significant Risk levels of benzene and BaP set pursuant to California's Proposition 65. These tobacco products are now required to bear a health hazard warning when sold in California. We recommend that this be adopted as national policy. PMID:2327532

  4. Effects of cigarette smoke on degranulation and NO production by mast cells and epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiu M; Kim, Henry S; Kumar, Rakesh K; Heywood, Gavin J; Hunt, John E; McNeil, H Patrick; Thomas, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is decreased by cigarette smoking. The hypothesis that oxides of nitrogen (NOX) in cigarette smoke solution (CSS) may exert a negative feedback mechanism upon NO release from epithelial (AEC, A549, and NHTBE) and basophilic cells (RBL-2H3) was tested in vitro. CSS inhibited both NO production and degranulation (measured as release of beta-hexosaminidase) in a dose-dependent manner from RBL-2H3 cells. Inhibition of NO production by CSS in AEC, A549, and NHTBE cells was also dose-dependent. In addition, CSS decreased expression of NOS mRNA and protein expression. The addition of NO inhibitors and scavengers did not, however, reverse the effects of CSS, nor did a NO donor (SNP) or nicotine mimic CSS. N-acetyl-cysteine, partially reversed the inhibition of beta-hexosaminidase release suggesting CSS may act via oxidative free radicals. Thus, some of the inhibitory effects of CSS appear to be via oxidative free radicals rather than a NOX -related negative feedback. PMID:16168067

  5. An overview of food safety issues relative to animal products.

    PubMed

    Baile, C A

    1990-06-01

    Presently, strategies for discovering new factors for enhancing animal productivity allow for greater assurance of food safety. A high degree of assurance of food safety is provided by the use of natural growth factors. This is especially true when these factors are proteins which, when ingested, are digested to inactive peptides and amino acids and are, in addition, inactive in human tissues. Knowing the mechanisms of activity of such factors also allows for the assurance that known mediators of the growth factors can also be shown to be inactivated by intestinal barriers. The design of nonpeptide molecules with highly selective activity will be possible with the large amount of progress expected in understanding the structure of the active components of natural molecules and the availability of specific receptor systems. Food safety concerns may be met by the demonstration that these molecules are inactive in comparable human receptor systems. These drug discovery strategies can ensure with a high degree of confidence the development of new productivity enhancers that meet food safety requirements.

  6. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    PubMed Central

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  7. Effectiveness of domestic antibacterial products in decontaminating food contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    DeVere, Elizabeth; Purchase, Diane

    2007-06-01

    Four commercially available antibacterial products (two wipes and two sprays) were tested under laboratory conditions on a range of food contact surfaces (wood, glass, plastic, Microban incorporated plastic). The products' effectiveness at preventing cross-contamination of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and the influence of surface type and drying time were assessed. Survival of the bacterial culture (approximately 400 colonies per 8 cm(2)) on the above preparation surfaces was determined using an in situ nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) method. In the absence of any antibacterial products, both bacteria survived up to 120 min on all test surfaces with glass and plastic showing no reduction in bacterial number. The order of survival is: glass>plastic>Microban incorporated plastic>wood (<8%). The length of drying time did not affect the survival of either bacterium on glass and plastic surfaces. On wood and Microban incorporated plastic, E. coli appeared to be more sensitive to drying time than S. aureus. Only plastic appeared to affect the effectiveness of the antibacterial products, where the reduction in bacterial number was significantly lower than the other test surfaces (p<0.05). The overall results suggest the antibacterial products are effective in disinfecting food preparing surfaces, provided products instructions are carefully followed.

  8. Predicting and preventing mold spoilage of food products.

    PubMed

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2013-03-01

    This article is a review of how to quantify mold spoilage and consequently shelf life of a food product. Mold spoilage results from having a product contaminated with fungal spores that germinate and form a visible mycelium before the end of the shelf life. The spoilage can be then expressed as the combination of the probability of having a product contaminated and the probability of mold growth (germination and proliferation) up to a visible mycelium before the end of the shelf life. For products packed before being distributed to the retailers, the probability of having a product contaminated is a function of factors strictly linked to the factory design, process, and environment. The in-factory fungal contamination of a product might be controlled by good manufacturing hygiene practices and reduced by particular processing practices such as an adequate air-renewal system. To determine the probability of mold growth, both germination and mycelium proliferation can be mathematically described by primary models. When mold contamination on the product is scarce, the spores are spread on the product and more than a few spores are unlikely to be found at the same spot. In such a case, models applicable for a single spore should be used. Secondary models can be used to describe the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on either the germination or proliferation of molds. Several polynomial models and gamma-type models quantifying the effect of water activity and temperature on mold growth are available. To a lesser extent, the effect of pH, ethanol, heat treatment, addition of preservatives, and modified atmospheres on mold growth also have been quantified. However, mold species variability has not yet been properly addressed, and only a few secondary models have been validated for food products. Once the probability of having mold spoilage is calculated for various shelf lives and product formulations, the model can be implemented as part of a risk management

  9. Applications of natural zeolites on agriculture and food production.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Nazife; Emekci, Mevlut; Athanassiou, Christos

    2017-03-14

    Zeolites are crystalline hydrated aluminosilicates with remarkable physical and chemical properties including losing and receiving water in a reverse way, adsorbing molecules that act as molecular sieves, and replacing their constituent cations without structural change. Commercial production of natural zeolites has accelerated during last fifty years. The Structure Commission of the International Zeolite Association recorded more than 200 zeolites which currently include more than 40 naturally occurring zeolites. Recent findings supported their role in stored-pest management as inert dust applications, pesticide and fertilizer carriers, soil amendments, animal feed additives, mycotoxin binders and food packaging materials. There are many advantages of inert dust application including low cost, non-neurotoxic action, low mammalian toxicity and safety for human consumption. Latest consumer trends and government protocols have shifted toward organic origin materials to replace synthetic chemical products. In the current review, we summarized most of the main uses of zeolites in food and agruculture, with specific paradigms that illustrate their important role.

  10. Proanthocyanidins in common food products of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Jarkko K; Törrönen, A Riitta; Mattila, Pirjo H

    2009-09-09

    The contents of extractable and unextractable proanthocyanidins were determined in a large number of commercial food products of plant origin available in Finland. Proanthocyanidins were extracted with aqueous acetone-methanol and quantified by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) according to their degree of polymerization. Unextractable proanthocyanidins were analyzed from the extraction residue by reversed phase HPLC after acid-catalyzed depolymerization as free flavan-3-ols (terminal units) and benzylthioethers (extension units). Proanthocyanidins were detected in 49 of 99 selected food items. The highest contents per fresh weight were determined in chokeberries, rose hips, and cocoa products. Berries and fruits were generally the best sources of proanthocyanidins, whereas most of the vegetables, roots, and cereals lacked them completely. Many of the samples contained a significant proportion of insoluble proanthocyanidins, which need to be quantified as well if total proanthocyanidins are studied. Considerable variation was observed in proanthocyanidin contents in berries, which requires further research.

  11. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of any package of a meat or meat food product that bears a representation as to the number of servings...

  12. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...

  13. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...

  14. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...

  15. Effect of snack food by-product inclusion on production of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Van Wyhe, R C; Fraley, S E; Szybisty, C A; Karcher, D M; Karcher, E L

    2012-06-01

    The increased interest in becoming green for consumers and companies is driving groups to develop innovative ways to become more efficient and reduce their waste. Foods past their expiration dates are large sources of waste and are causing food-manufacturing companies to develop waste disposal strategies. Integrating by-products from these companies into animal diets, specifically that of laying hens, could be significantly more cost effective for both the human food manufacturers and the agricultural producers. The study's objective is to evaluate laying hen diets containing snack food by-product, consisting mostly of expired potato chips, and the effect on hen performance. In total, 192 White Leghorn laying hens (45 wk old) were selected from the Michigan State University Poultry Farm. Hens were housed in conventional cages (3 birds/cage) and received 1 of 4 diets for 5 wk: 1) industry control corn-soybean meal, 2) control with 3% by-product, 3) control with 6% by-product, and 4) control with 9% by-product. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric, isonitrogenous, and balanced for sodium. Feed intake was measured for 3 consecutive days each week, and no overall differences between treatments were observed. However, during the first week, feed intake was significantly higher in birds fed the 6% and 9% diets compared with those fed control (P < 0.05). Birds fed the 6% had a higher feed intake than that of the control again during the fourth week (P < 0.01). Egg production, egg weight, and specific gravity were measured weekly. Hen BW was measured on d 1, 14, 28, and 35. Egg production, egg weight, specific gravity, and BW were not significantly affected by the addition of snack food by-products to the diet. In conclusion, the addition of expired snack food by-product into poultry diets does not significantly affect laying hen egg production and has the potential to be used as an alternative feed stuff in the future.

  16. Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Julian I; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Frommer, Wolf B; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Harrison, Maria J; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Horie, Tomoaki; Kochian, Leon V; Munns, Rana; Nishizawa, Naoko K; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Sanders, Dale

    2013-05-02

    With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25 per cent by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is critical for human and environmental health. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be used to enhance yields of staple crops, increase nutrient content and increase resistance to key stresses, including salinity, pathogens and aluminium toxicity, which in turn could expand available arable land.

  17. Mechanisms of Toxin Production of Food Bacteria (Clostridium botulinum)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-25

    food bacteria such as ’Clostridium botulinum. and closely related > organisms. Results from these studies show that C. botulinum types C and D cease...S to produce their dominant toxins when -they are cured o’ftheir prophages.’. These i nontoxigenic derivatives then become sensitive to bacteriophages...of other. culture C.) which induce the production of different toxins . One cured-strain of type C was shown to be sensitive to bacteriophages from C

  18. Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Julian I.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Frommer, Wolf B.; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Harrison, Maria J.; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Horie, Tomoaki; Kochian, Leon V.; Munns, Rana; Nishizawa, Naoko K.; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Sanders, Dale

    2013-01-01

    With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25 per cent by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is critical for human and environmental health. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be used to enhance yields of staple crops, increase nutrient content and increase resistance to key stresses, including salinity, pathogens and aluminium toxicity, which in turn could expand available arable land. PMID:23636397

  19. The impact of smoking in developing countries with special reference to Africa.

    PubMed

    Yach, D

    1986-01-01

    The health effects of smoking have been well documented in developed countries. This article highlights the impact of smoking and tobacco production on health and agricultural production in Africa. It shows that smoking represents an important current and future health risk to people in Africa, which will place stresses on the development of their health services. Tobacco production is shown to be associated with food imports, deforestation, and an economic dependence on transnational corporations. Possible solutions are proposed.

  20. Aldehydes in cigarette smoke react with the lipid peroxidation product malonaldehyde to form fluorescent protein adducts on lysines.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Thomas L; Haver, Alvin; Duryee, Michael J; Tuma, Dean J; Klassen, Lynell W; Hamel, Frederick G; White, Ronda L; Rennard, Stephen I; Thiele, Geoffrey M

    2005-05-01

    Cigarette smoke is a risk factor for the development of several diseases, but the exact mechanism responsible has not been well-characterized. Because modification, or adducting, of biomolecules is thought to mediate the toxic effects observed from exposure to a wide variety of harmful chemicals, this study investigated the ability of cigarette smoke to produce specific adducts on a peptide to gain insight into the likely effect on cellular proteins. We describe the modification of the epsilon-amino group of lysine contained in a test peptide with stable fluorescent adducts derived from monofunctional aldehydes occurring in cigarette smoke and malonaldehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation. Utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography, fluorescent measurements, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, the 1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbaldehyde and 4-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbaldehyde derivatives of lysine were identified as products of exposure to cigarette smoke extract and malonaldehyde. These data suggest that cigarette smoke may promote the modification of proteins, like those associated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and may contribute to smoking-related disease.

  1. Cigarette smoking products suppress anti-viral effects of Type I interferon via phosphorylation-dependent downregulation of its receptor.

    PubMed

    HuangFu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Jianghuai; Harty, Ronald N; Fuchs, Serge Y

    2008-09-22

    While negative effect of smoking on the resistance to viral infections was known, the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Here we report that products of cigarette smoking compromise the cellular anti-viral defenses by inhibiting the signaling induced by Type I interferon (IFN). Cigarette smoking condensate (but not pure nicotine) stimulated specific serine phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of the IFNAR1 subunit of the Type I IFN receptor leading to attenuation of IFN signaling and decreased resistance to viral infection. This resistance was restored in cells where phosphorylation-dependent degradation of IFNAR1 is abolished. We conclude that smoking compromises cellular anti-viral defenses via degradation of Type I IFN receptor and discuss the significance of this mechanism for efficacy of IFN-based therapies.

  2. Food Production, Management, and Services Programs. Food Service Worker. Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    To assist instructors in implementing Missouri's Vocational Instructional Management System into the Food Production, Management, and Services Programs, this guide sets forth the competencies identified and validated by occupational food service instructors and personnel from the food service industry. A minimum of two performance objectives per…

  3. Is lactate an undervalued functional component of fermented food products?

    PubMed Central

    Garrote, Graciela L.; Abraham, Analía G.; Rumbo, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been traditionally regarded as an intermediate of carbon metabolism and major component of fermented dairy products contributing to organoleptic and antimicrobial properties of food, there is evidence gathered in recent years that lactate has bioactive properties that may be responsible of broader properties of functional foods. Lactate can regulate critical functions of several key players of the immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells, being able to modulate inflammatory activation of epithelial cells as well. Intraluminal levels of lactate derived from fermentative metabolism of lactobacilli have been shown to modulate inflammatory environment in intestinal mucosa. The molecular mechanisms responsible to these functions, including histone deacetylase dependent-modulation of gene expression and signaling through G-protein coupled receptors have started to be described. Since lactate is a major fermentation product of several bacterial families with probiotic properties, we here propose that it may contribute to some of the properties attributed to these microorganisms and in a larger view, to the properties of food products fermented by lactic acid bacteria. PMID:26150815

  4. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Food and Personal Care Products

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Alex; Westerhoff, Paul; Fabricius, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide is a common additive in many food, personal care, and other consumer products used by people, which after use can enter the sewage system, and subsequently enter the environment as treated effluent discharged to surface waters or biosolids applied to agricultural land, incinerated wastes, or landfill solids. This study quantifies the amount of titanium in common food products, derives estimates of human exposure to dietary (nano-) TiO2, and discusses the impact of the nanoscale fraction of TiO2 entering the environment. The foods with the highest content of TiO2 included candies, sweets and chewing gums. Among personal care products, toothpastes and select sunscreens contained 1% to >10% titanium by weight. While some other crèmes contained titanium, despite being colored white, most shampoos, deodorants, and shaving creams contained the lowest levels of titanium (<0.01 μg/mg). For several high-consumption pharmaceuticals, the titanium content ranged from below the instrument detection limit (0.0001 μg Ti/mg) to a high of 0.014 μg Ti/mg. Electron microscopy and stability testing of food-grade TiO2 (E171) suggests that approximately 36% of the particles are less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and that it readily disperses in water as fairly stable colloids. However, filtration of water solubilized consumer products and personal care products indicated that less than 5% of the titanium was able to pass through 0.45 or 0.7 μm pores. Two white paints contained 110 μg Ti/mg while three sealants (i.e., prime coat paint) contained less titanium (25 to 40 μg Ti/mg). This research showed that while many white-colored products contained titanium, it was not a prerequisite. Although several of these product classes contained low amounts of titanium, their widespread use and disposal down the drain and eventually to WWTPs deserves attention. A Monte Carlo human exposure analysis to TiO2 through foods identified children as having the highest

  5. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles in food and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Weir, Alex; Westerhoff, Paul; Fabricius, Lars; Hristovski, Kiril; von Goetz, Natalie

    2012-02-21

    Titanium dioxide is a common additive in many food, personal care, and other consumer products used by people, which after use can enter the sewage system and, subsequently, enter the environment as treated effluent discharged to surface waters or biosolids applied to agricultural land, incinerated wastes, or landfill solids. This study quantifies the amount of titanium in common food products, derives estimates of human exposure to dietary (nano-) TiO(2), and discusses the impact of the nanoscale fraction of TiO(2) entering the environment. The foods with the highest content of TiO(2) included candies, sweets, and chewing gums. Among personal care products, toothpastes and select sunscreens contained 1% to >10% titanium by weight. While some other crèmes contained titanium, despite being colored white, most shampoos, deodorants, and shaving creams contained the lowest levels of titanium (<0.01 μg/mg). For several high-consumption pharmaceuticals, the titanium content ranged from below the instrument detection limit (0.0001 μg Ti/mg) to a high of 0.014 μg Ti/mg. Electron microscopy and stability testing of food-grade TiO(2) (E171) suggests that approximately 36% of the particles are less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and that it readily disperses in water as fairly stable colloids. However, filtration of water solubilized consumer products and personal care products indicated that less than 5% of the titanium was able to pass through 0.45 or 0.7 μm pores. Two white paints contained 110 μg Ti/mg while three sealants (i.e., prime coat paint) contained less titanium (25 to 40 μg Ti/mg). This research showed that, while many white-colored products contained titanium, it was not a prerequisite. Although several of these product classes contained low amounts of titanium, their widespread use and disposal down the drain and eventually to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) deserves attention. A Monte Carlo human exposure analysis to TiO(2) through foods

  6. Water for wood products versus nature, food or feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schyns, Joep; Booij, Martijn; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2017-04-01

    Forests play a central interlinked role in the 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development. The Agenda aims at an increased share of renewable energy in the global energy mix (target 7.2) and restoration and sustainable management of forests (targets 6.6, 15.1 & 15.2). Forests also play a key role in the hydrological cycle accounting for the largest water flux from land to atmosphere. However, we do not know which part of this is used for the production of wood products such as lumber, pulp and paper, firewood or biofuel. SDG target 6.4 calls for increased water-use efficiency across all sectors and requires understanding the competing demands for water and the potential conflicts between wood production and other purposes like food (SDG 2). To reach the SDGs we need to understand the interlinkages between the SDGs and know how much water is used in the forestry sector. We provide the first estimate of global water use in the forestry sector, using the water footprint (WF) as indicator and distinguishing between consumption of green water (precipitation) and blue water (groundwater through capillary rise). We estimate forest evaporation at a high spatial resolution level and attribute total water consumption to the various forest products, including ecosystem services. Global water consumption for wood production increased by 34% over 50 years to 290x109 m3/y in 2001-2010. Wood has a higher economic water productivity (EWP, US/m3) than common food or feed crops like wheat, maize and sugar beet, and bio-ethanol from wood has a small WF per unit of energy compared to first-generation bio-ethanol from these three crops. Counterintuitively, extensive wood production has a smaller WF and hence a higher EWP than intensive wood production. The reason is that extensively exploited forests host relatively more value next to wood production in the form of other ecosystem services. Recycling of wood products could effectively reduce the WF of the forestry sector, thereby leaving

  7. Toxicological evaluation of some Malaysian locally processed raw food products.

    PubMed

    Sharif, R; Ghazali, A R; Rajab, N F; Haron, H; Osman, F

    2008-01-01

    Malaysian locally processed raw food products are widely used as main ingredients in local cooking. Previous studies showed that these food products have a positive correlation with the incidence of cancer. The cytotoxicity effect was evaluated using MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimetil-2-thiazolil)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) against Chang liver cells at 2000 microg/ml following 72 h incubation. Findings showed all methanol extracts caused a tremendous drop in the percentage of cell viability at 2000 microg/ml (shrimp paste - 41.69+/-3.36%, salted fish - 37.2+/-1.06%, dried shrimp - 40.32+/-1.8%, p<0.05). To detect DNA damage in a single cell, alkaline Comet Assay was used. None of the extracts caused DNA damage to the Chang liver cells at 62.5 microg/ml following 24 h incubation, as compared to the positive control, hydrogen peroxide (tail moment - 9.50+/-1.50; tail intensity - 30.50+/-2.50). Proximate analysis which was used for the evaluation of macronutrients in food showed that shrimp paste did not comply with the protein requirement (<25%) as in Food Act 1983. Salt was found in every sample with the highest percentage being detected in shrimp paste which exceeded 20%. Following heavy metal analysis (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury), arsenic was found in every sample with dried shrimps showing the highest value as compared to the other samples (6.16 mg/kg). In conclusion, several food extracts showed cytotoxic effect but did not cause DNA damage against Chang liver cells. Salt was found as the main additive and arsenic was present in every sample, which could be the probable cause of the toxicity effects observed.

  8. Quality and utilization of food co-products and residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, P.; Bao, G.; Broderick, C.; Fishman, M.; Liu, L.; Onwulata, C.

    2010-06-01

    Some agricultural industries generate large amounts of low value co-products/residues, including citrus peel, sugar beet pulp and whey protein from the production of orange juice, sugar and cheese commodities, respectively. National Program #306 of the USDA Agricultural Research Service aims to characterize and enhance quality and develop new processes and uses for value-added foods and bio-based products. In parallel projects, we applied scanning microscopies to examine the molecular organization of citrus pectin gels, covalent crosslinking to reduce debonding in sugar beet pulp-PLA composites and functional modification of whey protein through extrusion in order to evaluate new methods of processing and formulating new products. Also, qualitative attributes of fresh produce that could potentially guide germ line development and crop management were explored through fluorescence imaging: synthesis and accumulation of oleoresin in habanero peppers suggest a complicated mechanism of secretion that differs from the classical scheme. Integrated imaging appears to offer significant structural insights to help understand practical properties and features of important food co-products/residues.

  9. [CONTENT OF TRANS FATTY ACIDS IN FOOD PRODUCTS IN SPAIN].

    PubMed

    Robledo de Dios, Teresa; Dal Re Saavedra, M Ángeles; Villar Villalba, Carmen; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón

    2015-09-01

    trans fatty acids are associated to several health disorders, as ischemic heart disease or diabetes mellitus. to assess the content of trans fatty acids in products in Spain, and the percentage of trans fatty acids respecting total fatty acids. 443 food products were acquired in Spain, and they were classified into groups. The content in fatty acids was analyzed using gas chromatography. Estimates of central tendency and variability of the content of trans fatty acids in each food group were computed (in g of trans fatty acids/100 g of product). The percentage of trans fatty acids respecting total fatty acids was calculated in each group. 443 products were grouped into 42 groups. Median of trans fatty acids was less than 0.55 g / 100 g of product in all groups except one. 83 % of groups had less than 2 % of trans fatty acids, and 71 % of groups had less than 1 %. the content of trans fatty acids in Spain is low, and it currently doesn't play a public health problem. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. First tobacco product tried: associations with smoking status and demographics among college students.

    PubMed

    Sutfin, Erin L; Sparks, Alicia; Pockey, Jessica R; Suerken, Cynthia K; Reboussin, Beth A; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-12-01

    As the tobacco market expands, so too have the opportunities for youth to be introduced to nicotine. The goal of this study was to identify product choice for initial tobacco trial, correlates associated with product choice, and the relationship between first product and current cigarette smoking among college students. A cross-sectional web survey of 3146 first-year students at 11 universities in North Carolina and Virginia was conducted in fall 2010. Weighted prevalence of ever use of tobacco was 48.6%. Cigarettes were the most common first product (37.9%), followed by cigars (29.3%), hookahs (24.6%), smokeless tobacco (6.1%), and bidis/kreteks (2.2%). Two thirds (65%) of current smokers initiated with cigarettes, but 16.4% started with cigars, 11.1% with hookahs, 5.7% with smokeless, and 1.7% with bidis/kreteks. Females were more likely to report their first product was cigarettes and hookahs, while males were more likely to start with cigars and smokeless tobacco. Compared to those whose first product trial occurred after the age of 18, younger age of initiation (17years or younger) was associated with cigarettes and smokeless as first products, while older age of initiation (18 or older) was associated with starting with hookahs and cigars. Dual or poly tobacco use was more common among those who initiated with hookahs and smokeless tobacco. While over a third of students used cigarettes first, two thirds started with a non-cigarette product. Just about a third of current cigarette smokers initiated with a non-cigarette product, suggesting that those non-cigarette products may have facilitated escalation to cigarettes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy production from food industry wastewaters using bioelectrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Choo Yieng

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of waste and renewable resources to energy using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is an upcoming technology for enabling a cleaner and sustainable environment. This paper assesses the energy production potential from the US food industry wastewater resource. It also reports on an experimental study investigating conversion of wastewater from a local milk dairy plant to electricity. An MFC anode biocatalyst enriched on model sugar and organic acid substrates was used as the inoculum for the dairy wastewater MFC. The tests were conducted using a two-chamber MFC with a porous three dimensional anode and a Pt/C air-cathode. Power densities up to 690 mW/m2 (54 W/m3) were obtained. Analysis of the food industry wastewater resource indicated that MFCs can potentially recover 2 to 260 kWh/ton of food processed from wastewaters generated during food processing, depending on the biological oxygen demand and volume of water used in the process. A total of 1960 MW of power can potentially be produced from US milk industry wastewaters alone. Hydrogen is an alternate form of energy that can be produced using bioelectrochemical cells. Approximately 2 to 270 m3 of hydrogen can be generated per ton of the food processed. Application of MFCs for treatment of food processing wastewaters requires further investigations into electrode design, materials, liquid flow management, proton transfer, organic loading and scale-up to enable high power densities at the larger scale. Potential for water recycle also exists, but requires careful consideration of the microbiological safety and regulatory aspects and the economic feasibility of the process.

  12. 78 FR 77384 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed...

  13. The safety and regulation of natural products used as foods and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Anyangwe, Njwen; Carlacci, Louis; Casper, Steve; Danam, Rebecca P; Enongene, Evaristus; Erives, Gladys; Fabricant, Daniel; Gudi, Ramadevi; Hilmas, Corey J; Hines, Fred; Howard, Paul; Levy, Dan; Lin, Ying; Moore, Robert J; Pfeiler, Erika; Thurmond, T Scott; Turujman, Saleh; Walker, Nigel J

    2011-10-01

    The use of botanicals and dietary supplements derived from natural substances as an adjunct to an improved quality of life or for their purported medical benefits has become increasingly common in the United States. This review addresses the safety assessment and regulation of food products containing these substances by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The issue of safety is particularly critical given how little information is available on the toxicity of some of these products. The first section uses case studies for stevia and green tea extracts as examples of how FDA evaluates the safety of botanical and herbal products submitted for consideration as Generally Recognized as Safe under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) created a regulatory framework for dietary supplements. The article also discusses the regulation of this class of dietary supplements under DSHEA and addresses the FDA experience in analyzing the safety of natural ingredients described in pre-market safety submissions. Lastly, we discuss an ongoing interagency collaboration to conduct safety testing of nominated dietary supplements.

  14. Product reformulation in the food system to improve food safety. Evaluation of policy interventions.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Giuseppe; Simeone, Mariarosaria; Nazzaro, Concetta

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the level of attention that the consumer awards to a balanced diet and to product ingredients, with a twofold purpose: to understand whether food product reformulation can generate a competitive advantage for companies that practice it and to evaluate the most appropriate policy interventions to promote a healthy diet. Reformulation strategy, in the absence of binding rules, could be generated by consumers. Results from qualitative research and from empirical analysis have shown that the question of health is a latent demand influenced by two main factors: a general lack of information, and the marketing strategies adopted by companies which bring about an increase in the information asymmetry between producers and consumers. In the absence of binding rules, it is therefore necessary that the government implement information campaigns (food education) aimed at increasing knowledge regarding the effects of unhealthy ingredients, in order to inform and improve consumer choice. It is only by means of widespread information campaigns that food product reformulation can become a strategic variable and allow companies to gain a competitive advantage. This may lead to virtuous results in terms of reducing the social costs related to an unhealthy diet.

  15. [Gluten content in special dietary use gluten-free products and other food products].

    PubMed

    Daniewski, Wojciech; Wojtasik, Anna; Kunachowicz, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Gluten content of 22 special dietary use gluten-free products and 19 naturally gluten-free products was analysed by ELISA method. Gluten content in dietetic foods ranged from 5.19 to 57.16 mg/kg. Within the group of foods "gluten-free" by nature--gluten was not detected in rice and buckwheat groats samples, however in rice flakes and pearl millet gluten content ranged from 7.05 mg/kg- 27.51 mg/kg. Particularly high contamination with gluten (> 100 mg/kg) was detected in oat products what puts in doubt their usefulness in gluten-free diet.

  16. Environmental services coupled to food products and brands: food companies interests and on-farm accounting.

    PubMed

    Kempa, Daniela

    2013-09-01

    Much research has been carried out on governmental support of agri environmental measures (AEM). However, little is known about demands on and incentives from the commercial market for environmental contributions of the farmers. The factors farm structures, level of remuneration and legal framework have been thoroughly investigated. However, demands of the food industry for environmentally friendly goods(1) and their effects on farmers' decisions have not yet been analyzed. Leading companies in the food industry have observed an increasing consumer awareness and, due to higher competition, see an additional need to communicate environmental benefits which result from either organic production methods or agri-environmental measures. To address this research deficit, two case studies were carried out. The first case study is a survey aimed at the industrial food producers' demands with regards to the environmental performance of supplying farms. Concurrently, within a second survey farmers were questioned to find out what conditions are required to implement agri-environmental measures beyond cross compliance and document their environmental performance. This article presents the outcomes of the first case study. The results show that food companies have an interest in the documentation of environmental benefits of supplying farms for their marketing strategies. Provision of support by finance or contract-design is also seen as appropriate tool to promote an environmentally friendly production. In turn the food producers' demand and support for documented environmental services can have a positive influence on farmers' decisions for implementation and documentation of these services. Thus, the surveys provide essential findings for further development of documentation strategies for environmental benefits within the supply chain.

  17. Inhibitory effects of nicotine derived from cigarette smoke on thymic stromal lymphopoietin production in epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiangxu; Segawa, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Natsumi; Hiratsuka, Masahiro; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2016-04-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is regarded as the main factor responsible for the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Cigarette smoke is an aggravating factor for allergies, but has been reported to decrease the risk of AD. In the present study, we evaluated the role of nicotine, the main constituent in cigarette smoke extract, and its underlying mechanism of action in the regulation of TSLP expression. We found that nicotine significantly inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced TSLP expression in BALB/c mice and the mouse keratinocyte cell line PAM212. Nicotine inhibition of TSLP production was abolished by pretreatments with α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) antagonists, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors. The same inhibitors abolished inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by nicotine. These results suggest that nicotine inhibits the expression of TSLP by suppressing the activation of NF-κB through the α7 nAChR-PI3K-AMPK signaling pathway.

  18. Nanoscale sensors for assuring the safety of food products.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Duncan, Timothy V

    2017-04-01

    As far as chemical analysis is concerned, foods are among the most difficult matrices to work with because they are complex, heterogeneous substances with a high degree of variety. Assaying foods for trace levels of chemical and microbiological substances is a challenge that often requires the application of time-consuming, expensive analytical instrumentation in dedicated facilities populated by highly trained personnel. Therefore there is a continued demand for new analytical technologies that can detect small concentrations of chemicals or microbes in a more cost- and time-effective manner, preferably in the field, on the production line, and/or non-destructively, with little to no sample pre-treatment, and possibly by individuals with scant scientific training. In the last decade, nanotechnology - a branch of science that takes advantage of the unique chemical and physical properties of matter on the nanoscale - has created new opportunities for both qualitative and quantitative detection of vapors/gasses, small molecules, biopolymers, and even living microbes in a fraction of the time and expense of traditional analytical techniques. This article offers a focused review of recent progress in nanotechnology-enabled biosensing as applied to foods and related matrices, paying particular attention to trends in the field, recent breakthroughs, and current areas of need. Special focus is paid to two primary categories of nanobiosensors - optical and electrochemical - and the discussion includes a comparison of their various strengths and weaknesses as they pertain ensuring the safety of the food supply.

  19. Nutrition recommendations and the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative's 2014 approved food and beverage product list.

    PubMed

    Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Powell, Lisa M

    2015-04-23

    We compare the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative's (CFBAI's) April 2014 list of food and beverage products approved to be advertised on children's television programs with the federal Interagency Working Group's nutrition recommendations for such advertised products. Products were assessed by using the nutrients to limit (saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium) component of the Interagency Working Group's recommendations. Fifty-three percent of the listed products did not meet the nutrition recommendations and, therefore, were ineligible to be advertised. We recommend continued monitoring of food and beverage products marketed to children.

  20. [The estimation of biological value and quality of propolis and propolis based food products and food dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Koshechkina, A S; Vlasov, A M; Eller, K I; Kovalenko, D N

    2007-01-01

    The method of determination of indicative flavonoids of propolis has been developed. The method is applicable for the standardization and estimation of quality and origin of raw propolis and propolis-containing food products, food dietary supplements (FDS) and drugs. The method allows to determine the concentration and composition of individual flavonoids on the background of complicated matrix of food products and FDS. The detection limit amounted 0, 1% (for chrysin). 20 samples of propolis from different regions and 12 samples of propolis-enriched food products and FDS were investigated by proposed method.

  1. Active or Passive Exposure to Tobacco Smoking and Allergic Rhinitis, Allergic Dermatitis, and Food Allergy in Adults and Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Saulyte, Jurgita; Regueira, Carlos; Montes-Martínez, Agustín; Khudyakov, Polyna; Takkouche, Bahi

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy are extremely common diseases, especially among children, and are frequently associated to each other and to asthma. Smoking is a potential risk factor for these conditions, but so far, results from individual studies have been conflicting. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence for an association between active smoking (AS) or passive exposure to secondhand smoke and allergic conditions. Methods and Findings We retrieved studies published in any language up to June 30th, 2013 by systematically searching Medline, Embase, the five regional bibliographic databases of the World Health Organization, and ISI-Proceedings databases, by manually examining the references of the original articles and reviews retrieved, and by establishing personal contact with clinical researchers. We included cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies reporting odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) estimates and confidence intervals of smoking and allergic conditions, first among the general population and then among children. We retrieved 97 studies on allergic rhinitis, 91 on allergic dermatitis, and eight on food allergy published in 139 different articles. When all studies were analyzed together (showing random effects model results and pooled ORs expressed as RR), allergic rhinitis was not associated with active smoking (pooled RR, 1.02 [95% CI 0.92–1.15]), but was associated with passive smoking (pooled RR 1.10 [95% CI 1.06–1.15]). Allergic dermatitis was associated with both active (pooled RR, 1.21 [95% CI 1.14–1.29]) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.07 [95% CI 1.03–1.12]). In children and adolescent, allergic rhinitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.40 (95% CI 1.24–1.59) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.09 [95% CI 1.04–1.14]). Allergic dermatitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.36 [95% CI 1.17–1.46]) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.06 [95% CI 1.01–1

  2. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    PubMed

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.

  3. Corn ethanol production, food exports, and indirect land use change.

    PubMed

    Wallington, T J; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Kolinski Morris, E; Winkler, S L; Ginder, J M; Nielsen, O J

    2012-06-05

    The approximately 100 million tonne per year increase in the use of corn to produce ethanol in the U.S. over the past 10 years, and projections of greater future use, have raised concerns that reduced exports of corn (and other agricultural products) and higher commodity prices would lead to land-use changes and, consequently, negative environmental impacts in other countries. The concerns have been driven by agricultural and trade models, which project that large-scale corn ethanol production leads to substantial decreases in food exports, increases in food prices, and greater deforestation globally. Over the past decade, the increased use of corn for ethanol has been largely matched by the increased corn harvest attributable mainly to increased yields. U.S. exports of corn, wheat, soybeans, pork, chicken, and beef either increased or remained unchanged. Exports of distillers' dry grains (DDG, a coproduct of ethanol production and a valuable animal feed) increased by more than an order of magnitude to 9 million tonnes in 2010. Increased biofuel production may lead to intensification (higher yields) and extensification (more land) of agricultural activities. Intensification and extensification have opposite impacts on land use change. We highlight the lack of information concerning the magnitude of intensification effects and the associated large uncertainties in assessments of the indirect land use change associated with corn ethanol.

  4. [TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIFIC FOOD PRODUCTS FOR PATIENTS WITH DYSPHAGIA].

    PubMed

    Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Pintor de la Maza, Begoña; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Villar Taibo, Rocío; Urioste Fondo, Ana; Cano Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros Pomar, María D

    2015-10-01

    Dysphagia is a common problem among elderly and also in some pathological conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases or tumors. Making an adequate diet for this disease may present some difficulties. The aim of this document is to make a detailed technical report about the characteristics of the products that are available in Spain to hydrate and to feed patients with dysphagia. Food and pharmaceutical industries have developed a range of products designed to ensure homogeneous texture and a suitable viscosity to guaranty an adequate hydration. An adequate nutritional status is also achieved with these products for patients with dysphagia, without compromising their safety. The ingredients used to achieve a suitable viscosity are different types of starches, gums and other substances. It has been developed thickeners and gellified water for hydratation, and in case of food there are purees (dehydrated, lyophilized, pasteurized and sterilized), fruit purees, fruit pudding, and dehydrated cereal. Patients who do not meet their nutritional needs have also oral supplements with different viscosities. The industry offers extensive information about the technical characteristics of the products, except for viscosity. It would be recommended for the manufacturers to include in detail the technical specifications of the used methodology and the measurement and the results obtained in the analysis of viscosity that can be consulted by professionals of the Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Units who treat these patients. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Are gluten-free foods healthier than non-gluten-free foods? An evaluation of supermarket products in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jason H Y; Neal, Bruce; Trevena, Helen; Crino, Michelle; Stuart-Smith, Wendy; Faulkner-Hogg, Kim; Yu Louie, Jimmy Chun; Dunford, Elizabeth

    2015-08-14

    Despite tremendous growth in the consumption of gluten-free (GF) foods, there is a lack of evaluation of their nutritional profile and how they compare with non-GF foods. The present study evaluated the nutritional quality of GF and non-GF foods in core food groups, and a wide range of discretionary products in Australian supermarkets. Nutritional information on the Nutrition Information Panel was systematically obtained from all packaged foods at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia in 2013. Food products were classified as GF if a GF declaration appeared anywhere on the product packaging, or non-GF if they contained gluten, wheat, rye, triticale, barley, oats or spelt. The primary outcome was the 'Health Star Rating' (HSR: lowest score 0.5; optimal score 5), a nutrient profiling scheme endorsed by the Australian Government. Differences in the content of individual nutrients were explored in secondary analyses. A total of 3213 food products across ten food categories were included. On average, GF plain dry pasta scored nearly 0.5 stars less (P< 0.001) compared with non-GF products; however, there were no significant differences in the mean HSR for breads or ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (P≥ 0.42 for both). Relative to non-GF foods, GF products had consistently lower average protein content across all the three core food groups, in particular for pasta and breads (52 and 32% less, P< 0.001 for both). A substantial proportion of foods in discretionary categories carried GF labels (e.g., 87% of processed meats), and the average HSR of GF discretionary foods were not systematically superior to those of non-GF products. The consumption of GF products is unlikely to confer health benefits, unless there is clear evidence of gluten intolerance.

  6. Accumulative effect of food residues on intestinal gas production.

    PubMed

    Mego, M; Accarino, A; Malagelada, J-R; Guarner, F; Azpiroz, F

    2015-11-01

    As mean transit time in the colon is longer than the interval between meals, several consecutive meal loads accumulate, and contribute to colonic biomass. Our aim was to determine the summation effect of fermentable food residues on intestinal gas production. In eight healthy subjects, the volume of endogenous intestinal gas produced in the intestine over a 4-h period was measured by means of a wash-out technique, using an exogenous gas infusion into the jejunum (24 mL/min) and collection of the effluent via a rectal Foley catheter. The exogenous gas infused was labeled (5% SF6 ) to calculate the proportion of endogenous intestinal gas evacuated. In each subject, four experiments were performed ≥1 week apart combining a 1-day high- or low-flatulogenic diet with a test meal or fast. Basal conditions: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production during fasting over the 4-h study period was 609 ± 63 mL. Effect of diet: during fasting, intestinal gas production on the high-flatulogenic diet was 370 ± 146 mL greater than on the low-flatulogenic diet (p = 0.040). Effect of test meal: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production after the test meal was 681 ± 114 mL greater than during fasting (p = 0.001); a similar effect was observed on the high-flatulogenic diet (599 ± 174 mL more intestinal gas production after the test meal than during fasting; p = 0.021). Our data demonstrate temporal summation effects of food residues on intestinal gas production. Hence, intestinal gas production depends on pre-existing and on recent colonic loads of fermentable foodstuffs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Simultaneous determination of red and yellow artificial food colourants and carotenoid pigments in food products.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yixiao; Zhang, Xiumei; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Xu, Zhimin

    2014-08-15

    A method for simultaneously determining four artificial food colourants [Red Nos. 2 (R2) and 40 (R40), Yellow Nos. 5 (Y5) and 6 (Y6)] and three carotenoids [lycopene, lutein, and β-carotene] was developed. They were successfully separated by the developed high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method combined with a photo diode array detector. The detection limit (at signal to noise>4) was from the lowest of 0.2 ng/mL for lutein to the highest of 50.0 ng/mL for R40. With a two-phase solvent and ultrasound-assisted extraction, the recoveries of the artificial and natural pigments in fifteen different types of food products were between 80.5-97.2% and 80.1-98.4%, respectively. This HPLC method with the ultrasound-assisted extraction protocol could be used as a sensitive and reliable analysis technique in simultaneously identifying and quantifying the reddish and yellowish pigments in different foods regardless of they are artificial food colourants or/and natural carotenoids.

  8. Passive exposure to smoke results in defective interferon-gamma production by adenoids in children with recurrent respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Marseglia, Gian Luigi; Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Caimmi, Silvia; Caimmi, Davide; Marseglia, Alessia; Valsecchi, Chiara; Poddighe, Dimitri; Ciprandi, Giorgio; Pagella, Fabio; Klersy, Catherine; Castellazzi, Anna Maria

    2009-08-01

    There is evidence that exposure to passive smoke is associated with an increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. Indeed, cigarette smoke extracts may interfere with the immune system, even though the precise mechanism has not been fully understood yet. Recurrent respiratory infections may be sustained by a defective immune response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether, in a cohort of children presenting both with recurrent respiratory infections and with a history of exposure to tobacco smoke, these factors were related to a lower local production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) when compared to a similar non-exposed population. The study group included 128 children undergoing adenoidectomy, presenting with more than three respiratory infections per year, independently of exposure to passive smoke at home. The intracellular cytokine profile of lymphocyte subsets in adenoids was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. Children exposed to tobacco smoke suffered from a significantly greater number of respiratory infections and had a lower percentage of IFN-gamma-producing CD8+ cells in adenoids than non-exposed children, while other T-cell subsets were not affected. The effect of smoke exposure seems to be specific to the IFN-gamma-producing CD8+ cells in adenoids and may contribute to the increased susceptibility to the recurrence of respiratory infections.

  9. Impact of plain packaging of tobacco products on smoking in adults and children: an elicitation of international experts’ estimates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Governments sometimes face important decisions in the absence of direct evidence. In these cases, expert elicitation methods can be used to quantify uncertainty. We report the results of an expert elicitation study regarding the likely impact on smoking rates in adults and children of plain packaging of tobacco products. Methods Thirty-three tobacco control experts were recruited from the UK (n = 14), Australasia (n = 12) and North America (n = 7). Experts’ estimates were individually elicited via telephone interviews, and then linearly pooled. Elicited estimates consisted of (1) the most likely, (2) the highest possible, and (3) the lowest possible value for the percentage of (a) adult smokers and (b) children trying smoking, two years after the introduction of plain packaging (all other things being constant) in a target country in the expert’s region of residence. Results The median estimate for the impact on adult smoking prevalence was a 1 percentage point decline (99% range 2.25 to 0), and for the percentage of children trying smoking was a 3 percentage point decline (99% range 6.1 to 0), the latter estimated impact being larger than the former (P < 0.001, sign test). There were no differences in either estimate by region (I2: Adults: 0; Children: 0) but there was considerable variability between experts’ estimates within regions (I2: Adults: 0.91; Children: 0.89). Conclusions In the absence of direct evidence for the impact of introducing plain packaging on smoking rates in adults and children, this study shows that tobacco control experts felt the most likely outcomes would be a reduction in smoking prevalence in adults, and a greater reduction in the numbers of children trying smoking, although there was substantial variability in the estimated size of these impacts. No experts judged an increase in smoking as a likely outcome. PMID:23302325

  10. Impact of plain packaging of tobacco products on smoking in adults and children: an elicitation of international experts' estimates.

    PubMed

    Pechey, Rachel; Spiegelhalter, David; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-01-09

    Governments sometimes face important decisions in the absence of direct evidence. In these cases, expert elicitation methods can be used to quantify uncertainty. We report the results of an expert elicitation study regarding the likely impact on smoking rates in adults and children of plain packaging of tobacco products. Thirty-three tobacco control experts were recruited from the UK (n = 14), Australasia (n = 12) and North America (n = 7). Experts' estimates were individually elicited via telephone interviews, and then linearly pooled. Elicited estimates consisted of (1) the most likely, (2) the highest possible, and (3) the lowest possible value for the percentage of (a) adult smokers and (b) children trying smoking, two years after the introduction of plain packaging (all other things being constant) in a target country in the expert's region of residence. The median estimate for the impact on adult smoking prevalence was a 1 percentage point decline (99% range 2.25 to 0), and for the percentage of children trying smoking was a 3 percentage point decline (99% range 6.1 to 0), the latter estimated impact being larger than the former (P < 0.001, sign test). There were no differences in either estimate by region (I2: Adults: 0; Children: 0) but there was considerable variability between experts' estimates within regions (I2: Adults: 0.91; Children: 0.89). In the absence of direct evidence for the impact of introducing plain packaging on smoking rates in adults and children, this study shows that tobacco control experts felt the most likely outcomes would be a reduction in smoking prevalence in adults, and a greater reduction in the numbers of children trying smoking, although there was substantial variability in the estimated size of these impacts. No experts judged an increase in smoking as a likely outcome.

  11. 78 FR 77384 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed a... filed by DSM Nutritional Products, 45 Waterview Blvd., Parsippany, NJ 07054. The petition proposes...

  12. 77 FR 31026 - Requirements for Importing Food and Drug Administration Regulated Products Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... respect to importing pharmaceutical products, medical devices, food products, as well as technology which... No: 2012-12592] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Requirements for Importing Food and Drug Administration Regulated Products Into the...

  13. Peering into the Secrets of Food and Agricultural Co-products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for directing product development and is equally important for developing products from food crops and co-products from the agricultural waste after harvest. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to ...

  14. World Indices of Agricultural and Food Production, 1977-86. Statistical Bulletin Number 759.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    World food production reached a record high in 1986, exceeding 1985's record by about 1 percent, despite declining food output in Latin America, the United States, Western Europe, and Oceania. World food production generally increased faster than population from 1977 to 1986. Production of agricultural commodities increased at an annual compound…

  15. 9 CFR 314.11 - Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food. 314.11 Section 314.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... other than human food. Condemned carcasses of animals affected with one or more of the following...

  16. 9 CFR 314.11 - Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food. 314.11 Section 314.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... other than human food. Condemned carcasses of animals affected with one or more of the following...

  17. 9 CFR 314.11 - Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food. 314.11 Section 314.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... other than human food. Condemned carcasses of animals affected with one or more of the following...

  18. Does food supplementation really enhance productivity of breeding birds?

    PubMed

    Harrison, Timothy J E; Smith, Jennifer A; Martin, Graham R; Chamberlain, Dan E; Bearhop, Stuart; Robb, Gillian N; Reynolds, S James

    2010-10-01

    Food availability influences multiple stages of the breeding cycle of birds, and supplementary feeding has helped in its understanding. Most supplementation studies have reported advancements of laying, whilst others, albeit less numerous, have also demonstrated fitness benefits such as larger clutches, shorter incubation periods, and greater hatching success. Relatively few studies, however, have investigated the effects of supplementary feeding for protracted periods across multiple stages of the breeding cycle. These effects are important to understand since long-term food supplementation of birds is recommended in urban habitats and is used as a tool to increase reproductive output in endangered species. Here, we compare the breeding phenology and productivity of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus and great tits Parus major breeding in food-supplemented and non-supplemented blocks in a broadleaf woodland in central England over three seasons (2006-2008). Supplementation was provided continuously from several weeks pre-laying until hatching, and had multiple significant effects. Most notably, supplementation reduced brood size significantly in both species, by half a chick or more at hatching (after controlling for year and hatching date). Reduced brood sizes in supplemented pairs were driven by significantly smaller clutches in both species and, in blue tits, significantly lower hatching success. These are novel and concerning findings of food supplementation. As expected, supplementary feeding advanced laying and shortened incubation periods significantly in both species. We discuss the striking parallels between our findings and patterns in blue and great tit reproduction in urban habitats, and conclude that supplementary feeding may not always enhance the breeding productivity of birds.

  19. Fertilizers for food production vs energy needs and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Olson, R A

    1977-12-01

    The world is experiencing an energy crisis that is restrictive to agricultural requisites production at the same time that food is becoming increasingly short on a global basis. Fertilizers are the most energy demanding of these inputs and have become very expensive and intermittently short in supply with the reduced availability of fossil fuels. They have been indicted, furthermore, as environmental pollutants due to their presumed role in eutrophication and in being a source of excessive NO3-N that may accumulate in some leaf crops and in drinking waters. Exponential growth in fossil fuel consumption cannot continue. Economies can be made in the agricultural sector, which does indeed consume substantial quantities of energy. The energy consumed in this very essential food-producing process, however, is almost insignificant compared with that involved in transport and processing of food beyond the farm and with other energy expenditures in modern society. A shift in priorities will certainly be required in adapting to the real world of the 1970s if man's first need is to be met. Economies in fertilizer use can be made by adherence to known agronomic principles. Savings in fossil fuel energy can probably be effected also in the production of N fertilizer, by far the most fossil-energy-demanding process in the realm of agriculture. Considerable research remains to be done, however, under varied climatic conditions for understanding and controlling processes by which residuals from fertilizers may become environmental pollutants. The various issues in this paper must be resolved promptly in consideration of the now-existing energy crisis and the imminent world food crisis.

  20. The response of smoke detectors to pyrolysis and combustion products from aircraft interior materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, R. G.; Alvares, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The following projects were completed as part of the effort to develop and test economically feasible fire-resistant materials for interior furnishings of aircraft as well as detectors of incipient fires in passenger and cargo compartments: (1) determination of the sensitivity of various contemporary gas and smoke detectors to pyrolysis and combustion products from materials commonly used in aircraft interiors and from materials that may be used in the future, (2) assessment of the environmental limitations to detector sensitivity and reliability. The tests were conducted on three groups of materials by exposure to the following three sources of exposure: radiant and Meeker burner flame, heated coil, and radiant source only. The first test series used radiant heat and flame exposures on easily obtainable test materials. Next, four materials were selected from the first group and exposed to an incandescent coil to provide the conditions for smoldering combustion. Finally, radiant heat exposures were used on advanced materials that are not readily available.

  1. Cigarette Smoke inhibits ROCK2 activation in T cells and modulates IL-22 production

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Chien-Huan; Gupta, Sanjay; Geraghty, Patrick; Foronjy, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions are known to play a key role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is one of the strongest environmental risk factors associated with RA and has been shown to mediate a range of complex immunomodulatory effects from decreased T and B cell activation to depressed phagocytic function. The effects of CS on the function of TH17 cells, one of the key TH effector subsets implicated in RA pathogenesis, are not fully understood. IRF4 is one of the crucial transcription factors involved in TH-17 differentiation and is absolutely required for the production of IL-17 and IL-21 but, interestingly, inhibits the synthesis of IL-22. The production of IL-17 and IL-21 by IRF4 can be augmented by its phosphorylation by the serine-threonine kinase ROCK2. Given that CS has been reported to increase ROCK activity in endothelial cells, here we investigated the effects of CS on the ROCK2-IRF4 axis in T cells. Surprisingly, we found that CS leads to decreased ROCK2 activation and IRF4 phosphorylation in T cells. This effect was associated with increased IL-22 production. Using a GEF pull-down assay we furthermore identify ARHGEF1 as a key upstream regulator of ROCK2 whose activity in T cells is inhibited by CS. Thus CS can inhibit the ROCK2-IRF4 axis and modulate T cell production of IL-22. PMID:26882474

  2. Seafood inclusion in commercial main meal early years' food products.

    PubMed

    Carstairs, Sharon A; Marais, Debbi; Craig, Leone C A; Kiezebrink, Kirsty

    2016-10-01

    Seafood consumption is recommended as part of a healthy, balanced diet. Under-exposure to seafood during early years feeding, when taste and food acceptance is developed, may impact on the future development of a varied diet. This study aimed to investigate the availability and nutritional content of seafood in commercial infant meals compared to the other food types. A survey was conducted of all commercial infant main meal products available for purchase in supermarkets, high street retailers and online stores within the United Kingdom. The primary food type (seafood, poultry, meat and vegetables) within each product, nutritional composition per 100 g, and ingredient contribution were assessed. Of the original 341 main meal products seafood (n = 13; 3.8%) was underrepresented compared to poultry (103; 30.2%), meat (121; 35.5%) and vegetables (104; 30.5%). The number of the seafood meals increased three years later (n = 20; 6.3%) vegetable meals remained the largest contributor to the market (115; 36.4%) with meat (99; 31.3%) and poultry (82; 26.0%) both contributing slightly less than previously. Seafood-based meals provided significantly higher energy (83.0 kcal), protein (4.6 g), and total fat (3.2 g) than vegetable (68 kcal, 2.7 g, 1.9 g), meat (66 kcal, 3.0 g, 2.1 g) and poultry-based meals (66 kcal, 3.0 g, 2.1 g) and higher saturated fat (1.3 g) than poultry (0.4 g) and vegetable-based (0.6 g) meals (all per 100 g) which may be attributed to additional dairy ingredients. Parents who predominantly use commercial products to wean their infant may face challenges in sourcing a range of seafood products to enable the introduction of this food into the diet of their infant. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Transgenic products. A scientific-production evaluation of possible food (in)security].

    PubMed

    Camara, Maria Clara Coelho; Marinho, Carmem L C; Guilam, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Nodari, Rubens Onofre

    2009-01-01

    Based on a bibliographic review, the article identifies and offers a critical analysis of scientific production by the public health field in Brazil on genetically modified organisms and food (in)security. Of the 716 articles found on the portals of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and the Coordinating Agency for the Development of Higher Education (Capes), only 8 address the food security of transgenic products, primarily in terms of risk exposure and the uncertainties about how these products impact health and the environment. The main conclusion involves the fact that the eight analyzed articles do not speak to the question of the security but rather the insecurity of genetically modified foods.

  4. Methods for Assessing the Impact of Fog Oil Smoke on Availability, Palatability, & Food Quality of Relevant Life Stages of Insects for Threatened and Endangered Species

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, Crystal J.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Rogers, Lee E.

    2007-04-01

    A methodology for quantifying population dynamics and food source value of insect fauna in areas subjected to fog oil smoke was developed. Our approach employed an environmentally controlled re-circulating wind tunnel outfitted with a high-heat vaporization and re-condensation fog oil generator that has been shown to produce aerosols of comparable chemistry and droplet-size distribution as those of field releases of the smoke. This method provides reproducible exposures of insects under realistic climatic and environmental conditions to fog oil aerosols that duplicate chemical and droplet-size characteristics of field releases of the smoke. The responses measured take into account reduction in food sources due to death and to changes in availability of relevant life stages of insects that form the prey base for the listed Threatened and Endangered Species. The influence of key environmental factors, wind speed and canopy structure on these responses were characterized. Data generated using this method was used to develop response functions related to particle size, concentration, wind speed, and canopy structure that will allow military personnel to assess and manage impacts to endangered species from fog oil smoke used in military training.

  5. [Smoking of non-cigarette tobacco products by students in three Brazilian cities: should we be worried?].

    PubMed

    Szklo, André Salem; Sampaio, Mariana Miranda Autran; Fernandes, Elaine Masson; Almeida, Liz Maria de

    2011-11-01

    Smoking of non-cigarette tobacco products is increasing worldwide because of their high social acceptability, misperceptions about their purported harmlessness, and globalization of the tobacco industry. In Brazil, tobacco control experts have recently focused their attention on the importance of monitoring the use of such products. We analyzed data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (2009) in three cities. Prevalence rates of non-cigarette tobacco smoking in the previous 30 days among students 13 to 15 years of age were high in Campo Grande (18.3%; 95%CI: 14.4%-22.9%) and São Paulo (22.1%; 95%CI: 19.0%-25.6%), while Vitória showed comparatively lower prevalence (4.3%; 95%CI: 3.1%-5.7%). No statistical differences were observed in prevalence rates according to gender. Water pipes were the most frequent form of non-cigarette tobacco smoking. The decline in cigarette smoking in Brazil in recent years may have contributed to other forms of tobacco smoking, especially among students.

  6. 9 CFR 314.11 - Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food. 314.11 Section 314.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... INEDIBLE PRODUCTS AT OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.11 Handling of certain condemned products for...

  7. Production of ethanol from infant food formulas by common yeasts.

    PubMed

    Bivin, W S; Heinen, B N

    1985-04-01

    Four common yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Torulopsis glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were combined with five infant food formulas and/or supplements (Isomil, Nutramigen, 5% glucose, Coca Cola and Similac) and incubated at 37 degrees C. Gas chromatography was used to measure ethanol production after 24 and 48 h incubation. The quantities of ethanol produced suggest a possible explanation for patients exhibiting the 'Auto-Brewery Syndrome' and raises interest in the role auto-produced ethanol could have in explaining the etiology of Sudden Infant Death.

  8. Determination of aspartame and its major decomposition products in foods.

    PubMed

    Prodolliet, J; Bruelhart, M

    1993-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic procedure already evaluated in a preceding study for the analysis of acesulfam-K is also suitable for the determination of the intense sweetener aspartame in tabletop sweetener, candy, fruit beverage, fruit pulp, soft drink, yogurt, cream, cheese, and chocolate preparations. The method also allows the determination of aspartame's major decomposition products: diketopiperazine, aspartyl-phenylalanine, and phenylalanine. Samples are extracted or diluted with water and filtered. Complex matrixes are centrifuged or clarified with Carrez solutions. An aliquot of the extract is analyzed on a reversed-phase muBondapak C18 column using 0.0125M KH2PO4 (pH 3.5)-acetonitrile ([85 + 15] or [98 + 2]) as mobile phase. Detection is performed by UV absorbance at 214 nm. Recoveries ranged from 96.1 to 105.0%. Decomposition of the sweetener was observed in most food samples. However, the total aspartame values (measured aspartame + breakdown products) were within -10% and +5% of the declared levels. The repeatabilities and the repeatability coefficients of variation were, respectively, 1.00 mg/100 g and 1.34% for products containing less than 45 mg/100 g aspartame and 4.11 mg/100 g and 0.91% for other products. The technique is precise and sensitive. It enables the detection of many food additives or natural constituents, such as other intense sweeteners, organic acids, and alkaloids, in the same run without interfering with aspartame or its decomposition products. The method is consequently suitable for quality control or monitoring.

  9. Biocatalysis for the production of industrial products and functional foods from rice and other agricultural produce.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Casimir C; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2008-11-26

    Many industrial products and functional foods can be obtained from cheap and renewable raw agricultural materials. For example, starch can be converted to bioethanol as biofuel to reduce the current demand for petroleum or fossil fuel energy. On the other hand, starch can also be converted to useful functional ingredients, such as high fructose and high maltose syrups, wine, glucose, and trehalose. The conversion process involves fermentation by microorganisms and use of biocatalysts such as hydrolases of the amylase superfamily. Amylases catalyze the process of liquefaction and saccharification of starch. It is possible to perform complete hydrolysis of starch by using the fusion product of both linear and debranching thermostable enzymes. This will result in saving energy otherwise needed for cooling before the next enzyme can act on the substrate, if a sequential process is utilized. Recombinant enzyme technology, protein engineering, and enzyme immobilization are powerful tools available to enhance the activity of enzymes, lower the cost of enzyme through large scale production in a heterologous host, increase their thermostability, improve pH stability, enhance their productivity, and hence making it competitive with the chemical processes involved in starch hydrolysis and conversions. This review emphasizes the potential of using biocatalysis for the production of useful industrial products and functional foods from cheap agricultural produce and transgenic plants. Rice was selected as a typical example to illustrate many applications of biocatalysis in converting low-value agricultural produce to high-value commercial food and industrial products. The greatest advantages of using enzymes for food processing and for industrial production of biobased products are their environmental friendliness and consumer acceptance as being a natural process.

  10. Predicted growth of world urban food waste and methane production.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bijaya K; Barrington, Suzelle; Martinez, José

    2006-10-01

    Landfill gas emissions are one of the largest anthropogenic sources of methane especially because of food waste (FW). To prevent these emissions growing with world population, future FW best management practices need to be evaluated. The objective of this paper was therefore to predict FW production for 2025 if present management practices are maintained, and then, to compare the impact of scenario 1: encouraging people to stay in rural areas and composting 75% of their FW, and; of scenario 2, where in addition to scenario 1, composting or anaerobically digesting 75% of urban FW (UFW). A relationship was established between per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and the population percentage living in urban areas (%UP), as well as production of municipal solid waste (MSW) and UFW. With estimated GDP and population growth per country, %UP and production of MSW and UFW could be predicted for 2025. A relatively accurate (R(2) > 0.85) correlation was found between GDP and %UP, and between GDP and mass of MSW and FW produced. On a global scale, MSW and UFW productions were predicted to increase by 51 and 44%, respectively, from 2005 to 2025. During the same period, and because of its expected economic development, Asia was predicted to experience the largest increase in UFW production, of 278 to 416 Gkg. If present MSW management trends are maintained, landfilled UFW was predicted to increase world CH4 emissions from 34 to 48 Gkg and the landfill share of global anthropogenic emissions from 8 to 10%. In comparison with maintaining present FW management practices, scenario 1 can lower UFW production by 30% and maintain the landfill share of the global anthropogenic emissions at 8%. With scenario 2, the landfill share of global anthropogenic emissions could be further reduced from 8 to 6% and leachate production could be reduced by 40%.

  11. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products.

    PubMed

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-04-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  12. Risk analysis of tyramine concentration in food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doudová, L.; Buňka, F.; Michálek, J.; Sedlačík, M.; Buňková, L.

    2013-10-01

    The contribution is focused on risk analysis in food microbiology. This paper evaluates the effect of selected factors on tyramine production in bacterial strains of Lactococcus genus which were assigned as tyramine producers. Tyramine is a biogenic amine sythesized from an amino acid called tyrosine. It can be found in certain foodstuffs (often in cheese), and can cause a pseudo-response in sensitive individuals. The above-mentioned bacteria are commonly used in the biotechnological process of cheese production as starter cultures. The levels of factors were chosen with respect to the conditions which can occur in this technological process. To describe and compare tyramine production in chosen microorganisms, generalized regression models were applied. Tyramine production was modelled by Gompertz curves according to the selected factors (the lactose concentration of 0-1% w/v, NaCl 0-2% w/v and aero/anaerobiosis) for 3 different types of bacterial cultivation. Moreover, estimates of model parameters were calculated and tested; multiple comparisons were discussed as well. The aim of this paper is to find a combination of factors leading to a similar tyramine production level.

  13. Food Production and Freshwater Use within Planetary Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerten, D.; Jägermeyr, J.; Heck, V.

    2016-12-01

    The concept of planetary boundaries (PBs) defines guardrails for 9 earth system processes that should not be transgressed by human activity to avoid undermining of earth system resilience. In addition to the scientific challenge of better (e.g. spatially explicit) estimations of PBs themselves, there is a need for assessing opportunities for humankind to stay within these guardrails - while still achieving societal goals such as producing sufficient food for a growing world population. This presentation provides study results (simulations with the LPJmL biosphere model) concerned with a new definition of the PB for human freshwater use in particular, and it addresses the question by how much food production could be increased through more effective water management while respecting this PB. Specifically, we represent this PB in more detail than in its provisional first iteration, i.e. based on spatially explicit estimations of rivers' environmental flow requirements, EFRs (with three different methods on a global 0.5° grid). A key finding is that present human water withdrawals already harm many river stretches around the world, as their EFRs are being tapped; this involves 950 km3/yr (39%) of irrigation water use and a further 226 km3/yr (22%) water use by other sectors. But, improved agricultural water management - here, a moderate upgrade of irrigation systems - could, if implemented across all irrigated regions along with policies to sustain EFRs, fully compensate for these production losses at global scale, albeit not everywhere. The overall, simulated potential of improved on-farm water management - also including measures of water harvesting and avoidance of evaporation in rainfed systems - is a 40% increase in global production. This highlights tremendous opportunities to produce more food without further compromising water systems, also buffering potential future climate change impacts. Finally, the presentation broadens the scope by considering further

  14. Attenuation of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Airway Mucus Production by Hydrogen-Rich Saline in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingxi; Dong, Yuchao; Xu, Wujian; Li, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Over-production of mucus is an important pathophysiological feature in chronic airway disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Cigarette smoking (CS) is the leading cause of COPD. Oxidative stress plays a key role in CS-induced airway abnormal mucus production. Hydrogen protected cells and tissues against oxidative damage by scavenging hydroxyl radicals. In the present study we investigated the effect of hydrogen on CS-induced mucus production in rats. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham control, CS group, hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment group and hydrogen-rich saline control group. Lung morphology and tissue biochemical changes were determined by immunohistochemistry, Alcian Blue/periodic acid-Schiff staining, TUNEL, western blot and realtime RT-PCR. Results Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment attenuated CS-induced mucus accumulation in the bronchiolar lumen, goblet cell hyperplasia, muc5ac over-expression and abnormal cell apoptosis in the airway epithelium as well as malondialdehyde increase in the BALF. The phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1068 and Nrf2 up-regulation expression in the rat lungs challenged by CS exposure were also abrogated by hydrogen-rich saline. Conclusion Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment ameliorated CS-induced airway mucus production and airway epithelium damage in rats. The protective role of hydrogen on CS-exposed rat lungs was achieved at least partly by its free radical scavenging ability. This is the first report to demonstrate that intraperitoneal administration of hydrogen-rich saline protected rat airways against CS damage and it could be promising in treating abnormal airway mucus production in COPD. PMID:24376700

  15. Canned rice products as Philippine military food ration.

    PubMed

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V

    2003-05-01

    Canned prototypes of rice (CR) and rice meal with pork sausage (CRM) were developed as military food ration models for evaluation by personnel in the Bonifacio Naval Station, Fort Bonifacio, Makati, Philippines. The prototypes were produced based on the assumption that a serving size equivalent to 400 g cooked rice and a meat-based viand using a 1:4 (wt/wt) viand to rice ratio was adequate as a single-serve meal for a typical Philippine military personnel. The CR and CRM prototypes were low acid products with pH values of 4.9 and 5.5, respectively. The processed rice portions of the prototypes showed about 200% volume and weight increases, moderate clumpiness and low percentage breakage. More than 90% of the respondents agreed that CR and CRM were suitable military food rations. Majority of the panelists indicated preference for meat-based and poultry-based viands. Bulk and weight portativity problems, however, were raised with the 400 g serving size of cooked products in cans.

  16. Correlation of smoke development in room tests with cone calorimeter data for wood products

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Ondrej. Grexa

    2000-01-01

    A direct proportionality has been found between the smoke extinction area (SEA) for smoke of room linings and the SEA as measured in the cone calorimeter (ISO5660). The room test scenario (ISO9705) considered was the propane ignition burner at the corner with a 100/300 kW program and the specimen lined on the walls only. The mixing of smoke from propane and lining...

  17. 77 FR 71803 - Guidance on Food and Drug Administration Oversight of Positron Emission Tomography Drug Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance on Food and Drug Administration Oversight of Positron Emission Tomography Drug Products--Questions and Answers; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  18. Physical design analysis and mainstream smoke constituent yields of the new potential reduced exposure product, Marlboro UltraSmooth.

    PubMed

    Rees, Vaughan W; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Thomas, Brian F; Connolly, Gregory N

    2007-11-01

    Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) purport to lower toxicant emissions, but without clinical and long-term health outcome data, claims for reduced harm status of PREPs depend heavily on standard machine yield smoke constituent data. Two prototypes of the new carbon-filtered PREP Marlboro UltraSmooth (MUS) were investigated using both standard (FTC/ISO) and intensive (Health Canada) machine methods to measure gas/vapor- and particulate-phase smoke constituents. Basic physical design characteristics that may influence smoke constituent yields, such as ventilation, pressure drop (resistance to draw), quantity of tobacco, and quantity and type of carbon, were measured. The possible presence of added chemical flavorant compounds was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. MUS prototypes were found to have several key differences in physical design compared with a conventional cigarette, including higher ventilation, lower draw resistance, and in the case of the Salt Lake City prototype, the use of vitreous carbon beads and the presence of chemical flavorants on both the beads and an embedded filter fiber. When tested under the standard regimen, gas-phase constituents of MUS prototypes were reduced compared with a conventional low-yield cigarette. However, far smaller reductions in gas-phase constituents were observed under the intensive regimen, suggesting that the carbon technology used in MUS is less effective when smoked under more intensive conditions. Particulate-phase constituents were not reduced by the carbon filter under either machine-smoking regimen. The data suggest that MUS has been designed to reduce toxic yields while preserving consumer appeal. However, MUS is less effective in reducing toxic smoke constituents when smoked under intensive conditions.

  19. In vitro acute effects of tobacco smoke on tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 production by alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dubar, V; Gosset, P; Aerts, C; Voisin, C; Wallaert, B; Tonnel, A B

    1993-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is a usual form of oxidant aggression present in the domestic environment. In the present study, the in vitro acute effects of a 2-cigarette smoke gas phase were evaluated on cell viability and cytokine secretion by alveolar macrophages (AM) from guinea pigs and human healthy subjects. Cell injury was estimated immediately after smoke exposure by evaluation of ATP cell content (measured by bioluminescence) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release in the culture medium. LDH release was also measured when the interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) activities were evaluated. No cytotoxic effect was found: The ATP cell content of both guinea pig AM and human AM did not significantly change after tobacco smoke exposure. Similarly, the LDH release in the culture medium was unchanged both immediately after tobacco smoke exposure and at the time of the cytokine evaluation (18-20 h later) compared to cells cultured in the air. The total protein synthesis by the guinea pig AM evaluated by 35S-L-methionine labeling was unaffected by tobacco smoke exposure. The production of IL-6 and TNF activities was evaluated 18-20 h after smoke exposure. The IL-6 activity was measured by the proliferation test of 7TD1 hybridoma cell line; the TNF activity was evaluated by the L929 mouse fibroblast cytotoxic test and by an immunoradiometric assay (for human AM). A 2-cigarette smoke exposure decreased both activities significantly. The exposure of the guinea pig AM reduced IL-6 activity by 24.3 +/- 6.7%, 42.4 +/- 7.8%, and 39.7 +/- 9.6% and TNF activity by 33.8 +/- 10.4%, 35.1 +/- 10.7%, and 38.8 +/- 9.9% (respectively unstimulated cells and AM activated by 0.1 and 10 micrograms LPS/mL). The decrease in monokine production by the human AM was, respectively, 57.8 +/- 8.8%, 59.7 +/- 11.4%, and 49.9 +/- 10.5% of IL-6 activity and 37.4 +/- 14.6%, 17.6 +/- 9.6%, and 37.2 +/- 6.3% of TNF activity. The possible release of cytokine inhibitors was also investigated

  20. [Hygienic aspects of Atlantic fish products utilization in the production of infant food].

    PubMed

    Kniazeva, N S; Perova, L I; Serpunina, L T; Grikhina, G V

    1994-01-01

    The data on toxic element and parasitic contamination of the fish from the Atlantic Ocean have been systematized. Basing on the criteria of safety involving MAC for heavy metals, pesticides, histamine, radionuclides, absence of parasitic contamination, recommendations have been formulated on the conditions under which raw fish is ecologically permissible for production of canned food for children.

  1. Concurrent maternal and pup postnatal tobacco smoke exposure in Wistar rats changes food preference and dopaminergic reward system parameters in the adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C R; Moura, E G; Manhães, A C; Fraga, M C; Claudio-Neto, S; Abreu-Villaça, Y; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C

    2015-08-20

    Children from pregnant smokers are more susceptible to become obese adults and to become drug or food addicts. Drugs and food activate the mesolimbic reward pathway, causing a sense of pleasure that induces further consumption. Here, we studied the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure during lactation with feeding, behavior and brain dopaminergic reward system parameters at adulthood. Nursing Wistar rats and their pups were divided into two groups: tobacco smoke-exposed (S: 4times/day, from the 3rd to the 21th day of lactation), and ambient air-exposed (C). On PN175, both offspring groups were subdivided for a food challenge: S and C that received standard chow (SC) or that chose between high-fat (HFD) and high-sucrose diets (HSDs). Food intake was recorded after 30min and 12h. Offspring were tested in the elevated plus maze and open field on PN178-179; they were euthanized for dopaminergic analysis on PN180. SSD (self-selected diet) animals presented a higher food intake compared to SC ones. S-SSD animals ate more than C-SSD ones at 30min and 12h. Both groups preferred the HFD. However, S-SSD animals consumed relatively more HFD than C-SSD at 30min. No behavioral differences were observed between groups. S animals presented lower tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) content in the ventral tegmental area, lower TH, dopaminergic receptor 2, higher dopaminergic receptor 1 contents in the nucleus accumbens and lower OBRb in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Tobacco-smoke exposure during lactation increases preference for fat in the adult progeny possibly due to alterations in the dopaminergic system. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Empirical characterisation of ranges of mainstream smoke toxicant yields from contemporary cigarette products using quantile regression methodology.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Oscar M; Eldridge, Alison; Proctor, Christopher J; McAdam, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    Approximately 100 toxicants have been identified in cigarette smoke, to which exposure has been linked to a range of serious diseases in smokers. Smoking machines have been used to quantify toxicant emissions from cigarettes for regulatory reporting. The World Health Organization Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation has proposed a regulatory scenario to identify median values for toxicants found in commercially available products, which could be used to set mandated limits on smoke emissions. We present an alternative approach, which used quantile regression to estimate reference percentiles to help contextualise the toxicant yields of commercially available products with respect to a reference analyte, such as tar or nicotine. To illustrate this approach we examined four toxicants (acetone, N'-nitrosoanatabine, phenol and pyridine) with respect to tar, and explored International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Health Canada Intense (HCI) regimes. We compared this approach with other methods for assessing toxicants in cigarette smoke, such as ratios to nicotine or tar, and linear regression. We concluded that the quantile regression approach effectively represented data distributions across toxicants for both ISO and HCI regimes. This method provides robust, transparent and intuitive percentile estimates in relation to any desired reference value within the data space. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Policy and health implications of using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration product design approach in reducing tobacco product risk.

    PubMed

    Givel, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Purported risk or harm reduction through product design change of cigarettes has occurred in three phases in the U.S. The first phase from the 1940s to the early 1960s included a gradual rise in filtered cigarettes. The second phase, which began in the early 1960s in response to the landmark 1964 U.S. Surgeon General's report that linked smoking with lung cancer and other diseases, included the introduction of purportedly low tar and nicotine cigarettes. Subsequent research found that both filters and low tar and nicotine cigarettes were ineffective approaches to reducing health risks associated with smoking. Despite this, these product design changes were used in tobacco industry marketing campaigns to allay consumer health concerns and stabilize tobacco markets and sales. Since 2004, a new risk or harm reduction phase has occurred with the backing by Philip Morris as well as major U.S. health groups of U.S. Food and Drug Administration legislation that would require disclosure of tobacco ingredients, ban misleading health claims, prohibit or reduce harmful ingredients, and require prior approval of tobacco design, performance changes, and modified risk tobacco products. However, current scientific literature indicates that there is no scientific consensus and little evidence on what tobacco ingredients are linked to particular morbidities and mortalities and at what levels. This will allow the tobacco industry to implicitly or explicitly claim their products are "safer." Instead, health advocates should advocate for scientifically proven policy measures such as smoke free public places or higher tobacco taxes that control and reduce tobacco markets and consumption.

  4. Association of Electronic Cigarette Use With Initiation of Combustible Tobacco Product Smoking in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Strong, David R; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Unger, Jennifer B; Sussman, Steve; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Stone, Matthew D; Khoddam, Rubin; Samet, Jonathan M; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2015-08-18

    Exposure to nicotine in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is becoming increasingly common among adolescents who report never having smoked combustible tobacco. To evaluate whether e-cigarette use among 14-year-old adolescents who have never tried combustible tobacco is associated with risk of initiating use of 3 combustible tobacco products (ie, cigarettes, cigars, and hookah). Longitudinal repeated assessment of a school-based cohort at baseline (fall 2013, 9th grade, mean age = 14.1 years) and at a 6-month follow-up (spring 2014, 9th grade) and a 12-month follow-up (fall 2014, 10th grade). Ten public high schools in Los Angeles, California, were recruited through convenience sampling. Participants were students who reported never using combustible tobacco at baseline and completed follow-up assessments at 6 or 12 months (N = 2530). At each time point, students completed self-report surveys during in-classroom data collections. Student self-report of whether he or she ever used e-cigarettes (yes or no) at baseline. Six- and 12-month follow-up reports on use of any of the following tobacco products within the prior 6 months: (1) any combustible tobacco product (yes or no); (2) combustible cigarettes (yes or no), (3) cigars (yes or no); (4) hookah (yes or no); and (5) number of combustible tobacco products (range: 0-3). Past 6-month use of any combustible tobacco product was more frequent in baseline e-cigarette ever users (n = 222) than never users (n = 2308) at the 6-month follow-up (30.7% vs 8.1%, respectively; difference between groups in prevalence rates, 22.7% [95% CI, 16.4%-28.9%]) and at the 12-month follow-up (25.2% vs 9.3%, respectively; difference between groups, 15.9% [95% CI, 10.0%-21.8%]). Baseline e-cigarette use was associated with greater likelihood of use of any combustible tobacco product averaged across the 2 follow-up periods in the unadjusted analyses (odds ratio [OR], 4.27 [95% CI, 3.19-5.71]) and in the analyses adjusted

  5. Is food store type associated with the consumption of ultra-processed food and drink products in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Machado, Priscila Pereira; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Costa, Janaína Calu; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2017-07-31

    To analyse the association between food store type and the consumption of ultra-processed products in Brazil. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey involving a probabilistic sample of 55 970 Brazilian households. Food stores were grouped into nine categories. Foods and drinks were grouped according to characteristics of food processing. The contribution of each food store type to the total energy acquired from each food processing group, and according to quintiles of consumption of ultra-processed products, was estimated. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify a pattern of food store usage. Linear regression models were performed to estimate the relationship between the purchase pattern and the consumption of ultra-processed products. In line with their larger market share, supermarkets accounted for 59 % of total energy and participated most in acquisition for three food groups, with emphasis on ultra-processed products (60·4 % of energy). The participation of supermarkets in total purchase tended to increase in populations with higher consumption of ultra-processed products, while the participation of small markets and small producers tended to decrease. The purchase pattern characterized by use of traditional retail (street fairs and vendors, small markets, small farmers, butcheries) was associated with a smaller consumption of ultra-processed products. Food policies and interventions aiming to reduce the consumption of ultra-processed products should consider the influence of supermarkets on the consumption of these products. A purchase pattern based on traditional retail constitutes an important tool for promoting healthy eating in Brazil.

  6. Smoking is not associated with autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus patients, unaffected first-degree relatives, nor healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Young, K A; Terrell, D R; Guthridge, J M; Kamen, D L; Gilkeson, G S; Karp, D R; Ishimori, M L; Weisman, M H; Holers, V M; Harley, J B; Norris, J M; James, J A

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine whether smoking is associated with autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, unaffected first-degree relatives (FDR) of individuals with SLE--a group at increased risk of developing SLE--or unaffected, unrelated controls. Detailed demographic, environmental, clinical, and therapeutic information was collected by questionnaire on 1242 SLE patients, 981 FDRs, and 946 controls in the Lupus Family Registry and Repository; a blood sample was obtained. All sera were tested for multiple lupus autoantibodies by immunofluorescence and luminex bead-based assays. Generalized estimating equations, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity and accounting for correlation within families, were used to assess smoking status with the dichotomous outcome variables of positivity for SLE status, positivity of ANA by immunofluorescence (≥1:120), positivity for ≥1 autoantibody by the luminex assay, and positivity for each of the 11 autoantibodies. Current smoking was associated with being positive for ≥1 autoantibody (excluding ANA) (adjusted OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.04-2.24) in our subjects with SLE. No association was observed in unaffected FDRs or healthy controls. Former smoking was associated with anti-Ro/SS-A60 in our unaffected FDRs. There was an increased association with anti-nRNP A seropositivity, as well as a decreased association with anti-nRNP 68 positivity, in current smokers in SLE subjects. No clear association between smoking status and individual autoantibodies was detected in SLE patients, unaffected FDRs, nor healthy controls within this collection. The association of smoking with SLE may therefore manifest its risk through mechanisms outside of autoantibody production, at least for the specificities tested.

  7. Comparing the cancer potencies of emissions from vapourised nicotine products including e-cigarettes with those of tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Stephens, William E

    2017-08-04

    Quantifying relative harm caused by inhaling the aerosol emissions of vapourised nicotine products compared with smoking combustible tobacco is an important issue for public health. The cancer potencies of various nicotine-delivering aerosols are modelled using published chemical analyses of emissions and their associated inhalation unit risks. Potencies are compared using a conversion procedure for expressing smoke and e-cigarette vapours in common units. Lifetime cancer risks are calculated from potencies using daily consumption estimates. The aerosols form a spectrum of cancer potencies spanning five orders of magnitude from uncontaminated air to tobacco smoke. E-cigarette emissions span most of this range with the preponderance of products having potencies<1% of tobacco smoke and falling within two orders of magnitude of a medicinal nicotine inhaler; however, a small minority have much higher potencies. These high-risk results tend to be associated with high levels of carbonyls generated when excessive power is delivered to the atomiser coil. Samples of a prototype heat-not-burn device have lower cancer potencies than tobacco smoke by at least one order of magnitude, but higher potencies than most e-cigarettes. Mean lifetime risks decline in the sequence: combustible cigarettes > heat-not-burn > e-cigarettes (normal power)≥nicotine inhaler. Optimal combinations of device settings, liquid formulation and vaping behaviour normally result in e-cigarette emissions with much less carcinogenic potency than tobacco smoke, notwithstanding there are circumstances in which the cancer risks of e-cigarette emissions can escalate, sometimes substantially. These circumstances are usually avoidable when the causes are known. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. 76 FR 4284 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tulkoff Food Products, Inc. (Dehydrated Garlic), Baltimore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Garlic), Baltimore, MD Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as...-purpose subzone at the garlic products manufacturing facility of Tulkoff Food Products, Inc., located in... to the manufacture of garlic products at the Tulkoff Food Products, Inc., facility located...

  9. Food Service Worker. Instructional Modules for Food Management, Production and Services. Modules 1-17. Competency Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Dept. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    These 17 teacher modules are part of a curriculum dealing with food management, production, and services that was developed for use in secondary and postsecondary vocational programs in Tennessee. Covered in the individual modules are food service careers, math skills, reading and converting recipes, work simplification, self-development,…

  10. The Hotspot for (Global) One Health in Primary Food Production: Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Gherardi, Paola; Saxena, Navneet; Belluzzi, Giancarlo; Mantovani, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    One Health involves the multifaceted environment-animal-human web: nevertheless, the role of toxicological issues has yet to be fully explored in this context. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination of feeds is a risk for the health of several farm animals, including fishes; milk is the only food of animal origin where a significant feed-food carry over may occur. The main AFB1-related compound present in milk is the hydroxy-metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Besides contamination of raw milk, AFM1 is of concern for the whole dairy chain; AFM1 may also contaminate the milk of several other ruminants used for milk/dairy production. In a One Health perspective, milk represents a sentinel matrix for AFB1 vulnerability of the agro-food system, that is crucial in a phase when food/nutritional security becomes a global issue and climatic changes may affect agricultural productions. In the global setting, food chain exposure to long-term toxicants, such as AFM1, is a growing concern for economically developing countries, whereas global trade and climatic change makes AFM1 an emerging hot issue in economically developed countries as well. We critically review the state of the art on AFM1 risk assessment and risk management using two scenarios as case studies: a European Union country where the health system aims at ensuring a high-level protection of food chain (Italy) and the world’s largest (and economically developing) producer of dairy products by volume (India). The case studies are used to provide building blocks for a global One Health framework. PMID:28210616

  11. The Hotspot for (Global) One Health in Primary Food Production: Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products.

    PubMed

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Gherardi, Paola; Saxena, Navneet; Belluzzi, Giancarlo; Mantovani, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    One Health involves the multifaceted environment-animal-human web: nevertheless, the role of toxicological issues has yet to be fully explored in this context. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination of feeds is a risk for the health of several farm animals, including fishes; milk is the only food of animal origin where a significant feed-food carry over may occur. The main AFB1-related compound present in milk is the hydroxy-metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Besides contamination of raw milk, AFM1 is of concern for the whole dairy chain; AFM1 may also contaminate the milk of several other ruminants used for milk/dairy production. In a One Health perspective, milk represents a sentinel matrix for AFB1 vulnerability of the agro-food system, that is crucial in a phase when food/nutritional security becomes a global issue and climatic changes may affect agricultural productions. In the global setting, food chain exposure to long-term toxicants, such as AFM1, is a growing concern for economically developing countries, whereas global trade and climatic change makes AFM1 an emerging hot issue in economically developed countries as well. We critically review the state of the art on AFM1 risk assessment and risk management using two scenarios as case studies: a European Union country where the health system aims at ensuring a high-level protection of food chain (Italy) and the world's largest (and economically developing) producer of dairy products by volume (India). The case studies are used to provide building blocks for a global One Health framework.

  12. Social Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Schane, Rebecca E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Social smoking is increasingly prevalent and poses a challenge to traditional cessation practices. Tobacco companies conducted extensive research on social smokers long before health authorities did and marketed products to promote this smoking behavior. Purpose Research is described and mechanisms identified that are used to promote social smoking to help improve cessation strategies in this growing group. Evidence acquisition Searches from 2006 to 2008 of previously secret tobacco industry documents using keywords social smoker, light smoker, casual smoker, youth smoker, and occasional smoker, followed by snowball searching. Data analysis was conducted in 2008. Evidence synthesis Tobacco industry research identified characteristics of social smokers that include: (1) denial of personal nicotine addiction; (2) self-categorization as a nonsmoker; (3) propensity for decreased tobacco use in response to smoke-free laws; (4) variations in age, education, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds; and (5) a perceived immunity to personal health effects of tobacco but fear of consequences to others. Tobacco companies developed marketing strategies aimed at social smokers, including “non–habit forming” cigarettes. Conclusions Previously considered a transient behavior, social smoking is also a stable consumption pattern. Focused clinical questions to detect social smoking are needed and may include, “Have you smoked any cigarettes or used any tobacco products in the past month?” as opposed to “Are you a smoker?” Clinicians should recognize that social smokers might be motivated to quit after education on the dangers of secondhand smoke rather than on personal health risks or with pharmacotherapy. PMID:19589449

  13. Modelling production per unit of food consumed in fish populations.

    PubMed

    Wiff, Rodrigo; Barrientos, Mauricio A; Milessi, Andrés C; Quiroz, J C; Harwood, John

    2015-01-21

    The ratio of production-to-consumption (ρ) reflects how efficiently a population can transform ingested food into biomass. Usually this ratio is estimated by separately integrating cohort per-recruit production and consumption per unit of biomass. Estimates of ρ from cohort analysis differ from those that consider the whole population, because fish populations are usually composed of cohorts that differ in their relative abundance. Cohort models for ρ also assume a stable age-structure and a constant population size (stationary condition). This may preclude their application to harvested populations, in which variations in fishing mortality and recruitment will affect age-structure. In this paper, we propose a different framework for estimating (ρ) in which production and consumption are modelled simultaneously to produce a population estimator of ρ. Food consumption is inferred from the physiological concepts underpinning the generalised von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). This general framework allows the effects of different age-structures to be explored, with a stationary population as a special case. Three models with different complexities, depending mostly on what assumptions are made about age-structure, are explored. The full data model requires knowledge about food assimilation efficiency, parameters of the VBGF and the relative proportion of individuals at age a at time y (Py(a)). A simpler model, which requires less data, is based on the stationary assumption. Model results are compared with estimates from cohort models for ρ using simulated fish populations of different lifespans. The models proposed here were also applied to three fish populations that are targets of commercial fisheries in the south-east Pacific. Uncertainty in the estimation of ρ was evaluated using a resampling approach. Simulation showed that cohort and population models produce different estimates for ρ and those differences depend on lifespan, fishing mortality and

  14. Aerosols and contact insecticides as alternatives to methyl bromide in flour mills, food production facilities, and food warehouses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fumigant methyl bromide (MB) is being phased out of production and usage to control stored product insects in flour and rice mills, as well as feed and food production plants, in the United States (US) and other developed countries throughout the world. A phase-out schedule has also been establi...

  15. Institutional obstacles to expansion of world food production.

    PubMed

    Crosson, P R

    1975-05-09

    It was argued that over the near-to-medium term-roughly to the mid-1980's-there is enough potential for growth in existing Green Revolution technology and in technical capacity of farmers that institutions affecting these two sources of increased food production probably will not be seriously constraining. The principal bottlenecks likely will be found among those institutions affecting farmers' incentives to innovate. There is impressive evidence that when other conditions for innovation are favorable the supply of marketing services, for both inputs and outputs, is quite elastic. This seems to include the supply of funds from rural saving and informal credit sources, although the evidence is less clear in this respect. The situation concerning price relations and availability of inputs appears mixed. If national income growth targets are achieved, then the growth in total demand for food in the LDC's should be fast enough to support incentive prices for farmers. This advantage could be lost, however, if governments adopt policies to suppress food prices to keep down the cost of living. The price of fertilizers is expected to fall from the high levels of 1974, the amount of the fall depending in good measure on the success of the LDC's in increasing fertilizer production. Historically, their efforts to expand capacity have been relatively inefficient. Moreover, many countries still lack adequate capacity to produce the HYV's and pesticides. Even with good progress in expanding domestic production of inputs, imports will continue to be an important source of supply. Maintenance of present high prices of petroleum products could be a major obstacle to financing these imports on the necessary scale because of the drain it would place on available foreign exchange. I conclude, on balance, that prices and availability of fertilizers, pesticides, and seeds could have important negative effects on farmers' incentives to adopt Green Revolution technology. Rigidities in

  16. Improvements of soil quality for increased food production in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Øygarden, Lillian; Klakegg, Ove; Børresen, Trond; Krogstad, Tore; Kjersti Uhlen, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1990ties, agricultural land in use in Norway has diminished and yields per hectare for cereals and forages have stagnated. An expert panel appointed to advice on how to increase Norwegian grain production emphasizes low profitability and poor soil quality as limiting factors. A White Paper from the Norwegian Government, Report No.9 (2011-2012), stated that the main goal for the agricultural sector is to increase food production proportional to the expected increase in population (20 % by 2030) in order to maintain self-sufficiency at the present level. This is the background for the interdisciplinary project AGROPRO "Agronomy for increased food production - Challenges and solutions" (2013 - 2017)" financed by the Norwegian research council. A mail goal is seeking possibilities for improvements in agronomic practices for increased and sustainable food production and to identify drivers and challenges for their implementation. Are the key to higher yields hidden in the soil? The paper present an overview of the research activities in the project and some results of the improvements of soil quality to minimize yield gap in cereal and forage production. Detailed new soil maps provide soil information on field scale of soil quality and the suitability for growing different crops like cereal production or vegetables. The detailed soil information is also beeing used for development and adaptation of the planning tool «Terranimo» to reduce risk of soil compaction.The farmer get available soil information for each field, provide information about the maschinery in use- tractors and equipment, tyres, pressure. The decision tool evaluate when the soil is suitable for tillage, calculate the risk of compaction for dry, moist and wet soil. New research data for compaction on Norwegian clay and silt soil are included. Climate change with wetter conditions gives challenges for growing cereals. The project is testing genetic variation in cereals for tolerance to water

  17. [Ecological and food safety considerations about products of vegetable origin].

    PubMed

    Tapia de Daza, M S; Díaz, R V

    1994-12-01

    Media have paid much attention in recent years to emerging microbiological problems in foods of plant origin. The potential for contamination of fruits and vegetables is high because of the wide variety of conditions to which produce is exposed during growth, harvest, processing and distribution. These considerations acquire great significance in the current scenario of the new processing techniques that offer attributes of convenience and fresh-likeness in response to changes in consumption patterns and increased demand of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Thus, reliance on low temperature storage and on improved packaging materials/techniques have increased. Even if produce had not been considered a major vector for foodborne diseases, technologies that extend shelf-life by decreasing the rate of product deterioration might increase the risks associated with pathogenic microorganisms, especially of psychotropic nature, by allowing sufficient time for their growth when retarding the development of competitive spoilage organisms. Processing steps that modify the food microenvironment open new possibilities to support pathogens that, for ecological reason, would have never been naturally present in produce. Ecological and safety aspects related to fruits and vegetables as well as foodborne disease outbreaks traceable to produce and reportedly due to Salmonella and Shigella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni are reviewed.

  18. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-05-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser.

  19. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser. PMID:27212262

  20. Effect of parity on productivity and sustainability of Lotka-Volterra food chains: bounded orbits in food chains.

    PubMed

    Massarelli, Nicole; Hoffman, Kathleen; Previte, Joseph P

    2014-12-01

    Hairston, Slobodkin, and Smith conjectured that top down forces act on food chains, which opposed the previously accepted theory that bottom up forces exclusively dictate the dynamics of populations. We model food chains using the Lotka-Volterra predation model and derive sustainability constants which determine which species will persist or go extinct. Further, we show that the productivity of a sustainable food chain with even trophic levels is predator regulated, or top down, while a sustainable food chain with odd trophic levels is resource limited, which is bottom up, which is consistent with current ecological theory.

  1. Determining the potential productivity of food crops in controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    The quest to determine the maximum potential productivity of food crops is greatly benefitted by crop growth models. Many models have been developed to analyze and predict crop growth in the field, but it is difficult to predict biological responses to stress conditions. Crop growth models for the optimal environments of a Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS) can be highly predictive. This paper discusses the application of a crop growth model to CELSS; the model is used to evaluate factors limiting growth. The model separately evaluates the following four physiological processes: absorption of PPF by photosynthetic tissue, carbon fixation (photosynthesis), carbon use (respiration), and carbon partitioning (harvest index). These constituent processes determine potentially achievable productivity. An analysis of each process suggests that low harvest index is the factor most limiting to yield. PPF absorption by plant canopies and respiration efficiency are also of major importance. Research concerning productivity in a CELSS should emphasize: (1) the development of gas exchange techniques to continuously monitor plant growth rates and (2) environmental techniques to reduce plant height in communities.

  2. Global warming, population growth, and natural resources for food production.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, D

    1991-01-01

    Destruction of forests and the considerable burning of fossil fuels is directly causing the level of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases including methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere to rise. Population growth in the US and the world indirectly contributes to this global warming. This has led the majority of scientists interested in weather and climate to predict that the planet's temperature will increase from 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius by 2050. These forecasted climactic changes will most likely strongly affect crop production. Specifically these scientists expect the potential changes in temperature, moisture, carbon dioxide, and pests to decrease food production in North America. The degree of changes hinges on each crop and its environmental needs. If farmers begin using improved agricultural technology, the fall in crop yields can be somewhat counterbalanced. Even without global warming, however, agriculture in North America must embrace sensible ecological resource management practices such as conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. These sustainable agricultural practices would serve agriculture, farmers, the environment, and society. Agriculturalists, farmers, and society are already interested in sustainable agriculture. Still scientists must conduct more research on the multiple effects of potential global climate change on many different crops under various environmental conditions and on new technologies that farmers might use in agricultural production. We must cut down our consumption of fossil fuel, reduce deforestation, erase poverty, and protect our soil, water, and biological resources. The most important action we need to take, however, is to check population growth.

  3. Determining the potential productivity of food crops in controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    The quest to determine the maximum potential productivity of food crops is greatly benefitted by crop growth models. Many models have been developed to analyze and predict crop growth in the field, but it is difficult to predict biological responses to stress conditions. Crop growth models for the optimal environments of a Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS) can be highly predictive. This paper discusses the application of a crop growth model to CELSS; the model is used to evaluate factors limiting growth. The model separately evaluates the following four physiological processes: absorption of PPF by photosynthetic tissue, carbon fixation (photosynthesis), carbon use (respiration), and carbon partitioning (harvest index). These constituent processes determine potentially achievable productivity. An analysis of each process suggests that low harvest index is the factor most limiting to yield. PPF absorption by plant canopies and respiration efficiency are also of major importance. Research concerning productivity in a CELSS should emphasize: (1) the development of gas exchange techniques to continuously monitor plant growth rates and (2) environmental techniques to reduce plant height in communities.

  4. Agglomerates, smoke oxide particles, and carbon inclusions in condensed combustion products of an aluminized GAP-based propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Wen; Liu, Peijin; Yang, Wenjing

    2016-12-01

    In solid propellants, aluminum is widely used to improve the performance, however the condensed combustion products especially the large agglomerates generated from aluminum combustion significantly affect the combustion and internal flow inside the solid rocket motor. To clarify the properties of the condensed combustion products of aluminized propellants, a constant-pressure quench vessel was adopted to collect the combustion products. The morphology and chemical compositions of the collected products, were then studied by using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive (SEM-EDS) method. Various structures have been observed in the condensed combustion products. Apart from the typical agglomerates or smoke oxide particles observed before, new structures including the smoke oxide clusters, irregular agglomerates and carbon-inclusions are discovered and investigated. Smoke oxide particles have the highest amount in the products. The highly dispersed oxide particle is spherical with very smooth surface and is on the order of 1-2 μm, but due to the high temperature and long residence time, these small particles will aggregate into smoke oxide clusters which are much larger than the initial particles. Three types of spherical agglomerates have been found. As the ambient gas temperature is much higher than the boiling point of Al2O3, the condensation layer inside which the aluminum drop is burning would evaporate quickly, which result in the fact that few "hollow agglomerates" has been found compared to "cap agglomerates" and "solid agglomerates". Irregular agglomerates usually larger than spherical agglomerates. The formation of irregular agglomerates likely happens by three stages: deformation of spherical aluminum drops; combination of particles with various shape; finally production of irregular agglomerates. EDS results show the ratio of O to Al on the surface of agglomerates is lower in comparison to smoke oxide particles. C and O account for

  5. Sustainability of organic food production: challenges and innovations.

    PubMed

    Niggli, Urs

    2015-02-01

    The greatest challenge for agriculture is to reduce the trade-offs between productivity and long-term sustainability. Therefore, it is interesting to analyse organic agriculture which is a given set of farm practices that emphasise ecological sustainability. Organic agriculture can be characterised as being less driven by off-farm inputs and being better embedded in ecosystem functions. The literature on public goods and non-commodity outputs of organic farms is overwhelming. Most publications address the positive effects of organic farming on soil fertility, biodiversity maintenance and protection of the natural resources of soil, water and air. As a consequence of focusing on public goods, organic agriculture is less productive. Meta-analyses show that organic agriculture yields range between 0·75 and 0·8 of conventional agriculture. Best practice examples from disadvantaged sites and climate conditions show equal or, in the case of subsistence farming in Sub-Saharan Africa, higher productivity of organic agriculture. Hence, organic agriculture is likely to be a good model for productive and sustainable food production. Underfunding in R&D addressing specific bottlenecks of organic agriculture are the main cause for both crop and livestock yield gaps. Therefore, the potential for improving the performance of organic agriculture through agricultural research is huge. Although organic farming is a niche in most countries, it is at the verge of becoming mainstream in leading European countries. Consumer demand has grown over the past two decades and does not seem to be a limiting factor for the future development of organic agriculture.

  6. Peering into the secrets of food and agricultural co-products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Delilah; Williams, Tina; Glenn, Gregory; Pan, Zhongli; Orts, William; McHugh, Tara

    2010-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for understanding food contamination and directing product development of food and industrial products. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to eat. At the same time, these processed foods must be safe, high quality and maintain all or most of the nutritional value of the original whole foods. Minimally processed foods, is the phrase used to characterize these "new" foods. New techniques are needed which take advantage of minimal processing or processing which enhances the fresh properties and characteristics of whole foods while spending less time on food preparation. The added benefit coupled to less cooking time in an individual kitchen translates to an overall energy savings and reduces the carbon emissions to the environment. Food processing changes the microstructure, and therefore, the quality, texture and flavor, of the resulting food product. Additionally, there is the need to reduce waste, transportation costs and product loss during transportation and storage. Unlike food processing, structural changes are desirable in co-products as function follows form for food packaging films and boxes as well as for building materials and other industrial products. Thus, the standard materials testing procedures are coupled with SEM to provide direction in the development of products from agricultural residues or what would otherwise be considered waste materials. The use of agricultural residues reduces waste and adds value to a currently underutilized or unutilized product. The product might be biodegradable or compostable, thus reducing landfill requirements. Manufacturing industrial and packaging products from biological materials also reduces the amount of petroleum products currently standard in the industry.

  7. Screening for anti-nutritional compounds in complementary foods and food aid products for infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Roos, Nanna; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Hilmer; Rasmussen, Søren Kjaersgaard; Briend, André; Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    A range of compounds with negative nutritional impact - 'anti-nutrients' - are found in most plant foods. The contents of anti-nutrients in processed foods depend on the ingredients and processing. Anti-nutrients in complementary foods for children can have a negative impact on nutritional status. The aim of this study was to screen complementary foods from developing countries for the anti-nutritional compounds, phytate, polyphenols, inhibitors of trypsin and chymotrypsin, and lectins. Commercial products based on whole grain cereals were included as a 'worst-case' scenario for anti-nutrient exposure in Europe. Contents of minerals (iron, zinc and calcium), in which absorption or utilisation is affected by anti-nutrients, were analysed. Thirty-six products representing foods used in food aid programmes, local blended foods, fortified instant porridges and 'baby foods' were analysed. The content of minerals indicated that the fortification of a number of products did not meet the declared levels of iron, zinc and calcium. The phytate content ranged from 68 to 1536 mg/100 g, confirming a persistent problem of high levels of phytate in processed cereal- and legume-based products. The phytate : Fe molar ratio exceeded the recommended level of <1.0 in 32 of the 36 products. The total polyphenols varied from 1.3 to 9.3 mg gentisic acid equivalents g(-1) . Screening low-molecular weight soluble polyphenols may be more relevant in complementary foods than total polyphenolic compounds. Trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors and lectins were found in residual amounts in most products, indicating efficient degradation by heat processing. However, young infants and malnourished children may have reduced pancreatic function, and upper limits for residual trypsin inhibitors are needed.

  8. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production

    PubMed Central

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world. PMID:26061704

  9. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    PubMed

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world.

  10. The association between peer, parental influence and tobacco product features and earlier age of onset of regular smoking among adults in 27 European countries.

    PubMed

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Agaku, Israel T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2015-10-01

    Factors that influence smoking initiation and age of smoking onset are important considerations in tobacco control. We evaluated European Union (EU)-wide differences in the age of onset of regular smoking, and the potential role of peer, parental and tobacco product design features on the earlier onset of regular smoking among adults <40 years old in 27 EU countries. We analysed data from 4442 current and former smokers aged 15-39 years, collected for the Eurobarometer 77.1 survey (2012). Respondents reported their age at regular smoking onset and factors that influenced their decision to start smoking, including peer influence, parental influence and features of tobacco products. Multi-variable logistic regression, adjusted for age; geographic region; education; difficulty to pay bills; and gender, was used to assess the role of the various pro-tobacco influences on early onset of regular smoking (i.e. <18 years). Among ever smokers, the mean age of onset of regular smoking was 16.6 years, ranging from 15.8 to 18.8 years in member countries. 68.1% responded that they started smoking regularly when they were <18 years old. Ever smokers who reported they were influenced by peers (OR = 1.70; 95%CI 1.30-2.20) or parents (OR = 1.60; 95%CI 1.21-2.12) were more likely to have started smoking regularly <18 years old. No significant association between design and marketing features of tobacco products and an early initiation of regular smoking was observed (OR = 1.04; 95%CI 0.83-1.31). We identified major differences in smoking initiation patterns among EU countries, which may warrant different approaches in the prevention of tobacco use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Smoke Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  12. Local food in Iceland: identifying behavioral barriers to increased production and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ósk Halldórsdóttir, Þórhildur; Nicholas, Kimberly A.

    2016-11-01

    Increased production and consumption of local food may reduce the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts of industrialized and globalized food production. Here we examined potential barriers to increasing production and consumption of food produced in Iceland. First, we developed a new framework to address the behaviors of production and consumption simultaneously, to comprehensively analyze their potential barriers. We examined structural barriers by estimating the food production capacity of Iceland, and cultural and personal barriers through survey data on cultural norms and purchasing behavior from Matís, a research and development company. We found no structural barriers preventing Iceland from increasing production of local cereals, which would compliment current local production of meat and dairy and reduce reliance on imports, currently at 50% of the daily caloric intake. However, if food production became entirely local without changing the current mix of crops grown, there would be a 50% reduction in diversity (from 50 to 25 items in eight out of ten food categories). We did not identify any cultural barriers, as survey results demonstrated that consumers hold generally positive worldviews towards local food, with 88% satisfied with local food they had purchased. More than two-thirds of consumers regarded supporting the local farmer and considerations such as environmentally friendly production, fewer food miles, lower carbon footprint as important. However, they rated the local food they have access to as lower in meeting sustainability criteria, showing that they make justifications for not choosing local food in practice. This is a personal barrier to increased consumption of local food, and implies that marketing strategies and general knowledge connected to local food in Iceland might be improved. Although the results apply to the case of Iceland, the method of identifying behavioral barriers to change is applicable to other countries

  13. Enhancing processes for introduction, production, quality assurance, and delivery of US Title II food aid products.

    PubMed

    Schlossman, Nina; Webb, Patrick; Bagriansky, Jack; Johnson, Quentin; Rogers, Beatrice; Tilahun, Jessica; Masterson, Amelia Reese

    2011-09-01

    Enacted in 1950, Public Law 480 (PL480) dramatically increased the volume of U.S.food aid and the scope of interventions it supports. Billions of dollars have been invested, both to enhance the diets of chronically undernourished people in development settings, and to support nutritional needs during conflicts and natural disasters. Review the institutional processes-from procurement to delivery-that support this programming. We examined the systems that govern and oversee the many components of food aid programming and the extent to which they support a whole-of-government, multi-agency food aid agenda. We conducted consultations with US government employees and contractors, academics, industry representatives, donor agency staff United Nations personnel, and field-level food aid programming technical staff from many countries. A survey of USAID implementing partners conducted among 64 responding offices in 40 countries provided data on the use and effectiveness of enriched, fortified, or blended Title II commodities, the use of new commodities, and related procurement or logistics aspects. Expert panels provided input and feedback throughout the process. We identified potential improvements to overall delivery and cost-effectiveness of USAID programming to better meet the nutrition needs of beneficiaries. Options include changes in product formulation, the range of products provided, and/or the modes of product approval, processing, procurement, and distribution. This research points to several improvements in processes related to food aid: 1) Establish an interagency committee to oversee all government interests in the food aid agenda through an ongoing review process. 2) Enhance processes and quality assurance along the product value chain including the importance of effective interaction with the private sector to incorporate industry best practices and create public-private partnerships to promote product innovations. 3) Strengthen the evidence base for

  14. Are the Dutch acquainted with and willing to try healthful food products? The role of food neophobia.

    PubMed

    Schickenberg, B; van Assema, P; Brug, J; de Vries, N K

    2008-05-01

    To assess participants' acquaintance with and willingness to try healthful food alternatives, and to test the psychometric properties of an adapted Dutch version of the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS) in order to study the role of food neophobia in this context. A cross-sectional study incorporating two web-based questionnaires, including a retest of the FNS one week later. Measures included acquaintance with and willingness to try 15 healthful food alternatives, level of food neophobia, level of education, gender and age. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to study associations between demographics and level of food neophobia as well as associations between level of food neophobia and acquaintance with and willingness to try the healthful alternatives. The study was conducted in The Netherlands using a representative Internet panel. A total of 326 participants aged 18-50 years participated. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the FNS version used were sufficient. On average participants were acquainted with 7.9 of the products and modestly willing to try the products. Lowly educated participants had significantly higher FNS scores than highly educated participants (beta = -0.23, P < 0.01). FNS score was significantly associated with acquaintance with (beta = -0.21, P < 0.001) and willingness to try the healthful alternatives (beta = -0.26, P < 0.001). Further research into the role of food neophobia is warranted when wanting to stimulate the integration of healthful alternative products in the daily diet, especially among persons with low education.

  15. Research report: Charcoal type used for hookah smoking influences CO production.

    PubMed

    Medford, Marlon A; Gasier, Heath G; Hexdall, Eric; Moffat, Andrew D; Freiberger, John J; Moon, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    A hookah smoker who was treated for severe carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen reported using a different type of charcoal prior to hospital admission, i.e., quick-light charcoal. This finding led to a study aimed at determining whether CO production differs between charcoals commonly used for hookah smoking, natural and quick-light. Our hypothesis was that quick-light charcoal produces significantly more CO than natural charcoal. A medium-sized hookah, activated charcoal filter, calibrated syringe, CO gas analyzer and infrared thermometer were assembled in series. A single 9-10 g briquette of either natural or quick-light charcoal was placed atop the hookah bowl and ignited. CO output (ppm) and temperature (degrees C) were measured in three-minute intervals over 90 minutes. The mean CO levels produced by quick-light charcoal over 90 minutes was significantly higher (3728 ± 2028) compared to natural charcoal (1730 ± 501 ppm, p = 0.016). However, the temperature was significantly greater when burning natural charcoal (292 ± 87) compared to quick-light charcoal (247 ± 92 degrees C, p = 0.013). The high levels of CO produced when using quick-light charcoals may be contributing to the increase in reported hospital admissions for severe CO poisoning.

  16. Feasibility of producing a range of food products from a limited range of undifferenitiated major food components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Kamarei, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    This report reviews current knowledge associated with producing safe, nutritious, and acceptable foods from a limited number of source independent macronutrients. The advantages, and disadvantages, of such an approach for use by space crews are discussed. The production of macronutrients from a variety of sources is covered in detail. The sources analyzed are: wheat, soybeans, algae (3 genera), glycerol, and digested cellulose. Fabrication of food from the above macronutrient sources is discussed and particular attention is addressed to nutrition, acceptability and reliability. The processes and concepts involved in food fabrication and macronutrient production are also considered for utilization in a space environment.

  17. Quit Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quit Smoking Print This Topic En español Quit Smoking Browse Sections The Basics Overview Secondhand Smoke How ... to be active with your family and friends. Smoking hurts almost every part of the body. Smoking ...

  18. Knowledge and technologies for sustainable intensification of food production.

    PubMed

    Flavell, Richard

    2010-11-30

    Knowledge and technologies will always continue to be developed, as they have always, to bring new efficiencies to plant breeding and crop production, which suffer from many constraints and inefficiencies. These constraints need to be overcome throughout the world to help increase the rate of improvements in food production and intensify production on less land. The recent discoveries and technical innovations that are revealing the full complement of genes in crops, the ability to define genetic variation and use DNA markers to follow chromosome segments with known functions through breeding programmes are leading to new efficiencies in breeding. The ability to isolate and redesign genes and transfer them into different plants also offers the breeder solutions to several key limitations. These benefits are described together with some of the current issues associated with the use of transgenes. Generation after generation can look forward to new knowledge and technologies, many of which we cannot know at present, and thus there is no reason to be despondent about meeting future goals, if the right decisions and investments are made globally and locally. These decisions include putting optimal use of land at the top of the world agenda to sustain both the planet and an adequate quality of life for mankind. As always has been the case, more investments are urgently required into the dissemination of successful technologies in crop breeding and production, into teaching and training as well as into innovative research. Failure to invest adequately in innovative technologies will leave future decision-makers and citizens with fewer options and greatly enhance the risks for mankind and a healthy planet. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Carotenoids and retinoids in Finnish foods: dairy products and eggs.

    PubMed

    Ollilainen, V; Heinonen, M; Linkola, E; Varo, P; Koivistoinen, P

    1989-09-01

    As part of an overall composition study of Finnish foods, the carotenoid and retinoid content of 20 dairy product samples and eggs were determined by HPLC. The total beta-carotene (all-trans beta-carotene plus 15-cis beta-carotene) was quantitated for dairy products. For egg and egg yolk, lutein content was also determined. Only traces of lycopene, cryptoxanthin, and alpha-carotene were present. All-trans retinol and 13-cis retinol were the major retinoids in dairy products. Small amounts of 9-cis, 11-cis, and 9,11-cis retinols were found. High values of both retinol and beta-carotene were found in full fat cheeses and whipping cream: from 179.0 (cheese, Edam-type) to 318.7 micrograms/100 g (whipping cream) and from 86.7 (cheese, Edam-type) to 186.5 micrograms/100 g (whipping cream) for all-trans retinol and total beta-carotene, respectively. The retinol content averaged 16.3, 32.6, and 52.2 and that of beta-carotene 9.6, 16.7, and 3.0 micrograms/100 g in milk (1.9% fat), milk (3.9% fat), and human milk, respectively. The major pigment in eggs and egg yolk was lutein, 619.5 micrograms/100 g in eggs and 1575.8 micrograms/100 g in egg yolk. According to this study, at the present level of consumption in Finland, milk, milk products (excluding butter), and eggs result in a daily intake of about 350 retinol equivalents, and consequently, are a major source of vitamin A.

  20. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  1. A Sushi Science Module in Food Production Systems and Aquatic Resource Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livengood, Elisa J.; Chapman, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    No other food industry depends so heavily on a wild caught resource than those associated with aquatic food products. Domestication of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic resources production has lagged behind other terrestrial livestock products; however, demand for these aquatic natural resources has continued to increase dramatically. Teaching…

  2. A Sushi Science Module in Food Production Systems and Aquatic Resource Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livengood, Elisa J.; Chapman, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    No other food industry depends so heavily on a wild caught resource than those associated with aquatic food products. Domestication of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic resources production has lagged behind other terrestrial livestock products; however, demand for these aquatic natural resources has continued to increase dramatically. Teaching…

  3. US Adults' Perceptions of the Harmful Effects During Pregnancy of Using Electronic Vapor Products Versus Smoking Cigarettes, Styles Survey, 2015.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly H; Tong, Van T; Marynak, Kristy L; King, Brian A

    2016-12-22

    Research suggests aerosol from electronic vapor products (EVPs) has fewer harmful constituents than conventional cigarette smoke. Even so, EVPs and other nicotine-containing products are not safe to use during pregnancy. We examined perceptions among US adults regarding harm in using EVPs rather than smoking cigarettes during pregnancy. Data came from the 2015 Styles Survey, an Internet panel survey of a sample of US adults aged 18 years or older (N = 4,127). Perceived harm was assessed by asking respondents whether using EVPs was less, equally, or more harmful for pregnant women than smoking cigarettes. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate perceived harm overall and by sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco-use status. Perceived harm was assessed among all adults, women of reproductive age (18-44 years, n = 820), and women of nonreproductive age (≥45 years, n = 1,398). Among all adults, 11.1% believed using EVPs during pregnancy was less harmful than smoking conventional cigarettes, 51.0% believed it was equally harmful, 11.6% believed it was more harmful, and 26.2% did not know. Prevalence of perception of less harm, by demographic category, was greatest among adults aged 18 to 24 years, men, non-Hispanic whites, adults with less than a high school diploma, current EVP users, and current cigarette smokers (P < .05). Prevalence of perception of less harm was greater among women of reproductive age (9.6%) than among those of nonreproductive age (7.9%) (P < .05). US adults have varying levels of perceptions about the harms of EVP use versus cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Efforts are warranted to prevent nicotine exposure during pregnancy and to educate adults on the dangers of using any form of tobacco during pregnancy, including EVPs.

  4. US Adults’ Perceptions of the Harmful Effects During Pregnancy of Using Electronic Vapor Products Versus Smoking Cigarettes, Styles Survey, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Van T.; Marynak, Kristy L.; King, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research suggests aerosol from electronic vapor products (EVPs) has fewer harmful constituents than conventional cigarette smoke. Even so, EVPs and other nicotine-containing products are not safe to use during pregnancy. We examined perceptions among US adults regarding harm in using EVPs rather than smoking cigarettes during pregnancy. Methods Data came from the 2015 Styles Survey, an Internet panel survey of a sample of US adults aged 18 years or older (N = 4,127). Perceived harm was assessed by asking respondents whether using EVPs was less, equally, or more harmful for pregnant women than smoking cigarettes. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate perceived harm overall and by sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco-use status. Perceived harm was assessed among all adults, women of reproductive age (18–44 years, n = 820), and women of nonreproductive age (≥45 years, n = 1,398). Results Among all adults, 11.1% believed using EVPs during pregnancy was less harmful than smoking conventional cigarettes, 51.0% believed it was equally harmful, 11.6% believed it was more harmful, and 26.2% did not know. Prevalence of perception of less harm, by demographic category, was greatest among adults aged 18 to 24 years, men, non-Hispanic whites, adults with less than a high school diploma, current EVP users, and current cigarette smokers (P < .05). Prevalence of perception of less harm was greater among women of reproductive age (9.6%) than among those of nonreproductive age (7.9%) (P < .05). Conclusion US adults have varying levels of perceptions about the harms of EVP use versus cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Efforts are warranted to prevent nicotine exposure during pregnancy and to educate adults on the dangers of using any form of tobacco during pregnancy, including EVPs. PMID:28005528

  5. Potential of selected infant food formulas for production of Bacillus cereus emetic toxin, cereulide.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Ranad; Andersson, Maria A; Apetroaie, Camelia; Schulz, Anja; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Ollilainen, Veli-Matti; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2006-04-01

    Cereulide producing Bacillus cereus was isolated from randomly chosen commercial infant foods. The cereulide production in infant food formulas was investigated. When the reconstituted foods were inoculated with >10(5) cfu ml(-1) of cereulide producing B. cereus, 2 to 200 microg of cereulide per 100 ml of food accumulated during 24 h of non-refrigerated storage. The amount of cereulide measured in the foods by the accurate chemical assay (LC-MS) matched with that found by sperm micro assay, proving the cereulide was the sole heat stable toxin in the foods and present in its toxic form. The infant formulas containing both cereal and dairy ingredients were the most supportive for cereulide production. Cereulide accumulation was affected by the infant food composition as well as by the handling of the food. Diluting the reconstituted food with water resulted in increased toxin production expressed as mug per volume. More cereulide was accumulated when the food was incubated stationary compared with moderate shaking. The amount of cereulide accumulated within 24 h at room temperature per 100 ml of cereal and dairy or in rice-nondairy reconstituted infant formulas, inoculated with >or=10(5) cfu ml(-1) of B. cereus strain F4810/72, was higher or similar to the amounts reported for foods implicated in emetic type of food poisonings. Thus mishandling and temperature abuse of infant foods may cause food poisoning when emetic B. cereus is present.

  6. Agroecology and the Sustainable Production of Food and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The silvopastoral, agricultural system of the montado in Southern Portugal is an example of the self-organization of an agroecological system adapted to the climate and soil conditions of the Mediterranean basin. This system with its consistent production of food, fiber, and ecosystem services along with its concomitant rural social organization has been sustained in the region for over 1000 years. However, the system has been gradually decreasing in extent since the 19th century and its rate of decline has accelerated since the 1980s. The causes of this decline have been traced in descending order of importance to land managment choices, spatial factors and environmental factors. In addition, past studies have shown that there is an optimum livestock support capacity for maintaining the health of the montado agroecosystem. In this study, we used the results of an emergy evaluation of a cattle farm as part of a montado agroecosystem to examine the effects of the European Union’s (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) on the viability of both cattle rearing and the long term regional sustainability of montado agroecosystems. We found that the CAP and its two pillars for providing subsidies, (1) Common Market Organization (CMO) and (2) Rural Development Policy (RDP) are complex and take into account many aspects of prices and markets for particular products, e.g., beef and veal (CMO) and sustainable rural development, e.g., silvopastoral agroecosystems (RDP). How

  7. Agroecology and the Sustainable Production of Food and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The silvopastoral, agricultural system of the montado in Southern Portugal is an example of the self-organization of an agroecological system adapted to the climate and soil conditions of the Mediterranean basin. This system with its consistent production of food, fiber, and ecosystem services along with its concomitant rural social organization has been sustained in the region for over 1000 years. However, the system has been gradually decreasing in extent since the 19th century and its rate of decline has accelerated since the 1980s. The causes of this decline have been traced in descending order of importance to land managment choices, spatial factors and environmental factors. In addition, past studies have shown that there is an optimum livestock support capacity for maintaining the health of the montado agroecosystem. In this study, we used the results of an emergy evaluation of a cattle farm as part of a montado agroecosystem to examine the effects of the European Union’s (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) on the viability of both cattle rearing and the long term regional sustainability of montado agroecosystems. We found that the CAP and its two pillars for providing subsidies, (1) Common Market Organization (CMO) and (2) Rural Development Policy (RDP) are complex and take into account many aspects of prices and markets for particular products, e.g., beef and veal (CMO) and sustainable rural development, e.g., silvopastoral agroecosystems (RDP). How

  8. A functional food product for the management of weight.

    PubMed

    Bell, Stacey J; Goodrick, G Ken

    2002-03-01

    More than half of Americans have a body mass index of 25 kg/m2 or more, which classifies them as overweight or obese. Overweight or obesity is strongly associated with comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, gall bladder disease, and sleep apnea. Clearly, this is a national health concern, and although about 30 to 40% of the obese claim that they are trying to lose weight or maintain weight after weight loss, current therapies appear to have little effect. None of the current popular diets are working, and there is room for innovation. With the advancing science of nutrition, several nutrients - low-glycemic-index carbohydrates, 5-hydroxytryptophan, green tea extract, and chromium - have been identified that may promote weight loss. The first two nutrients decrease appetite, green tea increases the 24-h energy expenditure, and chromium promotes the composition of the weight lost to be fat rather than lean tissue. These have been assembled in efficacious doses into a new functional food product and described in this review. The product is undergoing clinical testing; each component has already been shown to promote weight loss in clinical trials.

  9. [Residual chemicals in silicone rubber products for food contact use].

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Y; Nakajima, A; Mutsuga, M; Yamada, T; Maitani, T

    2001-10-01

    The residues of additives and other chemicals in 23 kinds of silicone rubber products for food contact use, including nipples, packing and spatulas, were investigated by GC/MS. The packing and spatulas contained 80-480 micrograms/g of BHT, 60-5,830 micrograms/g of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and 60-80 micrograms/g of dibutyl phthalate, while the nipples contained no additives. All of the samples contained 15 to 20 peaks of polydimethylcyclosiloxanes. Dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) to tetratriacomethylcycloheptadecasiloxane (D17) were confirmed, and other larger siloxanes up to pentacontamethylcyclopentacosasiloxane (D25) were estimated. A rough estimate of the total cyclosiloxane content was 3,310-14,690 micrograms/g. They might be mainly unreacted materials or by-products, and some of them might be additives. Based on the migration test, no chemicals were released into 20% ethanol at 60 degrees C for 30 min, though DEHP and the polydimethylcyclosiloxanes were released into n-heptane at 25 degrees C for 60 min.

  10. Urinary biomarkers of smokers' exposure to tobacco smoke constituents in tobacco products assessment: a fit for purpose approach.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Evan O; Minet, Emmanuel; McEwan, Michael

    2013-09-01

    There are established guidelines for bioanalytical assay validation and qualification of biomarkers. In this review, they were applied to a panel of urinary biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure as part of a "fit for purpose" approach to the assessment of smoke constituents exposure in groups of tobacco product smokers. Clinical studies have allowed the identification of a group of tobacco exposure biomarkers demonstrating a good doseresponse relationship whilst others such as dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid and 2-carboxy-1-methylethylmercapturic acid - did not reproducibly discriminate smokers and non-smokers. Furthermore, there are currently no agreed common reference standards to measure absolute concentrations and few inter-laboratory trials have been performed to establish consensus values for interim standards. Thus, we also discuss in this review additional requirements for the generation of robust data on urinary biomarkers, including toxicant metabolism and disposition, method validation and qualification for use in tobacco products comparison studies.

  11. Urinary biomarkers of smokers’ exposure to tobacco smoke constituents in tobacco products assessment: a fit for purpose approach

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Evan O.; Minet, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    There are established guidelines for bioanalytical assay validation and qualification of biomarkers. In this review, they were applied to a panel of urinary biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure as part of a “fit for purpose” approach to the assessment of smoke constituents exposure in groups of tobacco product smokers. Clinical studies have allowed the identification of a group of tobacco exposure biomarkers demonstrating a good doseresponse relationship whilst others such as dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid and 2-carboxy-1-methylethylmercapturic acid – did not reproducibly discriminate smokers and non-smokers. Furthermore, there are currently no agreed common reference standards to measure absolute concentrations and few inter-laboratory trials have been performed to establish consensus values for interim standards. Thus, we also discuss in this review additional requirements for the generation of robust data on urinary biomarkers, including toxicant metabolism and disposition, method validation and qualification for use in tobacco products comparison studies. PMID:23902266

  12. Smoking Costs World $1.4 Trillion a Year in Disease, Lost Productivity

    MedlinePlus

    ... burden, the researchers said. "Smoking imposes a heavy economic burden throughout the world, particularly in Europe and ... researchers traced nearly 40 percent of the global economic toll to low- and middle-income countries. Of ...

  13. Quit-Smoking Products: Boost Your Chance of Quitting for Good

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a type of antidepressant. An extended-release form of bupropion is approved for smoking cessation. Unlike nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion doesn't contain nicotine. It's thought to decrease tobacco cravings and withdrawal symptoms by ...

  14. Product Quality Assurance Project for Teaching of Food Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    Two of the challenges in teaching Food Analysis are bringing relevance to the various chemical and physical analyses discussed and exposing students to the realities of quality assurance in the food industry. In a project to help meet those objectives, each student, with the assistance of a "resource person" from the food industry, completes the…

  15. Product Quality Assurance Project for Teaching of Food Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    Two of the challenges in teaching Food Analysis are bringing relevance to the various chemical and physical analyses discussed and exposing students to the realities of quality assurance in the food industry. In a project to help meet those objectives, each student, with the assistance of a "resource person" from the food industry, completes the…

  16. Cigarette smoking, use of other tobacco products and stomach cancer mortality in US adults: The Cancer Prevention Study II.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ann; Thun, Michael J; Henley, S Jane; Jacobs, Eric J; McCullough, Marjorie L; Calle, Eugenia E

    2002-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of stomach cancer in many studies but there are limited data on this relationship in women and on risk associated with use of tobacco products other than cigarettes. We examined stomach cancer death rates in relation to cigarette smoking in women and use of cigarette, cigar, pipe, or smokeless tobacco in men in a nationwide prospective mortality study in the United States (US). Cohort follow-up from 1982-96 identified 996 and 509 stomach cancer deaths among 467,788 men and 588,053 women, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to estimate rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using non-users of tobacco as the referent group. Multivariate-adjusted RRs were the highest for men who currently smoked cigars (RR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.49-3.51) or cigarettes (RR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.75-2.67) and both increased with smoking duration. Women who currently (RR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.18-1.88) or formerly (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.08-1.71) smoked cigarettes were at significantly increased risk, as were men who formerly smoked cigarettes (RR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.28-1.88), or currently (RR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.40-2.35) or formerly (RR: 1.57, 95% CI = 1.22-2.03) used more than one type of tobacco. Men who reported a history of chronic indigestion or gastroduodenal ulcer had substantially higher mortality rates associated with current cigarette (RR = 3.45, 95% CI = 2.05-5.80) or cigar (RR = 8.93, 95% CI = 4.02-19.90) smoking, as did men who were current aspirin users. If causal, the estimated proportion of stomach cancer deaths attributable to tobacco use would be 28% in US men and 14% in women. We conclude that prolonged use of tobacco products is associated with increased stomach cancer mortality in men and women. The accumulated evidence from this and other studies support reconsidering stomach cancer as a tobacco-related cancer.

  17. Safety assessment and public concern for genetically modified food products: the European view.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Bevan E B

    2002-01-01

    The safety assessment for marketing purposes of genetically modified (GM) foods in the 15 Member States of the European Union (EU) is based on the Novel Foods and Novel Food Ingredients Regulation adopted in May 1997. Before a GM food can be approved under the Regulation, it must satisfy three criteria: Gm food must be safe, it must not mislead the consumer and it must be nutritionally adequate. The EU Scientific Committee on Food has published a set of guidelines describing the type of information expected from a company in support of an application for approval of a GM food or food ingredient. Despite this rigorous procedure and there being no evidence of harm resulting from the consumption of GM foods worldwide, there is essentially no market in the EU for such products at present. Possible reasons for this are discussed and the view put forward that the market for GM foods will change only when there are more clearly perceived consumer benefits.

  18. Vitamins A and C, calcium, fruit, and dairy products are limited in food pantries.

    PubMed

    Akobundu, Ucheoma O; Cohen, Nancy L; Laus, Mary J; Schulte, Marsha J; Soussloff, Margaret N

    2004-05-01

    Food pantries serve over 19 million Americans, yet little is known about the nutritional quality of foods distributed in pantry bags. Foods in bags from 133 clients from 19 pantry sites were itemized, and a mean site value for nutrient and food group content was calculated. If an individual consumed the pantry foods according to the Food Guide Pyramid, the bag would contain sufficient bread group foods to last approximately 7 days; vegetable and meat/protein group foods would last about 5 days, and fruit and milk group foods would last only approximately 3 days. Foods distributed were of adequate or high nutrient density for protein, fiber, iron, and folate, but were of low nutrient density for calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C. Creative efforts are needed for pantries to procure, store, and distribute additional fruit, dairy products, and other sources of vitamins A and C and calcium.

  19. A Data Driven Network Approach to Rank Countries Production Diversity and Food Specialization.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chengyi; Carr, Joel; Suweis, Samir

    2016-01-01

    The easy access to large data sets has allowed for leveraging methodology in network physics and complexity science to disentangle patterns and processes directly from the data, leading to key insights in the behavior of systems. Here we use country specific food production data to study binary and weighted topological properties of the bipartite country-food production matrix. This country-food production matrix can be: 1) transformed into overlap matrices which embed information regarding shared production of products among countries, and or shared countries for individual products, 2) identify subsets of countries which produce similar commodities or subsets of commodities shared by a given country allowing for visualization of correlations in large networks, and 3) used to rank country fitness (the ability to produce a diverse array of products weighted on the type of food commodities) and food specialization (quantified on the number of countries producing a specific food product weighted on their fitness). Our results show that, on average, countries with high fitness produce both low and high specializion food commodities, whereas nations with low fitness tend to produce a small basket of diverse food products, typically comprised of low specializion food commodities.

  20. A Data Driven Network Approach to Rank Countries Production Diversity and Food Specialization

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Chengyi; Carr, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The easy access to large data sets has allowed for leveraging methodology in network physics and complexity science to disentangle patterns and processes directly from the data, leading to key insights in the behavior of systems. Here we use country specific food production data to study binary and weighted topological properties of the bipartite country-food production matrix. This country-food production matrix can be: 1) transformed into overlap matrices which embed information regarding shared production of products among countries, and or shared countries for individual products, 2) identify subsets of countries which produce similar commodities or subsets of commodities shared by a given country allowing for visualization of correlations in large networks, and 3) used to rank country fitness (the ability to produce a diverse array of products weighted on the type of food commodities) and food specialization (quantified on the number of countries producing a specific food product weighted on their fitness). Our results show that, on average, countries with high fitness produce both low and high specializion food commodities, whereas nations with low fitness tend to produce a small basket of diverse food products, typically comprised of low specializion food commodities. PMID:27832118