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Sample records for smoking food products

  1. Chemical characterization of commercial liquid smoke products

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Naim; Oliveira, Alexandra CM; Himelbloom, Brian H; Leigh, Mary Beth; Crapo, Charles A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine important chemical characteristics of a full-strength liquid smoke, Code 10-Poly, and three refined liquid smoke products (AM-3, AM-10 and 1291) commercially available (Kerry Ingredients and Flavors, Monterey, TN). The pH of the products were significantly different (P < 0.05) and ranged from 2.3 (Code 10-Poly) to 5.7 (1291). The pH was inversely correlated with titratable acidity (R2 = 0.87), which was significantly different (P < 0.05) among products ranging from 10.3% acetic acid (Code 10-Poly) to 0.7% acetic acid (1291). Total phenol content was quantified using the Gibbs reaction; the only liquid smoke containing appreciable level of phenolic compounds was Code 10-Poly at 3.22 mg mL−1. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of liquid smoke dichloromethane extracts revealed that carbonyl-containing compounds were major constituents of all products, in which 1-hydroxy-2-butanone, 2(5H)-furanone, propanal and cyclopentenone predominated. Organic acids were detected by GC-MS in all extracts and correlated positively (R2 = 0.98) with titratable acidity. The GC-MS data showed that phenolic compounds constituted a major portion of Code 10-Poly, and were detected only in trace quantities in 1291. The refined liquid smokes had lighter color, lower acidity, and reduced level of carbonyl-containing compounds and organic acids. Our study revealed major differences in pH, titratable acidity, total phenol content, color and chemical make-up of the full-strength and refined liquid smokes. The three refined liquid smoke products studied have less flavor and color active compounds, when compared with the full-strength product. Furthermore, the three refined products studied have unique chemical characteristics and will impart specific sensorial properties to food systems. Understanding the chemical composition of liquid smokes, be these refined or full-strength products, is an important step to

  2. Functionality of liquid smoke as an all-natural antimicrobial in food preservation.

    PubMed

    Lingbeck, Jody M; Cordero, Paola; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2014-06-01

    The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas.

  3. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Workers in Accommodation and Food Services--United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Syamlal, Girija; Jamal, Ahmed; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2015-07-31

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. One of the Healthy People 2020 objectives calls for reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12% (objective TU-1.1). Despite progress in reducing smoking prevalence over the past several decades, nearly one in five U.S. adults, including millions of workers, still smoke cigarettes. During 2004-2010, nearly one fifth (19.6%) of U.S. working adults aged ≥18 years smoked cigarettes, and of all the industry sectors, current smoking prevalence among the accommodation and food services sector workers (30%) was the highest. CDC analyzed National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for 2011-2013 to estimate current cigarette smoking prevalence among adults working in the accommodation and food services sector, and found that these workers had higher cigarette smoking prevalence (25.9%) than all other workers (17.3%). Among workers in accommodation and food services sector, the highest smoking prevalences were observed among males, non-Hispanic whites, those aged 25-44 years, those with a high school diploma or a General Educational Development (GED) certificate and no college education, those with an annual family income <$35,000, those with no health insurance, and those working in the food services and drinking places industry. These results indicate a need to better understand the reasons for higher smoking prevalence observed among accommodation and food services workers (e.g., workplace culture), so that appropriate intervention strategies can be developed and implemented. Evidence suggests that smoke-free worksites and workplace cessation programs, including comprehensive worksite smoke-free policies, health promotion, access to smoking cessation programs, and increasing the cost of tobacco products, can substantially reduce smoking among workers.

  4. 76 FR 50226 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... tobacco products and tobacco smoke. This information will assist the Agency in establishing a list...

  5. Smoking Abstinence, Eating Style, and Food Intake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joanne; Hall, Sharon M.

    1988-01-01

    Administered the Eating Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to smoking subjects assigned to cigarette abstinence or to continued smoking. Found abstinent smokers with high Disinhibition Scale scores overate more than did nonabstinent smokers or abstinent smokers with lower scores when participating in a subsequent ice cream tasting…

  6. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  7. 77 FR 20034 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Established List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Established List AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; establishment of a list. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is establishing a list of harmful...

  8. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  9. Changes in Food Intake and Activity after Quitting Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated changes in food intake and activity levels among 95 subjects who quit smoking. Found significant increases in calories, sucrose, and fats 2 weeks after quitting. Total sugars changes were less consistent. Activity levels did not change significantly. At week 26, caloric intake for abstinent women was approximately equal to baseline…

  10. Deeming Tobacco Products To Be Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as Amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Restrictions on the Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Required Warning Statements for Tobacco Products. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to deem products meeting the statutory definition of "tobacco product,'' except accessories of the newly deemed tobacco products, to be subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). The Tobacco Control Act provides FDA authority to regulate cigarettes, cigarette tobacco, roll-your-own tobacco, smokeless tobacco, and any other tobacco products that the Agency by regulation deems to be subject to the law. With this final rule, FDA is extending the Agency's "tobacco product'' authorities in the FD&C Act to all other categories of products that meet the statutory definition of "tobacco product" in the FD&C Act, except accessories of such newly deemed tobacco products. This final rule also prohibits the sale of "covered tobacco products" to individuals under the age of 18 and requires the display of health warnings on cigarette tobacco, roll-your own tobacco, and covered tobacco product packages and in advertisements. FDA is taking this action to reduce the death and disease from tobacco products. In accordance with the Tobacco Control Act, we consider and intend the extension of our authorities over tobacco products and the various requirements and prohibitions established by this rule to be severable.

  11. Role of abstinence and visual cues on food and smoking craving.

    PubMed

    Alsene, K M; Li, Y; Chaverneff, F; de Wit, H

    2003-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship between cravings for food and cravings for cigarettes by presenting smoking-related or food-related visual cues to smokers who were either smoking-deprived or food-deprived. Fifteen regular cigarette smokers participated in this four-session, within-subject study in which they rated their craving for cigarettes and craving for food under four conditions: after abstaining from smoking, after abstaining from eating, after abstaining from both smoking and eating, or after no abstinence. We found that before presentation of the cues, overnight smoking abstinence increased craving for cigarettes, and overnight food abstinence increased craving for food. In each condition, presentation of cues further increased craving for the object of deprivation: smoking cues further increased craving for cigarettes after smoking abstinence, and food cues further increased craving for food after abstaining from food. Smoking abstinence did not affect craving for food, but food abstinence modestly increased smoking craving. These results indicate that craving for cigarettes or food is specifically increased by both deprivation from the substance and by presentation of substance-related cues.

  12. Integrated wetlands for food production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ray Zhuangrui; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-07-01

    The widespread use of compound pelleted feeds and chemical fertilizers in modern food production contribute to a vast amount of residual nutrients into the production system and adjacent ecosystem are major factors causing eutrophication. Furthermore, the extensive development and application of chemical compounds (such as chemical pesticides, disinfectants and hormones used in enhancing productivity) in food production process are hazardous to the ecosystems, as well as human health. These unsustainable food production patterns cannot sustain human living in the long run. Wetlands are perceived as self-decontamination ecosystems with high productivities. This review gives an overview about wetlands which are being integrated with food production processes, focusing on aquaculture.

  13. Cigarette Smoking Among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Young Adults in Association With Food Insecurity and Other Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tsoh, Janice Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low socioeconomic status is associated with high rates of cigarette smoking, and socioeconomic differences in cigarette smoking tend to emerge during young adulthood. To further our understanding of socioeconomic differences in smoking among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking, with attention to multiple socioeconomic indicators that have not been examined in this population. Methods We analyzed data from the 2011–2012 California Health Interview Survey. The analytic sample consisted of young adults aged 18–30 years who were considered socioeconomically disadvantaged as measured by education and poverty. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with smoking status in this group, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine correlates of smoking frequency. Results In this sample (N = 1,511; 48% female, 66% Hispanic/Latino, 18% non-Hispanic white), 39.7% reported experiencing food insecurity in the past year. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher among young adults who reported being food insecure (26.9%) than among those who reported being food secure (16.4%). Past-year food insecurity was significantly associated with current smoking, independent of sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol use. Specifically, food insecurity was significantly associated with daily but not nondaily smoking. Conclusion Socioeconomically disadvantaged young adults with food insecurity may be considered a high-risk group with respect to cigarette smoking. Efforts to reduce tobacco-related health disparities should address diverse sources of socioeconomic influences, including experiences of food insecurity. PMID:26766849

  14. Analysis of Mount Atlas mastic smoke: a potential food preservative.

    PubMed

    Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Ghasemi, Younes

    2010-09-01

    Pistacia terebinthus L. smoke has been used traditionally in Iran as disinfectant and air purifier. Smoke was collected by a simple method, and the chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the smoke were analyzed. The chemical constituents of the smoke were alpha-pinene (65.1%), limonene (11.5%) and allo-ocimene (2.8%). The non polar phase of smoke noticeably inhibited the growth of different microorganisms. MIC test shows that non polar fraction of smoke can inhibit the growth of some bacteria. The results indicating that the properties of the smoke as a flavoring and preservative agent could be a potential subject for future studies.

  15. Use of iodized salt in processed Philippine food products.

    PubMed

    Azanza, P; Cariaso, K; Dela Cerna, M C; de Ocampo, C; Galvez, F; Moises, M; Pujanes, K

    1998-06-01

    The effects of iodized salt use on the quality of processed Philippine food products were evaluated. Samples for the study included dried-salted and smoked fish products, nitrite-cured pork, and fermented plain and flavored shrimp pastes. Generally, no significant differences were detected between the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the test products prepared with iodized and unfortified NaCl salts. The salting process in each food operation significantly increased the iodine content of the test products. However, subsequent losses in the absorbed iodine were recorded due to the boiling, smoking, drying, fermenting and heating processes in the different operations. It was recommended that studies be undertaken on the addition of iodine to semi-processed or completely processed food products to lessen iodine losses.

  16. Benzo(a)pyrene penetration on a smoked meat product during smoking time.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, E; Rendueles, M; Díaz, M

    2014-01-01

    The Codex Alimentarius gives recommendations to prevent carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (represented by benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)) contamination during processing of meat products, including the control of smoking time. The influence of direct smoking time (0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days) on the relationship between the BaP and moisture content of a typical Spanish smoked meat product called chorizo and the mechanism of BaP penetration and water release from four different depths in the product was studied. Chorizo was studied from the Principality of Asturias, a location never before tested. An analytical method was developed for this purpose consisting of PAH extraction assisted by sonication followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample clean-up and analytical determination using GC-MS. Results show that an increase in smoking time produced contradictory and independent effects on the moisture and BaP content (µg kg⁻¹) of chorizos. The moisture content decreased from 49.9% to 31.3%. On the other hand, the BaP content increased from less than 0.24 µg kg⁻¹ to 0.75 µg kg⁻¹, finally stabilising after 5 days of smoking. After this time, the natural pores of the casing could be blocked by the large size tar particles from smoke, preventing the continued penetration of PAHs. The BaP content decreased and the moisture content increased progressively from the casing to the centre of the meat product. BaP mainly accumulated in the smoked casing, being four times in excess of the legal limit. This paper analyses the mechanism for preventing PAHs contamination during the process of smoking meat products.

  17. Food Product Dating

    MedlinePlus

    ... of date you might find on a meat, poultry, or egg product label. Are dates required on ... is not required by Federal regulations. For meat, poultry, and egg products under the jurisdiction of the ...

  18. Is organic food production feasible?

    PubMed

    Leckie, J

    1999-01-01

    The problems of modern agriculture and whether organic methods of food production offer a practical solution in modern society are reviewed and discussed, with frank admission of drawbacks in organic methods.

  19. The economics of food production.

    PubMed

    Upton, M

    1993-01-01

    Although world average food production per person is increasing there are many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where production has fallen in recent decades. The economic analysis of the world food problem concerns the dynamics of production, income, growth, demand and trade. The 'law of diminishing returns' suggests that labour incomes fall as population density increases. Capital investment and technological change, particularly with a land-saving bias, can overcome this effect. Such land-saving innovations are less appropriate where population densities are lower, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Innovations which reduce risk, such as stress- and disease-resistant crop varieties, may be more attractive to farmers. Communal or government action is required to ensure sustainability of food production; to reduce risk, through price stabilization, possibly crop insurance and contingency plans for famine relief; to promote equity and to ensure competitive market conditions. Public funding of agricultural research is necessary to promote growth in food supplies. If increases in supply do not keep pace with growth in demand, food prices rise, attracting resources into food production. If supply grows faster, food prices and farm incomes fall, driving resources out of agriculture. Resources may not move fast enough to correct imbalances. Primary producers are likely to face deteriorating terms of trade. Linkages between food production and other sectors are weak, so primary exports are not a good basis for economic development. Import substitution strategies may damage agriculture. Structural adjustment regimes have been adopted in some countries to correct imbalances and provide an incentive for farmers to increase production. Associated reductions in public expenditure may have a contrary impact.

  20. Food production -- problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Anifowoshe, T O

    1990-03-01

    Improvements are needed in balancing the problems associated with population growth and food production. A review of the problems of rapid population growth and declining food production and suggestions for resolution are given. World population has increased over the past 10 years by 760 million, which is equal to adding the combined population of Africa and South America. Future increases are expected to bring total population to 6.1 billion by the year 2000 and 8.2 billion in 2025 (exponential increases). Food production/capita has declined since 1971 in the world and in Nigeria, particularly in the recent past. The food production problem is technical, environmental, social, political, and economic. Various scientific and technological methods for increasing food production are identified: mechanization, irrigation, use of fertilizers, control of weeds and insects, new varieties of farm animals or high-yielding strains of grain, land reclamation, soil conservation, river basin development, adequate storage facilities, infrastructure development, and birth control. Economic and social approaches involve short-term and long-term strategies in social readjustment and institutional change. For instance, large scale farmers should become contract growers for certain firms. Bureaucratic red tape should be eliminated in institutions which provide agricultural services. Environmental problems need urgent attention. Some of these problems are soil erosion from mechanization, water salinization from irrigation, accumulation of DDT in food and water and animal life from pesticide use, and water pollution from chemical fertilizers. Food production can be increased with more ecologically sound practices. Information about weather and weather forecasting allows for more suitable land management. The influence of rainfall (the amount and distribution) in Nigeria is greater than any other climatic factor. Solar radiation is a significant feature in production of dry matter and

  1. Food production & availability - Essential prerequisites for sustainable food security

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, M.S.; Bhavani, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this. PMID:24135188

  2. Effect of fuel and kiln type on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in smoked shrimp, a Beninese food condiment.

    PubMed

    Kpoclou, Euloge Yénoukounmè; Anihouvi, Victor Bienvenu; Azokpota, Paulin; Soumanou, Mohamed Mansourou; Douny, Caroline; Brose, François; Hounhouigan, Djidjoho Joseph; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-01

    Smoked shrimp is a food condiment widely used in Beninese local cooking practices. A previous study revealed that this product is highly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The present study explored possibilities to reduce PAH levels in shrimp smoked using cottage industry smoking techniques with barrel and chorkor kilns, by replacing wood by charcoal from Acacia auriculiformis and Mangifera indica, as fuels. Results showed that only shrimp smoked using acacia charcoal in a chorkor kiln had PAH levels (benzo[a]pyrene = 5 µg kg(-1) and sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benzo[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene = 28 µg kg(-1)) in accordance with a European standard of 5 and 30 µg kg(-1), respectively, and suitable physicochemical characteristics for good storage (moisture content = 11.9% ± 1.5%; water activity = 0.46 ± 0.03). However, further investigations still needs to be done to reduce the duration of product contact with combustion gasses in order to reduce the PAH content of smoked shrimp to safer levels, largely below standards.

  3. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  4. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  5. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  6. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  7. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. It is also responsible for many other cancers ... or having a baby die from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Your smoke is ... are battery-operated smoking devices. Not much is known about the health ...

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated persistent organic pollutants in canned fish and seafood products: smoked versus non-smoked products.

    PubMed

    Drabova, Lucie; Pulkrabova, Jana; Kalachova, Kamila; Tomaniova, Monika; Kocourek, Vladimir; Hajslova, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In this study, levels of several groups of environmental contaminants represented by PAHs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were determined in various types of canned smoked and non-smoked fish and seafood products (54 samples) obtained from the Czech market. PAHs were detected in all of the studied samples, and at least one of the target halogenated persistent organic pollutants was present above the LOQ in 85% of the samples. The levels of PAHs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (mainly DDTs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers found in the canned products varied in the range of 1.4-116 µg kg(-1), 0.6-59.6 µg kg(-1), 0.6-82.7 µg kg(-1) and 0.1-2.1 µg kg(-1) can content, respectively. Smoked sprats were the most contaminated fish product (n = 12) in which the highest levels of both PAHs and persistent organic pollutants were found. In 67% of the samples of smoked sprats in oil, the level of benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the maximum level of 5 µg kg(-1) established for smoked fish by European Union legislation. The distribution of target analytes between oil and fish fractions was also assessed. Significantly higher levels of PAHs were measured in the oil fraction.

  9. Cold smoking of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets with smoke condensate--an alternative processing technology for the production of smoked salmon.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, S; Skåra, T

    2008-08-01

    Two different protocols for the production of cold smoked salmon were investigated. All fillets were dry salted (18 h, 4 degrees C) before being allotted to a smoke condensate/liquid smoke protocol (SCP), which included drenching (1 min) in smoke condensate [1:3 (v/v) smoke:water] and drying (150 min, 28.4 +/- 2.2 degrees C) or a wood chips protocol (WCP) that included drying and smoking in a regular smoking chamber (23 degrees C, 480 min) using wood chips for smoke production. Quality assessments were performed on the smoked fillets at day 0 and after 7, 14, and 31 d of storage (3.4 +/- 0.7 degrees C). Application of the SCP resulted in a significantly higher (P<0.01) processing yield (89.6% +/- 0.7%) as compared to the WCP (88.6% +/- 0.5%). On day 0, the SCP fillets were significantly (P<0.01) less light (L*) and yellow (b*) and had a lower chroma (C*) and hue (h*) compared to the fillets processed with WCP. From 7 d until the end of storage time, small differences in color were observed. After 31 d of storage, the SCP fillets had a significantly higher (P<0.05) intensity of oily texture and lower intensity of salty and smoke taste. Texture profile analysis (TPA) showed few significant differences between the processing protocols, although the WCP fillets were significantly harder than the SCP fillets when recording the force at 60% compression of the fillet height. The use of smoke condensate and drenching technology is a way of producing cold smoked salmon with quality characteristics quite similar to those found in commercial "traditional" products, although processors who want to use this technology have to optimize the drying step and the smoke condensate formulation to their specifications.

  10. Food insecurity, cigarette smoking, and acculturation among Latinos: data from NHANES 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Rios, Lisbeth; Bromberg, Julie E; Moser, Richard P; Augustson, Erik M

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of food insecurity (FI) among Latinos in the United States is almost double the national average. To better understand FI among Latinos, potential risk factors beyond poverty, including acculturation indicators and smoking status, were explored. Cross-sectional data from 6,681 Latino adults from the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used. Partial proportional odds (PPO) models were used to estimate associations of FI, including cigarette smoking and acculturation. The PPO models indicated that compared with never smokers, current smokers had significantly higher odds of FI (odds ratios ranged from 1.32 to 1.51 across models). Lower levels of acculturation and poverty and being a younger or middle-aged adult were also significantly associated with FI. Among Latinos, current smoking and low acculturation are important risk factors for FI. Current smoking and low acculturation may exacerbate nutritional deprivation in a population that is already disproportionally affected by poverty and poor health outcomes.

  11. New Food Product Development Assistance for Rural Food Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, William F.

    1988-01-01

    This article describes examples of new food product development activities engaged in at the University of Minnesota Technical College with local industry, showing how they have been used as teaching models in the classroom. These activities have led to a program of New Product Development Assistance for small food companies in southeastern…

  12. Microbial bioinformatics for food safety and production.

    PubMed

    Alkema, Wynand; Boekhorst, Jos; Wels, Michiel; van Hijum, Sacha A F T

    2016-03-01

    In the production of fermented foods, microbes play an important role. Optimization of fermentation processes or starter culture production traditionally was a trial-and-error approach inspired by expert knowledge of the fermentation process. Current developments in high-throughput 'omics' technologies allow developing more rational approaches to improve fermentation processes both from the food functionality as well as from the food safety perspective. Here, the authors thematically review typical bioinformatics techniques and approaches to improve various aspects of the microbial production of fermented food products and food safety.

  13. Microbial bioinformatics for food safety and production

    PubMed Central

    Alkema, Wynand; Boekhorst, Jos; Wels, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    In the production of fermented foods, microbes play an important role. Optimization of fermentation processes or starter culture production traditionally was a trial-and-error approach inspired by expert knowledge of the fermentation process. Current developments in high-throughput ‘omics’ technologies allow developing more rational approaches to improve fermentation processes both from the food functionality as well as from the food safety perspective. Here, the authors thematically review typical bioinformatics techniques and approaches to improve various aspects of the microbial production of fermented food products and food safety. PMID:26082168

  14. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    PubMed

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2015-08-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ.

  15. Reactivity to smoking- and food-related cues in currently dieting and non-dieting young women smokers.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Rebecca A; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-04-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that young women dieters who smoke experience greater cigarette cravings in the presence of food-related related cues. The aim of this experiment was to examine reactivity to both smoking-related and water cues by dieting and non-dieting women smokers in the presence or absence of food cues. Eighteen female undergraduates attended two sessions (food present and food absent). At each session, participants were presented with a cigarette and water cue in a counterbalanced order. Pre- and post-cue measures included the brief version of the Questionnaire for Smoking Urges, heart rate and self-reported mood. All smokers showed enhanced reactivity (increased craving and heart rate) to smoking versus water cues. For dieters there was a larger increase in cigarette craving and heart rate in response to the smoking-related cues in the presence of food compared with the absence of food, whereas for non-dieters there was a smaller increase in cigarette craving and heart rate in response to the smoking-related cues in the presence of food compared with the absence of food. Mood and appetite ratings were not significantly affected by either cue type or session. The results suggest that cue reactivity to smoking-related cues is modulated by the presence of incentive stimuli relevant to the individual.

  16. Unconventional food regeneration in space - Opportunities for microbial food production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Gene R.; Schubert, Wayne W.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, Eric H.

    1987-01-01

    The possible role of microbial species in regenerating food is considered, and three areas where microbial systems can be used in controlled ecological life support systems are discussed. Microbial species can serve as the biological portion of hybrid chemical/biological schemes for primary food products, as a means more fully to utilize waste materials from agronomical food production, and as a source of nutritional supplements to conventional plant foods. Work accomplished in each of these areas is described. The role of microgravity fermenters in this technology is addressed.

  17. Biotechnology in Food Production and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Dietrich; Sinskey, Anthony J.

    1985-09-01

    The food processing industry is the oldest and largest industry using biotechnological processes. Further development of food products and processes based on biotechnology depends upon the improvement of existing processes, such as fermentation, immobilized biocatalyst technology, and production of additives and processing aids, as well as the development of new opportunities for food biotechnology. Improvements are needed in the characterization, safety, and quality control of food materials, in processing methods, in waste conversion and utilization processes, and in currently used food microorganism and tissue culture systems. Also needed are fundamental studies of the structure-function relationship of food materials and of the cell physiology and biochemistry of raw materials.

  18. Food Production and the Energy Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Pimentel, David

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the energy inputs in United States and green revolution crop production techniques, using corn as a typical crop. Examines the energy needs for a world food supply that depends on modern energy intensive agriculture, and considers alternatives in crop production technology which might reduce energy inputs in food production. (CC)

  19. Food products for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cope, P. S.; Larson, R. W.

    1968-01-01

    Specially-prepared foodstuffs supply an astronaut with a diet containing his basic nutritional requirements in a form that is useful in his enironment. Several edible coatings preserve foods and give loose foods form and firmness. These coatings aid in packaging and give the food slip for easy removal from the package.

  20. Encapsulates for Food Bioconversions and Metabolite Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breguet, Véronique; Vojinovic, Vojislav; Marison, Ian W.

    The control of production costs in the food industry must be very strict as a result of the relatively low added value of food products. Since a wide variety of enzymes and/or cells are employed in the food industry for starch processing, cheese making, food preservation, lipid hydrolysis and other applications, immobilization of the cells and/or enzymes has been recognized as an attractive approach to improving food processes while minimizing costs. This is due to the fact that biocatalyst immobilization allows for easier separation/purification of the product and reutilization of the biocatalyst. The advantages of the use of immobilized systems are many, and they have a special relevance in the area of food technology, especially because industrial processes using immobilized biosystems are usually characterized by lower capital/energy costs and better logistics. The main applications of immobilization, related to the major processes of food bioconversions and metabolite production, will be described and discussed in this chapter.

  1. [How to increase food production?].

    PubMed

    Gahamanyi, L

    1984-12-01

    Pressure of population on cultivable land, serious soil erosion, and low productivity due to scarcity of inputs have hampered efforts to provide an adequate diet for the population of Rwanda. Until the present, production has increased about as rapidly as population, but Rwanda is not totally self-sufficient in food, future climatic conditions may be less favorable than those of the past, technical and resource constraints are likely to increase, and little new land will be available for cultivation. Between 1970-80, hectares devoted to bananas and beans have increased considerably, but the marginal nature of much new land has seriously lowered productivity. Sweet potatoes are more extensively grown but their productivity is limited, and productivity of manioc has stagnated despite efforts to increase it. Peas are less frequently cultivated because the fallow land on they they are grown has almost disappeared due to population pressure. Agriculture in Rwanda has always been associated with herding, but population pressure is eliminating pastureland. Firewood for cooking is also becoming more scarce and reforestation is not proceeding rapidly enough to fill projected demand. Between 1978-80 and the year 2000, preliminary goals are to increase production in tons from 2,005,900 to 3,375,000 for bananas, from 177,400 to 330,000 for beans, from 15,200 to 45,500 for ground nuts, from 4000 to 25,000 for soybeans, from 174,800 to 288,000 for sorghum, from 81,300 to 250,000 for maize, from 3700 to 45,000 for rice, from 837,100 to 2,148,000 for sweet potatoes, from 506,600 to 1,200,000 for manioc, and from 216,000 to 600,000 for potatoes. Reaching these goals will require doubling of overall productivity per hectare. Different strategies will be required for increasing the yields of the principal crops. Priority should be given to developing strains of beans that will grow well in the poor soils, dry or cold regions, and acidic soils where they are usually planted in Rwanda

  2. Preservation of food products by irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McGivney, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of irradiation to preserve food has the potential to significantly enhance our capacity to maximize the quality and quantity of the food we consume. In a world in which distribution of food occurs across continents and in which malnourished populations are in dire need of basic food products, any safe, effective, and efficient means of preserving food is more than welcome. Irradiation, as a method for food preservation, has been studied for more than 30 years. This discussion focuses on this most recent method for the preservation of food with particular emphasis on its effects on the safety, nutritive, and aesthetic values of the food preserved by irradiation. The use of ionizing radiation as a method to preserve foods is one that has been demonstrated to be effective for a variety of food classes. Irradiation offers a means to decontaminate, disinfest, and retard the spoilage of the food supply. At the same time, it appears that the wholesomeness of these food products is maintained. Nutritive value can be sustained by use of effective doses of radiation. Concerns over the safety of irradiated food are rooted in questions regarding the potential induction of radioactivity, harmful radiolytic products, and pathogenic radiation-resistant or mutant strains of microorganisms. Research findings have allayed concerns over safety. However, more research is necessary to conclusively resolve these safety issues. Food irradiation is a promising technology that has and will contribute to our ability to feed the people of this world. This technology is but one of many available ways to preserve our greatest natural resource, the food supply. Enhancement of the ability to preserve food by irradiation will facilitate the distribution of food from fertile developed regions to the malnourished peoples of underdeveloped countries. 21 references.

  3. Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production

    PubMed Central

    Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Nedovic, Viktor; Goyal, Arun; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2013-01-01

    Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their potential future impact, which is also highlighted and assessed. PMID:24288597

  4. Immobilization technologies in probiotic food production.

    PubMed

    Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Nedovic, Viktor; Goyal, Arun; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2013-01-01

    Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their potential future impact, which is also highlighted and assessed.

  5. Food and farm products surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section.

  6. Skin advanced glycation end-products evaluation in infants according to the type of feeding and mother’s smoking habits

    PubMed Central

    Federico, Giovanni; Gori, Martina; Randazzo, Emioli; Vierucci, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to assess whether formula-fed infants had increased skin advanced glycation end-products compared with breastfed ones. We also evaluated the effect of maternal smoke during pregnancy and lactation on infant skin advanced glycation end-products accumulation. Methods: Advanced glycation end-product–linked skin autofluorescence was measured in 101 infants. Results: In infants born from non-smoking mothers, advanced glycation end-products were higher in formula-fed subjects than in breastfed subjects (0.80 (0.65–0.90) vs 1.00 (0.85–1.05), p < 0.001). Advanced glycation end-products in breastfed infants from smoking mothers were higher than in those from non-smoking mothers (0.80 (0.65–0.90) vs 1.00 (0.90–1.17), p = 0.009). Conclusion: Formula-fed infants had increased amounts of advanced glycation end-products compared with the breastfed ones, confirming that breast milk represents the best food for infants. Breastfed infants from mothers smoking during pregnancy and lactation had increased skin advanced glycation end-products, suggesting that smoke-related advanced glycation end-products transfer throughout breast milk. Moreover, advanced glycation end-products may already increase during gestation, possibly affecting fetal development. Thus, we reinforced that smoking must be stopped during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:28210490

  7. Further amendments to general regulations of the Food and Drug Administration to incorporate tobacco products. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-02-02

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending certain of its general regulations to include tobacco products, where appropriate, in light of FDA's authority to regulate these products under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). With these amendments, tobacco products are subject to the same general requirements that apply to other FDA-regulated products.

  8. Reducing human nitrogen use for food production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junguo; Ma, Kun; Ciais, Philippe; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen (N) is created in order to sustain food production, but only a small fraction of this N ends up being consumed as food, the rest being lost to the environment. We calculated that the total N input (TN) of global food production was 171 Tg N yr−1 in 2000. The production of animal products accounted for over 50% of the TN, against 17% for global calories production. Under current TN per unit of food production and assuming no change in agricultural practices and waste-to-food ratios, we estimate that an additional TN of 100 Tg N yr−1 will be needed by 2030 for a baseline scenario that would meet hunger alleviation targets for over 9 billion people. Increased animal production will have the largest impact on increasing TN, which calls for new food production systems with better N-recycling, such as cooperation between crop and livestock producing farms. Increased N-use efficiency, healthier diet and decreased food waste could mitigate this increase and even reduce TN in 2030 by 8% relative to the 2000 level. Achieving a worldwide reduction of TN is a major challenge that requires sustained actions to improve nitrogen management practices and reduce nitrogen losses into the environment. PMID:27445108

  9. Reducing human nitrogen use for food production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junguo; Ma, Kun; Ciais, Philippe; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-07-22

    Reactive nitrogen (N) is created in order to sustain food production, but only a small fraction of this N ends up being consumed as food, the rest being lost to the environment. We calculated that the total N input (TN) of global food production was 171 Tg N yr(-1) in 2000. The production of animal products accounted for over 50% of the TN, against 17% for global calories production. Under current TN per unit of food production and assuming no change in agricultural practices and waste-to-food ratios, we estimate that an additional TN of 100 Tg N yr(-1) will be needed by 2030 for a baseline scenario that would meet hunger alleviation targets for over 9 billion people. Increased animal production will have the largest impact on increasing TN, which calls for new food production systems with better N-recycling, such as cooperation between crop and livestock producing farms. Increased N-use efficiency, healthier diet and decreased food waste could mitigate this increase and even reduce TN in 2030 by 8% relative to the 2000 level. Achieving a worldwide reduction of TN is a major challenge that requires sustained actions to improve nitrogen management practices and reduce nitrogen losses into the environment.

  10. Reducing human nitrogen use for food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junguo; Ma, Kun; Ciais, Philippe; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    Reactive nitrogen (N) is created in order to sustain food production, but only a small fraction of this N ends up being consumed as food, the rest being lost to the environment. We calculated that the total N input (TN) of global food production was 171 Tg N yr‑1 in 2000. The production of animal products accounted for over 50% of the TN, against 17% for global calories production. Under current TN per unit of food production and assuming no change in agricultural practices and waste-to-food ratios, we estimate that an additional TN of 100 Tg N yr‑1 will be needed by 2030 for a baseline scenario that would meet hunger alleviation targets for over 9 billion people. Increased animal production will have the largest impact on increasing TN, which calls for new food production systems with better N-recycling, such as cooperation between crop and livestock producing farms. Increased N-use efficiency, healthier diet and decreased food waste could mitigate this increase and even reduce TN in 2030 by 8% relative to the 2000 level. Achieving a worldwide reduction of TN is a major challenge that requires sustained actions to improve nitrogen management practices and reduce nitrogen losses into the environment.

  11. Effect of restricted food supply to pregnant rats inhaling carbon monoxide on fetal weight, compared with cigarette smoke exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tachi, N.; Aoyama, M.

    1986-12-01

    Although many studies have shown that cigarette smoking during gestation retarded the intrauterine fetal growth, resulting in the decreased birth weight in babies born to smoking mothers, neither causal substance nor mechanism of action to disturb fetal growth has been firmly established yet. Based on the human and animal studies, researchers have implied that fetal hypoxia induced by carbon monoxide (CO) in the cigarette smoke to be responsible for the event. A shortage in energy intake in smoking mothers also has been suspected to cause the retardation in fetal development. In the previous results (Tachi and Aoyama 1983), the weight increment in CO exposed animals was greater than that in the smoke exposed group. The phenomenon seemed to indicate that the reduction in the food intake occurs in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, and induces the disturbance of fetal development in association with CO. In the present study, so as to evaluate the role of energy intake upon the fetal development in utero, the experiment of paired feeding with pregnant rats exposed to cigarette smoke is designed in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, CO, or room air, following after the observation of the quantity of food taken by mothers exposed to cigarette smoke, CO, or room air.

  12. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development.

  13. Careers in Organic Food Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibler, Adam

    2010-01-01

    New technology developed over the past several decades have allowed farmers to grow more food using fewer resources. Compared with 60 years ago, today's farm can supply more than three times more corn per acre, and the average dairy cow produces almost four times more milk. Even as technology improves farm yields, however, many consumers are…

  14. Climate change and sustainable food production.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J

    2013-02-01

    One of the greatest challenges we face in the twenty-first century is to sustainably feed nine to ten billion people by 2050 while at the same time reducing environmental impact (e.g. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, biodiversity loss, land use change and loss of ecosystem services). To this end, food security must be delivered. According to the United Nations definition, 'food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life'. At the same time as delivering food security, we must also reduce the environmental impact of food production. Future climate change will make an impact upon food production. On the other hand, agriculture contributes up to about 30% of the anthropogenic GHG emissions that drive climate change. The aim of this review is to outline some of the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture, the mitigation measures available within agriculture to reduce GHG emissions and outlines the very significant challenge of feeding nine to ten billion people sustainably under a future climate, with reduced emissions of GHG. Each challenge is in itself enormous, requiring solutions that co-deliver on all aspects. We conclude that the status quo is not an option, and tinkering with the current production systems is unlikely to deliver the food and ecosystems services we need in the future; radical changes in production and consumption are likely to be required over the coming decades.

  15. Rice Breeding and World Food Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Peter R.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the relation of technology to the green revolution, the role of plant breeders in inducing change in stagnant agriculture and the tools required by production scientists to increase yields of basic food crops in developing countries. (BR)

  16. Acid preservation systems for food products

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberio, J. E.; Cirigiano, M. C.

    1984-10-16

    Fumaric acid is used in combination with critical amounts of acetic acid to preserve acid containing food products from microbiological spoilage in the absence of or at reduced levels of chemical preservative.

  17. Limitations in the characterisation of cigarette products using different machine smoking regimes.

    PubMed

    Purkis, Stephen W; Troude, Valerie; Duputié, Gerald; Tessier, Christian

    2010-12-01

    It is recognised that no single machine smoking regime can represent the different behaviours of individual human smokers. It has been argued that the current ISO standard regime provides machine yields that are somewhat low for certain cigarette designs compared to human intake. Various cigarette machine smoking regimes have been proposed as options for regulatory use to provide data that reflect "average" or "maximum" yields as related to human intake. Some public health representatives have proposed that the intense regime mandated for testing in Canada with 100% of the ventilation holes in the cigarette filter blocked, should be used for product characterisation and that it is not necessary that it should reflect general human smoking behaviour. We believe that this is a flawed approach because our studies and those of other workers demonstrate that the conditions generated in the cigarette when using this intense machine smoking regime are extreme in comparison to the conditions found for regimes based more realistically on human smoking. In this paper, we provide data to show that smokers modify their smoking intensity over the course of smoking in response to changes in draw resistance, smoke concentrations and smoke temperatures. We compare changes in and interactions between these parameters during puffing when smoking cigarettes of different designs. Cigarettes were smoked using various machine smoking regimes previously proposed for smoke testing as well as a regime based on human smoking data from an 'in-house' study. Puffing parameters were derived from this study to represent the 'average smoker' under laboratory conditions and equivalent to the 90th percentile when the studied smokers smoked under natural conditions. Biomarker data from human uptake studies have shown that ventilation is an effective cigarette design tool to reduce total smoke constituent uptake in humans so demonstrating that any blocking of filter ventilation is far from 100

  18. Reconciling Human Smoking Behavior and Machine Smoking Patterns: Implications for Understanding Smoking Behavior and the Impact on Laboratory Studies

    PubMed Central

    Marian, Catalin; O'Connor, Richard J.; Djordjevic, Mirjana; Rees, Vaughan W.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Shields, Peter G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Recent Food and Drug Administration legislation enables the mandating of product performance standards for cigarette smoke and the evaluation of manufacturers’ health claims for modified tobacco products. Laboratory studies used for these evaluations, and also to understand tobacco smoke toxicology, use machines to generate smoke. The goal of this review is to critically evaluate methods to assess human smoking behavior and replicate this in the laboratory. Methods Smoking behavior and smoking machine studies were identified using PubMed and publically available databases for internal tobacco company documents. Results The smoking machine was developed to generate smoke to allow for comparing cigarette tar and nicotine yields. The intent was to infer relative human disease risk, but this concept was flawed because humans tailor their smoking to the product and chemical yields and toxicological effects change with different smoking profiles. While smoking machines also allow for mechanistic assessments of smoking-related diseases, the interpretations also are limited. However, available methods to assess how humans puff could be used to provide better laboratory assessments, but these need to be validated. Separately, the contribution of smoke mouth-holding and inhalation to dose need to be assessed, because these parts of smoking are not captured by the smoking machine. Better comparisons of cigarettes might be done by tailoring human puff profiles to the product based on human studies and comparing results across regimens. Conclusions There are major research gaps that limit the use of smoking machine studies for informing tobacco control regulation and mechanistic studies. PMID:19959678

  19. Food product design: emerging evidence for food policy.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamdani, Mohammed; Smith, Steven

    2017-03-01

    The research on the impact of specific brand elements such as food descriptors and package colors is underexplored. We tested whether a "light" color and a "low-calorie" descriptor on food packages gain favorable consumer perception ratings as compared with regular packages. Our online experiment recruited 406 adults in a 3 (product type: Chips versus Juice versus Yoghurt) × 2 (descriptor type: regular versus low-calorie) × 2 (color type: regular versus light) mixed design. Dependent variables were sensory (evaluations of the product's nutritional value and quality), product-based (evaluations of the product's physical appeal), and consumer-based (evaluations of the potential consumers of the product) scales. "Low-calorie" descriptors were found to increase sensory ratings as compared with regular descriptors and light-colored packages received higher product-based ratings as compared with their regular-colored counterparts. Food package color and descriptors present a promising venue for understanding preventative measures against obesity.[Formula: see text].

  20. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... help digest food. However, these substances may also harm the lining of these organs. Smoking has not ... increase the production of other substances that may harm the lining, such as pepsin, an enzyme made ...

  1. Burning, smoke production, and smoke dispersion from oil-spill combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.; Mulholland, G.; Gross, D.; Baum, H.; Walton, W.

    1989-10-01

    The combustion of crude oil layers floated on water were studied to assess the potential of using combustion to mitigate oil spills. Burning rates for n-decane, toluene and Alberta Sweet crude oil were measured in a 1.2 m diameter pool. These were used to estimate the energy transfer rate required to vaporize the fuel as part of an energy balance at the liquid surface. Smoke emission per unit of fuel consumed was dramatically reduced in the case of burning oil layers thin enough to cause boiling in the supporting water layer. A new aging/dilution facility is described that allows for measurement of optical properties and sedimentation velocities as the smoke ages. These characteristics are important in estimating smoke properties downwind of the oil spill fire. A formulation is presented that will provide for estimates of downwind particulate deposition of the fire smoke for a steadily burning oil spill.

  2. Research Opportunities Related to Establishing Standards for Tobacco Products Under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This paper was written in response to a request from the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The goal is to discuss some research directions related to establishing tobacco product standards under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which empowers the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to regulate tobacco products. Potential research related to tobacco product ingredients, nicotine, and harmful or potentially harmful constituents of tobacco products is discussed. Discussion: Ingredients, which are additives, require less attention than nicotine and harmful or potentially harmful constituents. With respect to nicotine, the threshold level in tobacco products below which dependent users will be able to freely stop using the product if they choose to do so is a very important question. Harmful and potentially harmful constituents include various toxicants and carcinogens. An updated list of 72 carcinogens in cigarette smoke is presented. A crucial question is the appropriate levels of toxicants and carcinogens in tobacco products. The use of carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers to determine these levels is discussed. Conclusions: The need to establish regulatory standards for added ingredients, nicotine, and other tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents leads to many interesting and potentially highly significant research questions, which urgently need to be addressed. PMID:21324834

  3. Caregivers' interest in using smokeless tobacco products: Novel methods that may reduce children's exposure to secondhand smoke.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Theodore L; Tackett, Alayna P; Borrelli, Belinda

    2016-10-01

    The study examined caregivers' interest in using potentially reduced exposure tobacco products for smoking cessation, reduction, and to help them not smoke in places such as around their child, as all three methods would potentially lead to reduced secondhand smoke exposure for their children. A sample of 136 caregivers completed carbon monoxide testing to assess smoking status and a brief survey. Few caregivers had ever used potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (<1%), but a majority were interested in trying them as means of smoking reduction (54%), to quit/stay quit from smoking (51%), and to help them not smoke around their child or in the home (55%). Caregivers less motivated to quit smoking and with no home smoking ban were more interested in using potentially reduced exposure tobacco products to help them quit/stay quit from smoking (p < .05).

  4. Cigarette Smoking is Associated with Unhealthy Patterns of Food Consumption, Physical Activity, Sleep Impairment, and Alcohol Drinking in Chinese Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cappelli, Christopher; Li, Yawen; Tanenbaum, Hilary; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Palmer, Paula H.; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Objectives According to a recent national survey, tobacco use is a critical public health issue in China, with more than two thirds of Chinese males smoking. Findings in Western populations suggest that smoking may cluster with other health-risk behaviors. To explore these relationships in Chinese male adults, we utilized baseline data from the China Seven Cities Study (CSCS). Methods Male adults (N=12,122) were included. Smoking status was defined as never smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and current heavy smokers. Logistic regression was employed to investigate the association of cigarette smoking and patterns of food consumption, physical activity, and alcohol drinking. Results After controlling for age, socioeconomic status, and city residence, heavy smokers consumed significantly less vegetables, fruits, milk and other dairy products, spent significantly more time watching television, slept and exercised less, and got drunk or engaged in binge drinking more frequently compared to never, ex, or current smokers (p<0.05). Conclusion Findings suggest significant associations of heavy cigarette smoking with other health-risk behaviors in Chinese male adults, underscoring the need for tobacco control interventions for Chinese males. PMID:26321106

  5. Electron irradiation of dry food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, Th.

    The interest of the industrial food producer is increasing in having the irradiation facility installed in the food processing chain. The throughput of the irradiator should be high and the residence time of the product in the facility should be short. These conditions can be accomplished by electron irradiators. To clarify the irradiation conditions spices taken out of the industrial process, food grade salt, sugar, and gums as models of dry food products were irradiated. With a radiation dose of 10 kGy microbial load can be reduced on 10∗∗4 microorganisms/g. The sensory properties of the spices were not changed in an atypical way. For food grade salt and sugar changes of colour were observed which are due to lattice defects or initiated browning. The irradiation of several gums led only in some cases to an improvement of the thickness properties in the application below 50°C, in most cases the thickness effect was reduced. The products were packaged before irradiation. But it would be possible also to irradiate the products without packaging moving the product through the iradiation field in a closed conveyor system.

  6. Prevalence and challenge tests of Listeria monocytogenes in Belgian produced and retailed mayonnaise-based deli-salads, cooked meat products and smoked fish between 2005 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Uyttendaele, M; Busschaert, P; Valero, A; Geeraerd, A H; Vermeulen, A; Jacxsens, L; Goh, K K; De Loy, A; Van Impe, J F; Devlieghere, F

    2009-07-31

    Processed ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with a prolonged shelf-life under refrigeration are at risk products for listeriosis. This manuscript provides an overview of prevalence data (n=1974) and challenge tests (n=299) related to Listeria monocytogenes for three categories of RTE food i) mayonnaise-based deli-salads (1187 presence/absence tests and 182 challenge tests), ii) cooked meat products (639 presence/absence tests and 92 challenge tests), and iii) smoked fish (90 presence/absence tests and 25 challenge tests), based on data records obtained from various food business operators in Belgium in the frame of the validation and verification of their HACCP plans over the period 2005-2007. Overall, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in these RTE foods in the present study was lower compared to former studies in Belgium. For mayonnaise-based deli-salads, in 80 out of 1187 samples (6.7%) the pathogen was detected in 25 g. L. monocytogenes positive samples were often associated with smoked fish deli-salads. Cooked meat products showed a 1.1% (n=639) prevalence of the pathogen. For both food categories, numbers per gram never exceeded 100 CFU. L. monocytogenes was detected in 27.8% (25/90) smoked fish samples, while 4/25 positive samples failed to comply to the 100 CFU/g limit set out in EU Regulation 2073/2005. Challenge testing showed growth potential in 18/182 (9.9%) deli-salads and 61/92 (66%) cooked meat products. Nevertheless, both for deli-salads and cooked meat products, appropriate product formulation and storage conditions based upon hurdle technology could guarantee no growth of L. monocytogenes throughout the shelf-life as specified by the food business operator. Challenge testing of smoked fish showed growth of L. monocytogenes in 12/25 samples stored for 3-4 weeks at 4 degrees C. Of 45 (non-inoculated) smoked fish samples (13 of which were initially positive in 25 g) which were subjected to shelf-life testing, numbers exceeded 100 CFU/g in only one sample

  7. Considerations for comparative tobacco product assessments based on smoke constituent yields.

    PubMed

    Belushkin, M; Jaccard, G; Kondylis, A

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of more than 8000 smoke constituents. The quantification of selected mainstream smoke constituent yields is one of the methods to evaluating and comparing the performance of different products. Numerous regulatory and scientific advisory bodies have used cigarette smoke constituent yield data for reporting and product comparison purposes. For more than a decade limitations of the indiscriminate application of traditional statistical methods such as the t-test for differences in comparative smoke constituent yield assessments lacking a specific study design, have been highlighted. In the present study, the variability of smoke constituent yields is demonstrated with data obtained under the ISO smoking regime for the Kentucky reference cigarette 3R4F and one commercial brand, analyzed on several occasions between 2007 and 2014. Specifically it is shown that statistically significant differences in the yields of selected smoke constituents do not readily translate to differences between products, and that tolerances need to be defined. To this end, two approaches have been proposed in the literature--minimal detectable differences, and the statistical equivalence. It is illustrated how both approaches provide more meaningful comparison outcomes than the statistical t-test for differences. The present study provides considerations relevant for comparative tobacco product assessments both in the scientific and regulatory contexts.

  8. Soya--the medicine food product.

    PubMed

    Moţa, Maria; Gârgavu, Sigina; Popa, Simona; Schiopu, Simona; Panduru, N M; Moţa, E

    2007-01-01

    Soya, cultivated for more than 3000 years, is both a drug and a food product. It has numerous nutritional benefits, given by its content of isoflavones, essential amino acids, fibers, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. The use of soy reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases: it has an antioxidant effect, reduces cholesterol levels and modulates the endothelial function; the soy foods, rich in isoflavones, reduce the risk of breast cancer; men with heredocolateral cancer antecedents or with minimal increase of prostate antigen must consider the consumption of soy and soy foods. Soy and soy foods play an important role in reducing the incidence of osteoporosis and controlling the pre- and postmenopausal symptoms; the soy ingestion has benefic metabolic effects in patients with Diabetes Mellitus and overweight. Taking into consideration the nutritional profile of soy, the nutritionists should encourage the population to consume more soy and soy foods. Nevertheless, long term studies are needed to discover a possible "dark side" of soy consumption. Among the most popular soy foods we mention: soymilk, soy cheese (tofu), soy meat (pie, salami, textured soy in granule form). Most of the products are soy flour derivatives, while tofu is obtained by curdling soymilk.

  9. An evaluation of a theatre production to encourage non-smoking among elementary age children: 2 Smart 2 Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Perry, C.; Komro, K.; Dudovitz, B.; Veblen-Mortenson, S.; Jeddeloh, R.; Koele, R.; Gallanar, I.; Farbakhsh, K.; Stigler, M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the impact of a theatre production on smoking-related attitudes, norms, and intentions of children in grades 1-6 (aged 6-12 years).
DESIGN—Seventeen schools were randomly selected among 160 that were participating in the implementation of the theatre production 2 Smart 2 Smoke. Schools that participated in the theatre production after 3 December 1997 were assigned as control schools. Assignment of schools to a given date for the theatre production was a random process. Students in grades 1-6 were surveyed before and after the theatre production and associated activities. The data were examined for pretest-posttest differences and intervention-control differences. The school was the unit of analysis.
SETTING—Elementary schools in the Twin Cities metropolitan area.
PARTICIPANTS—Students in grades 1-6 in 17 elementary schools.
INTERVENTION—Two plays 2 Smart 2 Smoke for grades 1-3 (6-8 year olds) and grades 4-6 (9-12 year olds), respectively, with follow-up activities for the classroom and home. A national theatre company performed the plays at the schools.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Intention to smoke in the future, normative expectations about how many people smoke, functional meanings of smoking, expected outcomes of smoking.
RESULTS—10% more students reported that they would never smoke a cigarette after the theatre production. Students in grades 4-6 showed changes in the functional meanings and expected outcomes of smoking. Students in grades 1-3 showed changes in normative expectations.
CONCLUSIONS—Further research on the impact of live theatre productions as a smoking prevention strategy is recommended.


Keywords: smoking prevention; children; theatre production PMID:10478401

  10. Sustainable potato production and global food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato (Solanum spp.) is currently the leading non-grain commodity in the global food system with production exceeding 329 million metric tonnes in 2009. The extraordinary adaptive range of this species complex combined with ease of cultivation and high nutritional content have promoted steady i...

  11. Food Production, Management, and Services Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This food production, management, and services curriculum guide provides information needed by teachers. It begins with a list of the competencies and subcompetencies that are the essential elements and the sub-elements prescribed in the Texas Administrative Codes for Vocational Home Economics. Each chapter consists of teaching strategies. They…

  12. Food Production, Management, and Services: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumme, Debbie; Koukel, Sonja

    This curriculum guide provides occupationally specific training designed to develop knowledge and skills for employment in the area of food production, management, and services. Contents include the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEAKS); sample course outlines; instructional strategies organized topically by chapters, each containing a…

  13. Virtual Nitrogen Losses from Organic Food Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattell Noll, L.; Galloway, J. N.; Leach, A. M.; Seufert, V.; Atwell, B.; Shade, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is necessary for crop and animal production, but when it is lost to the environment, it creates a cascade of detrimental environmental impacts. The nitrogen challenge is to maximize the food production benefits of Nr, while minimizing losses to the environment. The first nitrogen footprint tool was created in 2012 to help consumers learn about the Nr losses to the environment that result from an individual's lifestyle choices. The nitrogen lost during food production was estimated with virtual nitrogen factors (VNFs) that quantify the amount of nitrogen lost to the environment per unit nitrogen consumed. Alternative agricultural systems, such as USDA certified organic farms, utilize practices that diverge from conventional production. In order to evaluate the potential sustainability of these alternative agricultural systems, our team calculated VNFs that reflect organic production. Initial data indicate that VNFs for organic grains and organic starchy roots are comparable to, but slightly higher than conventional (+10% and +20% respectively). In contrast, the VNF for organic vegetables is significantly higher (+90%) and the VNF for organic legumes is significantly lower (-90%). Initial data on organic meat production shows that organic poultry and organic pigmeat are comparable to conventional production (both <5% difference), but that the organic beef VNF is significantly higher (+30%). These data show that in some cases organic and conventional production are comparable in terms of nitrogen efficiency. However, since conventional production relies heavily on the creation of new reactive nitrogen (Haber-Bosch, biological nitrogen fixation) and organic production primarily utilizes already existing reactive nitrogen (manure, crop residue, compost), the data also show that organic production contributes less new reactive nitrogen to the environment than conventional production (approximately 70% less). Therefore, we conclude that on a local

  14. Food Production, Management, and Services. Production. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, LeRoy

    This teacher's guide contains 20 units of instruction for a course in production in the food production, management, and services area. Units of instruction are designed for use in more than one lesson or class period of instruction. Introductory materials include the following: a competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic…

  15. Changes in body weight and food choice in those attempting smoking cessation: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fear of weight gain is a barrier to smoking cessation and significant cause of relapse for many people. The provision of nutritional advice as part of a smoking cessation programme may assist some in smoking cessation and perhaps limit weight gain. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a structured programme of dietary advice on weight change and food choice, in adults attempting smoking cessation. Methods Cluster randomised controlled design. Classes randomised to intervention commenced a 24-week intervention, focussed on improving food choice and minimising weight gain. Classes randomised to control received “usual care”. Results Twenty-seven classes in Greater Glasgow were randomised between January and August 2008. Analysis, including those who continued to smoke, showed that actual weight gain and percentage weight gain was similar in both groups. Examination of data for those successful at giving up smoking showed greater mean weight gain in intervention subjects (3.9 (SD 3.1) vs. 2.7 (SD 3.7) kg). Between group differences were not significant (p = 0.23, 95% CI −0.9 to 3.5). In comparison to baseline improved consumption of fruit and vegetables and breakfast cereal were reported in the intervention group. A higher percentage of control participants continued smoking (74% vs. 66%). Conclusions The intervention was not successful at minimising weight gain in comparison to control but was successful in facilitating some sustained improvements in the dietary habits of intervention participants. Improved quit rates in the intervention group suggest that continued contact with advisors may have reduced anxieties regarding weight gain and encouraged cessation despite weight gain. Research should continue in this area as evidence suggests that the negative effects of obesity could outweigh the health benefits achieved through reductions in smoking prevalence. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN73824458 PMID

  16. Marine biotechnology for production of food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Rosalee S; Morrissey, Michael T

    2007-01-01

    The marine world represents a largely untapped reservoir of bioactive ingredients that can be applied to numerous aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Due to the wide range of environments they survive in, marine organisms have developed unique properties and bioactive compounds that, in some cases, are unparalleled by their terrestrial counterparts. Enzymes extracted from fish and marine microorganisms can provide numerous advantages over traditional enzymes used in food processing due to their ability to function at extremes of temperature and pH. Fish proteins such as collagens and their gelatin derivatives operate at relatively low temperatures and can be used in heat-sensitive processes such as gelling and clarifying. Polysaccharides derived from algae, including algins, carrageenans, and agar, are widely used for their ability to form gels and act as thickeners and stabilizers in a variety of foods. Besides applications in food processing, a number of marine-derived compounds, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and photosynthetic pigments, are important to the nutraceutical industry. These bioactive ingredients provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of coronary heart disease, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activity. Despite the vast possibilities for the use of marine organisms in the food industry, tools of biotechnology are required for successful cultivation and isolation of these unique bioactive compounds. In this chapter, recent developments and upcoming areas of research that utilize advances in biotechnology in the production of food ingredients from marine sources are introduced and discussed.

  17. [Comparative assessment of the cancer risk of the products of smoking and ambient air pollution].

    PubMed

    Litvichenko, O N; Chernichenko, N A; Kovalenko, T V; Zinchenko, G G

    2006-01-01

    Danger from aerogenic dose carcinogens entering the body with smoking products is shown to be essentially greater than that from aerogenic loading in industrial centers. The individual and population risks for smoking-induced cancer and the economic damage to the country, associated with the treatment of a large number of patients are given. To make a complete assessment of the carcinogenic risk of tobacco smoking, it is necessary to estimate all its carcinogenic constituents, their precursors, and possible transformation products at elevated temperatures.

  18. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...

  19. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...

  20. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...

  1. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...

  2. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...

  3. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver cheese, liver spread, liver mush, liver paste, and liver pudding shall contain not...

  4. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver cheese, liver spread, liver mush, liver paste, and liver pudding shall contain not...

  5. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver cheese, liver spread, liver mush, liver paste, and liver pudding shall contain not...

  6. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver cheese, liver spread, liver mush, liver paste, and liver pudding shall contain not...

  7. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver cheese, liver spread, liver mush, liver paste, and liver pudding shall contain not...

  8. The future of sustainable food production.

    PubMed

    Ronald, Pamela; Adamchak, Raoul

    2010-03-01

    By the year 2050, the number of people on Earth is expected to increase from the current 6.7 to 9.2 billion. What is the best way to produce enough food to feed all these people? If we continue with current farming practices, vast amounts of wilderness will be lost, millions of birds and billions of insects will die, farm workers will be at increased risk for disease, and the public will lose billions of dollars as a consequence of environmental degradation. Clearly, there must be a better way to resolve the need for increased food production with the desire to minimize its impact.

  9. Increased Myeloid Cell Production and Lung Bacterial Clearance in Mice Exposed to Cigarette Smoke.

    PubMed

    Basilico, Paola; Cremona, Tiziana P; Oevermann, Anna; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Benarafa, Charaf

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although most patients with COPD are smokers, the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on clearance of lung bacterial pathogens and on immune and inflammatory responses are incompletely defined. Here, clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and associated immune responses were examined in mice exposed to cigarette smoke or after smoking cessation. Mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 weeks or 4 months demonstrated decreased lung bacterial burden compared with air-exposed mice when infected 16 to 24 hours after exposure. When infection was performed after smoke cessation, bacterial clearance kinetics of mice previously exposed to smoke reversed to levels comparable to those of control mice, suggesting that the observed defects were not dependent on adaptive immunological memory to bacterial determinants found in smoke. Comparing cytokine levels and myeloid cell production before infection in mice exposed to cigarette smoke with mice never exposed or after smoke cessation revealed that reduced bacterial burden was most strongly associated with higher levels of IL-1β and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the lungs and with increased neutrophil reserve and monocyte turnover in the bone marrow. Using Serpinb1a-deficient mice with reduced neutrophil numbers and treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor showed that increased neutrophil numbers contribute only in part to the effect of smoke on infection. Our findings indicate that cigarette smoke induces a temporary and reversible increase in clearance of lung pathogens, which correlates with local inflammation and increased myeloid cell output from the bone marrow.

  10. Indoor second-hand smoking could mediate the associations of foods and adult happiness: Scottish Health Survey, 2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-02-01

    There has been literature on the relationship of food and happiness, but the role of second-hand smoking is less understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine if second-hand smoking might mediate the associations of food consumption and subjective happiness in a country-wide and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the Scottish Health Survey, 2012. Information on demographics, frequency of consuming certain foods and subjective happiness was obtained by household interview. Chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic regression modelling were performed. Of the included Scottish adults aged 16-99 (n = 4815), 15.4 % (n = 677) reported that they were unhappy. It was observed that eating lots of potatoes, some meat, some oily fish and some pastries were inversely associated with unhappiness. People who consumed vegetables and fruits on the day before the health interview were also found to be less unhappy, compared to their counterparts. However, the protective effect from fruits disappeared after additionally adjusting for indoor second-hand smoking while the protective effects from other foods mentioned above have also been lessened. In addition, cumulatively people who consumed more "happy foods" (mentioned above) were more likely to report subjective happiness, compared to those who did not consume any of those. For future research, longitudinally monitoring on the associations among food, household environment and psychological well-being and both the short-term and long-term effects would be suggested. For policy implications, Removal of indoor second-hand smoking to retain the protective effects from happy foods on well-being should be encouraged.

  11. Food product tracing technology capabilities and interoperability.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Tejas; Zhang, Jianrong Janet

    2013-12-01

    Despite the best efforts of food safety and food defense professionals, contaminated food continues to enter the food supply. It is imperative that contaminated food be removed from the supply chain as quickly as possible to protect public health and stabilize markets. To solve this problem, scores of technology companies purport to have the most effective, economical product tracing system. This study sought to compare and contrast the effectiveness of these systems at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. It also determined if these systems can work together to better secure the food supply (their interoperability). Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) hypothesized that when technology providers are given a full set of supply-chain data, even for a multi-ingredient product, their systems will generally be able to trace a contaminated product forward and backward through the supply chain. However, when provided with only a portion of supply-chain data, even for a product with a straightforward supply chain, it was expected that interoperability of the systems will be lacking and that there will be difficulty collaborating to identify sources and/or recipients of potentially contaminated product. IFT provided supply-chain data for one complex product to 9 product tracing technology providers, and then compared and contrasted their effectiveness at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. A vertically integrated foodservice restaurant agreed to work with IFT to secure data from its supply chain for both a multi-ingredient and a simpler product. Potential multi-ingredient products considered included canned tuna, supreme pizza, and beef tacos. IFT ensured that all supply-chain data collected did not include any proprietary information or information that would otherwise

  12. Teen Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... or product placement in movies that create the perception that smoking is glamorous and more prevalent than ... org/healthy-lifestyle/tween-and-teen-health/in-depth/teen-smoking/art-20047069 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal ...

  13. 78 FR 277 - Food and Drug Administration Actions Related to Nicotine Replacement Therapies and Smoking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... goals: (1) Total abstinence from tobacco use, (2) reductions in consumption of tobacco, and (3... Tobacco Dependence; Public Hearing; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... innovative products and treatments for tobacco dependence. The Agency is taking this action to...

  14. [Content of N-nitrosamines in smoked fish and canned food].

    PubMed

    Kim, I N; Kim, G N; Krivosheeva, L V; Khitrovo, I A

    2002-01-01

    The composition and contents of major N-nitrosoamines (NA) in the edible part of herrings and rock trouts exposed to hot and cold smoking and in the Smoked fish in oil type cans were studied. Among NA, only N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were detected in all samples. In the cold-smoked fish, the levels of NDMA and NDEA were higher than in the hot smoked fish and cans. Of all the samples, only those of cold smoked herrings and rock trouts had standardized NDMA concentration that was greater than the standard limitation and equal to 3.48 and 3.74 mukg/kg.

  15. The ecological background of food production.

    PubMed

    Rabbinge, R

    1993-01-01

    In the industrialized countries dramatic decreases in the number of people employed in agriculture have been made possible by a rise in soil and labour productivity. There is scope for these to improve further, particularly in developing countries. Potential yields are determined by the characteristics of the crop, local temperature and sunlight. Because the availability of nutrients and that of water are limiting for at least part of the growing season in most agricultural lands, attainable yields are lower than potential yields. Proper management of nutrient inputs, such that optimum use is made of each, can reduce this gap without causing negative environmental side-effects. Actual yields are lower than attainable yields because of growth-reducing factors, such as pests, diseases and weeds. For sustainable agriculture these should be controlled mainly by biological measures. There are many possibilities for this, thus biocides may be used as a last resort not as preventive insurance. Potential yields of rice and sugarcane can reach 30,000 kg ha-1 per year of consumable organic matter, sufficient to feed 120 people. Such yields cannot be achieved on all agricultural land, but it is estimated that world food production could support a population of 80 thousand million, if they were all vegetarian and required only 1500 m2 for non-food-related purposes. The green revolutions that occurred in the Western industrialized countries in the late 1940s and early 1950s and in Asia in the late 1960s and early 1970s need to be followed by a similar increase in agricultural productivity in Africa and West Asia to feed their rapidly growing populations. Better use of fertilizers and good water management require well-educated farmers with the financial means to implement long-term strategies. If these developments are managed properly, food production for the ever-increasing human population can be guaranteed and the burden on the environment and natural habitats reduced

  16. Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Wan Chi; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA) production via solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd) 2.20 × 10−3 minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes. PMID:24970186

  17. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    SciTech Connect

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed.

  18. Food Production Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ellen; And Others

    This curriculum guide, part of a multi-volume dietetic support personnel training program, consists of materials (15 units) for use in training future food production workers. Covered in the first part of the guide are nutrition in food production and diet therapy. The second part of the guide deals with sanitation and safety in food production.…

  19. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.

  20. Salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase - temporal and population variability, correlations with drinking and smoking habits and activity towards aldehydes contained in food.

    PubMed

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Dziadek, Marta; Wroczyński, Piotr; Woźnicka, Katarzyna; Wojno, Barbara; Pietrzak, Monika; Wierzchowski, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Fluorimetric method based on oxidation of the fluorogenic 6-methoxy-2-naphthaldehyde was applied to evaluate temporal and population variability of the specific activity of salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and the degree of its inactivation in healthy human population. Analyzed was also its dependence on drinking and smoking habits, coffee consumption, and its sensitivity to N-acetylcysteine. Both the specific activity of salivary ALDH and the degree of its inactivation were highly variable during the day, with the highest activities recorded in the morning hours. The activities were also highly variable both intra- and interpersonally, and negatively correlated with age, and this correlation was stronger for the subgroup of volunteers declaring abstinence from alcohol and tobacco. Moderately positive correlations of salivary ALDH specific activity with alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking were also recorded (r(s) ~0.27; p=0.004 and r(s) =0.30; p=0.001, respectively). Moderate coffee consumption correlated positively with the inactivation of salivary ALDH, particularly in the subgroup of non-drinking and non-smoking volunteers. It was found that mechanical stimulation of the saliva flow increases the specific activity of salivary ALDH. The specific activity of the salivary ALDH was strongly and positively correlated with that of superoxide dismutase, and somewhat less with salivary peroxidase. The antioxidant-containing drug N-acetylcysteine increased activity of salivary ALDH presumably by preventing its inactivation in the oral cavity. Some food-related aldehydes, mainly cinnamic aldehyde and anisaldehyde, were excellent substrates of the salivary ALDH3A1 enzyme, while alkenals, particularly those with short chain, were characterized by lower affinity towards this enzyme but high catalytic constants. The protective role of salivary ALDH against aldehydes in food and those found in the cigarette smoke is discussed, as well as its participation in

  1. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed.

  2. Food, fuel, and feed production with microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.; Weissman, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    Large-scale (>10 hectares) microalgae cultures are being used in several countries around the world for the production of human food supplements and specialty animal (mainly aquaculture) feeds. Microalgae cultures are also extensively used in wastewater treatment and being produced on a small scale for soil inoculants and diagnostic reagents. In addition, microalgae cultures are being investigated for their potential in fuel production and CO{sub 2} utilization, as a method for greenhouse gas mitigation. A pilot plant effort in New Mexico, under a US Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Lab. subcontract, demonstrated the feasibility of cultivating a number of algal species in large outdoor ponds on brackish waters. Building on this experience, SeaAg, Inc. has developed a process for the mass culture of microalgae as a source of bivalve feeds. In this process, algae (diatoms) are cultured in large open ponds on seawater, and then fed to clams and oysters, which filter and convert the algal cells into high value protein. The SeaAg process is another application of a technology which promises to eventually result in large-scale commercial production of microalgae for a variety of useful products and processes.

  3. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  4. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  5. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  6. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  7. Improving the Potential for Increased World Food Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A stable world food production is completely dependent on the ability of people to grow, harvest, and utilize plants as a source of food. The United Nations estimates that in order to feed the world’s increasing population that by the year 2040 agriculture will have to increase food production by a...

  8. Effect-based and chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked meat: a practical food-monitoring approach.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, K; Nowak, B; Behnke, A; Seidel, A; Lampen, A

    2009-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are generated by heat treatment and smoke curing of meat, pose a risk to human health. At present, the determination of these unwanted contaminants requires costly, time-consuming chemical analysis of smoked meat. An alternative is effect-directed high-throughput bioassays, which could also be used as a pre-screening method. The authors recently adapted the in vitro chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) assay as a rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive screening technique for compounds such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and PAHs. The aim of the present study was to apply a practical approach under realistic conditions. Custom-made meat samples produced under defined conditions with different PAH levels were analysed using this bioassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine the influence of different smoking conditions (temperature and duration) on PAH levels. It was found that cold smoking for up to 6 h did not result in strong PAH contamination, whereas hot (65 degrees C) and longer smoking times caused a considerable increase in both the bioassay response and the levels of 31 individually determined PAHs. The response in the effect-based bioassay was in good agreement with the values of chemical analysis. The bioassay made it possible to determine accurately the degree of contamination. The results show that this assay is suitable for high-throughput screening for unknown levels of toxicologically relevant PAHs in meat samples and is sensitive enough to differentiate between different PAH levels generated under various smoking conditions. Effect-based screening techniques, therefore, provide a new instrument for official food monitoring.

  9. Synergistic effects of mineral fibres and cigarette smoke on the production of tumour necrosis factor by alveolar macrophages of rats.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Y; Kido, M; Tanaka, I; Fujino, A; Higashi, T; Yokosaki, Y

    1993-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of mineral fibres and cigarette smoke on the production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by alveolar macrophages. Rats were exposed to cigarette smoke in vivo, and production of TNF by alveolar macrophages was measured in the presence of mineral fibres in vitro. For smoke exposure, rats were divided into two groups. Five were exposed to a daily concentration of 10 mg/m3 of cigarette smoke for an eight hour period, and five rats (controls) were not exposed to smoke. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed after exposure to smoke and the recovered alveolar macrophages were incubated with either chrysotile or ceramic fibres on a microplate for 24 hours. Activity of TNF in the supernatant was determined by the L-929 fibroblast cell bioassay. When alveolar macrophages were not stimulated by mineral fibres, production of TNF by rats exposed to smoke and unexposed rats was essentially the same. When alveolar macrophages were stimulated in vitro by chrysotile or ceramic fibres, production of TNF by alveolar macrophages from rats exposed to smoke was higher than that by alveolar macrophages from unexposed rats. The findings suggest that cigarette smoke and mineral fibres have a synergistic effect on TNF production by alveolar macrophages.

  10. Synergistic effects of mineral fibres and cigarette smoke on the production of tumour necrosis factor by alveolar macrophages of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Y; Kido, M; Tanaka, I; Fujino, A; Higashi, T; Yokosaki, Y

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of mineral fibres and cigarette smoke on the production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by alveolar macrophages. Rats were exposed to cigarette smoke in vivo, and production of TNF by alveolar macrophages was measured in the presence of mineral fibres in vitro. For smoke exposure, rats were divided into two groups. Five were exposed to a daily concentration of 10 mg/m3 of cigarette smoke for an eight hour period, and five rats (controls) were not exposed to smoke. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed after exposure to smoke and the recovered alveolar macrophages were incubated with either chrysotile or ceramic fibres on a microplate for 24 hours. Activity of TNF in the supernatant was determined by the L-929 fibroblast cell bioassay. When alveolar macrophages were not stimulated by mineral fibres, production of TNF by rats exposed to smoke and unexposed rats was essentially the same. When alveolar macrophages were stimulated in vitro by chrysotile or ceramic fibres, production of TNF by alveolar macrophages from rats exposed to smoke was higher than that by alveolar macrophages from unexposed rats. The findings suggest that cigarette smoke and mineral fibres have a synergistic effect on TNF production by alveolar macrophages. Images PMID:8217857

  11. A new perspective on microbial landscapes within food production.

    PubMed

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Lewis, Zachery T; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Mills, David A

    2016-02-01

    High-throughput, 'next-generation' sequencing tools offer many exciting new possibilities for food research. From investigating microbial dynamics within food fermentations to the ecosystem of the food-processing built environment, amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, and transcriptomics present novel applications for exploring microbial communities in, on, and around our foods. This review discusses the many uses of these tools for food-related and food facility-related research and highlights where they may yield nuanced insight into the microbial world of food production systems.

  12. A new perspective on microbial landscapes within food production

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Lewis, Zachery T; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Mills, David A

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput, ‘next-generation’ sequencing tools offer many exciting new possibilities for food research. From investigating microbial dynamics within food fermentations to the ecosystem of the food-processing built environment, amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, and transcriptomics present novel applications for exploring microbial communities in, on, and around our foods. This review discusses the many uses of these tools for food-related and food facility-related research and highlights where they may yield nuanced insight into the microbial world of food production systems. PMID:26773388

  13. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. (/sup 14/C)NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned.

  14. Targets to increase food production: One Health implications.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Barry J; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus; Fahey, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    The increasing world population means that there is a requirement to expand global food production. Looking at the Republic of Ireland as an example, the risks and opportunities associated with the expansion of food production are outlined, particularly in relation to zoonoses transmission. A One Health approach to sustainable food production is required to avert a potential public health problem associated with increased agricultural expansion.

  15. Bacteriophage cocktail significantly reduces or eliminates Listeria monocytogenes contamination on lettuce, apples, cheese, smoked salmon and frozen foods.

    PubMed

    Perera, Meenu N; Abuladze, Tamar; Li, Manrong; Woolston, Joelle; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    ListShield™, a commercially available bacteriophage cocktail that specifically targets Listeria monocytogenes, was evaluated as a bio-control agent for L. monocytogenes in various Ready-To-Eat foods. ListShield™ treatment of experimentally contaminated lettuce, cheese, smoked salmon, and frozen entrèes significantly reduced (p < 0.05) L. monocytogenes contamination by 91% (1.1 log), 82% (0.7 log), 90% (1.0 log), and 99% (2.2 log), respectively. ListShield™ application, alone or combined with an antioxidant/anti-browning solution, resulted in a statistically significant (p < 0.001) 93% (1.1 log) reduction of L. monocytogenes contamination on apple slices after 24 h at 4 °C. Treatment of smoked salmon from a commercial processing facility with ListShield™ eliminated L. monocytogenes (no detectable L. monocytogenes) in both the naturally contaminated and experimentally contaminated salmon fillets. The organoleptic quality of foods was not affected by application of ListShield™, as no differences in the color, taste, or appearance were detectable. Bio-control of L. monocytogenes with lytic bacteriophage preparations such as ListShield™ can offer an environmentally-friendly, green approach for reducing the risk of listeriosis associated with the consumption of various foods that may be contaminated with L. monocytogenes.

  16. Food Production and Antimicrobial Resistance – The Next 100 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of food is complex and ensuring the safety of food for human consumption provides serious challenges. Since 1996 the U.S. has conducted surveillance on food borne and commensal antimicrobial resistance bacteria through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System - Enteric Bac...

  17. Exploring water and food security: the water footprint of domestic food production in the Gaza Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Dotelli, Giovanni; Melià, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity and food security are major issues in the Gaza Strip. This area is characterized by one of the highest densities in the world and it is affected by both severe scarcity of water resources and limited trading possibilities.Given this context, the enhancement of domestic food production is considered a fundamental strategy in achieving food security in the area. For this reason, rural people play a crucial role in implementing sustainable strategies for enhancing the domestic food production while preserving water resources. In order to investigate the effectiveness of existing agricultural scenarios in achieving food security in a sustainable manner, we propose a framework to assess food production systems in terms of their contribution to the nutritional and economic conditions of rural households and their impact on water resources. In particular, the latter has been carried out through the water footprint indicator proposed by the Water Footprint Network. The case study analyzed is a sample farm located in the Gaza Strip, whose food production is based on horticulture, animal husbandry and aquaculture. The study is articulated into two main parts: first, we compare alternative scenarios of vegetal and animal food production in terms of food supply, water consumption and economic income at the household scale; then, we extend the analysis to evaluate the potential contribution of domestic food production to the food security in the whole Gaza Strip, focusing on the nutritional dimension, and providing a preliminary assessment of the environmental and economic sustainability. In particular, we evaluate water appropriation for domestic food production and compare it with the availability of water resources in the region. The outcomes highlight that the domestic food production can potentially satisfy both a basic diet and economic income for rural household, but the related appropriation of freshwater results unsustainable with respect to the fresh

  18. 9 CFR 319.160 - Smoked pork sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoked pork sausage. 319.160 Section 319.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Uncooked, Smoked...

  19. Interleukin-2 production of lymphocytes in food sensitive atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Agata, H; Kondo, N; Fukutomi, O; Shinoda, S; Orii, T

    1992-01-01

    The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to food antigens in 22 patients with food sensitive atopic dermatitis were significantly higher than the responses of healthy children and food sensitive children with immediate symptoms. Moreover, the activity of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in supernatants of food antigen stimulated PBMC cultures from patients with atopic dermatitis was significantly higher than that in healthy children and food sensitive children with immediate symptoms. The activity of IL-2 in culture supernatants of separated cell populations stimulated with food antigens from patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy children was investigated. The activity of IL-2 in supernatants of food antigen stimulated T cell cultures could be detected in patients with atopic dermatitis but not in healthy children. These results suggest that the increased IL-2 production after food antigen stimulation is due to increased T cell activity in food sensitive atopic dermatitis. PMID:1575549

  20. MISR Interactive Explorer (MINX) : Production Digitizing to Retrieve Smoke Plume Heights and Validating Heights Against Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunst, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The height at which smoke from a wildfire is injected into the atmosphere is an important parameter for climatology, because it determines how far the smoke can be transported. Using the MINX program to analyze MISR (Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) data, I digitized wildfire smoke plumes to add to an existing database of these heights for use by scientists studying smoke transport and plume dynamics. In addition to using MINX to do production digitizing of heights, I assisted in gathering lidar data for an ongoing validation of MINX and helped evaluate those data.

  1. [Nanotechnology in food production: advances and problems].

    PubMed

    Vernikov, V M; Arianova, E A; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Khotimchenko, S A; Tutel'ian, V A

    2009-01-01

    Presented article is a review of the modern data on nanotechnology use in food manufacturing. There are discussed the basic scopes of nanotechnology application in food industry. One of the main problems arising in connection with introduction of nanotechnology in food, is an absence of reliable methods of identification and the control of nanoparticles is in structure of foodstuff including the control of their authenticity. Other problem is connected to necessity of an estimation of the risks connected to presence of potentially toxic nanoparticles in food. The analysis of foreign experience of researches in the given area allows to formulate methodological approaches to formation of domestic system of nanosafety.

  2. Utilization of agricultural by-products in healthful food products: Organogelators, antioxidants, and spreadable products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was found that several agricultural by-products could be utilized for healthful food products. Three major applications that our research group has been focusing on will be discussed: 1) plant waxes for trans-fat free, low saturated fat-containing margarine and spread products, 2) extracts of cor...

  3. Mechanisms of Toxin Production of Food Bacteria (Clostridium botulinum)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    l~ V- 9;-iC -’.1,- r, 4. •, . . . . . MECHANISMS OF TOXIN PRODUCTION OF FOOD BACTERIA ( CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM) FINAL REPORT DR. H. U. EKLUND F. T...Mechanisms of Toxin Production of Food Bacteria Clostridium botulinum Final Y,’v/ ’ "D30 • ’q• 6, PERFORM G ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(.) S...WORDS (Continue on reverse aide If necessary and Identify by block number) Clostridium botulinum Bacteriophages Plasmids Food Poisoning Toxins

  4. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the Federal... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed...

  5. Food Production and Services. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, EuDell H.; And Others

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a food production and services course, which is designed to provide students with an opportunity to express and practice a broad range of food production and service occupations. Major concepts covered include…

  6. Papago Food Production and Nutrition Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anson, Cynthia

    The Project was begun in 1979 by the Meals for Millions/Freedom from Hunger Foundation to help bring about changes leading to improvements in the food and nutrition conditions, and overall health, of Papago people living on the reservation. Goals of the Project were to initiate a comprehensive and integrated approach to food and nutrition problems…

  7. Seafood Products: Food Service Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Anita H.; And Others

    The nine lessons and supplementary activities included in this seafood food service program guide are intended for use in secondary and postsecondary occupational home economics food service programs. Material covers nutrition, therapeutic diets, harvesting methods, quality assessment, fish cuts and forms, inspection, dressing, storage,…

  8. Diet modification and the development of new food products.

    PubMed

    Bursey, R G

    1983-05-01

    The development of new food products to meet the needs of the 20th century American consumer offers a greater challenge to the innovativeness of the food industry scientist than ever before. The sequence of activities that leads to the introduction of a successful new food product into today's highly competitive marketplace has its beginnings and foundation in extensive and ongoing market research. This research elicits and defines the changing consumer needs and wants. The relation of diet to health is but one of many factors that influence food purchase decisions and, thus, the stimulus for developing new food products. In addition, the extent to which existing food products may be modified or new foods developed to meet dietary goals is subject to technologic and regulatory constraints. A commitment to ethical and responsible marketing strategies is essential to the evolution of food products for special dietary needs. Despite these complex restraints, many food products with altered nutrient or ingredient composition are currently available to consumers and others enter the marketplace each year.

  9. Fires and Smoke Observed from the Earth Observing System MODIS Instrument: Products, Validation, and Operational Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Ichoku, C.; Giglio, L.; Korontzi, S.; Chu, D. A.; Hao, W. M.; Justice, C. O.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The MODIS sensor, launched on NASA's Terra satellite at the end of 1999, was designed with 36 spectral channels for a wide array of land, ocean, and atmospheric investigations. MODIS has a unique ability to observe fires, smoke, and burn scars globally. Its main fire detection channels saturate at high brightness temperatures: 500 K at 4 microns and 400 K at 11 microns, which can only be attained in rare circumstances at the I kin fire detection spatial resolution. Thus, unlike other polar orbiting satellite sensors with similar thermal and spatial resolutions, but much lower saturation temperatures (e.g. AVHRR and ATSR), MODIS can distinguish between low intensity ground surface fires and high intensity crown forest fires. Smoke column concentration over land is for the first time being derived from the MOMS solar channels, extending from 0.41 microns to 2.1 microns. The smoke product has been provisionally validated both globally and regionally over southern Africa and central and south America. Burn scars are observed from MODIS even in the presence of smoke, using the 1.2 to 2.1 micron channels. MODIS burned area information is used to estimate pyrogenic emissions. A wide range of these fire and related products and validation are demonstrated for the wild fires that occurred in northwestern United States in the summer of 2000. The MODIS rapid response system and direct broadcast capability is being developed to enable users to obtain and generate data in near real time. It is expected that health and land management organizations will use these systems for monitoring the occurrence of fires and the dispersion of smoke within two to six hours after data acquisition.

  10. Delivering Improved Nutrition: Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid Products.

    PubMed

    Schlossman, Nina

    2016-03-01

    The United States has a long history of food assistance for humanitarian need. The Food for Peace Act of 1954 established the United States' permanent food assistance program which has fed over 3 billion people in 150 countries worldwide through thousands of partner organizations. In 60 years, the program has evolved and will continue to do so. Recently, the program has gone from a focus on quantity of food shipped to quality food assistance from improved products, programs, and processes to effectively meet the needs of different vulnerable groups. The current debate focuses on the appropriateness of using fortified blended foods to prevent and treat malnutrition during the first 1000 days of life. Dairy ingredients have been at the center of this debate; they were included initially in fortified blended, removed in the 1980s, and now reincorporated into fortified therapeutic and supplemental foods. Improved quality food baskets and effective nutrition programming to prevent and treat malnutrition were developed through multisectoral collaboration between government and nongovernment organizations. The US Agency for International Development has focused on improving nutrition through development programs often tied to health, education, and agriculture. The years since 2008 have been a particularly intense period for improvement. The Food Aid Quality Review was established to update current food aid programming products, program implementation, cost-effectiveness, and interagency processes. Trials are underway to harmonize the areas of multisectoral nutrition programming and gather more evidence on the effects of dairy ingredients in food aid products.

  11. Food production and the energy crisis.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, D; Hurd, L E; Bellotti, A C; Forster, M J; Oka, I N; Sholes, O D; Whitman, R J

    1973-11-02

    The principal raw material of modern U.S. agriculture is fossil fuel, whereas the labor input is relatively small (about 9 hours per crop acre). As agriculture is dependent upon fossil energy, crop production costs will also soar when fuel costs increase two- to fivefold. A return of 2.8 kcal of corn per 1 kcal of fuel input may then be uneconomical. Green revolution agriculture also uses high energy crop production technology, especially with respect to fertilizers and pesticides. While one may not doubt the sincerity of the U.S. effort to share its agricultural technology so that the rest of the world can live and eat as it does, one must be realistic about the resources available to accomplish this mission. In the United States we are currently using an equivalent of 80 gallons of gasoline to produce an acre of corn. With fuel shortages and high prices to come, we wonder if many developing nations will be able to afford the technology of U.S. agriculture. Problems have already occurred with green revolution crops, particularly problems related to pests (57). More critical problems are expected when there is a world energy crisis. A careful assessment should be made of the benefits, costs, and risks of high energy-demand green revolution agriculture in order to be certain that this program will not aggravate the already serious world food situation (58). To reduce energy inputs, green revolution and U.S. agriculture might employ such alternatives as rotations and green manures to reduce the high energy demand of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. U.S. agriculture might also reduce energy expenditures by substituting some manpower currently displaced by mechanization. While no one knows for certain what changes will have to be made, we can be sure that when conventional energy resources become scarce and expensive, the impact on agriculture as an industry and a way of life will be significant. This analysis is but a preliminary investigation of a significant

  12. Type II pneumocytes modulate surfactant production in response to cigarette smoke constituents: restoration by vitamins A and E.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yuan; Williams, Tracy L; Li, Ting; Umbehr, Joshua; Fang, Liang; Wang, Weiqun; Baybutt, Richard C

    2005-12-01

    This study was to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke constituents upon type II pneumocyte surfactant production in vitro, and how vitamins A and E may alter the response. Freshly isolated type II pneumocytes from Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated 20 h in medium with fetal bovine serum that was or was not treated with cigarette smoke. The number of adherent cells was inversely related to the dose of smoke or benzo(a)pyrene. Despite the decreased number of treated cells, the total amount of surfactant per culture well was unchanged, whereas surfactant production per cell was significantly increased (P<0.05). Vitamin A concentration was significantly (P<0.05) lower in the smoke-treated serum compared with untreated serum. When vitamin A or E was added to the cigarette smoke-treated serum, cell adherence and surfactant production returned to control values. In conclusion, cigarette smoke constituents or benzo(a)pyrene alone decreased the number of adherent type II pneumocytes, but did not alter surfactant amounts because of an increased production of surfactant per cell. Type II pneumocytes seem to adjust surfactant production dependent upon the number of type II pneumocytes to produce it and vitamin A or E enhance cell attachment in the presence of the smoke toxins.

  13. Fungal Laccases: Production, Function, and Applications in Food Processing

    PubMed Central

    Brijwani, Khushal; Rigdon, Anne; Vadlani, Praveen V.

    2010-01-01

    Laccases are increasingly being used in food industry for production of cost-effective and healthy foods. To sustain this trend widespread availability of laccase and efficient production systems have to be developed. The present paper delineate the recent developments that have taken place in understanding the role of laccase action, efforts in overexpression of laccase in heterologous systems, and various cultivation techniques that have been developed to efficiently produce laccase at the industrial scale. The role of laccase in different food industries, particularly the recent developments in laccase application for food processing, is discussed. PMID:21048859

  14. Food Security Through the Eyes of AVHRR: Changes and Variability of African Food Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrieling, A.; de Beurs, K. M.; Brown, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Food security is defined by FAO as a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Despite globalization and food trade, access to food remains a major problem for an important part of Africa's population. As a contribution to the food security analysis we identify at a coarse scale where trends and high interannual variability of food production occur within Africa. We use the 8-km resolution AVHRR NDVI 15-day composites of the GIMMS group (1981-2006). Two methods were applied to extract phenology indicators from the dataset. The indicators are start of season, length of season, time of maximum NDVI, maximum NDVI, and cumulated NDVI over the season. To focus the analysis on food production we spatially aggregate the annual indicators at sub-national level using a general crop mask. Persistent changes during the 26-year period were assessed using trend analysis on the yearly aggregated indicators. These trends may indicate changes in production, and consequent potential increases of food insecurity. We evaluate then where strong interannual variability of phenology indicators occurs. This relates to regular shortages of food availability. For Africa, field information on phenology or accurate time series of production figures at the sub-national scale are scarce. Validating the outcome of the AVHRR analysis is consequently difficult. We propose to use crop-specific national FAOSTAT yield statistics. For this purpose, we aggregate phenology outputs per country using specific masks for the major staple food crops. Although data quality and scale issues influence results, for several countries and crops significant positive correlations between indicators and crop production exist. We conclude that AVHRR-derived phenology information can provide useful inputs to food security analysis.

  15. Prediction of frozen food properties during freezing using product composition.

    PubMed

    Boonsupthip, W; Heldman, D R

    2007-06-01

    Frozen water fraction (FWF), as a function of temperature, is an important parameter for use in the design of food freezing processes. An FWF-prediction model, based on concentrations and molecular weights of specific product components, has been developed. Published food composition data were used to determine the identity and composition of key components. The model proposed in this investigation had been verified using published experimental FWF data and initial freezing temperature data, and by comparison to outputs from previously published models. It was found that specific food components with significant influence on freezing temperature depression of food products included low molecular weight water-soluble compounds with molality of 50 micromol per 100 g food or higher. Based on an analysis of 200 high-moisture food products, nearly 45% of the experimental initial freezing temperature data were within an absolute difference (AD) of +/- 0.15 degrees C and standard error (SE) of +/- 0.65 degrees C when compared to values predicted by the proposed model. The predicted relationship between temperature and FWF for all analyzed food products provided close agreements with experimental data (+/- 0.06 SE). The proposed model provided similar prediction capability for high- and intermediate-moisture food products. In addition, the proposed model provided statistically better prediction of initial freezing temperature and FWF than previous published models.

  16. Quit-Smoking Products: Boost Your Chance of Quitting for Good

    MedlinePlus

    ... about stop-smoking programs near you. References Rigotti NA. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation in adults. http://www. ... DrugSafety/ucm436494.htm. Accessed Dec. 20, 2016. Rigotti NA. Overview of smoking cessation management in adults. http:// ...

  17. Tobacco smoke induces production of chemokine CCL20 to promote lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-Zhen; Cheng, Xin; Li, Xin-Chun; Liu, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Xian-Quan; Shi, Xu; Wang, Zai-Yong; Guo, Yong-Qing; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Yun-Chao; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-07-10

    Tobacco kills nearly 6 million people each year, and 90% of the annual 1.59 million lung cancer deaths worldwide are caused by cigarette smoke. Clinically, a long latency is required for individuals to develop lung cancer since they were first exposed to smoking. In this study, we aimed to identify clinical relevant inflammatory factors that are critical for carcinogenesis by treating normal human lung epithelial cells with tobacco carcinogen nicotine-derived nitrosaminoketone (NNK) for a long period (60 days) and systematic screening in 84 cytokines/chemokines. We found that a chemokine CCL20 was significantly up-regulated by NNK, and in 78/173 (45.1%) patients the expression of CCL20 was higher in tumor samples than their adjacent normal lung tissues. Interestingly, CCL20 was up-regulated in 48/92 (52.2%) smoker and 29/78 (37.2%) nonsmoker patients (p = 0.05), and high CCL20 was associated with poor prognosis. NNK induced the production of CCL20, which promoted lung cancer cell proliferation and migration. In addition, an anti-inflammation drug, dexamethasone, inhibited NNK-induced CCL20 production and suppressed lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that CCL20 is crucial for tobacco smoke-caused lung cancer, and anti-CCL20 could be a rational approach to fight against this deadly disease.

  18. Control of Listeria species food safety at a poultry food production facility.

    PubMed

    Fox, Edward M; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance and control of food-borne human pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, is a critical aspect of modern food safety programs at food production facilities. This study evaluated contamination patterns of Listeria species at a poultry food production facility, and evaluated the efficacy of procedures to control the contamination and transfer of the bacteria throughout the plant. The presence of Listeria species was studied along the production chain, including raw ingredients, food-contact, non-food-contact surfaces, and finished product. All isolates were sub-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify possible entry points for Listeria species into the production chain, as well as identifying possible transfer routes through the facility. The efficacy of selected in-house sanitizers against a sub-set of the isolates was evaluated. Of the 77 different PFGE-types identified, 10 were found among two or more of the five categories/areas (ingredients, food preparation, cooking and packing, bulk packing, and product), indicating potential transfer routes at the facility. One of the six sanitizers used was identified as unsuitable for control of Listeria species. Combining PFGE data, together with information on isolate location and timeframe, facilitated identification of a persistent Listeria species contamination that had colonized the facility, along with others that were transient.

  19. Insect biomass to enhance food production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have established that insects are as good source of protein as conventional animal food (between 15 and 67% dry weight content). Insects are a good source of essential amino acids and essential fatty acids. Insect fat has a higher content of polyunsaturated (essential) fatty acids and a lowe...

  20. Food Production, Management, and Services. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This curriculum guide is one of a set of four components covering the food service occupational cluster, developed for use in occupational home economics courses. Teaching strategies, teaching aids, laboratory management plans, and test questions are coordinated with the chapters in the related reference book. A variety of teaching strategies is…

  1. Informal Food Production in the Enlarged European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alber, Jens; Kohler, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    How widespread is the production of food in old and new member states of the European Union and what is the social meaning or logic of such activities? We show that growing food is (a) more widespread in former communist countries than in traditional market economies and (b) is predominantly a hobby or recreational activity in affluent countries,…

  2. Processing- and product-related causes for food waste and implications for the food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Raak, Norbert; Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Rohm, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Reducing food waste is one of the prominent goals in the current research, which has also been set by the United Nations to achieve a more sustainable world by 2030. Given that previous studies mainly examined causes for food waste generation related to consumers, e.g., expectations regarding quality or uncertainties about edibility, this review aims at providing an overview on losses in the food industry, as well as on natural mechanisms by which impeccable food items are converted into an undesired state. For this, scientific literature was reviewed based on a keyword search, and information not covered was gathered by conducting expert interviews with representatives from 13 German food processing companies. From the available literature, three main areas of food waste generation were identified and discussed: product deterioration and spoilage during logistical operations, by-products from food processing, and consumer perception of quality and safety. In addition, expert interviews revealed causes for food waste in the processing sector, which were categorised as follows: losses resulting from processing operations and quality assurance, and products not fulfilling quality demands from trade. The interviewees explained a number of strategies to minimise food losses, starting with alternative tradeways for second choice items, and ending with emergency power supplies to compensate for power blackouts. It became clear that the concepts are not universally applicable for each company, but the overview provided in the present study may support researchers in finding appropriate solutions for individual cases.

  3. Food Production and Processing Considerations of Allergenic Food Ingredients: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Pedro A.; Boye, Joyce I.

    2012-01-01

    Although most consumers show no adverse symptoms to food allergens, health consequences for sensitized individuals can be very serious. As a result, the Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods has specified a series of allergenic ingredients/substances requiring mandatory declaration when present in processed prepackaged food products. Countries adhering to international standards are required to observe this minimum of eight substances, but additional priority allergens are included in the list in some countries. Enforcement agencies have traditionally focused their effort on surveillance of prepackaged goods, but there is a growing need to apply a bottom-up approach to allergen risk management in food manufacturing starting from primary food processing operations in order to minimize the possibility of allergen contamination in finished products. The present paper aims to review food production considerations that impact allergen risk management, and it is directed mainly to food manufacturers and policy makers. Furthermore, a series of food ingredients and the allergenic fractions identified from them, as well as the current methodology used for detection of these allergenic foods, is provided. PMID:22187573

  4. A new food ingredient for adding soluble oat beta-glucan health benefits to food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new oat food ingredient, containing 20% to 30% soluble beta-glucan, was obtained from oat bran by using natural treatments of heat and shear processing. The product is useful for reducing calories in foods while simultaneously adding health promoting benefits from its beta-glucan. It was evaluat...

  5. Food Production, Management, and Services. Fast Foods. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, LeRoy

    These instructional materials are designed for a course in food production, management, and services for fast foods. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; 15 references; and a…

  6. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries.

  7. Food Gardeners’ Productivity in Laramie, Wyoming: More Than a Hobby

    PubMed Central

    Conk, Shannon J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified the productivity of food gardens in Laramie, Wyoming, over 3 growing seasons. Methods. From 2012 to 2014, 33 participating gardening households weighed and recorded each harvest. Academic partners measured plot sizes and converted reported harvest weights to volume in cups. Results. The yield of the average 253-square-foot plot was enough to supply an adult with the daily US Department of Agriculture–recommended amount of vegetables for 9 months. Conclusions. Gardeners produced nutritionally meaningful quantities of food; thus, food gardening offers promise as an effective public health intervention for improving food security and nutritional health. PMID:26985621

  8. Risk for oral cancer associated to smoking, smokeless and oral dip products.

    PubMed

    Madani, Abdoul Hossain; Dikshit, Madhurima; Bhaduri, Debanshu

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common life threatening diseases in India. Tobacco and alcohol are considered to be the most risk factors for oral cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the association of tobacco and poly-ingredient oral dip products with oral cancer. A case-control study of 350 cases and 350 controls, over a period of 19 months, between February 2005 and September 2006 was carried out in Pune, India. The self-reported information about the consumption of tobacco, poly-ingredient oral dip products, alcohol, dietary habits and demographic status were collected by a researcher made questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify the risk of substances abuse. The frequency of smoking, smokeless and oral dip products in cases were significantly higher than controls (P < 0.0001). Among smoking types, bidi (P < 0.0001, OR = 4.1 95% CI = 2.4 - 6.9), of smokeless types, chewing tobacco (P < 0.0001, OR = 8.3, 95% CI = 5.4 - 13.0) and mishiri (P < 0.0001, OR = 3.3, 95% CI =2.1 - 5.4), and of oral dip products, consumption of gutkha (P < 0.0001, OR = 12.8, 95% CI =7.0 - 23.7) and supari (P < 0.0001, OR = 6.6, 95% CI =3.0 - 14.8) indicated strong association with oral cancer upon adjustment. This study provides strong evidence that gutkha, supari -areca nut- chewing tobacco (tobacco flakes), bidi smoking and mishiri (tobacco powder, which applied as a tooth and gum cleaner) are independent risk for oral cancer.

  9. The influence of smoking on radiation-induced bystander signal production in esophageal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hanu, C; Timotin, E; Wong, R; Sur, R K; Hayward, J E; Seymour, C B; Mothersill, C E

    2016-05-01

    The relevance of radiation-induced bystander effects in humans is unclear. Much of the existing data relate to cell lines but the effect of bystander signals in complex human tissues is unclear. A phase II clinical study was untaken, where blood sera from 60 patients along with 15 cancer-free volunteers were used to detect whether measurable bystander factor(s) could be found in the blood following high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Overall, there was no significant change in bystander signal production (measured in a human keratinocyte reporter system) before and after one treatment fraction of HDR brachytherapy (p>0.05). Further assessment of patient characteristics and environmental modifiable factors including smoking were also analyzed. Similar to previously published data, samples taken from smokers produced weaker signals compared to non-smokers (p<0.05). Although the number of non-smoking subjects was low, there was a clear decrease in cloning efficiency observed in keratinocyte cultures for these patients that requires further study. This study found that samples taken from smokers do not produce bystander signals, whereas samples taken from non-smokers can produce such signals following HDR brachytherapy. These findings highlight the importance of studying the interactions of multiple stressors including environmental modifiers with radiation, since some factors such as smoking may elicit protection in tumor cells which could counteract the effectiveness of radiation therapy.

  10. Asbestos exposure, smoking habits, and cancer incidence among production and maintenance workers in an electrochemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hilt, B.; Langard, S.A.; Andersen, A.; Rosenberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of cancer was studied in a cohort of 287 men who were exposed to asbestos at a nitric acid production plant from 1928 onwards. During the observation period from 1953 through 1980 all cancer cases among the cohort members were identified in The Cancer Registry. For the whole cohort 42 cases of cancer were observed versus 30.6 expected. The figures for cancer of the lungs and pleura combined were 17 observed versus 3.7 expected. The corresponding figures for a heavily exposed subcohort were 11 observed and 1.2 expected. In that group there was also an increased incidence of colon cancer with 3 cases observed against 0.8 cases expected. Within the whole cohort four cases of pleural and one case of peritoneal malignant mesothelioma were found. There was also an increased incidence of malignant melanoma of the skin with 3 cases observed against 0.6 expected. For cancer cases that were registered as of unknown origin there were 7 cases observed and 1.4 expected. There was no increased rate ratio for cancer at any site before 20 years after the first asbestos exposure. The smoking habits of all cohort members were recorded and the relative rates for lung cancer were calculated in relation to smoking habits. In common with previous studies the results indicate a multiplicative model for the interaction between asbestos exposure and smoking in regard to lung cancer risk.

  11. Determination of pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R; Jeng, J; Hsiang, W S; Hwang, B H

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco that was trapped with a C8 adsorbent cartridge and then detected by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. According to the results, the mainstream smoke contains 2-methylpropyl-benzene, 2-chloropropyl-benzene, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, 3-ethyl-phenol, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, hydroquinone, 3-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-methylcarbamate phenol, N-methyl-N-(2-phenylethyl)-acetamide, 4-(3-hydroxy-1-butenyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one, propanoic acid, N-acetylmethamphetamine, phenyl ester, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. In addition, the compounds in sidestream smoke are 2-propenyl benzene, phenylacetone, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, benzyl methyl ketoxime, 3,4-dihydro-2-naphthalenone, N-folmyamphetamine, N-acetylamphetamine, bibenzyl, N-folmylmethamphetamine, N-acetylmethamphetamine, N-propionymethamphetamine, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. Moreover, the presence of methamphetamine promotes the oxidation of the tobacco components.

  12. Tobacco Company Efforts to Influence the Food and Drug Administration-Commissioned Institute of Medicine Report Clearing the Smoke: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Crystal E.; Kyriss, Thomas; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Spurred by the creation of potential modified risk tobacco products, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) commissioned the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to assess the science base for tobacco “harm reduction,” leading to the 2001 IOM report Clearing the Smoke. The objective of this study was to determine how the tobacco industry organized to try to influence the IOM committee that prepared the report. Methods and Findings We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents in the University of California, San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, and IOM public access files. (A limitation of this method includes the fact that the tobacco companies have withheld some possibly relevant documents.) Tobacco companies considered the IOM report to have high-stakes regulatory implications. They developed and implemented strategies with consulting and legal firms to access the IOM proceedings. When the IOM study staff invited the companies to provide information on exposure and disease markers, clinical trial design for safety and efficacy, and implications for initiation and cessation, tobacco company lawyers, consultants, and in-house regulatory staff shaped presentations from company scientists. Although the available evidence does not permit drawing cause-and-effect conclusions, and the IOM may have come to the same conclusions without the influence of the tobacco industry, the companies were pleased with the final report, particularly the recommendations for a tiered claims system (with separate tiers for exposure and risk, which they believed would ease the process of qualifying for a claim) and license to sell products comparable to existing conventional cigarettes (“substantial equivalence”) without prior regulatory approval. Some principles from the IOM report, including elements of the substantial equivalence recommendation, appear in the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Conclusions Tobacco companies

  13. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules.

  14. Eliciting preferences for waterpipe tobacco smoking using a discrete choice experiment: implications for product regulation

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Maziak, Wasim; Hammond, David; Nakkash, Rima; Islam, Farahnaz; Cheng, Xi; Thrasher, James F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Waterpipe smoking is highly prevalent among university students, and has been increasing in popularity despite mounting evidence showing it is harmful to health. The aim of this study was to measure preferences for waterpipe smoking and determine which product characteristics are most important to smokers. Setting A large university in the Southeastern USA. Participants Adult waterpipe smokers attending the university (N=367). Design Participants completed an Internet-based discrete choice experiment to reveal their preferences for, and trade-offs between, the attributes of hypothetical waterpipe smoking sessions. Participants were presented with waterpipe lounge menus, each with three fruit-flavoured options and one tobacco flavoured option, in addition to an opt out option. Nicotine content and price were provided for each choice. Participants were randomised to either receive menus with a text-only health-warning message or no message. Outcome measures Multinomial and nested logit models were used to estimate the impact on consumer choice of attributes and between-subject assignment of health warnings respectively. Results On average, participants preferred fruit-flavoured varieties to tobacco flavour. They were averse to options labelled with higher nicotine content. Females and non-smokers of cigarettes were more likely than their counterparts to prefer flavoured and nicotine-free varieties. Participants exposed to a health warning were more likely to opt out. Conclusions Fruit-flavoured tobacco and lower nicotine content labels, two strategies widely used by the industry, increase the demand for waterpipe smoking among young adults. Waterpipe-specific regulation should limit the availability of flavoured waterpipe tobacco and require accurate labelling of constituents. Waterpipe-specific tobacco control regulation, along with research to inform policy, is required to curb this emerging public health threat. PMID:26353876

  15. Effect of processing technologies on the allergenicity of food products.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Benedé, Sara; Molina, Elena; López-Expósito, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Heat treatment has been used since ancient times for food processing, first to ensure the safety of food and its storage, but also to transform its characteristics (in its raw form) and obtain new textures, flavors, or novel foods. However, the transformation experienced by food components when heated, or processed, can dramatically affect the allergenicity of food, either reducing or increasing it. To date, most of the articles published dealing with the changes in the potential allergenicity of food are focused on heat treatment and the Maillard reaction. However, it is also important to give prominence to other group of new technologies developed nowadays, such as high-pressure processing, microwaves and food irradiation. These techniques are not likely to replace traditional processing methods, but they are becoming attractive for the food industry due to different reasons, and it is expected in the near future to have different products on the market processed with these new technologies at an affordable cost. Moreover, other biochemical modifications, particularly enzymatic cross-linking of proteins, have attracted wide-spread attention and will be considered as well in this review, because of its great opportunities to induce protein modification and thus affect food allergenicity. Together with the effect of processing of food allergens, this review will place special attention on gastroduodenal digestion of processed allergens, which directly affects their allergenicity.

  16. Prototype Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies: Branded Food Products Database for Public Health Proof of Concept

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Prototype Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (Prototype FNDDS) Branded Food Products Database for Public Health is a proof of concept database. The database contains a small selection of food products which is being used to exhibit the approach for incorporation of the Branded Food ...

  17. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    PubMed

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  18. Listeria monocytogenes in Smoked Salmon and Other Smoked Fish at Retail in Italy: Frequency of Contamination and Strain Characterization in Products from Different Manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Acciari, Vicdalia Aniela; Torresi, Marina; Iannetti, Luigi; Scattolini, Silvia; Pomilio, Francesco; Decastelli, Lucia; Colmegna, Silvia; Muliari, Riccardo; Bossù, Teresa; Proroga, Yolande; Montagna, Cosimo; Cardamone, Cinzia; Cogoni, Paola; Prencipe, Vincenza Annunziata; Migliorati, Giacomo

    2017-02-01

    Seven hundred seventy-eight samples of packaged smoked fish (774 smoked salmon and 4 smoked swordfish) on sale in Italy, from 50 different manufacturers located in 12 European Union countries, were purchased from the Italian market between May and December 2011. The surface temperatures of the samples on sale ranged from 0 to 13°C (3.4 ± 1.5°C, mean ± SD). Six hundred eighty (87.4%) of 778 samples were stored at ≤4°C. One hundred fifty-seven samples (20.2%, 95% confidence interval 17.5 to 23.1%) were contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes , with 26 samples (3.3%, 95% confidence interval 2.3 to 4.8%) at levels >100 CFU/g. The maximum level of contamination was 1.3 ×10(6) CFU/g. The differences in the level of contamination of smoked fish between countries (χ(2) = 91.54, P < 0.05) and manufacturers (χ(2) = 193.22, P < 0.05) were significant. The frequency of detection for products from different manufacturing premises ranged from 0 to 76.9%. Serotyping by serological agglutination revealed that the main serotypes detected were 1/2a (65.3%) and 1/2b (22.4%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing with restriction enzymes AscI and ApaI yielded 36 pulsotypes from 144 isolates, clustering into 17 groups. Eight main pulsotypes accounted for 70.8% of the isolates. Three of the main pulsotypes were exclusively from products of a single manufacturer. In general, products from the same manufacturer showed genetic homogeneity, with one strongly prevalent pulsotype. Different manufacturers usually showed very different levels of contamination of the final product, confirming the importance of the management of process hygiene for controlling L. monocytogenes contamination.

  19. Use of gamma irradiation to prevent aflatoxin B 1 production in smoked dried fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogbadu, G. H.

    Smoked dried fish bought from the Nigerian market was inoculated with spores of barAspergillus flavus (U.I. 81) and irradiated with doses of 0.625, 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 KGy gamma irradiation. The effect of aflatoxin B 1 production on subsequent incubation for 8 days as stationary cultures was measured. The amount of aflatoxin B 1 produced was found to decrease with increased gamma irradiation dose levels. While the non-irradiated control produced significantly (at 1% level) greater amounts of aflatoxin B 1 as compared to the treated cultures.

  20. Cigarette smoke regulates the expression of TLR4 and IL-8 production by human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sarir, Hadi; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Karimi, Khalil; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Rahman, Irfan; Caldenhoven, Eric; Nijkamp, Frans P; Folkerts, Gert

    2009-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are present on monocytes and alveolar macrophages that form the first line of defense against inhaled particles. The importance of those cells in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has well been documented. Cigarette smoke contains high concentration of oxidants which can stimulate immune cells to produce reactive oxygen species, cytokines and chemokines. Methods In this study, we evaluated the effects of cigarette smoke medium (CSM) on TLR4 expression and interleukin (IL)-8 production by human macrophages investigating the involvement of ROS. Results and Discussion TLR4 surface expression was downregulated on short term exposure (1 h) of CSM. The downregulation could be explained by internalization of the TLR4 and the upregulation by an increase in TLR4 mRNA. IL-8 mRNA and protein were also increased by CSM. CSM stimulation increased intracellular ROS-production and decreased glutathione (GSH) levels. The modulation of TLR4 mRNA and surface receptors expression, IRAK activation, IκB-α degradation, IL-8 mRNA and protein, GSH depletion and ROS production were all prevented by antioxidants such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Conclusion TLR4 may be involved in the pathogenesis of lung emphysema and oxidative stress and seems to be a crucial contributor in lung inflammation. PMID:19409098

  1. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.

    PubMed

    Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czyżewska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  2. [Climate change, food production and human health].

    PubMed

    Faergeman, Ole; Østergaard, Lars

    2009-10-26

    Production of livestock accounts for 18% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Although livestock products can alleviate malnutrition in poor countries, they are associated with diseases of affluence in wealthy countries. Red meat (pork, beef, sheep and goat), especially, is associated with higher rates of death due to cardiovascular disease and cancer. A policy of reducing consumption of red meat in wealthy countries and encouraging a limited consumption increase in poor countries would benefit the climate as well as human health.

  3. Potential and attainable food production and food security in different regions

    PubMed Central

    Vries, F. W. T. Penning de; Rabbinge, R.; Groot, J. J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Growing prosperity in the South is accompanied by human diets that will claim more natural resources per capita. This reality, combined with growing populations, may raise the global demand for food crops two- to four-fold within two generations. Considering the large volume of natural resources and potential crop yields, it seems that this demand can be met smoothly. However, this is a fallacy for the following reasons. (i) Geographic regions differ widely in their potential food security: policy choices for agricultural use of natural resources are limited in Asia. For example, to ensure national self-sufficiency and food security, most of the suitable land (China) and nearly all of the surface water (India) are needed. Degradation restricts options further. (ii) The attainable level of agricultural production depends also on socio-economic conditions. Extensive poverty keeps the attainable food production too low to achieve food security, even when the yield gap is wide, as in Africa. (iii) Bio-energy, non-food crops and nature compete with food crops for natural resources. Global and regional food security are attainable, but only with major efforts. Strategies to achieve alternative aims will be discussed.

  4. Causes and trends of water scarcity in food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porkka, Miina; Gerten, Dieter; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Siebert, Stefan; Kummu, Matti

    2016-01-01

    The insufficiency of water resources to meet the needs of food production is a pressing issue that is likely to increase in importance in the future. Improved understanding of historical developments can provide a basis for addressing future challenges. In this study we analyse how hydroclimatic variation, cropland expansion and evolving agricultural practices have influenced the potential for food self-sufficiency within the last century. We consider a food production unit (FPU) to have experienced green-blue water (GBW) scarcity if local renewable green (in soils) and blue water resources (in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, aquifers) were not sufficient for producing a reference food supply of 3000 kcal with 20% animal products for all inhabitants. The number of people living in FPUs affected by GBW scarcity has gone up from 360 million in 1905 (21% of world population at the time) to 2.2 billion (34%) in 2005. During this time, GBW scarcity has spread to large areas and become more frequent in regions where it occurs. Meanwhile, cropland expansion has increased green water availability for agriculture around the world, and advancements in agronomic practices have decreased water requirements of producing food. These efforts have improved food production potential and thus eased GBW scarcity considerably but also made possible the rapid population growth of the last century. The influence of modern agronomic practices is particularly striking: if agronomic practices of the early 1900s were applied today, it would roughly double the population under GBW scarcity worldwide.

  5. All sorts of options for food product sorting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most food products undergo significant processing before arrival at the grocery store or local market. A major component of this processing includes sorting the product according to quality attributes such as size, color, sweetness, and ripeness. In addition, removal of defects or contaminants is a ...

  6. Alternaria in Food: Ecophysiology, Mycotoxin Production and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Patriarca, Andrea; Magan, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria species are common saprophytes or pathogens of a wide range of plants pre- and post-harvest. This review considers the relative importance of Alternaria species, their ecology, competitiveness, production of mycotoxins and the prevalence of the predominant mycotoxins in different food products. The available toxicity data on these toxins and the potential future impacts of Alternaria species and their toxicity in food products pre- and post-harvest are discussed. The growth of Alternaria species is influenced by interacting abiotic factors, especially water activity (aw), temperature and pH. The boundary conditions which allow growth and toxin production have been identified in relation to different matrices including cereal grain, sorghum, cottonseed, tomato, and soya beans. The competitiveness of Alternaria species is related to their water stress tolerance, hydrolytic enzyme production and ability to produce mycotoxins. The relationship between A. tenuissima and other phyllosphere fungi has been examined and the relative competitiveness determined using both an Index of Dominance (ID) and the Niche Overlap Index (NOI) based on carbon-utilisation patterns. The toxicology of some of the Alternaria mycotoxins have been studied; however, some data are still lacking. The isolation of Alternaria toxins in different food products including processed products is reviewed. The future implications of Alternaria colonization/infection and the role of their mycotoxins in food production chains pre- and post-harvest are discussed. PMID:26190916

  7. Recent trends in bioethanol production from food processing byproducts.

    PubMed

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Stark, Benjamin C

    2016-11-01

    The widespread use of corn starch and sugarcane as sources of sugar for the production of ethanol via fermentation may negatively impact the use of farmland for production of food. Thus, alternative sources of fermentable sugars, particularly from lignocellulosic sources, have been extensively investigated. Another source of fermentable sugars with substantial potential for ethanol production is the waste from the food growing and processing industry. Reviewed here is the use of waste from potato processing, molasses from processing of sugar beets into sugar, whey from cheese production, byproducts of rice and coffee bean processing, and other food processing wastes as sugar sources for fermentation to ethanol. Specific topics discussed include the organisms used for fermentation, strategies, such as co-culturing and cell immobilization, used to improve the fermentation process, and the use of genetic engineering to improve the performance of ethanol producing fermenters.

  8. Regulating food products without impeding innovation.

    PubMed

    Mathioudakis, B; Przyrembel, H; Hermus, R

    1999-12-01

    Industry and regulatory bodies share a common goal of making beneficial products available to consumers, but the relationship between industry and regulators can become adversarial if it is not handled properly. When industry views the regulatory process as an obstacle to product development and marketing, and regulators view petitioners as having only a profit motive, the opportunity to work together efficiently to get products to market is lost. While it is difficult to codify how industry and regulators should interact, it is worthwhile to look at some of the most provocative issues and see how they might be addressed. The discussion that follows will examine the functioning of regulatory bodies in the European Union, consider how more flexibility might be added to the regulatory process, and raise the issue of how regulatory bodies can function to serve the consumer while promoting innovation.

  9. Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, and lead in smoke from tobacco products other than cigarettes.

    PubMed Central

    Appel, B R; Guirguis, G; Kim, I S; Garbin, O; Fracchia, M; Flessel, C P; Kizer, K W; Book, S A; Warriner, T E

    1990-01-01

    Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and lead in mainstream smoke from cigars, roll-your-own (RYO) cigarette and pipe tobaccos were sampled to evaluate their potential health significance. Results with reference cigarettes were consistent with published values, providing support for the methodology employed. The emissions of benzene and BaP, expressed as mass emitted per gram of tobacco consumed, were similar for all products evaluated; for benzene, the mean values for cigars, RYO cigarette and pipe tobaccos were 156 +/- 52, 68 +/- 11, and 242 +/- 126 micrograms/g, respectively. Mean values for BaP were 42 +/- 7 and 48 +/- 4 ng/g for cigars and RYO cigarette tobacco, respectively. Lead values were below the limit of reliable quantitation in all cases. The mean benzene concentrations in a puff ranged from 1 to 2 x 10(5) micrograms/m3 for cigars, RYO cigarette and pipe tobaccos. For BaP, the puff concentration averaged about 60 micrograms/m3 for cigars and RYO cigarette tobacco. The results suggest that smoking cigars, pipes or RYO cigarettes leads to potential exposures which exceed the No Significant Risk levels of benzene and BaP set pursuant to California's Proposition 65. These tobacco products are now required to bear a health hazard warning when sold in California. We recommend that this be adopted as national policy. PMID:2327532

  10. A longitudinal study of smokers' exposure to cigarette smoke and the effects of spontaneous product switching.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony; Sommarström, Johan; Camacho, Oscar M; Sisodiya, Ajit S; Prasad, Krishna

    2015-06-01

    A challenge in investigating the effect of public health policies on cigarette consumption and exposure arises from variation in a smoker's exposure from cigarette to cigarette and the considerable differences between smokers. In addition, limited data are available on the effects of spontaneous product switching on a smoker's cigarette consumption and exposure to smoke constituents. Over 1000 adult smokers of the same commercial 10mg International Organization for Standardization (ISO) tar yield cigarette were recruited into the non-residential, longitudinal study across 10 cities in Germany. Cigarette consumption, mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine and biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone were measured every 6months over a 3 and a half year period. Cigarette consumption remained stable through the study period and did not vary significantly when smokers spontaneously switched products. Mouth level exposure decreased for smokers (n=111) who switched to cigarettes of 7mg ISO tar yield or lower. In addition, downward trends in mouth level exposure estimates were observed for smokers who did not switch cigarettes. Data from this study illustrate some of the challenges in measuring smokers' long-term exposure to smoke constituents in their everyday environment.

  11. Effects of cigarette smoke on degranulation and NO production by mast cells and epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiu M; Kim, Henry S; Kumar, Rakesh K; Heywood, Gavin J; Hunt, John E; McNeil, H Patrick; Thomas, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is decreased by cigarette smoking. The hypothesis that oxides of nitrogen (NOX) in cigarette smoke solution (CSS) may exert a negative feedback mechanism upon NO release from epithelial (AEC, A549, and NHTBE) and basophilic cells (RBL-2H3) was tested in vitro. CSS inhibited both NO production and degranulation (measured as release of beta-hexosaminidase) in a dose-dependent manner from RBL-2H3 cells. Inhibition of NO production by CSS in AEC, A549, and NHTBE cells was also dose-dependent. In addition, CSS decreased expression of NOS mRNA and protein expression. The addition of NO inhibitors and scavengers did not, however, reverse the effects of CSS, nor did a NO donor (SNP) or nicotine mimic CSS. N-acetyl-cysteine, partially reversed the inhibition of beta-hexosaminidase release suggesting CSS may act via oxidative free radicals. Thus, some of the inhibitory effects of CSS appear to be via oxidative free radicals rather than a NOX -related negative feedback. PMID:16168067

  12. Variation in tobacco and mainstream smoke toxicant yields from selected commercial cigarette products.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, A; Betson, T R; Gama, M Vinicius; McAdam, K

    2015-04-01

    There is a drive toward the mandated lowering and reporting of selected toxicants in tobacco smoke. Several studies have quantified the mainstream cigarette emissions of toxicants, providing benchmark levels. Few, however, have examined how measured toxicant levels within a single product vary over time due to natural variation in the tobacco, manufacturing and measurement. In a single centre analysis, key toxicants were measured in the tobacco blend and smoke of 3R4F reference cigarette and three commercial products, each sampled monthly for 10 months. For most analytes, monthly variation was low (coefficient of variation <15%); but higher (⩾ 20%) for some compounds present at low (ppb) levels. Reporting toxicant emissions as a ratio to nicotine increased the monthly variation of the 9 analytes proposed for mandated lowering, by 1-2 percentage points. Variation in toxicant levels was generally 1.5-1.7-fold higher in commercial cigarettes compared with 3R4F over the 10-month period, but increased up to 3.5-fold for analytes measured at ppb level. The potential error (2CV) associated with single-point-in-time sampling averaged ∼ 20%. Together, these data demonstrate that measurement of emissions from commercial cigarettes is associated with considerable variation for low-level toxicants. This variation would increase if the analyses were conducted in more than one laboratory.

  13. Cigarette smoking products suppress anti-viral effects of Type I interferon via phosphorylation-dependent downregulation of its receptor.

    PubMed

    HuangFu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Jianghuai; Harty, Ronald N; Fuchs, Serge Y

    2008-09-22

    While negative effect of smoking on the resistance to viral infections was known, the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Here we report that products of cigarette smoking compromise the cellular anti-viral defenses by inhibiting the signaling induced by Type I interferon (IFN). Cigarette smoking condensate (but not pure nicotine) stimulated specific serine phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of the IFNAR1 subunit of the Type I IFN receptor leading to attenuation of IFN signaling and decreased resistance to viral infection. This resistance was restored in cells where phosphorylation-dependent degradation of IFNAR1 is abolished. We conclude that smoking compromises cellular anti-viral defenses via degradation of Type I IFN receptor and discuss the significance of this mechanism for efficacy of IFN-based therapies.

  14. Past, Present and Future of Sensors in Food Production

    PubMed Central

    Adley, Catherine C.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination management is a crucial task in the food industry. Undesirable microbial spoilage in a modern food processing plant poses a risk to consumers’ health, causing severe economic losses to the manufacturers and retailers, contributing to wastage of food and a concern to the world’s food supply. The main goal of the quality management is to reduce the time interval between the filling and the detection of a microorganism before release, from several days, to minutes or, at most, hours. This would allow the food company to stop the production, limiting the damage to just a part of the entire batch, with considerable savings in terms of product value, thereby avoiding the utilization of raw materials, packaging and strongly reducing food waste. Sensor systems offer major advantages over current systems as they are versatile and affordable but need to be integrated in the existing processing systems as a process analytical control (PAT) tool. The desire for good selectivity, low cost, portable and usable at working sites, sufficiently rapid to be used at-line or on-line, and no sample preparation devices are required. The application of biosensors in the food industry still has to compete with the standard analytical techniques in terms of cost, performance and reliability. PMID:28234333

  15. Price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Zenk, Shannon N; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-05-01

    Food and beverage price promotions may be potential targets for public health initiatives but have not been well documented. We assessed prevalence and patterns of price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores by store type, product package size, and product healthfulness. We also assessed associations of price promotions with community characteristics and product prices. In-store data collected in 2010-2012 from 8959 food stores in 468 communities spanning 46 U.S. states were used. Differences in the prevalence of price promotions were tested across stores types, product varieties, and product package sizes. Multivariable regression analyses examined associations of presence of price promotions with community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and with product prices. The prevalence of price promotions across all 44 products sampled was, on average, 13.4% in supermarkets (ranging from 9.1% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 18.2% for sugar-sweetened beverages), 4.5% in grocery stores (ranging from 2.5% for milk to 6.6% for breads and cereals), and 2.6% in limited service stores (ranging from 1.2% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 4.1% for breads and cereals). No differences were observed by community characteristics. Less-healthy versus more-healthy product varieties and larger versus smaller product package sizes generally had a higher prevalence of price promotion, particularly in supermarkets. On average, in supermarkets, price promotions were associated with 15.2% lower prices. The observed patterns of price promotions warrant more attention in public health food environment research and intervention.

  16. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  17. Nutrition and health in relation to food production and processing.

    PubMed

    Ghebremeskel, K; Crawford, M A

    1994-01-01

    Intensive animal rearing, manipulation of crop production and food processing have altered the qualitative and quantitative balance of nutrients of foods consumed by Western society. This change, to which the physiology and biochemistry of man may not be presently adapted to, is thought to be responsible for the chronic diseases that are rampant in the Industrialised Western Countries. Agriculture production and food processing practices, dietary habits and lifestyle of the West is being fostered without any appraisal of the health implications by most developing countries. Consequently, a rising trend in the incidences of obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, dental decay and appendicitis is apparent. Mediterranean countries are adopting the agriculture and food practices of northern Europe as the result of the harmonisation of European food and agriculture policy. It is predicted that the low incidence of morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes and breast and colon cancer of the Mediterranean countries would rise to the high northern European level in the foreseeable future. Most of these chronic diseases are lifestyle related and are preventable. This can be realised by tackling the root problem which is food production and processing practices and not by dispensing designer drugs or opening more hospital beds.

  18. [Milk and milk products: food sources of calcium].

    PubMed

    Farré Rovira, Rosaura

    2015-04-07

    The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain.

  19. Bacterial cinnamoyl esterase activity screening for the production of a novel functional food product.

    PubMed

    Guglielmetti, Simone; De Noni, Ivano; Caracciolo, Federica; Molinari, Francesco; Parini, Carlo; Mora, Diego

    2008-02-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5 was selected for its strong cinnamoyl esterase activity on chlorogenic acid and employed for the preparation of a food product containing a high concentration of free caffeic acid. The novel food product was demonstrated to display high total antioxidant power and potential probiotic properties.

  20. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1) nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2) the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3) nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4) plant disease diagnostics; 5) animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6) postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have

  1. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1) nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2) the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3) nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4) plant disease diagnostics; 5) animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6) postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have

  2. Smoking Costs World $1.4 Trillion a Year in Disease, Lost Productivity

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163313.html Smoking Costs World $1.4 Trillion a Year in Disease, Lost ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly 6 percent of the world's health-care spending is tied to smoking, a ...

  3. Inulin content of fortified food products in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaito, Chanantita; Judprasong, Kunchit; Puwastien, Prapasri

    2016-02-15

    This study examined inulin content in 266 samples. They were 126 dried, 105 liquid and 27 semi-solid of twelve commercial inulin fortified food products and 8 samples of natural dried sunchoke. For dried food products, inulin content ranged from 3.0 ±0.8g/100g fresh weight (FW) in milk powder to 83.7± 17.8g/100g FW in inulin powder. The levels in a descending order are the powder of inulin, weight control diet, coffee mixed, instant beverage, supplemented food products for pregnant and milk. For liquid fortified foods, inulin at the level of 0.3± 0.1g/100mL FW was found in UHT milk, and up to 13.5± 4.1g/100mL FW in weight control diet beverage. The level of 2.0-2.3g/100g FW of inulin was found in beverage with different flavours, soybean milk and fruit juice. For semi-solid food, cream yoghurt, inulin at 3.9± 1.1g/100g FW was found. A serving of most products contributes inulin at 11-33% of the recommended daily intake of dietary fibre.

  4. Determination of methylcellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose food gums in food and food products: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Robert G; Deshmukh, Balasaheb K; Conklin, Jerry; Turowski, Maciej; Lynch, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    A collaborative study was performed to determine the reproducibility of a method for the determination of methylcellulose (MC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) in food. These widely used food gums possess unusual solubility characteristics and cannot accurately be determined by existing dietary fiber methods. The new method uses the enzyme-digestion procedure of AOAC Official Method 991.43. Digestate solutions must be refrigerated to fully hydrate MC or HPMC. The chilled solutions are filtered and analyzed by size-exclusion liquid chromatography. Collaborating laboratories received 28 samples containing MC or HPMC in the range of 0-100%. The sample set included blind duplicates of 5 food matrixes (bread, milk, fish, potato, and powdered juice drink). Cochran and Grubbs tests were used to eliminate outliers. For food samples containing MC, values for within-laboratory precision, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr), ranged from 4.2 to 16%, and values for among-laboratories precision, reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR), ranged from 11 to 20%. For HPMC samples, RSDr values ranged from 6.4 to 27%, and RSDR values ranged from 17 to 39%. Recoveries of MC and HPMC from the food matrixes ranged from 78 to 101%. These results show acceptable precision and reproducibility for the determination of MC and HPMC, for which no Official AOAC Methods exist. It is recommended that this method be adopted as AOAC Official First Action.

  5. Active or Passive Exposure to Tobacco Smoking and Allergic Rhinitis, Allergic Dermatitis, and Food Allergy in Adults and Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Saulyte, Jurgita; Regueira, Carlos; Montes-Martínez, Agustín; Khudyakov, Polyna; Takkouche, Bahi

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy are extremely common diseases, especially among children, and are frequently associated to each other and to asthma. Smoking is a potential risk factor for these conditions, but so far, results from individual studies have been conflicting. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence for an association between active smoking (AS) or passive exposure to secondhand smoke and allergic conditions. Methods and Findings We retrieved studies published in any language up to June 30th, 2013 by systematically searching Medline, Embase, the five regional bibliographic databases of the World Health Organization, and ISI-Proceedings databases, by manually examining the references of the original articles and reviews retrieved, and by establishing personal contact with clinical researchers. We included cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies reporting odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) estimates and confidence intervals of smoking and allergic conditions, first among the general population and then among children. We retrieved 97 studies on allergic rhinitis, 91 on allergic dermatitis, and eight on food allergy published in 139 different articles. When all studies were analyzed together (showing random effects model results and pooled ORs expressed as RR), allergic rhinitis was not associated with active smoking (pooled RR, 1.02 [95% CI 0.92–1.15]), but was associated with passive smoking (pooled RR 1.10 [95% CI 1.06–1.15]). Allergic dermatitis was associated with both active (pooled RR, 1.21 [95% CI 1.14–1.29]) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.07 [95% CI 1.03–1.12]). In children and adolescent, allergic rhinitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.40 (95% CI 1.24–1.59) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.09 [95% CI 1.04–1.14]). Allergic dermatitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.36 [95% CI 1.17–1.46]) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.06 [95% CI 1.01–1

  6. Inhibitory effects of nicotine derived from cigarette smoke on thymic stromal lymphopoietin production in epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiangxu; Segawa, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Natsumi; Hiratsuka, Masahiro; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2016-04-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is regarded as the main factor responsible for the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Cigarette smoke is an aggravating factor for allergies, but has been reported to decrease the risk of AD. In the present study, we evaluated the role of nicotine, the main constituent in cigarette smoke extract, and its underlying mechanism of action in the regulation of TSLP expression. We found that nicotine significantly inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced TSLP expression in BALB/c mice and the mouse keratinocyte cell line PAM212. Nicotine inhibition of TSLP production was abolished by pretreatments with α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) antagonists, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors. The same inhibitors abolished inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by nicotine. These results suggest that nicotine inhibits the expression of TSLP by suppressing the activation of NF-κB through the α7 nAChR-PI3K-AMPK signaling pathway.

  7. Human health problems associated with current agricultural food production.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramesh V

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technological developments in the agricultural sectors in the recent past has resulted in increased food production and at the same time led to certain public health concerns. Unseasonal rains at the time of harvest and improper post harvest technology often results in agricultural commodities being contaminated with certain fungi and results in the production of mycotoxins. Consumption of such commodities has resulted in human disease outbreaks. Naturally occurring toxins, inherently present in foods and either consumed as such or mixed up with grains, had been responsible for disease outbreaks. Other possible causes of health concern include the application of various agrochemicals such as pesticides and the use of antibiotics in aquaculture and veterinary practices. Foodborne pathogens entering the food chain during both traditional and organic agriculture pose a challenge to public health. Modern biotechnology, producing genetically modified foods, if not regulated appropriately could pose dangers to human health. Use of various integrated food management systems like the Hazard Analysis and critical control system approach for risk prevention, monitoring and control of food hazards are being emphasized with globalization to minimise the danger posed to human health from improper agricultural practices.

  8. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production.

    PubMed

    Bouwmeester, Hans; Dekkers, Susan; Noordam, Maryvon Y; Hagens, Werner I; Bulder, Astrid S; de Heer, Cees; ten Voorde, Sandra E C G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Marvin, Hans J P; Sips, Adriënne J A M

    2009-02-01

    Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As with most new and evolving technologies, potential benefits are emphasized, while little is known on safety of the application of nanotechnologies in the agro-food sector. This review gives an overview of scientific issues that need to be addressed with priority in order to improve the risk assessment for nanoparticles in food. The following research topics are considered to contribute pivotally to risk assessment of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in food products. Set a definition for NPs to facilitate regulatory discussions, prioritization of research and exchange of study results. Develop analytical tools for the characterization of nanoparticles in complex biological matrices like food. Establish relevant dose metrics for nanoparticles used for both interpretation of scientific studies as well as regulatory frameworks. Search for deviant behavior (kinetics) and novel effects (toxicity) of nanoparticles and assess the validity of currently used test systems following oral exposure. Estimate the consumer exposure to nanoparticles.

  9. Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J; Powles, John W; Butler, Colin D; Uauy, Ricardo

    2007-10-06

    Food provides energy and nutrients, but its acquisition requires energy expenditure. In post-hunter-gatherer societies, extra-somatic energy has greatly expanded and intensified the catching, gathering, and production of food. Modern relations between energy, food, and health are very complex, raising serious, high-level policy challenges. Together with persistent widespread under-nutrition, over-nutrition (and sedentarism) is causing obesity and associated serious health consequences. Worldwide, agricultural activity, especially livestock production, accounts for about a fifth of total greenhouse-gas emissions, thus contributing to climate change and its adverse health consequences, including the threat to food yields in many regions. Particular policy attention should be paid to the health risks posed by the rapid worldwide growth in meat consumption, both by exacerbating climate change and by directly contributing to certain diseases. To prevent increased greenhouse-gas emissions from this production sector, both the average worldwide consumption level of animal products and the intensity of emissions from livestock production must be reduced. An international contraction and convergence strategy offers a feasible route to such a goal. The current global average meat consumption is 100 g per person per day, with about a ten-fold variation between high-consuming and low-consuming populations. 90 g per day is proposed as a working global target, shared more evenly, with not more than 50 g per day coming from red meat from ruminants (ie, cattle, sheep, goats, and other digastric grazers).

  10. Problems of toxicants in marine food products

    PubMed Central

    Bagnis, R.; Berglund, F.; Elias, P. S.; van Esch, G. J.; Halstead, B. W.; Kojima, Kohei

    1970-01-01

    The expansion of marine fisheries into tropical waters, which is now occurring, will increase the risks of widespread poisonings because of the abundance of biotoxins in warm-water organisms. However, toxic marine organisms are not only a health hazard but also a possible source of new pharmaceutical products. A classification of marine intoxicants is given in this paper with special reference to the oral biotoxins which will be of primary concern in the expansion of warm-water fisheries. The biotoxins are both invertebrate (e.g., molluscs, arthropods) and vertebrate (mostly fishes) in origin. Biotoxications of vertebrate origin may be caused by the muscles, the gonads or the blood of certain fishes or by special poison glands not equipped with traumagenic devices. (Venomous fishes, having poison glands and traumagenic spines, etc., are of no direct concern as oral intoxicants.) The ichthyosarcotoxic fishes, in which the flesh is poisonous, appear to constitute the most significant health hazard. A list of fishes reported as causing ciguatera poisoning (one of the most serious and widespread forms of ichthyosarcotoxism) is included in this paper. PMID:4908418

  11. Impact of plain packaging of tobacco products on smoking in adults and children: an elicitation of international experts’ estimates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Governments sometimes face important decisions in the absence of direct evidence. In these cases, expert elicitation methods can be used to quantify uncertainty. We report the results of an expert elicitation study regarding the likely impact on smoking rates in adults and children of plain packaging of tobacco products. Methods Thirty-three tobacco control experts were recruited from the UK (n = 14), Australasia (n = 12) and North America (n = 7). Experts’ estimates were individually elicited via telephone interviews, and then linearly pooled. Elicited estimates consisted of (1) the most likely, (2) the highest possible, and (3) the lowest possible value for the percentage of (a) adult smokers and (b) children trying smoking, two years after the introduction of plain packaging (all other things being constant) in a target country in the expert’s region of residence. Results The median estimate for the impact on adult smoking prevalence was a 1 percentage point decline (99% range 2.25 to 0), and for the percentage of children trying smoking was a 3 percentage point decline (99% range 6.1 to 0), the latter estimated impact being larger than the former (P < 0.001, sign test). There were no differences in either estimate by region (I2: Adults: 0; Children: 0) but there was considerable variability between experts’ estimates within regions (I2: Adults: 0.91; Children: 0.89). Conclusions In the absence of direct evidence for the impact of introducing plain packaging on smoking rates in adults and children, this study shows that tobacco control experts felt the most likely outcomes would be a reduction in smoking prevalence in adults, and a greater reduction in the numbers of children trying smoking, although there was substantial variability in the estimated size of these impacts. No experts judged an increase in smoking as a likely outcome. PMID:23302325

  12. China's success in increasing per capita food production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua

    2011-07-01

    China has to feed 20% of the global population with only about 5% of the planet's water resources and 7% of its arable land. With such limited natural conditions, however, China's grain production has increased from about 200 kg per capita in 1949 to about 400 kg in the early 1990s. Hunger as a social problem has largely disappeared after being prevalent in China for several thousand years with the rise and decline of dynasties. This achievement has been accompanied by a 2.5-fold increase in the population and a 4.5-fold increase in total grain production. Although total cropped land has increased slightly in some areas, land used for cropping has decreased from 0.18 hectare per capita in the 1950s to less than 0.1 hectare per capita today. Apparently, yield increase or improved land productivity is the major contributor to the increase of food production per capita. What are the major reasons for the unprecedented achievement in China's food production? Political decisions, good or bad, on land distribution and ownership changes, have caused unusual fluctuation in grain production. Technical progress, however, has maintained a long-term increasing trend. The semi-dwarf cultivars of rice and wheat, the use of heterosis in rice and maize, and the alleviation of salinized soil stress in the major grain-producing areas have all played significant roles in increasing China's food production capability.

  13. Effects of Food Natural Products on the Biotransformation of PCBs

    PubMed Central

    James, Margaret O.; Sacco, James C.; Faux, Laura R

    2008-01-01

    Many food products, particularly fruits and vegetables, contain natural products that affect biotransformation enzymes. These may be expected to affect the rate of biotransformation of PCBs that are metabolized by the affected enzymes. The first step in PCB metabolism is cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenation. Natural products present in cruciferous vegetables have been shown to selectively up-regulate CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 isozymes on chronic ingestion, and may lead to increased metabolism of those PCB congeners that are substrates for the induced P450s. On the other hand, several natural products selectively inhibit monooxygenation, especially in the intestine, and may lead to increased bioavailability and reduced metabolism of dietary PCBs. Food natural products are known to affect phase II pathways important in the detoxication of hydroxylated PCBs, namely UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and PAPS-sulfotransferase. Continual dietary exposure to chrysin and quercetin, found in fruits and vegetables, induces UGT1A1 and may reduce exposure to hydroxylated PCBs through increased glucuronidation. These and other natural products are also inhibitors of glucuronidation and sulfonation, potentially leading to transient decreases in the elimination of hydroxylated PCBs. In summary, the expected effects of food natural products on PCB biotransformation are complex and may be biphasic, with initial inhibition followed by enhanced biotransformation through monooxygenation and conjugation pathways. PMID:19255595

  14. Methods for Assessing the Impact of Fog Oil Smoke on Availability, Palatability, & Food Quality of Relevant Life Stages of Insects for Threatened and Endangered Species

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, Crystal J.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Rogers, Lee E.

    2007-04-01

    A methodology for quantifying population dynamics and food source value of insect fauna in areas subjected to fog oil smoke was developed. Our approach employed an environmentally controlled re-circulating wind tunnel outfitted with a high-heat vaporization and re-condensation fog oil generator that has been shown to produce aerosols of comparable chemistry and droplet-size distribution as those of field releases of the smoke. This method provides reproducible exposures of insects under realistic climatic and environmental conditions to fog oil aerosols that duplicate chemical and droplet-size characteristics of field releases of the smoke. The responses measured take into account reduction in food sources due to death and to changes in availability of relevant life stages of insects that form the prey base for the listed Threatened and Endangered Species. The influence of key environmental factors, wind speed and canopy structure on these responses were characterized. Data generated using this method was used to develop response functions related to particle size, concentration, wind speed, and canopy structure that will allow military personnel to assess and manage impacts to endangered species from fog oil smoke used in military training.

  15. Consumer preferences for food product quality attributes from Swedish agriculture.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Frykblom, Peter; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2005-06-01

    This paper employs a choice experiment to obtain consumer preferences and willingness to pay for food product quality attributes currently not available in Sweden. Data were obtained from a large mail survey and estimated with a random parameter logit model. We found evidence for intraproduct differences in consumer preferences for identical attributes, as well as interproduct discrepancies in ranking of attributes. Furthermore, we found evidence of a market failure relating to the potential use of genetically modified animal fodder. Finally, we found support for the idea that a cheap-talk script can alleviate problems of external validity of choice experiments. Our results are useful in forming product differentiation strategies within the food industry, as well as for the formation of food policy.

  16. The global potential of local peri-urban food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriewald, Steffen; Garcia Cantu Ros, Anselmo; Sterzel, Till; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    One big challenge for the rest of the 21st century will be the massive urbanisation. It is expected that more than 7 out of 10 persons will live in a city by the year 2050. Crucial developments towards a sustainable future will therefore take place in cities. One important approach for a sustainable city development is to re-localize food production and to close urban nutrient cycles through better waste management. The re-location of food production avoids CO2 emissions from transportation of food to cities and can also generate income for inhabitants. Cities are by definition locations where fertility accumulates. As cities are often built along rivers, their soils are often fertile. Furthermore, labour force and the possibility of producing fertilizer from human fecal matter within the city promises sustainable nutrients cycles. Although urban and peri-urban agriculture can be found in many cities worldwide and already have a substantial contribution to food supply, it has not jet been comprehensibly structured by research. We combine several worldwide data sets to determine the supply of cities with regional food production, where regional is defined as a production that occurs very close to the consumption within the peri-urban area. Therefore, urban areas are not defined by administrative boundaries but by connected built-up urban areas, and peri-urban area by the surrounding area with the same size multiplied with a scaling parameter. Both together accumulate to an urban-bio-region (UBR). With regard to national food consumption, a linear program achieves the best possible yield on agricultural areas and allows the computation of the fraction of population, which can be nourished. Additionally, several climate scenarios and different dietary patterns were considered. To close the gap between single case studies and to provide a quantitative overview of the global potential of peri-urban food production we used high resolution land-use data Global Land Cover

  17. Food and beverage product reformulation as a corporate political strategy.

    PubMed

    Scott, C; Hawkins, B; Knai, C

    2017-01-01

    Product reformulation- the process of altering a food or beverage product's recipe or composition to improve the product's health profile - is a prominent response to the obesity and noncommunicable disease epidemics in the U.S. To date, reformulation in the U.S. has been largely voluntary and initiated by actors within the food and beverage industry. Similar voluntary efforts by the tobacco and alcohol industry have been considered to be a mechanism of corporate political strategy to shape public health policies and decisions to suit commercial needs. We propose a taxonomy of food and beverage industry corporate political strategies that builds on the existing literature. We then analyzed the industry's responses to a 2014 U.S. government consultation on product reformulation, run as part of the process to define the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We qualitatively coded the industry's responses for predominant narratives and framings around reformulation using a purposely-designed coding framework, and compared the results to the taxonomy. The food and beverage industry in the United States used a highly similar narrative around voluntary product reformulation in their consultation responses: that reformulation is "part of the solution" to obesity and NCDs, even though their products or industry are not large contributors to the problem, and that progress has been made despite reformulation posing significant technical challenges. This narrative and the frames used in the submissions illustrate the four categories of the taxonomy: participation in the policy process, influencing the framing of the nutrition policy debate, creating partnerships, and influencing the interpretation of evidence. These strategic uses of reformulation align with previous research on food and beverage corporate political strategy.

  18. Instant food products as a source of silicon.

    PubMed

    Prescha, Anna; Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Hojka, Anna; Grajeta, Halina

    2012-12-01

    Silicon is a trace element for humans, and is absorbed from food in the form of orthosilicic acid. Instant food products are part of a constantly growing market of convenience foods, which have not been evaluated yet as sources of silicon. In this study the total and soluble silicon contents in different instant food products were determined by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). A selection of instant products commercially available in Wroclaw were analyzed: soups, main courses, coffee drinks, jellies and puddings. Total silicon contents in soups, main courses and coffee drinks ranged widely and reached the values: 0.10-30.20, 0.63-37.91 and 0.21-13.37mg/serving, respectively. These products contained 0.05-1.26mg of soluble silicon per serving. The total silicon content in jellies and puddings did not exceed 0.36mg and 2.42mg/serving, respectively. Among the analyzed desserts the highest level of soluble silicon was found in chocolate puddings: 0.36-0.41mg/serving. The silicon level in servings of the studied instant products when prepared with the appropriate amount of water was also estimated. The mean content of silicon determined in samples of drinking water from Wrocław and the vicinity, which was used for the estimation, amounted to 7.09mg/l. The total silicon content in ready-to-eat products ranged from 1.32 to 39.21mg/serving. In conclusion, some of the analyzed instant foods contained very high amounts of silicon, however the content of the soluble, and hence available, form of this element was low.

  19. Food safety objective approach for controlling Clostridium botulinum growth and toxin production in commercially sterile foods.

    PubMed

    Anderson, N M; Larkin, J W; Cole, M B; Skinner, G E; Whiting, R C; Gorris, L G M; Rodriguez, A; Buchanan, R; Stewart, C M; Hanlin, J H; Keener, L; Hall, P A

    2011-11-01

    As existing technologies are refined and novel microbial inactivation technologies are developed, there is a growing need for a metric that can be used to judge equivalent levels of hazard control stringency to ensure food safety of commercially sterile foods. A food safety objective (FSO) is an output-oriented metric that designates the maximum level of a hazard (e.g., the pathogenic microorganism or toxin) tolerated in a food at the end of the food supply chain at the moment of consumption without specifying by which measures the hazard level is controlled. Using a risk-based approach, when the total outcome of controlling initial levels (H(0)), reducing levels (ΣR), and preventing an increase in levels (ΣI) is less than or equal to the target FSO, the product is considered safe. A cross-disciplinary international consortium of specialists from industry, academia, and government was organized with the objective of developing a document to illustrate the FSO approach for controlling Clostridium botulinum toxin in commercially sterile foods. This article outlines the general principles of an FSO risk management framework for controlling C. botulinum growth and toxin production in commercially sterile foods. Topics include historical approaches to establishing commercial sterility; a perspective on the establishment of an appropriate target FSO; a discussion of control of initial levels, reduction of levels, and prevention of an increase in levels of the hazard; and deterministic and stochastic examples that illustrate the impact that various control measure combinations have on the safety of well-established commercially sterile products and the ways in which variability all levels of control can heavily influence estimates in the FSO risk management framework. This risk-based framework should encourage development of innovative technologies that result in microbial safety levels equivalent to those achieved with traditional processing methods.

  20. Peering into the secrets of food and agricultural co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy is a valuable tool for understanding food contamination and for directing product development of food and industrial products. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to eat. At the same time, these processed foods mus...

  1. Peering into the secrets of food and agricultural co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for understanding food contamination and directing product development of food and industrial products. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to eat. At the same time, these processed foods must be s...

  2. The European role on traditional herbal medicinal products and traditional plant food supplements.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano; Anton, Robert; Delmulle, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Herbs are used in Europe as medicinal products, food, food supplements, and related products. This paper will discuss the concepts of Traditional Herbal Medicines and Traditional Plant Food Supplements, defined in European legislation under differing legal frameworks, regarding Traditional Plant Food Supplements (including Claims Regulation) and the role of the European Food Safety Authority in health claims.

  3. [Development on a rice-based food product, for children].

    PubMed

    Segura, E; Mahecha, G; Moreno, B E; Rodríguez, G S

    1988-06-01

    An infant dehydrated rice-based food product, complemented with soybean flour, was developed. To improve its nutritional and organoleptic characteristics, fruits were also added. Ingredients were first precooked and dried in a drum-dryer, obtaining a final product, as flakes, with a 2 to 3% water content. This rehydrates easily with liquids such as milk, water or "panela" (refined and concentrated sugar cane syrup). The sensory panel did not detect any difference between formulations containing 10, 15 and 20% soybean, respectively.

  4. [New fungal contaminants of food products in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Comerio, Ricardo M; Pildain, M Belén; Romero, Andrea I

    2005-03-01

    Five fungal species were isolated and identified in food products: Ascotricha chartarum, Leptosphaerulina argentinensis, Veronaea coprophila, Scolecobasidium constrictum and Coremiella cubispora. A. chartarum was isolated from paper bag containing sugar and the other four from tomato sauce. Except for L. argentinensis, the other four were new reports and the five species were isolated for the first time in Argentina.

  5. Food Production, Management, and Services. Baking. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, LeRoy

    These instructional materials are intended for a course on food production, management, and services involved in baking. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; 13 references; and a…

  6. Food Production in Africa: The Ignored Role of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otieno, Tabitha N.

    Whereas women carry the primary responsibility for food production in Africa, development agencies have devoted minimal resources to researching the impact of their policies and new techniques on the well-being of Africa's women farmers. C. K. Eicher (1995) and M. Smale (1995) call this the invisible factor because the gender-related constraints…

  7. Microwave sensing of quality attributes of agricultural and food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microwave sensors for real-time characterization of agricultural and food products have become viable solutions with recent advances in the development of calibration methods and the availability of inexpensive microwave components. The examples shown here for grain, seed, and in-shell peanuts indic...

  8. Standardized Curriculum for Food Production, Management and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: food production, management, and services I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA); (2) sanitation; (3) safety; (4) front of the house operations; (5) beverages; (6) food…

  9. Genetic improvement of drought tolerance for productivity and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production losses in agriculture during extended or severe drought episodes can be significant. Among a number of important food crops in the U.S. and many regions of the world, peanut is an important legume that is a rich source for oil, proteins, and vitamins. Drought can negatively affect yield...

  10. Food Management, Production, and Service. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Food Management, Production, and Service Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) is one of a series of competency lists, verified by expert workers, that have evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from throughout Ohio. This…

  11. Food Production Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food production worker component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; hygiene and…

  12. Food Production, Management and Services: Service. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palan, Earl

    This food production, management, and services teacher guide contains nine units: (1) orientation; (2) types of service; (3) table settings; (4) dining room personnel; (5) dining room procedures; (6) side work; (7) guest/employee relationships; (8) sales techniques; and (9) safety and sanitation. Suggestions are included to increase reinforcement…

  13. Food Production, Management and Services: Management. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palan, Earl; Barrera, Janet

    This food production, management, and services teacher guide contains eight units: (1) orientation; (2) tools and functions of management; (3) cost controls; (4) keeping records; (5) purchasing and receiving; (6) storing and issuing; (7) personnel management; and (8) human relations. Suggestions are included to increase reinforcement of the…

  14. Food Production, Management and Services. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for food production, management, and service occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits),…

  15. Food Production, Management, and Services: Introduction. Second Edition. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palan, Earl; Feasley, Sue, Ed.

    This document contains seven units of instruction on food production, management, and services: (1) orientation; (2) applying for a job; (3) human relations; (4) communication; (5) sanitation; (6) safety; and (7) nutrition. Each instructional unit contains some or all of the following basic components: (1) unit and specific objectives; (2)…

  16. The response of smoke detectors to pyrolysis and combustion products from aircraft interior materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, R. G.; Alvares, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The following projects were completed as part of the effort to develop and test economically feasible fire-resistant materials for interior furnishings of aircraft as well as detectors of incipient fires in passenger and cargo compartments: (1) determination of the sensitivity of various contemporary gas and smoke detectors to pyrolysis and combustion products from materials commonly used in aircraft interiors and from materials that may be used in the future, (2) assessment of the environmental limitations to detector sensitivity and reliability. The tests were conducted on three groups of materials by exposure to the following three sources of exposure: radiant and Meeker burner flame, heated coil, and radiant source only. The first test series used radiant heat and flame exposures on easily obtainable test materials. Next, four materials were selected from the first group and exposed to an incandescent coil to provide the conditions for smoldering combustion. Finally, radiant heat exposures were used on advanced materials that are not readily available.

  17. Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about Food Production and the Origins of Common Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet; O'Mahony, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    Individual interviews were conducted with 96 K-3 students, stratified according to grade level, achievement level, and gender. The students were asked to explain land-to-hand progressions involved in bringing several common foods to our tables, identify products derived from common farm animals, explain why a pound of cereal costs more than a…

  18. Cigarette Smoke inhibits ROCK2 activation in T cells and modulates IL-22 production

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Chien-Huan; Gupta, Sanjay; Geraghty, Patrick; Foronjy, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions are known to play a key role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is one of the strongest environmental risk factors associated with RA and has been shown to mediate a range of complex immunomodulatory effects from decreased T and B cell activation to depressed phagocytic function. The effects of CS on the function of TH17 cells, one of the key TH effector subsets implicated in RA pathogenesis, are not fully understood. IRF4 is one of the crucial transcription factors involved in TH-17 differentiation and is absolutely required for the production of IL-17 and IL-21 but, interestingly, inhibits the synthesis of IL-22. The production of IL-17 and IL-21 by IRF4 can be augmented by its phosphorylation by the serine-threonine kinase ROCK2. Given that CS has been reported to increase ROCK activity in endothelial cells, here we investigated the effects of CS on the ROCK2-IRF4 axis in T cells. Surprisingly, we found that CS leads to decreased ROCK2 activation and IRF4 phosphorylation in T cells. This effect was associated with increased IL-22 production. Using a GEF pull-down assay we furthermore identify ARHGEF1 as a key upstream regulator of ROCK2 whose activity in T cells is inhibited by CS. Thus CS can inhibit the ROCK2-IRF4 axis and modulate T cell production of IL-22. PMID:26882474

  19. Using the SPEI to Estimate Food Production in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husak, G. J.; Hobbins, M.; Verdin, J. P.; Peterson, P.; Funk, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors critical environmental variables that impact food production in developing countries. Due to a sparse network of observations in the developing world, many of these variables are estimated using remotely sensed data. As scientists develop new techniques to leverage available observations and remotely sensed information there are opportunities to create products that identify the environmental conditions that stress agriculture and reduce food production. FEWS NET pioneered the development of the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with stations (CHIRPS) dataset, to estimate precipitation and monitor growing conditions throughout the world. These data are used to drive land surface models, hydrologic models and basic crop models among others. A new dataset estimating the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) has been developed using inputs from the ERA-Interim GCM. This ET0 dataset stretches back to 1981, allowing for a long-term record, stretching many seasons and drought events. Combining the CHIRPS data to estimate water availability and the ET0 data to estimate evaporative demand, one can estimate the approximate water gap (surplus or deficit) over a specific time period. Normalizing this difference creates the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which presents these gaps in comparison to the historical record for a specific location and accumulation period. In this study we evaluate the SPEI as a tool to estimate crop yields for different regions of Kenya. Identifying the critical time of analysis for the SPEI is the first step in building a relationship between the water gap and food production. Once this critical period is identified, we look at the predictability of food production using the SPEI, and assess the utility of it for monitoring food security, with the goal of incorporating the SPEI in the standard monitoring suite of FEWS NET tools.

  20. ISS as testbed towards food production on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuebler, Ulrich; Thallemer, Axel; Kern, Peter; Schwarzwaelder, Achim

    Almost all major space faring nations are presently investigating concepts for the exploration of extra terrestrial planetary bodies, including Earth's Moon and Mars. One major objective to sustain any human exploration plans will be the provision of fresh food. Even if a delivery from Earth to Moon is still possible with regular preservation techniques as for the international space station, there will be a big psychological impact from the ability to grow fresh food on a Moon Basis. Various architectural and agricultural concepts have been proposed. A comprehensive summary of the related requirements and constraints shall be presented as a baseline for further studies. One presently unknown constraint is the question of the gravity threshold for the genetic stability of plants or more specifically the level of gravity which is needed for normal growth and reproduction of plants. This paper shall focus on a roadmap towards a food production facility a planetary surface using the International Space Station as a test bed. Presented will be 1.) The concept of a Food Research Rotor for the artificial gravity facility EMCS. This Rotor shall allow the investigation into the gravity dependence of growth and reproduction of nutritionally relevant plants like radishes, tomatoes, bell peppers or lettuce. An important answer from this research could be if the Moon Gravity of 1/6g is sufficient for a vegetative food production or if additional artificial gravity is needed for a Moon Greenhouse. 2.) An inflatable demonstrator for ATV as scaled down version of a proposed planetary greenhouse

  1. Climatic Extremes and Food Grain Production in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, A.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is likely to affect food and water security in India. India has witnessed tremendous growth in its food production after the green revolution. However, during the recent decades the food grain yields were significantly affected by the extreme climate and weather events. Air temperature and associated extreme events (number of hot days and hot nights, heat waves) increased significantly during the last 50 years in the majority of India. More remarkably, a substantial increase in mean and extreme temperatures was observed during the winter season in India. On the other hand, India witnessed extreme flood and drought events that have become frequent during the past few decades. Extreme rainfall during the non-monsoon season adversely affected the food grain yields and results in tremendous losses in several parts of the country. Here we evaluate the changes in hydroclimatic extremes and its linkage with the food grain production in India. We use observed food grain yield data for the period of 1980-2012 at district level. We understand the linkages between food grain yield and crop phenology obtained from the high resolution leaf area index and NDVI datasets from satellites. We used long-term observed data of daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures to evaluate changes in the extreme events. We use statistical models to develop relationships between crop yields, mean and extreme temperatures for various crops to understand the sensitivity of these crops towards changing climatic conditions. We find that some of the major crop types and predominant crop growing areas have shown a significant sensitivity towards changes in extreme climatic conditions in India.

  2. 9 CFR 354.142 - Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition. 354.142 Section 354.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Certificates § 354.142 Food product inspection certificates; issuance...

  3. Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne's process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

  4. Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

    1992-07-01

    In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne`s process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

  5. Composition of Plant Sterols and Stanols in Supplemented Food Products.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    All fruits, vegetables, grains and other plant materials contain small amounts of plant sterols, which are essential for the function of the biological membranes in living cells. The average human consumption of plant sterols has been estimated to be about 150-350 mg/day and trace amounts of stanols (which are defined as saturated sterols such as sitostanol), but this number varies regionally and is higher for vegetarians. When consumed in the diet, plant sterols reduce the levels of serum cholesterol. In 1995 the first functional food product, Benecol spread (enriched in plant stanol fatty acid esters), was developed by Raisio and marketed, first in Finland and then globally. Since then many other functional food products have been developed and are now available globally. In addition to stanol esters, other functional food products contain plant sterol esters and/or free (unesterified) plant sterols and stanols. In essentially all of the current functional foods that are enriched in sterols and stanols, the feedstock from which the sterols and stanols are obtained is either tall oil (a byproduct/coproduct of the pulping of pine wood) or vegetable oil deodorizer distillate (a byproduct/coproduct of the refining of vegetable oils).

  6. Factors influencing the dielectric properties of agricultural and food products.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Stuart O; Trabelsi, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric properties of materials are defined, and the major factors that influence these properties of agricultural and food materials, namely, frequency of the applied radiofrequency or microwave electric fields, and water content, temperature, and density of the materials, are discussed on the basis of fundamental concepts. The dependence of measured dielectric properties on these factors is illustrated graphically and discussed for a number of agricultural and food products, including examples of grain, peanuts, fruit, eggs, fresh chicken meat, whey protein gel, and a macaroni and cheese preparation. General observations are provided on the nature of the variation of the dielectric properties with the major variables.

  7. Dairy food products: good or bad for cardiometabolic disease?

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, Julie A; Givens, D Ian

    2016-12-01

    Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly increasingly and is a key risk for CVD development, now recognised as the leading cause of death globally. Dietary strategies to reduce CVD development include reduction of saturated fat intake. Milk and dairy products are the largest contributors to dietary saturated fats in the UK and reduced consumption is often recommended as a strategy for risk reduction. However, overall evidence from prospective cohort studies does not confirm a detrimental association between dairy product consumption and CVD risk. The present review critically evaluates the current evidence on the association between milk and dairy products and risk of CVD, T2DM and the metabolic syndrome (collectively, cardiometabolic disease). The effects of total and individual dairy foods on cardiometabolic risk factors and new information on the effects of the food matrix on reducing fat digestion are also reviewed. It is concluded that a policy to lower SFA intake by reducing dairy food consumption to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk is likely to have limited or possibly negative effects. There remain many uncertainties, including differential effects of different dairy products and those of differing fat content. Focused and suitably designed and powered studies are needed to provide clearer evidence not only of the mechanisms involved, but how they may be beneficially influenced during milk production and processing.

  8. Quality control throughout the production process of infant food.

    PubMed

    Hamrin, Pia; Hoeft, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of infant food is a highly complex process and needs an effective quality control beyond classical in-process parameters and a final microbiological analysis. To ensure a safe end -product, various tools, such as the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), have been developed to facilitate the management of food safety. Every single infant formula ingredient must have an excellent quality and safety approach because even if an ingredient is used in very small quantities in a single product, serious consequences may arise if the quality and product safety are not taken seriously by the ingredient manufacturer. The purpose of this article was twofold: firstly, to briefly describe existing Quality Management Systems and, secondly, to highlight the consequences of non-quality.

  9. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stefanou, Spiro E

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change.

  10. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change. PMID:26057878

  11. In vitro acute effects of tobacco smoke on tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 production by alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dubar, V; Gosset, P; Aerts, C; Voisin, C; Wallaert, B; Tonnel, A B

    1993-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is a usual form of oxidant aggression present in the domestic environment. In the present study, the in vitro acute effects of a 2-cigarette smoke gas phase were evaluated on cell viability and cytokine secretion by alveolar macrophages (AM) from guinea pigs and human healthy subjects. Cell injury was estimated immediately after smoke exposure by evaluation of ATP cell content (measured by bioluminescence) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release in the culture medium. LDH release was also measured when the interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) activities were evaluated. No cytotoxic effect was found: The ATP cell content of both guinea pig AM and human AM did not significantly change after tobacco smoke exposure. Similarly, the LDH release in the culture medium was unchanged both immediately after tobacco smoke exposure and at the time of the cytokine evaluation (18-20 h later) compared to cells cultured in the air. The total protein synthesis by the guinea pig AM evaluated by 35S-L-methionine labeling was unaffected by tobacco smoke exposure. The production of IL-6 and TNF activities was evaluated 18-20 h after smoke exposure. The IL-6 activity was measured by the proliferation test of 7TD1 hybridoma cell line; the TNF activity was evaluated by the L929 mouse fibroblast cytotoxic test and by an immunoradiometric assay (for human AM). A 2-cigarette smoke exposure decreased both activities significantly. The exposure of the guinea pig AM reduced IL-6 activity by 24.3 +/- 6.7%, 42.4 +/- 7.8%, and 39.7 +/- 9.6% and TNF activity by 33.8 +/- 10.4%, 35.1 +/- 10.7%, and 38.8 +/- 9.9% (respectively unstimulated cells and AM activated by 0.1 and 10 micrograms LPS/mL). The decrease in monokine production by the human AM was, respectively, 57.8 +/- 8.8%, 59.7 +/- 11.4%, and 49.9 +/- 10.5% of IL-6 activity and 37.4 +/- 14.6%, 17.6 +/- 9.6%, and 37.2 +/- 6.3% of TNF activity. The possible release of cytokine inhibitors was also investigated

  12. Biomass energy crop production versus food crop production in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Sammuels, G.

    1983-12-01

    The Caribbean countries have traditionally grown sugar cane, coffee and bananas as major agriculture export crops. Food crop production was sufficient in most cases for domestic consumption. In recent years powerful social and economic changes of increasing population, industrial development and higher living standards have placed pressure on local governments to provide food, clothing, shelter and energy. Energy that is mainly supplied by imported oil. Biomass, primarily as sugar cane, can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the problem. Unfortunately, the arable land area for the majority of the countries is limited. Food crop production is needed for local consumption and export. Possible energy crop production to provide local needs will place an increasing demand on arable land. The objective of this paper is to present the scope of food versus energy crop production and a suggested renewable energy crop program to help achieve a balance within the limited land resources of the Caribbean.

  13. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Julie C.; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug. PMID:26962391

  14. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Julie C.; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug. PMID:28367259

  15. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  16. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon; Sung, Julie C; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2017-02-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug.

  17. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon; Sung, Julie C; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug.

  18. Fate of starch in food processing: from raw materials to final food products.

    PubMed

    Delcour, Jan A; Bruneel, Charlotte; Derde, Liesbeth J; Gomand, Sara V; Pareyt, Bram; Putseys, Joke A; Wilderjans, Edith; Lamberts, Lieve

    2010-01-01

    Starch, an essential component of an equilibrated diet, is present in cereals such as common and durum wheat, maize, rice, and rye, in roots and tubers such as potato and cassava, and in legumes such as peas. During food processing, starch mainly undergoes nonchemical transformations. Here, we focus on the occurrence of starch in food raw materials, its composition and properties, and its transformations from raw material to final products. We therefore describe a number of predominant food processes and identify research needs. Nonchemical transformations that are dealt with include physical damage to starch, gelatinization, amylose-lipid complex formation, amylose crystallization, and amylopectin retrogradation. A main focus is on wheat-based processes. (Bio)chemical modifications of starch by amylolytic enzymes are dealt with only in the context of understanding the starch component in bread making.

  19. Fermentative Hydrogen Production From Food Waste Without Inocula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, S.; Fujisawa, A.; Mizuno, O.; Kameda, T.; Yoshioka, T.

    2008-02-01

    The kind of seed microorganisms and its growth conditions are important factors for the hydrogen fermentation. However, there are many kinds of bacteria in food waste, and it is necessary to know their behavior if it is used as a substrate. Therefore, hydrogen fermentation of food waste was investigated in the absence of inocula with an initial pH varying from 5 to 9 and in a temperature range between 22 to 50 °C. Hydrogen production occurred when the initial pH of the solution containing the food waste was adjusted to 7-9 and the temperature was adjusted to 22 or 35 °C (maximum production was 40 ml-H2/g-TS at an initial pH of 9 and a temperature of 35 °C). However, the hydrogen production stopped when the pH decreased due to the accumulation of organic acids. In the next step, the pH was controlled by the addition of a NaOH solution between 5.0 and 9.0. When the pH was controlled between 5.0-6.0, the hydrogen production increased to a maximum of 90 ml-H2/g-TS at a pH of 5.5 and a temperature of 35 °C; more than 4 times more than for the sample without pH adjustment, due to the acceleration of butyrate fermentation.

  20. Empirical characterisation of ranges of mainstream smoke toxicant yields from contemporary cigarette products using quantile regression methodology.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Oscar M; Eldridge, Alison; Proctor, Christopher J; McAdam, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    Approximately 100 toxicants have been identified in cigarette smoke, to which exposure has been linked to a range of serious diseases in smokers. Smoking machines have been used to quantify toxicant emissions from cigarettes for regulatory reporting. The World Health Organization Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation has proposed a regulatory scenario to identify median values for toxicants found in commercially available products, which could be used to set mandated limits on smoke emissions. We present an alternative approach, which used quantile regression to estimate reference percentiles to help contextualise the toxicant yields of commercially available products with respect to a reference analyte, such as tar or nicotine. To illustrate this approach we examined four toxicants (acetone, N'-nitrosoanatabine, phenol and pyridine) with respect to tar, and explored International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Health Canada Intense (HCI) regimes. We compared this approach with other methods for assessing toxicants in cigarette smoke, such as ratios to nicotine or tar, and linear regression. We concluded that the quantile regression approach effectively represented data distributions across toxicants for both ISO and HCI regimes. This method provides robust, transparent and intuitive percentile estimates in relation to any desired reference value within the data space.

  1. An overview of food safety issues relative to animal products.

    PubMed

    Baile, C A

    1990-06-01

    Presently, strategies for discovering new factors for enhancing animal productivity allow for greater assurance of food safety. A high degree of assurance of food safety is provided by the use of natural growth factors. This is especially true when these factors are proteins which, when ingested, are digested to inactive peptides and amino acids and are, in addition, inactive in human tissues. Knowing the mechanisms of activity of such factors also allows for the assurance that known mediators of the growth factors can also be shown to be inactivated by intestinal barriers. The design of nonpeptide molecules with highly selective activity will be possible with the large amount of progress expected in understanding the structure of the active components of natural molecules and the availability of specific receptor systems. Food safety concerns may be met by the demonstration that these molecules are inactive in comparable human receptor systems. These drug discovery strategies can ensure with a high degree of confidence the development of new productivity enhancers that meet food safety requirements.

  2. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    PubMed Central

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  3. Effectiveness of domestic antibacterial products in decontaminating food contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    DeVere, Elizabeth; Purchase, Diane

    2007-06-01

    Four commercially available antibacterial products (two wipes and two sprays) were tested under laboratory conditions on a range of food contact surfaces (wood, glass, plastic, Microban incorporated plastic). The products' effectiveness at preventing cross-contamination of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and the influence of surface type and drying time were assessed. Survival of the bacterial culture (approximately 400 colonies per 8 cm(2)) on the above preparation surfaces was determined using an in situ nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) method. In the absence of any antibacterial products, both bacteria survived up to 120 min on all test surfaces with glass and plastic showing no reduction in bacterial number. The order of survival is: glass>plastic>Microban incorporated plastic>wood (<8%). The length of drying time did not affect the survival of either bacterium on glass and plastic surfaces. On wood and Microban incorporated plastic, E. coli appeared to be more sensitive to drying time than S. aureus. Only plastic appeared to affect the effectiveness of the antibacterial products, where the reduction in bacterial number was significantly lower than the other test surfaces (p<0.05). The overall results suggest the antibacterial products are effective in disinfecting food preparing surfaces, provided products instructions are carefully followed.

  4. Proanthocyanidins in common food products of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Jarkko K; Törrönen, A Riitta; Mattila, Pirjo H

    2009-09-09

    The contents of extractable and unextractable proanthocyanidins were determined in a large number of commercial food products of plant origin available in Finland. Proanthocyanidins were extracted with aqueous acetone-methanol and quantified by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) according to their degree of polymerization. Unextractable proanthocyanidins were analyzed from the extraction residue by reversed phase HPLC after acid-catalyzed depolymerization as free flavan-3-ols (terminal units) and benzylthioethers (extension units). Proanthocyanidins were detected in 49 of 99 selected food items. The highest contents per fresh weight were determined in chokeberries, rose hips, and cocoa products. Berries and fruits were generally the best sources of proanthocyanidins, whereas most of the vegetables, roots, and cereals lacked them completely. Many of the samples contained a significant proportion of insoluble proanthocyanidins, which need to be quantified as well if total proanthocyanidins are studied. Considerable variation was observed in proanthocyanidin contents in berries, which requires further research.

  5. Applications of natural zeolites on agriculture and food production.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Nazife; Emekci, Mevlut; Athanassiou, Christos

    2017-03-14

    Zeolites are crystalline hydrated aluminosilicates with remarkable physical and chemical properties including losing and receiving water in a reverse way, adsorbing molecules that act as molecular sieves, and replacing their constituent cations without structural change. Commercial production of natural zeolites has accelerated during last fifty years. The Structure Commission of the International Zeolite Association recorded more than 200 zeolites which currently include more than 40 naturally occurring zeolites. Recent findings supported their role in stored-pest management as inert dust applications, pesticide and fertilizer carriers, soil amendments, animal feed additives, mycotoxin binders and food packaging materials. There are many advantages of inert dust application including low cost, non-neurotoxic action, low mammalian toxicity and safety for human consumption. Latest consumer trends and government protocols have shifted toward organic origin materials to replace synthetic chemical products. In the current review, we summarized most of the main uses of zeolites in food and agruculture, with specific paradigms that illustrate their important role.

  6. Predicting and preventing mold spoilage of food products.

    PubMed

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2013-03-01

    This article is a review of how to quantify mold spoilage and consequently shelf life of a food product. Mold spoilage results from having a product contaminated with fungal spores that germinate and form a visible mycelium before the end of the shelf life. The spoilage can be then expressed as the combination of the probability of having a product contaminated and the probability of mold growth (germination and proliferation) up to a visible mycelium before the end of the shelf life. For products packed before being distributed to the retailers, the probability of having a product contaminated is a function of factors strictly linked to the factory design, process, and environment. The in-factory fungal contamination of a product might be controlled by good manufacturing hygiene practices and reduced by particular processing practices such as an adequate air-renewal system. To determine the probability of mold growth, both germination and mycelium proliferation can be mathematically described by primary models. When mold contamination on the product is scarce, the spores are spread on the product and more than a few spores are unlikely to be found at the same spot. In such a case, models applicable for a single spore should be used. Secondary models can be used to describe the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on either the germination or proliferation of molds. Several polynomial models and gamma-type models quantifying the effect of water activity and temperature on mold growth are available. To a lesser extent, the effect of pH, ethanol, heat treatment, addition of preservatives, and modified atmospheres on mold growth also have been quantified. However, mold species variability has not yet been properly addressed, and only a few secondary models have been validated for food products. Once the probability of having mold spoilage is calculated for various shelf lives and product formulations, the model can be implemented as part of a risk management

  7. Food Production, Management, and Services Programs. Food Service Worker. Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    To assist instructors in implementing Missouri's Vocational Instructional Management System into the Food Production, Management, and Services Programs, this guide sets forth the competencies identified and validated by occupational food service instructors and personnel from the food service industry. A minimum of two performance objectives per…

  8. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...

  9. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...

  10. Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Julian I.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Frommer, Wolf B.; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Harrison, Maria J.; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Horie, Tomoaki; Kochian, Leon V.; Munns, Rana; Nishizawa, Naoko K.; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Sanders, Dale

    2013-01-01

    With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25 per cent by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is critical for human and environmental health. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be used to enhance yields of staple crops, increase nutrient content and increase resistance to key stresses, including salinity, pathogens and aluminium toxicity, which in turn could expand available arable land. PMID:23636397

  11. Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Julian I; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Frommer, Wolf B; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Harrison, Maria J; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Horie, Tomoaki; Kochian, Leon V; Munns, Rana; Nishizawa, Naoko K; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Sanders, Dale

    2013-05-02

    With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25 per cent by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is critical for human and environmental health. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be used to enhance yields of staple crops, increase nutrient content and increase resistance to key stresses, including salinity, pathogens and aluminium toxicity, which in turn could expand available arable land.

  12. Mechanisms of Toxin Production of Food Bacteria (Clostridium botulinum)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-25

    food bacteria such as ’Clostridium botulinum. and closely related > organisms. Results from these studies show that C. botulinum types C and D cease...S to produce their dominant toxins when -they are cured o’ftheir prophages.’. These i nontoxigenic derivatives then become sensitive to bacteriophages...of other. culture C.) which induce the production of different toxins . One cured-strain of type C was shown to be sensitive to bacteriophages from C

  13. Is lactate an undervalued functional component of fermented food products?

    PubMed Central

    Garrote, Graciela L.; Abraham, Analía G.; Rumbo, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been traditionally regarded as an intermediate of carbon metabolism and major component of fermented dairy products contributing to organoleptic and antimicrobial properties of food, there is evidence gathered in recent years that lactate has bioactive properties that may be responsible of broader properties of functional foods. Lactate can regulate critical functions of several key players of the immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells, being able to modulate inflammatory activation of epithelial cells as well. Intraluminal levels of lactate derived from fermentative metabolism of lactobacilli have been shown to modulate inflammatory environment in intestinal mucosa. The molecular mechanisms responsible to these functions, including histone deacetylase dependent-modulation of gene expression and signaling through G-protein coupled receptors have started to be described. Since lactate is a major fermentation product of several bacterial families with probiotic properties, we here propose that it may contribute to some of the properties attributed to these microorganisms and in a larger view, to the properties of food products fermented by lactic acid bacteria. PMID:26150815

  14. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles in food and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Weir, Alex; Westerhoff, Paul; Fabricius, Lars; Hristovski, Kiril; von Goetz, Natalie

    2012-02-21

    Titanium dioxide is a common additive in many food, personal care, and other consumer products used by people, which after use can enter the sewage system and, subsequently, enter the environment as treated effluent discharged to surface waters or biosolids applied to agricultural land, incinerated wastes, or landfill solids. This study quantifies the amount of titanium in common food products, derives estimates of human exposure to dietary (nano-) TiO(2), and discusses the impact of the nanoscale fraction of TiO(2) entering the environment. The foods with the highest content of TiO(2) included candies, sweets, and chewing gums. Among personal care products, toothpastes and select sunscreens contained 1% to >10% titanium by weight. While some other crèmes contained titanium, despite being colored white, most shampoos, deodorants, and shaving creams contained the lowest levels of titanium (<0.01 μg/mg). For several high-consumption pharmaceuticals, the titanium content ranged from below the instrument detection limit (0.0001 μg Ti/mg) to a high of 0.014 μg Ti/mg. Electron microscopy and stability testing of food-grade TiO(2) (E171) suggests that approximately 36% of the particles are less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and that it readily disperses in water as fairly stable colloids. However, filtration of water solubilized consumer products and personal care products indicated that less than 5% of the titanium was able to pass through 0.45 or 0.7 μm pores. Two white paints contained 110 μg Ti/mg while three sealants (i.e., prime coat paint) contained less titanium (25 to 40 μg Ti/mg). This research showed that, while many white-colored products contained titanium, it was not a prerequisite. Although several of these product classes contained low amounts of titanium, their widespread use and disposal down the drain and eventually to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) deserves attention. A Monte Carlo human exposure analysis to TiO(2) through foods

  15. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Food and Personal Care Products

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Alex; Westerhoff, Paul; Fabricius, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide is a common additive in many food, personal care, and other consumer products used by people, which after use can enter the sewage system, and subsequently enter the environment as treated effluent discharged to surface waters or biosolids applied to agricultural land, incinerated wastes, or landfill solids. This study quantifies the amount of titanium in common food products, derives estimates of human exposure to dietary (nano-) TiO2, and discusses the impact of the nanoscale fraction of TiO2 entering the environment. The foods with the highest content of TiO2 included candies, sweets and chewing gums. Among personal care products, toothpastes and select sunscreens contained 1% to >10% titanium by weight. While some other crèmes contained titanium, despite being colored white, most shampoos, deodorants, and shaving creams contained the lowest levels of titanium (<0.01 μg/mg). For several high-consumption pharmaceuticals, the titanium content ranged from below the instrument detection limit (0.0001 μg Ti/mg) to a high of 0.014 μg Ti/mg. Electron microscopy and stability testing of food-grade TiO2 (E171) suggests that approximately 36% of the particles are less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and that it readily disperses in water as fairly stable colloids. However, filtration of water solubilized consumer products and personal care products indicated that less than 5% of the titanium was able to pass through 0.45 or 0.7 μm pores. Two white paints contained 110 μg Ti/mg while three sealants (i.e., prime coat paint) contained less titanium (25 to 40 μg Ti/mg). This research showed that while many white-colored products contained titanium, it was not a prerequisite. Although several of these product classes contained low amounts of titanium, their widespread use and disposal down the drain and eventually to WWTPs deserves attention. A Monte Carlo human exposure analysis to TiO2 through foods identified children as having the highest

  16. Effect of snack food by-product inclusion on production of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Van Wyhe, R C; Fraley, S E; Szybisty, C A; Karcher, D M; Karcher, E L

    2012-06-01

    The increased interest in becoming green for consumers and companies is driving groups to develop innovative ways to become more efficient and reduce their waste. Foods past their expiration dates are large sources of waste and are causing food-manufacturing companies to develop waste disposal strategies. Integrating by-products from these companies into animal diets, specifically that of laying hens, could be significantly more cost effective for both the human food manufacturers and the agricultural producers. The study's objective is to evaluate laying hen diets containing snack food by-product, consisting mostly of expired potato chips, and the effect on hen performance. In total, 192 White Leghorn laying hens (45 wk old) were selected from the Michigan State University Poultry Farm. Hens were housed in conventional cages (3 birds/cage) and received 1 of 4 diets for 5 wk: 1) industry control corn-soybean meal, 2) control with 3% by-product, 3) control with 6% by-product, and 4) control with 9% by-product. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric, isonitrogenous, and balanced for sodium. Feed intake was measured for 3 consecutive days each week, and no overall differences between treatments were observed. However, during the first week, feed intake was significantly higher in birds fed the 6% and 9% diets compared with those fed control (P < 0.05). Birds fed the 6% had a higher feed intake than that of the control again during the fourth week (P < 0.01). Egg production, egg weight, and specific gravity were measured weekly. Hen BW was measured on d 1, 14, 28, and 35. Egg production, egg weight, specific gravity, and BW were not significantly affected by the addition of snack food by-products to the diet. In conclusion, the addition of expired snack food by-product into poultry diets does not significantly affect laying hen egg production and has the potential to be used as an alternative feed stuff in the future.

  17. The safety and regulation of natural products used as foods and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Anyangwe, Njwen; Carlacci, Louis; Casper, Steve; Danam, Rebecca P; Enongene, Evaristus; Erives, Gladys; Fabricant, Daniel; Gudi, Ramadevi; Hilmas, Corey J; Hines, Fred; Howard, Paul; Levy, Dan; Lin, Ying; Moore, Robert J; Pfeiler, Erika; Thurmond, T Scott; Turujman, Saleh; Walker, Nigel J

    2011-10-01

    The use of botanicals and dietary supplements derived from natural substances as an adjunct to an improved quality of life or for their purported medical benefits has become increasingly common in the United States. This review addresses the safety assessment and regulation of food products containing these substances by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The issue of safety is particularly critical given how little information is available on the toxicity of some of these products. The first section uses case studies for stevia and green tea extracts as examples of how FDA evaluates the safety of botanical and herbal products submitted for consideration as Generally Recognized as Safe under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) created a regulatory framework for dietary supplements. The article also discusses the regulation of this class of dietary supplements under DSHEA and addresses the FDA experience in analyzing the safety of natural ingredients described in pre-market safety submissions. Lastly, we discuss an ongoing interagency collaboration to conduct safety testing of nominated dietary supplements.

  18. Product reformulation in the food system to improve food safety. Evaluation of policy interventions.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Giuseppe; Simeone, Mariarosaria; Nazzaro, Concetta

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the level of attention that the consumer awards to a balanced diet and to product ingredients, with a twofold purpose: to understand whether food product reformulation can generate a competitive advantage for companies that practice it and to evaluate the most appropriate policy interventions to promote a healthy diet. Reformulation strategy, in the absence of binding rules, could be generated by consumers. Results from qualitative research and from empirical analysis have shown that the question of health is a latent demand influenced by two main factors: a general lack of information, and the marketing strategies adopted by companies which bring about an increase in the information asymmetry between producers and consumers. In the absence of binding rules, it is therefore necessary that the government implement information campaigns (food education) aimed at increasing knowledge regarding the effects of unhealthy ingredients, in order to inform and improve consumer choice. It is only by means of widespread information campaigns that food product reformulation can become a strategic variable and allow companies to gain a competitive advantage. This may lead to virtuous results in terms of reducing the social costs related to an unhealthy diet.

  19. Toxicological evaluation of some Malaysian locally processed raw food products.

    PubMed

    Sharif, R; Ghazali, A R; Rajab, N F; Haron, H; Osman, F

    2008-01-01

    Malaysian locally processed raw food products are widely used as main ingredients in local cooking. Previous studies showed that these food products have a positive correlation with the incidence of cancer. The cytotoxicity effect was evaluated using MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimetil-2-thiazolil)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) against Chang liver cells at 2000 microg/ml following 72 h incubation. Findings showed all methanol extracts caused a tremendous drop in the percentage of cell viability at 2000 microg/ml (shrimp paste - 41.69+/-3.36%, salted fish - 37.2+/-1.06%, dried shrimp - 40.32+/-1.8%, p<0.05). To detect DNA damage in a single cell, alkaline Comet Assay was used. None of the extracts caused DNA damage to the Chang liver cells at 62.5 microg/ml following 24 h incubation, as compared to the positive control, hydrogen peroxide (tail moment - 9.50+/-1.50; tail intensity - 30.50+/-2.50). Proximate analysis which was used for the evaluation of macronutrients in food showed that shrimp paste did not comply with the protein requirement (<25%) as in Food Act 1983. Salt was found in every sample with the highest percentage being detected in shrimp paste which exceeded 20%. Following heavy metal analysis (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury), arsenic was found in every sample with dried shrimps showing the highest value as compared to the other samples (6.16 mg/kg). In conclusion, several food extracts showed cytotoxic effect but did not cause DNA damage against Chang liver cells. Salt was found as the main additive and arsenic was present in every sample, which could be the probable cause of the toxicity effects observed.

  20. Energy production from food industry wastewaters using bioelectrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Choo Yieng

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of waste and renewable resources to energy using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is an upcoming technology for enabling a cleaner and sustainable environment. This paper assesses the energy production potential from the US food industry wastewater resource. It also reports on an experimental study investigating conversion of wastewater from a local milk dairy plant to electricity. An MFC anode biocatalyst enriched on model sugar and organic acid substrates was used as the inoculum for the dairy wastewater MFC. The tests were conducted using a two-chamber MFC with a porous three dimensional anode and a Pt/C air-cathode. Power densities up to 690 mW/m2 (54 W/m3) were obtained. Analysis of the food industry wastewater resource indicated that MFCs can potentially recover 2 to 260 kWh/ton of food processed from wastewaters generated during food processing, depending on the biological oxygen demand and volume of water used in the process. A total of 1960 MW of power can potentially be produced from US milk industry wastewaters alone. Hydrogen is an alternate form of energy that can be produced using bioelectrochemical cells. Approximately 2 to 270 m3 of hydrogen can be generated per ton of the food processed. Application of MFCs for treatment of food processing wastewaters requires further investigations into electrode design, materials, liquid flow management, proton transfer, organic loading and scale-up to enable high power densities at the larger scale. Potential for water recycle also exists, but requires careful consideration of the microbiological safety and regulatory aspects and the economic feasibility of the process.

  1. Quality and utilization of food co-products and residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, P.; Bao, G.; Broderick, C.; Fishman, M.; Liu, L.; Onwulata, C.

    2010-06-01

    Some agricultural industries generate large amounts of low value co-products/residues, including citrus peel, sugar beet pulp and whey protein from the production of orange juice, sugar and cheese commodities, respectively. National Program #306 of the USDA Agricultural Research Service aims to characterize and enhance quality and develop new processes and uses for value-added foods and bio-based products. In parallel projects, we applied scanning microscopies to examine the molecular organization of citrus pectin gels, covalent crosslinking to reduce debonding in sugar beet pulp-PLA composites and functional modification of whey protein through extrusion in order to evaluate new methods of processing and formulating new products. Also, qualitative attributes of fresh produce that could potentially guide germ line development and crop management were explored through fluorescence imaging: synthesis and accumulation of oleoresin in habanero peppers suggest a complicated mechanism of secretion that differs from the classical scheme. Integrated imaging appears to offer significant structural insights to help understand practical properties and features of important food co-products/residues.

  2. Environmental services coupled to food products and brands: food companies interests and on-farm accounting.

    PubMed

    Kempa, Daniela

    2013-09-01

    Much research has been carried out on governmental support of agri environmental measures (AEM). However, little is known about demands on and incentives from the commercial market for environmental contributions of the farmers. The factors farm structures, level of remuneration and legal framework have been thoroughly investigated. However, demands of the food industry for environmentally friendly goods(1) and their effects on farmers' decisions have not yet been analyzed. Leading companies in the food industry have observed an increasing consumer awareness and, due to higher competition, see an additional need to communicate environmental benefits which result from either organic production methods or agri-environmental measures. To address this research deficit, two case studies were carried out. The first case study is a survey aimed at the industrial food producers' demands with regards to the environmental performance of supplying farms. Concurrently, within a second survey farmers were questioned to find out what conditions are required to implement agri-environmental measures beyond cross compliance and document their environmental performance. This article presents the outcomes of the first case study. The results show that food companies have an interest in the documentation of environmental benefits of supplying farms for their marketing strategies. Provision of support by finance or contract-design is also seen as appropriate tool to promote an environmentally friendly production. In turn the food producers' demand and support for documented environmental services can have a positive influence on farmers' decisions for implementation and documentation of these services. Thus, the surveys provide essential findings for further development of documentation strategies for environmental benefits within the supply chain.

  3. Agglomerates, smoke oxide particles, and carbon inclusions in condensed combustion products of an aluminized GAP-based propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Wen; Liu, Peijin; Yang, Wenjing

    2016-12-01

    In solid propellants, aluminum is widely used to improve the performance, however the condensed combustion products especially the large agglomerates generated from aluminum combustion significantly affect the combustion and internal flow inside the solid rocket motor. To clarify the properties of the condensed combustion products of aluminized propellants, a constant-pressure quench vessel was adopted to collect the combustion products. The morphology and chemical compositions of the collected products, were then studied by using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive (SEM-EDS) method. Various structures have been observed in the condensed combustion products. Apart from the typical agglomerates or smoke oxide particles observed before, new structures including the smoke oxide clusters, irregular agglomerates and carbon-inclusions are discovered and investigated. Smoke oxide particles have the highest amount in the products. The highly dispersed oxide particle is spherical with very smooth surface and is on the order of 1-2 μm, but due to the high temperature and long residence time, these small particles will aggregate into smoke oxide clusters which are much larger than the initial particles. Three types of spherical agglomerates have been found. As the ambient gas temperature is much higher than the boiling point of Al2O3, the condensation layer inside which the aluminum drop is burning would evaporate quickly, which result in the fact that few "hollow agglomerates" has been found compared to "cap agglomerates" and "solid agglomerates". Irregular agglomerates usually larger than spherical agglomerates. The formation of irregular agglomerates likely happens by three stages: deformation of spherical aluminum drops; combination of particles with various shape; finally production of irregular agglomerates. EDS results show the ratio of O to Al on the surface of agglomerates is lower in comparison to smoke oxide particles. C and O account for

  4. [Gluten content in special dietary use gluten-free products and other food products].

    PubMed

    Daniewski, Wojciech; Wojtasik, Anna; Kunachowicz, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Gluten content of 22 special dietary use gluten-free products and 19 naturally gluten-free products was analysed by ELISA method. Gluten content in dietetic foods ranged from 5.19 to 57.16 mg/kg. Within the group of foods "gluten-free" by nature--gluten was not detected in rice and buckwheat groats samples, however in rice flakes and pearl millet gluten content ranged from 7.05 mg/kg- 27.51 mg/kg. Particularly high contamination with gluten (> 100 mg/kg) was detected in oat products what puts in doubt their usefulness in gluten-free diet.

  5. Nutrition recommendations and the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative's 2014 approved food and beverage product list.

    PubMed

    Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Powell, Lisa M

    2015-04-23

    We compare the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative's (CFBAI's) April 2014 list of food and beverage products approved to be advertised on children's television programs with the federal Interagency Working Group's nutrition recommendations for such advertised products. Products were assessed by using the nutrients to limit (saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium) component of the Interagency Working Group's recommendations. Fifty-three percent of the listed products did not meet the nutrition recommendations and, therefore, were ineligible to be advertised. We recommend continued monitoring of food and beverage products marketed to children.

  6. Are gluten-free foods healthier than non-gluten-free foods? An evaluation of supermarket products in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jason H Y; Neal, Bruce; Trevena, Helen; Crino, Michelle; Stuart-Smith, Wendy; Faulkner-Hogg, Kim; Yu Louie, Jimmy Chun; Dunford, Elizabeth

    2015-08-14

    Despite tremendous growth in the consumption of gluten-free (GF) foods, there is a lack of evaluation of their nutritional profile and how they compare with non-GF foods. The present study evaluated the nutritional quality of GF and non-GF foods in core food groups, and a wide range of discretionary products in Australian supermarkets. Nutritional information on the Nutrition Information Panel was systematically obtained from all packaged foods at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia in 2013. Food products were classified as GF if a GF declaration appeared anywhere on the product packaging, or non-GF if they contained gluten, wheat, rye, triticale, barley, oats or spelt. The primary outcome was the 'Health Star Rating' (HSR: lowest score 0.5; optimal score 5), a nutrient profiling scheme endorsed by the Australian Government. Differences in the content of individual nutrients were explored in secondary analyses. A total of 3213 food products across ten food categories were included. On average, GF plain dry pasta scored nearly 0.5 stars less (P< 0.001) compared with non-GF products; however, there were no significant differences in the mean HSR for breads or ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (P≥ 0.42 for both). Relative to non-GF foods, GF products had consistently lower average protein content across all the three core food groups, in particular for pasta and breads (52 and 32% less, P< 0.001 for both). A substantial proportion of foods in discretionary categories carried GF labels (e.g., 87% of processed meats), and the average HSR of GF discretionary foods were not systematically superior to those of non-GF products. The consumption of GF products is unlikely to confer health benefits, unless there is clear evidence of gluten intolerance.

  7. Simultaneous determination of red and yellow artificial food colourants and carotenoid pigments in food products.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yixiao; Zhang, Xiumei; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Xu, Zhimin

    2014-08-15

    A method for simultaneously determining four artificial food colourants [Red Nos. 2 (R2) and 40 (R40), Yellow Nos. 5 (Y5) and 6 (Y6)] and three carotenoids [lycopene, lutein, and β-carotene] was developed. They were successfully separated by the developed high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method combined with a photo diode array detector. The detection limit (at signal to noise>4) was from the lowest of 0.2 ng/mL for lutein to the highest of 50.0 ng/mL for R40. With a two-phase solvent and ultrasound-assisted extraction, the recoveries of the artificial and natural pigments in fifteen different types of food products were between 80.5-97.2% and 80.1-98.4%, respectively. This HPLC method with the ultrasound-assisted extraction protocol could be used as a sensitive and reliable analysis technique in simultaneously identifying and quantifying the reddish and yellowish pigments in different foods regardless of they are artificial food colourants or/and natural carotenoids.

  8. Research report: Charcoal type used for hookah smoking influences CO production.

    PubMed

    Medford, Marlon A; Gasier, Heath G; Hexdall, Eric; Moffat, Andrew D; Freiberger, John J; Moon, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    A hookah smoker who was treated for severe carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen reported using a different type of charcoal prior to hospital admission, i.e., quick-light charcoal. This finding led to a study aimed at determining whether CO production differs between charcoals commonly used for hookah smoking, natural and quick-light. Our hypothesis was that quick-light charcoal produces significantly more CO than natural charcoal. A medium-sized hookah, activated charcoal filter, calibrated syringe, CO gas analyzer and infrared thermometer were assembled in series. A single 9-10 g briquette of either natural or quick-light charcoal was placed atop the hookah bowl and ignited. CO output (ppm) and temperature (degrees C) were measured in three-minute intervals over 90 minutes. The mean CO levels produced by quick-light charcoal over 90 minutes was significantly higher (3728 ± 2028) compared to natural charcoal (1730 ± 501 ppm, p = 0.016). However, the temperature was significantly greater when burning natural charcoal (292 ± 87) compared to quick-light charcoal (247 ± 92 degrees C, p = 0.013). The high levels of CO produced when using quick-light charcoals may be contributing to the increase in reported hospital admissions for severe CO poisoning.

  9. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    PubMed

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.

  10. [TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIFIC FOOD PRODUCTS FOR PATIENTS WITH DYSPHAGIA].

    PubMed

    Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Pintor de la Maza, Begoña; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Villar Taibo, Rocío; Urioste Fondo, Ana; Cano Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros Pomar, María D

    2015-10-01

    Dysphagia is a common problem among elderly and also in some pathological conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases or tumors. Making an adequate diet for this disease may present some difficulties. The aim of this document is to make a detailed technical report about the characteristics of the products that are available in Spain to hydrate and to feed patients with dysphagia. Food and pharmaceutical industries have developed a range of products designed to ensure homogeneous texture and a suitable viscosity to guaranty an adequate hydration. An adequate nutritional status is also achieved with these products for patients with dysphagia, without compromising their safety. The ingredients used to achieve a suitable viscosity are different types of starches, gums and other substances. It has been developed thickeners and gellified water for hydratation, and in case of food there are purees (dehydrated, lyophilized, pasteurized and sterilized), fruit purees, fruit pudding, and dehydrated cereal. Patients who do not meet their nutritional needs have also oral supplements with different viscosities. The industry offers extensive information about the technical characteristics of the products, except for viscosity. It would be recommended for the manufacturers to include in detail the technical specifications of the used methodology and the measurement and the results obtained in the analysis of viscosity that can be consulted by professionals of the Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Units who treat these patients.

  11. Corn ethanol production, food exports, and indirect land use change.

    PubMed

    Wallington, T J; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Kolinski Morris, E; Winkler, S L; Ginder, J M; Nielsen, O J

    2012-06-05

    The approximately 100 million tonne per year increase in the use of corn to produce ethanol in the U.S. over the past 10 years, and projections of greater future use, have raised concerns that reduced exports of corn (and other agricultural products) and higher commodity prices would lead to land-use changes and, consequently, negative environmental impacts in other countries. The concerns have been driven by agricultural and trade models, which project that large-scale corn ethanol production leads to substantial decreases in food exports, increases in food prices, and greater deforestation globally. Over the past decade, the increased use of corn for ethanol has been largely matched by the increased corn harvest attributable mainly to increased yields. U.S. exports of corn, wheat, soybeans, pork, chicken, and beef either increased or remained unchanged. Exports of distillers' dry grains (DDG, a coproduct of ethanol production and a valuable animal feed) increased by more than an order of magnitude to 9 million tonnes in 2010. Increased biofuel production may lead to intensification (higher yields) and extensification (more land) of agricultural activities. Intensification and extensification have opposite impacts on land use change. We highlight the lack of information concerning the magnitude of intensification effects and the associated large uncertainties in assessments of the indirect land use change associated with corn ethanol.

  12. US Adults’ Perceptions of the Harmful Effects During Pregnancy of Using Electronic Vapor Products Versus Smoking Cigarettes, Styles Survey, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Van T.; Marynak, Kristy L.; King, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research suggests aerosol from electronic vapor products (EVPs) has fewer harmful constituents than conventional cigarette smoke. Even so, EVPs and other nicotine-containing products are not safe to use during pregnancy. We examined perceptions among US adults regarding harm in using EVPs rather than smoking cigarettes during pregnancy. Methods Data came from the 2015 Styles Survey, an Internet panel survey of a sample of US adults aged 18 years or older (N = 4,127). Perceived harm was assessed by asking respondents whether using EVPs was less, equally, or more harmful for pregnant women than smoking cigarettes. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate perceived harm overall and by sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco-use status. Perceived harm was assessed among all adults, women of reproductive age (18–44 years, n = 820), and women of nonreproductive age (≥45 years, n = 1,398). Results Among all adults, 11.1% believed using EVPs during pregnancy was less harmful than smoking conventional cigarettes, 51.0% believed it was equally harmful, 11.6% believed it was more harmful, and 26.2% did not know. Prevalence of perception of less harm, by demographic category, was greatest among adults aged 18 to 24 years, men, non-Hispanic whites, adults with less than a high school diploma, current EVP users, and current cigarette smokers (P < .05). Prevalence of perception of less harm was greater among women of reproductive age (9.6%) than among those of nonreproductive age (7.9%) (P < .05). Conclusion US adults have varying levels of perceptions about the harms of EVP use versus cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Efforts are warranted to prevent nicotine exposure during pregnancy and to educate adults on the dangers of using any form of tobacco during pregnancy, including EVPs. PMID:28005528

  13. Associations Between Initial Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking and Snus Use and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Results From a Longitudinal Study of US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Primack, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    initiation (adjusted odds ratios: 2.56; 95% CI, 1.46-4.47 and 3.73; 95% CI, 1.43-9.76, respectively), current cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratios: 2.48; 95% CI, 1.01-6.06 and 6.19; 95% CI, 1.86-20.56, respectively), and higher intensity of cigarette smoking (adjusted proportional odds ratios: 2.55; 95% CI, 1.48-4.38 and 4.45; 95% CI, 1.75-11.27, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus independently predicted the onset of cigarette smoking and current cigarette smoking at follow-up. Comprehensive Food and Drug Administration regulation of these tobacco products may limit their appeal to youth and curb the onset of cigarette smoking. PMID:25485959

  14. Does food supplementation really enhance productivity of breeding birds?

    PubMed

    Harrison, Timothy J E; Smith, Jennifer A; Martin, Graham R; Chamberlain, Dan E; Bearhop, Stuart; Robb, Gillian N; Reynolds, S James

    2010-10-01

    Food availability influences multiple stages of the breeding cycle of birds, and supplementary feeding has helped in its understanding. Most supplementation studies have reported advancements of laying, whilst others, albeit less numerous, have also demonstrated fitness benefits such as larger clutches, shorter incubation periods, and greater hatching success. Relatively few studies, however, have investigated the effects of supplementary feeding for protracted periods across multiple stages of the breeding cycle. These effects are important to understand since long-term food supplementation of birds is recommended in urban habitats and is used as a tool to increase reproductive output in endangered species. Here, we compare the breeding phenology and productivity of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus and great tits Parus major breeding in food-supplemented and non-supplemented blocks in a broadleaf woodland in central England over three seasons (2006-2008). Supplementation was provided continuously from several weeks pre-laying until hatching, and had multiple significant effects. Most notably, supplementation reduced brood size significantly in both species, by half a chick or more at hatching (after controlling for year and hatching date). Reduced brood sizes in supplemented pairs were driven by significantly smaller clutches in both species and, in blue tits, significantly lower hatching success. These are novel and concerning findings of food supplementation. As expected, supplementary feeding advanced laying and shortened incubation periods significantly in both species. We discuss the striking parallels between our findings and patterns in blue and great tit reproduction in urban habitats, and conclude that supplementary feeding may not always enhance the breeding productivity of birds.

  15. Fertilizers for food production vs energy needs and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Olson, R A

    1977-12-01

    The world is experiencing an energy crisis that is restrictive to agricultural requisites production at the same time that food is becoming increasingly short on a global basis. Fertilizers are the most energy demanding of these inputs and have become very expensive and intermittently short in supply with the reduced availability of fossil fuels. They have been indicted, furthermore, as environmental pollutants due to their presumed role in eutrophication and in being a source of excessive NO3-N that may accumulate in some leaf crops and in drinking waters. Exponential growth in fossil fuel consumption cannot continue. Economies can be made in the agricultural sector, which does indeed consume substantial quantities of energy. The energy consumed in this very essential food-producing process, however, is almost insignificant compared with that involved in transport and processing of food beyond the farm and with other energy expenditures in modern society. A shift in priorities will certainly be required in adapting to the real world of the 1970s if man's first need is to be met. Economies in fertilizer use can be made by adherence to known agronomic principles. Savings in fossil fuel energy can probably be effected also in the production of N fertilizer, by far the most fossil-energy-demanding process in the realm of agriculture. Considerable research remains to be done, however, under varied climatic conditions for understanding and controlling processes by which residuals from fertilizers may become environmental pollutants. The various issues in this paper must be resolved promptly in consideration of the now-existing energy crisis and the imminent world food crisis.

  16. Cigarette smoking, use of other tobacco products and stomach cancer mortality in US adults: The Cancer Prevention Study II.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ann; Thun, Michael J; Henley, S Jane; Jacobs, Eric J; McCullough, Marjorie L; Calle, Eugenia E

    2002-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of stomach cancer in many studies but there are limited data on this relationship in women and on risk associated with use of tobacco products other than cigarettes. We examined stomach cancer death rates in relation to cigarette smoking in women and use of cigarette, cigar, pipe, or smokeless tobacco in men in a nationwide prospective mortality study in the United States (US). Cohort follow-up from 1982-96 identified 996 and 509 stomach cancer deaths among 467,788 men and 588,053 women, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to estimate rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using non-users of tobacco as the referent group. Multivariate-adjusted RRs were the highest for men who currently smoked cigars (RR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.49-3.51) or cigarettes (RR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.75-2.67) and both increased with smoking duration. Women who currently (RR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.18-1.88) or formerly (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.08-1.71) smoked cigarettes were at significantly increased risk, as were men who formerly smoked cigarettes (RR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.28-1.88), or currently (RR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.40-2.35) or formerly (RR: 1.57, 95% CI = 1.22-2.03) used more than one type of tobacco. Men who reported a history of chronic indigestion or gastroduodenal ulcer had substantially higher mortality rates associated with current cigarette (RR = 3.45, 95% CI = 2.05-5.80) or cigar (RR = 8.93, 95% CI = 4.02-19.90) smoking, as did men who were current aspirin users. If causal, the estimated proportion of stomach cancer deaths attributable to tobacco use would be 28% in US men and 14% in women. We conclude that prolonged use of tobacco products is associated with increased stomach cancer mortality in men and women. The accumulated evidence from this and other studies support reconsidering stomach cancer as a tobacco-related cancer.

  17. Smoking (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to start smoking. The body doesn't need tobacco the way it needs food, water, sleep, and exercise. And many of the chemicals in cigarettes, like nicotine and cyanide, are actually poisons that can kill in high ...

  18. 77 FR 31026 - Requirements for Importing Food and Drug Administration Regulated Products Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... respect to importing pharmaceutical products, medical devices, food products, as well as technology which... No: 2012-12592] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Requirements for Importing Food and Drug Administration Regulated Products Into the...

  19. 77 FR 71750 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed a... petition (FAP 2273) has been filed by DSM Nutritional Products, 45 Waterview Blvd., Parsippany, NJ...

  20. Peering into the Secrets of Food and Agricultural Co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for directing product development and is equally important for developing products from food crops and co-products from the agricultural waste after harvest. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to ...

  1. 9 CFR 314.11 - Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food. 314.11 Section 314.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... other than human food. Condemned carcasses of animals affected with one or more of the...

  2. 9 CFR 314.11 - Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food. 314.11 Section 314.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... other than human food. Condemned carcasses of animals affected with one or more of the...

  3. 9 CFR 314.11 - Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food. 314.11 Section 314.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... other than human food. Condemned carcasses of animals affected with one or more of the...

  4. World Indices of Agricultural and Food Production, 1977-86. Statistical Bulletin Number 759.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    World food production reached a record high in 1986, exceeding 1985's record by about 1 percent, despite declining food output in Latin America, the United States, Western Europe, and Oceania. World food production generally increased faster than population from 1977 to 1986. Production of agricultural commodities increased at an annual compound…

  5. Urinary biomarkers of smokers’ exposure to tobacco smoke constituents in tobacco products assessment: a fit for purpose approach

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Evan O.; Minet, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    There are established guidelines for bioanalytical assay validation and qualification of biomarkers. In this review, they were applied to a panel of urinary biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure as part of a “fit for purpose” approach to the assessment of smoke constituents exposure in groups of tobacco product smokers. Clinical studies have allowed the identification of a group of tobacco exposure biomarkers demonstrating a good doseresponse relationship whilst others such as dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid and 2-carboxy-1-methylethylmercapturic acid – did not reproducibly discriminate smokers and non-smokers. Furthermore, there are currently no agreed common reference standards to measure absolute concentrations and few inter-laboratory trials have been performed to establish consensus values for interim standards. Thus, we also discuss in this review additional requirements for the generation of robust data on urinary biomarkers, including toxicant metabolism and disposition, method validation and qualification for use in tobacco products comparison studies. PMID:23902266

  6. Urinary biomarkers of smokers' exposure to tobacco smoke constituents in tobacco products assessment: a fit for purpose approach.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Evan O; Minet, Emmanuel; McEwan, Michael

    2013-09-01

    There are established guidelines for bioanalytical assay validation and qualification of biomarkers. In this review, they were applied to a panel of urinary biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure as part of a "fit for purpose" approach to the assessment of smoke constituents exposure in groups of tobacco product smokers. Clinical studies have allowed the identification of a group of tobacco exposure biomarkers demonstrating a good doseresponse relationship whilst others such as dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid and 2-carboxy-1-methylethylmercapturic acid - did not reproducibly discriminate smokers and non-smokers. Furthermore, there are currently no agreed common reference standards to measure absolute concentrations and few inter-laboratory trials have been performed to establish consensus values for interim standards. Thus, we also discuss in this review additional requirements for the generation of robust data on urinary biomarkers, including toxicant metabolism and disposition, method validation and qualification for use in tobacco products comparison studies.

  7. Animal models used to test the interactions between infectious agents and products of cigarette smoked implicated in sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sayers, N M; Drucker, D B

    1999-08-01

    Animal test systems are reviewed that have relevance to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are reviewed. These test interactions between infectious agents (or their toxins) and products of cigarette smoke. Infectious agents implicated in SIDS include members of the enterobacteria and clostridia, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Smoking is thought to be the single most preventable cause of SIDS. Tobacco smoke contains many extremely toxic products including cyanide and nicotine. Many animal test systems are available to examine the potency of bacterial toxins and smoke-derived components. These include mice, hamsters, rats and chick embryos. Such systems reveal synergy between bacterial toxins, especially endotoxin and superantigens. They have also demonstrated potentiation of low levels of bacterial toxin by low levels of both nicotine and its primary metabolite, cotinine. These findings suggest a possible causal explanation for the fact that passive exposure to cigarette smoke is a risk factor in sudden infant death syndrome.

  8. [Transgenic products. A scientific-production evaluation of possible food (in)security].

    PubMed

    Camara, Maria Clara Coelho; Marinho, Carmem L C; Guilam, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Nodari, Rubens Onofre

    2009-01-01

    Based on a bibliographic review, the article identifies and offers a critical analysis of scientific production by the public health field in Brazil on genetically modified organisms and food (in)security. Of the 716 articles found on the portals of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and the Coordinating Agency for the Development of Higher Education (Capes), only 8 address the food security of transgenic products, primarily in terms of risk exposure and the uncertainties about how these products impact health and the environment. The main conclusion involves the fact that the eight analyzed articles do not speak to the question of the security but rather the insecurity of genetically modified foods.

  9. Production of ethanol from infant food formulas by common yeasts.

    PubMed

    Bivin, W S; Heinen, B N

    1985-04-01

    Four common yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Torulopsis glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were combined with five infant food formulas and/or supplements (Isomil, Nutramigen, 5% glucose, Coca Cola and Similac) and incubated at 37 degrees C. Gas chromatography was used to measure ethanol production after 24 and 48 h incubation. The quantities of ethanol produced suggest a possible explanation for patients exhibiting the 'Auto-Brewery Syndrome' and raises interest in the role auto-produced ethanol could have in explaining the etiology of Sudden Infant Death.

  10. 9 CFR 314.11 - Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food. 314.11 Section 314.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... INEDIBLE PRODUCTS AT OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.11 Handling of certain condemned products for...

  11. Influence of processing steps in cold-smoked salmon production on survival and growth of persistent and presumed non-persistent Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Mohr, Mona; Gram, Lone

    2008-03-20

    Cold-smoked salmon is a ready-to-eat product in which Listeria monocytogenes sometimes can grow to high numbers. The bacterium can colonize the processing environment and it is believed to survive or even grow during the processing steps. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the steps in the processing of cold-smoked salmon affect survival and subsequent growth of a persistent strain of L. monocytogenes to a lesser degree than presumed non-persistent strains. We used a sequence of experiments increasing in complexity: (i) small salmon blocks salted, smoked or dried under model conditions, (ii) fillets of salmon cold-smoked in a pilot plant and finally, (iii) assessment of the bacterial levels before and after processing during commercial scale production. L. monocytogenes proliferated on salmon blocks that were brined or dipped in liquid smoke and left at 25 degrees C in a humidity chamber for 24 h. However, combining brining and liquid smoke with a drying (25 degrees C) step reduced the bacterium 10-100 fold over a 24 h period. Non-salted, brine injected or dry salted salmon fillets were surface inoculated with L. monocytogenes and cold-smoked in a pilot plant. L. monocytogenes was reduced from 10(3) to 10-10(2) CFU/cm(2) immediately after cold-smoking. The greatest reductions were observed in dry salted and brine injected fillets as compared to cold-smoking of non-salted fresh fillets. Levels of L. monocytogenes decreased further when the cold-smoked fish was vacuum-packed and stored at 5 degrees C. A similar decline was seen when inoculating brine injected fillets after cold-smoking. High phenol concentrations are a likely cause of this marked growth inhibition. In a commercial production facility, the total viable count of salmon fillets was reduced 10-1000 fold by salting, cold-smoking and process-freezing (a freezing step after smoking and before slicing). The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the commercial production facility was too low to

  12. Predicted growth of world urban food waste and methane production.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bijaya K; Barrington, Suzelle; Martinez, José

    2006-10-01

    Landfill gas emissions are one of the largest anthropogenic sources of methane especially because of food waste (FW). To prevent these emissions growing with world population, future FW best management practices need to be evaluated. The objective of this paper was therefore to predict FW production for 2025 if present management practices are maintained, and then, to compare the impact of scenario 1: encouraging people to stay in rural areas and composting 75% of their FW, and; of scenario 2, where in addition to scenario 1, composting or anaerobically digesting 75% of urban FW (UFW). A relationship was established between per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and the population percentage living in urban areas (%UP), as well as production of municipal solid waste (MSW) and UFW. With estimated GDP and population growth per country, %UP and production of MSW and UFW could be predicted for 2025. A relatively accurate (R(2) > 0.85) correlation was found between GDP and %UP, and between GDP and mass of MSW and FW produced. On a global scale, MSW and UFW productions were predicted to increase by 51 and 44%, respectively, from 2005 to 2025. During the same period, and because of its expected economic development, Asia was predicted to experience the largest increase in UFW production, of 278 to 416 Gkg. If present MSW management trends are maintained, landfilled UFW was predicted to increase world CH4 emissions from 34 to 48 Gkg and the landfill share of global anthropogenic emissions from 8 to 10%. In comparison with maintaining present FW management practices, scenario 1 can lower UFW production by 30% and maintain the landfill share of the global anthropogenic emissions at 8%. With scenario 2, the landfill share of global anthropogenic emissions could be further reduced from 8 to 6% and leachate production could be reduced by 40%.

  13. Risk analysis of tyramine concentration in food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doudová, L.; Buňka, F.; Michálek, J.; Sedlačík, M.; Buňková, L.

    2013-10-01

    The contribution is focused on risk analysis in food microbiology. This paper evaluates the effect of selected factors on tyramine production in bacterial strains of Lactococcus genus which were assigned as tyramine producers. Tyramine is a biogenic amine sythesized from an amino acid called tyrosine. It can be found in certain foodstuffs (often in cheese), and can cause a pseudo-response in sensitive individuals. The above-mentioned bacteria are commonly used in the biotechnological process of cheese production as starter cultures. The levels of factors were chosen with respect to the conditions which can occur in this technological process. To describe and compare tyramine production in chosen microorganisms, generalized regression models were applied. Tyramine production was modelled by Gompertz curves according to the selected factors (the lactose concentration of 0-1% w/v, NaCl 0-2% w/v and aero/anaerobiosis) for 3 different types of bacterial cultivation. Moreover, estimates of model parameters were calculated and tested; multiple comparisons were discussed as well. The aim of this paper is to find a combination of factors leading to a similar tyramine production level.

  14. Biocatalysis for the production of industrial products and functional foods from rice and other agricultural produce.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Casimir C; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2008-11-26

    Many industrial products and functional foods can be obtained from cheap and renewable raw agricultural materials. For example, starch can be converted to bioethanol as biofuel to reduce the current demand for petroleum or fossil fuel energy. On the other hand, starch can also be converted to useful functional ingredients, such as high fructose and high maltose syrups, wine, glucose, and trehalose. The conversion process involves fermentation by microorganisms and use of biocatalysts such as hydrolases of the amylase superfamily. Amylases catalyze the process of liquefaction and saccharification of starch. It is possible to perform complete hydrolysis of starch by using the fusion product of both linear and debranching thermostable enzymes. This will result in saving energy otherwise needed for cooling before the next enzyme can act on the substrate, if a sequential process is utilized. Recombinant enzyme technology, protein engineering, and enzyme immobilization are powerful tools available to enhance the activity of enzymes, lower the cost of enzyme through large scale production in a heterologous host, increase their thermostability, improve pH stability, enhance their productivity, and hence making it competitive with the chemical processes involved in starch hydrolysis and conversions. This review emphasizes the potential of using biocatalysis for the production of useful industrial products and functional foods from cheap agricultural produce and transgenic plants. Rice was selected as a typical example to illustrate many applications of biocatalysis in converting low-value agricultural produce to high-value commercial food and industrial products. The greatest advantages of using enzymes for food processing and for industrial production of biobased products are their environmental friendliness and consumer acceptance as being a natural process.

  15. Canned rice products as Philippine military food ration.

    PubMed

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V

    2003-05-01

    Canned prototypes of rice (CR) and rice meal with pork sausage (CRM) were developed as military food ration models for evaluation by personnel in the Bonifacio Naval Station, Fort Bonifacio, Makati, Philippines. The prototypes were produced based on the assumption that a serving size equivalent to 400 g cooked rice and a meat-based viand using a 1:4 (wt/wt) viand to rice ratio was adequate as a single-serve meal for a typical Philippine military personnel. The CR and CRM prototypes were low acid products with pH values of 4.9 and 5.5, respectively. The processed rice portions of the prototypes showed about 200% volume and weight increases, moderate clumpiness and low percentage breakage. More than 90% of the respondents agreed that CR and CRM were suitable military food rations. Majority of the panelists indicated preference for meat-based and poultry-based viands. Bulk and weight portativity problems, however, were raised with the 400 g serving size of cooked products in cans.

  16. 77 FR 71803 - Guidance on Food and Drug Administration Oversight of Positron Emission Tomography Drug Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance on Food and Drug Administration Oversight of Positron Emission Tomography Drug Products--Questions and Answers; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  17. Food Service Worker. Instructional Modules for Food Management, Production and Services. Modules 1-17. Competency Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Dept. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    These 17 teacher modules are part of a curriculum dealing with food management, production, and services that was developed for use in secondary and postsecondary vocational programs in Tennessee. Covered in the individual modules are food service careers, math skills, reading and converting recipes, work simplification, self-development,…

  18. 76 FR 4284 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tulkoff Food Products, Inc. (Dehydrated Garlic), Baltimore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Garlic), Baltimore, MD Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as...-purpose subzone at the garlic products manufacturing facility of Tulkoff Food Products, Inc., located in... to the manufacture of garlic products at the Tulkoff Food Products, Inc., facility located...

  19. Aerosols and contact insecticides as alternatives to methyl bromide in flour mills, food production facilities, and food warehouses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fumigant methyl bromide (MB) is being phased out of production and usage to control stored product insects in flour and rice mills, as well as feed and food production plants, in the United States (US) and other developed countries throughout the world. A phase-out schedule has also been establi...

  20. Modelling production per unit of food consumed in fish populations.

    PubMed

    Wiff, Rodrigo; Barrientos, Mauricio A; Milessi, Andrés C; Quiroz, J C; Harwood, John

    2015-01-21

    The ratio of production-to-consumption (ρ) reflects how efficiently a population can transform ingested food into biomass. Usually this ratio is estimated by separately integrating cohort per-recruit production and consumption per unit of biomass. Estimates of ρ from cohort analysis differ from those that consider the whole population, because fish populations are usually composed of cohorts that differ in their relative abundance. Cohort models for ρ also assume a stable age-structure and a constant population size (stationary condition). This may preclude their application to harvested populations, in which variations in fishing mortality and recruitment will affect age-structure. In this paper, we propose a different framework for estimating (ρ) in which production and consumption are modelled simultaneously to produce a population estimator of ρ. Food consumption is inferred from the physiological concepts underpinning the generalised von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). This general framework allows the effects of different age-structures to be explored, with a stationary population as a special case. Three models with different complexities, depending mostly on what assumptions are made about age-structure, are explored. The full data model requires knowledge about food assimilation efficiency, parameters of the VBGF and the relative proportion of individuals at age a at time y (Py(a)). A simpler model, which requires less data, is based on the stationary assumption. Model results are compared with estimates from cohort models for ρ using simulated fish populations of different lifespans. The models proposed here were also applied to three fish populations that are targets of commercial fisheries in the south-east Pacific. Uncertainty in the estimation of ρ was evaluated using a resampling approach. Simulation showed that cohort and population models produce different estimates for ρ and those differences depend on lifespan, fishing mortality and

  1. The Hotspot for (Global) One Health in Primary Food Production: Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products.

    PubMed

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Gherardi, Paola; Saxena, Navneet; Belluzzi, Giancarlo; Mantovani, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    One Health involves the multifaceted environment-animal-human web: nevertheless, the role of toxicological issues has yet to be fully explored in this context. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination of feeds is a risk for the health of several farm animals, including fishes; milk is the only food of animal origin where a significant feed-food carry over may occur. The main AFB1-related compound present in milk is the hydroxy-metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Besides contamination of raw milk, AFM1 is of concern for the whole dairy chain; AFM1 may also contaminate the milk of several other ruminants used for milk/dairy production. In a One Health perspective, milk represents a sentinel matrix for AFB1 vulnerability of the agro-food system, that is crucial in a phase when food/nutritional security becomes a global issue and climatic changes may affect agricultural productions. In the global setting, food chain exposure to long-term toxicants, such as AFM1, is a growing concern for economically developing countries, whereas global trade and climatic change makes AFM1 an emerging hot issue in economically developed countries as well. We critically review the state of the art on AFM1 risk assessment and risk management using two scenarios as case studies: a European Union country where the health system aims at ensuring a high-level protection of food chain (Italy) and the world's largest (and economically developing) producer of dairy products by volume (India). The case studies are used to provide building blocks for a global One Health framework.

  2. The Hotspot for (Global) One Health in Primary Food Production: Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Gherardi, Paola; Saxena, Navneet; Belluzzi, Giancarlo; Mantovani, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    One Health involves the multifaceted environment-animal-human web: nevertheless, the role of toxicological issues has yet to be fully explored in this context. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination of feeds is a risk for the health of several farm animals, including fishes; milk is the only food of animal origin where a significant feed-food carry over may occur. The main AFB1-related compound present in milk is the hydroxy-metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Besides contamination of raw milk, AFM1 is of concern for the whole dairy chain; AFM1 may also contaminate the milk of several other ruminants used for milk/dairy production. In a One Health perspective, milk represents a sentinel matrix for AFB1 vulnerability of the agro-food system, that is crucial in a phase when food/nutritional security becomes a global issue and climatic changes may affect agricultural productions. In the global setting, food chain exposure to long-term toxicants, such as AFM1, is a growing concern for economically developing countries, whereas global trade and climatic change makes AFM1 an emerging hot issue in economically developed countries as well. We critically review the state of the art on AFM1 risk assessment and risk management using two scenarios as case studies: a European Union country where the health system aims at ensuring a high-level protection of food chain (Italy) and the world’s largest (and economically developing) producer of dairy products by volume (India). The case studies are used to provide building blocks for a global One Health framework. PMID:28210616

  3. Institutional obstacles to expansion of world food production.

    PubMed

    Crosson, P R

    1975-05-09

    It was argued that over the near-to-medium term-roughly to the mid-1980's-there is enough potential for growth in existing Green Revolution technology and in technical capacity of farmers that institutions affecting these two sources of increased food production probably will not be seriously constraining. The principal bottlenecks likely will be found among those institutions affecting farmers' incentives to innovate. There is impressive evidence that when other conditions for innovation are favorable the supply of marketing services, for both inputs and outputs, is quite elastic. This seems to include the supply of funds from rural saving and informal credit sources, although the evidence is less clear in this respect. The situation concerning price relations and availability of inputs appears mixed. If national income growth targets are achieved, then the growth in total demand for food in the LDC's should be fast enough to support incentive prices for farmers. This advantage could be lost, however, if governments adopt policies to suppress food prices to keep down the cost of living. The price of fertilizers is expected to fall from the high levels of 1974, the amount of the fall depending in good measure on the success of the LDC's in increasing fertilizer production. Historically, their efforts to expand capacity have been relatively inefficient. Moreover, many countries still lack adequate capacity to produce the HYV's and pesticides. Even with good progress in expanding domestic production of inputs, imports will continue to be an important source of supply. Maintenance of present high prices of petroleum products could be a major obstacle to financing these imports on the necessary scale because of the drain it would place on available foreign exchange. I conclude, on balance, that prices and availability of fertilizers, pesticides, and seeds could have important negative effects on farmers' incentives to adopt Green Revolution technology. Rigidities in

  4. Improvements of soil quality for increased food production in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Øygarden, Lillian; Klakegg, Ove; Børresen, Trond; Krogstad, Tore; Kjersti Uhlen, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1990ties, agricultural land in use in Norway has diminished and yields per hectare for cereals and forages have stagnated. An expert panel appointed to advice on how to increase Norwegian grain production emphasizes low profitability and poor soil quality as limiting factors. A White Paper from the Norwegian Government, Report No.9 (2011-2012), stated that the main goal for the agricultural sector is to increase food production proportional to the expected increase in population (20 % by 2030) in order to maintain self-sufficiency at the present level. This is the background for the interdisciplinary project AGROPRO "Agronomy for increased food production - Challenges and solutions" (2013 - 2017)" financed by the Norwegian research council. A mail goal is seeking possibilities for improvements in agronomic practices for increased and sustainable food production and to identify drivers and challenges for their implementation. Are the key to higher yields hidden in the soil? The paper present an overview of the research activities in the project and some results of the improvements of soil quality to minimize yield gap in cereal and forage production. Detailed new soil maps provide soil information on field scale of soil quality and the suitability for growing different crops like cereal production or vegetables. The detailed soil information is also beeing used for development and adaptation of the planning tool «Terranimo» to reduce risk of soil compaction.The farmer get available soil information for each field, provide information about the maschinery in use- tractors and equipment, tyres, pressure. The decision tool evaluate when the soil is suitable for tillage, calculate the risk of compaction for dry, moist and wet soil. New research data for compaction on Norwegian clay and silt soil are included. Climate change with wetter conditions gives challenges for growing cereals. The project is testing genetic variation in cereals for tolerance to water

  5. Effect of parity on productivity and sustainability of Lotka-Volterra food chains: bounded orbits in food chains.

    PubMed

    Massarelli, Nicole; Hoffman, Kathleen; Previte, Joseph P

    2014-12-01

    Hairston, Slobodkin, and Smith conjectured that top down forces act on food chains, which opposed the previously accepted theory that bottom up forces exclusively dictate the dynamics of populations. We model food chains using the Lotka-Volterra predation model and derive sustainability constants which determine which species will persist or go extinct. Further, we show that the productivity of a sustainable food chain with even trophic levels is predator regulated, or top down, while a sustainable food chain with odd trophic levels is resource limited, which is bottom up, which is consistent with current ecological theory.

  6. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-05-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser.

  7. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser. PMID:27212262

  8. Determining the potential productivity of food crops in controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    The quest to determine the maximum potential productivity of food crops is greatly benefitted by crop growth models. Many models have been developed to analyze and predict crop growth in the field, but it is difficult to predict biological responses to stress conditions. Crop growth models for the optimal environments of a Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS) can be highly predictive. This paper discusses the application of a crop growth model to CELSS; the model is used to evaluate factors limiting growth. The model separately evaluates the following four physiological processes: absorption of PPF by photosynthetic tissue, carbon fixation (photosynthesis), carbon use (respiration), and carbon partitioning (harvest index). These constituent processes determine potentially achievable productivity. An analysis of each process suggests that low harvest index is the factor most limiting to yield. PPF absorption by plant canopies and respiration efficiency are also of major importance. Research concerning productivity in a CELSS should emphasize: (1) the development of gas exchange techniques to continuously monitor plant growth rates and (2) environmental techniques to reduce plant height in communities.

  9. Global warming, population growth, and natural resources for food production.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, D

    1991-01-01

    Destruction of forests and the considerable burning of fossil fuels is directly causing the level of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases including methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere to rise. Population growth in the US and the world indirectly contributes to this global warming. This has led the majority of scientists interested in weather and climate to predict that the planet's temperature will increase from 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius by 2050. These forecasted climactic changes will most likely strongly affect crop production. Specifically these scientists expect the potential changes in temperature, moisture, carbon dioxide, and pests to decrease food production in North America. The degree of changes hinges on each crop and its environmental needs. If farmers begin using improved agricultural technology, the fall in crop yields can be somewhat counterbalanced. Even without global warming, however, agriculture in North America must embrace sensible ecological resource management practices such as conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. These sustainable agricultural practices would serve agriculture, farmers, the environment, and society. Agriculturalists, farmers, and society are already interested in sustainable agriculture. Still scientists must conduct more research on the multiple effects of potential global climate change on many different crops under various environmental conditions and on new technologies that farmers might use in agricultural production. We must cut down our consumption of fossil fuel, reduce deforestation, erase poverty, and protect our soil, water, and biological resources. The most important action we need to take, however, is to check population growth.

  10. Screening for anti-nutritional compounds in complementary foods and food aid products for infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Roos, Nanna; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Hilmer; Rasmussen, Søren Kjaersgaard; Briend, André; Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    A range of compounds with negative nutritional impact - 'anti-nutrients' - are found in most plant foods. The contents of anti-nutrients in processed foods depend on the ingredients and processing. Anti-nutrients in complementary foods for children can have a negative impact on nutritional status. The aim of this study was to screen complementary foods from developing countries for the anti-nutritional compounds, phytate, polyphenols, inhibitors of trypsin and chymotrypsin, and lectins. Commercial products based on whole grain cereals were included as a 'worst-case' scenario for anti-nutrient exposure in Europe. Contents of minerals (iron, zinc and calcium), in which absorption or utilisation is affected by anti-nutrients, were analysed. Thirty-six products representing foods used in food aid programmes, local blended foods, fortified instant porridges and 'baby foods' were analysed. The content of minerals indicated that the fortification of a number of products did not meet the declared levels of iron, zinc and calcium. The phytate content ranged from 68 to 1536 mg/100 g, confirming a persistent problem of high levels of phytate in processed cereal- and legume-based products. The phytate : Fe molar ratio exceeded the recommended level of <1.0 in 32 of the 36 products. The total polyphenols varied from 1.3 to 9.3 mg gentisic acid equivalents g(-1) . Screening low-molecular weight soluble polyphenols may be more relevant in complementary foods than total polyphenolic compounds. Trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors and lectins were found in residual amounts in most products, indicating efficient degradation by heat processing. However, young infants and malnourished children may have reduced pancreatic function, and upper limits for residual trypsin inhibitors are needed.

  11. Sustainability of organic food production: challenges and innovations.

    PubMed

    Niggli, Urs

    2015-02-01

    The greatest challenge for agriculture is to reduce the trade-offs between productivity and long-term sustainability. Therefore, it is interesting to analyse organic agriculture which is a given set of farm practices that emphasise ecological sustainability. Organic agriculture can be characterised as being less driven by off-farm inputs and being better embedded in ecosystem functions. The literature on public goods and non-commodity outputs of organic farms is overwhelming. Most publications address the positive effects of organic farming on soil fertility, biodiversity maintenance and protection of the natural resources of soil, water and air. As a consequence of focusing on public goods, organic agriculture is less productive. Meta-analyses show that organic agriculture yields range between 0·75 and 0·8 of conventional agriculture. Best practice examples from disadvantaged sites and climate conditions show equal or, in the case of subsistence farming in Sub-Saharan Africa, higher productivity of organic agriculture. Hence, organic agriculture is likely to be a good model for productive and sustainable food production. Underfunding in R&D addressing specific bottlenecks of organic agriculture are the main cause for both crop and livestock yield gaps. Therefore, the potential for improving the performance of organic agriculture through agricultural research is huge. Although organic farming is a niche in most countries, it is at the verge of becoming mainstream in leading European countries. Consumer demand has grown over the past two decades and does not seem to be a limiting factor for the future development of organic agriculture.

  12. Peering into the secrets of food and agricultural co-products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Delilah; Williams, Tina; Glenn, Gregory; Pan, Zhongli; Orts, William; McHugh, Tara

    2010-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for understanding food contamination and directing product development of food and industrial products. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to eat. At the same time, these processed foods must be safe, high quality and maintain all or most of the nutritional value of the original whole foods. Minimally processed foods, is the phrase used to characterize these "new" foods. New techniques are needed which take advantage of minimal processing or processing which enhances the fresh properties and characteristics of whole foods while spending less time on food preparation. The added benefit coupled to less cooking time in an individual kitchen translates to an overall energy savings and reduces the carbon emissions to the environment. Food processing changes the microstructure, and therefore, the quality, texture and flavor, of the resulting food product. Additionally, there is the need to reduce waste, transportation costs and product loss during transportation and storage. Unlike food processing, structural changes are desirable in co-products as function follows form for food packaging films and boxes as well as for building materials and other industrial products. Thus, the standard materials testing procedures are coupled with SEM to provide direction in the development of products from agricultural residues or what would otherwise be considered waste materials. The use of agricultural residues reduces waste and adds value to a currently underutilized or unutilized product. The product might be biodegradable or compostable, thus reducing landfill requirements. Manufacturing industrial and packaging products from biological materials also reduces the amount of petroleum products currently standard in the industry.

  13. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    PubMed

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world.

  14. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production

    PubMed Central

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world. PMID:26061704

  15. Feasibility of producing a range of food products from a limited range of undifferenitiated major food components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Kamarei, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    This report reviews current knowledge associated with producing safe, nutritious, and acceptable foods from a limited number of source independent macronutrients. The advantages, and disadvantages, of such an approach for use by space crews are discussed. The production of macronutrients from a variety of sources is covered in detail. The sources analyzed are: wheat, soybeans, algae (3 genera), glycerol, and digested cellulose. Fabrication of food from the above macronutrient sources is discussed and particular attention is addressed to nutrition, acceptability and reliability. The processes and concepts involved in food fabrication and macronutrient production are also considered for utilization in a space environment.

  16. Local food in Iceland: identifying behavioral barriers to increased production and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ósk Halldórsdóttir, Þórhildur; Nicholas, Kimberly A.

    2016-11-01

    Increased production and consumption of local food may reduce the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts of industrialized and globalized food production. Here we examined potential barriers to increasing production and consumption of food produced in Iceland. First, we developed a new framework to address the behaviors of production and consumption simultaneously, to comprehensively analyze their potential barriers. We examined structural barriers by estimating the food production capacity of Iceland, and cultural and personal barriers through survey data on cultural norms and purchasing behavior from Matís, a research and development company. We found no structural barriers preventing Iceland from increasing production of local cereals, which would compliment current local production of meat and dairy and reduce reliance on imports, currently at 50% of the daily caloric intake. However, if food production became entirely local without changing the current mix of crops grown, there would be a 50% reduction in diversity (from 50 to 25 items in eight out of ten food categories). We did not identify any cultural barriers, as survey results demonstrated that consumers hold generally positive worldviews towards local food, with 88% satisfied with local food they had purchased. More than two-thirds of consumers regarded supporting the local farmer and considerations such as environmentally friendly production, fewer food miles, lower carbon footprint as important. However, they rated the local food they have access to as lower in meeting sustainability criteria, showing that they make justifications for not choosing local food in practice. This is a personal barrier to increased consumption of local food, and implies that marketing strategies and general knowledge connected to local food in Iceland might be improved. Although the results apply to the case of Iceland, the method of identifying behavioral barriers to change is applicable to other countries

  17. Analysis of different smoke plume products to remove potential bias between satellite AOD and surface level PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazmi, Chowdhury

    Satellite remote sensing has the potential for direct observation of aerosols based on the property of atmospheric reflection of sunlight due to particulate scattering. Since particle mass to some level of approximation is linearly related to the optical scattering coefficient of the particles, this implies that the total column integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements would also be connected to surface PM2.5 through a simple linear model. Unfortunately, a wide range of factors can greatly modify the AOD to PM2.5 relationship including such factors as: 1. Planetary Boundary Layer Height (PBLH) 2. Aerosol type 3. Meteorology such as wind speed, RH, temperature etc. 4. Aloft Plume Contamination which affects the satellite AOD without changing the surface PM2.5. While existing approaches using ancillary meteorology and CTM's have been made in an effort to extract PM2.5, little consideration has been focused on the 4th factor which clearly has the potential to bias the result by overestimating the PBL AOD by adding the Aloft Aerosol contribution. Our results study a number of potential smoke plume indicators. In particular, we show that the multi-year GOES-ASDTA smoke product, the NAAPS aerosol model and to a lesser extent, the OMI Aerosol data products can be used to get a useful smoke indicator (averaged over an extended area) that can significantly eliminate smoke contaminated cases. This is illustrated by improved regression results for conditions when linear behavior is expected to dominate. In motivating this study, it should be pointed out that even though the filtering process can be inexact and result in a large amount of data being removed from the analysis, further improvements in satellite observation technology such as GOES-R (multi-time aggregation) and better methods to perform single pixel type retrievals using better surface modelling will result in a very large gain in satellite AOD retrievals making it less problematic for additional

  18. Knowledge and technologies for sustainable intensification of food production.

    PubMed

    Flavell, Richard

    2010-11-30

    Knowledge and technologies will always continue to be developed, as they have always, to bring new efficiencies to plant breeding and crop production, which suffer from many constraints and inefficiencies. These constraints need to be overcome throughout the world to help increase the rate of improvements in food production and intensify production on less land. The recent discoveries and technical innovations that are revealing the full complement of genes in crops, the ability to define genetic variation and use DNA markers to follow chromosome segments with known functions through breeding programmes are leading to new efficiencies in breeding. The ability to isolate and redesign genes and transfer them into different plants also offers the breeder solutions to several key limitations. These benefits are described together with some of the current issues associated with the use of transgenes. Generation after generation can look forward to new knowledge and technologies, many of which we cannot know at present, and thus there is no reason to be despondent about meeting future goals, if the right decisions and investments are made globally and locally. These decisions include putting optimal use of land at the top of the world agenda to sustain both the planet and an adequate quality of life for mankind. As always has been the case, more investments are urgently required into the dissemination of successful technologies in crop breeding and production, into teaching and training as well as into innovative research. Failure to invest adequately in innovative technologies will leave future decision-makers and citizens with fewer options and greatly enhance the risks for mankind and a healthy planet.

  19. Carotenoids and retinoids in Finnish foods: dairy products and eggs.

    PubMed

    Ollilainen, V; Heinonen, M; Linkola, E; Varo, P; Koivistoinen, P

    1989-09-01

    As part of an overall composition study of Finnish foods, the carotenoid and retinoid content of 20 dairy product samples and eggs were determined by HPLC. The total beta-carotene (all-trans beta-carotene plus 15-cis beta-carotene) was quantitated for dairy products. For egg and egg yolk, lutein content was also determined. Only traces of lycopene, cryptoxanthin, and alpha-carotene were present. All-trans retinol and 13-cis retinol were the major retinoids in dairy products. Small amounts of 9-cis, 11-cis, and 9,11-cis retinols were found. High values of both retinol and beta-carotene were found in full fat cheeses and whipping cream: from 179.0 (cheese, Edam-type) to 318.7 micrograms/100 g (whipping cream) and from 86.7 (cheese, Edam-type) to 186.5 micrograms/100 g (whipping cream) for all-trans retinol and total beta-carotene, respectively. The retinol content averaged 16.3, 32.6, and 52.2 and that of beta-carotene 9.6, 16.7, and 3.0 micrograms/100 g in milk (1.9% fat), milk (3.9% fat), and human milk, respectively. The major pigment in eggs and egg yolk was lutein, 619.5 micrograms/100 g in eggs and 1575.8 micrograms/100 g in egg yolk. According to this study, at the present level of consumption in Finland, milk, milk products (excluding butter), and eggs result in a daily intake of about 350 retinol equivalents, and consequently, are a major source of vitamin A.

  20. A Sushi Science Module in Food Production Systems and Aquatic Resource Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livengood, Elisa J.; Chapman, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    No other food industry depends so heavily on a wild caught resource than those associated with aquatic food products. Domestication of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic resources production has lagged behind other terrestrial livestock products; however, demand for these aquatic natural resources has continued to increase dramatically. Teaching…

  1. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  2. Potential of selected infant food formulas for production of Bacillus cereus emetic toxin, cereulide.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Ranad; Andersson, Maria A; Apetroaie, Camelia; Schulz, Anja; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Ollilainen, Veli-Matti; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2006-04-01

    Cereulide producing Bacillus cereus was isolated from randomly chosen commercial infant foods. The cereulide production in infant food formulas was investigated. When the reconstituted foods were inoculated with >10(5) cfu ml(-1) of cereulide producing B. cereus, 2 to 200 microg of cereulide per 100 ml of food accumulated during 24 h of non-refrigerated storage. The amount of cereulide measured in the foods by the accurate chemical assay (LC-MS) matched with that found by sperm micro assay, proving the cereulide was the sole heat stable toxin in the foods and present in its toxic form. The infant formulas containing both cereal and dairy ingredients were the most supportive for cereulide production. Cereulide accumulation was affected by the infant food composition as well as by the handling of the food. Diluting the reconstituted food with water resulted in increased toxin production expressed as mug per volume. More cereulide was accumulated when the food was incubated stationary compared with moderate shaking. The amount of cereulide accumulated within 24 h at room temperature per 100 ml of cereal and dairy or in rice-nondairy reconstituted infant formulas, inoculated with >or=10(5) cfu ml(-1) of B. cereus strain F4810/72, was higher or similar to the amounts reported for foods implicated in emetic type of food poisonings. Thus mishandling and temperature abuse of infant foods may cause food poisoning when emetic B. cereus is present.

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Smoked Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimko, Peter

    Meat smoking belongs to the oldest food technologies that has been used by mankind at minimum for 10,000 years. Probably a protection against canines led a man to hung a catch over the fire and from this time the smoking has started to be widely used not only for production of smoked products with a special organoleptic profile, but also for inactivating effects on enzymes and microorganisms. So far, techniques of smoking have been gradually improved and various procedures have been developed in different regions for treating meat and fish. Nowadays, the technology is used mainly for enrichment of foods with specific taste, odor, and appearance to be demanded widely on the market. On the other hand, the role of the preservative effects is going down gradually with regard to the latest trends in alternative preservation procedures. Today it is supposed that the technology is applied in many forms to treat 40-60% of the total amount of meat products (Sikorski, 2004) and 15% of fish (Stołyhwo & Sikorski, 2005).

  4. Agroecology and the Sustainable Production of Food and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The silvopastoral, agricultural system of the montado in Southern Portugal is an example of the self-organization of an agroecological system adapted to the climate and soil conditions of the Mediterranean basin. This system with its consistent production of food, fiber, and ecosystem services along with its concomitant rural social organization has been sustained in the region for over 1000 years. However, the system has been gradually decreasing in extent since the 19th century and its rate of decline has accelerated since the 1980s. The causes of this decline have been traced in descending order of importance to land managment choices, spatial factors and environmental factors. In addition, past studies have shown that there is an optimum livestock support capacity for maintaining the health of the montado agroecosystem. In this study, we used the results of an emergy evaluation of a cattle farm as part of a montado agroecosystem to examine the effects of the European Union’s (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) on the viability of both cattle rearing and the long term regional sustainability of montado agroecosystems. We found that the CAP and its two pillars for providing subsidies, (1) Common Market Organization (CMO) and (2) Rural Development Policy (RDP) are complex and take into account many aspects of prices and markets for particular products, e.g., beef and veal (CMO) and sustainable rural development, e.g., silvopastoral agroecosystems (RDP). How

  5. [Residual chemicals in silicone rubber products for food contact use].

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Y; Nakajima, A; Mutsuga, M; Yamada, T; Maitani, T

    2001-10-01

    The residues of additives and other chemicals in 23 kinds of silicone rubber products for food contact use, including nipples, packing and spatulas, were investigated by GC/MS. The packing and spatulas contained 80-480 micrograms/g of BHT, 60-5,830 micrograms/g of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and 60-80 micrograms/g of dibutyl phthalate, while the nipples contained no additives. All of the samples contained 15 to 20 peaks of polydimethylcyclosiloxanes. Dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) to tetratriacomethylcycloheptadecasiloxane (D17) were confirmed, and other larger siloxanes up to pentacontamethylcyclopentacosasiloxane (D25) were estimated. A rough estimate of the total cyclosiloxane content was 3,310-14,690 micrograms/g. They might be mainly unreacted materials or by-products, and some of them might be additives. Based on the migration test, no chemicals were released into 20% ethanol at 60 degrees C for 30 min, though DEHP and the polydimethylcyclosiloxanes were released into n-heptane at 25 degrees C for 60 min.

  6. Product Quality Assurance Project for Teaching of Food Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    Two of the challenges in teaching Food Analysis are bringing relevance to the various chemical and physical analyses discussed and exposing students to the realities of quality assurance in the food industry. In a project to help meet those objectives, each student, with the assistance of a "resource person" from the food industry, completes the…

  7. Vitamins A and C, calcium, fruit, and dairy products are limited in food pantries.

    PubMed

    Akobundu, Ucheoma O; Cohen, Nancy L; Laus, Mary J; Schulte, Marsha J; Soussloff, Margaret N

    2004-05-01

    Food pantries serve over 19 million Americans, yet little is known about the nutritional quality of foods distributed in pantry bags. Foods in bags from 133 clients from 19 pantry sites were itemized, and a mean site value for nutrient and food group content was calculated. If an individual consumed the pantry foods according to the Food Guide Pyramid, the bag would contain sufficient bread group foods to last approximately 7 days; vegetable and meat/protein group foods would last about 5 days, and fruit and milk group foods would last only approximately 3 days. Foods distributed were of adequate or high nutrient density for protein, fiber, iron, and folate, but were of low nutrient density for calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C. Creative efforts are needed for pantries to procure, store, and distribute additional fruit, dairy products, and other sources of vitamins A and C and calcium.

  8. Safety assessment and public concern for genetically modified food products: the European view.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Bevan E B

    2002-01-01

    The safety assessment for marketing purposes of genetically modified (GM) foods in the 15 Member States of the European Union (EU) is based on the Novel Foods and Novel Food Ingredients Regulation adopted in May 1997. Before a GM food can be approved under the Regulation, it must satisfy three criteria: Gm food must be safe, it must not mislead the consumer and it must be nutritionally adequate. The EU Scientific Committee on Food has published a set of guidelines describing the type of information expected from a company in support of an application for approval of a GM food or food ingredient. Despite this rigorous procedure and there being no evidence of harm resulting from the consumption of GM foods worldwide, there is essentially no market in the EU for such products at present. Possible reasons for this are discussed and the view put forward that the market for GM foods will change only when there are more clearly perceived consumer benefits.

  9. A Data Driven Network Approach to Rank Countries Production Diversity and Food Specialization

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Chengyi; Carr, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The easy access to large data sets has allowed for leveraging methodology in network physics and complexity science to disentangle patterns and processes directly from the data, leading to key insights in the behavior of systems. Here we use country specific food production data to study binary and weighted topological properties of the bipartite country-food production matrix. This country-food production matrix can be: 1) transformed into overlap matrices which embed information regarding shared production of products among countries, and or shared countries for individual products, 2) identify subsets of countries which produce similar commodities or subsets of commodities shared by a given country allowing for visualization of correlations in large networks, and 3) used to rank country fitness (the ability to produce a diverse array of products weighted on the type of food commodities) and food specialization (quantified on the number of countries producing a specific food product weighted on their fitness). Our results show that, on average, countries with high fitness produce both low and high specializion food commodities, whereas nations with low fitness tend to produce a small basket of diverse food products, typically comprised of low specializion food commodities. PMID:27832118

  10. A Data Driven Network Approach to Rank Countries Production Diversity and Food Specialization.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chengyi; Carr, Joel; Suweis, Samir

    2016-01-01

    The easy access to large data sets has allowed for leveraging methodology in network physics and complexity science to disentangle patterns and processes directly from the data, leading to key insights in the behavior of systems. Here we use country specific food production data to study binary and weighted topological properties of the bipartite country-food production matrix. This country-food production matrix can be: 1) transformed into overlap matrices which embed information regarding shared production of products among countries, and or shared countries for individual products, 2) identify subsets of countries which produce similar commodities or subsets of commodities shared by a given country allowing for visualization of correlations in large networks, and 3) used to rank country fitness (the ability to produce a diverse array of products weighted on the type of food commodities) and food specialization (quantified on the number of countries producing a specific food product weighted on their fitness). Our results show that, on average, countries with high fitness produce both low and high specializion food commodities, whereas nations with low fitness tend to produce a small basket of diverse food products, typically comprised of low specializion food commodities.

  11. Identification of oxidation products of solanesol produced during air sampling for tobacco smoke by electrospray mass spectrometry and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Samuel P; Pretty, Jack R

    2005-10-01

    Solanesol, a 45-carbon, trisesquiterpenoid alcohol found in tobacco leaves and tobacco smoke, has been used as a quantitative marker for tobacco smoke for years. However, solanesol appears to be unreliable as a quantitative marker for tobacco smoke during environmental air sampling because it can be degraded substantially when present as a component of tobacco smoke and by as much as 100% when present as pure solanesol on fortified filters during air sampling. Since there is strong evidence that ozone is the agent responsible for the degradation, solanesol appears to be unreliable as a quantitative marker during indoor air sampling when indoor levels of ozone are greater than about 15 ppb. The degree of loss of pure solanesol is directly proportional to the concentration of ozone and the length of the sampling period and depends on the type of 37 mm membrane filter used for air sampling (PTFE or quartz fiber). While the degree of loss of solanesol is inversely proportional to the relative humidity of the air at a sampling rate of 1.7 L min(-1), the degree of loss is virtually independent of relative humidity at a lower sampling rate; i.e., 0.25 L min(-1). A curve of loss of solanesol on a filter versus concentration of ozone from an ozone generator is virtually identical to a curve segment based on atmospheric ozone under the same conditions of air sampling. Oxidation of solanesol by ozone to approximately 25 to 60% completion produces at least three series of products for a total of at least 26 compounds: (1) isoprenoid acetones, (2)omega-hydroxyisoprenoid acetaldehydes, and (3) isoprenoid oxoaldehydes. All products in each series were tentatively identified as their derivatives with 2-(p-aminophenyl)ethanol (APE) by electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS). Ten ozonation products were detected as their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatives by HPLC at 360 nm: 4-oxopentanal and nine isoprenoid acetones (acetone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, geranylacetone

  12. Molecular comparisons for identification of food spoilage yeasts and prediction of species that may develop in different food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spoilage of foods and beverages by yeasts is often characterized by objectionable odors, appearance, taste, texture or build-up of gas in packaging containers, resulting in loss of the product. Seldom is human health compromised by products spoiled by yeasts even though some spoilage is caused by sp...

  13. Food Service Worker. Instructional Modules for Food Management, Production and Services. Modules 18-34. Competency Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Dept. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    These 17 teacher modules are part of a curriculum dealing with food management, production, and services that was developed for use in secondary and postsecondary vocational programs in Tennessee. Covered in the individual modules are hand cutlery, breakfast items, grain products, vegetables, salad dressing, meats, stock, soups, sauces, garnishes,…

  14. Food Service Worker. Instructional Modules for Food Management, Production and Services. Modules 35-52. Competency Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Dept. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    These 18 teacher modules are part of a curriculum dealing with food management, production, and services that was developed for use in secondary and postsecondary vocational programs in Tennessee. Covered in the individual modules are quickbreads, pies, icings and toppings, specialty cakes, specialty desserts, yeast products, cream puff and puff…

  15. Water and its role in food and health security--the importance of water to food production.

    PubMed

    Wahlquist, Asa K

    2009-01-01

    Water is vital to food production: every calorie of plant food requires at least one litre of water, while one calorie of meat or dairy product can require up to 10 litres of water. Water is supplied either through rainfall or through irrigation. Irrigated agriculture uses 18 per cent of agricultural land, and produces 40 per cent of agricultural products. But urbanisation, agricultural land degradation, the mandating of biofuels, drought and climate change are reducing the amount of water available to agriculture. The green revolution of last century doubled cereal production with only a very small increase in land. This century we need a blue revolution, a dramatic increase in the amount of food produced from irrigation or blue water. The blue revolution must be based on knowledge, with that knowledge accessible, and useful, to farmers in both the developed and developing world.

  16. [Methods of identification and assessment of safety of genetically modified microorganisms in manufacture food production].

    PubMed

    Khovaev, A A; Nesterenko, L N; Naroditskiĭ, B S

    2011-01-01

    Methods of identification of genetically modified microorganisms (GMM), used in manufacture food on control probes are presented. Results of microbiological and molecular and genetic analyses of food products and their components important in microbiological and genetic expert examination of GMM in foods are considered. Examination of biosafety of GMM are indicated.

  17. Appropriate Technology, Energy and Food Production in an Industrial Arts Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pytlik, Edward; Scanlin, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    With modern agriculture, the growing, processing, packaging, and distribution of food fit well into an industrial arts curriculum. Many areas of this system need closer attention: the high cost of energy in food production, the problems of land preparation, fertilizers, irrigation, food processing, and agriculture in an industrial arts curriculum.…

  18. 48 CFR 809.270 - Qualified products for convenience/labor-saving foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... facility may: (1) Use its VISN QPL; and (2) Test food of its choice, provided that the facility submits... convenience/labor-saving foods. 809.270 Section 809.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... 809.270 Qualified products for convenience/labor-saving foods. (a) Each VISN Nutrition and...

  19. Short communication: a food-systems approach to assessing dairy product waste.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, B G; Baird, D L; Bastiaans, K; Darnell, R; Hendrie, G A; Riley, M; Sanguansri, P; Syrette, J; Noakes, M; Keating, B A

    2014-10-01

    Concern about world population increase, food security, and the environmental burdens of food production have made food-waste reduction a social and environmental priority. In this context, the quantification of dairy product waste is especially difficult due to the varied means of disposal, by solid and liquid waste streams, and due to inclusion as an ingredient in many processed foods. In this study, food intake data from the Australian National Nutrition Survey (>13,000 participants; >4,500 food items) were disaggregated into basic foods and total national dairy product intake was expressed in whole-milk equivalents. This result was compared with total domestic milk supply, indicating a level of waste of 29% for dairy products in the Australian food system. With national food-waste reduction targets becoming increasingly common, reliable estimates of food waste at the national scale are important for goal setting, baseline reporting, and performance monitoring. For this purpose, the systems approach to assessing food waste demonstrated in this project is deemed to have advantages over other common methods of food-waste assessment, such as bin audits, waste diaries, and surveys.

  20. Genetic Relatedness Among Escherichia coli Pathotypes Isolated from Food Products for Human Consumption in Cartagena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Amézquita-Montes, Zorangel; Tamborski, Maria; Kopsombut, Usa G; Zhang, Chengxian; Arzuza, Octavio S; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2015-05-01

    Foodborne pathogens are a leading cause of mild-to-severe gastrointestinal illnesses worldwide. Escherichia coli pathotypes have been known to cause gastrointestinal illnesses in children less than 5 years old in Colombia. However, insufficient information is available on the prevalence of E. coli contamination of food products and the kind of E. coli food product reservoirs. The two objectives of this study were designed to address this issue. The first objective was to ascertain coliform, E. coli, and pathogenic E. coli contamination of food products readily available for human consumption in Cartagena, Colombia. The second objective was to evaluate the relationship between pathogenic E. coli isolated from food products and those isolated from cases of diarrhea in children. Food product samples consisting of pasteurized milk, unpasteurized fruit juice, ground beef, cheese, and vegetables were obtained at four retail stores. The food samples were cultured in liquid media and tested for the presence of coliforms and E. coli. E. coli isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of pathogenic E. coli. Coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathotypes contamination were detected in 88.4%, 53%, and 2.1% of food product samples, respectively. Ground beef and cheese were the only food samples contaminated with E. coli intestinal pathotypes including enteropathogenic (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing (STEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Closed multilocus sequencing typing relationships between diarrheagenic E. coli isolates from food products and from individuals with diarrhea suggest that food products readily available at public markets in Cartagena can transmit ETEC and possibly EPEC and STEC. We demonstrated that a high proportion of food products for human consumption available at public markets in Cartagena are contaminated with coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathogens. Furthermore, food products containing E. coli intestinal

  1. Genetic Relatedness Among Escherichia coli Pathotypes Isolated from Food Products for Human Consumption in Cartagena, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Amézquita-Montes, Zorangel; Tamborski, Maria; Kopsombut, Usa G.; Zhang, Chengxian; Arzuza, Octavio S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Foodborne pathogens are a leading cause of mild-to-severe gastrointestinal illnesses worldwide. Escherichia coli pathotypes have been known to cause gastrointestinal illnesses in children less than 5 years old in Colombia. However, insufficient information is available on the prevalence of E. coli contamination of food products and the kind of E. coli food product reservoirs. The two objectives of this study were designed to address this issue. The first objective was to ascertain coliform, E. coli, and pathogenic E. coli contamination of food products readily available for human consumption in Cartagena, Colombia. The second objective was to evaluate the relationship between pathogenic E. coli isolated from food products and those isolated from cases of diarrhea in children. Food product samples consisting of pasteurized milk, unpasteurized fruit juice, ground beef, cheese, and vegetables were obtained at four retail stores. The food samples were cultured in liquid media and tested for the presence of coliforms and E. coli. E. coli isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of pathogenic E. coli. Coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathotypes contamination were detected in 88.4%, 53%, and 2.1% of food product samples, respectively. Ground beef and cheese were the only food samples contaminated with E. coli intestinal pathotypes including enteropathogenic (EPEC), Shiga toxin–producing (STEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Closed multilocus sequencing typing relationships between diarrheagenic E. coli isolates from food products and from individuals with diarrhea suggest that food products readily available at public markets in Cartagena can transmit ETEC and possibly EPEC and STEC. We demonstrated that a high proportion of food products for human consumption available at public markets in Cartagena are contaminated with coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathogens. Furthermore, food products containing E. coli

  2. Developing ratings for food products: lessons learned from media rating systems.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Dale; McKinley, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Children regularly consume low-nutrient, high-calorie food that is not consistent with a healthful diet, contributing to an increasing epidemic of overweight and obesity. Among the multiple causes of this problem is the food industry's emphasis on marketing calorie-dense food products to children. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has recommended that industry adopt a uniform system of simplified food ratings to convey the nutritional qualities of food in a manner that is understandable and appealing to children and youth. This report analyzes the need for such a system in a food marketing environment that increasingly identifies healthful products for the consumer in inconsistent fashion. It considers evidence regarding current usage of food labeling and draws parallels with media rating systems in discussing the prospects for a uniform food rating system that would accomplish the IOM's objective.

  3. The roles of productivity and ecosystem size in determining food chain length in tropical terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Dunbar, Robert B; Hutson, Michael S; Ter-Kuile, Ana Miller; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2013-03-01

    Many different drivers, including productivity, ecosystem size, and disturbance, have been considered to explain natural variation in the length of food chains. Much remains unknown about the role of these various drivers in determining food chain length, and particularly about the mechanisms by which they may operate in terrestrial ecosystems, which have quite different ecological constraints than aquatic environments, where most food chain length studies have been thus far conducted. In this study, we tested the relative importance of ecosystem size and productivity in influencing food chain length in a terrestrial setting. We determined that (1) there is no effect of ecosystem size or productive space on food chain length; (2) rather, food chain length increases strongly and linearly with productivity; and (3) the observed changes in food chain length are likely achieved through a combination of changes in predator size, predator behavior, and consumer diversity along gradients in productivity. These results lend new insight into the mechanisms by which productivity can drive changes in food chain length, point to potential for systematic differences in the drivers of food web structure between terrestrial and aquatic systems, and challenge us to consider how ecological context may control the drivers that shape food chain length.

  4. Potential Impacts of Food Production on Freshwater Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Shinjiro; Hanasaki, Naota; Itsubo, Norihiro; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan

    2014-05-01

    The sustainability of freshwater use is often evaluated based on the total volume of water consumption or withdrawal. However, the renewable freshwater resource and potential impacts of water depletion differ with location and water source. In addition, most estimates of the environmental impacts of water use have focused on depletion from a single-source perspective without separating geographically different water sources. Therefore, comprehensive potential impacts from multiple water sources remain unclear. In this study, we quantified the potential impacts of the global food production on freshwater availability (water availability footprint), applying the Water Availability Factor (fwa). Each water source including rainfall, surface water, and groundwater had individual fwa, which is calculated based on the geophysical hydrological cycle, to reflect the differences among renewable freshwater resources by place and source. The fwa for each water source was estimated based on land area or time period required to obtain the reference volume of freshwater. The reference volume was regarded as 1 m3 of rainfall over an area of 1.0 m2 (1,000 mm/year), based on the global mean annual precipitation. This concept is consistent with the Ecological Footprint (EF), which measures how much biologically productive land area is required to provide the resources consumed. The EF concept is measured in global hectares, a standardized unit equal to one hectare with global average bioproductivity. We found that the current agriculture consumes freshwater resources at 1.3 times the rapid rate than sustainable water use. This rate can also indicate environmental water scarcity. Among environmentally water-scarce countries, well-financed countries tend to import cereal products as virtual water to compensate for their domestic water resources. Among water-abundant countries, well-financed countries tend to export cereal products by exploiting their freshwater availability. The fwa

  5. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    PubMed

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  6. Free and bound fumonisins in gluten-free food products.

    PubMed

    Dall'Asta, Chiara; Galaverna, Gianni; Mangia, Mattia; Sforza, Stefano; Dossena, Arnaldo; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2009-04-01

    In this work a multiresidual LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the simultaneous detection of free and bound fumonisins is described, which allowed for a very low LOD and a very good recovery for all the analytes. The method was applied to the determination of free and bound fumonisins in several gluten-free products from the Italian market. Free fumonisins were found to occur in 90% of the samples: the overall median value was below the EU legal limit for foods for human consumption (800 microg/kg). Nonetheless, fumonisins occurred in several samples at concentrations above the legal limit, reaching also very strong contamination levels (maximum concentration level: 3310 microg/kg). Anyway, considering the limited diet of people suffering of the celiac disease or allergic to other wheat proteins, the incidence of fumonisin contamination may be envisaged as problematic. Furthermore, bound fumonisins were found to be present in all the analysed samples at similar or even higher amounts than the free forms. In many cases the sum of free and bound fumonisins exceeded the EU legal limit for total fumonisins also for those samples characterized by a low contamination of free fumonisins, thus opening a new important task to be addressed for the risk assessment in this field.

  7. Digital imaging based classification and authentication of granular food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, R. M.; Yan, Y.; Tomlins, K.

    2006-02-01

    In the food industry there are many types of product that are in the form of particles, granules or grains. Consistent material size and quality within any given sample is an important requirement that is well known in industry. In addition it is possible that samples of material may be of unknown type or have been subject to adulteration, thus making material authentication a real requirement. The present work implements an advanced, but cost-effective, digital imaging and image processing technique to characterize granular foodstuffs either in real time process control or in an off-line, sample-based, manner. The imaging approach not only provides cost-effective and rugged hardware when compared with other approaches but also allows precise characterization of individual grains of material. In this paper the imaging system is briefly described and the parameters it measures are discussed. Both cluster and discriminant analyses are performed to establish the suitability of the measured parameters for authenticity study and a simple fuzzy logic is implemented based on the findings. Tests are performed, using rice as an example, to evaluate the performance of the system for authenticity testing, and encouraging results are achieved.

  8. High use of commercial food products among infants and young children and promotions for these products in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Pries, Alissa M; Huffman, Sandra L; Mengkheang, Khin; Kroeun, Hou; Champeny, Mary; Roberts, Margarette; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Despite national improvements in child survival, 40% of Cambodian children less than 5 years of age are stunted. Commercially produced complementary foods could be nutritionally beneficial for young children in Cambodia if fortified and of optimal nutrient composition. However, other nutrient-poor commercially produced snack foods may be detrimental to young child feeding by displacing consumption of other nutritious foods. This study assessed consumption of commercial food products among infants and young children and their mothers' exposure to promotions for these products. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 294 mothers of children less than 24 months of age living in Phnom Penh. Of children 6-23 months of age, 55.0% consumed a commercially produced snack food product on the prior day, and 80.6% had consumed one in the prior week. Only 12 (5.4%) children 6-23 months of age had consumed a commercially produced complementary food. Almost all mothers (96.9%) had observed a promotion for a commercially produced snack food product, and 29.3% reported observation of a promotion for a commercial complementary food. Only one-third (32.9%) of children 6-23 months of age achieved a minimum acceptable diet. Findings indicate that there is a need to improve infant and young child feeding practices among children less than 24 months of age living in Phnom Penh. Nutritious options should be promoted, and consumption of unhealthy commercially produced snack food products should be discouraged.

  9. High use of commercial food products among infants and young children and promotions for these products in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Sandra L.; Mengkheang, Khin; Kroeun, Hou; Champeny, Mary; Roberts, Margarette; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite national improvements in child survival, 40% of Cambodian children less than 5 years of age are stunted. Commercially produced complementary foods could be nutritionally beneficial for young children in Cambodia if fortified and of optimal nutrient composition. However, other nutrient‐poor commercially produced snack foods may be detrimental to young child feeding by displacing consumption of other nutritious foods. This study assessed consumption of commercial food products among infants and young children and their mothers' exposure to promotions for these products. A cross‐sectional survey was conducted among 294 mothers of children less than 24 months of age living in Phnom Penh. Of children 6‐23 months of age, 55.0% consumed a commercially produced snack food product on the prior day, and 80.6% had consumed one in the prior week. Only 12 (5.4%) children 6‐23 months of age had consumed a commercially produced complementary food. Almost all mothers (96.9%) had observed a promotion for a commercially produced snack food product, and 29.3% reported observation of a promotion for a commercial complementary food. Only one‐third (32.9%) of children 6‐23 months of age achieved a minimum acceptable diet. Findings indicate that there is a need to improve infant and young child feeding practices among children less than 24 months of age living in Phnom Penh. Nutritious options should be promoted, and consumption of unhealthy commercially produced snack food products should be discouraged. PMID:27061956

  10. Production of particulates from transducer erosion: implications on food safety.

    PubMed

    Mawson, Raymond; Rout, Manoj; Ripoll, Gabriela; Swiergon, Piotr; Singh, Tanoj; Knoerzer, Kai; Juliano, Pablo

    2014-11-01

    nanoparticulate in terms of the third dimension, this research suggests that there are no serious health implications resulting from the formation of nanoparticles under the evaluation conditions. Therefore, high frequency transducer plates can be safely operated in direct contact with foods. However, due to significant production of metallic micro-particulates, redesign of lower frequency sonotrodes and reaction chambers is advised to enable operation in various food processing direct-contact applications.

  11. Menaquinones, bacteria, and the food supply: the relevance of dairy and fermented food products to vitamin K requirements.

    PubMed

    Walther, Barbara; Karl, J Philip; Booth, Sarah L; Boyaval, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin K exists in the food supply as phylloquinone, a plant-based form and as menaquinones (MKs), a collection of isoprenologues mostly originating from bacterial synthesis. Although multiple bacterial species used as starter cultures for food fermentations synthesize MK, relatively little is known about the presence and distribution of MK in the food supply and the relative contribution of MK to total dietary vitamin K intake. Dairy products may be a predominant source of dietary MK in many regions of the world, and there is recent interest in enhancing the MK content of dairy products through identification and selection of MK-producing bacteria in dairy fermentations. This interest is increased by emerging evidence that current dietary recommendations based on the classic role of vitamin K as an enzyme cofactor for coagulation proteins may not be optimal for supporting vitamin K requirements in extrahepatic tissues and that MK may have unique bioactivity beyond that as an enzyme cofactor. Observational studies have reported favorable associations between MK intake and bone and cardiovascular health. Although randomized trials have provided some evidence to support the beneficial effects of MK on bone, the evidence to date is not definitive, and randomized trials have not yet examined MK intake in relation to cardiovascular outcomes. Food production practices provide a means to enhance dietary MK availability and intake. However, parallel research is needed to optimize these production practices, develop comprehensive food MK content databases, and test hypotheses of unique beneficial physiological roles of MK beyond that achieved by phylloquinone.

  12. Menaquinones, Bacteria, and the Food Supply: The Relevance of Dairy and Fermented Food Products to Vitamin K Requirements123

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Barbara; Karl, J. Philip; Booth, Sarah L.; Boyaval, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K exists in the food supply as phylloquinone, a plant-based form and as menaquinones (MKs), a collection of isoprenologues mostly originating from bacterial synthesis. Although multiple bacterial species used as starter cultures for food fermentations synthesize MK, relatively little is known about the presence and distribution of MK in the food supply and the relative contribution of MK to total dietary vitamin K intake. Dairy products may be a predominant source of dietary MK in many regions of the world, and there is recent interest in enhancing the MK content of dairy products through identification and selection of MK-producing bacteria in dairy fermentations. This interest is increased by emerging evidence that current dietary recommendations based on the classic role of vitamin K as an enzyme cofactor for coagulation proteins may not be optimal for supporting vitamin K requirements in extrahepatic tissues and that MK may have unique bioactivity beyond that as an enzyme cofactor. Observational studies have reported favorable associations between MK intake and bone and cardiovascular health. Although randomized trials have provided some evidence to support the beneficial effects of MK on bone, the evidence to date is not definitive, and randomized trials have not yet examined MK intake in relation to cardiovascular outcomes. Food production practices provide a means to enhance dietary MK availability and intake. However, parallel research is needed to optimize these production practices, develop comprehensive food MK content databases, and test hypotheses of unique beneficial physiological roles of MK beyond that achieved by phylloquinone. PMID:23858094

  13. Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Candida albicans Increased Chitin Production and Modulated Human Fibroblast Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Humidah; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Perraud, Laura; Chmielewski, Witold; Zakrzewski, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The predisposition of cigarette smokers for development of respiratory and oral bacterial infections is well documented. Cigarette smoke can also contribute to yeast infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on C. albicans transition, chitin content, and response to environmental stress and to examine the interaction between CSC-pretreated C. albicans and normal human gingival fibroblasts. Following exposure to CSC, C. albicans transition from blastospore to hyphal form increased. CSC-pretreated yeast cells became significantly (P < 0.01) sensitive to oxidation but significantly (P < 0.01) resistant to both osmotic and heat stress. CSC-pretreated C. albicans expressed high levels of chitin, with 2- to 8-fold recorded under hyphal conditions. CSC-pretreated C. albicans adhered better to the gingival fibroblasts, proliferated almost three times more and adapted into hyphae, while the gingival fibroblasts recorded a significantly (P < 0.01) slow growth rate but a significantly higher level of IL-1β when in contact with CSC-pretreated C. albicans. CSC was thus able to modulate both C. albicans transition through the cell wall chitin content and the interaction between C. albicans and normal human gingival fibroblasts. These findings may be relevant to fungal infections in the oral cavity in smokers. PMID:25302312

  14. Cigarette smoke-exposed Candida albicans increased chitin production and modulated human fibroblast cell responses.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Humidah; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Perraud, Laura; Chmielewski, Witold; Zakrzewski, Andrew; Rouabhia, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    The predisposition of cigarette smokers for development of respiratory and oral bacterial infections is well documented. Cigarette smoke can also contribute to yeast infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on C. albicans transition, chitin content, and response to environmental stress and to examine the interaction between CSC-pretreated C. albicans and normal human gingival fibroblasts. Following exposure to CSC, C. albicans transition from blastospore to hyphal form increased. CSC-pretreated yeast cells became significantly (P < 0.01) sensitive to oxidation but significantly (P < 0.01) resistant to both osmotic and heat stress. CSC-pretreated C. albicans expressed high levels of chitin, with 2- to 8-fold recorded under hyphal conditions. CSC-pretreated C. albicans adhered better to the gingival fibroblasts, proliferated almost three times more and adapted into hyphae, while the gingival fibroblasts recorded a significantly (P < 0.01) slow growth rate but a significantly higher level of IL-1β when in contact with CSC-pretreated C. albicans. CSC was thus able to modulate both C. albicans transition through the cell wall chitin content and the interaction between C. albicans and normal human gingival fibroblasts. These findings may be relevant to fungal infections in the oral cavity in smokers.

  15. Irradiation in the production, processing and handling of food. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-11-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive regulations to increase the maximum dose of ionizing radiation permitted in the treatment of poultry products, to include specific language intended to clarify the poultry products covered by the regulations, and to remove the limitation that any packaging used during irradiation of poultry shall not exclude oxygen. This action is in response to a petition filed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA/FSIS).

  16. Encapsulation of Probiotics for use in Food Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manojlović, Verica; Nedović, Viktor A.; Kailasapathy, Kasipathy; Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan

    diarrhea, enhancement of the immune system, reduction of lactose-intolerance, reduction of serum cholesterol levels, anticarcinogenic activity, and improved nutritional value of foods (Kailasapathy and Chin 2000; Lourens-Hattingh and Viljoen 2001; Mattila-Sandholm et al. 2002). The mechanisms by which probiotics exert their effects are largely unknown, but may involve modifying gut pH, antagonizing pathogens through production of antimicrobial and antibacterial compounds, competing for pathogen binding, and receptor cites, as well as for available nutrients and growth factors, stimulating immunomodulatory cells, and producing lactase (Kopp-Hoolihan 2001).

  17. Bacterial Cinnamoyl Esterase Activity Screening for the Production of a Novel Functional Food Product▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmetti, Simone; De Noni, Ivano; Caracciolo, Federica; Molinari, Francesco; Parini, Carlo; Mora, Diego

    2008-01-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5 was selected for its strong cinnamoyl esterase activity on chlorogenic acid and employed for the preparation of a food product containing a high concentration of free caffeic acid. The novel food product was demonstrated to display high total antioxidant power and potential probiotic properties. PMID:18165367

  18. Recent development in recombinant food allergen production (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether for understanding the properties of food allergens or for manufacturing vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy, well characterized pure allergens are required. This often necessitate the use of recombinant technology in obtaining food allergens due to the very low amounts of their natu...

  19. Regional Foods and Rural Development: The Role of Product Qualification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tregear, Angela; Arfini, Filippo; Belletti, Giovanni; Marescotti, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Qualification schemes have become popular tools for supporting regional foods, yet little is understood about the impacts they have on the rural development contribution of such foods. Qualification processes may stimulate new networks and community actions, but they may also be incompatible with strategies of extended territorial development…

  20. Types, production and assessment of biobased food packaging materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food packaging performs an essential function, but packaging materials can have a negative impact on the environment. This book describes the latest advances in bio-based food packaging materials. Book provides a comprehensive review on bio-based, biodegradable and recycled materials and discusses t...

  1. Brachypodium distachyon genomics for sustainable food and fuel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasses are a vital source of food for humanity and are projected to be become an important source of renewable fuel. To provide food, feed and fuel for an ever expanding human population it will be necessary to improve existing grass crops (e.g. wheat, maize, rice) and domesticate perennial grasses...

  2. Functional food productions: release the potential of bioactive compounds through food processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiological studies of bioactive compounds from plant-based foods have consistently pointed to undisputed benefits of consumption of plant-based foods on human health particularly regarding cardiovascular diseases and cancers. However, in order to attain the dosage required from these studies, p...

  3. Contaminants and microorganisms in Dutch organic food products: a comparison with conventional products.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, L A P; Bokhorst, J G; Northolt, M D; van de Vijver, L P L; Broex, N J G; Mevius, D J; Meijs, J A C; Van der Roest, J

    2008-10-01

    Organic products were analysed for the presence of contaminants, microorganisms and antibiotic resistance and compared with those from conventional products. No differences were observed in the Fusarium toxins deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in organic and conventional wheat, during both a dry period and a very wet period which promoted the production of these toxins. Nitrate levels in head lettuce produced organically in the open field were much lower than those in conventional products. In iceberg lettuce and head lettuce from the greenhouse, no differences were detected. Organically produced carrots contained higher nitrate levels than conventional products. Both organic and conventional products contained no residues of non-polar pesticides above the legal limits, although some were detected in conventional lettuce. Organic products contained no elevated levels of heavy metals. Salmonella was detected in 30% of pig faeces samples obtained from 30 organic farms, similar to the incidence at conventional farms. At farms that switched to organic production more then 6 years ago no Salmonella was detected, with the exception of one stable with young pigs recently purchased from another farm. No Salmonella was detected in faeces at the nine farms with organic broilers, and at one out of ten farms with laying hens. This is comparable with conventional farms where the incidence for Salmonella lies around 10%. Campylobacter was detected in faeces at all organic broiler farms, being much higher than at conventional farms. One of the most remarkable results was the fact that faeces from organic pigs and broilers showed a much lower incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, except for Campylobacter in broilers. It is concluded that the organic products investigated scored as equally well as conventional products with regard to food safety and at the same time show some promising features with respect to antibiotic resistance.

  4. Analysis of reaction products of food contaminants and ingredients: bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods.

    PubMed

    Coulier, Leon; Bradley, Emma L; Bas, Richard C; Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Driffield, Malcolm; Harmer, Nick; Castle, Laurence

    2010-04-28

    Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is an epoxide that is used as a starting substance in the manufacture of can coatings for food-contact applications. Following migration from the can coating into food, BADGE levels decay and new reaction products are formed by reaction with food ingredients. The significant decay of BADGE was demonstrated by liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of foodstuffs, that is, tuna, apple puree, and beer, spiked with BADGE before processing and storage. Life-science inspired analytical approaches were successfully applied to study the reactions of BADGE with food ingredients, for example, amino acids and sugars. An improved mass balance of BADGE was achieved by selective detection of reaction products of BADGE with low molecular weight food components, using a successful combination of stable isotopes of BADGE and analysis by LC coupled to fluorescence detection (FLD) and high-resolution mass spectrometric (MS) detection. Furthermore, proteomics approaches showed that BADGE also reacts with peptides (from protein digests in model systems) and with proteins in foods. The predominant reaction center for amino acids, peptides, and proteins was cysteine.

  5. NIR reflectance method to determine moisture content in food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandala, C. V. K.; Konda Naganathan, G.; Subbiah, J.

    2008-08-01

    Moisture content (MC) is an important quality factor that is measured and monitored, at various stages of processing and storage, in the food industry. There are some commercial instruments available that use near infrared (NIR) radiation measurements to determine the moisture content of a variety of grain products, such as wheat and corn, with out the need of any sample grinding or preparation. However, to measure the MC of peanuts with these instruments the peanut kernels have to be chopped into smaller pieces and filled into the measuring cell. This is cumbersome, time consuming and destructive. An NIR reflectance method is presented here by which the average MC of about 100 g of whole kernels could be determined rapidly and nondestructively. The MC range of the peanut kernels tested was between 8% and 26%. Initially, NIR reflectance measurements were made at 1 nm intervals in the wave length range of 1000 nm to 1800 nm and the data was modeled using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The predicted values of the samples tested in the above range were compared with the values determined by the standard air-oven method. The predicted values agreed well with the air-oven values with an R2 value of 0.96 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.83. Using the PLSR beta coefficients, five key wavelengths were identified and using multiple linear regression (MLR) method MC predictions were made. The R2 and SEP values of the MLR model were 0.84 and 1.62, respectively. Both methods performed satisfactorily and being rapid, nondestructive, and non-contact, may be suitable for continuous monitoring of MC of grain and peanuts as they move on conveyor belts during their processing.

  6. An overview of food safety and bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food production animals in the Caribbean region.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Maria Manuela Mendes; de Almeida, Andre M; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2016-08-01

    Foodborne diseases (FBDs) in the Caribbean have a high economic burden. Public health and tourism concerns rise along with the increasing number of cases and outbreaks registered over the last 20 years. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Campylobacter spp. are the main bacteria associated with these incidents. In spite of undertaking limited surveillance on FBD in the region, records related to bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food-producing animals and their associated epidemiologic significance are poorly documented, giving rise to concerns about the importance of the livestock, food animal product sectors, and consumption patterns. In this review, we report the available published literature over the last 20 years on selected bacterial foodborne zoonoses in the Caribbean region and also address other food safety-related aspects (e.g., FBD food attribution, importance, surveillance), mainly aiming at recognizing data gaps and identifying possible research approaches in the animal health sector.

  7. Emotions generated by meat and other food products in women.

    PubMed

    Rousset, S; Deiss, V; Juillard, E; Schlich, P; Droit-Volet, S

    2005-10-01

    Eating behaviour depends partly on food preference, which is itself determined by different types of emotions. Among the emotions generated by food, disgust with red meat is common in women and can lead to reduced meat consumption. We tested the hypothesis that low meat intake is related to different negative emotions towards meat but does not affect the emotions expressed towards other food categories. Food intake of sixty women was followed throughout each day for 1 week and allowed us to assign women to two groups (low v. high meat-eating women). They were then invited to assess the intensity of twenty-six emotions described by words and induced by thirty food pictures. We determined the number of necessary dimensions to describe the space created by the twenty-six words. The results showed differences in emotions between the low and high meat-eating women. As expected, there were overall differences in the emotions generated by the thirty food pictures. Six clusters of emotions were necessary and sufficient to summarise the emotional space. These dimensions were described by 'disappointment', 'satisfaction', 'guilt', 'doubt', 'amused' and 'indifference'. As expected, the low meat-eating women felt more 'disappointment', 'indifference' and less 'satisfaction' towards meat than did the high meat-eating women. However, the low meat-eating women also stated other negative emotions such as 'doubt' towards some starchy foods. The only foods that they liked more than high meat-eating women were pears and French beans. In conclusion, low meat consumption was associated with specific negative emotions regarding meat and other foods.

  8. A 7-month cigarette smoke inhalation study in C57BL/6 mice demonstrates reduced lung inflammation and emphysema following smoking cessation or aerosol exposure from a prototypic modified risk tobacco product.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Blaine; Veljkovic, Emilija; Peck, Michael J; Buettner, Ansgar; Elamin, Ashraf; Guedj, Emmanuel; Vuillaume, Gregory; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Martin, Florian; Boué, Stéphanie; Schlage, Walter K; Schneider, Thomas; Titz, Bjoern; Talikka, Marja; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2015-06-01

    Modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) are designed to reduce smoking-related health risks. A murine model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was applied to investigate classical toxicology end points plus systems toxicology (transcriptomics and proteomics). C57BL/6 mice were exposed to conventional cigarette smoke (3R4F), fresh air (sham), or a prototypic MRTP (pMRTP) aerosol for up to 7 months, including a cessation group and a switching-to-pMRTP group (2 months of 3R4F exposure followed by fresh air or pMRTP for up to 5 months respectively). 3R4F smoke induced the typical adaptive changes in the airways, as well as inflammation in the lung, associated with emphysematous changes (impaired pulmonary function and alveolar damage). At nicotine-matched exposure concentrations of pMRTP aerosol, no signs of lung inflammation and emphysema were observed. Both the cessation and switching groups showed a similar reversal of inflammatory responses and no progression of initial emphysematous changes. A significant impact on biological processes, including COPD-related inflammation, apoptosis, and proliferation, was identified in 3R4F-exposed, but not in pMRTP-exposed lungs. Smoking cessation or switching reduced these perturbations to near sham-exposed levels. In conclusion, the mouse model indicated retarded disease progression upon cessation or switching to pMRTP which alone had no adverse effects.

  9. Successful Development of Satiety Enhancing Food Products: Towards a Multidisciplinary Agenda of Research Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Van Kleef, E.; Van Trijp, J.C.M.; Van Den Borne, J.J.G.C.; Zondervan, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined. PMID:22530713

  10. Successful development of satiety enhancing food products: towards a multidisciplinary agenda of research challenges.

    PubMed

    Van Kleef, E; Van Trijp, J C M; Van Den Borne, J J G C; Zondervan, C

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined.

  11. Differences in production of several extracellular virulence factors in clinical and food Aeromonas spp. strains.

    PubMed

    Pin, C; Marín, M L; Selgas, D; García, M L; Tormo, J; Casas, C

    1995-02-01

    Production of several extracellular virulence factors (lipase, protease and haemolysin) was compared in 15 Aeromonas spp. isolated from faeces of patients with Aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis and 81 strains isolated from food. Strains from food did not show differences in production of these factors when compared with strains isolated from faeces. However, if strains were considered in relation to autoagglutination (AA) character, the AA+ differed from AA- strains in lipase and protease production. Supernatant fluids of AA+ food and human strains showed 2.5-fold more protease production than that observed in AA- strains. These two characteristics of certain Aeromonas strains could be related with the more virulent capacity.

  12. Characterization and Exposure Assessment of Emetic Bacillus cereus and Cereulide Production in Food Products on the Dutch Market.

    PubMed

    Biesta-Peters, Elisabeth G; Dissel, Serge; Reij, Martine W; Zwietering, Marcel H; in't Veld, Paul H

    2016-02-01

    The emetic toxin cereulide, which can be produced by Bacillus cereus, can be the cause of food poisoning upon ingestion by the consumer. The toxin causes vomiting and is mainly produced in farinaceous food products. This article includes the prevalence of B. cereus and of cereulide in food products in The Netherlands, a characterization of B. cereus isolates obtained, cereulide production conditions, and a comparison of consumer exposure estimates with those of a previous exposure assessment. Food samples (n = 1,489) were tested for the presence of B. cereus; 5.4% of the samples contained detectable levels (>10(2) CFU/g), and 0.7% contained levels above 10(5) CFU/g. Samples (n = 3,008) also were tested for the presence of cereulide. Two samples (0.067%) contained detectable levels of cereulide at 3.2 and 5.4 μg/kg of food product. Of the 481 tested isolates, 81 produced cereulide and/or contained the ces gene. None of the starch-positive and hbl-containing isolates possessed the ces gene, whereas all strains contained the nhe genes. Culture of emetic B. cereus under nonoptimal conditions revealed a delay in onset of cereulide production compared with culture under optimal conditions, and cereulide was produced in all cases when B. cereus cells had been in the stationary phase for some time. The prevalence of cereulide-contaminated food approached the prevalence of contaminated products estimated in an exposure assessment. The main food safety focus associated with this pathogen should be to prevent germination and growth of any B. cereus present in food products and thus prevent cereulide production in foods.

  13. Carcinogens and mutagens in the environment. Volume 1. Food products

    SciTech Connect

    Stich, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    This work discusses epidemiological evidence, carcinogens and mutagens in food, and methodological and regulatory issues. Among more detailed topics covered are life-style and cancer etiology, dietary fat relationships to cancer, metabolic activation, mycotoxins, analysis, and regulatory approaches.

  14. From microbes to fish the next revolution in food production.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Córdova, Luis Rafael; Martínez-Porchas, Marcel; Emerenciano, Maurício Gustavo Coelho; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Gollas-Galván, Teresa

    2017-05-01

    Increasing global population and the consequent increase in demand for food are not a new story. Agroindustrial activities such as livestock help meet this demand. Aquaculture arose decades ago and revolutionized the agroindustrial activity as a significant food generator. However, like livestock, aquaculture is based on finite resources and has been accused of being unsustainable. Abandoning aquaculture is not an option considering the food, foreign exchange, and employment it generates, and therefore must be reinvented. Among the many alternatives suggested to make aquaculture more sustainable, microorganisms have been highlighted as a direct food source for cultured fish and crustaceans, a strategy that promises to revolutionize aquaculture by eliminating waste. Considering waste, as part of a cycle, it can increase stock densities and reduce emissions of contaminants and operational costs.

  15. Potential hazards in smoke-flavored fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hong; Jiang, Jie; Li, Donghua

    2008-08-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alternative to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[ a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are discussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  16. Food and Beverage Production. Food and Beverage Management Module. Operational Management Programme. Increasing Opportunities for Supervisors and Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    This self-instructional unit for supervisors and managers in the British hotel and catering industry is intended to consolidate work covered in a 1-day course. The document begins with an introduction and advice on how to use the unit. The following topics are covered in the unit: (1) planning the menu; (2) food production systems; (3) kitchen…

  17. Aflatoxins in Food Products in Iran: a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Mahdavi Omran, Saeid; Soleymani, Abbas; Taghizadeh Armaki, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Context Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by certain toxigenic fungi and the most of them are aflatoxins, fumonisins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, patulin, and zearalenone. Evidence Acquisition In consideration of the consumption of certain farm products for animal feed and the prevalence of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in food, the present study was performed to evaluate this situation in Iran with a review of the literature using search engines. All published articles were selected using Iran Medex, Magiran, PubMed NCBI, and Google Scholar. Results Aflatoxins have been found in many food products in Iran. Conclusions It is necessary to detect aflatoxins in foods and food products as early as possible, before they enter human or animal bodies. There is a high consumption of milk and dairy products in Iran, and the proper management of animal foods can help to decrease the aflatoxins in milk. PMID:27679702

  18. Detection of melamine and cyanuric acid in vegetable protein products used in food production.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Lawrence R; Gilbride, Kimberley A

    2011-05-01

    The multitude of food recalls in 2007 clearly demonstrated that total nitrogen-content (ΣN) determination by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and Kjeldahl-based measurements can be deceived, and should no longer be regarded as a complete quality assurance program for nutritive-protein evaluations. Furthermore, contemporary Canadian-employed analytical tools are precariously limited in their ability to effectively assure a product where there is no a priori knowledge of the environmental toxin(s) involved. In light of these challenges, this study explored a number of analytical techniques used to assess and furthermore assure the quality of vegetable protein products (VPPs). Using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) technologies, a combination of VPP-based samples was analyzed for the presence of nitrogen-bearing environmental toxicants. Of the 52 samples tested, involving an assortment of matrices, melamine and cyanuric acid were positively identified (>1 ng/mL) in 22 and 17 samples, respectively. Subsequent high pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet/visible (HPLC-UV) amino acid profiling further confirmed the adulteration of those materials contaminated with melamine and melamine-related compounds. Based on the evidence presented herein, LC/MS/MS in combination with HPLC-UV provides for a reliable food safety detection system as applied to VPPs. Moreover, HPLC-UV is indispensable as a stand-alone 1st level of screening to assess the integrity of a VPP or any nutritive protein-based sample.

  19. Productivity, Disturbance and Ecosystem Size Have No Influence on Food Chain Length in Seasonally Connected Rivers

    PubMed Central

    Warfe, Danielle M.; Jardine, Timothy D.; Pettit, Neil E.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Pusey, Bradley J.; Bunn, Stuart E.; Davies, Peter M.; Douglas, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    The food web is one of the oldest and most central organising concepts in ecology and for decades, food chain length has been hypothesised to be controlled by productivity, disturbance, and/or ecosystem size; each of which may be mediated by the functional trophic role of the top predator. We characterised aquatic food webs using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from 66 river and floodplain sites across the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia to determine the relative importance of productivity (indicated by nutrient concentrations), disturbance (indicated by hydrological isolation) and ecosystem size, and how they may be affected by food web architecture. We show that variation in food chain length was unrelated to these classic environmental determinants, and unrelated to the trophic role of the top predator. This finding is a striking exception to the literature and is the first published example of food chain length being unaffected by any of these determinants. We suggest the distinctive seasonal hydrology of northern Australia allows the movement of fish predators, linking isolated food webs and potentially creating a regional food web that overrides local effects of productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size. This finding supports ecological theory suggesting that mobile consumers promote more stable food webs. It also illustrates how food webs, and energy transfer, may function in the absence of the human modifications to landscape hydrological connectivity that are ubiquitous in more populated regions. PMID:23776641

  20. Productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size have no influence on food chain length in seasonally connected rivers.

    PubMed

    Warfe, Danielle M; Jardine, Timothy D; Pettit, Neil E; Hamilton, Stephen K; Pusey, Bradley J; Bunn, Stuart E; Davies, Peter M; Douglas, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    The food web is one of the oldest and most central organising concepts in ecology and for decades, food chain length has been hypothesised to be controlled by productivity, disturbance, and/or ecosystem size; each of which may be mediated by the functional trophic role of the top predator. We characterised aquatic food webs using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from 66 river and floodplain sites across the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia to determine the relative importance of productivity (indicated by nutrient concentrations), disturbance (indicated by hydrological isolation) and ecosystem size, and how they may be affected by food web architecture. We show that variation in food chain length was unrelated to these classic environmental determinants, and unrelated to the trophic role of the top predator. This finding is a striking exception to the literature and is the first published example of food chain length being unaffected by any of these determinants. We suggest the distinctive seasonal hydrology of northern Australia allows the movement of fish predators, linking isolated food webs and potentially creating a regional food web that overrides local effects of productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size. This finding supports ecological theory suggesting that mobile consumers promote more stable food webs. It also illustrates how food webs, and energy transfer, may function in the absence of the human modifications to landscape hydrological connectivity that are ubiquitous in more populated regions.

  1. Envisioning a metropolitan foodshed: potential environmental consequences of increasing food-crop production around Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, E. E.; Martin, P. A.; Schuble, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Nationwide, cities are increasingly developing policies aimed at greater sustainability, particularly focusing on reducing environmental impact. Such policies commonly emphasize more efficiently using energy to decrease the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the city. However, most plans ignore the food system as a factor in regional energy use and GHG emissions. Yet, the food system in the United States accounts for ~20% of per capita greenhouse gas emissions. Local, sustainable food production is cited as one strategy for mitigating GHG emissions of large metropolitan areas. “Sustainable” for regional agriculture is often identified as small-scale, diversified food crop production using best practices management. Localized food production (termed “foodshed”) using sustainable agriculture could mitigate climate change in multiple ways: (1) energy and therefore CO2-intensive portions of the conventional food system might be replaced by local, lower-input food production resulting in carbon offsets; (2) increased regional carbon storage might result from well-managed food crop production vs. commodity crop production; and (3) averted N2O emissions might result from closing nutrient cycles on agricultural lands following changes in management practices. The broader implications for environmental impact of widespread conversion to sustainable food crop agriculture, however, remain largely unknown. We examine the Chicago metropolitan region to quantify the impact of increased local food production on regional energy efficiency and GHG emissions. Geospatial analysis is used to quantify the resource potential for establishing a Chicago metropolitan foodshed. A regional foodshed is defined by minimizing cost through transportation mode (road, rail, or water) and maximizing the production potential of different soil types. Simple biogeochemical modeling is used to predict changes in N2O emissions and nutrient flows following changes in land management practices

  2. 21 CFR 1310.11 - Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 1310.11 - Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (a)...

  4. Functional foods: health claim-food product compatibility and the impact of health claim framing on consumer evaluation.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans C M; Luning, Pieternel

    2005-06-01

    Two studies are reported, which aim to strengthen the scientific underpinning of strategic decisions regarding functional food development, as to (1) which health benefits to claim, (2) with which product (category), and (3) in which communication format. The first exploratory study is a secondary analysis of 10 different health claims systematically combined with 10 different food carriers to evaluate their combined suitability for functional food positioning. The results show that consumers tend to prefer functional food concepts that primarily communicate disease-related health benefits in carriers with a healthy image or health positioning history. Study 2 examines health claim format and systematically varies the way in which specific health benefits are being communicated to the consumer. Two physiologically oriented claims (heart disease and osteoporosis) and two psychologically oriented food claims (stress and lack of energy) are expressed in enhanced function format versus disease risk reduction format. Also, it includes the individual difference variable of 'regulatory focus' and the health status of the respondent to explore how these factors impact health claim evaluation. The results show that consumer evaluations primarily differ to the extent that health claims are personally relevant in addressing an experienced disease state. Framing is important, but its effect differs by health benefit. No strong effects for consumers' regulatory focus were found. Underlying mechanisms of these effects and their implications for the development of functional foods are discussed.

  5. Survey of sulfites in wine and various Turkish food and food products intended for export, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Ulca, P; Öztürk, Y; Senyuva, H Z

    2011-01-01

    Surveys were carried out between 2007 and 2010 to determine the total levels of sulfites in 1245 samples of wines, dried apricots, dried vegetables, nuts, juices and purees, frozen foods and cereals containing dried fruit supplied by food inspectors and by food producers for testing or for export certification. Sulfite analysis of wine was carried out using the Ripper method with an LOQ of 5 mg l(-1) and for dried and other foods the Monier-Williams distillation procedure was employed with an LOQ of 10 mg kg(-1). In the survey all wines contained measurable sulfites, but with the exception of one sample of white wine they were otherwise below Turkish Food Codex limits of 160 mg kg(-1) for red wine, 210 mg kg(-1) to white wine and 235 mg kg(-1) for sparkling wine. None of the cereal products, frozen foods, juices or purees contained sulfites above 10 mg kg(-1). However, all dried apricot samples contained significant levels of sulfite with around 40% having levels exceeding the Turkish limit of 2000 mg kg(-1). Significant levels of sulfite were found in other samples of dried fruit with even a fruit and nut bar containing 1395 mg kg(-1) of sulfite, suggesting the dried fruit ingredients contained levels above regulatory limits.

  6. Smoking Cessation

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2017 ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010 [accessed 2017 ...

  7. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2017 ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010 [accessed 2017 ...

  8. Wood Smoke

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  9. Asia Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Smoke from Asian Fires Traverses the Pacific     View Larger Image ... moved eastwards over the northern portion of the Pacific Ocean, the thickness of the smoke passing over an area south of the Aleutian ...

  10. The relationship between smoking, body weight, body mass index, and dietary intake among Thai adults: results of the national Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    PubMed

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary intake, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in adult Thais as a function of smoking status. A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey using health and dietary questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used. Participants were 7858 Thai adults aged 18 years and older recruited from 17 provinces in Thailand. Results demonstrated that smoking is associated with lower weights and BMI. However, when smokers were stratified by smoking intensity, there was no dose-response relationship between smoking and body weight. There is no conclusive explanation for weight differences across smoking groups in this sample, and the results of the present study did not clearly support any of the purported mechanisms for the differences in body weight or BMI. In addition, because the substantial negative health consequences of smoking are far stronger than those associated with modest weight differences, smoking cannot be viewed as an appropriate weight management strategy.

  11. Solid state anaerobic co-digestion of yard waste and food waste for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dan; Li, Yebo

    2013-01-01

    Food and yard wastes are available year round at low cost and have the potential to complement each other for SS-AD. The goal of this study was to determine optimal feedstock/effluent (F/E) and food waste/yard waste mixing ratios for optimal biogas production. Co-digestion of yard and food waste was carried out at F/E ratios of 1, 2, and 3. For each F/E ratio, food waste percentages of 0%, 10%, and 20%, based on dry volatile solids, were evaluated. Results showed increased methane yields and volumetric productivities as the percentage of food waste was increased to 10% and 20% of the substrate at F/E ratios of 2 and 1, respectively. This study showed that co-digestion of food waste with yard waste at specific ratios can improve digester operating characteristics and end performance metrics over SS-AD of yard waste alone.

  12. Regulations applicable to plant food supplements and related products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Silano, Vittorio; Coppens, Patrick; Larrañaga-Guetaria, Ainhoa; Minghetti, Paola; Roth-Ehrang, René

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with the current regulatory and legal settings of traditional plant food supplements and herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Marketing of botanicals in foods and food supplements in the EU is subject to several provisions of food law, which cover aspects of safety, production, labelling and product composition, including the use of additives and maximum levels of contaminants and residues. However, due to limited harmonization at the EU level, specific national regulations adopted at a Member State level also apply and mutual recognition is the mechanism through which such products can be marketed in EU countries other than those of origin. Unlike food supplements, marketing of traditional herbal medicinal products is regulated by an ad hoc Directive (i.e. Directive 2004/24/EC) covering in detail all the relevant aspects of these products, including a facilitated registration procedure at national level. However, by distinguishing traditional herbal medicinal products from plant food supplements and establishing selective marketing modalities for these two product categories, the EU has been confronted with implementation difficulties for traditional herbal medicinal products and a lack of homogeneity in the regulatory approaches adopted in different EU Member States. In fact, currently the nature of the commercial botanical products made available to consumers as traditional medicinal products or food supplements, depends largely on the EU Member State under consideration as a consequence of how competent National Authorities and manufacturing companies interpret and apply current regulations rather than on the intrinsic properties of the botanical products and their constituents. When the EU approach is compared with approaches adopted in some non-European countries to regulate these product categories, major differences become evident.

  13. Effect of curing ingredients and vacuum packaging on the physico-chemical and storage quality of ready-to-eat Vawksa rep (smoked pork product) during refrigerated storage

    PubMed Central

    Deuri, Deepshikha; Hazarika, Pragati; Singh, Tarun Pal; Chhangte, Lalchamliani; Singh, Parminder; Talukder, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted for the development of ready-to-eat Vawksa rep (smoked pork product) and to study the synergistic effect of curing ingredients and vacuum packaging on the physico-chemical and storage quality during refrigerated storage at (4°C±1°C) for 15 days. Materials and Methods: Four different batches of Vawksa rep samples were prepared, i.e., T-1 (uncured, first cooked at 121°C for 15 min, and then smoked at 120°C for 30 min), T-2 (uncured, cooked, and smoked simultaneously at 120°C for 45 min), T-3 (cured, first cooked at 121°C for 15 min, and then smoked at 120°C for 30 min), and T-4 (cured, cooked, and smoked simultaneously at 120°C for 45 min). Results: Cooking yield was significantly higher (p<0.05) for the T-4. The pH of T-3 and T-4 samples was significantly higher (p<0.05) on day 15. The tyrosine value of all the samples increased significantly (p<0.05) among the different days of analysis. Thiobarbituric acid value was significantly (p<0.05) lower in T-3 sample both at the beginning and at the end of storage period. In microbiological profile, total plate count was lower in T-3 and T-4 than T-1 and T-2. However, Escherichia coli count was negative for T-3 and T-4 samples throughout the storage period. Among sensory attributes, T-3 and T-4 samples registered superior scores for color, flavor, texture, juiciness, and overall acceptability. Conclusion: Furthermore, Vawksa rep (smoked pork product) could be prepared easily with little technology up-gradation and with a negligible escalation of production cost. PMID:27397981

  14. Techno-economic evaluation of a combined bioprocess for fermentative hydrogen production from food waste.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Fang, Jun; Liu, Zhixiang; Tang, Junhong

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the techno-economic evaluation of a combined bioprocess based on solid state fermentation for fermentative hydrogen production from food waste was carried out. The hydrogen production plant was assumed to be built in Hangzhou and designed for converting 3 ton food waste per day into hydrogen. The total capital cost (TCC) and the annual production cost (APC) were US$583092 and US$88298.1/year, respectively. The overall revenue after the tax was US$146473.6/year. The return on investment (ROI), payback period (PBP) and internal rate of return (IRR) of the plant were 26.75%, 5 years and 24.07%, respectively. The results exhibited that the combined bioprocess for hydrogen production from food waste was feasible. This is an important study for attracting investment and industrialization interest for hydrogen production from food waste in the industrial scale.

  15. Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit

    MedlinePlus

    ... long-term health problems. For every smoking-related death, at least 30 Americans live with a smoking-related illness. The only proven strategy to protect yourself from harm is to never smoke, and if you do smoke or use tobacco products, to quit. The Tips From Former Smokers ...

  16. Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    Tobacco use is the most common preventable cause of death. About half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you quit, ... In the long term, giving up tobacco can help you live longer. Your risk of ...

  17. Flight feeding systems design and evaluation. Supplement 1: Production guides. [for the Apollo food system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The requirements for processing, packaging, testing, and shipment of foods selected for use in the Apollo food system are presented. Specific foodstuffs chosen from the following categories are discussed: (1) soups; (2) juices; (3) breads; (4) meat and poultry products; (5) fruits and nuts; (6) desserts; and (7) beverages. Food procurement for the mobile quarantine facility and for Apollo preflight and postflight activities is also discussed.

  18. Potentials for food waste minimization and effects on potential biogas production through anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Schott, Anna Bernstad Saraiva; Vukicevic, Sanita; Bohn, Irene; Andersson, Tova

    2013-08-01

    Several treatment alternatives for food waste can result in both energy and nutrient recovery, and thereby potential environmental benefits. However, according to the European Union waste management hierarchy, waste prevention should be the prioritized strategy to decrease the environmental burdens from all solid waste management. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the potential for food waste minimization among Swedish households through an investigation of the amount of avoidable food waste currently disposed of. A further aim was to investigate the effect on the national biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion of food waste, considering minimization potentials. A method for waste composition analyses of household food waste, where a differentiation between avoidable and unavoidable food waste is made, was used in a total of 24 waste composition analyses of household waste from Swedish residential areas. The total household food waste generation reached 3.4 kg (household and week)(-1), on average, of which 34% is avoidable. The theoretical methane (CH4) potential in unavoidable food waste reached 442 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1) or 128 Nm(3) tonne(-1) wet waste, while the measured (mesophilic CH4 batch tests) CH4 production reached 399 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1), which is lower than several previous assessments of CH4 production from household food waste. According to this study the combination of a decrease in food waste generation-in case of successful minimization-and decreased CH4 production from unavoidable food waste will thus result in lower total potential energy recovery from household food waste through anaerobic digestion CH4 potential than previously stated.

  19. Vaccines, Pharmaceutical Products, and Bioterrorism: Challenges for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-08-01

    plague (Yersinia pestis), tularemia (Francisella tularensis), brucellosis ( Brucella abortus, B. melitensis , B. suis, B. canis), Q fever (Coxiella...Special Issue 20011029 090 Vaccines, Pharmaceutical Products, and Bioterrorism: Challenges for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Kathryn C...Zoon U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland, USA In regards to bioterrorism, the goal of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA

  20. Serum soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) is independently associated with cigarette smoking in non-diabetic healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Subrata K; Mudi, Sonchita R; Mollah, Forhadul H; Bierhaus, Angelika; Arslan, M Iqbal

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to explore the relationship between serum levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and cigarette smoking in non-diabetic healthy subjects. A total of 98 non-diabetic, otherwise healthy male subjects were recruited. A fasting blood sample and medical history including detail history of cigarette smoking was collected. The serum sRAGE levels were found significantly higher (p=0.002) in cigarette smokers (1475±422 pg/ml, n=45) compared with non-smokers (1165±350 pg/ml, n=53). Moreover, among the cigarette smokers, serum sRAGE levels were found significantly correlated with number of cigarettes smoked per day (r=0.60, p<0.001). In bivariate analysis in the total population, sRAGE positively correlated with smoking habit (r=0.37, p=0.002) and negatively correlated with systolic (r=-0.32, p=0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.36, p=0.003). However, in stepwise multivariate linear regression model, sRAGE showed a significant independent association with smoking habit (b=0.32, p=0.007, R2=0.23). In conclusion, this study for the first time shows a significant elevation of serum sRAGE in cigarette smokers compared with non-smokers, a strong correlation between sRAGE and number of cigarettes smoked per day and an independent association of sRAGE with smoking habit in non-diabetic healthy subjects.

  1. Cigarette smoke alters non-neuronal cholinergic system components inducing MUC5AC production in the H292 cell line.

    PubMed

    Montalbano, Angela Marina; Albano, Giusy Daniela; Anzalone, Giulia; Bonanno, Anna; Riccobono, Loredana; Di Sano, Caterina; Gagliardo, Rosalia; Siena, Liboria; Pieper, Michael Paul; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Profita, Mirella

    2014-08-05

    Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) affects the expression of Choline Acetyl-Transferase (ChAT), muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, and mucin production in bronchial epithelial cells. Mucin 5AC (MUC5AC), muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3, ChAT expression, acetylcholine levels and acetylcholine binding were measured in a human pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell line (H292) stimulated with CSE. We performed ChAT/RNA interference experiments in H292 cells stimulated with CSE to study the role of ChAT/acetylcholine in MUC5AC production. The effects of Hemicholinium-3 (HCh-3) (50 μM) (a potent and selective choline uptake blocker) and Tiotropium bromide (Spiriva(®)) (100 nM), alone or in combination with Salmeterol (SL) and Fluticasone propionate (FP), were tested in this model. MUC5AC, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3, ChAT, acetylcholine expression and acetylcholine binding significantly increased in H292 cells stimulated with CSE (5%) compared to untreated cells. HCh-3 reduced acetylcholine binding and MUC5AC production in H292 cells stimulated with CSE. ChAT/RNA interference eliminated the effect of CSE on MUC5AC production. FP reduced ChAT and acetylcholine binding in unstimulated cells, while showing a partial effect in CSE stimulated cells. SL increased the ChAT expression and acetylcholine binding in H292 cells stimulated with or without CSE. Tiotropium, alone or together with FP and SL, reduced acetylcholine binding and MUC5AC production in H292 cells stimulated with CSE. CSE affects the ChAT/acetylcholine expression, increasing MUC5AC production in H292 cells. Pharmacological treatment with anticholinergic drugs reduces the secretion of MUC5AC generated by autocrine acetylcholine activity in airway epithelial cells.

  2. Factitious foods to reduce production costs of beneficial insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reports the use of factitious foods such as Tenebrio molitor pupa, E. kuehniella eggs, Ephestia eggs, and or Artemia franciscana eggs for the rearing of beneficial insect such as Podisus maculiventris, spined soldier bug and several ladybird predators belonging to the Coccinellidae fam...

  3. Effect of Phospholipid Transfer Protein on Cigarette Smoke Extract-Induced IL-8 Production in Human Pulmonary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Youlun; Yu, Xiuying; Fu, Xiaofeng; Wu, Fengping; Zou, Linlin; Chen, Yuhan; Chen, Yajuan

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effect of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) on the cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in human pulmonary epithelial cells, male Wistar rats were exposed to air and cigarette smoke (n = 10/exposure) for 6 h/day on three consecutive days. Their lungs were sectioned and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) examined. The expression of PLTP and IL-8 in the lung was detected immunohistochemically. Lung injury was accompanied by the upregulation of PLTP and IL-8 in the CSE-exposed rat model, and the number of white blood cells in the BALF was significantly increased compared with those of the controls. Both neutrophils and macrophages were clearly increased. Human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) and human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) were treated with different concentrations of CSE for various times. The cells were also transfected with small interfering RNA directed against PLTP, and U0126, an inhibitor of the ERK1/2 pathway, was administered before CSE exposure. The expression of PLTP and IL-8 mRNAs and PLTP, IL-8, total ERK, and phosphorylated ERK proteins was analyzed. The expression of IL-8 and phosphorylated ERK was significantly increased in A549 cells and HBECs after CSE stimulation, and CSE upregulated the expression of PLTP in A549 cells. In contrast, CSE inhibited the expression of PLTP in HBECs. The CSE-induced expression of IL-8 and p-ERK was significantly increased by the knockdown of PLTP. Therefore, PLTP may regulate CSE-induced IL-8 expression via the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in human pulmonary epithelial cells.

  4. Development of real-time PCR methods to quantify patulin-producing molds in food products.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Luque, M Isabel; Andrade, María J; Rodríguez, Mar; Asensio, Miguel A; Córdoba, Juan J

    2011-09-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by different Penicillium and Aspergillus strains isolated from food products. To improve food safety, the presence of patulin-producing molds in foods should be quantified. In the present work, two real-time (RTi) PCR protocols based on SYBR Green and TaqMan were developed. Thirty four patulin producers and 28 non-producers strains belonging to different species usually reported in food products were used. The patulin production was tested by mycellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis (MECE) and high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). A primer pair F-idhtrb/R-idhtrb and the probe IDHprobe were designed from the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene, involved in patulin biosynthesis. The functionality of the developed method was demonstrated by the high linear relationship of the standard curves constructed with the idh gene copy number and Ct values for the different patulin producers tested. The ability to quantify patulin producers of the developed SYBR Green and TaqMan assays in artificially inoculated food samples was successful, with a minimum threshold of 10 conidia g(-1) per reaction. The developed methods quantified with high efficiency fungal load in foods. These RTi-PCR protocols, are proposed to be used to quantify patulin-producing molds in food products and to prevent patulin from entering the food chain.

  5. Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance--a review.

    PubMed

    Siró, István; Kápolna, Emese; Kápolna, Beáta; Lugasi, Andrea

    2008-11-01

    It was mainly the advances in understanding the relationship between nutrition and health that resulted in the development of the concept of functional foods, which means a practical and new approach to achieve optimal health status by promoting the state of well-being and possibly reducing the risk of disease. Functional foods are found virtually in all food categories, however products are not homogeneously scattered over all segments of the growing market. The development and commerce of these products is rather complex, expensive and risky, as special requirements should be answered. Besides potential technological obstacles, legislative aspects, as well as consumer demands need to be taken into consideration when developing functional food. In particular, consumer acceptance has been recognized as a key factor to successfully negotiate market opportunities. This paper offers a brief overview of the current functional food market situation in USA, Japan and some European countries completed with some comments on functional food future potential. It explores the main challenges of such product development focusing on the different factors determining the acceptance of functional food. Furthermore it discusses some prominent types of these food products currently on the market.

  6. Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food system.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, C A; Moubarac, J-C; Cannon, G; Ng, S W; Popkin, B

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between the global food system and the worldwide rapid increase of obesity and related diseases is not yet well understood. A reason is that the full impact of industrialized food processing on dietary patterns, including the environments of eating and drinking, remains overlooked and underestimated. Many forms of food processing are beneficial. But what is identified and defined here as ultra-processing, a type of process that has become increasingly dominant, at first in high-income countries, and now in middle-income countries, creates attractive, hyper-palatable, cheap, ready-to-consume food products that are characteristically energy-dense, fatty, sugary or salty and generally obesogenic. In this study, the scale of change in purchase and sales of ultra-processed products is examined and the context and implications are discussed. Data come from 79 high- and middle-income countries, with special attention to Canada and Brazil. Results show that ultra-processed products dominate the food supplies of high-income countries, and that their consumption is now rapidly increasing in middle-income countries. It is proposed here that the main driving force now shaping the global food system is transnational food manufacturing, retailing and fast food service corporations whose businesses are based on very profitable, heavily promoted ultra-processed products, many in snack form.

  7. Ethanol production from food waste at high solid contents with vacuum recovery technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve the environmental issues but also provide renewable biofuel to partially substitute fossil fuels. This study investigated the feasibility of utilization of food wastes for producing ethanol at high solid contents (35%, w/w). Vacuum recovery sys...

  8. Can our food production system meet demand in a changing global society?

    PubMed

    DeHaven, W Ron

    2008-10-15

    The worldwide demand for animal protein will grow as the world's population grows and the economies of developing countries evolve and mature. The veterinary profession must be a leader in advocating for responsible changes in production practices that will improve the welfare of food animals, ensure a safe and secure food supply, and minimize negative impacts on the environment.

  9. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. In these studies we investigated use of food waste to produce butanol by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initia...

  10. An Analysis of Occupational Titles and Competencies Needed in Agricultural Food Products Processing Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeltz, LeRoy C.

    To identify, rate, and cluster groups of competencies and occupational titles at entry and advance levels for occupations in five food products commodity areas, data were collected by interviews with personnel managers in 25 Pennsylvania food processing plants. Some findings were: (1) There were meaningful competency factor and occupational title…

  11. Distribution, abundance, and seasonal patterns of stored product beetles in a commercial food storage facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-year monitoring study was performed using pitfall traps baited with pheromone lures and food oil to assess seasonal prevalence of stored product beetles inside a large community food storage warehouse located in the Midwestern US. The four primary species captured were Tribolium castaneum (H...

  12. [Radiation screening test for commercial food products and foodstuffs for food services using NaI (Tl) scintillation survey meter].

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Masaru; Takanashi, Yoshimitsu; Kihara, Akiko; Tsutake, Toyoshige; Mitsui, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Screening tests were carried out for radioactive cesium in foods using a NaI (Tl) scintillation survey meter. The screening level was set at 250 Bq/kg, and specimens exceeding this level were scheduled to be sent to an external testing organization, which would conduct further tests using a germanium semiconductor detector. Some specimens that did not reach the screening level were also sent to the same organization. Foodstuffs used in commercial food products circulated in Chiba city were targeted, along with food services provided to schools and day care centers. In all, 495 specimens were tested; however, no specimens exceeded the screening level. The results of verification tests confirmed that no specimen exceeded the tentative regulatory limit.

  13. Skills Conversion Project: Chapter 3, Food Products and Food Services Industry. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Society of Professional Engineers, Washington, DC.

    The National Society of Professional Engineers, under contract to the Department of Labor, conducted a study to investigate the conversion of technical skills of displaced aerospace and defense professionals to other industries. The Seattle and Wichita study teams, focusing on the food industry, projected that about 200 employment opportunities…

  14. Use of Chlorine-Containing Disinfectants in Food Production and Food Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe current commercial practices in use of chlorine-containing compounds in food processing and alternatives to chlorine use. This chapter is not meant to be complete literature review of the subject, but rather is a summary of widely used and accepted current...

  15. New advances in the integrated management of food processing by-products in Europe: sustainable exploitation of fruit and cereal processing by-products with the production of new food products (NAMASTE EU).

    PubMed

    Fava, Fabio; Zanaroli, Giulio; Vannini, Lucia; Guerzoni, Elisabetta; Bordoni, Alessandra; Viaggi, Davide; Robertson, Jim; Waldron, Keith; Bald, Carlos; Esturo, Aintzane; Talens, Clara; Tueros, Itziar; Cebrián, Marta; Sebők, András; Kuti, Tunde; Broeze, Jan; Macias, Marta; Brendle, Hans-Georg

    2013-09-25

    By-products generated every year by the European fruit and cereal processing industry currently exceed several million tons. They are disposed of mainly through landfills and thus are largely unexploited sources of several valuable biobased compounds potentially profitable in the formulation of novel food products. The opportunity to design novel strategies to turn them into added value products and food ingredients via novel and sustainable processes is the main target of recently EC-funded FP7 project NAMASTE-EU. NAMASTE-EU aims at developing new laboratory-scale protocols and processes for the exploitation of citrus processing by-products and wheat bran surpluses via the production of ingredients useful for the formulation of new beverage and food products. Among the main results achieved in the first two years of the project, there are the development and assessment of procedures for the selection, stabilization and the physical/biological treatment of citrus and wheat processing by-products, the obtainment and recovery of some bioactive molecules and ingredients and the development of procedures for assessing the quality of the obtained ingredients and for their exploitation in the preparation of new food products.

  16. Optimization of solid content, carbon/nitrogen ratio and food/inoculum ratio for biogas production from food waste.

    PubMed

    Dadaser-Celik, Filiz; Azgin, Sukru Taner; Yildiz, Yalcin Sevki

    2016-12-01

    Biogas production from food waste has been used as an efficient waste treatment option for years. The methane yields from decomposition of waste are, however, highly variable under different operating conditions. In this study, a statistical experimental design method (Taguchi OA9) was implemented to investigate the effects of simultaneous variations of three parameters on methane production. The parameters investigated were solid content (SC), carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and food/inoculum ratio (F/I). Two sets of experiments were conducted with nine anaerobic reactors operating under different conditions. Optimum conditions were determined using statistical analysis, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA). A confirmation experiment was carried out at optimum conditions to investigate the validity of the results. Statistical analysis showed that SC was the most important parameter for methane production with a 45% contribution, followed by F/I ratio with a 35% contribution. The optimum methane yield of 151 l kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) was achieved after 24 days of digestion when SC was 4%, C/N was 28 and F/I were 0.3. The confirmation experiment provided a methane yield of 167 l kg(-1) VS after 24 days. The analysis showed biogas production from food waste may be increased by optimization of operating conditions.

  17. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed.

  18. Biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste in batch and continuous systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Yan, Yingting; Shi, Yiwen; Gu, Jingjing; Tang, Junhong; Zhao, Hongting

    2016-12-02

    In this study, the feasibility of biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. Food waste (solid-to-liquid ratio of 10%, w/v) was first hydrolyzed by commercial glucoamylase to release glucose (24.35 g/L) in the food waste hydrolysate. Then, the obtained food waste hydrolysate was used as substrate for biohydrogen production in the batch and continuous (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) systems. It was observed that the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 5850 mL was achieved with a yield of 245.7 mL hydrogen/g glucose (1.97 mol hydrogen/mol glucose) in the batch system. In the continuous system, the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on biohydrogen production from food waste hydrolysate was investigated. The optimal HRT obtained from this study was 6 h with the highest hydrogen production rate of 8.02 mmol/(h·L). Ethanol and acetate were the major soluble microbial products with low propionate production at all HRTs. Enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste could effectively accelerate hydrolysis speed, improve substrate utilization rate and increase hydrogen yield.

  19. Biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste in batch and continuous systems

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei; Yan, Yingting; Shi, Yiwen; Gu, Jingjing; Tang, Junhong; Zhao, Hongting

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. Food waste (solid-to-liquid ratio of 10%, w/v) was first hydrolyzed by commercial glucoamylase to release glucose (24.35 g/L) in the food waste hydrolysate. Then, the obtained food waste hydrolysate was used as substrate for biohydrogen production in the batch and continuous (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) systems. It was observed that the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 5850 mL was achieved with a yield of 245.7 mL hydrogen/g glucose (1.97 mol hydrogen/mol glucose) in the batch system. In the continuous system, the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on biohydrogen production from food waste hydrolysate was investigated. The optimal HRT obtained from this study was 6 h with the highest hydrogen production rate of 8.02 mmol/(h·L). Ethanol and acetate were the major soluble microbial products with low propionate production at all HRTs. Enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste could effectively accelerate hydrolysis speed, improve substrate utilization rate and increase hydrogen yield. PMID:27910937

  20. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with...

  1. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with...

  2. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with...

  3. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with...

  4. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with...

  5. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Residues in Gentile Di Maiale, a Smoked Meat Product Typical of Some Mountain Areas in Latina Province (Central Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Carrabs, Giuseppe; Mercogliano, Raffaelina; Carosielli, Leonardo; Vollano, Lucia; Anastasio, Aniello

    2014-01-01

    Gentile di maiale is a typical meat product prepared in some traditional plants of Latina Province (Central Italy). It is obtained from dehydration, salting, smoking and ripening of swine rectum. Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the traditional smoking process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content by means of high-performance liquid chromatographic/fluorescence detection. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons detected in 8 samples of raw material (swine rectum) and samples of smoked gentile were: benzo[a]anthracene, chrisene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a] pyrene, benzo[a,h]anthracene. Their residues were detected in all samples of finished product. European Regulation 835/2011 established two levels of PAHs content in meat products. According to first levels, in force until September 2014, only 2 out of 8 samples exceeded legal limit. According to the subsequent, more restrictive, limits all samples would be non-compliant. An improvement and a standardisation of traditional smoking procedures are recommended. PMID:27800340

  6. 78 FR 21612 - Medical Device Classification Product Codes; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Device Classification Product Codes; Guidance for... guidance entitled ``Medical Device Classification Product Codes.'' This document describes how device product codes are used in a variety of FDA program areas to regulate and track medical devices...

  7. The role of changing childhood diets in the prehistoric evolution of food production: An isotopic assessment.

    PubMed

    Schurr, Mark R; Powell, Mary Lucas

    2005-03-01

    Earlier weaning has often been suggested as a cause for population growth after the evolution of food production. However, evidence for weaning-time reduction is largely circumstantial. Collagen stable nitrogen- and carbon-isotope ratios from juvenile and adult burials from four sites in eastern North America were measured to estimate weaning onsets and durations before and after the appearance of intensive food production. Two preagricultural Late Archaic sites (Indian Knoll and Carlston Annis) are compared with two highly agricultural Middle Mississippian sites (Angel and Tinsley Hill). Isotopic data and paleodemographic measures of birth rates provide no evidence for changes in weaning behavior or fertility with the development of food production in the prehistoric Lower Ohio Valley. Birth rates and weaning behavior appear to have been roughly the same at all four sites. These results indicate that models attributing population growth after the appearance of food production to earlier weaning are not universally applicable.

  8. Experimental records of the effect of food patchiness and predation on egg production of Acartia tonsa

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz, E.; Tiselius, P.; Verity, P.; Paffehofer, G.A. ); Jonsson, P.R. )

    1993-03-01

    The effects of predation and spatial patchiness in food distribution on egg production of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa were investigated in the laboratory. A postexperiment egg production method was developed to override the decline in number of copepods due to predation. The copepods were able to remain in food patches about 41-47% of the time, and consequently egg production rates were higher than expected from the average food concentration. Predation by the calanoid copepod Labidocera aestiva tended to increase egg production rates of A. tonsa. The interaction of patchiness and predation resulted in relatively less time spent by A. tonsa in the food patches, probably as a consequence of conflict between hunger level and predation risk. 40 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Biotechnological and in situ food production of polyols by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Bleckwedel, Juliana; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2013-06-01

    Polyols such as mannitol, erythritol, sorbitol, and xylitol are naturally found in fruits and vegetables and are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and algae. These sugar alcohols are widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries and in medicine because of their interesting physicochemical properties. In the food industry, polyols are employed as natural sweeteners applicable in light and diabetic food products. In the last decade, biotechnological production of polyols by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been investigated as an alternative to their current industrial production. While heterofermentative LAB may naturally produce mannitol and erythritol under certain culture conditions, sorbitol and xylitol have been only synthesized through metabolic engineering processes. This review deals with the spontaneous formation of mannitol and erythritol in fermented foods and their biotechnological production by heterofermentative LAB and briefly presented the metabolic engineering processes applied for polyol formation.

  10. [Risk for health in population of Krasnoyarsk territory conditioned by food products contaminated by heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Vasilovskiĭ, A M

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring of nutrition structure in Krasnoyarsk territory population showed that the consumption rate of major food products is not stable and changes from year. The current situation provokes worsening of population health and growth diseases.

  11. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Meurk, Carla; Ford, Pauline; Sharma, Ratika; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Gartner, Coral

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options) as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers. PMID:27886046

  12. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Meurk, Carla; Ford, Pauline; Sharma, Ratika; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Gartner, Coral

    2016-11-23

    Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options) as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.

  13. Irradiation in the production, processing and handling of food. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-11-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of a 4.5 kilogray (kGy) maximum absorbed dose of ionizing radiation to treat unrefrigerated (as well as refrigerated) uncooked meat, meat byproducts, and certain meat food products to reduce levels of foodborne pathogens and extend shelf life. This action is in response to a petition filed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA/FSIS).

  14. Twenty-Two Years of U.S. Meat and Poultry Product Recalls: Implications for Food Safety and Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Gorton, Acton; Stasiewicz, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service maintains a recall case archive of meat and poultry product recalls from 1994 to the present. In this study, we collected all recall records from 1994 to 2015 and extracted the recall date, meat or poultry species implicated, reason for recall, recall class, and pounds of product recalled and recovered. Of a total of 1,515 records analyzed, the top three reasons for recall were contamination with Listeria, undeclared allergens, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli . Class I recalls (due to a hazard with a reasonable probability of causing adverse health consequences or death) represented 71% (1,075 of 1,515) of the total recalls. The amounts of product recalled and recovered per event were approximately lognormally distributed. The mean amount of product recalled and recovered was 6,800 and 1,000 lb (3,087 and 454 kg), respectively (standard deviation, 1.23 and 1.56 log lb, respectively). The total amount of product recalled in the 22-year evaluation period was 690 million lb (313 million kg), and the largest single recall involved 140 million lb (64 million kg) (21% of the total). In every data category subset, the largest recall represented >10% of the total product recalled in the set. The amount of product recovered was known for only 944 recalls. In 12% of those recalls (110 of 944), no product was recovered. In the remaining recalls, the median recovery was 29% of the product. The number of recalls per year was 24 to 150. Recall counts and amounts of product recalled over the 22-year evaluation period did not regularly increase by year, in contrast to the regular increase in U.S. meat and poultry production over the same time period. Overall, these data suggest that (i) meat and poultry recalls were heavily skewed toward class I recalls, suggesting recalls were focused on improving food safety, (ii) numbers of products and amounts of each product recalled were highly variable but did

  15. Antioxidant activity of a Mediterranean food product: "fig syrup".

    PubMed

    Puoci, Francesco; Iemma, Francesca; Spizzirri, Umile G; Restuccia, Donatella; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Sirianni, Rosa; Manganaro, Lillo; Curcio, Manuela; Parisi, Ortensia I; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Picci, Nevio

    2011-03-01

    In this work, the efficacy of fig syrup, a Mediterranean fig derivative, as a nutraceutical supplement, was demonstrated. Fig syrup is a fruit concentrate used as a common ingredient in the preparation of typical foods, and particularly in cakes. In vitro assays were performed to determine the amount of nutraceutical ingredients, such as phenolic compounds (3.92 mg equivalent of gallic acid per g) and flavonoids (0.35 mg equivalent of catechin per g), while HPLC analyses provided specific information about the composition of antioxidants in the syrup. Furthermore, total antioxidant activity, scavenging properties against DPPH and peroxyl radicals, and the anticholinesterase activity, clearly showed the efficacy of the syrup in preventing damage induced by free radicals and, thus, the applicability of this food derivative as a nutraceutical supplement.

  16. Quality and safety assessment of food and agricultural products by hyperspectral fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruoyu; Ying, Yibin; Rao, Xiuqin; Li, Jiangbo

    2012-09-01

    Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging (HSFI) is potentially useful for assessing food and agricultural products, because it combines the merits of both hyperspectral imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy. This paper provides an introduction to HSFI: the principle and components of HSFI, calibration and image processing are described. In addition, recent advances in the application of HSFI to food and agricultural product assessment are reviewed, such as contaminant detection, constituent analysis and quality evaluation. Finally, current limitations and likely future development trends are discussed.

  17. 'Smoking' mephedrone: the identification of the pyrolysis products of 4-methylmethcathinone hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Pierce; O'Brien, John; Power, John D; Talbot, Brian; McDermott, Seán D

    2013-05-01

    The ring-substituted cathinone - mephedrone - has gained popularity among recreational drug users over the past several years. It is generally consumed orally or by snorting but reports indicate that it is also ingested by vaporization/inhalation. This study examines the pyrolysis products produced by heating mephedrone under using simulated 'meth pipe' conditions. Thirteen pyrolysis products were identified, the major ones being iso-mephedrone, 4-methylpropiophenone, 4-methylphenylacetone, two pyrazine derivatives formed by dimerization of mephedrone, N-methylated mephedrone (N,N,4-trimethylcatinone), two hydroxylated oxidation products and a diketone. Other minor products formed were identified as 4-methylacetophenone, two α-chloro ketones and N-methylated iso-mephedrone.

  18. Doubling Food Production to Feed the 9 Billion: A Critical Perspective on a Key Discourse of Food Security in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Isobel

    2013-01-01

    Within the emergent international policy arena of "food security", the imperative to double global food production by 2050 has become ubiquitous. This statistic, as well as a revised figure of a 70% increase by 2050, have been widely used by key individuals in the food policy arena and have come to play a significant role in framing…

  19. Food Self-Provisioning in Czechia: Beyond Coping Strategy of the Poor--A Response to Alber and Kohler's "Informal Food Production in the Enlarged European Union" (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jehlicka, Petr; Kostelecky, Tomas; Smith, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Food systems are of increasing interest in both research and policy communities. Surveys of post-socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) show high rates of food self-provisioning. These practices have been explained in terms of being "coping strategies of the poor". Alber and Kohler's "Informal Food Production in the…

  20. Probiotics and prebiotics in animal feeding for safe food production.

    PubMed

    Gaggìa, Francesca; Mattarelli, Paola; Biavati, Bruno

    2010-07-31

    Recent outbreaks of food-borne diseases highlight the need for reducing bacterial pathogens in foods of animal origin. Animal enteric pathogens are a direct source for food contamination. The ban of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGPs) has been a challenge for animal nutrition increasing the need to find alternative methods to control and prevent pathogenic bacterial colonization. The modulation of the gut microbiota with new feed additives, such as probiotics and prebiotics, towards host-protecting functions to support animal health, is a topical issue in animal breeding and creates fascinating possibilities. Although the knowledge on the effects of such feed additives has increased, essential information concerning their impact on the host are, to date, incomplete. For the future, the most important target, within probiotic and prebiotic research, is a demonstrated health-promoting benefit supported by knowledge on the mechanistic actions. Genomic-based knowledge on the composition and functions of the gut microbiota, as well as its deviations, will advance the selection of new and specific probiotics. Potential combinations of suitable probiotics and prebiotics may prove to be the next step to reduce the risk of intestinal diseases and remove specific microbial disorders. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on the contribution of the gut microbiota to host well-being. Moreover, we review available information on probiotics and prebiotics and their application in animal feeding.

  1. The Use of OMPS Near Real Time Products in Volcanic Cloud Risk Mitigation and Smoke/Dust Air Quality Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seftor, C. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; McPeters, R. D.; Li, J. Y.; Durbin, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Near real time (NRT) SO2 and aerosol index (AI) imagery from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has proven invaluable in mitigating the risk posed to air traffic by SO2 and ash clouds from volcanic eruptions. The OMI products, generated as part of NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) NRT system and available through LANCE and both NOAA's NESDIS and ESA's Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS) portals, are used to monitor the current location of volcanic clouds and to provide input into Volcanic Ash (VA) advisory forecasts. NRT products have recently been developed using data from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite onboard the Suomi NPP platform; they are currently being made available through the SACS portal and will shortly be incorporated into the LANCE NRT system. We will show examples of the use of OMPS NRT SO2 and AI imagery to monitor recent volcanic eruption events. We will also demonstrate the usefulness of OMPS AI imagery to detect and track dust storms and smoke from fires, and how this information can be used to forecast their impact on air quality in areas far removed from their source. Finally, we will show SO2 and AI imagery generated from our OMPS Direct Broadcast data to highlight the capability of our real time system.

  2. Smoking cessation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Sharon

    2014-06-01

    More than 400,000 deaths occur per year in the United States that are attributable to cigarette smoking; the risks to the general public are widely known. The risk to women, especially those who are pregnant, is less commonly known. During pregnancy, smoking increases the risk of low birth weight infants, placental problems (previa and/or abruption), chronic hypertensive disorders, and fetal death. It is proposed that much of this happens because of vasoconstriction with decreased uterine blood flow from nicotine, carbon monoxide toxicity, and increased cyanide production. Infants of smoking mothers have increased risks, such as sudden infant death syndrome.

  3. Prevalence and Evaluation Strategies for Viral Contamination in Food Products: Risk to Human Health - A Review.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shruti; Cho, Hyun Jung; Kwon, O Jun; Chung, Soo Hyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2016-05-31

    Nowadays, viruses of foodborne origin such as norovirus and hepatitis A are considered major causes of foodborne gastrointestinal illness with widespread distribution worldwide. A number of foodborne outbreaks associated with food products of animal and non-animal origins, which often involve multiple cases of variety of food streams, have been reported. Although several viruses, including rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, parvovirus, and other enteroviruses, significantly contribute to incidence of gastrointestinal diseases, systematic information on the role of food in transmitting such viruses is limited. Most of the outbreak cases caused by infected food handlers were the source of 53% of total outbreaks. Therefore, prevention and hygiene measures to reduce the frequency of foodborne virus outbreaks should focus on food workers and production site of food products. Pivotal strategies, such as proper investigation, surveillance, and reports on foodborne viral illnesses, are needed in order to develop more accurate measures to detect the presence and pathogenesis of viral infection with detailed descriptions. Moreover, molecular epidemiology and surveillance of food samples may help analysis of public health hazards associated with exposure to foodborne viruses. In this present review, we discuss different aspects of foodborne viral contamination and its impact on human health. This review also aims to improve understanding of foodborne viral infections as major causes of human illness as well as provide descriptions of their control and prevention strategies and rapid detection by advanced molecular techniques. Further, a brief description of methods available for the detection of viruses in food and related matrices is provided.

  4. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.

    PubMed

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X

    2010-04-30

    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  5. Comparative decision models for anticipating shortage of food grain production in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Manojit; Mitra, Subrata Kumar

    2016-11-01

    This paper attempts to predict food shortages in advance from the analysis of rainfall during the monsoon months along with other inputs used for crop production, such as land used for cereal production, percentage of area covered under irrigation and fertiliser use. We used six binary classification data mining models viz., logistic regression, Multilayer Perceptron, kernel lab-Support Vector Machines, linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis and k-Nearest Neighbors Network, and found that linear discriminant analysis and kernel lab-Support Vector Machines are equally suitable for predicting per capita food shortage with 89.69 % accuracy in overall prediction and 92.06 % accuracy in predicting food shortage (true negative rate). Advance information of food shortage can help policy makers to take remedial measures in order to prevent devastating consequences arising out of food non-availability.

  6. Demographic and psychographic associations of consumer intentions to purchase healthier food products

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Melissa; Wang, Wei Chun; Worsley, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the associations of nutrition concerns, demographics, universalism (community oriented) values, perceived control over personal health and food buying, and perceived influence over the food system with intentions to purchase low fat, sugar and salt (LFSS) food products. Methods A national online survey of 2204 Australian consumers administered in November 2011. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations of LFSS purchasing intentions with demographic, values, perceived control, and influence factors. Results Nutrition concern, perceived influence over the food system, and universalism values were key predictors of LFSS purchasing intentions. Almost two thirds (64.6%) of the variance associated with LFSS purchasing was explained by the structural equation model. Conclusion Communication programs which focus on universalism values, nutrition concern and perceived influence over the food system are likely to increase LFSS purchasing and perhaps reduce the demand for energy dense, nutrient poor foods. PMID:26844047

  7. [Smoking and art. History of smoking in Norway in paintings].

    PubMed

    Larsen, I F

    1997-12-10

    The habit of smoking was well-known in Norway in the first half of the sixteenth century. Tobacco-smoking is seen in Norwegian paintings. In the nineteenth century, long and artistic pipes were used by men relaxing after a pleasant dinner. In self portraits of Christian Krohg and Edvard Munch we see them smoking pipes and cigarettes surrounded by smoke. In an exhibition of portraits of Norwegian Authors, ten out of seventy authors were portrayed with a pipe, a cigar or a cigarette. There are various interpretations of the use of smoking in art. A simple explanation is that this was an accepted part of life at that time. The authors may have believed that they concentrated better when they smoked and elegance may have been of importance for many of them. The symbolic significance of cigarette-smoking has been of great value in the marketing of tobacco-products.

  8. A review on the fate of pesticides during the processes within the food-production Chain.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, R M; Rial-Otero, R; Cancho-Grande, B; Gonzalez-Barreiro, C; Simal-Gándara, J

    2011-02-01

    Only the intake of toxicologically-significant amounts can lead to adverse health effects even for a relatively toxic substance. In the case of residues in foods this is based on two major aspects--first, how to determine quantitatively the presence of a pollutant in individual foods and diets, including its fate during the processes within the food production chain; and second, how to determine the consumption patterns of the individual foods containing the relevant pollutants. The techniques used for the evaluation of the fate of pesticides during food processing have been critically reviewed in this paper to determine those areas where improvements are needed or desirable. Options for improvements are being suggested, including, for example, the development of a pan-European food composition database, activities to understand better effects of processing on individual food pesticides, and harmonization of food consumption survey methods with the option of a regular pan-European survey. The ultimate aim is to obtain appropriate estimations for the presence and quantity of a given chemical in a food and in the diet in general. Existing pragmatic approaches are a first crude step to model food pollutant intake. It is recommended to extend, refine, and validate this approach in the near future. This has to result in a cost-effective exposure-assessment system to be used for existing and potential categories of pollutants. This system of knowledge (with information on sensitivities, accuracy, etc.) will guide future data collection.

  9. Utilization of biofuel production residuals for food applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent increase in biofuel production creates a sizable stockpile of its co-product – non-fermentable grain kernel components such as proteins, fibers, and lipids, in the form of Distiller’s Dried Grain with Solubles (DDGS) that has found limited uses in animal feeds. The market demand for DDGS in ...

  10. Food and agricultural waste: Sources of carbon for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, wastes derived from agriculture products have met with limited success in the production of biofuels. Our objective in this report is to showcase a new and meaningful concept (called “avoidance”), to measure the environmental importance of converting these waste streams into energy. Agr...

  11. Important Regulatory Aspects in the Receipt of Animal Products by Food Services.

    PubMed

    de Mesquita, Marizete Oliveira; de Freitas Saccol, Ana Lúcia; Mesquita, Marilise Oliveira; Fries, Leadir Lucy Martins; Cesar Tondo, Eduardo

    2016-12-09

    The aim of this study was to review the current legislation and rules in Brazil that involve quality assurance of animal products during food service reception. Published federal legislation and technical regulations were verified to present a broad general approach to raw material reception. Food service determinations included specifications of the criteria for evaluating and selecting suppliers, verifying the transport system, reception area requirements, and inspecting raw material. For product approval, the packaging, labeling, and temperature should be evaluated. However, periodic microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory support assessment analyses are not required for receiving animal products. For the safety of the raw material, it was concluded that the largest impacts came from the regulation and supervision of the food sector provider because of the challenges of food service and a lack of requirements to use more complex evaluation methods during the reception of raw materials.

  12. Analysis of Scientific Production in Food Science from 2003 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Bote, Vicente P; Moya-Anegón, Félix

    2015-12-01

    Food Science is an active discipline in scientific research. The improvements in Food Technology constitute a challenge for society to eradicate hunger, while achieving food safety. This work analyses the scientific production in Food Science of the 25 countries with the greatest output in this subject area in the period 2003 to 2013. The growth of China's production was striking, with the country becoming top-ranked by the end of the period. Some developing countries (such as Nigeria) achieved a major increase in production but reducing their proportion of scientific collaboration and their works' impact. There appear to be 2 international collaboration networks that get good results--one European and the other Pacific.

  13. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Chiwona-Karltun, Linley; Kawuki, Robert S; Baguma, Yona

    2012-05-01

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH ≈ 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  14. Historical cohort study of US man-made vitreous fiber production workers: VI. Respiratory system cancer standardized mortality ratios adjusted for the confounding effect of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Marsh, G M; Buchanich, J M; Youk, A O

    2001-09-01

    To date, the US cohort study of man-made vitreous fiber workers has provided no consistent evidence of a relationship between man-made vitreous fiber exposure and mortality from malignant or non-malignant respiratory disease. Nevertheless, there have been small, overall excesses in respiratory system cancer (RSC) among workers from the fiberglass and rock/slag wool production plants included in the study that were unexplained by estimated worker exposures to respirable fiber or other agents present in the plants. The present investigation was designed to provide a quantitative estimate of the extent to which the overall excess in RSC mortality observed at the total cohort level among male fiberglass and rock/slag wool workers is a result of the positive confounding effects of cigarette smoking. Because cigarette-smoking data were neither available nor obtainable at the individual level for all members of the fiberglass and rock/slag wool cohorts, we used the "indirect" method to adjust RSC standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) at the group (cohort and plant) level. Our adjustment suggested that cigarette smoking accounts for all of the 7% and 24% excesses in RSC observed, respectively, for the male fiberglass and rock/slag wool cohorts in the latest mortality updates. The same conclusion was reached regardless of which of several alternative formulations were used to adjust local rate-based RSC SMRs. We found that our smoking adjustments were robust with respect to several alternative characterizations and (with the exception of one fiberglass plant) produced adjusted RSC SMRs that were lower than their unadjusted counterparts. Further, all statistically significantly elevated unadjusted SMRs were reduced to not statistically significant levels. These results reaffirm that RSC SMRs based on US and local rates must take into account the potential confounding effects of cigarette smoking. They also suggest that the use of local county mortality rate-based SMRs may not

  15. Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Shiby, V K; Mishra, H N

    2013-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L. acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number of more than 10⁶ cfu/g at the time of consumption. Yoghurt is redefined as a probiotic carrier food. Several food powders like yoghurt powder and curd (dahi) powder are manufactured taking into consideration the number of organisms surviving in the product after drying. Such foods, beverages and powders are highly acceptable to consumers because of their flavor and aroma and high nutritive value. Antitumor activity is associated with the cell wall of starter bacteria and so the activity remains even after drying. Other health benefits of fermented milks include prevention of gastrointestinal infections, reduction of serum cholesterol levels and antimutagenic activity. The fermented products are recommended for consumption by lactose intolerant individuals and patients suffering from atherosclerosis. The formulation of fermented dietetic preparations and special products is an expanding research area. The health benefits, the technology of production of fermented milks and the kinetics of lactic acid fermentation in dairy products are reviewed here.

  16. Oral intake of added titanium dioxide and its nanofraction from food products, food supplements and toothpaste by the Dutch population.

    PubMed

    Rompelberg, Cathy; Heringa, Minne B; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Drijvers, José; Roos, Agnes; Westenbrink, Susanne; Peters, Ruud; van Bemmel, Greet; Brand, Walter; Oomen, Agnes G

    2016-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is commonly applied to enhance the white colour and brightness of food products. TiO2 is also used as white pigment in other products such as toothpaste. A small fraction of the pigment is known to be present as nanoparticles (NPs). Recent studies with TiO2 NPs indicate that these particles can have toxic effects. In this paper, we aimed to estimate the oral intake of TiO2 and its NPs from food, food supplements and toothpaste in the Dutch population aged 2 to over 70 years by combining data on food consumption and supplement intake with concentrations of Ti and TiO2 NPs in food products and supplements. For children aged 2-6 years, additional intake via ingestion of toothpaste was estimated. The mean long-term intake to TiO2 ranges from 0.06 mg/kg bw/day in elderly (70+), 0.17 mg/kg bw/day for 7-69-year-old people, to 0.67 mg/kg bw/day in children (2-6 year old). The estimated mean intake of TiO2 NPs ranges from 0.19 μg/kg bw/day in elderly, 0.55 μg/kg bw/day for 7-69-year-old people, to 2.16 μg/kg bw/day in young children. Ninety-fifth percentile (P95) values are 0.74, 1.61 and 4.16 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. The products contributing most to the TiO2 intake are toothpaste (in young children only), candy, coffee creamer, fine bakery wares and sauces. In a separate publication, the results are used to evaluate whether the presence of TiO2 NPs in these products can pose a human health risk.

  17. Nutrition Recommendations and the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative’s 2014 Approved Food and Beverage Product List

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    We compare the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative’s (CFBAI’s) April 2014 list of food and beverage products approved to be advertised on children’s television programs with the federal Interagency Working Group’s nutrition recommendations for such advertised products. Products were assessed by using the nutrients to limit (saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium) component of the Interagency Working Group’s recommendations. Fifty-three percent of the listed products did not meet the nutrition recommendations and, therefore, were ineligible to be advertised. We recommend continued monitoring of food and beverage products marketed to children. PMID:25906434

  18. [Costs and benefits of smoking].

    PubMed

    Polder, J J; van Gils, P F; Kok, L; Talhout, R; Feenstra, T L

    2017-01-01

    - Two recent societal cost-benefit analyses have documented the costs of smoking and the cost-effectiveness of preventing smoking.- Smoking costs the Netherlands society EUR 33 billion per year.- The majority of this is the monetary value of health loss; these are "soft" euros that cannot be re-spent.- There is not a great deal of difference between costs and benefits when expressed in "hard" euros, which means that there is no clear business case for anti-smoking policy.- The greatest benefit of discouraging smoking is improved health for the individual and increased productivity for the business sector; however, the benefits cannot be easily realised, because even in the most favourable scenario the number of smokers will decrease slowly.- Excise duties seem to offer the most promising avenue for combating smoking. The benefits of anti-smoking policy, therefore, consist mainly of tax revenues for the government.- Stringent policy is required to transform tax revenues into health gains.

  19. Marketing nutrition & health-related benefits of food & beverage products: enforcement, litigation & liability issues.

    PubMed

    Roller, Sarah; Pippins, Raqiyyah

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the liability risks associated with food and beverage product marketing have increased significantly, particularly with respect to nutrition and health-related product benefit claims. FDA and FTC enforcement priorities appear to have contributed to the increasing liability trends that are associated with these nutrition and health-related claims. This article examines key enforcement and litigation developments involving conventional food and beverage product marketing claims during the first 18 months of President Obama's administration: Part I considers FDA enforcement priorities and recent warning letters; Part II considers FTC enforcement priorities, warning letters, and consent orders; and Part III considers the relationship between FDA and FTC enforcement priorities and recent false advertising cases brought by private parties challenging nutrition and health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products. The article makes recommendations concerning ways in which food and beverage companies can help minimize liability risks associated with health-related marketing claims. In addition, the article suggests that federal policy reforms may be required to counter the perverse chilling effects current food liability trends appear to be having on health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products, and proposes a number of specific reforms that would help encourage the responsible use of well-substantiated marketing claims that can help foster healthy dietary practices. In view of the obesity prevention and other diet-related public health priorities of the Obama administration, the article suggests that this is an opportune time to address the apparent chilling effects increasing food liability risks are having on nutrition and health-related marketing claims for healthy food and beverage products, and potential adverse consequences for public health.

  20. Effects of a Possible Pollinator Crisis on Food Crop Production in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Cássio A.; Santos, Natália B.; D`Amico, Ana R.; Fernandes, G. Wilson; Quesada, Maurício; Braga, Rodrigo F.; Neves, Ana Carolina O.

    2016-01-01

    Animal pollinators contribute to human food production and security thereby ensuring an important component of human well-being. The recent decline of these agents in Europe and North America has aroused the concern of a potential global pollinator crisis. In order to prioritize efforts for pollinator conservation, we evaluated the extent to which food production depends on animal pollinators in Brazil—one of the world’s agriculture leaders—by comparing cultivated area, produced volume and yield value of major food crops that are pollinator dependent with those that are pollinator non-dependent. In addition, we valued the ecosystem service of pollination based on the degree of pollinator dependence of each crop and the consequence of a decline in food production to the Brazilian Gross Domestic Product and Brazilian food security. A total of 68% of the 53 major food crops in Brazil depend to some degree on animals for pollination. Pollinator non-dependent crops produce a greater volume of food, mainly because of the high production of sugarcane, but the cultivated area and monetary value of pollinator dependent crops are higher (59% of total cultivated area and 68% of monetary value). The loss of pollination services for 29 of the major food crops would reduce production by 16.55–51 million tons, which would amount to 4.86–14.56 billion dollars/year, and reduce the agricultural contribution to the Brazilian GDP by 6.46%– 19.36%. These impacts would be largely absorbed by family farmers, which represent 74.4% of the agricultural labor force in Brazil. The main effects of a pollinator crisis in Brazil would be felt by the poorer and more rural classes due to their lower income and direct or exclusive dependence on this ecosystem service. PMID:27902787

  1. Declining Global Per Capita Agricultural Production and Warming Oceans Threaten Food Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Chris C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that was grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be controlled by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices, and policies. In this paper we discuss several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia, and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14 percent between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21 st century food availability by disrupting Indian Ocean moisture transports and tilting the 21 st century climate toward a more El Nino-like state. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced main growing season rainfall along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, we present an analysis of

  2. Declining global per capita agricultural production and warming oceans threaten food security

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that is grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be determined by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices and policies. This paper discusses several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14% between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21st century food availability in some countries by disrupting moisture transports and bringing down dry air over crop growing areas. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced rainfall during the main growing season along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, this study presents an analysis of emerging

  3. Effects of a Possible Pollinator Crisis on Food Crop Production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Novais, Samuel M A; Nunes, Cássio A; Santos, Natália B; D Amico, Ana R; Fernandes, G Wilson; Quesada, Maurício; Braga, Rodrigo F; Neves, Ana Carolina O

    2016-01-01

    Animal pollinators contribute to human food production and security thereby ensuring an important component of human well-being. The recent decline of these agents in Europe and North America has aroused the concern of a potential global pollinator crisis. In order to prioritize efforts for pollinator conservation, we evaluated the extent to which food production depends on animal pollinators in Brazil-one of the world's agriculture leaders-by comparing cultivated area, produced volume and yield value of major food crops that are pollinator dependent with those that are pollinator non-dependent. In addition, we valued the ecosystem service of pollination based on the degree of pollinator dependence of each crop and the consequence of a decline in food production to the Brazilian Gross Domestic Product and Brazilian food security. A total of 68% of the 53 major food crops in Brazil depend to some degree on animals for pollination. Pollinator non-dependent crops produce a greater volume of food, mainly because of the high production of sugarcane, but the cultivated area and monetary value of pollinator dependent crops are higher (59% of total cultivated area and 68% of monetary value). The loss of pollination services for 29 of the major food crops would reduce production by 16.55-51 million tons, which would amount to 4.86-14.56 billion dollars/year, and reduce the agricultural contribution to the Brazilian GDP by 6.46%- 19.36%. These impacts would be largely absorbed by family farmers, which represent 74.4% of the agricultural labor force in Brazil. The main effects of a pollinator crisis in Brazil would be felt by the poorer and more rural classes due to their lower income and direct or exclusive dependence on this ecosystem service.

  4. 77 FR 52744 - Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. The Food and Drug Administration's...

  5. 78 FR 51732 - The Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and...

  6. 75 FR 79320 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic Compounds in Food-Producing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 500 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic Compounds in Food-Producing Animals AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... regulations regarding compounds of carcinogenic concern used in food-producing animals. Specifically,...

  7. Oxidative stress and anxiety-like symptoms related to withdrawal of passive cigarette smoke in mice: beneficial effects of pecan nut shells extract, a by-product of the nut industry.

    PubMed

    Reckziegel, P; Boufleur, N; Barcelos, R C S; Benvegnú, D M; Pase, C S; Muller, L G; Teixeira, A M; Zanella, R; Prado, A C P; Fett, R; Block, J M; Burger, M E

    2011-09-01

    The present study evaluated the role of pecan nut (Carya illinoensis) shells aqueous extract (AE) against oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) and behavioral parameters of smoking withdrawal. Mice were passively exposed to cigarette smoke for 3 weeks (6, 10, and 14 cigarettes/day) and orally treated with AE (25 g/L). CSE induced lipid peroxidation in brain and red blood cells (RBC), increased catalase (CAT) activity in RBC, and decreased plasma ascorbic acid levels. AE prevented oxidative damage and increased antioxidant defenses of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. In addition, AE reduced the locomotor activity and anxiety symptoms induced by smoking withdrawal, and these behavioral parameters showed a positive correlation with RBC lipid peroxidation. Our results showed the beneficial effects of this by-product of the pecan industry, indicating its usefulness in smoking cessation.

  8. Batch dark fermentation from enzymatic hydrolyzed food waste for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Ye, Min; Zhu, Ai Jun; Zhao, Hong Ting; Li, Yong Feng

    2015-09-01

    A combination bioprocess of solid-state fermentation (SSF) and dark fermentative hydrogen production from food waste was developed. Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae were utilized in SSF from food waste to generate glucoamylase and protease which were used to hydrolyze the food waste suspension to get the nutrients-rich (glucose and free amino nitrogen (FAN)) hydrolysate. Both glucose and FAN increased with increasing of food waste mass ratio from 4% to 10% (w/v) and the highest glucose (36.9 g/L) and FAN (361.3mg/L) were observed at food waste mass ratio of 10%. The food waste hydrolysates were then used as the feedstock for dark fermentative hydrogen production by heat pretreated sludge. The best hydrogen yield of 39.14 ml H2/g food waste (219.91 ml H2/VSadded) was achieved at food waste mass ratio of 4%. The proposed combination bioprocess could effectively accelerate the hydrolysis rate, improve raw material utilization and enhance hydrogen yield.

  9. Consumer choice: Linking consumer intentions to actual purchase of GM labeled food products.

    PubMed

    Sleenhoff, Susanne; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    With a mandatory labeling scheme for GM food in Europe since 2004 measuring actual consumer choice in practice has become possible. Anticipating Europeans negative attitude toward GM food, the labeling was enforced to allow consumers to make an informed choice. We studied consumers actual purchase behavior of GM food products and compared this with their attitude and behavioral intention for buying GM food. We found that despite a majority of consumers voicing a negative attitude toward GM food over 50% of our European respondents stated that they did not actively avoid the purchase of GM food and 6% actually purchased one of the few available GM labeled food products in the period between September 2006 and October 2007. Our results imply that a voiced negative attitude of consumers in responses to questionnaires about their intentions is not a reliable guide for what they actually do in supermarkets. We conclude that the assumption of a negative attitude with regard to GM food is at least in part construed.

  10. A survey of the reformulation of Australian child-oriented food products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is one of the most pressing public health challenges of the 21st century. Reformulating commonly eaten food products is a key emerging strategy to improve the food supply and help address rising rates of obesity and chronic disease. This study aimed to monitor reformulation of Australian child-oriented food products (products marketed specifically to children) from 2009–2011. Methods In 2009, all child-oriented food products in a large supermarket in metropolitan Adelaide were identified. These baseline products were followed up in 2011 to identify products still available for sale. Nutrient content data were collected from Nutrient Information Panels in 2009 and 2011. Absolute and percentage change in nutrient content were calculated for energy, total fat, saturated fat, sugars, sodium and fibre. Data were descriptively analysed to examine reformulation in individual products, in key nutrients, within product categories and across all products. Two methods were used to assess the extent of reformulation; the first involved assessing percentage change in single nutrients over time, while the second involved a set of nutrient criteria to assess changes in overall healthiness of products over time. Results Of 120 products, 40 remained unchanged in nutrient composition from 2009–2011 and 80 underwent change. The proportions of positively and negatively reformulated products were similar for most nutrients surveyed, with the exception of sodium. Eighteen products (15%) were simultaneously positively and negatively reformulated for different nutrients. Using percentage change in nutrient content to assess extent of reformulation, nearly half (n = 53) of all products were at least moderately reformulated and just over one third (n = 42) were substantially reformulated. The nutrient criteria method revealed 5 products (6%) that were positively reformulated and none that had undergone negative reformulation. Conclusion Positive and

  11. Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Maya R.; Douglas, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    The food systems slated for future NASA missions must meet crew nutritional needs, be acceptable for consumption, and use resources efficiently. Although the current food system of prepackaged, moderately stabilized food items works well for International Space Station (ISS) missions, many of the current space menu items do not maintain acceptability and/or nutritive value beyond 2 years. Longer space missions require that the food system can sustain the crew for 3 to 5 years without replenishment. The task "Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization" has the objective of optimizing food-product shelf life for the space-food system through product recipe adjustments, new packaging and processing technologies, and modified storage conditions. Two emergent food processing technologies were examined to identify a pathway to stable, wet-pack foods without the detrimental color and texture effects. Both microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pressure-assisted thermal stabilization (PATS) were evaluated against traditional retort processing to determine if lower heat inputs during processing would produce a product with higher micronutrient quality and longer shelf life. While MATS products did have brighter color and better texture initially, the advantages were not sustained. The non-metallized packaging film used in the process likely provided inadequate oxygen barrier. No difference in vitamin stability was evident between MATS and retort processed foods. Similarly, fruit products produced using PATS showed improved color and texture through 3 years of storage compared to retort fruit, but the vitamin stability was not improved. The final processing study involved freeze drying. Five processing factors were tested in factorial design to assess potential impact of each to the quality of freeze-dried food, including the integrity of the microstructure. The initial freezing rate and primary freeze drying

  12. Trends in greenhouse gas emissions from consumption and production of animal food products - implications for long-term climate targets.

    PubMed

    Cederberg, C; Hedenus, F; Wirsenius, S; Sonesson, U

    2013-02-01

    To analyse trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and consumption of animal products in Sweden, life cycle emissions were calculated for the average production of pork, chicken meat, beef, dairy and eggs in 1990 and 2005. The calculated average emissions were used together with food consumption statistics and literature data on imported products to estimate trends in per capita emissions from animal food consumption. Total life cycle emissions from the Swedish livestock production were around 8.5 Mt carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) in 1990 and emissions decreased to 7.3 Mt CO2e in 2005 (14% reduction). Around two-thirds of the emission cut was explained by more efficient production (less GHG emission per product unit) and one-third was due to a reduced animal production. The average GHG emissions per product unit until the farm-gate were reduced by 20% for dairy, 15% for pork and 23% for chicken meat, unchanged for eggs and increased by 10% for beef. A larger share of the average beef was produced from suckler cows in cow-calf systems in 2005 due to the decreasing dairy cow herd, which explains the increased emissions for the average beef in 2005. The overall emission cuts from the livestock sector were a result of several measures taken in farm production, for example increased milk yield per cow, lowered use of synthetic nitrogen fertilisers in grasslands, reduced losses of ammonia from manure and a switch to biofuels for heating in chicken houses. In contrast to production, total GHG emissions from the Swedish consumption of animal products increased by around 22% between 1990 and 2005. This was explained by strong growth in meat consumption based mainly on imports, where growth in beef consumption especially was responsible for most emission increase over the 15-year period. Swedish GHG emissions caused by consumption of animal products reached around 1.1 t CO2e per capita in 2005. The emission cuts necessary for meeting a global temperature

  13. [Food supplements on the Hungarian market: regulations of marketing and of the composition of the products].

    PubMed

    Lugasi, Andrea; Horacsek, Márta; Martos, Eva

    2010-09-26

    According to recent legislation, food supplements are foodstuffs with the purpose of supplementing normal diet. Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and other substances with a physiological or nutritional effect. In Hungary, marketing of food supplements has not been bound to pre-market authorization since joining to the European Union. The food business operator, who is responsible for production or distribution of the product, must notify it at National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science latest at the time when the product has been placed on the market and it can be distributed simultaneously. Distribution, ingredients, and all those information which appear on the label are determined by numerous regulations and prescriptions but at the same time the lack of harmonized legislation at certain places may cause a lot of problems on Community level. The first part of the study shows the laws and regulations influencing the distribution and ingredients of food supplements, while the main target of the second part is to introduce the evaluation process of components from nutritional and physiological point of view, and the role played by the food supplements in nutrition.

  14. Intra-oral lactic acid production during clearance of different foods containing various carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Linke, H A; Moss, S J; Arav, L; Chiu, P M

    1997-06-01

    Oral carbohydrate clearance and acid production were monitored over a two hour time period following the ingestion of six foods (chocolate bar, potato chip, oreo cookie, sugar cube, raisin and jelly bean). Each food was evaluated intra-orally in eight volunteers. Oral fluid samples were obtained from each volunteer at 30 min intervals at five different tooth sites using absorbent paper points. The oral fluid samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively for carbohydrates and organic acids using high performance liquid chromatography. Data obtained for each food were averaged and subjected to statistical analysis. The quantity of lactic acid produced 30 min after ingestion was found to be in the following order: (highest) raisin > chocolate bar > sugar cube > jelly bean > oreo cookie > potato chip (least). Two hours after food intake the order had changed significantly: potato chip > jelly bean > sugar cube > chocolate bar > oreo cookie > raisin. A direct linear relationship existed between lactic acid production and the presence of glucose. In foods containing cooked starch prolonged clearance occurs via the intermediate metabolites maltotriose, maltose and glucose. Results indicated that the term 'stickiness', when used to label certain foods such as jelly bean and chocolate bar, should be used cautiously. Foods containing only cooked starch or cooked starch and sugars can be considered as 'sticky', since glucose arising from their intra-oral degradation contributed to acid production over prolonged periods of time.

  15. Fermented and malted millet products in Africa: Expedition from traditional/ethnic foods to industrial value added products.

    PubMed

    Adebiyi, J A; Obadina, A O; Adebo, O A; Kayitesi, E

    2016-05-31

    With the prevalent food insecurity in Africa, there is a growing need to utilize the available crops to develop nutritious, affordable and palatable food for the populace. Millet is critical in this role, relative to its abundance in the continent and good nutritional composition. For ages, fermentation and malting have been traditionally used to transform millet into variety of produce. A paradigm shift has however occurred over the years, giving birth to new commercially available products. This review thus appraises and gives an overview of traditional and modern fermented and malted products. Although, millet has been diversified to several products, its major food uses are still restrained to traditional consumers and largely remains underutilized. Considering the potential embedded in this grain, it is important to explore this crop through the application of appropriate modern fermentation and malting technologies. This will ensure the availability of ready to eat (RTE) and ready to use (RTU) food products and to a large extent address the incessant food security challenges plaguing Africa.

  16. Growth of Carnobacterium divergens V41 and production of biogenic amines and divercin V41 in sterile cold-smoked salmon extract at varying temperatures, NaCl levels, and glucose concentrations.

    PubMed

    Connil, Nathalie; Plissoneau, Léon; Onno, Bernard; Pilet, Marie-France; Prévost, Hervé; Dousset, Xavier

    2002-02-01

    A complete factorial design 2(3) was used to study some aspects of Carnobacterium divergens V41 metabolism (growth, biogenic amine production, and divercin V41 production) in sterile cold-smoked salmon extract (SSE) at varying temperatures (3 to 9 degrees C), NaCl levels (2.5 to 6.5%), and glucose concentrations (2 to 6 g liter(-1)). The results showed that temperature and NaCl content were the most influential factors on growth parameters in SSE. Predictive models are suggested for the assessment of C. divergens lag time (t(lag)) and maximum specific growth rate (micro(max)) Among the biogenic amines studied, only tyramine was found to be produced by C. divergens in SSE. Furthermore, we showed that temperature, NaCl, and glucose variations did not greatly affect tyramine and divercin V41 production by the bacteria under the experimental conditions used. Indeed, divercin V41, a bacteriocin from C. divergens V41 that is highly active against some Listeria strains, was produced in SSE even under harsh culture conditions. Similarly, tyramine production in SSE was delayed at 3 degrees C but reached 35 microg ml(-1) in all experiments after 27 days of storage. However, this final tyramine concentration in SSE is low compared with the threshold values of 100 to 800 microg g(-1) reported as the potentially toxic dose in foods. Thus, we have found that C. divergens V41 is a promising strain for the biopreservation of refrigerated cold-smoked salmon.

  17. [Basal state of the nutritional information declared in labels of foods products marketed in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Metzler, A; Roselló-Araya, M; Núñez-Rivas, H P

    2011-03-01

    The nutritional labeling regulations for prepackaged foods based on the Codex Alimentarius legislation enacted in 2002 in Costa Rica. In the same year, a research was conducted in order to describe the baseline of nutritional labeling. The declared information on the labels of all prepackaged foods was collected, except for alcoholic beverages. Six variables were analyzed using SPSS. 2,910 labels of foods were reviewed and classified in 19 food categories. 58.4% (n = 1698) included nutritional information, proportion that varied by country of origin and food category. Of the labels that included nutritional information, 68.1% had nutritional panel, 1.2% nutrient claims and 27.4%, both. 95% of the nutritional components declared on the labels included energy and macronutrients data. At least 100 different nutritional and health claims were identified. Most frequently used claims were content (74.7%), followed by addition (16.9%). The components most frequently mentioned were vitamins and minerals, vitamins (alone), carbohydrates, total fat, cholesterol and energy. Food groups who reported these descriptors were: cereals and by products, baby foods, milks, beverages, foods for special dietary uses and substitutes. One to five descriptors were used in a label. In a decade the proportion of prepackaged foods with nutritional labeling tripled in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica. It is concluded that the tendency of nutrition information declaration is up, sustained and represents an accessible tool for health promotion, if the information provided is reliable and secure.

  18. Clam predator protection is effective and necessary for food production.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Daphne; Kraeuter, John; Beal, Brian; Chew, Ken; Luckenbach, Mark; Peterson, Charles P

    2015-11-15

    Shellfish aquaculture is a widely practiced way of producing food for human consumption in coastal areas. When farming intertidal clams, farmers commonly protect young seedling clams from predatory losses by covering farmed plots with netting or screening. Recent discussion of the effectiveness of protective nets or screens and their environmental effects has raised questions concerning the utility of the practice. We provide data based on a review of more than 35 peer-reviewed articles, as well as our own research that demonstrates the efficacy of predator protection for clam farms in various habitats around the world. In addition, we evaluate the effects of screening on temperature, and comment on ancient practices of clam gardening as conducted in the Pacific Northwest.

  19. Modeling the water-satisfied degree for production of the main food crops in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guangming; Yang, Yumeng; Tu, Zhenfa; Jie, Yi; Yu, Qiwu; Hu, Xiaoyan; Yu, Hailong; Zhou, Ruirui; Chen, Xiaoxu; Wang, Hongzhi

    2016-03-15

    Water resources are one of the important factors that influence regional crop production and the food security of humans. Most traditional models of crop water demand analysis are built on the basis of a certain crop or macroscopic analysis, which neglect regional crop allocation and the difference of water demand in different crop growing periods. In this paper, a new assessing model, the satisfied degree of crop water requirement, is developed to assess the impacts of water resources on production of six main food crops in China. The six main food crops are spring wheat, winter wheat, corn, early season rice, middle-season rice and late rice. The results show that: (1) there are serious risks of water shortage in China, even in south China with its abundant precipitation; (2) the satisfied degree of crop water demand represents great temporal-spatial changes. On spatial distribution the risks are high in major bases of food production due to influences of cropping system and crop-combinations. Northwest China is a special interesting case. In seasonal fluctuation water shortage is severe in March and September. These risks seriously restrict food production in China. The results also show that the strategic measures of water resources management must be chosen carefully to deal with food security and regional sustainable development in China.

  20. Machine vision system: a tool for quality inspection of food and agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krishna Kumar; Kar, A; Jha, S N; Khan, M A

    2012-04-01

    Quality inspection of food and agricultural produce are difficult and labor intensive. Simultaneously, with increased expectations for food products of high quality and safety standards, the need for accurate, fast and objective quality determination of these characteristics in food products continues to grow. However, these operations generally in India are manual which is costly as well as unreliable because human decision in identifying quality factors such as appearance, flavor, nutrient, texture, etc., is inconsistent, subjective and slow. Machine vision provides one alternative for an automated, non-destructive and cost-effective technique to accomplish these requirements. This inspection approach based on image analysis and processing has found a variety of different applications in the food industry. Considerable research has highlighted its potential for the inspection and grading of fruits and vegetables, grain quality and characteristic examination and quality evaluation of other food products like bakery products, pizza, cheese, and noodles etc. The objective of this paper is to provide in depth introduction of machine vision system, its components and recent work reported on food and agricultural produce.

  1. Safety assessments and public concern for genetically modified food products: the American view.

    PubMed

    Harlander, Susan K

    2002-01-01

    In the relatively short time since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been rapidly adopted in the United States GM crops are regulated through a coordinated framework developed in 1992 and administered by three agencies-the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) that ensures the products are safe to grow, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that ensures the products are safe for the environment, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that ensures the products are safe to eat. Rigorous food and environmental safety assessments must be completed before GM crops can be commercialized. Fifty-one products have been reviewed by the FDA, including several varieties of corn, soybeans, canola, cotton, rice, sugar beets, potatoes, tomatoes, squash, papaya, and flax. Because FDA considers these crops "substantially equivalent" to their conventional counterparts, no special labeling is required for GM crops in the United States and they are managed as commodities with no segregation or identity preservation. GM crops have thus made their way through commodity distribution channels into thousands of ingredients used in processed foods. It has been estimated that 70% to 85% of processed foods on supermarket shelves in the United States today contain one or more ingredients potentially derived from GM crops. The food industry and retail industry have been monitoring the opinions of their consumers on the GM issue for the past several years. Numerous independent groups have also surveyed consumer concerns about GM foods. The results of these surveys are shared and discussed here.

  2. Soil health for improved food securities: natural ecosystems, row crop, and livestock production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent environmental and ecological awareness has resulted in consideration of soil as more than just a medium for root growth and livestock production. In order to meet the expected growing world population and subsequent food production demands, producers are reevaluating traditional management sy...

  3. New value-added food ingredients from maize based ethanol processing by-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some potentially useful food and health-promoting products were obtained from the by-products of ethanol processing including distillers dried grains (DDG) and maize bran. A DDG sample obtained from MCP Corporation in the USA was processed by jet cooking at various pH levels and fractionated. Rheo...

  4. Determination of seven certified color additives in food products using liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Harp, Bhakti Petigara; Miranda-Bermudez, Enio; Barrows, Julie N

    2013-04-17

    This study describes a new method for determining FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Blue No. 2, FD&C Green No. 3, FD&C Red No. 3, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 5, and FD&C Yellow No. 6 in food products. These seven color additives are water-soluble dyes that are required to be batch certified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they may be used in food and other FDA-regulated products. In the new method, the color additives are extracted from a product using one of two procedures developed for various product types, isolated from the noncolored components, and analyzed by liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The method was validated by determining linearity, range, precision, recovery from various matrices, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and relative standard deviation for each color additive. A survey of 44 food products, including beverages, frozen treats, powder mixes, gelatin products, candies, icings, jellies, spices, dressings, sauces, baked goods, and dairy products, found total color additives ranging from 1.9 to 1221 mg/kg. FDA intends to use the new method for conducting a rigorous, comprehensive dietary exposure assessment of certified color additives in products likely to be consumed by children.

  5. Utilisation of Corn (Zea mays) Bran and Corn Fiber in the Production of Food Components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past decade, the demand for ethanol has increased dramatically. Demand for other products of corn milling, such as starches and sweeteners, is also expected to increase. With the increase in demand for industrial and food use of corn, the production of byproducts, such as corn fiber, corn...

  6. Farmland assemblages and the geography of food production in Northern New England

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluating geospatial distributions of crop production systems within ecoregions is essential to resolving core issues of sustainability for local to regional food supply studies and modeling potential productivity as climate variability increases. The main objectives of this GIS-based investigation...

  7. The Chemistry of Self-Heating Food Products: An Activity for Classroom Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Pinto, Gabriel; Llorens-Molina, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Two commercial self-heating food products have been used to apply chemical concepts such as stoichiometry, enthalpies of reactions and solutions, and heat transfer in a classroom activity. These products are the self-heating beverages sold in Europe and the Meals, Ready to Eat or MREs used primarily by the military in the United States. The main…

  8. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an amendment published at...

  9. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  10. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  11. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an amendment published at...

  12. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall...

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural food production to supply Indian diets: Implications for climate change mitigation.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Sylvia H; Sapkota, Tek B; Hillier, Jon; Stirling, Clare M; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Aleksandrowicz, Lukasz; Green, Rosemary; Joy, Edward J M; Dangour, Alan D; Smith, Pete

    2017-01-16

    Agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. The growing global population is putting pressure on agricultural production systems that aim to secure food production while minimising GHG emissions. In this study, the GHG emissions associated with the production of major food commodities in India are calculated using the Cool Farm Tool. GHG emissions, based on farm management for major crops (including cereals like wheat and rice, pulses, potatoes, fruits and vegetables) and livestock-based products (milk, eggs, chicken and mutton meat), are quantified and compared. Livestock and rice production were found to be the main sources of GHG emissions in Indian agriculture with a country average of 5.65 kg CO2eq kg(-1) rice, 45.54 kg CO2eq kg(-1) mutton meat and 2.4 kg CO2eq kg(-1) milk. Production of cereals (except rice), fruits and vegetables in India emits comparatively less GHGs with <1 kg CO2eq kg(-1) product. These findings suggest that a shift towards dietary patterns with greater consumption of animal source foods could greatly increase GHG emissions from Indian agriculture. A range of mitigation options are available that could reduce emissions from current levels and may be compatible with increased future food production and consumption demands in India.

  14. Asymmetric impact of rainfall on India's food grain production: evidence from quantile autoregressive distributed lag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Debdatta; Mitra, Subrata Kumar

    2016-10-01

    This study used a quantile autoregressive distributed lag (QARDL) model to capture asymmetric impact of rainfall on food production in India. It was found that the coefficient corresponding to the rainfall in the QARDL increased till the 75th quantile and started decreasing thereafter, though it remained in the positive territory. Another interesting finding is that at the 90th quantile and above the coefficients of rainfall though remained positive was not statistically significant and therefore, the benefit of high rainfall on crop production was not conclusive. However, the impact of other determinants, such as fertilizer and pesticide consumption, is quite uniform over the whole range of the distribution of food grain production.

  15. Human contact imagined during the production process increases food naturalness perceptions.

    PubMed

    Abouab, Nathalie; Gomez, Pierrick

    2015-08-01

    It is well established that food processing and naturalness are not good friends, but is food processing always detrimental to naturalness? Building on the contagion principle, this research examines how production mode (handmade vs. machine-made) influences naturalness perceptions. In a pilot study (n = 69) and an experiment (n = 133), we found that compared with both a baseline condition and a condition in which the mode of production process was portrayed as machine-made, a handmade production mode increases naturalness ratings of a grape juice. A mediation analysis demonstrates that these effects result from higher perceived human contact suggesting that the production process may preserve food naturalness when humanized.

  16. Global harmonization of food safety regulation from the perspective of Korea and a novel fast automatic product recall system.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Mun-Gi; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-08-01

    Efforts have been made for global harmonization of food safety regulations among countries through international organizations such as WTO and WHO/FAO. Global harmonization of food safety regulations is becoming increasingly important for Korean consumers because more than half of food and agricultural products are imported and consumed. Through recent reorganization of the Korean government, a consolidated national food safety authority-the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS)-has been established for more efficient food safety control and better communication with consumers. The Automatic Sales Blocking System (ASBS), which blocks the sales of the recalled food products at the point of sale, has been implemented at over 40,000 retail food stores around the nation using state-of-the art information and communication technology (ICT) for faster recall of adulterated food products, and the e-Food Safety Control System has been developed for more efficient monitoring of national food safety surveillance situations. The National Food Safety Information Service was also established for monitoring and collecting food safety information and incidents worldwide, and shares relevant information with all stakeholders. The new approaches adopted by the Korean Food Safety Authority are expected to enhance public trust with regard to food safety issues and expedite the recall process of adulterated products from the market.

  17. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay gliadin assessment in processed food products available for persons with celiac disease: a feasibility study for developing a gluten-free food database.

    PubMed

    Agakidis, Charalampos; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Kalaitsidou, Marina; Papadopoulos, Theodoros; Savvidou, Afroditi; Daskalou, Efstratia; Dimitrios, Triantafyllou

    2011-12-01

    Inappropriate food labeling and unwillingness of food companies to officially register their own gluten-free products in the Greek National Food Intolerance Database (NFID) result in a limited range of processed food products available for persons with celiac disease (CDP). The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of developing a gluten-free food product database based on the assessment of the gluten content in processed foods available for CDP. Gluten was assessed in 41 processed food products available for CDP. Group A consisted of 26 products for CDP included in the NFID, and group B contained 15 food products for CDP not registered in the NFID but listed in the safe lists of the local Celiac Association (CA). High-sensitivity ω-gliadin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for analysis. Gluten was lower than 20 ppm in 37 of 41 analyzed products (90.2%): in 24 of 26 (92.3%) products in group A and in 13 of 15 (86.7%) products in group B (P = .61). No significant difference was found between the 2 groups regarding gluten content. No product in either group contained gluten in excess of 100 ppm. Most of the analyzed products included in the Greek NFID or listed in the lists of the local CA, even those not officially labeled "gluten free," can be safely consumed by CDP. The use of commercially available ω-gliadin ELISA is able to identify those products that contain inappropriate levels of gluten, making feasible it to develop an integrated gluten-free processed food database.

  18. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Tamanna, Nahid; Mahmood, Niaz

    2015-01-01

    Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Depending on the way the food is being processed, both beneficial and toxic MRPs can be produced. Therefore, there is a need to understand the different types of MRPs and their positive or negative health effects. In this review we have summarized how food processing effects MRP formation in some of the very common foods.

  19. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Tamanna, Nahid; Mahmood, Niaz

    2015-01-01

    Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Depending on the way the food is being processed, both beneficial and toxic MRPs can be produced. Therefore, there is a need to understand the different types of MRPs and their positive or negative health effects. In this review we have summarized how food processing effects MRP formation in some of the very common foods. PMID:26904661

  20. Update on Smoking Cessation: E-Cigarettes, Emerging Tobacco Products Trends, and New Technology-Based Interventions.

    PubMed

    Das, Smita; Tonelli, Makenzie; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco use disorders (TUDs) continue to be overly represented in patients treated in mental health and addiction treatment settings. It is the most common substance use disorder (SUD) and the leading cause of health disparities and increased morbidity/mortality amongst individuals with a psychiatric disorder. There are seven Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medications and excellent evidence-based psychosocial treatment interventions to use in TUD treatment. In the past few years, access to and use of other tobacco or nicotine emerging products are on the rise, including the highly publicized electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). There has also been a proliferation of technology-based interventions to support standard TUD treatment, including mobile apps and web-based interventions. These tools are easily accessed 24/7 to support outpatient treatment. This update will review the emerging products and counter-measure intervention technologies, including how clinicians can integrate these tools and other community-based resources into their practice.