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Sample records for smolenice castle slovakia

  1. Castle series, 1954. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E.J.; Rowland, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    CASTLE was an atmospheric nuclear weapons test series held in the Marshall Islands at Enewetak and Bikini atolls in 1954. This is a report of DOD peronnel in CASTLE with an emphasis on operations and radiological safety.

  2. When Home Was a Castle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Gail Skroback

    1994-01-01

    Presents middle school-level interdisciplinary activities for exploring medieval life. Students conduct research then create their own castles, design personal coats of arms, learn about jousting, go through a typical castle dweller's day, learn about carousels, discuss castle life from Mark Twain's perspective, and attend a medieval feast. (SM)

  3. When Home Was a Castle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Gail Skroback

    1994-01-01

    Presents middle school-level interdisciplinary activities for exploring medieval life. Students conduct research then create their own castles, design personal coats of arms, learn about jousting, go through a typical castle dweller's day, learn about carousels, discuss castle life from Mark Twain's perspective, and attend a medieval feast. (SM)

  4. Speleothems and Sand Castles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hance, Trevor; Befus, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The idea of building sand castles evokes images of lazy summer days at the beach, listening to waves crash, enjoying salty breezes, and just unplugging for a while to let our inner child explore the wonderful natural toys beneath our feet. The idea of exploring caves might evoke feelings and images of claustrophobia or pioneers and Native…

  5. The Castle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Anderson; David Culler; James Demmel; Jerry Feldman; Susan Graham; Paul Hilfinger; Katherine Yelick

    2000-02-16

    The goal of the Castle project was to provide a parallel programming environment that enables the construction of high performance applications that run portably across many platforms. The authors approach was to design and implement a multilayered architecture, with higher levels building on lower ones to ensure portability, but with care taken not to introduce abstractions that sacrifice performance.

  6. Speleothems and Sand Castles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hance, Trevor; Befus, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The idea of building sand castles evokes images of lazy summer days at the beach, listening to waves crash, enjoying salty breezes, and just unplugging for a while to let our inner child explore the wonderful natural toys beneath our feet. The idea of exploring caves might evoke feelings and images of claustrophobia or pioneers and Native…

  7. International Conference on Quantum Chemical Calculations of NMR and EPR Parameters Held in Castle Smolenice, Slovak Republic on September 14-18 1998

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-21

    France 4. Physics Department, Exact Science Faculty; UNNE, Avda. Libertad 5300, Corrientes, Argentina Abstract We will discuss application of the 4...NATURALES Y AGRIMENSURA. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DEL NORDESTE. AVDA. LIBERTAD 5300 (3400) CORRIENTES, ARGENTINA E-mail address: rhromero~exa.uinne.edu. ar, gaa... Libertad 5500 Florida 32611-8435 3400 Corrientes USA Argentina Phone: +1-352-392-6974 Phone: +54-783-58460 FAX: +1-352-392-8722 FAX: +54-783-23968 bartlett

  8. Carisbrooke Castle. Teachers' Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Rosemary

    Carisbrooke Castle in England, Charles I's prison for nearly a year, is a complex historic site with walls dating from the early 12th century and additions and alterations incorporated over later centuries. This guide may be used by teachers preparing their students for an on-site visit, or as an independent study of an English medieval castle.…

  9. Castles and Inverted Castles: The Work of Marcia J. Bates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Jenna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Theorist Howard D. White has made a call to action for "scientist-poets" to synthesize concepts and oeuvres in the centrifugal literature of information science. In response, this paper interprets the work of canonical information scientist Marcia J. Bates through the original metaphor of "castles and inverted…

  10. Frombork Castle and Nicolas Copernicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogure, Tomokazu

    2004-10-01

    Nicolas Copernicus spent his last half life at Frombork Castle in Poland, where he wrote "On the Revolution of the Celestial Bodies." The author visited Frombork and had a strong impression by his great personality in late Renaissance, not only in astronomy, but also in activities in a wide field of economical, political affaires, renovation of currency.

  11. Dental hygiene in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Luciak-Donsberger, C; Krizanová, M

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on the development of the dental hygiene profession in Slovakia from a global perspective. The aim is to inform about current developments and to examine, how access to qualified dental hygiene care might be improved and how professional challenges might be met. For an international study on dental hygiene, secondary source data were obtained from members of the House of Delegates of the International Federation of Dental Hygienists (IFDH) or by fax and e-mail from experts involved in the national professional and educational organization of dental hygiene in non-IFDH member countries, such as Slovakia. Responses were followed-up by interviews, e-mail correspondence, visits to international universities, and a review of supporting studies and reference literature. Results show that the introduction of dental hygiene in Slovakia in 1992 was inspired by the delivery of preventive care in Switzerland. Initiating local dentists and dental hygienists strive to attain a high educational level, equitable to that of countries in which dental hygiene has an established tradition of high quality care. Low access to qualified dental hygiene care may be a result of insufficient funding for preventive services, social and cultural lack of awareness of the benefits of preventive care, and of limitations inherent in the legal constraints preventing unsupervised dental hygiene practice. These may be a result of gender politics affecting a female-dominated profession and of a perception that dental hygiene is auxiliary to dental care. International comparison show that of all Eastern European countries, the dental hygiene profession appears most advanced in Slovakia. This is expressed in high evidence-based academic goals, in extensive work with international consultants from the Netherlands and Switzerland, in annual congresses of high professional quality, and in the establishment of a profession, which has not been introduced in all Western EU countries.

  12. View of trolley tracks in front of the Castle Shannon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of trolley tracks in front of the Castle Shannon Municipal Building, Castle Shannon, Pennsylvania outbound from Pittsburgh - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, South Hills Junction, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  13. Implications of Using the CASTLE Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosca, Eugene P.; De Jong, Marvin L.

    1993-01-01

    Critiques the Capacitor-Aided System for Teaching and Learning Electricity (CASTLE) curriculum. Criticism is made of the model's use of a compressible-fluid model to demonstrate charge conduction. An alternative model is proposed. (ZWH)

  14. Implications of Using the CASTLE Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosca, Eugene P.; De Jong, Marvin L.

    1993-01-01

    Critiques the Capacitor-Aided System for Teaching and Learning Electricity (CASTLE) curriculum. Criticism is made of the model's use of a compressible-fluid model to demonstrate charge conduction. An alternative model is proposed. (ZWH)

  15. Slovakia: Health System Review.

    PubMed

    Smatana, Martin; Pazitny, Peter; Kandilaki, Daniela; Laktisova, Michaela; Sedlakova, Darina; Paluskova, Monika; van Ginneken, Ewout; Spranger, Anne

    2016-11-01

    This analysis of the Slovak health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The health care system in Slovakia is based on universal coverage, compulsory health insurance, a basic benefit package and a competitive insurance model with selective contracting of health care providers. Containment of health spending became a major policy goal after the 2008 financial crisis. Health spending stabilized after 2010 but remains well below European averages. Some health indicators, such as life expectancy, healthy life years and avoidable deaths are worrisome. Furthermore, weak hospital management, high numbers of unused acute beds, overprescribing pharmaceuticals, and poor gatekeeping of the system all lead to over-utilization of services and system inefficiency. This suggests substantial room for improvement in delivery of care, especially for primary and long-term care. Additionally, there is inequity in the distribution of health providers, resulting in lengthy travelling distances and waiting times for patients. Given the ageing workforce, this trend is likely to continue. Current strategic documents and reform efforts aim to address the lack of efficiency and accountability. There has been a strong will to tackle these challenges but this has often been hindered by a lack of political consensus over issues such as the role of the state, the appropriate role of market mechanisms and profits, as well as the extent of out-of-pocket payments. Successive governments have taken different positions on these issues since the establishment of the current health system in 2002, and major reforms remain to be implemented. World Health Organization 2016 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  16. Slovakia health system review.

    PubMed

    Szalay, Tomás; Pazitný, Peter; Szalayová, Angelika; Frisová, Simona; Morvay, Karol; Petrovic, Marek; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2011-01-01

    facilities and social care facilities. Slovakia has a progressive system of financing health care. However, the health reforms of 2002 to 2006 led to an increase in the number of households that contributed more from their income and the distributive impacts were not equitable. This was mainly caused by the introduction of a reference pricing scheme for pharmaceuticals. Some key challenges remain: improving the health status of the population and the quality of care while securing the future financial sustainability of the system. World Health Organization 2011, on behalf of the European Observatory on health systems and Policies.

  17. Environment, from east, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environment, from east, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road 343 over Bennets Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  18. Environment, from west, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environment, from west, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnermahoning Creek - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  19. Enviroment, from north, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Enviroment, from north, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  20. Enviroment, from southwest, showing Castle Garden Bridge and alignment of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Enviroment, from southwest, showing Castle Garden Bridge and alignment of Township Road 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  1. OPERATION CASTLE. Radiological Safety. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    has •’ ’. /,V been detetmined to be critical military information which could reveal system te^jp-^ - or equipment vulnerabilities and is...V-V Part 11a - Radiologteal Safety • 1. Discussion A temporary washdovn system consisting of hoses and special no’zles connected to the fire...main system , like that used in IVY, was installed by a ’iuShios representative on all manned ships engaged in CASTLE, with the exception of the USS

  2. Cow Castle Creek, Orangeburg County, South Carolina. Environmental Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    woodlands, and drainage features. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Cow Castle Creek Basin is located within the larger Edisto River Basin in Orangeburg...about 47 inches of precipitation per year. Water Quality. Cow Castle Creek lies within the Edisto River drainage basin . The Edisto Basin is located... Edisto River . Several small tributaries enter Cow Castle Creek, adding to its flow during storms and hurricanes. Siltation and extensive litter and log

  3. 5. View of former Castle Street Wye looking East ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of former Castle Street Wye - looking East along Herald Street (formerly Castle Street). To the right is the Massachusetts Turnpike and the tracks of the former B&A R.R. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. Geothermal eel farm in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Thomka, J.; Sarlinova, K.

    1998-12-01

    Turcianske Teplice, a small town in west-central Slovakia, has written records of using thermal waters since 1281. In 1992, an eel raising farm was started on the outskirts of the town and since 1994, it has been operated by the firm of Janex Slovensko. The farm, using a specialized water recirculation system, raises a species of migrating eels (Anguilla anguilla). A 220-meter deep well at 42 C provides 48 gpm to the facility for heating through a plate heat exchanger. This is the maximum flow permitted, so as not to influence the springs and wells at the spa about 1 km away. For this reason, the flow is monitored carefully by the state. A second geothermal well at 52 C and 1,500 meters deep is used only as an observation well. Cold water, which is heated by the geothermal water, is pumped from wells near the Turiec River 1.8 km away at 8 to 12 C, depending upon the season, for use in the various holding or raising tanks. The operation of the farm is described.

  5. The Development of Stereophonic Sound in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezina, Pavol

    2011-11-01

    The development of stereophonic sound in Slovakia in the late sixties had a profound impact on the quality of recorded music in all areas of artificial and non-artificial music and it also played an important role in composing music for radio plays. However, the Czechoslovak Radio in Bratislava was at that time the only technically equipped institute in Slovakia where a stereophonic record could be created. Therefore our research studies have particularly been concerned with examining the archives of this institution as well as the valuable information on implementation of the recordings we have collected through interviews with the former staff of the broadcasting organization. Our research focuses for the first time on the period of the beginnings of stereophonic sound in Slovakia, hence the purpose of this article is to summarize the research results.

  6. CFD: A Castle in the Sand?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Bil; Wood, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The computational simulation community is not routinely publishing independently verifiable tests to accompany new models or algorithms. A survey reveals that only 22% of new models published are accompanied by tests suitable for independently verifying the new model. As the community develops larger codes with increased functionality, and hence increased complexity in terms of the number of building block components and their interactions, it becomes prohibitively expensive for each development group to derive the appropriate tests for each component. Therefore, the computational simulation community is building its collective castle on a very shaky foundation of components with unpublished and unrepeatable verification tests. The computational simulation community needs to begin publishing component level verification tests before the tide of complexity undermines its foundation.

  7. CFD: A Castle in the Sand?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, William L.; Wood, William A.

    2004-01-01

    The computational simulation community is not routinely publishing independently verifiable tests to accompany new models or algorithms. A survey reveals that only 22% of new models published are accompanied by tests suitable for independently verifying the new model. As the community develops larger codes with increased functionality, and hence increased complexity in terms of the number of building block components and their interactions, it becomes prohibitively expensive for each development group to derive the appropriate tests for each component. Therefore, the computational simulation community is building its collective castle on a very shaky foundation of components with unpublished and unrepeatable verification tests. The computational simulation community needs to begin publishing component level verification tests before the tide of complexity undermines its foundation.

  8. Current status of biotechnology in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

    2013-07-01

    The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity defines biotechnology as: 'Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.' In other words biotechnology is 'application of scientific and technical advances in life science to develop commercial products' or briefly 'the use of molecular biology for useful purposes'. This short overview is about different branches of biotechnology carried out in Slovakia and it shows that Slovakia has a good potential for further development of modern biotechnologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Students' Attitudes toward Computer Use in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2008-01-01

    ICT has a very short history in Slovakia. A majority of Slovak schools accessed computers and internet only after 2000. Different financial support and schools' participation in various projects resulted in non-random distribution of computers across Slovakian elementary schools. We examined whether 1) attitudes toward computers could be affected…

  10. Students' Attitudes toward Computer Use in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2008-01-01

    ICT has a very short history in Slovakia. A majority of Slovak schools accessed computers and internet only after 2000. Different financial support and schools' participation in various projects resulted in non-random distribution of computers across Slovakian elementary schools. We examined whether 1) attitudes toward computers could be affected…

  11. The CASTLES Imaging Survey of Gravitational Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, C. Y.; Falco, E. E.; Lehar, J.; Impey, C. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; McLeod, B. A.; Rix, H.-W.

    1997-12-01

    The CASTLES survey (Cfa-Arizona-(H)ST-Lens-Survey) is imaging most known small-separation gravitational lenses (or lens candidates), using the NICMOS camera (mostly H-band) and the WFPC2 (V and I band) on HST. To date nearly half of the IR imaging survey has been completed. The main goals are: (1) to search for lens galaxies where none have been directly detected so far; (2) obtain photometric redshift estimates (VIH) for the lenses where no spectroscopic redshifts exist; (3) study and model the lens galaxies in detail, in part to study the mass distribution within them, in part to identify ``simple" systems that may permit accurate time delay estimates for H_0; (3) measure the M/L evolution of the sample of lens galaxies with look-back time (to z ~ 1); (4) determine directly which fraction of sources are lensed by ellipticals vs. spirals. We will present the survey specifications and the images obtained so far.

  12. Internal Indpendent Assessment Report - CASTLE-PX SQA

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, D. M.; Dancy, L. L.; Pope, V. L.

    2015-04-01

    This IIA assessed the flow down of institutional 830 Software Quality Assurance requirements through three required document templates to the CASTLE-PX software effort and the implementation of those SQA requirements. The templates flow down the DOE O 414.1D consensus standard requirements for Safety Software. This assessment did not include the flow down of NAP-24, Weapon Quality Policy, requirements. The assessment focused on the CASTLE-PX project’s software development and release processes. It did not assess Pantex’s acceptance or usage of the software. The assessment resulted in 3 Deficiencies, 5 Observations, 1 Recommendation, and 3 Strengths. Overall the CASTLE-PX team demonstrated it values quality and has worked to integrate quality practices into its software development processes. Improvement in documentation will enhance their SQA implementation.

  13. Smoking habits in university students in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Baska, T; Straka, S; Mad'ar, R

    2000-11-01

    Cigarette smoking has reached the proportion of a global epidemic with particularly devastating consequences in countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Learning of epidemiological aspects of smoking in youngsters, especially university students, is of great importance for the whole community. Goals of the study were mapping smoking habits and identifying other factors of life style including body mass index, alcohol and citrus fruit consumption in non-medical university students in Slovakia. A cross-sectional questionnaire study, including 2,419 respondents, was carried out in students of 5 non-medical faculties in Slovakia from October to December 1997. 19.6% of males and 12.3% of females were regular smokers (min 1 cig/day) and 16.1% of males and 15.1% of females were occasional smokers. From regular smokers 11.5% of males and 13.2% of females started to smoke at the University. Respondents from urban areas smoked more frequently than those from rural areas. Significant association was found between alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking in males. More than a half of respondents consumed less than 1 piece of citrus per day. 15.4% of males were overweight (BMI > or = 25) and 8.5% of females were very underweight (BMI < or = 17.5). In females social smoking prevails and an increasing rate of female-smoking can be expected in Slovakia. There is a need of improving dietary habits of youngsters in Slovakia in favour of the consumption of more fruit and vegetables in both sexes, and in females additional attention should be paid to eating disorders.

  14. GIS coverages of the Castle Mountain Fault, south central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Labay, Keith A.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    The Castle Mountain fault is one of several major east-northeast-striking faults in southern Alaska, and it is the only fault with had historic seismicity and Holocene surface faulting. This report is a digital compilation of three maps along the Castle Mountain fault in south central Alaska. This compilation consists only of GIS coverages of the location of the fault, line attributes indicating the certainty of the fault location, and information about scarp height, where measured. The files are presented in ARC/INFO export file format and include metadata.

  15. Education Inequality in Slovakia: The Effects of Early Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelmanova, Olga; Korsnakova, Paulina; Tramonte, Lucia; Willms, J. Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Like many other countries in Central and Eastern Europe, children in Slovakia are allocated to different types of schools at an early age based upon their perceived aptitude. Part of the selection process includes an attempt to identify those children who are particularly academic-oriented. Primary and secondary education in Slovakia is divided…

  16. Long Ago in a Castle. Young Discovery Library Series: 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farre, Marie

    Part of an international series of amply illustrated, colorful, small size books designed for children ages 5 to 10, this volume describes why and how castles were built during the Middle Ages and what it was like to live in one. Poetry of the period, village life, tournaments, minstrels, games, and descriptions of the lives of children who lived…

  17. Ringling School of Art and Design Builds a CASTLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Yvonne; Davis, Wendy

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development and installation of the Computer Automated Software for the Total Library Environment System (CASTLE), which uses a microcomputer to automate operations of small academic library in six main areas: circulation, online catalog, inventory and file maintenance, audiovisual equipment, accounting, and information and…

  18. Flight Director Robert Castle uses laptop while monitoring space walk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-07

    STS061-S-103 (2-13 DEC 1993) --- Flight director Robert E. Castle uses a lap top computer to aid his busy tasks during one of the five space walks performed to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) temporarily berthed in the Space Shuttle Endeavour's cargo bay. STS-61 lead flight director Milt Heflin is at right edge of frame.

  19. Flight Director Robert Castle uses laptop while monitoring space walk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Flight Director Robert E. Castle uses a laptop computer to aid his busy tasks during one of the five space walks performed to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) temporarily berthed in Endeavour's cargo bay. STS-61 lead Flight Director Milt Heflin is at right edge of frame.

  20. Flood Plain Information, White Clay Creek, New Castle County, Delaware.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-07-01

    forecasting New Castle County Dept. of Planning Flood plains M0 ABSTRACT (Catfze - reverse shf if atce~w ad id*Wnf f by block number) The portion of...5 Other factors and their impacts .. .. .. ... ... ... .... 6 Flood warning and forecasting . .. .. .. ... ... .... 6 Flood...17 Velocities of flow ........ ........................ 18 Rates of rise and duration of flooding ................... 19 Photographs, future

  1. Using Models to Teach Electricity--The CASTLE Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Melvin S.; Wainwright, Camille L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Capacitor-Aided System for Teaching and Learning Electricity (CASTLE) project which is a high school electricity curriculum developed by high school and college physics teachers. The project is motivated by research on students' conceptual difficulties in electricity. The instructional materials developed allow students to challenge…

  2. Flight Director Robert Castle uses laptop while monitoring space walk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Flight Director Robert E. Castle uses a laptop computer to aid his busy tasks during one of the five space walks performed to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) temporarily berthed in Endeavour's cargo bay. STS-61 lead Flight Director Milt Heflin is at right edge of frame.

  3. Using Models to Teach Electricity--The CASTLE Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Melvin S.; Wainwright, Camille L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Capacitor-Aided System for Teaching and Learning Electricity (CASTLE) project which is a high school electricity curriculum developed by high school and college physics teachers. The project is motivated by research on students' conceptual difficulties in electricity. The instructional materials developed allow students to challenge…

  4. Heat waves and warm periods in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faško, Pavel; Bochníček, Oliver; Markovič, Ladislav; Švec, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The scenarios of climate change caused by human activity show that frequency of occurrence and extent of heat waves in the interior of Europe is increasing. Among the most exposed regions in this regard should the area of southeastern and eastern Austria and south-western Slovakia. The relatively faster increase in the number of heat waves in this area is related also to potential desertification in this region just east of the Alps, since during summer, weather fronts advancing from the west are consequently losing their original features and moderating influence. Summer weather patterns for this area should in the future more closely remind climate typical for some inland areas of southwestern, southern and southeastern Europe. A certain shift of climate zones from south to north should thus modify future climate and Slovakia. Despite the complex natural conditions the existing trends derived from results of meteorological measurements and observations are clear and they confirm warming of climate in this region. Observations and measurements in the recent years of the 21st century confirm, that heat waves are no longer rare phenomenon during summer, but are systematically appearing even in colder regions of northern Slovakia. What is very remarkable and will be necessary to pay more attention to, is the fact that these heat waves are expanding into previously unaffected areas, associated with the lack of rainfall and drought, on larger regional scale. In this study heat wave periods and individual heat events and days are statistically identified in the time series characteristics of air temperature at selected meteorological stations for the period from the mid-20th century until 2015, in case of available historical data even for longer period.

  5. Security Research and Safety Aspects in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinay, Juraj

    In 2004 the Slovak Republic joined the European Community. This accession called for changes in the new member state's internal and external processes, as well as the acceptance of the European Community regulatory framework and its implementation in Slovakian national legislation. Even though Slovakia had started with step-by-step integration of specific regulations during accession negotiations, final implementation was only concluded upon admission into the European Community. The process spanned the fields of occupational health and safety (Safety) and civil security (Security), notwithstanding that professionals in these areas had already been working in line with the European legislation.

  6. CASTLE: an advanced technology partnership serving law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoig, Thomas M.

    1997-01-01

    The Center for Applied Science and Technology for Law Enforcement (CASTLE) is supported by the National Institute of Justice Office of Science and Technology and is establishing partnerships with the National Law Enforcement Corrections and Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina. Additionally, CASTLE is working with the American Society of Crime Lab Directors (ASCLD) to direct effective interface with and support of state and local crime laboratories. Extremely sophisticated, often one-of-a-kind, equipment and very-capable scientific expertise are resident at U.S. federal government laboratories and, until recently, have not been applied often to law enforcement problems, particularly at the state and local level. While there have been a number of research and development programs at national laboratories sponsored by agencies such as the National Institute of Justice, most of these have been focused on long-term objectives to meet broad national needs. In discussions with local law enforcement personnel, it is apparent that there are much more immediate technology needs, which are not being addressed by nationwide programs, in fundamental areas including video and audio surveillance, trace and physical evidence sampling, and forensic laboratory analysis. In a pilot program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a significant component of the nation's science and technology resources located in Tennessee, recently made a commitment to support law enforcement where possible with advanced technology. ORNL formed the Center for Applied Science and Technology for Law Enforcement (CASTLE), a partnership of scientific, university, private sector, and law enforcement personnel. The goal of the CASTLE program is to apply technology at the grassroots working level to both solve crimes, to improve safety to law enforcement personnel, and to improve the overall quality of law enforcement services within the United States.

  7. Study of ancient pottery from Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipka, J.; Rausz, J.; Gajdošová, M.; Fusek, G.; Sitek, J.; Hucl, M.

    1990-07-01

    Ancient pottery samples collected from south-west Slovakia were studied through subjective observation and by Mössbauer spectroscopy. This method is convenient for determining the provenance and the manufacture of pottery. Transformations, induced by firing the clay and characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy, give valuable information regarding the manufacture as, for instance, the final temperature of firing in it. The relative abundance of Fe2+ and Fe3+ determines the atmosphere used to fire a pottery. It has been found that the determination of the firing atmosphere obtained through the subjective observation is in good agreement with that obtained using Mössbauer spectroscopy. An unfired and fired clay was also investigated.

  8. Flight directors Castle and Dittemore monitor MCC displays during STS-34

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Flight directors Robert E. Castle, Jr (left) and Ronald D. Dittemore monitor console displays during STS-34 mission. Castle and Dittemore will oversee flight activities from their stations in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 flight control room (FCR). In the background are the FCR large screens which display flight data.

  9. 76 FR 75543 - Castle Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Castle Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... Creek Hydroelectric Project to be located on Castle Creek, near the town of Aspen, Pitkin County, Colorado. The project would affect federal lands administered by the Forest Service. The sole purpose of...

  10. [Trends in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology in Slovakia - an International Comparison].

    PubMed

    Ondrušová, M; Ondruš, D

    According to worldwide estimates, Slovakia is classed as a country with a medium-high incidence of prostate cancer. Current predictions indicate that in the near future prostate cancer will become the most frequent cancer among males in Slovakia. The aims of the study presented in this paper were to analyse trends in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in Slovakia and compare these trends with those in other countries and regions of the world, predict epidemiological indicators of prostate cancer in Slovakia, and provide relevant and updated data for the purposes of further analyses and evaluation of the impacts of interventions. National data were analysed for the period 1968-2009. Trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality were extracted using the joinpoint regression model and are presented with correspoding 95% CI and p values. Predictions of incidence and prevalence were calculated for the years 2014 and 2015, resp. A significant increase in standardized incidence was observed in Slovakia (from 14.5/100,000 in 1980 to 49.0/100,000 in 2009), representing as much as a 6.7% annual percentage change in recent years. The mortality values showed a slower rate of increase, from 9.4/100,000 in 1980 to 13.3/100,000 in 2009, while national mortality of prostate cancer decreased in recent years. These facts have made prostate cancer the most prevalent malignant tumor in males in Slovakia. Unlike in other countries, in Slovakia, no peak in prostate cancer incidence with a subsequent drop is observed. Mortality values reveal a favorable trend in the current national data.Key words: prostate cancer - incidence - mortality - prevalence - clinical stages The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 14. 12. 2016Accepted: 25. 1. 2017.

  11. MOUNT EDDY AND CASTLE CRAGS ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jocelyn A.; Denton, David K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Eddy and Castle Crags Roadless Areas, California, shows probable mineral-resource potential for chromite and gold on the basis of local occurrences of these minerals and favorable geologic environment within the roadless areas. There is also geochemical evidence for mineralization, but surface evidence is scant. Although asbestos and copper minerals are present in the areas and the geologic environment is favorable for nickel and platinum-group metals, no resource potential for these was identified. No energy resources were identified in the study of the roadless areas.

  12. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Várady, M; Königová, A; Corba, J

    2000-12-20

    The present study included 19 stud farms, including 243 horses, that were investigated for the occurrence of anthelmintic resistant cyathostomes. The number of horses on the farms varied from nine to more than 100, and horses of all ages were included. A minimum of seven horses were used for faecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. The anthelmintics included were: fenbendazole (paste formulation), ivermectin (paste formulation) and pyrantel (powder). Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 14 farms, with FECR values ranging from 65.1 to 86.3%. Larval cultures after fenbendazole treatment revealed exclusively cyathostome larvae. Ivermectin was tested on eight farms and proved to be effective on all. Pyrantel was tested on two farms and FECR test indicated high efficacy (92-97%). Egg hatch assay (EHA) results showed that mean concentrations of thiabendazole that inhibited hatching in 50% of the eggs (ED(50)) in resistant populations were over 0.1 microg ml(-1). The results of our study suggest widespread resistance to fenbendazole in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia, and possible strategies to delay anthelmintic resistance are discussed briefly.

  13. Flood Warning and Forecasting System in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskova, Danica

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, it finished project Flood Warning and Forecasting System (POVAPSYS) as part of the flood protection in Slovakia till 2010. The aim was to build POVAPSYS integrated computerized flood forecasting and warning system. It took a qualitatively higher level of output meteorological and hydrological services in case of floods affecting large territorial units, as well as local flood events. It is further unfolding demands on performance and coordination of meteorological and hydrological services, troubleshooting observation, evaluation of data, fast communication, modeling and forecasting of meteorological and hydrological processes. Integration of all information entering and exiting to and from the project POVAPSYS provides Hydrological Flood Forecasting System (HYPOS). The system provides information on the current hydrometeorological situation and its evolution with the generation of alerts and notifications in case of exceeding predefined thresholds. HYPOS's functioning of the system requires flawless operability in critical situations while minimizing the loss of its key parts. HYPOS is a core part of the project POVAPSYS, it is a comprehensive software solutions based on a modular principle, providing data and processed information including alarms, in real time. In order to achieve full functionality of the system, in proposal, we have put emphasis on reliability, robustness, availability and security.

  14. Geophysical characterisation of Carlo's V Castle (Crotone, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, M.; Giocoli, A.; Rizzo, E.; Lapenna, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Carlo's V Castle, located in Crotone Town, on the Ionian coast of the Calabria Region (Italy), date back to the 13th century d.C. (Fig. 1). During its long life, the building changed several owners and sustained the damages and the consequent reconstructions due to the innumerable naval battles. Moreover, the castle suffered the action of the earthquakes which always afflict the region. With the principal aim of detecting the location, depth and geometry of the rests of destroyed structures, a systematic Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey was carried out in the area inside the boundary walls. The results are sixty-two one-meter-spaced, filtered and migrated radargrams arranged in four 3D data-sets. From each data-set, the most significant time-slice was extracted. To reduce the ambiguity in the GPR data interpretation, additional geophysical techniques, such as Magnetic (M), and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), were carried out with a partial superimposition with the GPR data. A comparison and a joint interpretation amongst different geophysical data pointed out some very remarkable features associated to buried remains and possible buried cannonballs. With the secondary aim to check the presence of an old military walkway linking two bastions a GPR profile was carried out on the sea side boundary wall. The GPR results are in agreement with an ERT survey carried out on the same profile and consistent with the presence of an underground passage.

  15. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Montezuma Castle National Monument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Drost, Charles A.; Halvorson, William Lee

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarize past inventory efforts for vascular plants and vertebrates at Montezuma Castle National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 784 species recorded at Montezuma Castle NM, of which 85 (11%) are non-native. In each taxon-specific chapter we highlight areas of resources that contributed to species richness or unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Montezuma Well and Beaver and Wet Beaver creeks and the surrounding riparian vegetation, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest numbers of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of park units. Beaver Creek is also home to populations of federally-listed fish species of concern. Other important resources include the cliffs along the creeks and around Montezuma Well (for cliff and cave roosting bats). Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventory for most taxa is nearly complete, though some rare or elusive species will be added with additional survey effort. We recommend additional inventory, monitoring and research studies.

  16. Survey of the Pagoda Timber Roof in Derneburg Castle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perria, E.; Sieder, M.; Hoyer, S.; Krafczyk, C.

    2017-05-01

    The work analyses the historical roof of Derneburg Castle, in the municipality of Holle, Hildesheim's district, Lower Saxony, Germany. The roof is assembled according to Laves Balken's system (Laves beam's system), developed by the architect Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves (1788-1864). The system has the peculiarity to consist of beams that are split along the half of the cross section, and maintained diverged by wooden wedges, distributed along the length of the beam. The system increases the height of the beam, and elevates the bending capacity of it (Weber, 1964). The work has been developed in the frame of an interdisciplinary project in the fields of architecture, engineering and photogrammetry. Main aim of the project is the developing of a structural model to understand the load-carrying capacity of Laves Balken's system from the laser-scanning model. For this reason, extensive surveys and photo documentation were collected on three areas of the roof construction, characterized by three peculiar usage of Laves Balken's system. The work presents the survey of the pagoda-roof that covers the tower of the castle, and problems that can be encountered during the survey of very complex timber constructions.

  17. Development of the mitigation plan for Slovakia energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Mojik, I.

    1996-12-31

    According to the review of national communications from Annex I countries (FCCC/AGBM/1996/7), Slovakia is in 21st place among countries in descending order of GHG emissions. With respect to GHG emission per capita Slovakia is in 14th place and from the point of view of GHG emissions per GDP unit Slovakia is in 7th place. However, within world wide GHG emissions those originating from Slovakia are nearly negligible, but GHG emissions related to per capita or even to GDP are significantly high. Since energy production is responsible for more than 70% of GHG emissions (88% of CO{sub 2} emission) the high ranking of Slovakia is evidence of the high energy intensity of the Slovak Economy. As is common in countries with economies in transition there is no stable trend in macroeconomical values in Slovakia. Although the general shape of possible development curves is known, in fact the exact level of the real curve is not predictable. According to their analyses the Slovak Republic surely will meet the basic UN FCCC obligation for Annex I countries, i.e. to limit anthropogenic emissions of GHG in the year 2000 to the level of 1990. However, the above mentioned uncertainties are the main reason why they have no firm guaranty of fulfilling their domestic target (20% CO{sub 2} reduction in 2005 compared to 1988). Analyses made within the Country Study program have indicated that there is good possibility of reaching the domestic target but uncertainty is high and certain conditions have to be met.

  18. Expansion and aerobiology of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Hrabovský, Michal; Ščevková, Jana; Mičieta, Karol; Lafférsová, Janka; Dušička, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia cause environmental, agronomical and medical problems in many regions of the world, including Slovakia. The purpose of this study was to survey the spread and distribution of this species in Slovakia and to analyse its airborne pollen pattern. To evaluate the spatiotemporal dynamics of Ambrosia invasion in the territory of Slovakia, herbarium specimens, published databases and field investigations were considered. Aerobiological sampling was based on the analysis of pollen records at five aerobiological stations in Slovakia. For Bratislava and Banská Bystrica Monitoring stations, trends in Ambrosia pollen seasons were determined using Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator. Since the first record of A. artemisiifolia in Slovakia, the number of its colonies and its spread rate has increased considerably, and the colonisation of this species has been successful mainly in the south-western part of the country. Highest airborne pollen counts were recorded in Nitra, Trnava and Bratislava Monitoring Stations situated in the areas most infested by A. artemisiifolia in Slovakia. However, high pollen counts were also noted in Banská Bystrica and Košice Monitoring Stations situated in areas where the source species was less abundant. During the study period, the number of days on which the pollen concentration exceeded the threshold of sensitivity increased significantly (+1.33 days/year) in Banská Bystrica, whereas the peak value decreased significantly (-13.37 pollen/year) in Bratislava. The number of the populations of A. artemisiifolia has increased considerably in recent years. Besides the most infested areas, high airborne pollen counts were also recorded in territories where the plant species was less abundant. During the study period, the intensity of Ambrosia pollen seasons decreased in Bratislava, probably due to changes in land-use practices, while the increasing trend in the pollen seasons intensity in

  19. Complex Logistics Strategy for Industrial Companies in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horňáková, Natália; Hudák, Ján; Vidová, Helena

    2014-12-01

    Presented paper is a part of the dissertation thesis titled as "A proposal to develop Complex Logistics Strategy for industrial companies. The result of the thesis will be a methodology for developing a Complex Logistics Strategy for industrial companies in Slovakia. The main aim of the paper is to present some trends and strategies in Logistics and clarify the need of resolving the issue of Logistics Strategy based on the theoretical knowledge, case studies and analysis of current state of Logistics Strategies in industrial companies in Slovakia and other European countries.

  20. Studies of the astronomical array at the castle in Olsztyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szubiakowski, Jacek P.

    2014-12-01

    The paper describes a mathematical model simulating the operation of the board for Sun observation located in Olsztyn castle. The board was made around 1517, when Nicolaus Copernicus held the office of the property administrator of the Warmian Chapter. The idea of the functioning of the array is adapted to the lighting conditions of the cloister. As an indicator of the instantaneous position of the Sun and the moment of time a ray of sunshine reflected from the mirror mounted horizontally on the windowsill of arcade was used. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the calendar lines as well as the hour lines. The architectural conditions determining the hours of operation of the array in different months and the factors affecting its accuracy has also been examined.

  1. Stigma and Roma Education Policy Reform in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, William

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses reform of Roma education in Slovakia against the backdrop of continued stigmatization of Roma students. Transnational NGOs and IGOs promote rights-based solutions leading to the fullest possible inclusion of Roma students in mainstream education. The Slovak state promotes educational policies that lead to the fullest…

  2. Stigma and Roma Education Policy Reform in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, William

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses reform of Roma education in Slovakia against the backdrop of continued stigmatization of Roma students. Transnational NGOs and IGOs promote rights-based solutions leading to the fullest possible inclusion of Roma students in mainstream education. The Slovak state promotes educational policies that lead to the fullest…

  3. Flight directors Castle & Dittemore monitor displays in MCC during STS-34

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-10-23

    During STS-34, flight directors Robert E. Castle, Jr (left) and Ronald D. Dittemore review checklists and monitor displays at their console in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 flight control room (FCR).

  4. Changes of heat waves characteristics over the territory of Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollarikova, Patricia; Szolgay, Jan; Pecho, Jozef

    2014-05-01

    The study is focused on the analysis of long-term changes and trends of heat waves occurrence in selected meteorological stations in Slovakia. Changes of the temperature regime of the hydro-climatic system may have serious consequences on population health. It is expected that climate change could, in the next decades, also lead to a higher frequency and greater spatial extent of extreme heat waves in Central Europe. Heat waves can cause severe thermal environmental stress, health complications, higher hospital admission rates, and increased mortality. A larger number of consecutive warm days and nights can also lead to increased solar overheating of buildings, inhibited ventilation, etc. Detection of possible ongoing changes of the regime of heat ways is therefore of particular interest. Since heat waves can be quantitatively evaluated through their temperature range (extremity) and also according to their duration, a set of such characteristics using statistical methods were analysed using maximum and average daily air temperature time series from the 1951-2010 period in 8 meteorological stations over the territory of Slovakia. Results indicate an overall consistent (both in time and space) increase of selected heat wave characteristics in Slovakia mostly due to their occurrence in the last two decades (1991 to 2010). This period was characterised by the occurrence of the most extreme heat waves ever recorded in history of meteorological observations in Slovakia (years 1992, 1994, 1998, 2003, 2007, 2010). The absolutely longest and most extreme heat wave occurred in southern Slovakia (station Hurbanovo) in 1992, when one heat wave lasted 47 days, while the cumulative amount of the deviation from 30 °C reached over 106 ° C. Change of the heat waves character in the last two decades was also indicated. Compared with the previous decade (1991-2000), during the decade of 2001-2010, the heat waves had shorter durations, but their total extremity and the quantity

  5. Penalobo "Castle Rocks" - First approach to valuing this geoforms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinharandas, Carlos; Nobre, José; Gomes, Ana

    2013-04-01

    The village of Penalobo, located in the municipality of Sabugal (Portugal) is characterized by hercynian granites with interesting geological features, including pegmatite veins and quartz crystals with exotic forms, and presents some steep slopes and plateaus. From the mountainous configuration highlight some more pronounced elevations called "Castle Rocks". Such structures are composed by granites, which present greater fracturing at the top, which leads to the formation of large granite blocks. In less fractured zones it is possible to observe small folds. An excavation existing in one of those elevations allows us to observe a basic rock outcropping with clusters of crystals mottled with circular shape, which are indicative of the presence of late fluid during crystallization. In the zone of contact with the enclosing granite, there are small folds caused by magma intrusion. Those evidences led us to hypothesize that the peaks observed in the area of Penalobo village were due to the intrusion on basic magma. All this framework and geological environment becomes an asset for the scientific, educational and economic development of the region. On the other hand, it has a vital importance in the context of a strategy of forming a geological park, in the point of view of tourism, research and interpretation.

  6. Roof top extensions for multifamily houses in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szekeres, K.

    2010-12-01

    In the countries of the European Union with the exception of Malta, approximately 100.1 million multifamily dwelling units are situated. These dwellings count for an average of 47.5% of the total housing stock in European Union countries. At present in Slovakia and also other countries of Central and Eastern Europe, there are vast housing areas which were built after World War II. Slovakia's multifamily housing stock was privatized during the 1990s. Considering that the economy of Slovakia is not capable of replacing the existing housing fund, which is located in the multifamily houses that were built after World War II, it is necessary to place an increased emphasis on the renovation of this housing fund. The expenditures for the refurbishment of multifamily housing stock in recent decades, when compared with the demand, have been at a very low level. The main problems involving the current multifamily housing stock in Slovakia are: the need for modernization, the low level of energy efficiency, and the insufficient level of building maintenance. One of the options for creating sufficient sources for the renovation of apartment buildings is to utilize the roofs of apartment buildings as construction areas for building additional floors (over - roofing). The means acquired from the sale of the new floors after deducting the costs can be used for renovation. It is a matter of a one-time possibility, which is limited by many factors that depend on the localization and constructive technical solutions for apartment buildings. This article is an outcome of the SuReFit "Sustainable Roof Extension Retrofit for High-Rise Social Housing in Europe" international research project.

  7. Genetic subtypes of HIV type 1 circulating in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Habekova, Monika; Takacova, M; Lysy, J; Mokras, M; Camacho, R; Truska, P; Stanekova, D

    2010-10-01

    Slovakia belongs to the group of European countries with a low prevalence of HIV infection. The major proportion of HIV-positive cases in Slovakia is still represented by MSM, followed by heterosexuals infected through unprotected sexual intercourse. This study was conducted to update the description of HIV subtypes circulating in Slovakia. HIV-1 partial pol gene sequences from 143 individuals were prospectively collected from 2004 to 2008 and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis based on HIV-1 partial pol gene sequences revealed the highest prevalence of HIV-1 B subtype (93.0 %), predominantly associated with the MSM group. Ten (7.0%) individuals were infected with HIV-1 non-B subtypes. The pure subtypes were more frequent (7; 4.9%) than CRFs (3; 2.1%) and their occurrence was as follows: subtype C (3; 2, 1%), subtype A (2; 1.4%), subtype F (2; 1.4%), CRF_01AE (1; 0.7%), CRF_02AG (1; 0.7%), and CRF08_BC (1; 0.7%). Data show slightly increasing HIV-1 subtype diversity, with HIV-1 subtype B still having the highest prevalence in the Slovak-infected population.

  8. First autochthonous case of canine Angiostrongylus vasorum in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Hurníková, Z; Miterpáková, M; Mandelík, R

    2013-10-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a metastrongyloid nematode that may cause cardiopulmonary disease, neurological signs and coagulopathies in dogs. The parasite has an indirect life cycle with molluscs as intermediate hosts, in which the infective third larval stage develops. Recently, A. vasorum has been repeatedly reported in dogs outside the endemic areas, indicating that this parasite is widely distributed over Europe. This is the first record of an autochthonous infection in a dog from Slovakia that was casually diagnosed during routine preventive parasitological examination. A. vasorum first-stage larvae were recovered using the Baermann technique and identified by length and characteristic tail morphology. The animal originated from Slovakia and had not travelled abroad. The dog had been regularly walked on grass fields with a concentrated presence of common species of Gastropoda and frogs. The owner reported that the dog had been licking and eating grass and it had shown curiosity for molluscs and frogs. The first finding of A. vasorum-infected dog in Slovakia has confirmed that the parasite is spreading beyond the traditional hyperendemic foci, which accentuates the need for monitoring and increasing of disease awareness in primary care clinical practice.

  9. Checklist of water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha) of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Klementová, Barbora Reduciendo; Kment, Petr; Svitok, Marek

    2015-12-16

    The water bugs represent a significant component of the freshwater biota, play an important role in trophic webs, and may have considerable economic importance. Nevertheless, systematic research of this group has been underdeveloped in Slovakia (central Europe) for decades. This work presents a list of water bug species of Slovakia based on an exhaustive review of the literature (time span: 1808-2013) and on more than 14,000 individuals collected during extensive field campaigns (2010-2014) or obtained from insect collections. Fifty-six species belonging to 11 families of Heteroptera were recorded from a total of 767 sites. Seven species were recorded for the first time from Slovakia during our research. Among those, the first exact records of Corixa panzeri Fieber, 1848, Sigara (Subsigara) distincta (Fieber, 1848), Notonecta (Notonecta) lutea Müller, 1776, Notonecta (Notonecta) maculata Fabricius, 1794 and Microvelia (Microvelia) buenoi Drake, 1920 are provided here. Confusion concerning the records of two additional species, Arctocorisa carinata carinata (C. R. Sahlberg, 1819) and Hesperocorixa parallela (Fieber, 1860) is clarified. The water bugs species inventory appears to be nearly complete (~97 %) given an asymptotic richness estimate. The occurrence of other species is discussed taking into account their habitat requirements and distribution in neighbouring countries. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  10. Holocene slip rate for the western segment of the Castle Mountain fault, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willis, J.B.; Haeussler, P.J.; Bruhn, R.L.; Willis, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    The western segment of the Castle Mountain fault poses a significant seismic hazard to the most populated region of south-central Alaska. We identify a previously unrecognized margin of a postglacial outwash channel that is offset right laterally 36 ± 4 m across the western segment of the Castle Mountain fault. This offset occurred after glaciers withdrew from the lowland 11,300–15,380 cal yr b.p. and after outwash channel margins were cut and stabilized 11,210–13,470 cal yr b.p. Using these ages and the measured separation, we obtain a maximum slip rate of 3.0 ± 0.6 mm yr−1 and a minimum slip rate of 2.8 ± 0.7 mm yr−1. These are the first lateral slip rates for the Castle Mountain fault established by a field measurement. Based on timing of the most recent earthquake, 670 ± 60 yr b.p., the Castle Mountain fault could have accumulated an average single-event slip of about 1.9 m (extremes range from 1.3 to 2.6 m). The fault consists of two segments; a surface-rupturing earthquake likely will be limited to the 62-km-long western segment. Area-magnitude regression calculations suggest that such an earthquake on the western Castle Mountain fault would have a moment magnitude of 6.9 to 7.3.

  11. Microalgae on dimension stone of a medieval castle in Thuringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallmann, C.; Stannek, L.; Fritzlar, D.; Hoppert, M.

    2012-04-01

    Phototrophic microorganisms are important primary producers on hard rock substrata as well as on building facades. These eukaryotic microalgae and cyanobacteria, along with lichens, have also been recognized as important factors for rock weathering and stone decay. The rock substratum itself mostly provides extreme environmental conditions. Composition and diversity of sub-aeric phototrophic microbial communities is up to now poorly understood. Here we present a comparative study addressing the composition of algal biofilms on sandstone substrata based on the analysis of rDNA clone libraries from environmental samples and enrichment cultures. From a W-exposed, shaded wall area of a medieval castle ruin (Burg Gleichen, Thuringia, Germany cf. Hallmann et al., 2011), green algae like Prasiococcus, Prasiola and Elliptochloris could be retrieved. A ESE, sun-exposed wall section was colonized mainly by Apatococcus, Phyllosiphon and the lichen alga Trebouxia and Myrmecia. Accordingly, cyanobacterial communities show clear differences between both wall areas: the sun exposed area was dominated by Synechococcus-like organisms while on the W-exposed area cyanobacteria were almost absent. Just a few species, in particular Stichococcus-related strains, are ubiquitous in both areas. It is obvious that, apart from few generalists, different species colonize the wall areas that are situated in close vicinity, but provide different microclimatic conditions. These differences are discussed in view of biogenic weathering phenomena: certain microalgal species colonize crusts and scales along fracture planes and may contribute to rapid detachment and turnover of dimension stone surfaces. Hallmann, C., Fritzlar, D., Stannek, L., Hoppert, M. (2011) Ascomycete fungi on dimension stone of the "Burg Gleichen", Thuringia. Env. Earth Sci. 63, 1713-1722.

  12. Europeanization in the "Other" Europe: Writing the Nation into "Europe" Education in Slovakia and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Deborah L.; Stevick, E. Doyle

    2009-01-01

    How is the tension between renewed nationalist and European narratives of belonging being unfolded in the curricula, discourse, and practice of civic education in Slovakia and Estonia. As two post-socialist territories that were "reborn" as independent nation-states in the 1990s, Slovakia and Estonia were confronted with pressure to…

  13. Europeanization in the "Other" Europe: Writing the Nation into "Europe" Education in Slovakia and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Deborah L.; Stevick, E. Doyle

    2009-01-01

    How is the tension between renewed nationalist and European narratives of belonging being unfolded in the curricula, discourse, and practice of civic education in Slovakia and Estonia. As two post-socialist territories that were "reborn" as independent nation-states in the 1990s, Slovakia and Estonia were confronted with pressure to…

  14. Environmental analyse of soil organic carbon stock changes in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koco, Š.; Barančíková, G.; Skalský, R.; Tarasovičová, Z.; Gutteková, M.; Halas, J.; Makovníková, J.; Novákova, M.

    2012-04-01

    The content and quality of soil organic matter is one of the basic soil parameters on which soil production functioning depends as well as it is active in non production soil functions like an ecological one especially. Morphologic segmentation of Slovakia has significant influence of structure in using agricultural soil in specific areas of our territory. Also social changes of early 90´s of 20´th century made their impact on change of using of agricultural soil (transformation from large farms to smaller ones, decreasing the number of livestock). This research is studying changes of development of soil organic carbon stock (SOC) in agricultural soil of Slovakia as results of climatic as well as social and political changes which influenced agricultury since last 40 years. The main goal of this research is an analysis of soil organic carbon stock since 1970 until now at specific agroclimatic regions of Slovakia and statistic analysis of relation between modelled data of SOC stock and soil quality index value. Changes of SOC stock were evaluated on the basis SOC content modeling using RothC-26.3 model. From modeling of SOC stock results the outcome is that in that time the soil organic carbon stock was growing until middle 90´s years of 20´th century with the highest value in 1994. Since that year until new millennium SOC stock is slightly decreasing. After 2000 has slightly increased SOC stock so far. According to soil management SOC stock development on arable land is similar to overall evolution. In case of grasslands after slight growth of SOC stock since 1990 the stock is in decline. This development is result of transformational changes after 1989 which were specific at decreasing amount of organic carbon input from organic manure at grassland areas especially. At warmer agroclimatic regions where mollic fluvisols and chernozems are present and where are soils with good quality and steady soil organic matter (SOM) the amount of SOC in monitored time is

  15. Anaplasma infections in ticks and reservoir host from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Víchová, Bronislava; Majláthová, Viktória; Nováková, Mária; Stanko, Michal; Hviščová, Ivana; Pangrácová, Lucia; Chrudimský, Tomáš; Čurlík, Ján; Petko, Branislav

    2014-03-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a worldwide distributed bacterium with a significant medical and veterinary importance. It grows within the phagosome of infected neutrophils and is responsible for human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), tick-borne fever (TBF) of small ruminants and cattle, canine and equine granulocytic anaplasmosis, but infects also a great variety of wildlife species. Wild ungulates and rodents are considered reservoirs of infection in natural foci. The objective of this study was to determine the spectrum of animal species involved in the circulation of A. phagocytophilum in Slovakia and to analyze the variability of obtained nucleotide sequences, in order to determine whether genotypes from Slovakia cluster according to host-species or geographical location. Several animal species and vector ticks were screened for the presence of members of the family Anaplasmataceae using PCR based methods. Additional data on the molecular evidence of Anaplasma ovis and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis are presented. These pathogens were detected in tested sheep flocks and rodents with the mean infection rates of 8.16% and 10.75%, respectively. A. phagocytophilum was genotyped by 16S rRNA and groEL gene sequencing. Bacterial DNA was confirmed in questing ixodid ticks, in domesticated canine, wild rodents and several species of wild ungulates. In European isolates, 16S rRNA gene does not seem to be an appropriate locus for the analyses of heterogeneity as it is too conservative. Similarly, 16S rRNA isolates from our study did not reveal any polymorphisms. All isolates were identical in overlapped region and showed identity with sequences from ticks, horses or ruminants previously isolated elsewhere in the world. On the other hand, the groESL heat shock operon is widely used for determination of diversity and the analyses have already revealed considerable degree of heterogeneity. Tested ungulates were infected with A. phagocytophilum to a considerable extent

  16. Environmental assessment of metal exposure to corals living in Castle Harbour, Bermuda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, N.G.; Goodkin, N.F.; Jones, R.; Lamborg, C.H.; Storlazzi, C.D.; Hughen, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental contamination in Castle Harbour, Bermuda, has been linked to the dissolution and leaching of contaminants from the adjacent marine landfill. This study expands the evidence for environmental impact of leachate from the landfill by quantitatively demonstrating elevated metal uptake over the last 30 years in corals growing in Castle Harbour. Coral Pb/Ca, Zn/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios and total Hg concentrations are elevated relative to an adjacent control site in John Smith's Bay. The temporal variability in the Castle Harbour coral records suggests that while the landfill has increased in size over the last 35 years, the dominant input of metals is through periodic leaching of contaminants from the municipal landfill and surrounding sediment. Elevated contaminants in the surrounding sediment suggest that resuspension is an important transport medium for transferring heavy metals to corals. Increased winds, particularly during the 1990s, were accompanied by higher coral metal composition at Castle Harbour. Coupled with wind-induced resuspension, interannual changes in sea level within the Harbour can lead to increased bioavailability of sediment-bound metals and subsequent coral metal assimilation. At John Smith's Bay, large scale convective mixing may be driving interannual metal variability in the coral record rather than impacts from land-based activities. Results from this study provide important insights into the coupling of natural variability and anthropogenic input of contaminants to the nearshore environment.

  17. Quantum error-correcting codes from algebraic geometry codes of Castle type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munuera, Carlos; Tenório, Wanderson; Torres, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    We study algebraic geometry codes producing quantum error-correcting codes by the CSS construction. We pay particular attention to the family of Castle codes. We show that many of the examples known in the literature in fact belong to this family of codes. We systematize these constructions by showing the common theory that underlies all of them.

  18. Capturing the Castle: An Exploration of Changes in the Democratic Accountability of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gann, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    The history of the forced conversion to sponsored academy status of Castle Primary School in south Somerset is a tale of broken promises, lies, and a blatant breach of statutory procedures. Yet the Department for Education, the local Member of Parliament (and schools minister) and the local authority stood by--sometimes participated--while a small…

  19. Stable isotope composition of human fingernails from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Grolmusová, Zuzana; Rapčanová, Anna; Michalko, Juraj; Čech, Peter; Veis, Pavel

    2014-10-15

    Stable isotope composition of human fingernails has proven to be useful for documenting human dietary information and geographical patterns in archeological, forensic, anthropological and biological studies. Therefore, it is of interest to detect all factors influencing the stable isotopic composition in the certain regions in the world. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data of human fingernail keratin from 52 individuals from Slovakia were reported in this study. The online combustion and continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometer Delta V Advantage was used for δ(13)C and δ(15)N analysis of fingernail keratin samples from 24 vegetarian and 28 omnivorous individuals. A group of people with frequent meat consumption showed enrichment in (13)C and (15)N isotopes in fingernails. A similar trend was observed with increasing seafood in an individual's diet. Moreover a significant difference was revealed between smokers and nonsmokers for both δ(13)C and δ(15)N values. These data were compared to previously published δ(13)C and δ(15)N fingernail values from across the globe. This study brings new information on the stable isotope signature of individuals from Slovakia and characterizes the Central European region for the first time. The stable isotope composition of fingernails is influenced by the frequency of meat and seafood consumption as well as smoking.

  20. Tick-borne encephalitis virus foci in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Labuda, Milan; Elecková, Elena; Licková, Martina; Sabó, Alexander

    2002-06-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus as a typical arbovirus relies on two types of hosts for its survival: ticks act both as virus vectors and reservoir hosts, and vertebrates amplify the virus infection by acting as a source of infection for feeding ticks. Longitudinal monitoring of TBE virus in ticks and vertebrate hosts including humans over a period of 40 years resulted in the identification of the areas of Slovakia where TBE virus is endemic. These are concentrated to the western, southern, and eastern parts of the country. Even with recently identified foci there is no evidence that the size and location of the natural TBE foci have changed significantly during the last decades. Numbers of diagnosed hospitalised cases of TBE in Slovakia vary from less than 20 to almost 100 cases annually with 54-89 cases in recent years. A part of these cases (33 cases during the last 5 years) are alimentary infections after drinking of raw goat and sheep milk.

  1. The Research of Historical Trusses in Northern Regions of Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenková, Renáta; Krušinský, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The blanket research of historical trusses in the territory of Slovakia has been running at our department since 2008. This research is done as teamwork in cooperation with experts from the field of conservation, and it is mainly focused on typology, construction, and the current technical and constructional state of investigated trusses. The long-time support of the grant scheme from the Ministry of Culture allows to get a fair amount of different data related to individual buildings and structures, which enables to carry out the in-depth research. In terms of their conservation and maintenance with an effort to extend their lifetime (the oldest known historical trusses in Slovakia are those of the 13th century), it is necessary to look into the microclimate impact of the under-roof space on wooden roof structures as well as to monitor the contemporary constructional and technical condition of a roof structure itself. The suitable microclimate in the under-roof space is influenced by a number of marginal conditions, constructional solutions of roof details, proper space ventilation etc

  2. Volcano-tectonic evolution of the Castle Mountains: 22 to 14 MA

    SciTech Connect

    Capps, R.C. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The alkali-calcic Castle Mountains Volcanic rocks (CMV) are host to major gold mineralization. They are located about 100 km south of Las Vegas, Nevada and are on the boundary between the Basin and Range Province and Colorado River extensional corridor (35[degree]18 minutes 45 seconds N, 115[degree]05 minutes 10 seconds W). New data show the following chronology. 22 Ma. A regional rhyolite ash-flow tuff, the Castle Mountain Tuff member, was deposited on a Proterozoic-Paleozoic basement of low relief. <22 Ma - > 17 Ma. Normal faulting (N30--60[degree]W, 60--65[degree]NE) formed half-grabens. Latite and basalt flows, minor ash-flow tuffs, lahars and sediments (Jacks Well member - JW) were deposited unconformably. JW magmas are enriched in light REE compared to the younger CMV. <17 Ma to 15.5 Ma. Oxidizing upper portions (796 C) of a shallowly emplaced silicic melt erupted to form the high-silica rhyolite dome complexes and intrusives (Linder Peak member - LP) of the NNE-striking Castle Mountains. NW-striking transverse structures caused discontinuities in strike direction of the subvolcanic intrusive and domes and helped form a synvolcanic depression. During a hiatus in volcanism, early Hart Peak member (HP) sediments were deposited marginal to the Castle Mountains. Major gold mineralization and widespread hydrothermal alteration occurred at about 15.5 Ma. 16 Ma to 14 Ma. Early HP volcaniclastic sediments, rhyolite pyroclastic-surge tuff, and basaltic flows, were deposited during late hydrothermal alteration and then fractured and displaced by NNE-striking normal faults, especially in the eastern and northeastern CMV. < 14 Ma. Tectonically significant flat-lying boulder conglomerate and unconformably overlying, largely andesitic flows fill depressions in the Castle Mountains and the Piute Range to the east.

  3. Ground-water resources of southern New Castle County, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rima, Donald Robert; Coskery, O.J.; Anderson, P.W.

    1964-01-01

    Southern New Castle County has a land area of 190 square miles in northcentral Delaware. It is predominantly a rural area with a population of about 9,500 people who are engaged chiefly in agriculture. By and large, the residents are dependent upon ground water as a source of potable water. This investigation was made to provide knowledge of the availability and quality of .the ground-water supply to aid future development. The climate, surface features, and geology of the area are favorable for the occurrence of ground water. Temperatures are generally mild and precipitation is normally abundant and fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. The topography of the area is relatively fiat and, hence, the streams have low gradients. The surface is underlain to a considerable depth by highly permeable unconsolidated sediments that range in age from Early Cretaceous to Recent. Nearly all the subsurface stratigraphic units yield some water to wells, but only four parts or combinations of these units are sufficiently permeable, to yield large supplies. These are, from oldest to youngest, the nonmarine Cretaceous sediments and the Magothy Formation, the Monmouth Group, the Rancocas Formation, and .the surficial terrace and valley-fill deposits. In the northern part of the area the nonmarine Cretaceous sediments and the Magothy Formation can be reached economically by wells. Yields in excess of 300 gpm (gallons per minute) have been obtained from wells screened in this aquifer, but the maximum productivity of the aquifer has not been .tested. The Monmouth Group is used as a source of water in the central part of the area, where some wells yield as much as 125 gpm. The Rancocas Formation is the principal aquifer in the southern part of the area. Yields of 200-400 gpm can be expected from this aquifer, owing to its uniformly coarse texture, particularly in the upper part of the formation. The terrace deposits compose the shallow watertable aquifer throughout the area. In

  4. Retrospective molecular study on canine hepatozoonosis in Slovakia - Does infection risk for dogs really exist?

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, Martina; Komjáti-Nagyová, Martina; Hurníková, Zuzana; Víchová, Bronislava

    2017-03-24

    This study provides the very first evidence of Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs from Slovakia, a Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato free area. In total, 297 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 293 dogs, from three regions of Slovakia, were screened for the presence of H. canis using a conventional 18S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genomic DNA of this blood parasite was detected in 51 (17.1%) foxes from all sampling regions in Slovakia, whereas the overall prevalence in examined dogs was significantly lower, only 1.0%. Identity between nucleotide sequences from Slovak foxes and dogs ranged from 97.3 to 100%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that H. canis isolates from Slovakia are divided into two clusters, suggesting the coexistence of strain variants with unknown pathogenicity which needs to be further explored.

  5. Inter-laboratory comparison measurements of radiochemical laboratories in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Meresová, J; Belanová, A; Vrsková, M

    2010-01-01

    The first inter-laboratory comparison organized by the radiochemistry laboratory of Water Research Institute (WRI) in Bratislava was carried out in 1993 and since then is it realized on an annual basis and about 10 radiochemical laboratories from all over Slovakia are participating. The gross alpha and gross beta activities, and the activity concentrations of (222)Rn, tritium, and (226)Ra, and U(nat) concentration in synthetic water samples are compared. The distributed samples are covering the concentration range prevailing in potable and surface waters and are prepared by dilution of certified reference materials. Over the course of the years 1993-2008, we observed the improvement in the quality of results for most of the laboratories. However, the success rate of the gross alpha determination activity is not improving as much as the other parameters.

  6. AlpArray Austria & Slovakia: Site description and noise characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Kolinsky, Petr; Gröschl, Gidera; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the European joint research initiative AlpArray we deployed 30 seismic broadband stations in Eastern Austria and Western Slovakia. Stations were installed between Spring and Winter 2015, with an expected deployment duration of two to three years. Our installations comprising 60s Reftek sensors and Reftek digitizers as well as 3G telemetry are typically located inside shelters like abandoned or rarely used huts and small houses. In this poster, we describe the station setting and surroundings for each of the 30 stations in detail and discuss noise levels and site effects. The description documents technical information for any future studies involving data from temporary AlpArray stations.

  7. GPR Application for Road Management System in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitonak, Martin; Filipovsky, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Road Management System in Slovakia was established in 1996. Data for database are collected from Falling Weight Deflectometer, Skiddometer and Profilograph from 25 separated sections with average length of 30 km on yearly basis. The focus is especially on roads that have been built before the year 1996. In September 2014 the Slovak Road Administration announced the new project task which involved additional data request such as structure thicknesses, application to determine the thicknesses of bound layers and base layers, rutting analysis, transverse and longitudinal roughness and cross fall, ditch depths, the road width and pavement width. The request for data processing included the interpretation of the data in graphical display. The requested delivery of the final project data was in December 2014. The presentation summarizes the experiences and results of the data collection methods and technologies, data processing and evaluation methods and finally presenting the results. Also key new finding will be presented.

  8. Estimation of the Population Susceptibility Against Measles in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Zibolenová, Jana; Chladná, Zuzana; Švihrová, Viera; Baška, Tibor; Waczulíková, Iveta; Hudečková, Henrieta

    2017-03-01

    In Slovakia, thanks to a highly effective vaccination programme, no domestic cases of measles have been reported since 1999. However, there are several outbreaks of measles currently hitting some countries in Europe. Difficulties in reaching the goal of measles elimination make it necessary to monitor the status of the population susceptibility to prevent similar outbreaks in the future. We hypothesize that immunity wanes overtime, which can substantially impact the population susceptibility. This work introduces a model that estimates a proportion of individuals susceptible to measles in the Slovak population in 2015. Our analysis is based on an age-cohort model that incorporates waning immunity, vaccination schedule and changes in demographic structure. The inputs of the model are data on the vaccination coverage, last seroprevalence survey in 2002 and age structure of the population. In a short-term horizon, waning immunity does not affect the estimated proportion of the susceptible population. However, in a long-term horizon, the antibody titers can fall below the level of protection, which would result in a substantial transfer of initially immune individuals to the compartment of the susceptible ones. Incorporating of waning immunity in the cohort model has indicated that the most susceptible cohorts are not-vaccinated youngest children and cohorts born between 1969 and 1986. Applying the model to the current situation shows that people aged 30-45 years and unvaccinated infants represent the most susceptible groups. Model partially replaces missing seroprevalence survey, but, because the parameters of model and phenomenon of waning immunity are not exactly known, we suggest reintroducing the regular national serosurveys in order to empirically determine the level of susceptibility for measles in Slovakia.

  9. Regional scaling based estimation of IDF curves in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohnova, Silvia; Zechelova, Karolina; Gaal, Ladislav; Szolgay, Jan; Hlavcova, Kamila

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves are of a great practical importance in water resources management e.g. for the design of hydraulic structures and urban drainage systems, and for the estimation of flash flood risk. However the lack of rainfall data with sufficient temporal resolution (usually caused by limited number of rain gauges with continuous recording and short series of measurements) does not generally allow for constructing maps of extreme short-duration rainfall with the desired spatial resolution. In such cases the simple scaling model, which has proved its applicability in various regions of the world, offers a solution to this problem. Using the scaling hypothesis, it is possible to estimate design values of rainfall of selected recurrence intervals and durations shorter than a day by using only the daily data, which are available from a considerably denser network with long series of measurements. In this study the simple scaling theory was applied in the whole territory of Slovakia for the estimation of the intensity-duration-frequency characteristics of short duration rainfall. For the analysis the data series in one minute time step from 21 rainfall gauging stations were used. To estimate T-year rainfall quantiles of sub-daily duration at ungauged sites, two methodologies are combined: the regional index value approach, and the local concept of simple scaling. The former approach is used to estimate the quantiles of 1-day rainfall maxima in the warm season, supposing that the so called index value can be estimated locally and the dimensionless quantiles (the regional growth curve) can be derived by means of regional frequency analysis. The latter approach is employed to estimate the local IDF curves by downscaling the T-year quantiles of 1-day rainfall maxima using the regionally averaged scaling exponent. The derived IDF curves for these stations are finally compared with those defined by Šamaj and Valovič (1973), which are

  10. The Customer Relationship Management in Terms of Business Practice in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urdziková, Jana; Jakábová, Martina; Saniuk, Sebastian

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the article is to present the results of the research on focus on the customer in relation to the use of customer relationship management in selected business subjects in Slovakia. The main goal of the research is the mapping of current state to ensure the principle of customer orientation and utilizing of CRM in organizations and industrial enterprises in Slovakia. This is the mapping of the current situation of that problem in practical conditions and determines potential opportunities for improvement.

  11. [Comperative characteristics of different organizational approaches to the provision of dental care in Ukraine and Slovakia].

    PubMed

    Рогач, Іван; Слабкий, Генадій; Погоріляк, Рената; Ціцвакова, Марина; Шип, Денис; Данко, Дана

    Saving dental health is a priority, which is controlled by the European strategy for the World Health Organization to achieve ≪Health for All≫. To study and compare organizational approaches to the organization of dental care in Ukraine and Slovakia. In the course of the work we used statistical, bibliosemantic methods and the method of structural and logical analysis, the data of the statistical branch reporting of Ukraine, Slovakia and the data of the European database ≪Health for All≫ were used. It is established that the provision of the population with educational institutions for future dentists in Ukraine is one university for 2154566 people, and in Slovakia - one for 676 764 people. Obviously, access to dental education in the Slovak Republic is better than in Ukraine. In the course of the study, we found that the level of provision of dentists for 10 thousand people in Ukraine is 4.56, and in Slovakia-5.75, which is 26% more than in Ukraine. In Slovakia, the level of availability of dentists is 5.75, too, with a reliable difference in the profile of administrative territories Conclusion. Both countries are working to achieve international goals to ensure dental health for the period till 2025. Therefore, the exchange of good experience, which gained in Ukraine and Slovakia for the organization of dental care will improve the performance of dental services of both countries to achieve these goals.

  12. Ground-water conditions at the Veterans Facility, Castle Point, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brashears, M.L.

    1950-01-01

    The rock aquifers in the vicinity of the Castle Point Veterans Hospital yield limited quantities of water which, in general, are sufficient for domestic and farm purposes only. The possibility of obtaining the stated quantity requirements of about 200,000 gallons daily or more from the bedrock formations seems poor with the exception of the Wappinger limestone underlying the Fishkill Valley three miles to the south.

  13. Dynamics and conceptual model of the Rossena castle landslide (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelli, A.; Mandrone, G.; Ruffini, A.; Truffelli, G.

    2005-11-01

    In the Northern Apennines there are many historical villages and castles, which are of great value and represent a cultural heritage of great importance. Their presence within a territory greatly affected by landslide hazards creates, in many circumstances, the need to solve problems of land management and to act for the preservation of historical monuments. This paper describe an interesting landslide, failed during the night of 28 February 2004, that involved the village of Rossena: the failure damaged the village (Fig. 1), the road and the fields down to the stream but, fortunately, the castle just upslope the village was not involved at all. The 10th century massive castle of Rossena stands on the top of a cliff at about 500 m a.s.l., on the border between the provinces of Parma and Reggio Emilia, and it is surrounded by a small ancient village. The castle of Rossena is the best preserved stronghold of the Longobard times, enlarged and reinforced in the tenth century and partially rebuilt by Bonifacio, the father of Matilda of Canossa (the Vice-Queen of Italy and probably the most important woman in the Middle Ages) as a defensive structure guarding the Enza Valley. In addition, at Conossa, very close to Rossena, there was the meeting between Pope Gregory VII and the Emperor of Germany Henry IV, during the historical event known as "fight for the investitures". For these reasons, the area of Rossena is one of the most relevant from a historical point of view in the entire western part of the Emilia Romagna Region and it also has a high value as a geosite (Coratza et al., 2004).

  14. Processed seismic motion records from earthquakes (1982--1993): Recorded at Scotty`s Castle, California

    SciTech Connect

    Lum, P K; Honda, K K

    1993-10-01

    The 8mm data tape contains the processed seismic data of earthquakes recorded at Scotty`s Castle, California. The seismic data were recorded by seismographs maintained by the DOE/NV in Southern Nevada. Four files were generated from each seismic recorder. They are ``Uncorrected acceleration time histories, 2. corrected acceleration, velocity and displacement time histories, 3. original recording, and 4. Fourier amplitude spectra of acceleration.

  15. Dolomitization of the Pedro Castle Formation (Pliocene), Cayman Brac, British West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNeil, Alex; Jones, Brian

    2003-12-01

    The Pedro Castle Formation (Pliocene) on Cayman Brac is variably dolomitized by texture preserving but non-mimetic and texture destructive replacive dolomite. Mimetic replacement of skeletal grains is limited to echinoderm plates, and with few rare exceptions, there is no mimetic replacement of red algae, foraminifera, green algae, or any other type of skeletal grain. The lack of mimetic dolomite is atypical of "island dolostones" found in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Dolostones in the Pedro Castle Formation are formed entirely of high-Ca calcian dolomite (average of 57.4 mol% CaCO 3). Oxygen isotopes (mean 1.25‰ PDB) from the dolomite indicate that dolomitization was mediated by seawater or modified seawater. Carbon isotopes in the dolomite, which range from -1.81‰ to 1.42‰ PDB, were probably inherited from the precursor limestone. The average Sr content in the dolomite (360 ppm) is higher than that found in most other island dolomites. The sediments that now form the Pedro Castle Formation were deposited in shallow water on an open bank during the early Pliocene. Pre-dolomitization diagenesis of those sediments included syntaxial overgrowths around echinoderm fragments, dissolution of aragonitic bioclasts, stabilization to low-magnesium calcite, and local precipitation of vadose cements. Thus, the limestones had been extensively stabilized by the time that dolomitization took place during the late Pliocene. The general paucity of mimetic replacement in these dolostones can probably be attributed to the calcite stabilization that took place before dolomitization.

  16. Preliminary geological and geophysical evaluation of the Castle Dome HDR geothermal prospect, Southwestern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Gutmann, J.T.; Aiken, C.L.V.; Ander, M.E.; Laney, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The Castle Dome HDR geothermal prospect is located in Yuma County, Arizona, in a region centered about 80 km north of Yuma along US Rte. 95. The area of interest is broadly defined by a negative residual Bouguer gravity anomaly which is about 45 km across, steep-sided in many places, and as much as 30 mgals in magnitude. The geology of this Basin and Range area is poorly known, but the few published reports and current Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) field studies indicate that the Castle Dome Mountains and adjacent ranges are chiefly a thick pile of welded ash-flow tuffs of probable mid-Tertiary age. The tuffs rest unconformably on Mesozoic metasedimentary rocks exposed only outside steep edges of the gravity low. This gravity anomaly may reflect the presence of a large caldera. A regional magnetotelluric study now in progress will define the depths to electrical conductors within the crust and upper mantle and contribute to understanding of crustal structure, the gravity anomaly, and the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal potential of the Castle Dome area.

  17. [The incidence of tularemia in Slovakia in 1997-2008].

    PubMed

    Gurycová, D; Tináková, K; Výrosteková, V; Gacíková, E

    2010-02-01

    Analysis of epidemiological trends in tularemia in the Slovak Republic (SR) over the last 12 years and changes in the epidemiology of this infection. The sources of data for the epidemiological analysis are the SR annual tularemia surveillance report, records of epidemiological investigation of reported cases and knowledge from long-term surveillance of natural foci. The incidence of tularemia was analyzed based on the standard epidemiological indicators and in relation to infection sources and transmission routes. In 1997-2008, a total of 453 tularemia cases were reported from all administrative regions in Slovakia, the mean incidence was 0.71/10(5) population and 95.4% of cases were reported in the West, with the predominance of cases in the Nitra region where the mean incidence was 4/10(5) population. In the outbreak of 2002, the incidence of tularemia was as high as 18 cases/10(5) population. Tularemia cases were reported in all age groups and more than half of the patients were aged between 30 to 59 years. Tularemia cases were 1.9 times more frequent in males than in females. The seasonal trend peaked in summer, month of July. In a greater proportion of cases, 58.5%, the source of infection was other than brown hares, 16.3%, which correlates well with the decrease in the hare tularemia foci in the study period. The most frequent route of transmission was work exposure to contaminated animal feed and bedding and in an dusty environment with increased occurrence of small rodents. The proportion of tick-borne and biting insect-borne cases was 12.8% and 12.4% of cases were not elucidated epidemiologically. Clinical manifestations were ulceroglandular and glandular tularemia in 55.6%, pulmonary tularemia in 21.2 %, oroglandular tularaemia in 18.8% and other forms of tularaemia in 4.4%. The changes in the distribution of sources of infection and routes of transmission resulted in changed epidemiological characteristics and clinical forms of tularemia in Slovakia

  18. Climate changes implicated for Dirofilaria dissemination in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpákovzá, Martina; Hurníková, Zuzana; Antolová, Daniela; Dubinskỳ, Pavol

    2009-01-01

    Dirofilariosis is a parasitic disease caused by helminths of the genus Dirofilaria. Climatic changes are considered to be main risk factors for dirofilariosis spreading. In the Slovak Republic, canine subcutaneous dirofilariosis was recorded for the first time in 2005. In 2007 the first coordinated research project started to detect possible endemic infections and to determine their magnitude. A total of 984 dogs were examined for the presence of microfilariae within 2007-2008. Modified Knott test and PCR were used for microfilariae detection and for Dirofilaria species identification. Dirofilariosis was diagnosed in 196 dogs which represents an overall prevalence of 19.9%. The majority of infected dogs came from southern regions of Slovakia. In the regions of Trnava and Nitra 45.2% and 31.4% of the dogs surveyed were infected, respectively. The highest prevalence of dirofilariosis was detected in shepherd and watch dogs (45.7%), and hunting dogs (40.5%). In the group of police dogs, 20.5% animals were infected. Dirofilaria repens was detected in all infected dogs. In seven animals co-infection with Dirofilaria immitis was present.

  19. Contamination by moulds of grape berries in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Mikusová, P; Ritieni, A; Santini, A; Juhasová, G; Srobárová, A

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the first map, albeit partial, of toxigenic fungi re-isolated from grape berries collected in three out of the six most important Slovakia winemaking areas in two different periods of the harvest year 2008. Low temperatures and high relative humidity during July 2008 favoured the development of grape fungal diseases that cause rots such as Plasmopara, Uncinula, Botrytis, Metasphaeria, Elsinoë, and Saccharomycetes. In the analysed samples, the following genera of toxigenic fungi were identified in the range of 1-4%: Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Ulocladium, and Trichoderma Trichothecium, while the genera Aspergillus, Alternaria, Fusarium, and Penicillium were in the range 11-29%. A. niger, A. carbonarius, some strains of A. carbonarius-with 'crystals' and strains of A. uvarum-uniseriate were identified; these species are considered ochratoxigenic (able to produce variable amounts of toxins). In addition, a non-ochratoxigenic strain of A. ibericus and a Fusarium strain able to biosynthesize small amount of fumonisins, beauvericin, and enniatins were identified. P. expansum, able to produce citrinin, represents 29.7%, of the Penicillium genus together with P. verrucosum, P. glabrum, P. citrinum, and P. crustosum. An analysis for the identification and quantification of the main toxins: ochratoxin A, fumonisins, beauvericin, enniatins, and fusaproliferin was performed on grape samples; it was consistent with the results of the mycological analysis. Toxigenic fungi should be checked throughout the years and their occurrence compared with all environmental factors to avoid health risks.

  20. Holocene slip rate and revised characteristic earthquake parameters for the western segment of the Castle Mountain fault, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willis, Julie B.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Bruhn, Ronald L.; Willis, Grant C.

    2007-01-01

    The western segment of the Castle Mountain fault poses a significant seismic hazard to the most populated region of south-central Alaska. We identify a previously unrecognized margin of a postglacial outwash channel that is offset right laterally 36 ± 4 m across the western segment of the Castle Mountain fault. This offset occurred after glaciers withdrew from the lowland 11,300–15,380 cal yr b.p. and after outwash channel margins were cut and stabilized 11,210–13,470 cal yr b.p. Using these ages and the measured separation, we obtain a maximum slip rate of 3.0 ± 0.6 mm yr−1 and a minimum slip rate of 2.8 ± 0.7 mm yr−1. These are the first lateral slip rates for the Castle Mountain fault established by a field measurement. Based on timing of the most recent earthquake, 670 ± 60 yr b.p., the Castle Mountain fault could have accumulated an average single-event slip of about 1.9 m (extremes range from 1.3 to 2.6 m). The fault consists of two segments; a surface-rupturing earthquake likely will be limited to the 62-km-long western segment. Area-magnitude regression calculations suggest that such an earthquake on the western Castle Mountain fault would have a moment magnitude of 6.9 to 7.3.

  1. Distributions of (137)Cs and (210)Pb in moss collected from Belarus and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Aleksiayenak, Yu V; Frontasyeva, M V; Florek, M; Sykora, I; Holy, K; Masarik, J; Brestakova, L; Jeskovsky, M; Steinnes, E; Faanhof, A; Ramatlhape, K I

    2013-03-01

    In the present work, moss samples collected in Slovakia and Belarus were assayed with respect to gamma-emitting radionuclides. The results for (137)Cs and (210)Pb are discussed. Moss was used for the first time in Belarus, as a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution in consequence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In Belarus, the maximum activity of (137)Cs was observed in the Gomel region near Mazyr (6830 Bq/kg) and the minimum activity in the Vitebsyevsk Region near Luzhki-Yazno (5 Bq/kg). "Hot spots" were also observed near the towns Borisow and Yuratsishki. The results of measurements of (137)Cs in moss samples collected in 2000, 2006 and 2009 in the same localities of Slovakia are presented and compared with the results of air monitoring of (137)Cs carried out in Slovakia from 1977 until 2010. Measurements of the (210)Pb concentration in moss samples collected over the territory of Slovakia showed, that the median value exceed 2.3 times median value of (210)Pb obtained for Belarus moss. For that reason, the inhalation dose for man from (210)Pb and (137)Cs in Slovakia is more than twice as high as in Belarus, in spite of the initially very high (137)Cs exposure in the latter country.

  2. The hill forts and castle mounds in Lithuania: interaction between geodiversity and human-shaped landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante; Satkunas, Jonas

    2015-04-01

    Lithuania is famous for its abundant, picturesque hill forts and castle mounds of natural origin. In Lithuania as well as in whole Europe the fortified hills were used as the society dwelling place since the beginning of the Late Bronze Age. Their importance increased when Livonian and Teutonic Orders directed a series of military campaigns against Lithuania with the aim of expansion of Christianity in the region at the end of 1st millennium AD, and they were intensively used till the beginning of the 15th c. when most of them were burned down during fights with the Orders or just abandoned due to the changing political and economical situation. What types of the geodiversity were used for fortified dwellings? The choice in a particular area depended on a variety of geomorphology left behind the retreating ice sheets. High spots dominating their surroundings were of prime interest. In E and SE Lithuania, the Baltic Upland hills marking the eastern margin of the last Weichselian glacier hosted numerous fortified settlements from the end of 2nd millennium BC to the Medieval Ages (Narkunai, Velikuskes etc). In W Lithuania, plateau-like hills of the insular Samogitian Upland had been repeatedly fortified from the beginning of 1st millennium AD to the 14th century (Satrija, Medvegalis etc). Chains of hill forts and castle mounds feature the slopes of glaciofluvial valleys of Nemunas, Neris and other rivers where the slopes were dissected by affluent rivulets and ravines and transformed into isolated, well protected hills (Kernave, Punia, Veliuona etc). Peninsulas and headlands formed by the erosion of fluvial and lacustrine deposits were used in the lowlands, e.g. in central and N Lithuania (Paberze, Mezotne etc). How much the landscape was modified for defense purposes? Long-term erosion and overgrowing vegetation damaged the former fortified sites, however some remains and the archeological excavations allowed their reconstruction. The fortified Bronze Age settlements

  3. Distribution of transmissivity and yield of the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers in Northern New Hanover County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Nagy, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Data were collected from more than 230 wells in northern New Hanover County, North Carolina, to evaluate the distribution of transmissivity and yield of the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province. Constant-rate,single-well aquifer test data were obtained and analyzed to calculate additional transmissivity values for 25 production wells that were completed in the Castle Hayne or Peedee aquifer. In the surficial aquife, transmissivity values ranged from 400 to 12,700 feet squared per day, and reported yields ranged from 6 to 100 gallons per minute. In the Castle Hayne aquifer, transmissivity values ranged from 1,400 to 18,700 feet squared per day, and reported yields ranged from 9 to 640 gallons per minute. In the Peedee aquifer, transmissivity values ranged from 530 to 18,600 feet squared per day, and reported yields ranged from 8 to 1,000 gallons per minute.

  4. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A solar energy system located at the Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware is described. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat - new addition, domestic water - entire facility, and pool heating - entire facility. On a cost basis for 2920 hours of operation, the heat reclaimed would cost $969.66 annually if provided by gas at 3.79 per million Btu's. At 5.5 centers per kwh, heat recovery costs of $481.80 percent a net savings of $487.86 annually.

  5. [Organization and management of nationalized pharmaceutical industry in Slovakia from 1945 to 1948].

    PubMed

    Senček, Richard R

    2013-02-01

    The paper discusses a short but important period in the history of pharmaceutical industry with regard to Slovakia. The complicated post-war situation required peremptory interventions from the state, which attempted to secure the operation of strategic firms by means of National Administration Boards and nationalization. The firms which were nationalized by this measure were managed by the Ministry of Industry. They included also the pharmaceutical firms nationalized in Slovakia. The situation which produced contradictory responses in society and political scene culminated in the communist coup detat and nationalization of virtually all industries.Key words: nationalization pharmaceutical industry Ministry of Industry.

  6. A seismic source zone model for the seismic hazard assessment of Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hók, Jozef; Kysel, Robert; Kováč, Michal; Moczo, Peter; Kristek, Jozef; Kristeková, Miriam; Šujan, Martin

    2016-06-01

    We present a new seismic source zone model for the seismic hazard assessment of Slovakia based on a new seismotectonic model of the territory of Slovakia and adjacent areas. The seismotectonic model has been developed using a new Slovak earthquake catalogue (SLOVEC 2011), successive division of the large-scale geological structures into tectonic regions, seismogeological domains and seismogenic structures. The main criteria for definitions of regions, domains and structures are the age of the last tectonic consolidation of geological structures, thickness of lithosphere, thickness of crust, geothermal conditions, current tectonic regime and seismic activity. The seismic source zones are presented on a 1:1,000,000 scale map.

  7. Gastrointestinal microbiota in children with autism in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Tomova, Aleksandra; Husarova, Veronika; Lakatosova, Silvia; Bakos, Jan; Vlkova, Barbora; Babinska, Katarina; Ostatnikova, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Development of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), including autism, is based on a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Recent data propose the etiopathogenetic role of intestinal microflora in autism. The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in fecal microbiota in children with autism and determine its role in the development of often present gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and possibly other manifestations of autism in Slovakia. The fecal microflora of 10 children with autism, 9 siblings and 10 healthy children was investigated by real-time PCR. The fecal microbiota of autistic children showed a significant decrease of the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and elevation of the amount of Lactobacillus spp. Our results also showed a trend in the incidence of elevated Desulfovibrio spp. in children with autism reaffirmed by a very strong association of the amount of Desulfovibrio spp. with the severity of autism in the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) restricted/repetitive behavior subscale score. The participants in our study demonstrated strong positive correlation of autism severity with the severity of GI dysfunction. Probiotic diet supplementation normalized the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, Desulfovibrio spp. and the amount of Bifidobacterium spp. in feces of autistic children. We did not find any correlation between plasma levels of oxytocin, testosterone, DHEA-S and fecal microbiota, which would suggest their combined influence on autism development. This pilot study suggests the role of gut microbiota in autism as a part of the "gut-brain" axis and it is a basis for further investigation of the combined effect of microbial, genetic, and hormonal changes for development and clinical manifestation of autism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrological analysis of flash flood events in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvát, Oliver; Hlavcová, Kamila; Kohnová, Silvia; Borga, Marco; Szolgay, Ján.

    2010-05-01

    The paper concentrates on an analysis of three major flash floods in Slovakia, which occurred during recent years and caused great damage to property and also loss of lives. The flash floods selected occurred on the 20th of July, 1998, in the Malá Svinka and Dubovický creek basins; the 24th of July, 2001, at Štrbský Creek; and the 19th of June, 2004, at the Turniansky Creek. A description of the basins along with the selected flash floods is set out, and the results of the post-survey reconstruction of the flash flood events are described. To understand rainfall-runoff processes during these extreme flash floods and to test uncertainty of post-survey analyses, runoff responses during selected major events were examined using the KLEM (Kinematic Local Excess Model) spatially-distributed hydrological model. The distributed hydrological model is based on the availability of raster information of the landscape's topography, the soil and vegetation properties, and radar rainfall data. In the model, the SCS-Curve Number procedure is applied on a grid for the spatially-distributed representation of runoff-generating processes. A description of the drainage system response is used for representing the runoff's routing. The simulated values achieved by the KLEM model were compared with the maximum peaks estimated on the basis of post-event surveying and the results achieved are summarized and discussed. The consistency of the estimated and simulated values by the KLEM model was evident both in time and space, and the methodology has shown its applicability for practical purposes.

  9. Illegal Drug Use among Female University Students in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Matejovičová, Barbora; Trandžík, Jozef; Schlarmannová, Janka; Boledovičová, Mária; Velemínský, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is focused on the issue of illegal drug use among female university students preparing to become teachers. The main aim was to determine the frequency of drug abuse in a group of young women (n=215, mean age 20.44 years). Material/Methods Using survey methods, we determined that 33.48% of female university students in Slovakia use illegal drugs and 66.51% of students have never used illegal drugs. Differences between these groups were determined using statistical analysis, mostly in 4 areas of survey questions. Results We determined that education of parents has a statistically significant influence on use of illegal drugs by their children (χ2=10.14; P<0.05). Communication between parents and children and parental attention to children have a significant role in determining risky behavior (illegal drug use, χ2=8.698, P<0.05). Parents of students not using illegal drugs were interested in how their children spend their free time (68.53%). We confirmed the relationship between consumption of alcohol and illegal drug use (χ2=16.645; P<0.001) and smoking (χ2=6.226; P<0.05). The first contact with drugs occurs most frequently at high school age. The most consumed “soft” drug in our group of female university students is marijuana. Conclusions Our findings are relevant for comparison and generalization regarding causes of the steady increase in number of young people using illegal drugs. PMID:25602526

  10. Hydrology of Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tracts, central Utah, and potential effects of coal mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Baskin, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Alkali Creek coal-lease tract includes about 2,150 acres in the Book Cliffs coal field in central Utah, and the Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tract includes about 3,360 acres in the Wasatch Plateau coal field, also in central Utah. Both the Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tracts are near areas where coal is currently (1987) mined by underground methods from the Cretaceous Blackhawk Formation. The Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge areas have intermittent streams in which flow after snowmelt runoff is locally sustained into midsummer by springflow. The only perennial stream is South Fork Corner Canyon Creek in the Castle Valley Ridge area. Peak flow in both areas generally is from snowmelt runoff; however, peak flow from thunderstorm runoff in the Alkali Creek area can exceed that from snowmelt runoff. Estimated annual source-area sediment yield was 0.5 acre-ft/sq mi in the Alkali Creek lease tract and it was 0.3 acre-ft/sq mi in the Castle Valley Ridge lease tract. Groundwater in the Alkali Creek area occurs in perched aquifers in the Flagstaff Limestone and in other formations above the coal-bearing Blackhawk Formation. The principal source of recharge to the aquifers is snowmelt on outcrops. Faults may be major conduits and control the movement of groundwater. Groundwater discharges at formation contacts, between zones of differing permeability within a formation, near faults and into mines. Water sampled from 13 springs in the Alkali Creek area contained dissolved solids at concentrations ranging from 273 to 5,210 mg/L. Water sampled from 17 springs in the Castle Valley Ridge area contained dissolved solids at concentrations ranging from 208 to 579 mg/L. The composition of water from a recently abandoned part of an active mine the Wasatch Plateau closely resembles that of water discharging from a nearby mine that has been abandoned for more than 30 years. Mining of the Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tracts likely will

  11. Radiation Resistance Study of Semi-Insulating GaAs-Based Radiation Detectors to Extremely High Gamma Doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly Anh, T.; Perd'ochová, A.; Nečas, V.; Pavlicová, V.

    2006-01-01

    In our previous paper [V. Nečas et al.: Nucl. Inst. and Meth. A 458 (2001) 348-351] we reported on the study on radiation stability of semi-insulating (SI) LEG GaAs detectors to doses of photons from 60Co up to 19.2 kGy. Later we presented a study, which covered radiation hardness to the same doses on the base of detector material itself, where strong dependence has been proved [T. Ly Anh et al., Proceedings of the XII th International Conference on Semiconducting and Insulating Materials (SIMC-XII-2002). Smolenice Castle, Slovakia (2002) 292-295 (0-7803-7418-5)]. In this paper we present both the key electrical and detection characteristics of SI GaAs radiation detectors prepared using substrates from four various supplies and two different types of contacts, which were exposed to several gamma doses from 60Co up to the integral dose of about 1 MGy. The obtained results show that SI LEG GaAs detectors provide good spectroscopic performances and even their slight improvement after low to middle gamma irradiation doses (3 -10 kGy) was observed. Further dose exposure caused the degradation of detection properties with an extreme and following improvement depending on detector material properties. SI GaAs detector still retains its working capabilities even after very high doses applied, up to 1 MGy.

  12. Geologic framework and hot dry rock geothermal potential of the Castle Dome area, Yuma County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Gutmann, J.T.

    1981-02-01

    The Castle Dome Mountains and surrounding ranges constitute a voluminous pile of silicic volcanic rocks within the Basin and Range province of southwestern Arizona. Previously reported as Cretaceous and Quaternary in age, these volcanics all are of late Oligocene to early Miocene age as indicated by five new K-Ar dates. Reconnaissance field studies indicate that the volcanic section locally has undergone large rotations that contrast with the usual structural style of the Basin and Range and resemble the thin-skinned rotational tectonics documented for earlier, mid-Tertiary extensional deformation in ranges to the north and northeast. Significant geothermal potential of the Castle Dome area is suggested by a shallow depth to the Curie isotherm and by the apparent presence of a good electrical conductor at anomalously shallow depth in the crust. Warm wells exist in the area and Shearer (1979) reported a geothermal gradient of about 70/sup 0/C/km in a dry well near the center of the gravity low. Radiogenic heat production in the silicic batholith inferred above constitutes a reasonable candidate for a shallow regional heat source.

  13. Processed seismic motion records from earthquakes, 1982-1993: Recorded at Scotty's Castle, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lum, P. K.; Honda, K. K.

    1993-10-01

    As part of the contract with the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), URS/John A. Blume & Associates, Engineers (URS/Blume) maintained a network of seismographs to monitor the ground motion generated by the underground nuclear explosions (UNE's) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The seismographs were located in the communities surrounding the NTS and the Las Vegas valley. When these seismographs were not used for monitoring the UNE generated motions, a limited number of seismographs were maintained for monitoring motion generated by other than UNE's (e.g. motion generated by earthquakes, wind, blast). Scotty's Castle was one of the selected earthquake monitoring stations. During the period from 1982 through 1993, numerous earthquakes which varied in magnitudes and distances were recorded at Scotty's Castle. The records from 24 earthquakes were processed and included in this report. The processed earthquakes are listed in chronological order and in the order of epicentral distances, respectively. These epicenters and magnitudes are shown. Due to the potential benefit of these data for the scientific community, DOE/NV and the National Park Service authorize the release of these records.

  14. Modelling from the Past: the Leaning Soutwest Tower of Caerphilly Castle 1539-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prizeman, O. E. C.; Sarhosis, V.; D'Alri, A. M.; Whitman, C. J.; Muratore, G.

    2017-08-01

    Caerphilly Castle (1268-70) is the first concentric castle in Britain and the second largest in the UK. The dramatic inclination of its ruinous south west tower has been noted since 1539. Comparing data from historical surveys and a terrestrial laser scan undertaken in 2015, this paper seeks to review evidence for the long-term stability of the tower. Digital documentation and archival research by architects is collated to provide data for structural analysis by engineers. A terrestrial laser scan was used to create a detailed three dimensional finite element model to enable structural analysis of the current shape of the tower made by tetrahedral elements. An automated strategy has been implemented for the transformation of the complex three dimensional point cloud into a three dimensional finite element model. Numerical analysis has been carried out aiming at understanding the main structural weaknesses of the tower in its present condition. Comparisons of four sets of data: 1539, 1830, 1870 and 2015 enabled us to determine change albeit between very different methods of measurement.

  15. Crystal mush flow in a small concentrically expanded pluton (Castle Crags pluton; Klamath Mountains, CA, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machek, Matej; Závada, Prokop; Petrovský, Eduard; Roxerová, Zuzana; Špičák, Aleš

    2017-04-01

    By means of an example of small concentrically-zoned Castle Crags pluton in the Klamath Mountains (USA), we decipher origin of granite rock fabrics, emplacement mode, and evolution of internal architecture of the pluton, which have been mostly in the crystal mush state during fabric development and solidification. Through the detailed microstructural and magnetic study we discuss the pluton fabric formation and emplacement. The study combines the field-based structural measurements, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility analyses, and rock magnetic properties with detailed quantitative and qualitative microstructural analysis. The pluton structure with the marginal strain gradient is interpreted as a result of compaction, melt segregation and cumulate formation in the granodiorite caused by the intrusion of the throndhjemite magma to the core of the already emplaced granodiorite. The lateral flow of the magma from the central region formed lobe, the existence of which aphiliates the Castle Crags pluton to concentrically expanded plutons, which grew in at least two increments. The AMS results put forward the presence of anomalously high intensive magnetic fabric, (high P values, P > 1.2) and evolution of the T parameter through the pluton. We interpret the high P values as a result of variable microstructural position and crystal plastic deformation of a part of the magnetite crystals due to magma flow in submagmatic state. The AMS ellipsoid shape evolution is explained by fabric intensification in earlier magma pulses due to the intrusion of the throndhjemite magma to the core of the evolving pluton.

  16. Processed seismic motion records from earthquakes (1982--1993): Recorded at Scotty`s Castle, California

    SciTech Connect

    Lum, P.K.; Honda, K.K.

    1993-10-01

    As part of the contract with the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), URS/John A. Blume & Associates, Engineers (URS/Blume) maintained a network of seismographs to monitor the ground motion generated by the underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The seismographs were located in the communities surrounding the NTS and the Las Vegas valley. When these seismographs were not used for monitoring the UNE generated motions, a limited number of seismographs were maintained for monitoring motion generated by other than UNEs (e.g. motion generated by earthquakes, wind, blast). Scotty`s Castle was one of the selected earthquake monitoring station. During the period from 1982 through 1993, numerous earthquakes with varied in magnitudes and distances were recorded at Scotty`s Castle. The records from 24 earthquakes were processed and included in this report. Tables 1 and 2 lists the processed earthquakes in chronological order and in the order of epicentral distances, respectively. Figure 1 shows these epicenters and magnitudes. Due to the potential benefit of these data for the scientific community, DOE/NV and the National Park Service authorize the release of these records.

  17. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  18. Beware of the Dog! Private Linguistic Landscapes in Two "Hungarian" Villages in South-West Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laihonen, Petteri

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates how a single type of sign can be connected to language policy on a larger scale. Focusing on the relationship between language policy and language ideologies, I investigate the private Linguistic Landscape (LL) of Hungarians living in two villages in Slovakia. Through an examination of "beware of the dog" signs,…

  19. Preliminary results on predation of gypsy moth pupae during a period of latency in Slovakia

    Treesearch

    Marek Turcani; Andrew M. Liebhold; Michael McManus; J& #250; lius Novotn& #253

    2003-01-01

    Predation of gypsy moth pupae was studied from 2000 -2003 in Slovakia. Predation on artificially reared pupae was recorded and linear regression was used to test the hypothesis that predation follows a type II vs. type III functional response. The role of pupal predation in gypsy moth population dynamics was also investigated. The relative importance of predation of...

  20. Beware of the Dog! Private Linguistic Landscapes in Two "Hungarian" Villages in South-West Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laihonen, Petteri

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates how a single type of sign can be connected to language policy on a larger scale. Focusing on the relationship between language policy and language ideologies, I investigate the private Linguistic Landscape (LL) of Hungarians living in two villages in Slovakia. Through an examination of "beware of the dog" signs,…

  1. Teaching Translation and Interpreting in Slovakia: Is There Anything Other than Levý and Popovic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biloveský, Vladimír; Djovcoš, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Institutional translation and interpreting training has a long lasting tradition in Slovakia mainly thanks to such significant translation scholars as Anton Popovic, František Miko, Ján Vilikovský and many others. However the situation has changed after the Velvet Revolution in 1989 and the education needed to start adapting to the new market…

  2. European Gender Lessons: Girls and Boys at Scout Camps in Denmark, Portugal, Russia and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

    2004-01-01

    The article investigates the tensions between and within models of gender equality and gender complementarity by studying children who are in the midst of learning to apply these gender models in practice. Children (aged 11-15 years) were observed and interviewed while they participated in scout camps in Denmark, Portugal, Slovakia and Russia.…

  3. Curricular Transformation of Education in the Field of Physical and Sport Education in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendíková, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The study presents basic information on the curricular transformation of physical and sport education in Slovakia after the year 1989, which is related to the education process in the 21st century. What is more, it points to the basis for modern transformation in relation to sports as well as to insufficient undergraduate teacher training and its…

  4. Museology as a University Subject in Slovakia: History, Program and Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tišliar, Pavol

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the development of museum studies and museology as a field of scientific inquiry and a university course in Slovakia. First I examine the role of memory institutions in the formation of this field in response to the need for the specialized education of their staff and describe the fundamentals and the development of program…

  5. Preliminary results on predation of gypsy moth egg masses in Slovakia

    Treesearch

    Marek Turcani; Andrew Liebhold; Michael McManus; Julius Novotny

    2003-01-01

    Predation of gypsy moth egg masses was studied in Slovakia from 1999-2002. Predation on naturally laid egg masses was recorded and linear regression was used to test the hypothesis that predation follows a type II vs. type III functional response. We also investigated the role of egg mass predation in gypsy moth population dynamics. The relative contribution of...

  6. Surviving Stalin to Be Done in by Disney? Children's Literature in Slovakia (Reading around the World).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloem, Patricia L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the paradoxical situation regarding children's literature in Slovakia since the 1989 revolution. Notes that what had been forbidden suddenly was available. Decries the proliferation of Disney and other second-rate books from the West to the detriment of quality Slovak indigenous literature. (SR)

  7. Dynamics of forest health status in Slovakia from 1987 to 1994

    Treesearch

    Julius Oszlanyi

    1998-01-01

    Slovakia is a mountainous and forested country (40.6 percent forest cover) in central Europe and has a large variety of vegetation zones, forest types, and a rich diversity of forest tree species. The most important tree species are beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.), oak species (Quercus...

  8. Alternative Civil Enculturation: Political Disenchantment and Civic Attitudes in Minority Schools in Estonia, Latvia, and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubeva, Maria; Austers, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates the ways in which minority schools in Latvia, Estonia, and Slovakia resist the dominant narratives of nation and citizenship and provide an alternative model of civil enculturation for students. It provides evidence to support the hypothesis that differences between competing narratives of statehood and nationhood among…

  9. Basic estimate of needs for training in evidence-based medicine in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Bacharova, L; Hlavacka, S; Rusnakova, V

    2000-01-01

    This study reports the findings of the first survey of the knowledge and needs for training in evidence based medicine (EBM) of health-care workers in Slovakia. This study was primarily qualitative and based on a triangular approach, which included: analysis of the situation in pre- and postgraduate education in Slovakia aimed at estimating needs in EBM and critical appraisal skills (CAS) training; analysis of questionnaires distributed in a sample of medical doctors and university educated public health workers undergoing postgraduate training; and focus group discussions. The findings revealed a real gap in knowledge in EBM and CAS in Slovakia and identified several areas as the focus for intervention. The results showed also some important behavioural and cultural aspects, including low individual responsibility for education; tendency to delegate responsibility to authorities (experts, top management, Ministry of Health); and persistence of the state paternalistic type of education. Concludes that managers planning to implement EBM in Slovakia should therefore consider a broader behavioural and cultural context for change, not just introduction of a training EBM module.

  10. European Gender Lessons: Girls and Boys at Scout Camps in Denmark, Portugal, Russia and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

    2004-01-01

    The article investigates the tensions between and within models of gender equality and gender complementarity by studying children who are in the midst of learning to apply these gender models in practice. Children (aged 11-15 years) were observed and interviewed while they participated in scout camps in Denmark, Portugal, Slovakia and Russia.…

  11. Miocene deformation of the central Vienna Basin (Austria-Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámolyi, András.; Lee, Eun Young; Beidinger, Andreas; Hoprich, Maria; Strauss, Philipp; Decker, Kurt

    2010-05-01

    The project KARPATIAN TECTONICS SLOVAKIA aims at the creation of a comprehensive geologic model of the structural evolution of the Vienna Basin area before the onset of major subsidence related to pull-apart deformation, i.e., during the Lower Miocene. Seismic data acquired by OMV from the central Vienna Basin and from the region east fo the Drösing depression, as well as outcrop data provide the basis for structural geologic interpretation of the entire central Vienna Basin. In this study, we focus on the complex structural evolution that can be mapped from these seismic datasets complementing the deformation geometry and history of the region east of the Spannberg ridge. The structural inventory found in the central Vienna Basin consist of (i) ENE and WSW dipping normal faults, (ii) SE- to ESE-dipping thrust faults, (iii) NW - SE-striking sinistral strike-slip faults (Hölzel et al., in press). These structural features can be found above the nappes of the Austroalpine Calcareous Alps, the nappes of the Tirolic and Bajuvaric superunits. In this study, we can complement the structures from East to West as follows: (1) The continution of the Lassee negative flower structure reaches up along the Lab fault system to the Laksary elevation. Here, it widens and branches off into at least two major branches engulfing the Laksary elevation. (2) N - S striking strike-slip faults penetrating the accoustic basement as well as Karpatian strata possibly form a continuing system that branches off of the Zwerndorf transform fault system. (3) In the center of the Gajary depression, normal faults offset the accoustic basement above sediments of the Upper Cretaceous Gosau Group. These features can be dated by Karpatian growth strata. However, the normal faults were not always active at the same time as indicated by the geometry of the sedimentary strata bounded by the normal faults. (4) At the western boundary of the Gajary depression, smaller scale normal faults deform the

  12. Report on radio observation of meteors (Iža, Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinský, Peter; Dorotovič, Ivan; Vidovenec, Marian

    2014-02-01

    During the period from 1 to 17 August 2014 meteors were experimentally registered using radio waves. This experiment was conducted in the village of Iža, Slovakia. Its main objective was to test the technical equipment intended for continuous registration of meteor echoes, which will be located in the Slovak Central Observatory in Hurbanovo. These tests are an indirect continuation of previous experiments of observation of meteor showers using the technology available in Hurbanovo at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. The device consists of two independent receiver systems. One recorded echoes of the transmitter Graves 143.050 MHz (N47.3480° E5.5151°, France) and the second one recorded echoes of the TV transmitter Lviv 49.739583 MHz (N49.8480° E24.0369°, Ukraine). The apparatus for tracking radio echoes of the transmitter Graves consists of a 9-element Yagi antenna with vertical polarization (oriented with an elevation of 0° at azimuth 270°), the receiver Yaesu VR-5000 in CW mode, and a computer with registration using the program HROFFT v1.0.0f. The second apparatus recording the echoes of the transmitter Lviv consists of a LP (log-periodic) antenna with horizontal polarization (elevation of 0° and azimuth of 90°), the receiver ICOM R-75 in the CW mode, and also a computer with registration using HROFFT v1.0.0f. A total of about 78000 echoes have been registered during around 700 hours of registration. Probably not all of them are caused by meteors. These data were statistically processed and compared with visual observations in the IMO database. Planned own visual observations could not be performed due to unfavourable weather conditions lasting from 4 to 13 August 2014. The registered data suggest that observations were performed in the back-scatter mode in this configuration and not in the planned forward-scatter mode. Deeper analysis and longer data sets are, however, necessary to calibrate the observation system and this will

  13. 78 FR 64912 - Approval of Expansion of Subzone 99E, Delaware City Refining Company LLC, New Castle County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Expansion of Subzone 99E, Delaware City Refining Company LLC, New... application to the Board to expand Subzone 99E at the facilities of Delaware City Refining Company LLC... Subzone 99E ] at the facilities of the Delaware City Refining Company LLC, located in New Castle County...

  14. Assessing the Basic Components of Reading: A Revision of the Castles and Coltheart Test with New Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castles, Anne; Coltheart, Max; Larsen, Linda; Jones, Pip; Saunders, Steven; McArthur, Genevieve

    2009-01-01

    We present administration details and normative data for a new version of the word and nonword reading test originally developed by Castles and Coltheart. The new test contains an expanded set of items, with 40 each of regular words, irregular words and nonwords, rather than the original 30 items of each type. The new items extend the upper-end of…

  15. Assessing the Basic Components of Reading: A Revision of the Castles and Coltheart Test with New Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castles, Anne; Coltheart, Max; Larsen, Linda; Jones, Pip; Saunders, Steven; McArthur, Genevieve

    2009-01-01

    We present administration details and normative data for a new version of the word and nonword reading test originally developed by Castles and Coltheart. The new test contains an expanded set of items, with 40 each of regular words, irregular words and nonwords, rather than the original 30 items of each type. The new items extend the upper-end of…

  16. Chemical constituents in the Peedee and Castle Hayne aquifers: Porters Neck area, New Hanover County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, T.L.; Harris, W.B.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns about overuse and potential contamination of major aquifers in the southeastern part of North Carolina resulted in the initiation of a subsurface water quality study in February 2001. The focus of this study was to examine variations in nutrients (NO3-, TRP, SO42- Cl-, NH4+) and total dissolved Fe in the Cretaceous Peedee and Tertiary Castle Hayne Limestone aquifers of northeastern New Hanover County. Water samples were collected monthly for one year from sixteen wells located in the Porters Neck area (west of the Intracoastal Waterway and south of Futch Creek) and four springs located on the south side of Futch Creek. Variations in selective nutrient concentrations were measured between and within each aquifer. Concentrations of NH4+ and Fe increased in the Peedee sandstone aquifer during the warmer summer and early fall months. In late summer to early fall, Fe, NO 3-, NH4+, and TRP concentrations in the Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer were significantly higher than in the spring and winter months. Chloride and SO 42- concentrations for the Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer both increased during the warmer months, probably as a result of saltwater intrusion. Factors considered for nutrient and Fe variance include: temperature variation, anaerobic conditions, subsurface stratigraphy/structure, recharge locations, site location and surface fertilization. The shallower Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer showed seasonal variability in the study area, whereas the Peedee sandstone aquifer showed little to no seasonal variability. Increases in NO3- and TRP lagged slightly behind periods of high fertilization and were more prevalent down-dip of a major golf course. Nutrient content and seasonal variation of Futch Creek springs indicated that they originate from the Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer.

  17. Freezing-thawing action in the deterioration of the stones of Chambord Castle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomari, Asaad; Brunetaud, Xavier; Beck, Kevin; Al-Mukhtar, Muzahim

    2013-04-01

    Limestone is very common in architecture (monuments and cultural heritage buildings) and used in the sculptures. The soft and porous limestone soaks up water and show weathering patterns and forms: alveolar weathering, granular disintegration, efflorescences. Freezing-thawing actions can be considered as one of the processes that contribute in the deterioration of stones located in the "cold regions" characterized with air temperatures below freezing point temperature. The amount of water within the pore space of the stones is a crucial factor of the decay. The experimental work presented in this paper is a part of a research program that aims to study the mechanisms that lead to the degradation of stone building materials due to the variation of climatic conditions. The analysis of the meteorological data of the field around the castle of Chambord shows the magnitude of temperature variations and the frequency of freezing-thawing cycles. The critical degrees of saturation at which the stone start to deteriorate after treatment with freezing-thawing cycles were examined in the tests conducted. The study concerns two porous limestone used in the construction and conservation of Chambord castle; highly porous Tuffeau stone having a total porosity of about 48 %, and medium porous Richemont stone with a total porosity of 27 %. Richemont stone has been used as a substitute stone of the degraded Tuffeau stone on the castle. The main physical properties, total porosity, apparent dry density and skeleton density and sound velocity for mechanical properties were measured for the stone samples before and during freezing-thawing cycles. ASTM (D5312-04) procedure was applied in the freezing-thawing tests. Tuffeau and Richmond samples were prepared at nine different degrees of saturations; 0, 20, 40, 70, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100%, and properties were measured after different freezing-thawing cycles conditions; 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 30 and 50 cycles. The results of these tests show

  18. New species of Ampharetidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Arctic Loki Castle vent field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongsrud, Jon A.; Eilertsen, Mari H.; Alvestad, Tom; Kongshavn, Katrine; Rapp, Hans Tore

    2017-03-01

    Ampharetid polychaetes adapted to live in chemosynthetic environments are well known from the deep Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, but to date no such species have been reported from the Arctic Ocean. Here, we describe two new species, Paramytha schanderi gen. et sp. nov. and Pavelius smileyi sp. nov., from the Arctic Loki's Castle vent field on the Knipovich Ridge north-east of the island of Jan Mayen. The new species are both tube-builders, and are found in a sedimentary area at the NE flank of the vent field, characterized by low-temperature venting and barite chimneys. The new genus, Paramytha, is characterized by a prostomium without lobes or glandular ridges, smooth buccal tentacles, four pairs of cirriform branchiae arranged as 2+1+1 without median gap dorsally on segments II-IV, absence of chaetae (paleae) on segment II, and absence of modified segments. P. smileyi sp. nov. is placed in the previously monotypic genus Pavelius, primarily based on the presence of a rounded prostomium without lobes and four pairs of branchiae arranged in a single transverse row without median gap dorsally on segment III. Pavelius smileyi sp. nov. differs from the type species, Pavelius uschakovi, in the number of thoracic and abdominal chaetigers, and the absence of chaetae (paleae) on segment II. The phylogenetic position of the two new species from Loki's Castle is further explored by use of molecular data. New sequences of mitochondrial (16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, COI) and nuclear (18S rDNA) markers have been produced for both species from Loki's Castle, as well as for specimens identified as Paramytha sp. from Setùbal Canyon off Portugal, and for the following species: Pavelius uschakovi, Grassleia cf. hydrothermalis, Sosane wireni, Amphicteis ninonae and Samythella neglecta. Results from phylogenetic analysis, including 22 species and 12 genera of Ampharetidae, recovered Paramytha gen. nov. as monophyletic with maximum support, and a close relationship

  19. Preliminary Results on Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Loki's Castle Arctic Vents and Host Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga, Fernando; Carvalho, Carlos; Inês Cruz, M.; Dias, Ágata; Fonseca, Rita; Relvas, Jorge; Pedersen, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    The Loki's Castle hydrothermal vent field was discovered in the summer of 2008, during a cruise led by the Centre of Geobiology of the University of Bergen, integrated in the H2Deep Project (Eurocores, ESF). Loki's Castle is the northernmost hydrothermal vent field discovered to date. It is located at the junction between the Mohns Ridge and the South Knipovich Ridge, in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, at almost 74°N. This junction shows unique features and apparently there is no transform fault to accommodate the deformation generated by the bending of the rift valley from WSW-ENE to almost N-S. The Knipovich Rigde, being a complex structure, is an ultra-slow spreading ridge, with an effective spreading rate of only ~ 6 mm/y. It is partly masked by a substantial cover of glacial and post-glacial sediments, estimated to be between 12 and 20 ky old, derived from the nearby Bear Island fan, to the East of the ridge. The Loki's Castle vent site is composed of several active, over 10 m tall chimneys, producing up to 320°C fluid, at the top of a very large sulphide mound, which is estimated to be around 200 m in diameter. About a dozen gravity cores were obtained in the overall area. From these we collected nearly 200 subsamples. Eh and pH were measured in all subsamples. The Portuguese component of the H2Deep project is aimed at characterizing, chemically and mineralogically, the sulphide chimneys and the collected sediments around the vents (up to 5 meters long gravity cores). These studies are aimed at understanding the ore-forming system, and its implications for submarine mineral exploration, as well as the relation of the microbial population with the hydrothermal component of sediments. Here we present an overview of preliminary data on the mineralogical assemblage found in the analyzed sediments and chimneys. The identification of the different mineral phases was obtained through petrographic observations of polished thin sections under the microscope (with both

  20. Paleomagnetism of Cretaceous and Paleocene sedimentary rocks across the Castle Mountain Fault, south central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatakos, John A.; Kodama, K. P.; Vittorio, L. F.; Pavlis, T. L.

    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analyses on 217 samples from 13 sites in the Paleocene Chickaloon Formation south of the Castle Mountain Fault and 111 samples from 9 sites in the coeval, but lithologically distinct, Arkose Ridge Formation north of this fault indicate that these rocks contain a pre-folding magnetization carried by fine grained (<1.0μm) single domain magnetite. Secondary magnetizations are common, possibly as the result of the presence of authigenic or hydrothermal pyrrhotite. Although characteristic magnetizations were isolated for the Chickaloon and Arkose Ridge rocks, the best results were obtained from demagnetization plane analysis which estimates the location of the paleomagnetic pole for the Chickaloon Formation at 50.5°N, 277.2°E, δm = 12.2°, δP = 7.77deg;, and a paleomagnetic pole for the Arkose Ridge Formation at 60.4°N, 138.6°E, δm = 11.6°, δp = 6.4°. These results suggest that there is no paleomagnetically discernible latitudinal offset across the Castle Mountain Fault since Paleocene time, but that both the Chickaloon and Arkose Ridge rocks, as part of the Peninsular terrane, originated approximately 1600±1200 km south of their present position with respect to North America. One possible explanation of these data is that the Peninsular terrane was accreted to North America at mid-latitudes in the Cretaceous and was subsequently translated northward by right-lateral strike-slip faulting parallel to the North American margin. Hence, the Arkose Ridge and Chickaloon results may be indicative of the cumulative right-hand displacement occurring on these faults since Paleocene time. However, a calculation using the pole to the small circle fit of the present-day curvature of the Tintina-Northern Rocky Mountain Trench and Denali fault systems, and the maximum amount of structurally estimated offset across these fault systems, indicates that motion on these faults can account for no more than half of the paleomagnetically observed

  1. Operation Castle Cascade: managing multiple casualties from a simulated chemical weapons attack.

    PubMed

    Siegel, David; Younggren, Bradley N; Ness, Brian; Kvool, Valerie

    2003-05-01

    In the wake of the recent terrorist attack on the United States, there is an ever-increasing need for the defense against weapons of mass destruction. The use of explosive devices in combination with chemical agents could result in a community disaster with multiple traumatic and medical injuries. Military medical personnel may be the first called upon due to their unique training and equipment. Operation Castle Cascade was a large-scale exercise on a military instillation involving the apprehension of hostages and detonation of an explosive device containing dimethyl sulfate. We will provide details on the medical management of 50 patients with simulated chemical and traumatic injuries. Issues relating to on-site chemical identification, triage, decontamination, treatment, casualty collection, and transportation of casualties are addressed in this article.

  2. Hydrologic data for the Potomac Formation in New Castle County, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Mary M.; Denver, Judith M.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic data for the Potomac Formation in New Castle County, Delaware, consist of records of historical ground-water pumpage, water levels, water quality, and surface-water discharge. This report includes records of 405 wells and hydro-graphs of water levels in 86 wells. Pumpage from 20 well fields is reported. Also included are stream-discharge hydrographs for 6 stations for water years 1979 and 1980 and historical low-flow measurements for 22 stations. In the analysis of 23 aquifer tests, transmissivity and storage coefficient values for the Potomac Formation range from 454 to 8,480 feet squared per day and 3.8X10-3 to 5.6X10-5, respectively. Vertical hydraulic conductivities of the confining bed range from 0.0083 to 3.2 feet per day.

  3. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System located at the Wilmington, Swim School, New Castle, Delaware. This active solar system is composed of 2,700 square feet of Revere liquid flat plate collectors piped to a 2,800 gallon concrete storage tank located below ground near the building. A micro-computer based control system selects the optimal applications of the stored energy among space, domestic water and pool alternatives. The controlled logic is planned for serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat-new addition, domestic water-entire facility, and pool heating-entire facility. A modified trombe wall passive operation the active system will bypass the areas being served passively. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution.

  4. Injecting polyacrylamide into Gulf Coast sands: The White Castle Q sand polymer-injectivity test

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, G.T.; Thigpen, D.R.

    1996-08-01

    A polymer-injectivity test designed to control mobility in cosurfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding was performed in the Q sand of the White Castle field, LA. Analysis of test data indicates that a polymer bank with an average viscosity of 4 cp was propagated as far as 90 ft into the reservoir with no measurable sign of degradation. It is estimated from pilot and laboratory data that injection of 500 ppm polyacrylamide through perforations at a rate of at least 32 B-D/in{sup 2} of perforation into gulf coast sands is feasible. Monitoring of backproduced reservoir samples indicates that, to date, no detectable change in viscosity has occurred over a 2-year period.

  5. Personal exposure to particles in Banská Bystrica, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Brauer, M; Hrubá, F; Mihalíková, E; Fabiánová, E; Miskovic, P; Plziková, A; Lendacká, M; Vandenberg, J; Cullen, A

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated adverse health impacts with ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM), though these studies have been limited in their characterization of personal exposure to PM. An exposure study of healthy nonsmoking adults and children was conducted in Banska Bystrica, Slovakia, to characterize the range of personal exposures to air pollutants and to determine the influence of occupation, season, residence location, and outdoor and indoor concentrations on personal exposures. Twenty-four-hour personal, at-home indoor, and ambient measurements of PM10, PM2.5, sulfate (SO4(2-)) and nicotine were obtained for 18 office workers, 16 industrial workers, and 15 high school students in winter and summer. Results showed that outdoor levels of pollutants were modest, with clear seasonal differences: outdoor PM10 summer/winter mean = 35/45 microg/m3; PM2.5 summer/winter mean = 22/32 microg/m3. SO4(2-) levels were low (4-7 microg/m3) and relatively uniform across the different sample types (personal, indoor, outdoor), areas, and occupational groups. This suggests that SO4(2-) may be a useful marker for combustion mode particles of ambient origin, although the relationship between personal exposures and ambient SO4(2-) levels was more complex than observed in North American settings. During winter especially, the central city area showed higher concentrations than the suburban location for outdoor, personal, and indoor measures of PM10, PM2.5, and to a lesser extent for SO4(2-), suggesting the importance of local sources. For PM2.5 and PM10, ratios consistent with expectations were found among exposure indices for all three subject groups (personal>indoor>outdoor), and between work type (industrial>students>office workers). The ratio of PM2.5 personal to indoor exposures ranged from 1.0 to 3.9 and of personal to outdoor exposures from 1.6 to 4.2. The ratio of PM10 personal to indoor exposures ranged from 1.1 to 2.9 and the ratio of personal

  6. [Occupational tuberculosis in Slovakia and in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Buchancová, J; Svihrová, V; Legáth, L; Bátora, I; Záborský, T; Rozborilová, E; Fenclová, Z; Urban, P; Zibolenová, J; Osina, O; Janoušek, M; Hudečková, H

    2014-09-01

    .7% of the total of reported cases of occupational TB). As expected, more cases occurred in females than in males (1.9 times as many cases in females as in males in the Slovak Republic and three times as many cases in females as in males in the Czech Republic). The incidence of occupational TB was the highest in sector Q, with the highest absolute numbers reported in nurses. In 2012, the incidence rates of occupational TB were 0.22 cases per 100,000 sick benefit policy holders in the Slovak Republic and 0.13 cases per 100,000 sick benefit policy holders in the Czech Republic. The incidence of occupational TB has a downward trend in both countries, similarly to TB incidence in the general population. A negative aspect in both countries is the incidence of occupational TB at the middle productive age, in contrast to the population occupationally non-exposed to TB. Slovakia is surrounded by higher prevalence countries, with the exception of the Czech Republic. It cannot be ruled out that, in addition to the known factors influencing the prevalence of TB, including occupational TB, migration from eastern countries, including job search migration, can also play a role in increase in TB cases. It is vital to continue epidemiological surveillance and to reduce the risk of TB as much as possible also in healthcare settings by adhering to barrier nursing practices. Cases of active TB need early and adequately long, controlled treatment in order to reduce, among others, the incidence of multi-drug resistant TB.

  7. Flood hazards along the Toutle and Cowlitz rivers, Washington, from a hypothetical failure of Castle Lake blockage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius; Orzol, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    A recent evaluation of groundwater and material in the blockage impounding Castle Lake shows that the blockage is potentially unstable against failure from piping due to heave and internal erosion when groundwater levels are seasonally high. There is also a remote possibility that a 6.8 or greater magnitude earthquake could occur in the Castle Lake area when groundwater levels are critically high. If this situation occurs, the debris blockage that confines Castle Lake could breach from successive slope failure with liquefaction of a portion of the blockage. A dam-break computer model was used to simulate discharge through a hypothetical breach in the Castle Lake blockage that could be caused by failure by heave, internal erosion, or liquefaction. Approximately 18,500 acre-ft of stored water would be released from an assumed breach that fully developed to a 1,000-ft width over a 15-minute time period. The resulting flood, incorporating 3.4 x 10 to the 6th power cu yd of the debris blockage, would reach a peak magnitude of 1,500,000 cu ft/s (cubic feet per second). The flood is also assumed to incorporate an additional 137x10 to the 6th power cu yd of saturated debris material from downstream deposits. Flow is considered to be hyperconcentrated with sediment throughout the course of the flood. The hypothetical hyperconcentrated flow is routed downstream, superimposed on normal winter flood flows by use of a one-dimensional unsteady-state numerical streamflow simulation model. From a starting magnitude of 1,500,000 cu ft/s, the peak increases to 2,100,000 cu ft/s at N-1 Dam (12 mi downstream) and attenuates to 1,200,000 cu ft/s at Kid Valley (25 mi downstream) , to 100,000 cu ft/s at Longview and the confluence of the Columbia River (65 mi downstream). From time of breach, the flood peak would take 2.2 hr to reach Toutle, 3.8 hr to reach Castle Rock, and 8.5 hr to reach Longview. Communities of Toutle , Castle Rock, Kelso, and Longview would experience extreme to

  8. The struggle to address woman battering in Slovakia: stories from service providers.

    PubMed

    Miller, Susan L; Wasileski, Gabriela

    2015-06-01

    Following the fall of communism, Slovakia found itself in a challenging position: to openly acknowledge the existence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its disproportionate effect on women and children without an infrastructure to address victim safety, and provide resources and legal help. With collaboration with non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the government responded by developing shelters and introducing legislation that criminalized IPV and created social services for victims. To assess implementation efforts, we conducted in-depth interviews with governmental officials and NGO personnel who provide services for battered women. We focus on the operation and efficacy of shelters to discover what services are most needed for battered women, the criminal justice system's response to IPV, and what long-range goals will facilitate more permanent solutions to the social problem of violence against women in Slovakia.

  9. Experience Of Implementing The Integrated Management System In Manufacturing Companies In Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestyánszka Škůrková, Katarína; Kučerová, Marta; Fidlerová, Helena

    2015-06-01

    In corporate practice, the term of Integrated Management System means a system the aim of which is to manage an organization regarding the quality, environment, health and safety at work. In the first phase of the VEGA project No. 1/0448/13 "Transformation of ergonomics program into the company management structure through interaction and utilization QMS, EMS, HSMS", we focused on obtaining information about the way or procedure of implementing the integrated management systems in manufacturing companies in Slovakia. The paper considers characteristics of integrated management system, specifies the possibilities for successive integration of the management systems and also describes the essential aspects of the practical implementation of integrated management systems in companies in Slovakia.

  10. Monitoring of Landslide Activity in Slovakia Territory Using Multi-Temporal InSAR Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakon, M.; Papco, J.; Perissin, D.; Lazecky, M.; Sousa, J. J.; Hlavacova, I.; Batorova, K.; Ondrejka, P.; Liscak, P.; Paudits, P.; Real, N.

    2015-05-01

    Slope deformations are the most important geohazards in Slovakia which annually cause an extensive economic damage of significant influence. About 22000 slope deformations have been registered so far, covering an area of almost 2600 km2 . Since 2010, 639 new slope failures have been witnessed and their activation was driven mainly by the climatic anomalies such as extraordinary rainfalls. Many of these landslides currently represent a direct threat to the lives, health and property of the residents in the affected areas. The landslide Nizna Mysla is considered to be the second most catastrophic landslide in the history of Slovakia. Damages to buildings and engineering networks had not been identified in the ‘90s of the last century when the first problems with the slope stability appeared. Up-to-now monitoring techniques has currently been reassessed to account for the results from satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques.

  11. Minimal change of thermal continentality in Slovakia within the period 1961-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilček, Jozef; Škvarenina, Jaroslav; Vido, Jaroslav; Nalevanková, Paulína; Kandrík, Radoslav; Škvareninová, Jana

    2016-08-01

    Thermal continentality plays an important role not only in the basic characterisation of the climate in particular regions but also in the phytogeographic distribution of plants and ecosystem formation. Due to ongoing climate change, questions surrounding the changes of thermal continentality are very relevant. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of thermal continentality and its temporal changes in the Slovak Republic between the years of 1961 and 2013. The study was carried out on several meteorological stations selected in respect to the geographical and geomorphological heterogeneity of Slovakia. Our results show that the continentality of Slovakia increased in the period 1961 to 2013; however, this trend is not significant. These non-significant trends are confirmed at all the stations. Nevertheless, it is necessary to be aware of this signal, especially because these changes could cause changes in ecosystem formation in future.

  12. High hepatitis B and low hepatitis C prevalence in Roma population in eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Veselíny, Eduard; Janicko, Martin; Drazilová, Sylvia; Siegfried, Leonard; Pastvová, Lýdia; Schréter, Ivan; Kristian, Pavol; Viág, Ladislav; Jarcuska, Pavol; Valková, Ivana; Cáriková, Katarína; Senajová, Gabriela; Fedacko, Ján; Pella, Daniel; Mareková, Mária; Gecková, Andrea Madarasová; Jarcuska, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Viral hepatitis B and C prevalence in the Roma population of eastern Slovakia is largely unknown. This study aimed to explore the prevalence and associated risk factors of chronic viral hepatitis B and C among Roma living in segregated communities in eastern Slovakia. Data from the cross-sectional HepaMeta study conducted in Slovakia in 2011 among Roma living in rural communities were used. Participants were tested for the presence of HBsAg, anti-HBc IgG and anti-HCV. The risk factors were assessed mainly via a structured questionnaire/interview. Altogether 452 Roma were screened, and 11 were excluded due to missing data. A total of 441 patients were included (mean age 34.7 +/- 9.14 years; 35.2% men). 12.5% of participants were HBsAg positive, 40.4% anti-HBc IgG positive while negative for HBsAg and 47.2% of participants were negative for all serological markers of hepatitis B. Hepatitis C prevalence was very low (0.7%), while 2 out of 3 anti-HCV positive participants were coinfected with hepatitis B. Risk factors for hepatitis B infection were male sex, higher age, tattoo, and previous imprisonment. No difference was found in intravenous drug use, blood transfusions and sexual behaviour. More than half of the Roma residing in eastern Slovakia have been infected at one point in life with the hepatitis B virus, and 12.5% are HBsAg positive. Hepatitis C prevalence is very low, which is probably due to very low intravenous drug use.

  13. Geochemical Atlas of Slovakia and examples of its applications to environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapant, S.; Bodiš, D.; Vrana, K.; Cvečková, V.; Kordík, J.; Krčmová, K.; Slaninka, I.

    2009-03-01

    Results of comprehensive geochemical mapping and thematic studies of the Slovak territory (rocks, soils, stream sediments, groundwaters, biomass, and radioactivity) in the first half of the 1990s led to several new research programmes in Slovakia, within the frame of which new methodologies for geochemical data evaluation and map visualization were elaborated. This study describes the application and elaboration of data from the Geochemical Atlas of the Slovak Republic at national and regional levels. Based on the index of environmental risk (IER = ΣPEC/PNEC), the level of contamination for the geological component of the environment in Slovakia was evaluated. Approximately 10.5% of Slovakia’s territory was characterized as being environmentally disturbed to highly disturbed. In the areas where environmental loadings have accumulated, 14 regions where environmental risks existed due to high element concentrations were defined. The model calculations of health risk estimates based on the databases of the Geochemical Atlas for groundwater and soils indicate that the possible risk occurrence of carcinogenic diseases from groundwater arsenic contents is high in more than 10% of Slovakia, whereas the chronic risk is negligible. To determinate the background and threshold levels a combined statistical-geochemical approach was developed and applied as an example for groundwater at the national level as well as for single groundwater bodies. The results of statistical method application for the whole groundwater body (GBW) were compared with the background values for anthropogenically non-influenced areas in GBW. Final background value took into account time variations and spatial distribution of the element in GBW. Furthermore, based on the database from the Geochemical Atlas for groundwater, groundwater bodies potentially at qualitative risk were delineated for the whole of Slovakia. From a total of 101 groundwater bodies 17 were characterized as being at risk and 22

  14. Molecular evidence for the presence of Dirofilaria repens in beech marten (Martes foina) from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, M; Hurníková, Z; Zaleśny, G; Chovancová, B

    2013-09-23

    Herein we present the first finding of Dirofilaria repens, agent of the subcutaneous form of dirofilariosis, in Martes foina. Molecular analyses from the spleen of 3 individuals originated from Tatra National Park, Northern Slovakia, confirmed the presence of D. repens in one of them. Finding of D. repens in beech marten instigates to more intense research on free living carnivores as the potential source of Dirofilaria parasites.

  15. Hydrologic data for water-table aquifers in the Colorado Springs-Castle Rock area, Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, E. Carter; Hillier, Donald E.

    1978-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's investigations of the hydrology and geology in the Front Range Urban Corridor of Colorado, hydrologic data for water-table aquifers in the Colorado Springs--Castle Rock area were collected and compiled during 1976-77. These data, consisting of records for 157 wells and 47 springs and chemical analyses of water for 135 of the wells and all 47 springs, are presented in tabular form. The tables contain data that were collected during the investigation , data compiled from reports published by the Colorado Water Conservation Board, and unpublished data from the files of the U.S. Geological Survey. State and local officials in the Colorado Springs--Castle Rock area may find these data useful in planning for residential, commercials, and industrial development. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Geochemical map of the Mount Eddy and Castle Crags Roadless Areas, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, J.A.; Caress, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Mount Eddy and Castle , Crags Roadless Areas occupy 9,600 acres (39 km2) and 3,300 acres (13 km2), respectively, in Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity Counties, Calif., approximately 8 mi (13 km) west of the towns of Mount Shasta City and Dunsmuir (fig. 1). Access is provided by secondary roads and trails from Interstate Highway 5, which passes through Mount Shasta City and Dunsmuir. The areas are located in rugged terrane in the easternmost part of the Klamath Mountains where altitudes range from about 2,500 ft (7.62 m) in the southern Castle Crags area to 9,025 ft (2,751 m) on Mount Eddy. Manzanita and other brush are ubiquitous at lower elevations whereas vegetation is lacking at higher elevations except for occasional gnarled conifers and ground-level plants.

  17. Small mammals: paratenic hosts for species of Toxocara in eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Antolová, D; Reiterová, K; Stanko, M; Zalesny, G; Fričová, J; Dvorožňáková, E

    2013-03-01

    Toxocara spp., an aetiological agent of a serious helminthozoonosis, is a common roundworm of domestic and wild carnivores worldwide. The study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of Toxocara in small mammals from different localities in eastern Slovakia. Anti-Toxocara antibodies were detected in 6.4% out of 2140 examined animals trapped in eastern Slovakia. Due to their high density and observed high seroprevalence of toxocariasis, Apodemus agrarius, A. flavicollis, Myodes glareolus and Mus spicilegus (10.9, 4.2, 3.6 and 11.2%, respectively) represent important sources of the infection. A significant correlation between type of food and Toxocara positivity was detected: granivores (7.2%) and invertebratophages (7.1%) were positive more frequently than herbivores (2.1%). In the years monitored, cyclic changes of seroprevalence were observed. A higher prevalence of antibodies in the spring was followed by a decrease in summer. In autumn, seroprevalence started to rise and stayed at a similar level through the winter. Seroprevalence of the examined animals confirms their contact with Toxocara spp. and demonstrates the presence of the aetiological agent in the monitored locality. Areas with a high prevalence of infected animals present constant infectious pressure on definitive hosts, thus also increasing infection risk for humans and paratenic hosts. The study confirmed the contact of small mammals with Toxocara spp. and demonstrated the presence and circulation of an aetiological agent in the localities monitored in eastern Slovakia.

  18. Programs and measures to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture and waste treatment in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Mareckova, K.; Bratislava, S.; Kucirek, S.

    1996-12-31

    Slovakia is a UN FCCC Annex I country and is obliged to limit its anthropogenic GHG emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 level. The key greenhouse gas in Slovakia is CO{sub 2} resulting mainly from fuel combustion processes. However the share of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is approximately 20% of the total emissions on GWP basis. These gases are occurring mainly in non-energy sectors. The construction of the non-CO{sub 2} emission scenarios to reduce GHG and the uncertainty in N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emission estimation are discussed focusing on agriculture and waste treatment. The presentation will also include information on emission trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O since 1988. There are already implemented measures reducing GHG emissions in Slovakia, however, not motivated by global warming. A short view of implemented measures with an assessment of their benefit concerning non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions reduction and some proposed mitigation options for agriculture and waste treatment are shown. Expected difficulties connected with preparing scenarios and with implementation of reducing measures are discussed.

  19. Miocene calc-alkaline magmatism, calderas, and crustal extension in the Kofa and Castle Dome Mountains, southwestern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Grubensky, M.J. ); Bagby, W.C. )

    1990-11-10

    Two widespread lower Miocene rhyolite ash flow tuffs in the Kofa and Castle Dome Mountains of southwestern Arizona are products of caldera-forming eruptions. These closely erupted tuffs, the tuff of Yaqui Tanks and the tuff of Ten Ewe Mountain, are approximately 22 Ma in age and their eruptions culminate a 1- to 2-m.y.-long burst of calc-alkaline volcanic activity centered on the northern Castle Dome Mountains. Exotic blocks of Proterozoic and Mesozoic crystalline rocks up to 20 m across are present in exposures of the tuff of Yaqui Tanks exposed in the central Castle Dome Mountains and the southern Kofa Mountains. A single, thick cooling unit of the tuff of Ten Ewe Mountain that includes thick lenses of mesobreccia marks the location of the younger caldera that extends from Palm Canyon in the western Kofa Mountains eastward more than 7 km along strike to the central part of the range. Large residual Bouguer gravity anomalies, one beneath each inferred caldera, are interpreted as batholithic rocks or low-density caldera fill. Caldera-related volcanism in the Kofa region occurred during a transition in extensional tectonic regimes: From a regime of east-west trending uplifts and basins to a regime manifest primarily by northwest striking normal faults. A narrow corridor of folding and strike-slip faulting formed during volcanism in the southern Kofa Mountains. Upper Oligocene or lower Miocene coarse sedimentary rocks along the southern flank of the Chocolate Mountains anticlinorium in the southern Castle Dome Mountains mark the periphery of a basin similar to other early and middle Tertiary basins exposed in southern California. The volcanic section of the Kofa region was dissected by high-angle normal faults related to northeast-southwest oriented crustal extension typical of the southern Basin and Range province.

  20. Data from core analyses, aquifer testing, and geophysical logging of Denver Basin bedrock aquifers at Castle Pines, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, S.G.; Banta, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains data pertaining to the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the bedrock aquifers of the Denver basin at a site near Castle Pines, Colorado. Data consist of a lithologic- description of about 2,400 ft of drill core and laboratory determinations of mineralogy, grain size, bulk and grain density, porosity, specific yield, and specific retention for selected core samples. Water-level data, atmospheric-pressure measurements, aquifer-compression measurements, and borehole geophysical logs also are included.

  1. Historical and ecological analysis of coral communities in Castle Harbour (Bermuda) after more than a century of environmental perturbation.

    PubMed

    Flood, Vanese S; Pitt, Joanna M; Smith, Struan R

    2005-01-01

    The coral reefs in Bermuda's Castle Harbour basin have been subjected to varying anthropogenic stressors for over 100 years. These include restriction of water flow through the construction of a causeway in the late 19th century and an extensive dredging and land reclamation operation during World War II. In the 1970s, disposal of bulk waste commenced at a foreshore reclamation site in Castle Harbour. Since 1996 the waste stream has included blocks of cement-stabilized municipal incinerator ash. This study provides a historical and quantitative ecological review of the Castle Habour reef ecosystem as a case study, assessing the responses of the reef to more than a century of anthropogenic disturbance. Measures of the coral community, flow rates, turbidity and sedimentary regimes suggest the present structure of the coral community largely reflects the impacts of the historic dredge and fill operations prior to the establishment of the foreshore dump site. Recent increases in the abundance of some sediment tolerant, massive reef-building coral species (Diploria strigosa and Montastraea cavernosa) suggest adaptation to chronic sediment stress.

  2. Permanent soil monitoring system as a basic tool for protection of soils and sustainable land use in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobza, J.

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of soil monitoring system in Slovakia is to better protect the soils with regard to sustainable land use. The main object is the observation of soil parameters indicative of change to the equilibrium of soil system as far as to the irreversible change with possible development of degradation processes in soil. The soil monitoring system in Slovakia has been running since 1993. Its importance consists of providing the information on changing spatial and temporal variations of soil parameters as well as the evolution of soil quality in topsoil and subsoil. The soil monitoring network in Slovakia is constructed using ecological principles, taking into account all main soil types and subtypes, soil organic matter, climatic regions, emission regions, polluted and non-polluted regions as well as various other land uses. The results of soil monitoring of 318 sites on agricultural land in Slovakia have been presented. Soil properties are evaluated according to the main threats to soil relating to European Commission recommendation for European soil monitoring performance as follows: soil erosion, soil compaction, decline in soil organic matter, soil salinization and sodification and soil contamination. The most significant change has been determined in physical properties of soils. The physical degradation was especially manifested in compacted and the eroded soils. On the basis of our results about 40%of agricultural land is potentially affected by soil erosion in Slovakia. In addition, decline in soil organic matter and available nutrients indicate seriousness of soil degradation processes observed during the last monitoring period in Slovakia. Measured data and required outputs are reported to Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra(Italy) and European Environmental Agency (EEA) in Copenhagen (Denmark). Finally, the soil monitoring system thus becomes a basic tool for protection of soils and sustainable land use as well as for the creation of legislation not

  3. Implications from homogenized solutions of permanent and epoch-wise GPS networks on the recent geo-kinematics of Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipmanová, Linda; Hefty, Ján.; Gerhátová, Ľubomíra; Igondová, Miroslava; Droščák, Branislav

    2010-05-01

    Key words: GPS, local geo-kinematics, regional velocity field The regular GPS observations aimed for geo-kinematical investigations are performed in Slovakia since 1993, when the epoch-wise Slovak Geodynamic Reference Network (SGRN) was established and observed for the first time. Since that time the SGRN was enlarged and re-observed 8 times and new regional and local epoch network were established and annually or bi-annually re-observed. Moreover, in 1996 the first permanent GPS station in Slovakia started with continual monitoring. Recently, the time series from 10 permanent stations situated in Slovakia or close to Slovakian border are available. This paper is particularly focused to Slovakia and its regional geo-kinematics. In this experiment we tried to consider all data available in mentioned region. We included also the data from local GPS networks extending in small areas in Tatra Mountains (Local Network Tatry) and Geodetic Network EMO surrounding the area of Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant. Generally this work is based on 10 years of permanent and almost 16 years of epoch-wise GPS observations performed within five GPS networks occurring in Slovakia or near its boundaries. During last years started at Slovak University of Technology systematical reprocessing of past epoch and permanent GPS observations with aim to homogenize available data and to perform complex site velocities estimation. This paper refers the outputs from reprocessing and combination of 65 epoch or permanent GPS stations available in Slovakia and its close surroundings. These data were used to estimate velocity field of Slovakia in order to give a true picture of its geo-kinematics. Estimated velocities are used as input data for deformation analysis and indication of regions or sites with anomalous geo-kinematic features.

  4. A variety of Microbial Mats cover the Chimney Walls of the Loki's Castle Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahle, H.; Roalkvam, I.; Jørgensen, S. L.; Stokke, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.; Steen, I.

    2010-12-01

    Active vent chimneys of the Loki’s castle hydrothermal field at 73°N are the most northerly black smokers ever located. Vent fluids reach temperatures of >300°C, have a pH of around 5.5 and high concentrations of reduced compounds representing important energy sources for microbial life. Particularly they are extremely rich in methane (13.5 mM) and hydrogen (4.9 mM) while hydrogen sulphide concentrations are more typical for black smoker fluids (4.1 mM). Another characteristic of Loki’s castle is the unusually high abundance of microbial mats on the exterior of the chimneys. During a cruise in 2009 we used a ROV equipped with a hydraulic sampling cylinder (biosyringe) to collect samples of five mats varying in color and texture. Pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences yielded 9000 - 25000 reads per sample. Although all mats were dominated by a relatively low number of OTUs, we observed large differences in microbial composition, richness, and evenness of the mats. Also, the most dominating metabolic process occurring in each mat seemed to vary considerably. Two of the mats were largely dominated (60-90% of the reads) by relatives of mesophilic sulfur oxidizing ɛ-Proteobacteria (e.g. Sulfurovum) while another mat was dominated (48 % of the reads) by organisms affiliated with methanotrophic Methylococcales. In the last two mats we found a high abundance ( >20% - >40% of the reads) of organisms clustering among thermophilic organisms such as Thermodesulfobacteriales, Archaeoglobales, Thermococcales, Thermotogales, and Aquificales. The observed variation of the microbial composition between the different mats is possibly linked to variations in temperature and chemistry of fluids diffusely venting from the chimney. The study was supplemented by pyrosequencing of environmental cDNA from three of the samples (totally 1 100 000 reads). This dataset, which is currently being analyzed, will provide more information about the most active phylotypes in the

  5. Determinants of mastitis in women in the CASTLE study: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, Meabh; Amir, Lisa H; Donath, Susan M; Garland, Suzanne M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Payne, Matthew S; Bennett, Catherine M

    2015-12-16

    Mastitis is an acute, debilitating condition that occurs in approximately 20 % of breastfeeding women who experience a red, painful breast with fever. This paper describes the factors correlated with mastitis and investigates the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in women who participated in the CASTLE (Candida and Staphylococcus Transmission: Longitudinal Evaluation) study. The CASTLE study was a prospective cohort study which recruited nulliparous women in late pregnancy in two maternity hospitals in Melbourne, Australia in 2009-2011. Women completed questionnaires at recruitment and six time-points in the first eight weeks postpartum. Postpartum questionnaires asked about incidences of mastitis, nipple damage, milk supply, expressing practices and breastfeeding problems. Nasal and nipple swabs were collected from mothers and babies, as well as breast milk samples. All samples were cultured for S. aureus. "Time at risk" of mastitis was defined as days between birth and first occurrence of mastitis (for women who developed mastitis) and days between birth and the last study time-point (for women who did not develop mastitis). Risk factors for incidence of mastitis occurring during the time at risk (Incident Rate Ratios [IRR]) were investigated using a discrete version of the multivariable proportional hazards regression model. Twenty percent (70/346) of participants developed mastitis. Women had an increased risk of developing mastitis if they reported nipple damage (IRR 2.17, 95 % CI 1.21, 3.91), over-supply of breast milk (IRR 2.60, 95 % CI 1.58, 4.29), nipple shield use (IRR 2.93, 95 % CI 1.72, 5.01) or expressing several times a day (IRR 1.64, 95 % CI 1.01, 2.68). The presence of S. aureus on the nipple (IRR 1.72, 95 % CI 1.04, 2.85) or in milk (IRR 1.78, 95 % CI 1.08, 2.92) also increased the risk of developing mastitis. Nipple damage, over-supply of breast milk, use of nipple shields and the presence of S. aureus on the nipple or in breast milk

  6. Frequency of occurrence and spatial distribution of very high daily precipitation totals in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faško, Pavel; Švec, Marek; Šťastný, Pavel; Bochníček, Oliver; Kajaba, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Daily precipitation totals ≥ 50 mm are recorded in precipitation station network of SHMI only in certain years. Such daily precipitation totals can already cause some damage. From available data series with precipitation totals were processed so that the number of stations that recorded daily precipitation totals ≥ 50 mm, ≥ 70 mm, ≥ 100 mm, ≥ 150 mm a ≥ 200 mm was assigned for the individual dates. Dates with selected precipitation totals have been sorted chronologically, also by their occurrence in the individual months of the year and eventually classified by to the overall number of recorded daily precipitation totals ≥ 50 mm and higher, from the date with the highest number of such daily precipitation totals to date with the lowest number of such daily precipitation totals recorded in station network of Slovakia. Available data have been processed since 1951 respectively 1965 and for the spatial analysis since 1981. Dates with the occurrence of very high daily precipitation totals represent a good material for selection of extreme meteorological and hydrological situations. In this contex it is striking that there is frequent presence of dates with higher number of cases with daily precipitation totals ≥ 50 mm, in the 90s of the last century and the present course of the 21st century. The spatial distribution of very high daily precipitation totals and the frequency of their occurrence indicate that there are some regions where the occurrence of such high daily precipitation totals is clearly higher not only in absolute terms, but also in the annual regime. Important is the finding that in Slovakia such a high daily precipitation totals are not concentrated in all the mountainous areas equally, and in the lowlands of southwestern Slovakia there are isolated regions with even higher number of such precipitation totals than in some mountain areas, or even in eastern Slovakia, where it rains more regularly. It's caused by the summer storm downpours

  7. Castles in the Air: The Einstein-De Sitter Debate, 1916-1918

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midwinter, Charles; Janssen, Michel

    2011-03-01

    The Einstein De Sitter debate marked the birth of modern cosmology and the infamous cosmological constant. For Einstein, the controversy was essentially a philosophical one. Einstein's insistence on a static Universe and Mach's Principle guided him in the construction of his own cosmological model, and compelled him to criticize De Sitter's. For De Sitter, the debate began as idle conjecture. Before long, however, he began to wonder if the "spacious castles" he and Einstein had constructed might actually represent physical reality. We plan to write a volume that reproduces the documents relevant to the debate. Our commentary will retrace and explain the arguments of the historical players, complete with calculations. For the first time readers will be able to follow the arguments of Einstein and De Sitter in a detailed exploration of the first two relativistic cosmological models. Readers will see how Einstein's flawed criticisms of De Sitter were supported by Herman Weyl, and finally how Felix Klein settled the whole matter with a coordinate transformation.

  8. Mineral resources of the Castle Peaks Wilderness Study Area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.W.; Frisken, James G.; Jachens, Robert C.; Gese, Diann D.

    1986-01-01

    The Castle Peaks Wilderness Study Area (CDCA266) comprises approximately 45,000 acres in the northern New York Mountains, San Bernardino County, California. At the request of the Bureau of Land Management, 39,303 acres of the wilderness study area were studied. The area was investigated during 1982-1985 using combined geologic, geochemical, and geophysical methods. are considered preliminarily suitable for wilderness deignation. There are no mineral reserves or identified resources in the study area. Fluorspar, occurring in sparse veins, has moderate resource potential, as do silver and lead in fault zones, and gold and silver in sparse, high-grade veins and fault breccia. Each area of moderate resource potential encompasses less than one square mile. These same commodities have low resource potential in similar occurrences throughout much of the study area. In addition, there is low resource potential for gold in placer deposits, uranium in altered breccia and gouge, and rare-earth elements in pegmatite dikes. There is no resource potential for oil and gas resources over most of the study area, but the potential is unknown along its western margin. In this report, the area studied is referred to"the wilderness study area", or simply "the study area."

  9. Stratigraphy and economic potential of Castle Gate area, Carbon County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Russon, M.

    1984-07-01

    Unexcelled exposures of the coal-bearing Blackhawk Formation near Castle Gate, Utah, provide a cross section of sediments deposited by wave-dominated deltas along the western shoreline of the Cretaceous Interior seaway. Four sandstone tongues resulted from deltaic sedimentation, each overlain by thick coal. A clear genetic relationship exists between the occurrence of coal and geometries of paleoshorelines and fluvial channels. Coals are thickest where underlain by thin shoreface sandstones, and they pinch out abruptly against beach-ridge sandstones responsible for swamp proliferation. Fluvial channels subsequently cut wide swaths in swamp deposits normal to shoreline trends. Commonly, thick coals of different seams occur together, as the compaction of vegetables controlled subsequent swamp accumulation. Excellent exposures and considerable subsurface data provide the details necessary to construct a predictive exploration model useful in the Cretaceous coals of the central Rockies. Cretaceous deltaic deposits also create hydrocarbon potential, as three facies associated with Blackhawk deposition produce ideal stratigraphic relationships for hydrocarbon accumulation. Porous delta-front sandstones interfinger with the underlying organic-rich marine shale of the Mancos formation. Shale and siltstone of the flood plain then cap the sandstone. Hydrocarbons derived from the marine shale or from associated coal may accumulate in porous sands of stream channels or in mouth-bar or beach-ridge deposits of the delta front. A clear understanding of deltaic sedimentation, provided by analysis of the Blackhawk model, could aid in predicting the occurrences of similar subsurface sandstones.

  10. Microbial diversity of Loki's Castle black smokers at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, A; Jørgensen, S L; Bernasconi, S M; Pedersen, R B; Thorseth, I H; Früh-Green, G L

    2012-11-01

    Hydrothermal vent systems harbor rich microbial communities ranging from aerobic mesophiles to anaerobic hyperthermophiles. Among these, members of the archaeal domain are prevalent in microbial communities in the most extreme environments, partly because of their temperature-resistant and robust membrane lipids. In this study, we use geochemical and molecular microbiological methods to investigate the microbial diversity in black smoker chimneys from the newly discovered Loki's Castle hydrothermal vent field on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) with vent fluid temperatures of 310-320 °C and pH of 5.5. Archaeal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids (GDGTs) and H-shaped GDGTs with 0-4 cyclopentane moieties were dominant in all sulfide samples and are most likely derived from both (hyper)thermophilic Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Crenarchaeol has been detected in low abundances in samples derived from the chimney exterior indicating the presence of Thaumarchaeota at lower ambient temperatures. Aquificales and members of the Epsilonproteobacteria were the dominant bacterial groups detected. Our observations based on the analysis of 16S rRNA genes and biomarker lipid analysis provide insight into microbial communities thriving within the porous sulfide structures of active and inactive deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Microbial cycling of sulfur, hydrogen, and methane by archaea in the chimney interior and bacteria in the chimney exterior may be the prevailing biogeochemical processes in this system. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Downhole measurements and fluid chemistry of a castle rock steam well, the Geysers, Lake County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Nathenson, M.; Frye, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Wellbore and reservoir processes in a steam well in the Castle Rock field of The Geysers have been studied by means of down-hole pressure and temperature measurements and analyses of ejected water and steam produced under bleed and full flow. Down-hole measurements show that below a vapor zone there is liquid water in the well in pressure equilibrium with reservoir steam at a depth of 2290 m. The progressive decreases, from 1973 to 1977, of pressure and temperature in the vapor zone indicate that wellbore heat loss is high enough to condense a large fraction of the steam inflow. The chemical composition of water ejected from the well is consistent with an origin from wellbore condensation of steam. Calculations using the differences in gas and isotopic compositions between bleed and full-flow steam show that about half of the full-flow steam originated as liquid water in the reservoir and that about 30% of the steam entering the well under bleed was condensed in the wellbore and drained downward. Heat loss calculations are also consistent with this amount of condensation. ?? 1981.

  12. Twenty-Five Years of Continuing Professional Development of Teachers in the Post-Communist Era in Slovakia: The Story of Paths Not Taken

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubalíková, Andrea; Kacian, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the present status of continuing professional development of teachers (CPD) in Slovakia in the post-communist era. During 25 years of democracy in Slovak society, the system of education has undergone several formal reforms, mainly in the area of legislation. As the analysis demonstrates, CPD in Slovakia still follows the…

  13. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in red foxes in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Čobádiová, Andrea; Hurníková, Zuzana

    2016-12-01

    Sera or meat juices of 177 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) originated from the localities of a human-influenced landscape (Group 1) and 126 foxes from the protected mountain region (Group 2) of Slovakia, collected during 2010-2014 were tested for the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using indirect ELISA and Neospora caninum by competitive ELISA. The tissue and uncoagulated blood samples were examined for the presence of the parasite's DNA. The total seropositivity to T. gondii was 62.7% (190/303) and to N. caninum 26.4% (80/303). In the Group 1 antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 74.0% (131/177) and to N. caninum in 38.9% (69/177). In the Group 2 significantly lower seropositivity of 46.8% (59/126) to T. gondii antigens (P = 0.0218) and 8.7% (11/126) to N. caninum (P = 0.0001) was detected, respectively. However, by using molecular method, the presence of both parasites, was recorded less frequently. While in Group 1 T. gondii DNA was detected in 10.0% and N. caninum DNA in 18.3% of examined samples, in Group 2 T. gondii DNA was not detected at all and N. caninum was detected in 9.1% samples only. Results indicate that examined infections are highly common in the red foxes in Slovakia and are widespread in the locations of Eastern Slovakia bordering Poland, Ukraine and Hungary. The high infection rate in foxes representing reservoir hosts, presumably originates from their infected prey, ungulate carcasses, or from residual infected tissues in the hunting grounds after evisceration of shot animals during a hunting season.

  14. Interpretation of Magnetic Anomalies and Estimation of Depth of Magnetic Crust in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozimant, Kamil; Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Bektaş, Özcan

    2009-03-01

    The magnetic map of Slovakia used in the paper was compiled as part of a project titled Atlas of Geophysical maps and profiles in 2001. The residual magnetic data were analyzed to produce Curie point estimates. To remove distortion of magnetic anomalies caused by the Earth’s magnetic field, reduction to pole transformation was applied to the magnetic anomalies using the magnetization angle of the induced magnetization. Anomalies reduced to the pole tend to be better correlated with tectonic structures. We applied a 3-km upward continuation to the residually compiled magnetic anomalies in order to remove effects of topography. The depth of magnetic dipoles was calculated by an azimuthally averaged power spectrum method for the entire area. Such estimates can be indicative of temperatures in the crust, since magnetic minerals lose their spontaneous magnetization according to Curie temperature of the dominant magnetic minerals in the rocks. The computed Curie point depths in the Slovakia region vary between 15.2 km and 20.9 km. Heat flow higher than 100 mWm-2 occurs at the central volcanics and eastern part of Slovakia, where the Curie point depths values are shallow. The correlation between Curie point depths, heat flow and crust depth was investigated for two E-W cross sections. Heat flow and Curie point depth values are correlated with each other however, these values could not be correlated with crust depth. The Curie point isotherm, which separates magnetic and non-magnetic parts of the crust, is represented in two cross sections.

  15. International migration in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and the outlook for East Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Drbohlav, D

    1994-01-01

    This article "is devoted to the international migration issue in the Czech Republic and Slovakia (Czechoslovakia). Besides the contemporary trends, the international migration situation is briefly traced back to the communist era. The probable future scenario of international migration development--based especially on migration patterns that Western Europe has experienced--is also sketched, whilst mainly economic, social, political, demographic, psychological and geographical aspects are mentioned." Some consideration is also given to other countries in Eastern Europe. The different types of migration are analyzed, including illegal migration, labor migration, and refugees and asylum seekers.

  16. Hantavirus infection during a stay in a mountain hut in Northern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Zelena, Hana; Zvolankova, Vlasta; Zuchnicka, Jana; Liszkova, Katerina; Papa, Anna

    2011-03-01

    Hantaviruses in Europe cause human hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) with various degree of severity. The most severe form is caused by the Dobrava/Belgrade virus (DOBV), associated with the rodent Apodemus flavicollis. During the last decade cases of infection caused by DOBV have been reported in Central Europe. The present study is a report on two Czech patients with severe HFRS who were infected during their stay in a mountain hut in Northern Slovakia. The two patients, combined with a third case observed in the same year in a nearby village in the Czech Republic, suggest that this region in Central Europe has to be considered as endemic for HFRS.

  17. AlpArray in Austria and Slovakia: technical realization, site description and noise characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Kolínský, Petr; Gröschl, Gidera; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group

    2016-10-01

    We report the technical realization and performance of thirty temporary seismic broadband deployments for the AlpArray project in eastern Austria and western Slovakia. Reftek 151 60s sensors and Reftek 130/130S digitizers form the core instrumentation of our seismic stations; these are mostly installed inside abandoned or occasionally used basements or cellars in small buildings or huts. We describe our type of installation and briefly introduce the site conditions for each of the thirty installations. We present a probabilistic power spectral density analysis to assess the noise conditions at all sites and potential relations to the installation design.

  18. History of remote-sensing methods in meteorology, cloud physics and nowcasting in Slovakia over the period 1965-1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podhorský, Dušan; Guba, Peter

    2014-03-01

    A brief overview of building the radar and satellite meteorology in Slovakia over the period 1965-1990 and application of dispatching locators of PAR, SRE and RSR types for studying the evolution of convective cells is given. Further, the conception and implementation of a meteorological radar network in Slovakia, the algorithms for recognition of clouds and phenomena related to the parameters of radioecho are reviewed. The development of a new laser radar (LIDAR) and the application of a prototype meteorological radar with the TESLA RM-3 controlled polarizer are described.

  19. Detection of West Nile virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus in birds in Slovakia, using a universal primer set.

    PubMed

    Csank, Tomáš; Bhide, Katarína; Bencúrová, Elena; Dolinská, Saskia; Drzewnioková, Petra; Major, Peter; Korytár, Ľuboš; Bocková, Eva; Bhide, Mangesh; Pistl, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne neurotropic pathogen that presents a major public health concern. Information on WNV prevalence and circulation in Slovakia is insufficient. Oral and cloacal swabs and bird brain samples were tested for flavivirus RNA by RT-PCR using newly designed generic primers. The species designation was confirmed by sequencing. WNV was detected in swab and brain samples, whereas one brain sample was positive for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). The WNV sequences clustered with lineages 1 and 2. These results confirm the circulation of WNV in birds in Slovakia and emphasize the risk of infection of humans and horses.

  20. Molecular screening for bacteria and protozoa in great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) nesting in Slovakia, central Europe.

    PubMed

    Víchová, Bronislava; Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Hurníková, Zuzana; Turčeková, Ĺudmila

    2016-09-01

    This study brings the data about the occurrence of bacterial and protozoan pathogens in 32 great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), representing approximately 20% of the population nesting in the surroundings of water basin Liptovská Mara (northern part of Central Slovakia). A survey revealed the presence of tick-borne bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum (6.25%) and parasitic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii (3.1%). These data indicate an infectious status of the great cormorant population nesting in Slovakia; they might suggest a degree of environmental contamination by infectious agents and demonstrate the role of migratory seabirds in the circulation and dispersal of pathogens with zoonotic potential.

  1. Recording and Modeling of Fortresses and Castles with Uas. Some Study Cases in Jaen (southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenal, J.; Pérez, J. L.; Mata, E.; Delgado, J.; Gómez-López, J. M.; Colomo, C.; Mozas, A.

    2016-06-01

    The province of Jaen (Southern Spain) has one of the largest concentrations of medieval fortresses of all Europe. Moreover ancient Iberian settlements located in oppida (fortified villages) and dated at VI-IV BC also are outstanding examples of historical heritage landmarks in the region. Most of these places are being restored or under documentation analysis to prevent their progressive deterioration. These places have several geometric characteristics in common, such as isolated locations, elongated shapes, largemedium size objects (in the order of tens to few hundred of meters), architectural features with vertical development (such as masonry or rammed earth walls, towers, gates, battlements, etc) or without it (walls, buildings or paths layouts at ground level). The object size, the required level of details and accuracy (of the order of some few cm) and both vertical and horizontal features imply that present UAS techniques can be advantageously used with respect to conventional aerial and terrestrial photogrammetric techniques. Vertical stereoscopic and oblique convergent UAS photogrammetric networks combined with processing techniques based on Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithms allow detailed low cost 2D/3D products. The proper selection of the UAS, camera, image acquisition mode (stop and/or cruising), the network and the processing software will determine the quality of final products and their usefulness in metric documentation, 3D modelization or museology. The efficiency of the use of UAS has been analyzed in several selected examples in Jaen (Burgalimar and Berrueco castles, Xth and XIIIth centuries, respectively, and the Iberian Puente Tablas oppidum, Vth-IVth centuries BC).

  2. Artemisia arborescens "Powis Castle" extracts and α-thujone prevent fruit infestation by codling moth neonates.

    PubMed

    Creed, Cory; Mollhagen, Ariel; Mollhagen, Noelle; Pszczolkowski, Maciej A

    2015-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Tortricidae), is a major cosmopolitan pest of the apple. The potential of plant-derived semiochemicals for codling moth control is poorly studied. To evaluate the potential of crude extracts of five plants from the Asteraceae family: Artemisia absinthium L., Artemisia arborescens L. "Powis Castle", Artemisia annua L., and Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. to prevent apple infestation by C. pomonella larvae and to identify the deterrent(s) in these plants. Artemisia dried leaves were extracted in v/v mixture of 80% ethanol, 10% isopropanol, and 10% of methanol, and the extracts were analyzed using high-performance thin layer chromatography. Preference of fruit treated with test solutions (Artemisia extracts or α-thujone) versus fruit treated with solvent was studied using choice assays. α-Thujone was detected in A. arborescens extract at a concentration of 77.4 ± 2.4 mg/g of dry tissue, localized between Rf 0.75 and 0.79 and was absent from crude extracts of remaining Artemisia species. Material from each extract in the zone between Rf 0.75 and 0.79 was removed from chromatographic plates and tested for feeding deterrence. Only the material from A. arborescens showed feeding deterrent properties. Minimum concentrations that prevented fruit infestation were 10 mg/ml for α-thujone and 1 mg/ml for A. arborescens crude extract. Artemisia arborescens contains chemicals that prevent apple infestation by codling moth neonates. Thujone is one of these chemicals, but it is not the only constituent of A. arborescens crude extract that prevents fruit infestation by codling moth neonates.

  3. Miocene calc-alkaline magmatism, calderas, and crustal extension in the Kofa and Castle Dome Mountains, southwestern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubensky, Michael J.; Bagby, William C.

    1990-11-01

    Two widespread lower Miocene rhyolite ash flow tuffs in the Kofa and Castle Dome mountains of southwestern Arizona are products of caldera-forming eruptions. These closely erupted tuffs, the tuff of Yaqui Tanks and the tuff of Ten Ewe Mountain, are approximately 22 Ma in age and their eruptions culminate a 1- to 2-m.y.-long burst of calc-alkaline volcanic activity centered on the northern Castle Dome Mountains. Exotic blocks of Proterozoic and Mesozoic crystalline rocks up to 20 m across are present in exposures of the tuff of Yaqui Tanks exposed in the central Castle Dome Mountains and the southern Kofa Mountains. A single, thick cooling unit of the tuff of Ten Ewe Mountain that includes thick lenses of mesobreccia marks the location of the younger caldera that extends from Palm Canyon in the western Kofa Mountains eastward more than 7 km along strike to the central part of the range. The tuffs show rapid thinning away from their inferred sources. They were probably associated with high-volume (100 kms) eruptions. Large residual Bouguer gravity anomalies, one beneath each inferred caldera, are interpreted as batholithic rocks or low-density caldera fill. Caldera-related volcanism in the Kofa region occurred during a transition in extensional tectonic regimes: from a regime of east-west trending uplifts and basins to a regime manifest primarily by northwest striking normal faults. A narrow corridor of folding and strike-slip faulting formed during volcanism in the southern Kofa Mountains. Upper Oligocene or lower Miocene coarse sedimentary rocks along the southern flank of the Chocolate Mountains anticlinorium in the southern Castie Dome Mountains mark the periphery of a basin similar to other early and middle Tertiary basins exposed in southern California. The volcanic section of the Kofa region was dissected by high-angle normal faults related to northeast-southwest oriented crustal extension typical of the southern Basin and Range province.

  4. [Summary of the annual meeting of the German society for neurogastroenterology and motility, March 28 - 30, 2008 at Castle Hohenkammer].

    PubMed

    Gundling, F; Pehl, C

    2008-08-01

    The annual meeting of the German Society for Neurogastroenterology and Motility was held at Castle Hohenkammer from 28th to 30th of March 2008 with C. Pehl (Vilsbiburg) as chairman. The members of the Society study the function of the enteric nervous system, gastrointestinal motility, and functional disturbances of the GI tract. Basic researchers as well as clinical scientists are members of the Society and discussed together their results at this meeting. Results from thirty-six working groups from different European countries, USA, and Egypt were presented at the annual meeting. In addition, Prof. Mark Fox (Switzerland/United Kingdom) gave a review lecture entitled "New technologies to evaluate esophageal function".

  5. The State of the Environmental Awareness of Students from Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine - Selected Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cynk, Karolina

    2017-03-01

    In the article was presented results of international researches about environmental consciousness. The project was realized in 2015. The main purpose of this article is to describe the level of environmental knowledge, values and attitudes among university students from Central Eastern Europe. In introduction of article was defined concept of environmental awareness. The research problem is question: What are differences in the state of environmental awareness between respondents living in the Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine? In the first part text was presented methodology of the conducted research. The second part of the article concerns the analysis of the collected data. On the basis of the conducted research it can maintain that the students of Central and Eastern Europe generally declared interest the state of the environment. The overall outcome of the research leads to the conclusion that the highest proportion of the respondents who declared interest in the environmental protection came from Slovakia. The fact that in their opinion it should care about the environment more than the students from Poland and Ukraine may result from the higher level of the environmental awareness.

  6. Reoccurrence of botulinum neurotoxin subtype A3 inducing food-borne botulism, Slovakia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Mad'arová, Lucia; Dorner, Brigitte G; Schaade, Lars; Donáth, Vladimír; Avdičová, Mária; Fatkulinová, Milota; Strhársky, Jozef; Sedliačiková, Ivana; Klement, Cyril; Dorner, Martin B

    2017-08-10

    A case of food-borne botulism occurred in Slovakia in 2015. Clostridium botulinum type A was isolated from three nearly empty commercial hummus tubes. The product, which was sold in Slovakia and the Czech Republic, was withdrawn from the market and a warning was issued immediately through the European Commission's Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). Further investigation revealed the presence of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) subtype BoNT/A3, a very rare subtype implicated in only one previous outbreak (Loch Maree in Scotland, 1922). It is the most divergent subtype of BoNT/A with 15.4% difference at the amino acid level compared with the prototype BoNT/A1. This makes it more prone to evading immunological and PCR-based detection. It is recommended that testing laboratories are advised that this subtype has been associated with food-borne botulism for the second time since the first outbreak almost 100 years ago, and to validate their immunological or PCR-based methods against this divergent subtype. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  7. Increased incidence of congenital hypothyroidism in Gypsies in east Slovakia as compared with white population.

    PubMed

    Lescisinová, M; Kúseková, M; Sedlák, J; Murková, V; Langer, P; Pavkovceková, O

    1989-06-01

    Ethnic Gypsies represent 9 percent of total population of East Slovakia. However, during first three and half years of compulsory screening of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) there were 15,346 Gypsy newborns which was 16.8 percent of a total number of 90,760 newborns. Out of these Gypsy newborns 7 cases of CH were found (i.e. 1:2192), while 12 cases of CH were observed among 75,414 white newborns (i.e. 1:6284), which was significantly less than that in newborns Gypsies (P less than 0.05). Since the far highest coefficient of inbreeding ever reported for any European population or ethnic groups has been found by others in newborns Gypsies living in Slovakia (Fg = 0.017 obtained by genealogic method and Fi = 0.084 obtained by the method of isonymy), it may be suggested that a high incidence of CH in newborns Gypsies may be due to some genetic and hereditary factors. Though a direct interrelationship cannot be definitely established from the present data and still remains far from to be elucidated, the present observation may be considered as a contribution to the study of this problem.

  8. Comparative health risks of domestic waste combustion in urban and rural Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová, Jana; Eschenroeder, Alan Q

    2007-10-01

    This paper addresses the health risk incurred by two alternative waste management schemes: open burning of household waste in barrels practiced in rural Slovakia and controlled municipal waste combustion in the city of Bratislava. Using agricultural land use data and village population data we formulate three prototype villages, each representing about one-third of the rural population. The two configurations of the controlled combustion are an outdated municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and a modern waste-to-energy (WTE) plant equipped with modern air pollution control devices. These configurations actually exist(ed) in Bratislava, Slovakia at the same site, but in different time frames. The CALPUFF model provides direct exposure data and the EMERAM software (developed in this paper) computes indirect exposure. A major source of uncertainty is that of the fraction of waste burned in the open. The analysis presented here assumed 10%. At this level, the cancer risk from open burning ranges from 10 to 80 times the commonly regarded de minimus value of one in a million. This means that underthe U.S. contemporary regulatory culture, some regulatory action to control or enforce the burning ban would be expected. Cancer risks from the incinerator ranged from 7 to 371 in a million while the WTE risks were below 1 in a million. Cancer risks from open burning are higher than those of the WTE plant and at the same time affect a larger portion of concerned population.

  9. Wastewater analysis: the mean of the monitoring of frequently prescribed pharmaceuticals in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Birošová, Lucia; Gál, Miroslav; Bodík, Igor; Grabic, Roman; Ryba, Jozef; Škubák, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of medication use is based on the statistical data from pharmacies and hospitals. Excessive use or misuse of some compounds, especially psychoactive medications, has not yet been monitored in Slovakia. Wastewater analysis provides useful data about the medication use and misuse in individual regions. This study is focused on the analysis of 23 substances in the wastewaters of Slovakia. The monitoring programme has included stimulants, opioid and morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, drug precursors and their metabolites. Urinary markers of these compounds were analysed at WWTP influent in seven regions (Bratislava, Košice, Zvolen, Banská Bystrica, Trenčín, Prešov a Piešťany) using LC-MS/MS technique. The analysis was performed from March to October 2013. The pattern in use of these compounds was also monitored. Tramadol and venlafaxine were found to be the most concentrated compounds among of all studied psychoactive pharmaceuticals. The highest specific loads of tramadol were detected in Piešťany (409 mg/day/1000 inhabitants) and Zvolen (366 mg/day/1000 inhabitants). There is a considerable number of spa facilities (hotels) situated in these cities and this fact contributes to a higher occurrence of these psychoactive compounds in respective wastewaters.

  10. Molecular detection of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) in Haemaphysalis concinna ticks collected in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Vrbová, M; Belvončíková, P; Kovaľová, A; Matúšková, R; Slovák, M; Kúdelová, M

    Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is a natural pathogen of murid rodents, which serve as hosts to Haemaphysalis concinna ticks. The occurrence of MHV-68 was investigated in a total of 47 H. concinna adult ticks collected on the vegetation in Gabčíkovo, situated in south-western Slovakia (47º54´0´´N, 17º35´0´´E), from May 2013 to May 2014. DNA from ticks was purified and screened by nested PCR targeting ORF50 of MHV-68 and the copy number of virus genome in ticks was determined by a real-time PCR assay specific for ORF65. The MHV-68 incidence in questing ticks was 38.3% (18/47) and the virus genome copy number per tick varied from 2x102 to 9.6x103. In this study, MHV-68 was documented for the first time in H. concinna ticks. Results expand previous data describing the occurrence of MHV-68 in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected in Slovakia, supporting the hypothesis that MHV-68 might be a newfound pathogen in ticks.

  11. Health status among young people in Slovakia: comparisons on the basis of age, gender and education.

    PubMed

    Sleskova, Maria; Salonna, Ferdinand; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P; Groothoff, Johan W

    2005-12-01

    This study examines the health status of young people in Slovakia. Six subjective health indicators (self-rated health, long-standing illness, vitality, mental health, long-term well-being over the last year and occurrence of health complaints during the previous month) were used to assess the health status of three age groups: first grade secondary school students (mean age 15.9 years), third grade students (mean age 17.8 years) and secondary school leavers (mean age 19.6 years). Females rated their health worse than males on all six indicators (most of these differences were statistically significant). For males, younger age was associated with better self-rated health, less long-standing illness and higher levels of long-term well-being during the previous year. For females, the age differences were more complicated: third grade females reported significantly worse health status in terms of vitality, long-standing illness and number of health complaints than the other two age groups. An analysis of health status by educational level (attendance at or completion of grammar, technical or apprentice school), revealed that grammar school third grade females reported worse health than all other respondents on all six indicators. The third grade of grammar school in Slovakia puts particular stresses on students and, since it has been suggested that females may react more negatively than males to stressful events, this may contribute to their more negative self reports.

  12. First autochthonous cases of canine thelaziosis in Slovakia: a new affected area in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Čabanová, Viktória; Kocák, Peter; Víchová, Bronislava; Miterpáková, Martina

    2017-04-13

    The spirurid nematode Thelazia callipaeda, also called the "Oriental eyeworm", is the causative agent of canine and human ocular thelaziosis. In the past few years it has started to spread across central Europe and new endemic areas have been established. The present study reports on the first four autochthonous cases of canine ocular thelaziosis in the territory of Slovakia, Central Europe. All cases were recorded in dogs living in eastern Slovakia, near the border with the Ukraine. All worms collected were investigated morphologically and their identification further confirmed at the molecular level by PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Nucleotide sequences of partial T. callipaeda cox1 and 28S rDNA gene fragments isolated from Slovak dogs were submitted to the GenBank database under accession numbers KY476400 and KY476401, respectively. Considering that all four cases were diagnosed in animals that had never travelled abroad, there is clear evidence of an autochthonous occurrence and thereby the further spread of T. callipaeda across Europe. Moreover, at latitude of 48°N, these cases might be considered as the northernmost recorded cases of autochthonous in western and Central Europe.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF PORCINE PARVOVIRUS TYPE 3 AND PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS TYPE 2 IN WILD BOARS (SUS SCROFA) IN SLOVAKIA.

    PubMed

    Sliz, Ivan; Vlasakova, Michaela; Jackova, Anna; Vilcek, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    As the number of free-living wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) continues to rise in Slovakia, the probability of pathogen transmission between susceptible species increases. We investigated the distribution and genetic characterization of porcine parvovirus type 3 (PPV3), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), and their coinfection in wild boars. Among 194 animals tested, 19.1% were positive for PPV3 and 43.8% for PCV2. Similar rates of coinfection with both viruses reaching 11.0% and 11.8% were observed in juvenile and mature wild boars, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of PPV3 sequences from VP1 and NS1 genomic regions revealed a close genetic relationship among isolates from Slovakia and those sampled worldwide. Prevalence of PCV2 in wild boars was lower than that reported in domestic pigs in Slovakia. The PCV2 variants originating from sylvatic and domestic hosts in Slovakia were grouped in the same clusters, namely PCV2b-1A/1B and PCV2a-2D.

  14. Holocaust Education in the "Black Hole of Europe": Slovakia's Identity Politics and History Textbooks Pre- and Post-1989

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    Holocaust education in Slovakia stands at the confluence of diverse discourses of state and supra-national legitimation. Principles of national self-determination, minority rights, and political ideologies inform and lend credence to how Slovaks' national and state identities are narrated in Slovak history textbooks. For small nation-states with…

  15. Differentiation in the Making: Consequences of School Segregation of Roma in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messing, Vera

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how various forms of ethnic segregation in education affect everyday life and future aspirations of Roma youth in three Central and Eastern European countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia. It draws on a comparative European investigation about the diverging experiences and paths of ethnic minority youth in…

  16. 77 FR 74555 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... / Monday, December 17, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant... Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and Slovenia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... certain animal embryos and animal semen by removing one of the conditions for the importation of swine...

  17. Common Legacy, Different Paths: The Transformation of Educational Systems in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Wojciuk, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to better understand the institutional changes in the educational systems of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. We demonstrate that the educational reforms implemented during the transformation introduced very different institutional arrangements in the four countries, despite the fact that their systems…

  18. Common Legacy, Different Paths: The Transformation of Educational Systems in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Wojciuk, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to better understand the institutional changes in the educational systems of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. We demonstrate that the educational reforms implemented during the transformation introduced very different institutional arrangements in the four countries, despite the fact that their systems…

  19. Cross-cultural comparison of seven morningness and sleep-wake measures from Germany, India and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Randler, Christoph; Prokop, Pavol; Sahu, Subhashis; Haldar, Prasun

    2015-08-01

    Morningness-eveningness or circadian typology can be viewed as an interesting aspect of individual differences. Morningness-eveningness is a preference for a given time of day for physical or mental performance, but also reflects aspects of affect. Here, we used seven different measures to assess differences in morningness-eveningness between Germany, Slovakia and India. The hypothesis was that Indians should be earliest chronotypes, followed by Slovakia and then Germany, because of higher temperatures in India, and the fact that Slovakia is located farther east compared to Germany. We applied the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM), the Circadian Energy Scale (CIRENS), the CAEN Chronotype Questionnaire (CCQ), and habitual sleep-wake variables to calculate sleep duration, midpoint of sleep and social jetlag. Sample sizes were N = 300 (Germany), N = 482 (Slovakia) and N = 409 (India). Country had the strongest influence on morningness-eveningness. Germans were latest chronotypes and differed in all seven measures from Indians but differed from Slovakians only in the energy level at the evening and midpoint of sleep. Slovakians and Indians differed in all measures but the energy level (CIRENS). Women scored higher on the CSM, lower on CIRENS, lower on the morningness-eveningness (ME) scale, but higher on distinctness (DI) scale. Women slept longer and had an earlier midpoint of sleep.

  20. Executive Functioning in Three Groups of Pupils in D-KEFSs: Selected Issues in Adapting the Test Battery for Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferjencík, Ján; Slavkovská, Miriam; Kresila, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on the adaptation of a D-KEFS test battery for Slovakia. Drawing on concrete examples, it describes and illustrates the key issues relating to the transfer of test items from one socio-cultural environment to another. The standardisation sample of the population of Slovak pupils in the fourth year of primary school included 250…

  1. Family outbreak of alimentary tick-borne encephalitis in Slovakia associated with a natural focus of infection.

    PubMed

    Kohl, I; Kozuch, O; Elecková, E; Labuda, M; Zaludko, J

    1996-08-01

    A family outbreak of tick-borne encephalitis involving 7 people, all of them hospitalized, was observed in the district of Povazská Bystrica (central Slovakia). The disease was associated with the drinking of unboiled goat milk and tick-borne encephalitis virus was recovered from Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from places where goats were grazing.

  2. Executive Functioning in Three Groups of Pupils in D-KEFSs: Selected Issues in Adapting the Test Battery for Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferjencík, Ján; Slavkovská, Miriam; Kresila, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on the adaptation of a D-KEFS test battery for Slovakia. Drawing on concrete examples, it describes and illustrates the key issues relating to the transfer of test items from one socio-cultural environment to another. The standardisation sample of the population of Slovak pupils in the fourth year of primary school included 250…

  3. Holocaust Education in the "Black Hole of Europe": Slovakia's Identity Politics and History Textbooks Pre- and Post-1989

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    Holocaust education in Slovakia stands at the confluence of diverse discourses of state and supra-national legitimation. Principles of national self-determination, minority rights, and political ideologies inform and lend credence to how Slovaks' national and state identities are narrated in Slovak history textbooks. For small nation-states with…

  4. Content Peculiarities of Master's Professional Foreign Language Training in Translation Studies and Interpretation at the Universities of Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumeiko, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the content analysis of peculiarities of Master's professional foreign language training in Translation Studies and Interpretation at the universities of Slovakia. In the context of globalization and integration processes the study of European countries' experience, in particular, of the Slovak Republic has been…

  5. Content Peculiarities of Master's Professional Foreign Language Training in Translation Studies and Interpretation at the Universities of Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumeiko, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the content analysis of peculiarities of Master's professional foreign language training in Translation Studies and Interpretation at the universities of Slovakia. In the context of globalization and integration processes the study of European countries' experience, in particular, of the Slovak Republic has been…

  6. Comparison between electromagnetic induction and fluxgate gradiometer measurements on the buried remains of a 17th century castle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, David; Lehouck, Alexander; Verdonck, Lieven; Vermeersch, Hans; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Bourgeois, Jean; Thoen, Erik; Docter, Roald

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the different configurations of an electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor, the EM38DD (Geonics Limited, Canada) with fluxgate gradiometer measurements on an archaeological site. The EM38DD allows measuring both the apparent magnetic susceptibility (MSa or χa) and the apparent electrical conductivity (ECa or σa) in two different coil orientations. A gradiometer measures the lateral variations of the vertical magnetic field gradient, caused by the induced and remanent magnetisations. An archaeological site where historical documents indicated the presence of a 17th century brick castle was selected as a test area. The results of the first survey with the EM38DD showed very strong magnetic anomalies in the central field, which were caused by the brick remains of the castle. Therefore, a smaller area was chosen within this field to compare the different configurations of the EM38DD with the gradiometer at the same measurement resolution. The most useful results with the EM38DD were obtained from the MSa measured in a vertical coplanar orientation. Its anomalies corresponded well with the gradiometer anomalies. The gradiometer anomalies were sharper defined than the EM38DD anomalies, but were complicated by the bipolar response pattern. The MSa map in horizontal coplanar orientation was very difficult to interpret, due to the less optimal spatial sensitivity. The wall remains were not visible in the ECa map in horizontal coplanar orientation, although other interesting anomalies were detected.

  7. Ecotoxicological effects of a semi-submerged municipal dump (Castle harbour, Bermuda) on the Calico scallop Argopecten gibbus.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Brian; Gagné, Francois; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Blaise, Christian

    2005-01-01

    A biomarker study was undertaken using the Calico scallop Argopecten gibbus to assess the ecotoxicological effects of a semi-submerged municipal dump on the adjacent patch reef lagoon ecosystem (Castle harbour, Bermuda). Caged scallops were deployed in situ for 2 months at various distances from the dump (50 m, 900 m and 2.7 km) and at a reference site (14 km). A suite of biomarkers comprising metallothionein (MT), lipid peroxidation (LPO), vitellin-like proteins (Vn), glutathione S-transferase (GST), DNA strand breaks and condition factor (CF) were investigated in various tissues of the scallop (gill, digestive gland and gonad). Levels of heavy metals were also measured in the whole scallop soft tissue. While there was some variation in response between tissues, in general the results indicated that the dump was negatively impacting scallops deployed in the adjacent marine environment: elevated levels of MT, DNA strand breaks, Vn and GST and reduced condition factor were found for scallops deployed nearest to the dump and at the site 1.5 km from this point source of contamination (Tuckers town) in Castle harbour, with respect to the reference site, North Rock (although this exhibited some degree of metal contamination). The gills from scallops deployed at the dump site were the most responsive tissue, with the highest expression of MT, LPO and DNA damage. This study indicates the potential of the Calico scallop as a convenient bioindicator species in the marine tropical benthos.

  8. Microbial community composition in the deep sea sediments surrounding the Loki castle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, S. L.; Lanzèn, A.; Baumberger, T.; Pedersen, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Flesland, K.; Øvreås, L.; Steen, I.; Schleper, C.

    2010-12-01

    The influence of volcanism and hydrothermal activity on microbial community composition in deep sea sediments is largely unknown. However, it could be speculated that the input of chemical compounds from such activity will have an influence on the microbial community. Volcanic and hydrothermal activity is mainly located at or near the mid-ocean ridges where low sedimentation rate in combination with ocean-floor spreading prevents accumulation of significant amounts of sediments. One exception is the arctic Mohns-Knipovich Ridges with its ultra-slow spreading and vicinity to continental margins and the Bear island fan. This enables a relatively thick sediment cover to accumulate within the rift valley and makes it a unique sampling site. Several gravity cores (3-4 metres deep) retrieved from the area surrounding the Loki’s castle hydrothermal vent field during the H2DEEP cruise 2008 have been analysed by a XRF core scanner system for geochemical composition. In addition, total inorganic and organic carbon contents (TIC and TOC) of the sediment and the pore water chemistry (e.g. ammonium, sulphide, sulphate, major elements) of distinct layers in each core have been analysed. In order to relate these data to microbial community composition, diversity and function, cell numbers (archaea, bacteria and crenarcheota) have been estimated by real time qPCR. Further, the microbial diversity and taxonomy in each layer have been analysed using massive parallel sequencing of the 16S rDNA region. This novel technique enables us to make a taxonomic profiling of the microbial community with an unprecedented high resolution. Results indicate a dynamic system with relatively high organic carbon content where iron, manganese, ammonium and sulphur compounds seem to play important roles in microbial metabolism and thus the microbial community composition. The sediment cores are highly stratified, with distinct layers of hydrothermal and/or volcanic origin, containing compounds such

  9. Hydrogeology and water chemistry of Montezuma Well in Montezuma Castle National Monument and surrounding area, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konieczki, Alice D.; Leake, Stanley A.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing population and associated residential and commercial development have greatly increased water use and consumption in the Verde Valley near Montezuma Well, a unit of Montezuma Castle National Monument in central Arizona. Flow from Montezuma Well and water levels in eight wells that are measured annually do not indicate that the ground-water system has been affected by development. Additional data are needed to develop an adequate ground-water monitoring program so that future effects of development can be detected. Monitoring the ground-water system would detect changes in discharge from the Montezuma Well or changes in the ground-water system that might indicate a potential change of flow to the well. Water samples were collected, and field measurements of specific conductance, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen were made throughout the pond at Montezuma Well during an exploration in May 1991. The exploration included two fissures in the bottom of the pond that were filled with sand. The sand in the fissures was kept in suspension by water entering the pond. Water chemistry indicates that the ground water from the area is a mixed combination of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and bicarbonate type water. The analyses for 18O/16O and 2H/1H show that the water from the wells and springs in the area, including Montezuma Well, has been exposed to similar environmental conditions and could have had similar flow paths. The MODFLOW finite-difference ground-water model was used to develop an uncalibrated interpretive model to study possible mechanisms for discharge of water at Montezuma Well. The study presents the hypothesis that ground water in the Supai Formation is the source of discharge to Montezuma Well because of the differences between the surface elevation of the pond at Montezuma Well and the stage in the adjacent Wet Beaver Creek. A series of simulations shows that upward flow from the Supai Formation is a possible mechanism for discharge to Montezuma

  10. Paleoseismology at high latitudes: Seismic disturbance of upper Quaternary deposits along the Castle Mountain fault near Houston, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Best, Timothy C.; Waythomas, Christopher F.

    2002-01-01

    Most paleoseismic studies are at low to moderate latitudes. Here we present results from a high-latitude (61°30′ N) trenching study of the Castle Mountain fault in south-central Alaska. This fault is the only one known in the greater Anchorage, Alaska, area with historical seismicity and a Holocene fault scarp. It strikes east-northeast and cuts glacial and postglacial sediments in an area of boreal spruce-birch forest, shrub tundra, and sphagnum bog. The fault has a prominent vegetation lineament on the upthrown, north side of the fault. Nine trenches were logged across the fault in glacial and postglacial deposits, seven along the main trace, and two along a splay. In addition to thrust and strike-slip faulting, important controls on observed relationships in the trenches are the season in which faulting occurred, the physical properties of the sediments, liquefaction, a shallow water table, soil-forming processes, the strength of the modern root mat, and freeze-thaw processes. Some of these processes and physical properties are unique to northern-latitude areas and result in seismic disturbance effects not observed at lower latitudes.The two trenches across the Castle Mountain fault splay exposed a thrust fault and few liquefaction features. Radiocarbon ages of soil organic matter and charcoal within and overlying the fault indicate movement on the fault at ca. 2735 cal. (calendar) yr B.P. and no subsequent movement. In the remaining seven trenches, surface faulting was accompanied by extensive liquefaction and a zone of disruption 3 m or more wide. The presence of numerous liquefaction features at depths of <0.5–1.0 m indicates faulting when the ground was not frozen—i.e., from about April to October. Sandy-matrix till, sand, silt, gravel, and pebbly peat were injected up to the base of the modern soil, but did not penetrate the interlocking spruce-birch root mat. The strength of the root mat prohibited development of a nonvegetated scarp face and

  11. Mycobiota of Underground Habitats: Case Study of Harmanecká Cave in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Ogórek, Rafał; Višňovská, Zuzana; Tančinová, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Harmanecká Cave is located in the Harmanec Valley to the northwest of Banská Bystrica city, in the southern part of the Great Fatra Mountains, Slovakia. This cave is the most important underground locality of bat occurrence in Slovakia (population of 1000 to 1500 individuals). The study aimed at mycological evaluation of the air, the water, and the rock surface of Harmanecká Cave in Slovakia. The samples were taken on 24 July 2014. To examine the air, the Air Ideal 3P sampler was used. Microbiological evaluation of the rock surface was performed using swab sampling and the water by using the serial dilution technique. The authors observed a relationship between air temperature and the concentration of fungi. The concentration of airborne fungi increased with the increase in the air temperature and decreased with distance from the entrance to the cave. The density of airborne fungi isolated from the outdoor air samples was 810.5 colony-forming units (CFU) per 1 m3 of air and from 27.4 to 128.5 CFU for the indoor air samples. From the rock surface inside the cave, 45.0 to 106.6 CFU per 1 cm2 were isolated, whereas from the water, 29.9 CFU per 1 ml were isolated. Seven species of filamentous fungi were isolated from the external air samples and 12 species of filamentous fungi and 3 species of yeast-like fungi from the internal air samples. From the surface of the rocks inside the cave, 5 species of filamentous fungi and 1 species of yeast-like fungi were cultured, whereas from the water samples, 6 species of filamentous fungi were cultured. Cladosporium spp. were the fungi most frequently isolated from the external air; from the internal air, Penicillium urticae was most frequently isolated; from the rock surface, it was Gliocladium roseum; and from the water, it was P. chrysogenum. The species found in the cave can be pathogenic for humans and animals, especially for immunocompromised persons, and they can also cause biodegradation of the rocks. However, the

  12. A Study of Issues Related to Discipline, Grouping and Tracking, and Special Education in New Castle County, Delaware, Desegration Area. Volume I, General Issues and Introduction: Discipline Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, Charles M.; And Others

    In the former New Castle County (Delaware) School District (reorganized into four districts in 1981), minority students were numerically overrepresented from 1979 to 1982 in suspensions from school and in placement in special education and lower academic groupings. To determine if the overrepresentation was based on discriminatory practices or…

  13. Application of geophysical methods to the delineation of paleochannels and missing confining units above the Castle Hayne Aquifer at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, C. C.; Miller, R.D.; Wrege, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, is underlain by four freshwater-bearing aquifers--the surficial, Yorktown, and upper and lower Castle Hayne. The upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers serve as the principal supply of freshwater for the Air Station. The potential for movement of contaminated water from the surficial aquifer downward to the water-supply aquifer is greatest in areas where clay confining units are missing. Missing confining units may indicate the presence of paleochannels filled with permeable material. Seismic-reflection techniques were successful in delinea- ting paleochannels of Quaternary and Tertiary age within unconsoli- dated sediments less than 180 feet deep at several locations. Continuous single-channel marine seismic-reflection profiling in the Neuse River was effective in delineating a large paleochannel complex consisting of at least two superimposed paleochannels within hydrogeologic units overlying the upper Castle Hayne aquifer. The complex was found immediately north of the Air Station and is thought to continue south beneath the Air Station. Shallow high-resolution land seismic-reflection techniques were used at the Air Station to delineate structures and correlate strati- graphy between the limestone of the upper Castle Hayne aquifer and the Yorktown confining unit. Three different land seismic-reflection techniques proved effective for the horizontal extrapolation of geo- logic features and identification of paleochannels at several locations. The northeastern margin of a large paleochannel was identified beneath the southern part of the Air Station. This feature strikes northwest to southeast and cuts through the Yorktown and upper Castle Hayne aquifer confining units.

  14. Dark stains on rock surfaces in Driny Cave (Little Carpathian Mountains, Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Ogórek, Rafał; Dyląg, Mariusz; Kozak, Bartosz

    2016-09-01

    Mycobiota are important in underground ecology. In 2014, we discovered dark stains on clayey sediments on the walls of Driny Cave, Slovakia. Our description is based on the morphology of the fungus and the phylogenetic relationships of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. In addition, data on its capacity for the production of extracellular enzymes, growth, and survival in vitro at different temperatures are reported. Our analyses revealed that this dark stains on the wall was produced by Penicillium glandicola. The fungus was able to synthesize amylases, proteases and cellulases, but not pectinases and keratinases. The vegetative structures of mycelium of this fungus are viable in vitro after storage at cool temperatures (from -72 to 5 °C), and show active growth at temperatures from 5 to 25 °C, but without spore germination, and without active growth at 30 and 37 °C. Penicillium glandicola is a psychrotolerant species and belong to var. glandicola.

  15. Molecular surveillance of Theileria equi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in horses from Ukraine, Poland and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Slivinska, Kateryna; Víchová, Bronislava; Werszko, Joanna; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Wróblewski, Zbigniew; Peťko, Branislav; Ragač, Ondrej; Demeshkant, Vitaliy; Karbowiak, Grzegorz

    2016-01-15

    A survey was undertaken to assess the prevalence of Theileria equi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in some regions of Ukraine, Poland and Slovakia. Using a specific PCR assays, blood samples from 215 horses were tested. The prevalence of T. equi and A. phagocytophilum infection was 13.95% and 1.4%, respectively. BLAST analysis showed the isolates closest to the T. equi 18S rRNA and A. phagocytophilum msp4 gene sequences in GenBank with a similarity of ≥99%. No significant association was found between the T. equi PCR positivity and the age or sex of the horses. There was a significant association between the origin of horses and T. equi-PCR positivity. No significant association was found between the A. phagocytophilum-PCR positivity and the age, sex or origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Engineering-Geological Maps of Geological Factors of the Environment in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baliak, František; Brček, Martin

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed very frequent natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, storms and similar. In most cases, disasters are caused by geological factors, especially geobarriers. Geobarriers threaten the life and works of man or reduce the effectiveness of the construction and operation of technical works, or harm the environment by negative anthropogenic influences. An important task in assessing the technical and environmental aspects of particular engineering activity is to assess the impact of constructions on the production and protection of the environment. The important part of the environment is the geological environment. In this paper, we give an overview of geological factors of the environment and the way how they are illustrated in the engineering-geological maps made in Slovakia.

  17. Absolute Gravity Measurements with the FG5#215 in Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pálinkás, V.; Kostelecký, J.; Lederer, M.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2001, the absolute gravimeter FG5#215 has been used for modernization of national gravity networks in Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. Altogether 37 absolute sites were measured at least once. In case of 29 sites, the absolute gravity has been determined prior to the FG5#215 by other accurate absolute meters (FG5 or JILA-g). Differences between gravity results, which reach up to 25 microgal, are caused by random and systematic errors of measurements, variations of environmental effects (mainly hydrological effects) and by geodynamics. The set of achieved differences is analyzed for potential hydrological effects based on global hydrology models and systematic errors of instrumental origin. Systematic instrumental errors are evaluated in context with accomplished international comparison measurements of absolute gravimeters in Sèvres and Walferdange organized by the Bureau International des Poids et Measures and European Center for Geodynamics and Seismology, respectively.

  18. Markov Chain analysis of turbiditic facies and flow dynamics (Magura Zone, Outer Western Carpathians, NW Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staňová, Sidónia; Soták, Ján; Hudec, Norbert

    2009-08-01

    Methods based on the Markov Chains can be easily applied in the evaluation of order in sedimentary sequences. In this contribution Markov Chain analysis was applied to analysis of turbiditic formation of the Outer Western Carpathians in NW Slovakia, although it also has broader utilization in the interpretation of sedimentary sequences from other depositional environments. Non-random facies transitions were determined in the investigated strata and compared to the standard deep-water facies models to provide statistical evidence for the sedimentological interpretation of depositional processes. As a result, six genetic facies types, interpreted in terms of depositional processes, were identified. They comprise deposits of density flows, turbidity flows, suspension fallout as well as units which resulted from syn- or post-depositional deformation.

  19. Intra-population chemical polymorphism in Thymus pannonicus All. growing in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Filippo; Caprioli, Giovanni; Papa, Fabrizio; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro; Kolarčik, Vladislav; Mártonfi, Pavol

    2014-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction technique coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to investigate the inter- and intra-population chemical polymorphism in volatile constituents of three populations of Thymus pannonicus growing in Slovakia. To have an idea on what really the plant emits under different environmental and physiological conditions, a total of 86 individuals were separately analysed using low extraction temperatures (30°C). Data were analysed using a chemometric approach such as the principal component analysis which revealed a significant intra-population variability with the existence of up to four chemotypes: the most abundant is the p-cymene/γ-terpinene chemotype, followed by the geraniol and linalool chemotypes, and, only in one population, by the γ-muurolene/(E)-caryophyllene chemotype. This differentiation of individual plants inside the populations allows better adaptation to ecological conditions of localities and is probably connected with intrinsic genetic diversity of the species.

  20. Mercury contamination from historical mining territory at Malachov Hg-deposit (Central Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Dadová, Jana; Andráš, Peter; Kupka, Jiří; Krnáč, Jozef; Andráš, Peter; Hroncová, Emília; Midula, Pavol

    2016-02-01

    Environmental contamination caused by mercury is a serious problem worldwide. The study was conducted in order to identify Hg contamination in soil, technosoil from dumps, groundwater, and surface water in the surroundings of the abandoned Hg deposit of Malachov in Central Slovakia. Soil from the Malachovský brook valley was classified as cambi-soil (rendzina). The highest Hg concentrations (44.24 mg kg(-1)) were described in the soil from the mining area at the Vel'ká Studňa locality. In the groundwater, the maximal Hg content is 0.84 μg L(-1), and in the surface water it is 394 μg L(-1). The speciation study proved that in most samples, Hg occurs in the form of cinnabarite. The release of Hg into the environment as a consequence of weathering is limited.

  1. Styles of Barrier Evolution as a Function of Proximity to the Updrift Tidal Inlet, Castle Neck, Northern Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, A. J.; FitzGerald, D. M.; Pendleton, E. A.; Buynevich, I. V.

    2001-05-01

    Castle Neck is one of five barrier islands located within the mixed energy Merrimack Embayment, MA. The barriers and intervening inlets span a 34 km length of coast. Inlets are situated in drowned river valleys and contain well-developed ebb-tidal deltas. A geophysical (ground penetrating radar, GPR) and coring study of Castle Neck has shown that the barrier is a product of abundant sediment supply, slow sea-level rise, inlet processes, and the presence of drumlin covered bedrock acting as pinning points. Fifteen kilometers of GPR transects and 35 cores have been used to delineate eight barrier and associated facies: reworked drumlins, initial progradation, shoreface accretion, inlet cut & fill structures, marsh deposits, bar migration, spit elongation, and aeolian deposition. The barrier can be separated into three geographic regions having distinctive evolutionary styles: 1) The northern barrier exhibits a highly complex stratigraphy that reflects a dynamic depositional history consisting of an early progradational phase punctuated by frequent erosional events. Seaward units contain multiple channel cut and fill structures, bar welding facies as well as shoreface accretion. These features were created due to migration of the main ebb-channel and onshore movement of swash bars. A paleo-marsh/lagoon appears to have formed as a consequence of cat-eye pond development. 2) The central barrier displays evidence of initial reworking of drumlins with the subsequent accumulation of sand from longshore and offshore sources. Beyond the drumlin associated facies are flat-lying beds formed from sand deposited into a shallow open water bay. The seaward most units are dominated by landward dipping foresets (1 to 2 m in thickness) resulting from the landward migration of swash bars associated with inlet sediment bypassing. 3) The southern section of the island consists mostly of large-scale southerly dipping beds created by spit accretion into Essex River Bay. All of the barrier

  2. Loki's Castle: A sediment-influenced hydrothermal vent field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumberger, T.; Frueh-Green, G. L.; Pedersen, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Lilley, M. D.; Moeller, K.

    2010-12-01

    The chemical composition as well as the stable and radiogenic isotope signatures of hydrothermal fluids from the Loki’s Castle vent field, located at the Mohns-Knipovich bend in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea (73°N), are substantially different from sediment-starved mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. Geochemical studies of the hydrothermal vent fluids and the adjacent rift valley sediments provide insights into the influence of sediments on the hydrothermal fluid composition and provide constraints on acting redox conditions. Additionally, they reflect the degree of fluid-rock-sediment interaction at this arctic hydrothermal vent field. Here we present an overview of the geochemical characteristics of the hydrothermal and sedimentary components at Loki’s Castle, obtained during expeditions in 2008, 2009 and 2010, with emphasis on the stable and radiogenic isotope signatures. We compare these data with other sediment-influenced and sediment-starved mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. The hydrothermal vent fluids are characterized by a pH of ˜ 5.5 and by elevated concentrations of methane, hydrogen and ammonia, which reflect a sedimentary contribution. δ13CDIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) are depleted relative to mantle carbon values, consistent with an organic carbon input. The δ18OH2O values of the vents fluids are enriched compared to background bottom seawater, whereas the δD values are not. 87Sr/86Sr ratios are more radiogenic than those characteristic of un-sedimented mid-ocean ridge vent fluids. S-isotope data reflect mixing of a MORB source with sulphide derived from reduced seawater sulphate. To document the background sediment input of the ridge system, short gravity cores and up to 18 m long piston cores were recovered from various localities in the rift valley. The pore-fluid isotope chemistries of the sediments show vertical gradients that primarily reflect diagenesis and degradation of organic matter. The vertical gradient is locally enhanced

  3. Geophysical Exploration of Castle Remains in Barwałd Górny (Near Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, Poland) Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) with Assistance of Depth of Investigation Index (DOI) Method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazer, Michał; Kula, Damian; Saternus, Robert; Lewicki, Paweł

    2014-09-01

    In March of 2014 at ruins of the 14th century castle, situated at the top of Mount Żar in Małopolska region, Poland, geophysical surveys were performed. Surveys were planned to investigate remains of the castle that could remain in the ground. Electrical Resistivity Tomography method was used there. In the paper 4 sections have been presented. During interpretation, as the supporting method, maps of Depth-of-Investigation (DOI) index have been used. Results of the surveys can point out potential remains of the castle walls and ruins of buildings that were situated in the stronghold

  4. Increasing incidence of Geomyces destructans fungus in bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Martínková, Natália; Bačkor, Peter; Bartonička, Tomáš; Blažková, Pavla; Cervený, Jaroslav; Falteisek, Lukáš; Gaisler, Jiří; Hanzal, Vladimír; Horáček, Daniel; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Jahelková, Helena; Kolařík, Miroslav; Korytár, L'uboš; Kubátová, Alena; Lehotská, Blanka; Lehotský, Roman; Lučan, Radek K; Májek, Ondřej; Matějů, Jan; Rehák, Zdeněk; Šafář, Jiří; Tájek, Přemysl; Tkadlec, Emil; Uhrin, Marcel; Wagner, Josef; Weinfurtová, Dita; Zima, Jan; Zukal, Jan; Horáček, Ivan

    2010-11-05

    White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme.

  5. Biomarkers associated with obesity and overweight in the Roma population residing in eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Petrásová, Darina; Bertková, Izabela; Petrásová, Miroslava; Hijová, Emília; Mareková, Mária; Babinská, Ingrid; Jarcuska, Peter; Pella, Daniel; Gecková, Andrea Madarasová

    2014-03-01

    Obesity and overweight are major contributors to the global burden of chronic diseases and disability in both majority and minority populations. Data from the cross-sectional population-based HepaMeta study conducted in Slovakia in 2011 were used. The sample comprised a total of 452 Roma. Measurements of special bioactive mediators were taken in final groups consisting of 63 male Roma respondents (mean age = 32.59; SD = 8.63) and 117 female Roma respondents (mean age = 34.55; SD = 8.35). Respondents were divided into three groups: those with normal weight, those with overweight and obese. Values for anthropometric parameters, lipids parameters, C-reactive protein, TNF-alpha, IL-6, leptin, and adiponectin were determined. 27.6% of examined Roma females and 26.9% of males were overweight. Obesity (BMI > 30.0 kg/m2) appeared in a higher proportion of males (28.8%) compared with female (26.5%). Mean levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly elevated in the overweight and obese subjects compared to normal-weight Roma respondents. The relation was reversed for HDL-C level, with significantly decreased levels in both male and female obese Roma (p < 0.001). The concentration of adiponectin was significantly lower in obese subjects of both genders versus non-obese (Roma male p < 0.001, Roma female p < 0.05). Plasma levels of leptin, IL-6, hs-CRP as well as TNF-alpha increased in Roma significantly with increasing BMI. The study is the first one to provide data about selected biomarkers. Results may be useful in predicting obesity and its related diseases in the Roma population from the eastern part of Slovakia.

  6. Human mortality impacts of the 2015 summer heat spells in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Výberči, Dalibor; Labudová, Lívia; Eštóková, Milada; Faško, Pavol; Trizna, Milan

    2017-07-01

    In 2015, Central Europe experienced an unusually warm summer season. For a great majority of climatic stations around Slovakia, it had been the warmest summer ever recorded over their entire instrumental observation period. In this study, we investigate the mortality effects of hot days' sequences during that particular summer on the Slovak population. In consideration of the range of available mortality data, the position of 2015 is analysed within the years 1996-2015. Over the given 20-year period, the summer heat spells of 2015 were by far the most severe from a meteorological point of view, and clearly the deadliest with the total of almost 540 excess deaths. In terms of impacts, an extraordinary 10-day August heat spell was especially remarkable. The massive lethal effects of heat would have likely been even more serious under normal circumstances, since the number of premature deaths appeared to be partially reduced due to a non-standard mortality pattern in the first quarter of the year. The heat spells of the extremely warm summer of 2015 in Slovakia are notable not just for their short-term response in mortality. It appears that in a combination with the preceding strong influenza season, they subsequently affected mortality conditions in the country in the following months up until the end of the year. The impacts described above were rather different for selected population subgroups (men and women, the elderly). Both separately and as a part of the annual mortality cycle, the 2015 summer heat spells may represent a particularly valuable source of information for public health.

  7. Sero-epidemiological study of Lyme disease among high-risk population groups in eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Zákutná, Ľubica; Dorko, Erik; Mattová, Eva; Rimárová, Kvetoslava

    2015-01-01

    IIntroduction and objective. The aim of the presented cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study was to determine the current presence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. in the high-risk groups of the Slovak population, and to identify potential risk factors to LB infections. A group of 277 agricultural and forestry workers - persons with frequent stay in the countryside and employees of State Border and Customs Police - from years 2011-2012 in the Eastern Slovakia were examined in order to assess the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies. Sera were screened by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study subjects completed a questionnaires with general demographic, epidemiological and clinical data. The results were evaluated statistically. A 25.3% presence of positive and 8.7% presence of borderline IgG antibodies was detected in all investigated groups. The seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. was significantly higher (P<0.05) among the agricultural and forestry workers when compared to employees of State Border and Customs Police. Higher seropositivity was observed in older subjects over 30 years of age (P=0.004) than those who were younger, and also in males (P=0.045). A significant number of persons with rheumatologic conditions was statistically higher (P=0.020) in the group with seropositivity than in the group with seronegativity. The presented study confirms the higher risk of Borrelia infection in individuals with frequent exposure to ticks in eastern Slovakia. The seropositivity tests confirmed the highest seropositivity in agriculture and forestry workers, middle positivity was confirmed among other sector workers, and lowest positivity in policemen and employees of the Customs and Border Inspection. The outputs also simultaneously filling the gap of missing seroprevalence data among these exposed groups.

  8. Multi-analytical characterization of archaeological ceramics. A case study from the Sforza Castle (Milano, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberini, V.; Maspero, F.; Galimberti, L.; Fusi, N.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization, using several analytical techniques, of a sample of ancient pottery found during archaeological excavations in the 14th century's Sforza Castle in Milano. The use of a multi-analytical approach is well established in the study of archaeological materials (e.g. Tite et al. 1984, Ribechini et al. 2008). The chemical composition of the sample was determined with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The chemical composition is: SiO2 61.3(±3)%, Al2O3 22.5(±2)%, Fe2O3 7.19(±6)%, K2O 3.85(±1)%, MgO 1.6(±1)%, Na2O 1.6(±4)% (probably overestimated), TiO2 1.02(±2)%, CaO 0.93(±1)%, MnO 0.15(±1)% and P2O5 0.06(±2)%. The K2O content, important when dealing with TL dating, was determined also with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The K2O content determined with atomic absorption is 3.86(±3)%, in agreement with X-ray fluorescence analysis. The mineralogical composition of the sample was determined with X-ray powder diffraction: quartz 59.6(±1) wt%, mica 37.8(±3) wt% and feldspar (plagioclase) 2.6(±2) wt%. The sample homogeneity was assessed with X-ray computerised tomography (CT), which is a very powerful non-destructive analysis tool for 3D characterization (Sèguin, 1991). CT images show differences in materials with different X-ray absorption (mainly depending on different densities) and 3D reconstruction has many interesting archaeological applications (e.g. study of sealed jars). CT images of the studied sample showed the presence of angular fragments (probably quartz) few millimetres wide immersed in a fine grained matrix. Moreover, before and after the CT analysis, some ceramic powder was sampled to perform thermoluminescence analysis (TL, the powder used for this analysis can not be recovered). It was thus possible to evaluate the dose absorbed by the material due the X-ray irradiation. The dose absorbed after 3 hours of irradiation, the time needed for a complete scan of a 7 x 5 x 1 cm, is about 100 Gy, which

  9. 5 most consumpted opioid analgesics in Slovakia in the year 2006--comparison to five other countries (Finland, Norway, Denmark, Spain, Australia).

    PubMed

    Hudec, R; Bozekova, L; Foltan, V; Tisonova, J; Kriska, M

    2009-01-01

    Opioid analgesics are drugs of choice in the treatment of moderate and severe malignant or noncancer pain. Consumption data helps us to evaluate the status of country's public health. We analysed the consumption of opioid analgesics from ATC class N02A in Slovakia in the year 2006 and compared it with five other countries -- Finland, Norway, Denmark, Spain and Australia. We then calculated drugs that accounted for 90% of the total volume of DDDs in the year 2006. Slovakia showed a dominance of tramadol consumption that constituted three quarters of the total group consumption. Tramadol is the commonest consumed opioid analgesic in all observed countries (in Norway it constituted only 35% of total group consumption, whereas in Slovakia it was 72%). Opioid consumption in Slovakia is increasing, but comparison with the Nordic countries, Spain and Australia showed a significantly lower consumption. Exception is tramadol with the highest consumption in Slovakia. Observed trends in consumption indicate a well known accent of the Nordic countries on treatment of pain. Opiod consumption in Slovakia continues to stay low (Tab. 1, Fig. 1, Ref. 10). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  10. Multiple Uses of a 3d Point Cloud: the Castle of Franchimont (province of LIÈGE, Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luczfalvy Jancsó, A.; Jonlet, B.; Hallot, P.; Hoffsummer, P.; Billen, R.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the identified obstacles, needs and selected solutions for the study of the medieval castle of Franchimont, located in the province of Liège (Belgium). After taking into account the requirements from all the disciplines at work as well as the problems that would have to be tackled, the creation of a 3D point cloud was decided. This solution would be able to deal with the characteristics and needs of a research involving building archaeology and related fields. The decision was made in order to manage all of the available data and to provide a common working tool for every involved cultural heritage actor. To achieve this, the elaboration of an Archaeological Information System based on 3D point clouds as a common virtual workspace is being taken into consideration.

  11. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Castle Air Force Base, Merced County, CA. (First remedial action), August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-12

    The 2,777-acre Castle Air Force Base is a Strategic Air Command training base 6 miles northwest of the City of Merced in Merced County, California. Land use in the area is predominantly agricultural. Since 1941, the site has been used as a military air training base. Fire training activities, as well as aircraft and jet engine maintenance activities including metal plating and processing, have occurred onsite. In 1984, the base was required not only to implement remedial measures to correct the identified contamination but also to prevent future ground water degradation from waste discharges. The site has been divided into operable units (OUs) for remediation. The Record of Decision (ROD) provides an interim remedy for the main TCE plume, as OU1. Future RODs will address remaining soil and ground water contamination. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are VOCs including benzene, PCE, and TCE. The selected remedial action for the interim remedy is included.

  12. Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, Spring 1993 (Harvey and Knott Drum Site, New Castle County, Delaware)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    From 1963 to 1969, two acres of the Harvey and Knott Drum site in New Castle County, Delaware served as an open dump and burning area for sanitary, municipal, and industrial wastes. Sludge, paint pigment, and solvents contaminated the site until the State of Delaware and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) intervened in 1981. Site conditions required a combination of traditional cleanup measures. After the immediate health threats posed by the site were eliminated, EPA reached an innovative, mixed funding settlement for long-term cleanup with two parties responsible for the site contamination. The following actions highlight the success of the Superfund program: An emergency removal of contaminants reduced immediate environmental and public health effects; A rapid assessment of ground water safeguarded drinking water supplies; and The full cooperation of General Motors (GM) expedited implementation of the cleanup, valued at $3.2 million.

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Harvey-Knott Drum site, New Castle County, Delaware, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-30

    The Harvey-Knott Drum Site is located in New Castle County, Delaware, approximately one-half mile east of the Maryland-Delaware border. The Harvey and Knotts Trucking, Inc., operated an open dump and burning ground on the site between 1963 and 1969. The facility accepted sanitary, municipal, and industrial wastes believed to be sludges, paint pigments, and solvents. Wastes were emptied onto the ground, into excavated trenches, or left in drums (some of which were buried). Some of these wastes were either burned as a means of reducing waste volume, or allowed to seep into the soil. Contamination of soil, surface water, and ground water has occurred as a result of disposal of these industrial wastes. The selected remedial action for this site is included.

  14. Mineral resource potential map of the Mount Eddy and Castle Crags Roadless Areas, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jocelyn A.; Caress, Mary E.; Denton, David K.; Spear, James M.

    1983-01-01

    Although ultramafic terranes such as that underlying the Mount Eddy and Castle Crags Roadless Areas may contain chromite, nickel, platinum-group metals, cobalt, and asbestos, there are no significant identified concentrations of these resources within the roadless areas. Platinum-group metals were sought but not detected in stream-sediment concentrates, although this does not rule out their possible occurrence. Nickel and cobalt did not occur in anomalous amounts although slightly higher nickel values in the northern part of the Mount Eddy Roadless Area may indicate low-grade mineralization within small dunite bodies, if the nickel occurs in sulfide phases rather than in olivine. The region has been examined on the surface for chromite and asbestos. Although both minerals are ubiquitous there is probably only a low potential for asbestos on the basis of the small size of veins at the surface. Only a few small areas of chromite were noted in the Mount Eddy Roadless Area; without subsurface data, however, any dunite body must be considered to have potential for chromite. The geochemical data for boron, barium, and mercury plus abundant quartz veining in gabbro and hornblende diorite suggest pervasive hydrothermal alteration, which could have formed mercury or vein gold deposits. Sand and gravel deposits occur in the Castle Crags Roadless Area but they cannot compete with superior deposits closer to markets. At a borrow pit northwest of the Mount Eddy Roadless Area, sheared serpentinite is quarried for road metal; similar rock occurs in the roadless area; however, better material is more readily available elsewhere.

  15. Four new troglobiotic species of the genus Megalothorax Willem, 1900 (Collembola: Neelipleona) from the Carpathian Mountains (Slovakia, Romania).

    PubMed

    Papáč, Vladimír; Kováč, Lubomír

    2013-11-22

    Four new species of Megalothorax Willem, 1900 are described and illustrated: M. tatrensis sp. nov., M. carpaticus sp. nov., M. hipmani sp. nov. from caves in Slovakia and M. draco sp. nov. from the Drǎcoaia Cave in western Romania. The species represent troglobiotic forms exhibiting different level of troglomorphy involving such features as larger body, elongated foot complex, antennae, mucro and body chaetae. The most pronounced troglomorphy is observed in M. hipmani sp. nov. and M. draco sp. nov. Species descriptions are completed with comparative tables of chaetotaxy of antennae and legs. Diagnostic table for all congeners and dichotomous identification key to the world species are provided. Distribution records of other Megalothorax species in Slovakia are added.

  16. Kidney diseases in Roma and non-Roma children from eastern Slovakia: are Roma children more at risk?

    PubMed

    Kolvek, Gabriel; Podracka, Ludmila; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Stewart, Roy E; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2014-12-01

    To compare the occurence of primary renal diseases (PRD) in Roma and non-Roma children. Data on all outpatients (n = 921) from a tertiary pediatric nephrology centre (<19 years) in eastern Slovakia were collected. We assessed early signs and symptoms and PRD for Roma and non-Roma children. The proportion of Roma among patients was relatively small regarding early signs like proteinuria but large regarding PRD with gross clinically apparent symptoms (e.g. Alport syndrome, p < 0.01 and systemic lupus erythematosus, p < 0.05). The overall proportion of Roma children in outpatients with kidney problems is smaller than the estimated proportion of Roma in all children in Slovakia, in particular for early signs, but not for major renal diseases.

  17. Checklist and distribution of ciliates from the family Euplotidae Ehrenberg, 1838 (Protista: Ciliophora: Spirotrichea) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tirjaková, Eva; Botlíková, Simona; Vďačný, Peter

    2015-02-20

    A checklist of ciliates from the family Euplotidae recorded in the territory of Slovakia, Central Europe was assembled. Altogether, 11 species belonging to three genera of the family Euplotidae have been reported there: Euplotes alatus, Euplotes charon, Euplotes moebiusi, Euplotoides aediculatus, Euplotoides eurystomus, Euplotoides patella, Euplotoides woodruffi, Euplotopsis affinis, Euplotopsis finki, Euplotopsis muscicola, and Euplotopsis novemcarinata. However, records of the marine species E. alatus and E. charon are doubtful and very likely represent misidentifications of E. moebiusi. Since the euryhaline species E. woodruffi was found for the first time in Slovakia, its morphology is described. Based on the literature data and our own observations, the present checklist is also accompanied with distribution data on the 11 aforementioned species. As concerns ecology, Slovak euplotids typically occurred in freshwater bodies having higher trophic levels. Only two species, E. finki and E. muscicola, were isolated from terrestrial habitats, especially, from mosses, leaf-litter, and decaying wood mass.

  18. [A fourth-generation doctor - Hans Selye and his origins from Felvidék (today Slovakia)].

    PubMed

    Kiss, László

    2016-08-01

    Hans Selye regarded himself as the fourth generation of medical dynasty, but in his books he did not name his ancestors. Based on facts from archives and contemporary literature the author demonstrated that the grandfather of Hans Selye was called Schlesinger and he worked in Pruszka (county Trencsén; (today: Pruské, county Trenčín, Slovakia) as a district physician. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(33), 1331-1333.

  19. An updated numerical simulation of the ground-water flow system for the Castle Lake debris dam, Mount St. Helens, Washington, and implications for dam stability against heave

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeloffs, Evelyn A.

    1994-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the ground-water flow system in the Castle Lake debris dam, calibrated to data from the 1991 and 1992 water years, was used to estimate factors of safety against heave and internal erosion. The Castle Lake debris dam, 5 miles northwest of the summit of Mount St. Helens, impounds 19,000 acre-ft of water that could pose a flood hazard in the event of a lake breakout. A new topographic map of the Castle Lake area prior to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was prepared and used to calculate the thickness of the debris avalanche deposits that compose the dam. Water levels in 22 piezometers and discharges from seeps on the dam face measured several times per year beginning in 1990 supplemented measurements in 11 piezometers and less frequent seep discharge measurements made since 1983. Observations in one group of piezometers reveal heads above the land surface and head gradients favoring upward flow that correspond to factors of safety only slightly greater than 2. The steady-state ground-water flow system in the debris dam was simulated using a threedimensional finite difference computer program. A uniform, isotropic model having the same shape as the dam and a hydraulic conductivity of 1.55 ft/day simulates the correct water level at half the observation points, but is in error by 10 ft or more at other points. Spatial variations of hydraulic conductivity were required to calibrate the model. The model analysis suggests that ground water flows in both directions between the debris dam and Castle Lake. Factors of safety against heave and internal erosion were calculated where the model simulated upward flow of ground water. A critical gradient analysis yields factors of safety as low as 2 near the piezometers where water level observations indicate low factors of safety. Low safety factors are also computed near Castle Creek where slumping was caused by a storm in January, 1990. If hydraulic property contrasts are present in areas of the

  20. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in European brown hares in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria.

    PubMed

    Bártová, Eva; Sedlák, Kamil; Treml, Frantisek; Holko, Ivan; Literák, Ivan

    2010-07-15

    European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) coming from the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria were tested for serum antibodies against Neospora caninum by a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and for serum antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by an indirect fluorescent antibody test. In a total of 925 samples, 280 (30%) and 132 (14%) reacted positively for N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. Out of 333 hares in the Czech Republic, 129 (39%) and 71 (21%) reacted positively for N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. Out of 209 hares in Slovakia, 8 (4%) and 13 (6%) reacted positively for N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. Out of 383 hares in Austria, 143 (37%) and 48 (13%) reacted positively for N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. Mixed infection (concurrent presence of both N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies) was found in 25 (8%) hares in the Czech Republic, in 14 (4%) hares in Austria and in none hare in Slovakia. It is the first report of antibodies against Neospora caninum in hares in the Czech Republic and Austria.

  1. Selected sociodemographic factors and related differences in patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life among these populations, which is again one of the main factors determining the alcohol consumption among university students. The aim of our study was to assess the association of selected sociodemographic factors with different patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia. Methods A sample of 813 young adults (mean age 21.1 years, 63.8% females; response rate of 71%) from four universities in Kosice answered questions about their sociodemographic background and about alcohol use. To obtain a detailed picture of different aspects, alcohol use was measured by four variables: frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, frequency of drunkenness and problem drinking. Four separate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between sociodemographic and alcohol-related variables. To assess the potentially different effects in both genders, all two-way interactions with gender were tested. Results While 41% of the students drank alcohol once a week or more often, 77% reported heavy episodic drinking and 49% had been drunk more than once in the last month. Problem drinking existed in 23.3% of the sample. Gender was consistently associated with all four alcohol-related variables, with males being at higher risk. A higher study year was associated only with lower levels of heavy episodic drinking, but displayed no association with the other studied variables. Living with parents during the semester was consistently associated with less frequent heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness episodes, and problem drinking while having an intimate relationship was associated with less problem drinking only. Conclusions Our findings for the

  2. Selected sociodemographic factors and related differences in patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Sebena, Rene; Orosova, Olga; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2011-11-09

    Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life among these populations, which is again one of the main factors determining the alcohol consumption among university students. The aim of our study was to assess the association of selected sociodemographic factors with different patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia. A sample of 813 young adults (mean age 21.1 years, 63.8% females; response rate of 71%) from four universities in Kosice answered questions about their sociodemographic background and about alcohol use. To obtain a detailed picture of different aspects, alcohol use was measured by four variables: frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, frequency of drunkenness and problem drinking. Four separate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between sociodemographic and alcohol-related variables. To assess the potentially different effects in both genders, all two-way interactions with gender were tested. While 41% of the students drank alcohol once a week or more often, 77% reported heavy episodic drinking and 49% had been drunk more than once in the last month. Problem drinking existed in 23.3% of the sample. Gender was consistently associated with all four alcohol-related variables, with males being at higher risk. A higher study year was associated only with lower levels of heavy episodic drinking, but displayed no association with the other studied variables. Living with parents during the semester was consistently associated with less frequent heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness episodes, and problem drinking while having an intimate relationship was associated with less problem drinking only. Our findings for the university students from Slovakia are in line

  3. Estimation of flash floods in small ungauged basins in Slovakia: case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavcova, Kamila; Horvat, Oliver; Kohnova, Silvia; Szolgay, Jan; Roncak, Peter

    2013-04-01

    In the paper application of a methodology for analysis of flash flood events in several ungauged small basins in Slovakia was evaluated. The methodology proposed within the framework of the FP6 HYDRATE project (www.hydrate.tesaf.unipd.it) is based on the post-event surveying and hydrological modelling, using a spatially distributed hydrological model with a high spatial resolution of rainfall data and physiographical basin properties. Six large flash floods which occurred in Slovakia during the last 10 years were selected, with the emphasis on their extremity and different physical and geographical basins properties. The estimation of the maximum flood peaks and flood wave volumes was provided on the base of the post-event analysis after the flood events. The areas of channel's cross-profiles were measured for maximal water level, longitudinal slope of water level was approximated to the bottom slope and roughness was estimated according to the river banks and channel bottoms. Flow velocities were estimated using Chézy equation and Manning roughness coefficient. The reconstructed flood waves were compared with the simulated discharges using the distributed event-based rainfall-runoff model KLEM. The distributed hydrological model KLEM is based on the availability of raster information of the landscape's topography, soil and vegetation properties, and radar rainfall data. The SCS-Curve Number procedure is applied on a grid for the spatially-distributed representation of runoff-generating processes, a description of the drainage system response is used for representing the runoff's routing. Digital elevation models as well as soil, geology, land use and rainfall data for the basins were prepared in the grid form (resolution of 20 m). Radar rainfall data or maps of isohyets in 15-minutes time step or were used as input precipitation in the model. Comparison of the results achieved by the KLEM model and the post-event analysis for floods showed the consistency of

  4. Medicine and Charity in Eighteenth-century Northumberland: The Early Years of the Bamburgh Castle Dispensary and Surgery, c. 1772–1802

    PubMed Central

    Withey, Alun

    2016-01-01

    In 1772 in Bamburgh Castle, Northumberland, a charitable institution was established by Dr John Sharp to offer medical provision to the poor of the parish, which was remote from the Newcastle and Edinburgh Infirmaries. Unlike urban institutions, which have dominated hospital historiography, the Bamburgh dispensary was small, occupying only a few rooms in the castle, and situated in a remote, coastal location. And yet, at its height, the Bamburgh dispensary treated thousands of patients per year, often exceeding dispensaries in large towns, and was equipped with the latest medical technologies. Unlike the majority of infirmaries and dispensaries it was not funded by subscription, nor run by governors, but was entirely funded by the Lord Crewe Trust, and administered by Dr Sharp. While Bamburgh is certainly an anomaly, it raises new questions about voluntary institutional medical provision for rural populations, and forms of medical philanthropy. PMID:27482145

  5. The effects of ground water, slope stability, and seismic hazards on the stability of the South Fork Castle Creek blockage in the Mount St. Helens area, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, William; Sabol, M.A.; Glicken, H.X.; Voight, Barry

    1985-01-01

    A slope stability analysis on the South Fork Castle Creek debris avalanche blockage, near Mount St. Helens, Washington, was conducted to determine the likelihood of mass failure of the blockage and resultant breakout of South Fork Castle Creek Lake. On the basis of material properties, groundwater levels, and seismic history of the blockage, slope stability with and without earthquake-induced forces was determined. Results indicated that the blockage will not fail from gravitational forces at September 1983 groundwater levels. An increase of 25 feet or more in water levels could cause local failures, but massive failure of the blockage is improbable. Blockage slopes are potentially unstable for present and higher water levels if an earthquake with magnitude greater than 6.0 should occur. Retrogressive slope failures are possible, but lowering of the blockage crest below lake level and consequent lake breakout are considered remote. Significant earthquake shaking could cause cracks in the blockage that might facilitate piping. (USGS)

  6. Biogeochemical controls on seasonal variations of the stable isotopes of dissolved oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon in Castle Lake, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. M.; Poulson, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to perform a seasonal dissolved oxygen (DO) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) study to assess the fluctuations in biogeochemical processes with depth in a lake. DO and DIC concentrations and stable isotope compositions (δ18O-DO, δ13C-DIC) have been used as a technique to study the systematics of diurnal freshwater biogeochemical processes, primarily photosynthesis, respiration, and gas-exchange (e.g. Quay et al. 1995, Trojanowska et al. 2008). For example, photosynthesis produces DO isotopically identical to the host water, typically light relative to atmospheric oxygen (+23.5‰), while respiration preferentially consumes isotopically light DO. Diel δ18O-DO and δ13C-DIC studies in rivers (e.g. Parker et al. 2005, Parker et al. 2010, Poulson & Sullivan 2010) have been used to determine the rates of biogeochemical processes over a 24h time scale. However, similar studies in lakes are rare, for either diel or seasonal time scales. The focus of this project is Castle Lake, 12km southwest of Mt. Shasta, CA, at an elevation of 1660m. Castle Lake is an alpine, meso-oligotrophic lake with a 19ha surface area and a maximum depth of up to 35m. This project consists of sampling profiles, 2-3 weeks apart, throughout the 2010 field season for monitoring seasonal depth trends, with measurements of DO concentration, temperature, pH, alkalinity, specific conductivity, PAR, chlorophyll concentration, δ18O-DO, δ13C-DIC, δ18O-H2O, and δD-H2O. Diel measurements of DO concentration, temperature, pH, specific conductivity, PAR, and chlorophyll concentration have also been performed at various depths. To date, the profile data collected at Castle Lake show various seasonal changes, starting after ice-out (late June 2010) through mid-August 2010. DO profiles display a positive heterograde trend with a maximum of 11.33mg/L at 12m in mid-August and minima of ≤0.12mg/L near the lake bottom. DIC concentrations increase

  7. Long-term corrosion study at nuclear power plant Bohunice (Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slugen, V.; Lipka, J.; Dekan, J.; Tóth, I.; Smieško, I.

    2010-03-01

    Steam generators of four VVER-440 units at nuclear power plants V-1 and V-2 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) were gradually changed by new original "Bohunice" design in period 1994-1998. Corrosion processes before and after these design and material changes in Bohunice secondary circuit were studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy during last 25 years. Innovations in the feed water pipeline design as well as material composition improvements were evaluated positively. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of phase composition of corrosion products were performed on real specimens scrapped from water pipelines or in form of filter deposits. The corrosion of new feed water pipelines system (from austenitic steel) in combination to innovated operation regimes goes dominantly to magnetite. The hematite presence is mostly on the internal surface of steam generator body and its concentration increases towards the top of the body. In the results interpretation it is necessary to consider also erosion as well as scope and type of maintenance activities. The long-term study of phase composition of corrosion products at VVER reactors is one of precondition for the safe operation over the projected NPP lifetime.

  8. Radon measurements in an area of tectonic zone: A case study in Central Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Mojzeš, Andrej; Marko, František; Porubčanová, Barbara; Bartošová, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    General overviews of the spatial distribution of radon and other natural radionuclides in the geological basement as commonly presented on regional or country maps tend to offer a low density of information, insufficient for gaining relevant knowledge of the environmental impact, especially in the areas of tectonic zones often assumed to be radon prone and therefore dangerous for the human population. An additional survey, employing radon measurements in soil and indoor air, was carried out seeking to provide a more detailed characterization of the expressive fault zone of the Malá Magura in the Horná Nitra region of Central Slovakia. Eventually, the results of soil (222)Rn volume activity measurements along two short profiles crossing the assumed fault line did not reveal any indication of active nature of local tectonics, but merely pointed to an existence of a zone of contact between different types of rocks. The results of indoor radon measurements in dwellings of two villages lying on the studied fault showed values that were lower than those commonly observed on the Slovak territory, ruling out any negative health impact on population. Nevertheless, in order to add new findings to an already well established study of geological structure of the region, the indoor radon data collected through a previous survey require a further analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lower Miocene plant assemblage with coastal-marsh herbaceous monocots from the Vienna Basin (Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvaček, Zlatko; Teodoridis, Vasilis; Kováčová, Marianna; Schlögl, Ján; Sitár, Viliam

    2014-06-01

    A new plant assemblage of Cerová-Lieskové from Lower Miocene (Karpatian) deposits in the Vienna Basin (western Slovakia) is preserved in a relatively deep, upper-slope marine environment. Depositional conditions with high sedimentation rates allowed exceptional preservation of plant remains. The plant assemblage consists of (1) conifers represented by foliage of Pinus hepios and Tetraclinis salicornioides, a seed cone of Pinus cf. ornata, and by pollen of the Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Pinus sp. and Cathaya sp., and (2) angiosperms represented by Cinnamomum polymorphum, Platanus neptuni, Potamogeton sp. and lauroid foliage, by pollen of Liquidambar sp., Engelhardia sp. and Craigia sp., and in particular by infructescences (so far interpreted as belonging to cereal ears). We validate genus and species assignments of the infructescences: they belong to Palaeotriticum Sitár, including P. mockii Sitár and P. carpaticum Sitár, and probably represent herbaceous monocots that inhabited coastal marshes, similar to the living grass Spartina. Similar infructescences occur in the Lower and Middle Miocene deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep (Slup in Moravia), Tunjice Hills (Žale in Slovenia), and probably also in the Swiss Molasse (Lausanne). This plant assemblage demonstrates that the paleovegetation was represented by evergreen woodland with pines and grasses in undergrowth, similar to vegetation inhabiting coastal brackish marshes today. It also indicates subtropical climatic conditions in the Vienna Basin (central Paratethys), similar to those implied by other coeval plant assemblages from Central Europe

  10. Social support, hopelessness and life satisfaction among Roma and non-Roma adolescents in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Kolarcik, P; Geckova, A Madarasova; Reijneveld, S A; van Dijk, J P

    2012-12-01

    Evidence on the psychosocial determinants of health among Roma adolescents is completely lacking. Our aim was to compare social support, life satisfaction and hopelessness of Slovak Roma and non-Roma adolescents and to assess the impact of parental education and social desirability on these differences. We conducted a cross-sectional study among Roma from settlements in the eastern part of Slovakia (N = 330; mean age = 14.50; interview) and non-Roma adolescents (N = 722; mean age = 14.86; questionnaire). The effect of ethnicity on social support, life satisfaction and hopelessness was analysed using linear regression, adjusted for gender, parental education and social desirability. Roma adolescents reported higher social support from parents, higher life satisfaction and higher hopelessness rates. Parental education explained part of the ethnic differences, as did social desirability. After adjustment for the aforementioned factors, differences by ethnicity remained statistically significant. Roma adolescents experience higher levels of social support, life satisfaction and hopelessness than non-Roma adolescents. Reduction of hopelessness feelings while maintaining levels of social support and life satisfaction among Roma adolescents should be a topic for both intervention and further research.

  11. Ecophysiological and ultrastructural effects of dust pollution in lichens exposed around a cement plant (SW Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Guttová, Anna; Grassi, Alice; Lackovičová, Anna; Senko, Dušan; Sorbo, Sergio; Basile, Adriana; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated the ecophysiological and ultrastructural effects of dust pollution from a cement industry in the lichen species Evernia prunastri and Xanthoria parietina, which were exposed for 30, 90 and 180 days around a cement mill, two quarries, and inhabited and agricultural sites in SW Slovakia. The results showed that dust deposition from quarrying activities and cement works at the cement mill (mainly enriched in Ca, Fe and Ti) significantly affected the photosynthetic apparatus of E. prunastri (sensitive to dust and habitat eutrophication), while X. parietina (tolerant to dust and habitat eutrophication) adapted to the new environment. The length of the exposure strongly affected the vitality of the mycobiont (measured as dehydrogenase activity) in transplanted lichens. Dust deposition led to ultrastructural alterations, including lipid droplets increase, swelling of cellular components, thylakoid degeneration and sometimes plasmolysis, which, on the whole, gave the cells an aged appearance. Photosynthetic parameters deserve further attention as potential indicators for monitoring early biological symptoms of the air pollution caused during cement production.

  12. The spatial distribution of human exposure to PCBs around a former production site in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Wimmerová, Soňa; Watson, Alan; Drobná, Beata; Šovčíková, Eva; Weber, Roland; Lancz, Kinga; Patayová, Henrieta; Richterová, Denisa; Koštiaková, Vladimíra; Jurečková, Dana; Závacký, Pavol; Strémy, Maximilián; Jusko, Todd A.; Murínová, L'ubica Palkovičová; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated concentrations of 15 PCB congeners in blood serum of 2,047 adults, 431 8-9-years old children and 1,134 mother-child pairs born in 2001-2003. These subjects were long-standing residents living up to 70 km (to the north) and up to 50 km (to the south) of the former Chemko Strážske PCB production facility in the Michalovce district of Slovakia. We plotted serum concentration against distance from the plant both with and without consideration of the direction of their homes from the site. The decrease in exposure with distance could be described by an exponential function which was dependent on direction and climatic parameters. By kriging we created maps depicting predicted isoconcentration contours for sex- and age-adjusted serum concentration of ΣPCBs for the same group of children, adults and mothers. The principle of our risk analysis was to relate serum concentration data, reflecting PCB body burden, using the critical concentrations established by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES 2010) as thresholds below which the probability of effects on health is regarded as negligible. We conclude that 10 years ago around 200,000 residents were at risk in this densely populated area. Exposure has since decreased but the mechanism for this has not yet been studied. PMID:26250810

  13. Trends in age-adjusted coronary heart disease mortality rates in Slovakia between 1993 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Psota, Marek; Pekarciková, Jarmila; O'Mullane, Monica; Rusnák, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and especially coronary heart disease (CHD) are the main causes of death in the Slovak Republic (SR). The aim of this study is to explore trends in age-adjusted coronary heart disease mortality rates in the whole Slovak population and in the population of working age between the years 1993 and 2009. A related indicator - potential years of life lost (PYLL) due to CHD--was calculated in the same period for males and females. Crude CHD mortality rates were age-adjusted using European standard population. The joinpoint Poisson regression was performed in order to find out the annual percentage change in trends. The age-adjusted CHD mortality rates decreased in the Slovak population and also in the population of working age. The change was significant only within the working-age sub-group. We found that partial diagnoses (myocardial infarction and chronic ischaemic heart disease) developed in the mirror-like manner. PYLL per 100,000 decreased during the observed period and the decline was more prominent in males. For further research we recommend to focus on several other issues, namely, to examine the validity of cause of death codes, to examine the development of mortality rates in selected age groups, to find out the cause of differential development of mortality rates in the Slovak Republic in comparison with the Czech Republic and Poland, and to explain the causes of decrease of the age-adjusted CHD mortality rates in younger age groups in Slovakia.

  14. The nanoparticulate nature of invisible gold in arsenopyrite from Pezinok (Slovakia)

    SciTech Connect

    Majzlan, Juraj; Chovan, Martin; Andráš, Peter; Newville, Matthew; Wiedenbeck, Michael

    2010-04-09

    Arsenopyrite is the most common sulfide host of invisible gold. Yet, despite many studies, the position of such gold in the structure of arsenopyrite has not been resolved conclusively. Here we report a multitechnique study of arsenopyrite samples from the Pezinok deposits (Slovakia) with moderate gold concentrations of 7-10 {micro}g/g. Secondary ion mass spectrometry showed that the invisible gold occurs as either (1) almost uniform, low-concentration of 'dispersed' gold, or as (2) hot spots along fractures. X-ray absorption spectra at the Au L{sub III} edge were collected from such hot spots. The spectra document metallic character of gold although no discrete gold particles were seen even after careful re-examining in back-scattered electron images. We conclude that such occurrences are most readily explained by the presence of gold nanoparticles. We suggest that the dispersed gold is the chemically-bound gold previously detected in these deposits by 197Au Moessbauer spectroscopy. The concentration of the dispersed gold is too low for X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  15. Landscape change analysis and assessment (case studies in Slovakia and Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feranec, Jan; Kopecka, Monika; Vatseva, Rumiana; Stoimenov, Anton; Otahel, Jan; Betak, Juraj; Husar, Karol

    2009-03-01

    Landscape change assessment was conducted in selected areas of Slovakia and Bulgaria in 1990-2000 using CORINE land cover (CLC) data layer analysis. Assessment of causes that led to these changes was undertaken, with an emphasis on those that determined the extensification of agriculture. The LC data were obtained under the CLC90 and I&CLC2000 projects, jointly managed by the European Environment Agency in Copenhagen, Denmark and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission in Ispra, Italy. The CLC1990-2000-changes data layer was generated by overlaying the CLC90 and CLC2000 data layers for change in areas of a minimum 5 ha. The analysed causes of changes (driving forces) were then classified. Land cover (LC) changes characterizing urbanization processes occurred only in the Trnava and Tatras areas. Intensification of agriculture was also higher in these two areas. LC changes characterizing the extensification of agriculture were dominant in Plovdiv and Trnava. Deforestation and forestation were identified in all areas (Trnava, Tatras, Plovdiv, and Burgas). The basic reasons of these changes were related to the transformation of national economies from being centrally planned to market controlled, following the fall of socialism and before the countries joined the European Union.

  16. Gypsy Phenylketonuria: A point mutation of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Gypsy families from Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Kalanin, J.; Takarada, Y.; Kagawa, S.; Yamashita, K.; Ohtsuka, N.; Matsuoka, A.

    1994-01-15

    A direct mutational analysis of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) in Gypsy families with phenylketonuria (PKU) has not yet been presented. However, they obviously represent a group at high risk for this inherited disease. The authors analyzed the PAH loci of 65 Gypsies originating from Eastern Slovakia by a combination of PCR amplification, direct sequencing and ASO hybridization. These studies uncovered 10 {open_quotes}classical PKU{close_quotes} patients to be homozygous for a R252W (CGG-TGG) transition, and 29 heterozygous carriers of this mutation. Fifteen control Caucasoid PKU patients from the Czech and Slovak Republics were selected. In this group they detected R252W mutation in two subjects (6.67% of all mutant alleles). Both were compound heterozygous for two different mutations. Previous haplotype studies of Welsh Gypsies with PKU were uninformative in the determination of heterozygosity. ASO hybridization served effectively for the consequent analyses in Gypsy PKU-related families and to identify the carriers among the unrelated subjects. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Reproduction and morphology of the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) from montane populations in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Horváthová, Terézia; Baláž, Michal; Jandzik, David

    2013-02-01

    The common lizard, Zootoca vivipara (Lichtenstein, 1823), shows high variation in life histories and morphology across its range, which comprises almost the entire Palearctic region. However, this variation is not congruent with the species phylogeny. This suggests an important role of the environment in shaping the variation in morphology and life histories of this species. As most data on life histories originate from only a small number of populations and do not cover the species' geographic range and phylogenetic diversity, to fill a gap and provide more information for future comparative studies we investigated reproduction and morphology in two montane populations from Slovakia, central Europe. This region is characterized by taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity and both montane and lowland ecological forms of the common lizard occur here. The common lizards from the Slovak populations are sexually dimorphic, with females having larger body and abdomen lengths and males having larger heads and longer legs. Female common lizards start to reproduce at a relatively large size compared to most other populations. This is consistent with a relatively short activity season, which has been shown to be the main factor driving variation in body size in the common lizard. Clutch size was also relatively high and positively correlated with body size, abdomen size and head size. One third of all females attaining the size of the smallest gravid female showed no signs of reproductive activity despite mating opportunities, suggesting that not all females reproduce annually in this population.

  18. Association of Borrelia garinii and B. valaisiana with Songbirds in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Hanincová, Klára; Taragelová, Veronika; Koci, Juraj; Schäfer, Stefanie M.; Hails, Rosie; Ullmann, Amy J.; Piesman, Joseph; Labuda, Milan; Kurtenbach, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    In Europe, 6 of the 11 genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are prevalent in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. In most parts of Central Europe, B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. valaisiana are the most frequent species, whereas B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. bissettii, and B. lusitaniae are rare. Previously, it has been shown that B. afzelii is associated with European rodents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify reservoir hosts of B. garinii and B. valaisiana in Slovakia. Songbirds were captured in a woodland near Bratislava and investigated for engorged ticks. Questing I. ricinus ticks were collected in the same region. Both tick pools were analyzed for spirochete infections by PCR, followed by DNA-DNA hybridization and, for a subsample, by nucleotide sequencing. Three of the 17 captured songbird species were infested with spirochete-infected ticks. Spirochetes in ticks that had fed on birds were genotyped as B. garinii and B. valaisiana, whereas questing ticks were infected with B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. valaisiana. Furthermore, identical ospA alleles of B. garinii were found in ticks that had fed on the birds and in questing ticks. The data show that songbirds are reservoir hosts of B. garinii and B. valaisiana but not of B. afzelii. This and previous studies confirm that B. burgdorferi sensu lato is host associated and that this bacterial species complex contains different ecotypes. PMID:12732554

  19. Short life expectancy and metabolic syndrome in Romanies (gypsies) in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Simko, Vlado; Ginter, Emil

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this review is to explain short life expectancy in Romanies. Romanies represent the second largest minority in Slovakia (about 7%). Most of them exist on the fringes of the majority society. Their general situation worsened after the fall of communism in 1989. In a market oriented society the unemployment of Romanies further increased due to their poor education and lack of skills. Romany general health is substantially worse than that of the majority population: They have high prevalence of communicable diseases due to poor sanitary and living conditions. Furthermore, epidemiological and metabolic studies revealed in Romanies high prevalence of obesity associated with increased cardiovascular risk. There is no explanation for this seemingly paradoxical phenomenon, in a population living in poor economic conditions. It is possible that in the course of the many generation-long migration from India to Europe, pregnant Romanies and their fetuses sufferred excessive nutritional deficiency. This might have induced adaptive metabolic and genetic changes aimed at optimum utilization of scarce food supply. There is a hypothetical possibility that in them "thrifty gene" was formed. Arrival of Romanies to Europe resulted in somewhat better nutrition, along with sharply reduced physical expenditure. The consequence is a metabolic syndrome with type 2 diabetes and increased cardiovascular mortality. Such unique metabolic feature in Romanies will undoubtedly stimulate further research in molecular biology that may ultimately clarify the role of "thrifty genes".

  20. High temperature impact on fatigue life of asphalt mixture in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandula, Ján; Olexa, Tomáš

    2017-09-01

    Temperature dependence of materials bonded with bitumen is a well-known fact. The impact of temperature changes the behaviour of asphalt mixtures from elastic to viscous state, and it also influences the complex modulus, phase angle and other properties of asphalt mixtures. This study observed the summer temperature influence on fatigue behaviour of an asphalt mixture for the surface course of roads in conditions of Slovakia. Measurements were made using the four-point bending method on the asphalt mixture with maximum grain size of 11 mm bonded with polymer modified bitumen. Summer conditions were represented by environmental temperature of 27 °C according to the Slovakian pavement design method. Ordinary temperatures for fatigue measurements are 10 °C, 15 °C and 20 °C according to European standards for asphalt mixture testing. Structural changes in the material were observed by dissipation energy calculations for each loading cycle. The aim of the study was to find out if the influence of high environmental temperature is positive or negative for the lifespan of asphalt mixtures.

  1. An annotated and revised checklist of pleurostome ciliates (Protista: Ciliophora: Litostomatea) from Slovakia, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Vďačný, Peter; Rajter, L'ubomír

    2014-02-04

    Pleurostomatids are predatory ciliates, living especially in the periphyton and benthos of various freshwater and marine habitats. In the present work, we provide an annotated and revised checklist of this ciliate group from the territory of Slovakia. Altogether 29 pleurostome species belonging to five genera have been reported there: Acineria incurvata, Ac. punctata, Ac. uncinata, Amphileptus claparedii, Am. falcatus, Am. fusiformis, Am. parafusidens, Am. pleurosigma, Am. procerus, Am. punctatus, A. rotundus, Litonotus alpestris, Li. anguilla, Li. carinatus, Li. crystallinus, Li. cygnus, Li. fasciola, Li. fusidens, Li. hirundo, Li. lamella, Li. minisculus, Li. muscorum, Li. obtusus, Li. triqueter, Li. varsaviensis, Loxophyllum helus, Lo. meleagris, Lo. rostratum, and Siroloxophyllum utriculariae. We have catalogued these records providing the following data for each species: (1) author(s) and date of publication; (2) name(s) of the species as appeared in the publication(s) followed by chronologically listed references including relevant page(s) in literature; (3) nomenclatural and taxonomic notes if needed; (4) main morphological characters; (5) morphological data on Slovak populations if available; and (6) all faunistic records.

  2. Diverse archaeal community of a bat guano pile in Domica Cave (Slovak Karst, Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Chronáková, A; Horák, A; Elhottová, D; Kristůfek, V

    2009-09-01

    The molecular diversity of Archaea in a bat guano pile in Cave Domica (Slovakia), temperate cave ecosystem with significant bat colony (about 1600 individuals), was examined. The guano pile was created mainly by an activity of the Mediterranean horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus euryale) and provides a source of organic carbon and other nutrients in the oligotrophic subsurface ecosystem. The upper and the basal parts of guano surface were sampled where the latter one had higher pH and higher admixture of limestone bedrock and increased colonization of invertebrates. The relative proportion of Archaea determined using CARD-FISH in both parts was 3.5-3.9 % (the basal and upper part, respectively). The archaeal community was dominated by non-thermophilic Crenarchaeota (99 % of clones). Phylogenetic analysis of 115 16S rDNA sequences revealed the presence of Crenarchaeota previously isolated from temperate surface soils (group 1.1b, 62 clones), deep subsurface acid waters (group 1.1a, 52 clones) and Euryarchaeota (1 clone). Four of the analyzed sequences were found to have little similarity to those in public databases. The composition of both archaeal communities differed, with respect to higher diversity of Archaea in the upper part of the bat guano pile. High diversity archaeal population is present in the bat guano deposit and consists of both soil- and subsurface-born Crenarchaeota.

  3. Case study of a severe windstorm over Slovakia and Hungary on 25 June 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, André; Kaňák, Ján; Sokol, Alois; Putsay, Mária; Uhrínová, Lucia; Csirmaz, Kálmán; Okon, Ľuboslav; Habrovský, Richard

    2011-06-01

    A system of thunderstorms approached the Slovakia and Hungary in the late evening hours of 25 June 2008, causing extensive damage and peak wind gusts up to 40 m/s. This study examines the macro- and mesosynoptic conditions for the windstorm using soundings, analyses, and forecasts of numerical models (ALADIN, ECMWF). A derecho-like character of the event is discussed. Meteosat Second Generation imagery and convective indices inferred from satellite and model data are used to assess the humidity distribution and the conditional instability of the thunderstorm environment. An intrusion of the environmental dry air into the convective system and intensification of downdrafts is considered to be one of the reasons for the damaging winds observed at some areas. This is supported by the radar imagery showing a sudden drop of radar reflectivity and creation of line echo wave patterns and bow echoes. A numerical simulation provided by the non-hydrostatic MM5 model indicated the development of meso-γ scale vortices embedded in the convective system. The genesis and a possible role of such vortices in creating rear-inflow jets and intensifying the low level winds are investigated with the help of the vorticity equation and several other diagnostic parameters. In addition, the effect of various physical parameterisations on the forecast of the windstorm is evaluated.

  4. Characterization of microorganisms isolated from lignite excavated from the Záhorie coal mine (southwestern Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Pokorný, Richard; Olejníková, Petra; Balog, Miroslav; Zifcák, Peter; Hölker, Udo; Janssen, Martina; Bend, Jutta; Höfer, Milan; Holiencin, Rudolf; Hudecová, Daniela; Varecka, L'udovít

    2005-11-01

    Microorganisms were isolated from lignite freshly excavated in the Záhorie coal mine (southwestern Slovakia) under conditions excluding contamination with either soil or air-borne microorganisms. The isolates represented both Prokarya and Eukarya (fungi). All were able to grow on standard media, although some microorganisms were unstable and became extinct during storage of coal samples. Bacteria belonged to the genera Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Rhodococcus, according to both morphological criteria and ITS sequences. Several bacterial isolates were resistant to antibiotics. The presence of anaerobic bacteria was also documented, although they have not yet been identified. Fungal isolates were typified by using their ITS sequences. They belonged to the genera Trichoderma (Hypocrea), Penicillium, Epicoccum, Metarhizium (Cordyceps), and Cladosporium. Several fungi produced compounds with antibiotic action against standard bacterial strains. The evidence for the presence of microorganisms in native lignite was obtained by means of fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis. Results demonstrated that microorganisms were able to survive in the low-rank coal over a long time period.

  5. Region-specific differences in colorectal cancer: Slovakia and Hungary have highest incidence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Simko, V; Ginter, E

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data on colorectal cancer (CRC) exhibit high incidence in Central East Europe. Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia represent the lead. For decades it was the Czech Republic but it attained the fourth rank after the mid-2000. Remarkably, the Ashkenazi Jews who imigrated to the USA from Central Europe have the highest incidence of CRC among US minorities. They also have high incidence of inflammatory bowel disease, a risk for CRC. Notably, countries surrounding the Central European focus of CRC, Austria, Germany, Poland, Romania, Ukraine and Russia have substantially lower incidence. CRC in Central Europe has higher incidence than CRC among the highest at-risk cohort in the USA, the elderly blacks. Research and the genome wide screening identified genetic mutations associated with CRC in Ashkenazis from Central Europe. Some risk factors for CRC are non genotypic as evidenced by wide variation in CRC incidence in the course of only a few decades. Recent trends offer hope that identification of the non-innate pathogenic mechanisms would potentially reduce the burden of this third most lethal malignancy (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 40).

  6. Potential for recycling of slightly radioactive metals arising from decommissioning within nuclear sector in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Hrncir, Tomas; Strazovec, Roman; Zachar, Matej

    2017-09-07

    The decommissioning of nuclear installations represents a complex process resulting in the generation of large amounts of waste materials containing various concentrations of radionuclides. Selection of an appropriate strategy of management of the mentioned materials strongly influences the effectiveness of decommissioning process keeping in mind safety, financial and other relevant aspects. In line with international incentives for optimization of radioactive material management, concepts of recycling and reuse of materials are widely discussed and applications of these concepts are analysed. Recycling of some portion of these materials within nuclear sector (e.g. scrap metals or concrete rubble) seems to be highly desirable from economical point of view and may lead to conserve some disposal capacity. However, detailed safety assessment along with cost/benefit calculations and feasibility study should be developed in order to prove the safety, practicality and cost effectiveness of possible recycling scenarios. Paper discussed the potential for recycling of slightly radioactive metals arising from decommissioning of NPPs within nuclear sector in Slovakia. Various available recycling scenarios are introduced and method for overall assessment of various recycling scenarios is outlined including the preliminary assessment of safety and financial aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrogeology, hydraulic characteristics, and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers of the greater New Hanover County area, North Carolina, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Gurley, Laura N.; Antolino, Dominick J.

    2014-01-01

    A major issue facing the greater New Hanover County, North Carolina, area is the increased demand for drinking water resources as a result of rapid growth. The principal sources of freshwater supply in the greater New Hanover County area are withdrawals of surface water from the Cape Fear River and groundwater from the underlying Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers. Industrial, mining, irrigation, and aquaculture groundwater withdrawals increasingly compete with public-supply utilities for freshwater resources. Future population growth and economic expansion will require increased dependence on high-quality sources of fresh groundwater. An evaluation of the hydrogeology and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers was conducted in New Hanover, eastern Brunswick, and southern Pender Counties, North Carolina. A hydrogeologic framework was delineated by using a description of the geologic and hydrogeologic units that compose aquifers and their confining units. Current and historic water-level, water-quality, and water-isotope data were used to approximate the present boundary between freshwater and brackish water in the study area. Water-level data collected during August–September 2012 and March 2013 in the Castle Hayne aquifer show that recharge areas with the highest groundwater altitudes are located in central New Hanover County, and the lowest are located in a discharge area along the Atlantic Ocean. Between 1964 and 2012, groundwater levels in the Castle Hayne aquifer in central New Hanover County have rebounded by about 10 feet, but in the Pages Creek area groundwater levels declined in excess of 20 feet. In the Peedee aquifer, the August–September 2012 groundwater levels were affected by industrial withdrawals in north-central New Hanover County. Groundwater levels in the Peedee aquifer declined more than 20 feet between 1964 and 2012 in northeastern New Hanover County because of increased withdrawals. Vertical gradients

  8. Brevibacterium picturae sp. nov., isolated from a damaged mural painting at the Saint-Catherine chapel (Castle Herberstein, Austria).

    PubMed

    Heyrman, Jeroen; Verbeeren, Jens; Schumann, Peter; Devos, Joke; Swings, Jean; De Vos, Paul

    2004-09-01

    Three strains showing highly similar (GTG)5-PCR patterns were isolated from a heavily damaged mural painting at the Saint-Catherine chapel (Castle Herberstein, Austria). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the strains were attributed to Brevibacterium, with Brevibacterium casei (96.7 %), Brevibacterium iodinum (96.7 %) and Brevibacterium linens (96.6 %) as the closest related species. Chemotaxonomic data [peptidoglycan contains meso-diaminopimelic acid; mycolic acids absent; MK-8(H2) as the major menaquinone; polar lipids phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol present; anteiso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0) as major fatty acids] supported the affiliation of the strains to the genus Brevibacterium. Additional physiological and biochemical tests confirmed the taxonomic position of the strains and allowed phenotypic differentiation from Brevibacterium species with validly published names. The isolates from the mural painting, therefore, represent a novel species, for which the name Brevibacterium picturae sp. nov. is proposed, with LMG 22061T (= DSM 16132T) as the type strain.

  9. A key to the backdoor into the castle: The clinical ramifications of immunoediting driven by antigenic competition

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, M. G.; Howard, Jason D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Over the last decade the field of cancer biology has gained considerable data on genomic heterogeneity. This situation creates challenges and possibly opportunities for cancer treatment. The evolution of the tumor at all stages also requires the growing malignancy to confront and avoid the immune system. What we describe here is the interaction of two immune phenomena that work together to change the characteristics of the tumor, i.e., antigenic competition and immune editing. These two systems are mutually functional and their interaction is capable of altering the characteristics of the tumor for protection and survival in an immune competent host as well as restricting the diversity of the tumor clones. Therefore, the final outcome of these interactions can also become the key to the backdoor into the castle. Through an additional immune manipulation, autologous tumor cell immunization, we can achieve prevention of disease recurrence after surgical resection and by analyzing induced human monoclonal antibodies to the neoantigens, gain in site into the restriction of diversity of the mutant clones. These findings may also open the door for a pathway to immune prevention of cancer. PMID:28340323

  10. Analysis of radiation exposure for Naval personnel at Operation Castle. Technical report, 1 January 1983-31 January 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.; Goetz, J.; Klemm, J.; Weitz, R.

    1984-02-28

    Film-badge doses are reconstructed for sixteen ships and the residence islands of Enewetak and Kwajalein Atolls resulting from the six nuclear detonations comprising Operation CASTLE (March-May 1954). Fallout from Shots BRAVO and ROMEO was the major source of contamination on most of the ships and islands. Varying amounts of fallout from Shots UNION, YANKEE, and NECTAR contributed somewhat to the total doses of the shipboard and island-based personnel; no fallout was experienced as a result of Shot KOON. Shipboard personnel received additional exposure from hulls and salt water piping systems that had become contaminated from operating in the radioactive waters of Bikini Lagoon. From the reconstructed radiation environments, both topside and below, an equivalent film badge dose is calculated and compared to actual dosimetry data. Agreement is very good during badged periods when the ships received significant fallout. When topside intensities were not documented, generally late in the operation when intensity levels were low, agreement is not as good. Calculated ship contamination doses of significance are in excellent agreement with limited available dosimetry data. Calculated average doses for shipboard personnel range from a low of 0.19 rem for the crew of the USS LST-825 to a high of 3.56 rem for the crew of the USS PHILIP. Average doses on the residence islands of Enewetak and Kwajalein Atolls are 1.09 rem and 0.32 rem, respectively.

  11. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3): Halby Chemical Co., Operable Unit 2, New Castle, DE, March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Halby Chemical Site (Site) located in Wilmington, New Castle County, Delaware. The primary objective of the OU-2 RI/FS was to develop a remedy to reduce or eliminate the potential for human or ecological exposure to unacceptable risks associated with contaminated soil outside the former process plant area, sediment in the on-Site lagoon and adjacent tidal marsh, and ground water at the Halby Chemical Site. The Selected Remedy described in this Record of Decision will comprehensively address the threats posed by the release of hazardous substances from the Site. The Selected Remedy addresses human health risks presented by: (1) arsenic-contaminated soil on the Site and adjacent residential parcel; and, (2) sediment located in the on-Site lagoon and adjacent tidal marsh. The Selected Remedy address unacceptable risks presented to wildlife and aquatic organisms by sediment located in the On-Site lagoon and adjacent tidal marsh. In addition, the Selected Remedy includes necessary action to prevent the potential for future exposure to contaminated ground water beneath the Site.

  12. Historical events associated with fallout from Bravo Shot-Operation castle and 25 y of medical findings

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkite, E.P.; Conard, R.A.; Bond, V.P.

    1997-07-01

    The events prior to Bravo Shot-Operation Castle that led to a decision not to evacuate the Marshallese prior to testing the thermonuclear bombs are presented as are the actions taken after the fallout incident in evacuating the exposed Marshallese and the military personnel. The initial medical effects (findings during first 6 wk after exposure) are briefly described and are followed by description of long term effects, namely, induction of one case or fatal acute myeloid leukemia and a large number of thyroid tumors (benign and malignant) in addition to hypothyroidism in adults and children and two cases of cretinism. The hypothyroidism and cretinism responded well to administration of oral thyroxine. During the first 25 y, there was also much unrest and political agitation initiated by exposed and unexposed Marshallese who were very unhappy as a result of relocation and inability to return to their homelands and feeling that all illness and deaths were due to the mysterious radiation, which they understandably did not understand. The difficulties in part were ameliorated by financial aid from the U.S. Congress. In view of one of us (EPC), no one agency or person in the U.S. Government was willing to take the responsibility for care of the Marshallese and its financing. The exposed and non-exposed Marshallese had their lifestyle changed, some of their homelands made uninhabitable for several years and could aptly be called {open_quotes}nuclear nomads,{close_quotes} an expression coined by others. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Long-term UHF RiverSonde river velocity observations at Castle Rock, Washington and Threemile Slough, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teague, C.C.; Barrick, D.E.; Lilleboe, P.M.; Cheng, R.T.; Ruhl, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term, non-contact river velocity measurements have been made using a UHF RiverSonde system for several months at each of two locations having quite different flow characteristics. Observations were made on the Cowlitz River at Castle Rock, Washington from October 2003 to June 2004, where the unidirectional flow of the river ranged from about 1.0 to 3.5 m/s. The radar velocity was highly correlated with the stage height which was continually measured by the U. S. Geological Survey. The profile of the along-channel velocity across the water channel also compared favorably with in-situ measurements performed by the Survey. The RiverSonde was moved to Threemile Slough, in central California, in September 2004 and has been operating there for several months. At Threemile Slough, which connects the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, the flow is dominated by tidal effects and reverses direction four times per day, with a maximum speed of about 0.8 m/s in each direction. Water level and water velocity are continually measured by the Survey at the Threemile Slough site, with velocity recorded every 15 minutes from measurements made by an ultrasonic velocity meter (UVM). Over a period of several months, the radar and UVM velocity measurements have been highly correlated, with a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.976. ??2005 IEEE.

  14. Current status of iodine deficiency-related disorders prophylaxis in Slovakia - the life's work of Julian Podoba remained unfinished.

    PubMed

    Podoba, J; Racova, K; Urbankova, H; Srbecky, M

    2016-01-01

    Prophylaxis of iodine deficiency-related disorders with iodized salt in Slovakia was introduced in 1951. This prophylactic measure yielded remarkably good results. Endemic goiter and endemic cretinism disappeared. Sufficient iodine intake, mainly in children and adolescents, was confirmed in several local and international studies carried out in the period 1991-95. Unfortunately, since seventies, there has been no institution which would have dealt with iodine prophylaxis in such an extent as this important measure of Slovak preventive medicine would require. Neither systematic monitoring of iodine intake nor systematic population epidemiological studies have been carried out. We do not have any data on the iodine intake in pregnant women, the most vulnerable population group in relation to the iodine deficiency. During the period June 2014 - October 2015, we examined iodine excretion in 426 probands from three regions of Slovakia with an emphasis on the pregnant women. Iodine intake was found to be sufficient, even more than adequate, in all age groups of Slovak population. The only population group with iodine intake borderline or very mild iodine deficiency are pregnant women. 1/ Iodine nutrition in Slovakia is generally sufficient, even oversteps the requirement, with the exception of pregnant women. Iodine intake in pregnant women should be fortified by iodine containing multivitamin preparations. 2/ We recommend to include the examination of urinary iodine into the screening of thyropathies in early pregnancy. 3/ It is not enough to implement the iodine deficiency-related disorders prevention programs, it is also necessary to stabilize such programs over time and balance the benefits with possible side effects of this program.

  15. Acanthocephalans of the genus Centrorhynchus (Palaeacanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) of birds of prey (Falconiformes) and owls (Strigiformes) in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Komorová, P; Špakulová, M; Hurníková, Z; Uhrín, M

    2015-06-01

    Three species of thorny-headed worms of the genus Centrorhynchus were found to parasitize birds of prey and owls in the territory of the Slovakia during the years 2012-2014. Out of 286 examined bird individuals belonging to 23 species, only Buteo buteo, Buteo rufinus, Falco tinnunculus (Falconiformes), Asio otus, Strix aluco, Strix uralensis and Tyto alba (Strigiformes) were infected by acanthocephalans. All the bird species except for S. aluco represent new host records for Slovakia. The most prevalent acanthocephalan Centrorhynchus aluconis was detected in all 15 examined birds of non-migratory Ural owl S. uralensis (P = 100%); however, it was found occasionally also in two individuals of the tawny owl S. aluco (P = 20%), one long-eared owl A. otus (P = 7.7%), one barn owl T. alba (P = 33.3%) and the common buzzard B. buteo (P = 0.8%). Two other thorny-headed worms occurred exclusively in Falconiformes in raw or mixed infections: Centrorhynchus buteonis was found in 11 individuals of B. buteo (P = 9.2%), and two birds (B. buteo and B. rufinus) were parasitized simultaneously by C. buteonis and the species Centrorhynchus globocaudatus. Moreover, the latest, relatively rare acanthocephalan was found alone in two common kestrels F. tinnunculus (P = 2.7%). Regarding intensity of infection, it ranged from a single female of C. buteonis, C. globocaudatus or C. aluconis per host (four cases) to a maximum of 82 C. aluconis per an Ural owl. The difference in acanthocephalan species spectrum between birds of prey and owls in Slovakia was apparent.

  16. Intestinal and liver flukes of birds of prey (Accipitriformes, Falconiformes, Strigiformes) from Slovakia: uniform or diverse compound?

    PubMed

    Komorová, Petronela; Sitko, Jiljí; Špakulová, Marta; Hurníková, Zuzana

    2016-07-01

    During 2012-2014 up to 286 birds of the orders Falconiformes (5 species), Accipitriformes (11 species), and Strigiformes (7 species) were examined for trematodes and this represents the first detailed study in Slovakia. A total of 12 trematode species belonging to the families Diplostomidae, Cyathocotylidae, Strigeidae, and Opisthorchiidae were identified. Rare infections were found in falcons where only two species (40 %) and three of 85 examined birds (3.5 %) were infected with a low range of two to four worms of generalists Strigea falconis or Plagiorchis elegans. Contrary to that, ten accipitriformes species (90.9 %) and 63 of 156 bird individuals (40.4 %) were infected with nine flukes: Conodiplostomum perlatum, Conodiplostomum spathula, Neodiplostomum attenuatum, Neodiplostomum spathoides, Parastrigea flexilis, Strigea falconis, Strigea vandenbrokae, Paracoenogonimus ovatus, and Metorchis bilis. S. falconis and N. attenuatum were the most frequent, occurring in parallel in eight and four bird species, in numbers up to 575 and 224. The intensity of infection with other fluke species was low ranging from one to 13 worms. Three owl (Strigiformes) representatives (42.9 %) were exclusive hosts for Neodiplostomum canaliculatum and Strigea strigis, and the proportion of positive and dissected individual birds was 10:45 (22.2 %). Both trematodes occurred in two or three owl species. In conclusion, apparent dissimilarity of trematode load of three unrelated lines of falcons, eagles, and owls was revealed. The present study extends our knowledge on the composition of the trematode fauna in Slovakia as all species except S. falconis and P. elegans that represent new host and species records in Slovakia.

  17. Differences in Incidence and Biological Characteristics of Breast Cancer between Roma and Non-Roma Patients in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Reckova, M; Mardiak, J; Plank, L; Vulevova, M; Cingelová, S; Mego, M

    Roma (Gypsies) constitute one of the largest ethnic minorities in Slovakia. Some reports have supported a higher prevalence of communicable diseases in Roma but data on cancer prevalence in Roma is absent. The aim of this study was to compare differences in the incidence and pathological characteristics of breast cancer between Roma and non-Roma in Slovakia. Roma and non-Roma breast cancer patients were identified using the Slovak HER2 Registry. The database from the last Census of Slovakia in 2011 was matched by gender, date of birth, and residency with the HER2 Registry from 2011 to 2013. Based on the match, Roma and non-Roma breast cancer patients were identified. Thirty-two and 5,775 women with breast cancer were identified as Roma and non-Roma, resp. The age-standardized breast cancer incidence rate was 2.12 times higher for non-Roma than for Roma patients (36 vs. 17 per 100,000 people). Roma patients were younger than non-Roma patients (median 49 vs. 61 years; p = 0.00001). Roma patients had more hormone receptor negative (34.4% vs. 18.1%; p = 0.03) and triple negative tumors (28.1% vs. 12.3%; p = 0.01) than non-Roma, and these differences remained statistically significant in multivariate analysis. For the first time, this study has revealed that the incidence and biological characteristics of breast cancer are different between Roma and non-Roma. Our data suggests that Roma patients are younger at diagnosis, have a lower age-standardized breast cancer incidence rate, and have more aggressive tumors than non-Roma.

  18. Response of surface and groundwater on meteorological drought in Topla River catchment, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendekova, Miriam; Fendek, Marian; Vrablikova, Dana; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Slivova, Valeria; Horvat, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Continuously increasing number of drought studies published in scientific journals reflects the attention of the scientific community paid to drought. The fundamental works among many others were published by Yevjevich (1967), Zelenhasic and Salvai (1987), later by Tallaksen and van Lanen Eds. (2004). The aim of the paper was to analyze the response of surface and groundwater to meteorological drought occurrence in the upper and middle part of the Topla River Basin, Slovakia. This catchment belongs to catchments with unfavourable hydrogeological conditions, being built of rocks with quite low permeability. The basin is located in the north-eastern part of Slovakia covering the area of 1050.05 km2. The response was analyzed using precipitation data from the Bardejov station (long-term annual average of 662 mm in 1981 - 2012) and discharge data from two gauging stations - Bardejov and Hanusovce nad Toplou. Data on groundwater head from eight observation wells, located in the catchment, were also used, covering the same observation period. Meteorological drought was estimated using characterisation of the year humidity and SPI index. Hydrological drought was evaluated using the threshold level method and method of sequent peak algorithm, both with the fixed and also variable thresholds. The centroid method of the cluster analysis with the squared Euclidean distance was used for clustering data according to occurrence of drought periods, lasting for 100 days and more. Results of the SPI index showed very good applicability for drought periods identification in the basin. The most pronounced dry periods occurred in 1982 - 1983, 1984, 1998 and 2012 being classified as moderately dry, and also in 1993 - 1994, 2003 - 2004 and 2007 evolving from moderately to severely dry years. Short-term drought prevailed in discharges, only three periods of drought longer than 100 days occurred during the evaluated period in 1986 - 1987, 1997 and 2003 - 2004. Discharge drought in the

  19. Identifying the interprofessional agreement between community pharmacists and general practitioners views on collaborative practice in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Dubán, Ladislav; Fazekaš, Tomáš; Fulmeková, Magdaléna; Snopková, Miroslava; Oleárová, Anna; Kuželová, Magdaléna

    2017-01-01

    The collaboration of community pharmacists (CPs) and general practitioners (GPs) has a positive effect on healthcare outcomes. There are still many countries, where no efforts have been made to enhance this type of teamwork. There is no evidence of how GPs and CPs collaborate in Slovakia. The objective of this study is to identify the current level of GPs and CPs teamwork in Slovakia and to identify the key factors, where these professions agree. Two parallel electronic surveys were prepared and sent out by e-mail to CPs and GPs in Slovakia. The questions in the multi-choice questionnaires were divided into 6 sections: teamwork experience, attitudes to collaborative practice, preferred method of communication, preferred tasks done by CPs, anticipated areas of future collaboration and perceived barriers to collaborative practice. The results were analyzed separately by the proportion of agreements within each group. From the total of 670 questionnaires, which were sent out (434 to GPs and 236 to CPs) 347 were completed and returned by GPs (79.95%) and 181 by CPs (76.7%). The overall response rate was 78.33%. The perfect match of agreements between the CPs and the GPs answers was identified in: their preference to collaborate face-to-face (p = 0.0001) perception of the role of the community pharmacist (p < 0.0001) barriers to collaboration (p < 0.0001) areas for future collaboration (p = 0.0468) The majority of respondents confirmed (without proportional agreement) that their collaboration improves patient outcomes (71.3% of CPs, 60.5% of GPs), however, only 15.5% CPs and 17.6% GPs indicated, that they would consider team-working in the future. The responding health professionals agreed about the current role of CPs in Slovakia. Both professions reported their willingness to collaborate in the following areas: 1. patient counselling and 2. patient adherence improvement. Face-to-face communication was preferred by both groups of respondents, as a potential key factor

  20. The importance of arbuscular mycorrhiza for Cyclamen purpurascens subsp. immaculatum endemic in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Rydlová, Jana; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Slavíková, Renata; Turis, Peter

    2015-11-01

    At present, there is no relevant information on arbuscular mycorrhiza and the effect of the symbiosis on the growth of wild populations of cyclamens. To fill this gap, two populations of Cyclamen purpurascens subsp. immaculatum, endemic in Nízke Tatry (NT) mountains and Veľká Fatra (VF) mountains, Slovakia, were studied in situ as well as in a greenhouse pot experiment. For both populations, mycorrhizal root colonization of native plants was assessed, and mycorrhizal inoculation potential (MIP) of the soils at the two sites was determined in 3 consecutive years. In the greenhouse experiment, the growth response of cyclamens to cross-inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was tested: plants from both sites were grown in their native soils and inoculated with a Septoglomus constrictum isolate originating either from the same or from the other plant locality. Although the MIP of soil at the NT site was significantly higher than at the VF site, the level of AMF root colonization of C. purpurascens subsp. immaculatum plants in the field did not significantly differ between the two localities. In the greenhouse experiment, inoculation with AMF generally accelerated cyclamen growth and significantly increased all growth parameters (shoot dry weight, leaf number and area, number of flowers, tuber, and root dry weight) and P uptake. The two populations of C. purpurascens subsp. immaculatum grown in their native soils, however, differed in their response to inoculation. The mycorrhizal growth response of NT plants was one-order higher compared to VF plants, and all their measured growth parameters were stimulated regardless of the fungal isolates' origin. In the VF plants, only the non-native (NT originating) isolate showed a significant positive effect on several growth traits. It can be concluded that mycorrhiza significantly increased fitness of C. purpurascens subsp. immaculatum, despite the differences between plant populations, implying that AMF

  1. Changes in the snow water equivalent in mountainous basins in Slovakia over recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavčová, K.; Kotríková, K.; Kohnová, S.; Valent, P.

    2015-06-01

    Changes in snowpack and duration of snow cover can cause changes in the regime of snow and rain-snow induced floods. The recent IPCC report suggests that, in snow-dominated regions such as the Alps, the Carpathian Mountains and the northern parts of Europe, spring snowmelt floods may occur earlier in a future climate because of warmer winters, and flood hazards may increase during wetter and warmer winters, with more frequent rain and less frequent snowfall. The monitoring and modelling of snow accumulation and snow melting in mountainous catchments is rather complicated, especially due to the high spatial variability of snow characteristics and the limited availability of terrestrial hydrological data. An evaluation of changes in the snow water equivalent (SWE) during the period of 1961-2010 in the Upper Hron river basin, which is representative of the mountainous regions in Central Slovakia, is provided in this paper. An analysis of the snow cover was performed using simulated values of the snow water equivalent by a conceptual semi-distributed hydrological rainfall-runoff model. Due to the poor availability of the measured snow water equivalent data, the analysis was performed using its simulated values. Modelling of the SWE was performed in different altitude zones by a conceptual semi-distributed hydrological rainfall-runoff model. The evaluation of the results over the past five decades indicates a decrease in the simulated snow water equivalent and the snow duration in each altitude zone and in all months of the winter season. Significant decreasing trends were found for December, January and February, especially in the highest altitude zone.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH IN ROMA VILLAGES IN SLOVAKIA AND ROMANIA

    PubMed Central

    Majdan, Marek; Coman, Alexandru; Gallová, Eva; Ďuricová, Janka; Kállayová, Daniela; Kvaková, Mária; Bošák, Ľuboš

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The objective of this paper is to provide information on indoor air quality and on the quality of the broader indoor environment of the houses in Roma villages in Slovakia and Romania and to discuss possible implications for health. Methods Indoor air was sampled in 11 houses in a Romanian Roma village and in 19 houses in a Slovakian Roma village. Levels of Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), total particulate matter (PM), temperature and humidity were measured. A questionnaire and a checklist were used to obtain additional information on the indoor environment and behavioural factors. We have sampled the same houses in winter and in summer. Results Levels of CO and CO2 were higher in winter in both countries as compared to summer. The limit value of 10 mg/m3 CO was exceeded in a few cases in both countries. In general, levels of CO, CO2 and PM were higher in Romania. Further environmental and behavioural hazards such as indoor smoking, pets inside or lack of ventilation were found. The reported self-perceived quality of the indoor environment was poor in many aspects. Conclusions Our findings of CO, CO2 and PM levels suggest that indoor air pollution in Roma settlements has the potential to be a health threat. The fact that the inhabitants spend a relatively long time inside the houses and that a number of additional environmental and behavioural hazards were identified by our study emphasizes the importance of the indoor air quality for health and thus priority attention should be paid to these issues by health authorities and researchers. Further research is essential and study designs must consider cultural background and specific characteristics of the community, especially in order to obtain valid data on health outcomes. PMID:23285520

  3. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) - reservoir host of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Derdáková, Markéta; Čobádiová, Andrea; Hisira, Vladimír

    2016-03-01

    In Central Europe the wild boar population is permanently growing and consequently Cf foodborne infections. In this study serological and molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wild boars was evaluated. Moreover, same samples were screened for the presence and genetic variability of tick-borne bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Blood samples collected from 113 wild boars from Southern Slovakia were examined for antibodies to T. gondii by indirect and to N. caninum by competitive ELISA. The presence of parasitic DNA in blood samples was determined by standard or real time PCR techniques. Antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum were detected in 45 (39.8%) and 38 (33.6%) animals, respectively. Females were more frequently infected for both pathogens than males. The high seropositivity against both coccidia indicates a permanent occurrence of these pathogens in the studied locality. T. gondii DNA was confirmed in five seropositive boars (4.4%) and N. caninum in 23 blood samples (20.4%). Three out of 23 N. caninum PCR positive animals did not show seropositivity. Three out of 113 blood samples of wild boars were positive for A. phagocytophilum (2.7%). The obtained A. phagocytophilum sequences were 100% identical with GenBankTM isolates from Slovak dog (KC985242); German horse (JF893938) or wild boar (EF143810) and red deer (EF143808) from Poland. Coinfections of T. gondii with N. caninum and N. caninum with A. phagocytophilum were detected in single cases. Results suggest a potential zoonotic risk of toxoplasmosis transmission to humans and the spread of neosporosis to farm animals.

  4. Prevalence of DFNB1 mutations among cochlear implant users in Slovakia and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Varga, L; Mašindová, I; Hučková, M; Kabátová, Z; Gašperíková, D; Klimeš, I; Profant, M

    2014-06-01

    Hereditary etiology plays an important role in bilateral profound deafness as a main indication for cochlear implantation. Mutations in DFNB1 locus account for most of the inherited deafness cases in Caucasians. To provide actual data on mutation prevalence among implanted deaf subpopulation, we performed DNA analysis of GJB2 and GJB6 genes in 131 unrelated Slovak cochlear implant users. Eight previously described causal mutations and one probably pathogenic missense variant (c.127G>A) were detected in the GJB2 gene in 58 (44.28%) subjects. The most common mutation found was c.35delG with frequency 83.02% of all disease alleles, followed by c.71G>A, c.1-3201G>A, c.313_326del14, c.109G>A, 167delT, c.269T>C, and c.333_334delAA. GJB6 deletion delD13S1830 was identified in only one subject, in double heterozygosity with a GJB6 mutation. Thus, the deafness cause could be clearly attributable to DFNB1 mutations in 36.64% of the patients examined. In summary, the mutation profile found in our cohort was similar to the mutation spectrum reported for Central European deaf populations. The mutation prevalence in cochlear implant users was, however, almost by 25% higher than previously established for non-implanted hearing-impaired population in Slovakia. Finally, we also demonstrate a certain variability in deafness onset in patients with causal genotype and coincidence with other risk factors for deafness. Our results underline the importance of genetic tests in all cochlear implant candidates.

  5. The Magnetic Properties of Lichens Exposed Around a Cement Plant in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Aldo; Paoli, Luca; Guttová, Anna; Loppi, Stefano; Sagnotti, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    A cement industry is a source of dust pollution, from quarrying and grinding of the raw material to kiln operations. Airborne pollutants related to combustion processes are also emitted, especially during kiln operations and power generation. The use of biomonitors can provide valuable information about the impact of airborne pollutants released during cement production and lichens are suitable bioindicators of air pollution, providing reliable information on the quality of the environment. We investigated the magnetic hysteresis properties and the elemental concentrations of epiphytic lichens from selected sites (a cement mill, two quarries, agricultural areas, and villages) in SW Slovakia; in particular, both transplanted and in situ lichens, bark, soil and rock samples from the sampling sites, as well as pre-transplant samples have been characterized. Evernia prunastri transplants, exposed up to 180 days, showed excellent correlations between the saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs) values and the Fe concentrations; the analyzed samples were magnetically homogeneous, with marked differences only for the sample from a basalt quarry. Xanthoria parietina autochthonous samples have also a similar magnetic mineralogy; anyway their Ms and Mrs values were two orders of magnitude higher with respect to those from the transplants, implying increased concentration of magnetic particles according to the different lichen species and to the prolonged exposure. Magnetic methods can be valuable for discriminating various natural and anthropogenic sources of dust. In this study, we point out that the magnetic properties may also reflect the influence of the basalt quarry activity, of the soil and of the bedrock. For a proper evaluation of the pollution related to human activities, it is thus essential to verify the nature of the substrate and to select suitable and homogeneous pre/post lichen transplant sites.

  6. Extensometric observation of Earth tides and local tectonic processes at the Vyhne station, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimich, Ladislav; Bednárik, Martin; Bezák, Vladimír; Kohút, Igor; Bán, Dóra; Eper-Pápai, Ildikó; Mentes, Gyula

    2016-06-01

    The Vyhne Tidal Station of the Earth Science Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences is located in the former mining gallery of St. Anthony of Padua in the Vyhne valley, Štiavnické vrchy Mts., Central Slovakia. It is equipped with a 20.5 metre long quartz-tube extensometer measuring Earth's tides, and long-term tectonic deformations of the Earth's crust. Data between 2001 and 2015 with some diverse gaps were digitally collected, processed and analysed. The effects of the local conditions, such as structure of the observatory, cavity effect, topography and geological features of the surrounding rocks, were investigated in detail and these effects were taken into consideration during the interpretation of the results of the data analysis. Tidal analysis of the extensometric data between 2005 and 2015 revealed that the measured tidal amplitudes are close to the theoretical values. The tidal transfer of the observatory was also investigated by coherence analysis between the theoretical and the measured extensometric data. The coherence is better than 0.9 both in the diurnal and semidiurnal band. The effect of the free core nutation resonance was also investigated in the case of the K1 and P1 tidal components. Since the K1/O1 ratio was about the theoretical value 0.8, than the P1/O1 was between 1.0 and 1.15 instead of the theoretical value of 0.9. The rate of the long-term strain rate was also investigated and the obtained -0.05 μstr/y shows a good agreement with the strain rate inferred from GPS measurements in the Central European GPS Reference Network.

  7. Regional estimation of design precipitation totals by simple scaling for flood risk prediction in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bara, Marta; Kohnova, Silvia; Gaal, Ladislav; Szolgay, Jan; Hlavcova, Kamila

    2010-05-01

    Design values of extreme rainfall are of very great importance in engineering hydrology, such as input data for hydrological modeling, for the prediction of flood events, or for planning and design in water resources management. Precipitation data with sufficient temporal resolution necessary for estimation of design precipitation totals are available from a limited number of raingauges with continuous recording. One of the advantages of the simple scaling method is, that it allows estimating of design precipitation totals for required durations and recurrence intervals using daily data, available from a denser network of non-recording raingauges. In this study the possibility of using the simple scaling method for regional estimation of design short-term precipitation totals for flood risk forecasting was tested. The analysis includes precipitation data from 56 raingauge stations from the whole territory of Slovakia, distributed into three homogeneous regions based on regionalization of the daily maximum precipitation totals in the warm season (April-September). The regional dimensionless growth curve of daily precipitation maxima was derived in the regions, and the local T-year quantiles were estimated by the index value method. In each region three verification stations were selected which were treated as ungauged sites. It was supposed that the only information on the precipitation regime at the verification stations was the index value. Using the regionally averaged scaling exponent, the IDF curves were estimated by downscaling the design daily precipitation totals. The IDF curves were finally compared with those assessed locally in previous studies and their application in engineering practice was discussed.

  8. Spectroscopic and bond-topological investigation of interstitial volatiles in beryl from Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridrichová, Jana; Bačík, Peter; Bizovská, Valéria; Libowitzky, Eugen; Škoda, Radek; Uher, Pavel; Ozdín, Daniel; Števko, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Nine beryl samples from Western Carpathians, Slovakia, were investigated by infrared and Raman spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis. Two types of water H2O I and H2O II were detected. Infrared spectroscopy proved the presence of water type I and II in the presence of alkali cations with several bands: (1) symmetric stretching vibration—ν1; (2) antisymmetric stretching mode—ν3; (3) bending vibration—ν2. The presence of singly and doubly coordinated type II water (IIs and IId) was confirmed by single-crystal IR spectroscopy. From Raman spectra a band at 3606 cm-1 was assigned to ν1 of water type I and the range of 3597-3600 cm-1 to water type II. The presence of doubly coordinating water indicates a relatively highly hydrated environment with the presence of alkali ions including Na as the dominant cation coordinated by H2O II. CO2 bands were detected only by single-crystal IR spectroscopy. Thermal analysis proved total water loss in the range of 1.4-2.0 wt% and three main dehydration events. Based on the study of bond-topological arrangements two molecules of H2O IId are each bound with two H···O1 bonds and one Na-OW bond with an angular distortion, and by releasing one H2O molecule more stable H2O IIs is produced. The H2O I molecule is bound only by two equivalent hydrogen bonds. The H2O IIs molecule with a Na-OW bond strength of 0.28 vu and two H···O1 bonds of 0.14 vu without any forced angular distortion is the most stable of all.

  9. Evaluating Early Upper Palaeolithic Open-Air Surface Finds from Northern Hungary and Southern Slovakia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wei; Zeeden, Christian; Mester, Zsolt; Lengyel, Gyuri; Kaminská, Ľubomíra

    2016-04-01

    The way in which Modern Humans first penetrated the European continent has been a recent focus of Upper Palaeolithic archaeological research. One hypothesis posits that the Danube River served as a main conduit for modern human movement from Southeastern into Central and Western Europe. However, a critical challenge to this theory has been the scarcity of Early Upper Palaeolithic sites along the Middle Danube catchment (Carpathian Basin). Though several sites with Early Upper Palaeolithic characteristics (Szeletian, Aurignacian) are known from surface prospections, very few have been archaeologically investigated. Our aim was to elucidate this long-standing deficiency by evaluating six known-surface sites from the Northern Middle Danube Basin in the Cserhát and Mátra Mountains (Hungary) and the nearby Košice Basin (Slovakia) through a series of "keyhole" excavations. Our objectives were (1) to see if in situ stratified material still existed at these locations, (2) to characterize their archaeological assemblages and (3) to provide radiometric dates for these assemblages. Additionally, we employed sediment grain-size and color analyses to resolve if the surrounding sedimentary matrix was aeolian loess and/or if it had been mixed with underlying older deposits. Our results suggest that many of the archaeological assemblages represent early Upper Palaeolithic assemblages experienced post-depositional mixing. However, two sites (Sena, Nagyréde) showed more nuanced taphonomic processes and may contain in situ artifacts warranting further exploration. These studies highlight the under-explored nature of archaeological and sedimentological research in the area and underscore the importance of integrating sedimentological research with archaeological investigations. It also suggests that the scarcity of archaeological sites in the region may in part be the result of a dynamic Pleistocene geomorphological evolution rather than a true demographic absence. Our results

  10. Preliminary business plan: District Heating Company for the city of Handlova, Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The city of Handlova, Slovakia, needs to replace its district heating system, which is old, unreliable, and expensive to maintain. The current plant is owned by a state-run utility, the Slovensky Energeticky Podnik (SEP). The plan is to privatize the heating plant, acquire capital to rehabilitate the central plant (converting it to a cogeneration facility), install a new hot-water distribution system, and implement an extensive energy efficiency effort in the residential buildings on the system. System capacity is 100 MWt, with annual heat sales estimated to be 450,000 gigajoules per year (GJ/yr). The capital necessary for system improvements is estimated to be 465 million Slovakian Krowns (SK) (in 1997 price levels). The total market value of existing fixed assets that will survive the rehabilitation effort as part of the new systems is estimated at 342 million SK. There has been substantial analysis and preparation for this activity, which is documented in demand-side and supply-side technical and economic analyses, an integrated demand/supply report, and this preliminary business plan. The preparation includes investigation of ownership, management, and technology alternatives; estimation of the market value of existing assets and investment requirements; and forecasting of future cash flows. These preliminary projections indicate that the cost of heating from the new system will be reasonable from both a cost per unit of energy basis (SK/GJ) and, form the perspective of an apartment dweller in Handlova, on a total cost per year basis. Delivering heat at the projected cost will, however, require a substantial change in the way that the heating plant is run, with proportionally very large reductions in labor, operations and maintenance, and overhead charges. In addition, there will need to be significant revenues from the sale of electricity to the national grid.

  11. Road and Railway Traffic Seismicity Effect Comparison on Historical Building in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papán, Daniel; Valašková, Veronika

    2016-10-01

    The road and the railway traffic generate material and immaterial emissions. The immaterial emission produced by traffic is divided to the noise and the vibrations. All these aspects attacking the environment should to be assessed. For the assessment the national and international standards can be used. This paper contains only the vibration assessment and the comparison of the dynamic parameters influence in this process. The heritage buildings have more conservative criteria as another building. This approach is performed via experimental and numerical study and identification of the basic dynamic parameters. It is presented on two case studies of important historic buildings in Modra and Žilina (Slovakia). For both case studies buildings, the FEM (Finite Element Method) numerical models were created. The modes of the natural vibration and natural frequencies were obtained as the relevant results from numerical models. These parameters are very important for this type of assessment. For the FEM models the Scia Engineer were used as the numerical software system. The experimental measurements were realised for FEM model verification. Also these measurements were used for the assessment according Slovak standards. These models can be tuned based on the experimental measurements. The tuned FEM models can be used for the further extrapolations. The main part of the investigation was to compare traffic seismicity effect on the historical buildings. Both buildings were assed in the frequency and time domain. The comparison of the traffic seismicity effects was realised also in frequency and the time domain. It is necessary to taking to account this assessment for the heritage buildings.

  12. Prenatal PCB Exposure and Thymus Size at Birth in Neonates in Eastern Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Youn; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Petrik, Jan; Palkovicova, Lubica; Kocan, Anton; Trnovec, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants, for which animal studies demonstrate immunotoxic effects, including thymic atrophy and suppressed immune responses; human investigations of similar end points are sparse. The thymus is essential for the differentiation and maturation of T-cell lymphocytes. Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the association between prenatal PCB exposures and estimated thymus volume in infants from eastern Slovakia, a region where PCBs were produced until 1984. Methods Mothers were enrolled at delivery, and maternal blood samples were collected for analysis of 15 PCB congeners, p,p′-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2′-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], and p,p′-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene]. Each mother was interviewed to obtain information on sociodemographic characteristics, past pregnancies, occupational history, medication history, and living environment. Neonatal thymus volume was estimated using ultrasound measurements on the third or fourth day after birth. Thymic index was calculated on 982 newborns from mothers with PCB measurements. We developed a predictive model of the natural log of the thymic index using multiple linear regression with covariates selected from the bivariate analyses. Results Prenatal PCB exposure was associated with a smaller thymic index at birth [β= −36 (natural log-transformed; nanograms per gram lipids); p = 0.047]. District of residence and delivery also predicted thymic index. Male sex, later gestational age, larger birth weight z-score, and Roma ethnicity were associated with a larger thymic index, whereas respiratory illness was associated with a lower thymic index. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence to date that PCB exposure in neonates is associated with a smaller thymic volume, suggesting possible impaired immunologic development. PMID:18197307

  13. Prevention of neural tube defects by folic acid - awareness among women of childbearing age in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Horn, F; Sabova, L; Pinterova, E; Hornova, J; Trnka, J

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid deficiency plays a central role in the aetiology of many congenital anomalies including neural tube defects. Protective effect of folic acid on embryo may be acquired only if taken periconceptionally. The aim of the study was to investigate the awareness about folic acid among women of childbearing age in Bratislava, Slovakia. There were 130 respondents involved in the research (106 pregnant women, 24 female students of medical faculty). Using questionnaire we acquired following data: pregnancy details, interest in diet before and during pregnancy, recommendations regarding nutrition and supplementation pre- and post-conception, knowledge about folic and other acid in 2004 and 2009. More than half of the respondents knew the sources of folic acid. The interest in the nutrition facts of the food dropped from 91 % to 58.5 %. The number of pregnant women advised about correct nutrition and folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy increased from 16 % to 37 %. Planning the next gravidity with folic acid supplementation became greater than 21 % (38 % in 2009). Nevertheless, only 46 % of these women believed that proper food content with folic acid may prevent congenital anomalies. In a group of students planning to take folic acid periconceptionally the number raised up to 62.5 %. The results revealed low knowledge about the effect of folic acid on developing embryo among women of childbearing age. Effective intervention programs are needed with the aim to improve periconceptional intake of folic acid in 2004 and 2009. The results in both periods show low knowledge about this essential vitamin (Tab. 1, Fig. 8, Ref. 31).

  14. Gastrointestinal tolerability and quality of life in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients: data from the CASTLE study.

    PubMed

    Malan, Niel; Su, Jun; Mancini, Marco; Yang, Rong; Wirtz, Victoria; Absalon, Judith; McGrath, Donnie

    2010-06-01

    Most ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI)-based antiretroviral regimens offer comparable levels of virological efficacy. Thus, the tolerability of the regimen becomes a distinguishing factor with implications for patient quality of life (QoL), treatment adherence, and clinical outcome. This article describes results from the CASTLE study (comparing once-daily atazanavir/ritonavir [ATV/RTV] with twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir [LPV/RTV], both in combination with fixed-dose tenofovir/emtricitabine, in treatment-naive HIV-infected patients) and an evaluation of the impact of gastrointestinal (GI) complications of treatment on patient QoL, as measured by the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) QoL questionnaire (IBS-QoL). Changes in IBS-QoL from baseline over time (to week 24) were classified as: "Improvement" (> or =2-point positive change from baseline), "No change" (<2-point change), or "Worsening" (> or =2-point negative change). Data were collected on GI adverse events (AEs) and use of GI medications. Of the 599 patients with IBS-QoL-evaluable data through week 24, fewer patients in the ATV/RTV group than in the LPV/RTV group experienced grade 2-4 treatment-related GI AEs including diarrhea (3% versus 10%), nausea (5% versus 7%), and vomiting (<1% on both arms). Nearly three times as many patients receiving LPV/RTV used GI medications. ATV/RTV was associated with an increase in overall IBS-QoL scores and more patients receiving ATV/RTV than LPV/RTV experienced improvement in IBS-QoL through week 24. In contrast to LPV/RTV, ATV/RTV treatment was associated with earlier and more positive improvements in QoL scores across CD4 sub-groups. Differences in the health-related QoL profile between ATV/RTV and LPV/RTV may be important when selecting PI-based antiretroviral regimens.

  15. High frequency of alkaptonuria in Slovakia: evidence for the appearance of multiple mutations in HGO involving different mutational hot spots.

    PubMed

    Zatková, A; de Bernabé, D B; Poláková, H; Zvarík, M; Feráková, E; Bosák, V; Ferák, V; Kádasi, L; de Córdoba, S R

    2000-11-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase (HGO) activity. AKU shows a very low prevalence (1:100,000-250,000) in most ethnic groups. One notable exception is in Slovakia, where the incidence of AKU rises to 1:19,000. This high incidence is difficult to explain by a classical founder effect, because as many as 10 different AKU mutations have been identified in this relatively small country. We have determined the allelic associations of 11 HGO intragenic polymorphisms for 44 AKU chromosomes from 20 Slovak pedigrees. These data were compared to the HGO haplotype data available in our laboratory for >80 AKU chromosomes from different European and non-European countries. The results show that common European AKU chromosomes have had only a marginal contribution to the Slovak AKU gene pool. Six of the ten Slovak AKU mutations, including the prevalent G152fs, G161R, G270R, and P370fs mutations, most likely originated in Slovakia. Data available for 17 Slovak AKU pedigrees indicate that most of the AKU chromosomes have their origins in a single very small region in the Carpathian mountains, in the northwestern part of the country. Since all six Slovak AKU mutations are associated with HGO mutational hot spots, we suggest that an increased mutation rate at the HGO gene is responsible for the clustering of AKU mutations in such a small geographical region.

  16. The first imported human infestation with Furuncular myiasis in man in the Slovakia and current knowledge of myiasis.

    PubMed

    Totkova, A; Jakubovsky, J; Totka, A; Bohmer, D; Stankovic, I; Holeckova, K; Malova, J; Cibulkova, A

    2016-01-01

    Furuncular myiasis is caused by the genus of botfly Dermatobia hominis. It belongs to the family Cuterebridae and is indigenous to Central and South America. to present a case report of the first case of this disease in Slovakia. The term myiasis refers to infestation of the host (animal, man) by botfly larvae. Its larvae burrow under the skin. They feed on the host's living tissues and fluids. MateriAl and methods: Patient's history analysis, parasitological examination. A 58-year-old woman after returning from Central America found in the skin above her m. gluteus mayor 2 indurations, which contained three botfly larvae. Infestation with botfly larvae Dermatobia hominis is for man annoying and from a health point of view dangerous. With proper diagnosis, it is possible to remove the larvae safely from furuncles. The authors point to the first case of imported infestation with Furuncular myiasis caused by botfly Dermatobia hominis in man introduced to Slovakia. They note that increasing tourism spread to the countries with the endemic occurrence of Furuncular myiasis will cause its higher prevalence also in Central European countries (Fig. 5, Ref. 45).

  17. High Frequency of Alkaptonuria in Slovakia: Evidence for the Appearance of Multiple Mutations in HGO Involving Different Mutational Hot Spots

    PubMed Central

    Zatková, Andrea; de Bernabé, Daniel Beltrán Valero; Poláková, Helena; Zvarík, Marek; Feráková, Eva; Bošák, Vladimir; Ferák, Vladimír; Kádasi, L'udovít; de Córdoba , Santiago Rodríguez

    2000-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase (HGO) activity. AKU shows a very low prevalence (1:100,000–250,000) in most ethnic groups. One notable exception is in Slovakia, where the incidence of AKU rises to 1:19,000. This high incidence is difficult to explain by a classical founder effect, because as many as 10 different AKU mutations have been identified in this relatively small country. We have determined the allelic associations of 11 HGO intragenic polymorphisms for 44 AKU chromosomes from 20 Slovak pedigrees. These data were compared to the HGO haplotype data available in our laboratory for >80 AKU chromosomes from different European and non-European countries. The results show that common European AKU chromosomes have had only a marginal contribution to the Slovak AKU gene pool. Six of the ten Slovak AKU mutations, including the prevalent G152fs, G161R, G270R, and P370fs mutations, most likely originated in Slovakia. Data available for 17 Slovak AKU pedigrees indicate that most of the AKU chromosomes have their origins in a single very small region in the Carpathian mountains, in the northwestern part of the country. Since all six Slovak AKU mutations are associated with HGO mutational hot spots, we suggest that an increased mutation rate at the HGO gene is responsible for the clustering of AKU mutations in such a small geographical region. PMID:11017803

  18. New variants of European brown hare syndrome virus strains in free-ranging European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Kai; Fickel, Jörns; Ludwig, Arne; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Streich, Wolf Jürgen; Jurcik, Rastislav; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Wibbelt, Gudrun

    2007-01-01

    Investigations regarding European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) in Slovakia were undertaken in order to detect the possible presence of EBHSV and to evaluate its phylogenetic position. Liver and/or serum samples were obtained from 135 European brown hares shot by hunters in eight regional hunting areas. From 36 animals corresponding liver and serum samples were available; from the remaining 49 and 50 animals only liver or serum samples were examined, respectively. Samples were tested for antibodies against EBHSV and for viral RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RT-PCR products were subsequently sequenced. Additionally, matrilinear hare haplotypes were analyzed in order to detect potential familial susceptibility to EBHSV. Sixty-three of 86 sera contained antibodies against EBHSV, whereas 15 of 85 liver samples were PCR positive. Of the latter, 14 were sequenced, revealing three new strains of EBHSV. Fifteen different matrilinear haplotypes were identified, but no correlation was found between haplotype and susceptibility to EBHSV infection. Our findings confirmed the existence of EBHSV in Slovakia and reinforce the need for determining EBHSV status when importing hares for restocking.

  19. Potential mosquito (Diptera:Culicidae) vector of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis in urban areas of Eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Bocková, Eva; Iglódyová, Adriana; Kočišová, Alica

    2015-12-01

    This paper follows the study from 2013 focused on the molecular screening of mosquitoes as vectors of Dirofilaria spp. which provided the information on Aedes vexans as a potential vector of Dirofilaria repens in Slovakia. Current entomological and molecular research indicates that Ae. vexans can participate also in the transmission of Dirofilaria immitis within the region. Using the standard PCR method, we examined 10,500 mosquitoes (Ae. vexans, Ae. rossicus, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Ochlerotatus sticticus, Ochlerotatus cantans, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culex pipiens/Culex torrentium, Coquillettidia richiardii), collected using CO2-baited traps at six locations in the Eastern Slovakia. Out of 105 pools, 6 pools of mosquitoes Ae. vexans were positive for D. repens DNA (minimum infective rate in Ae. vexas was 6:6.900, i.e. 0.8 per 1.000 mosquitoes), within which 4 were concurrently positive for D. immitis (minimum infective rate in Ae. vexans was 4:6.900 i.e. 0.5 per 1.000 mosquitoes).

  20. Hydrology of the Ferron sandstone aquifer and effects of proposed surface-coal mining in Castle Valley, Utah, with sections on stratigraphy and leaching of overburden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lines, Gregory C.; Morrissey, Daniel J.; Ryer, Thomas A.; Fuller, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Coal in the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age has traditionally been mined by underground techniques in the Emery Coal Field in the southern end of Castle Valley in east-central Utah. However, approximately 99 million tons are recoverable by surface mining. Ground water in the Ferron is the sole source of supply for the town of Emery, but the aquifer is essentially untapped outside the Emery area.The Ferron Sandstone Member crops out along the eastern edge of Castle Valley and generally dips 2 ? to 10 ? to the northwest. Sandstones in the Ferron are enclosed between relatively impermeable shale in the Tununk and Blue Gate Members of the Mancos Shale. Along the outcrop, the Ferron ranges in thickness from about 80 feet in the northern part of Castle Valley to 850 feet in the southern part. The Ferron also generally thickens in the subsurface downdip from the outcrop. Records from wells and test holes indicate that the full thickness of the Ferron is saturated with water in most areas downdip from the outcrop area.Tests in the Emery area indicate that transmissivity of the Ferron sandstone aquifer ranges from about 200 to 700 feet squared per day where the Ferron is fully saturated. Aquifer transmissivity is greatest near the Paradise Valley-Joes Valley fault system where permeability has been increased by fracturing. Storage coefficient ranges from about 10 .6 to 10 -3 where the Ferron sandstone aquifer is confined and probably averages 5 x 10-2 where it is unconfined.

  1. International Survey in Eight Countries about Teachers and Teaching Profession: Belgium, Cyprus, Italy, Libya, Poland, Slovakia, Turkey, United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chistolini, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    An international team of experts from Belgium, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Turkey and the USA employed a questionnaire to identify the deontology of teachers from infant to secondary school in eight countries. The survey was implemented between 2004 and 2007. The socio-cultural concept of "Verstehen" (understanding) as described in the work…

  2. International Survey in Eight Countries about Teachers and Teaching Profession: Belgium, Cyprus, Italy, Libya, Poland, Slovakia, Turkey, United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chistolini, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    An international team of experts from Belgium, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Turkey and the USA employed a questionnaire to identify the deontology of teachers from infant to secondary school in eight countries. The survey was implemented between 2004 and 2007. The socio-cultural concept of "Verstehen" (understanding) as described in the work…

  3. A review of the ectoparasitic mites (Acari: Dermanyssoidea) associated with birds and their nests in Slovakia, with notes on identification of some species.

    PubMed

    Mašán, Peter; Fenďa, Peter; Krištofík, Ján; Halliday, Bruce

    2014-12-05

    We review the parasitic mites of the superfamily Dermanyssoidea found in the nests of Slovakian domestic and wild birds (and a few mammals), compiled from new data and literature sources. Three mite genera are included, namely Dermanyssus Dugès (Dermanyssidae), Ornithonyssus Sambon and Pellonyssus Clark & Yunker (Macronyssidae), in which we recognised nine reliably documented species. Pellonyssus is represented by one species, Dermanyssus by five species, and Ornithonyssus by three species. We compiled information on the ecological requirements and host preferences of these mite species, including data on geographic distribution, altitudinal distribution, and occurrence in different habitats and nest types. An identification key to the species occurring in Slovakia is provided, together with taxonomic remarks on the identification and external morphology of some selected species. Parasitic mites have been reported from 119 taxa of Slovakian vertebrates (including man), of which 108 belong to 17 orders of birds. Dermanyssus americanus Ewing and Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese) are reported from Slovakia for the first time. Examination of older voucher material collected in Slovakia revealed many misidentified specimens: the name Dermanyssus hirundinis (Hermann) has been widely used for misidentified specimens of Dermanyssus carpathicus Zeman; D. americanus was confused with D. hirundinis; while O. bursa has been confused with Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago). Slovakia is the second country in Europe with known occurrence of the genus Pellonyssus. 

  4. Placental Transfer of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Their Hydroxylated Metabolites and Pentachlorophenol in Pregnant Women from Eastern Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Park, June-Soo; Bergman, Åke; Linderholm, Linda; Athanasiadou, Maria; Kocan, Anton; Petrik, Jan; Drobna, Beata; Trnovec, Tomas; Charles, M. Judith; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand the placental transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), specific hydroxylated PCB metabolites (OH-PCBs), and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in blood serum, in a birth cohort from eastern Slovakia. During the period 2002–2004, cord blood specimens were collected in parallel with maternal specimens from women delivering in the two eastern Slovak districts of Michalovce and Svidnik/Stropkov. A total of 92 pairs of mother-cord specimens at delivery were selected for this study. 4-OH-CB107, 3-OH-CB153, 4-OH-CB146, 3′-OH-CB138, 4-OH-CB187, and 4′-OH-CB172 were quantified. The median concentrations of Σ17PCBs, Σ6OH-PCBs, and PCP in cord serum were 0.92, 0.33, and 0.69 ng/g wet wt., respectively and highly correlated with the corresponding maternal serum levels (correlations were R2 = 0.61, 0.78, and 0.82, respectively). The median cord to mother ratios of the Σ17PCBs, Σ6OH-PCBs, and PCP were 0.18, 0.75, and 1.10, respectively. The median ratio of the Σ6OH-PCBs to the Σ17 PCBs in the cord serum was 0.38 from wet weight based concentrations, which was about four times higher than the ratio of these compounds in maternal serum (0.09). PCP was more abundant than any PCB or OH-PCB congener measured in cord serum. The higher cord to maternal ratios of OH-PCB metabolites as compared with the parent compounds suggests either a higher placental transfer rate or greater metabolism in the fetus as compared with the maternal compartment. These findings are consistent with their preferential binding to TTR that can cross the placenta. The cord to maternal ratio varies by congener (e.g., 4-OH-CB107 = 0.58, 4-OH-CB146=0.74, 3′-OH-CB138= 1.01). PMID:17764717

  5. Regional analysis of Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationships in Slovakia using Scaling Model Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecho, J.; Faško, P.; Gaál, L.; Lapin, M.; Šâstný, P.

    2009-09-01

    on scaling of two theoretical distributions: Generalized extreme value (GEV) and Gumbel probability distributions. Statistical analysis was applied on annual maximum rainfall time series for meteorological stations located in different regions of Slovakia, for rainfall event durations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min and 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h (meteorological stations: Hurbanovo, Oravská Lesná, etc.). The results suggest that obtained estimates derived from the scaling procedure are comparable to estimates obtained from traditional techniques.

  6. Air temperature and precipitation spatial evaluation in Slovakia using the regularized splain with tension method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulová, K.; Pecho, J.; Šâstný, P.; Faško, P.; Šiška, B.

    2009-09-01

    Over the last few years improvement of various GIS applications that involve spatial processing of climatological and meteorological data has been quite noticeable. This upsurge of interest is related directly to the fall in price of `commercial off-the-shelf' GIS products together with large advances in computer processing ability. GIS methods allow the detailed analysis of spatial patterns of various atmospheric parameters, providing an in depth look into the regularities and variability of weather and climate over time and space. Many climatic parameters, such as air temperature, precipitation and snow cover as well, are strongly dependent on geographical factors such as topography, land use and vegetation height. The paper presented here deals with spatial evaluation of the air temperature mean and mean precipitation totals within normal period 1961-1990 using GIS 3D interpolation methods. Through the homogenization process the utilized data sets were tested using the quality and quantity control procedures particularly concerning the filling and correction all data gaps and shifts recognized in the long time series within the period 1961-1990. Nevertheless, the network of climatological as well as rain gauge stations is quite dense in Slovakia it was needed to use additional supporting points (so-called "virtual stations") particularly in the mountainous regions during the pre-processing stage of spatial analysis. In the case of air temperature analysis the regional approach of statistical regression modeling was applied and available in-situ air temperature measurements were supported by the regularly distributed grid points with spatial resolution 10 × 10 km. In the contrast to the proceeding the precipitation data were advanced with irregular spatial network of "virtual stations". Supplementary data sets represented by grid and virtual points were evaluated using the regional regression function whereby the statistical relation between variables and

  7. Focal Mechanisms of Microearthquakes in the Dobra Voda Seismoactive Area in the Male Karpaty Mts., Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavrycuk, V.; Fojtikova, L.; Cipciar, A.; Madaras, J.

    2009-12-01

    We have analysed 44 microearthquakes with magnitudes between 1.2 and 3.4, which occurred in the Dobra Voda area, Slovakia, in the period 2001-2009. The epicentres of the microearthquakes form a cluster elongated in the ENE-WSW direction. This direction coincides with the orientation of the main fault systems in the area: Dobra Voda and Brezova faults. The depths of the hypocentres vary from 1 km to 14 km. Three different methods were used to calculate the focal mechanisms: (a) a method using the polarities of Pg and Pn waves, (b) the amplitude inversion of moment tensors, and (c) the waveform inversion of moment tensors. All three methods show similar results. The majority of the analysed microearthquakes have a similar left-lateral strike-slip focal mechanism with weak normal or reverse components. The moment tensors comprise significant non-double-couple (non-DC) components. The isotropic component (ISO) and the compensated linear vector dipole component (CLVD) are mostly positive and well correlated indicating that a significant part of the non-DC components probably originates in tensile faulting. Adopting the model of tensile faulting, we estimated the mean ratio of P to S wave velocities in the focal area from the values of ISO and CLVD, vP/vS = 1.5-1.6. The focal mechanisms have been inverted for the present-day tectonic stress in the Dobra Voda area. The slip shear stress component criterion was applied in the stress inversion. The orientations of the principal stresses are (azimuth/plunge): σ1 = 210-220°/5-25°, σ2 = 70-105°/55-75°, and σ3 = 305-315°/15-25°, and the shape ratio is R = 0.45-0.60. The azimuth is measured clockwise from the north and the plunge downwards from the horizontal plane. The local tectonic stress displays approximately an inverse pattern when compared with the regional middle-European tectonic stress and reflects complex tectonic conditions in the area. The presence of tensile faulting might point to an extensional stress

  8. Study of a unique 16th century Antwerp majolica floor in the Rameyenhof castle's chapel by means of X-ray fluorescence and portable Raman analytical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Voorde, Lien; Vandevijvere, Melissa; Vekemans, Bart; Van Pevenage, Jolien; Caen, Joost; Vandenabeele, Peter; Van Espen, Piet; Vincze, Laszlo

    2014-12-01

    The most unique and only known 16th century Antwerp majolica tile floor in Belgium is situated in a tower of the Rameyenhof castle (Gestel, Belgium). This exceptional work of art has recently been investigated in situ by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy in order to study the material characteristics. This study reports on the result of the analyses based on the novel combination of non-destructive and portable instrumentation, including a handheld XRF spectrometer for obtaining elemental information and a mobile Raman spectrometer for retrieving structural and molecular information on the floor tiles in the Rameyenhof castle and on a second, similar medallion, which is stored in the Rubens House museum in Antwerp (Belgium). The investigated material, majolica, is a type of ceramic, which fascinated many people and potters throughout history by its beauty and colourful appearance. In this study the characteristic major/minor and trace element signature of 16th century Antwerp majolica is determined and the pigments used for the colourful paintings present on the floor are identified. Furthermore, based on the elemental fingerprint of the white glaze, and in particular on the presence of zinc in the tiles - an element that was not used for making 16th century majolica - valuable information about the originality of the chapel floor and the two central medallions is acquired.

  9. Fluid composition of the sediment-influenced Loki's Castle vent field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumberger, Tamara; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Hamelin, Cédric; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Okland, Ingeborg E.; Pedersen, Rolf B.

    2016-08-01

    The hydrothermal vent field Loki's Castle is located in the Mohns-Knipovich bend (73°N) of the ultraslow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) close to the Bear Island sediment fan. The hydrothermal field is venting up to 320° C hot black smoker fluids near the summit of an axial volcanic ridge. Even though the active chimneys have grown on a basaltic ridge, geochemical fluid data show a strong sedimentary influence into the hydrothermal circulation at Loki's Castle. Compelling evidence for a sediment input is given by high alkalinity, high concentrations of NH4+, H2, CH4, C2+ hydrocarbons as well as low Mn and Fe contents. The low δ13C values of CO2 and CH4 and the thermogenic isotopic pattern of the C2+ hydrocarbons in the high-temperature vent fluids clearly point to thermal degradation of sedimentary organic matter and illustrate diminution of the natural carbon sequestration in sediments by hydrothermal circulation. Thus, carbon-release to the hydrosphere in Arctic regions is especially relevant in areas where the active Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge system is in contact with the organic matter rich detrital sediment fans.

  10. Mineralogy, 40Ar/ 39Ar dating and apatite fission track dating of rocks along the Castle Mountain fault, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, W. T.; Bunds, M. P.; Bruhn, R. L.; Hall, C. M.; Murphy, J. M.

    2001-07-01

    The Castle Mountain fault is a 200-km-long, right-lateral fault that forms the northern boundary of the Cook Inlet basin and Matanuska Valley, Alaska. Fault gouge and fault rock at six localities contain the clay minerals illite, smectite, chlorite, and interstratified illite/smectite. At one locality, gouge contains deformed illite/smectite with very little wall rock chlorite contamination. Fine (<0.03 μm), medium (0.03-0.2 μm), and coarse (0.2-2.0 μm) illite/smectite from this site were dated using 40Ar/ 39Ar micro-encapsulation and laser microprobe methods. Total gas ages for the three size fractions are 28.21±0.12, 32.42±0.11 and 36.24±0.08 Ma for fine to coarse sizes respectively. Argon retention ages obtained from 40Ar and 39Ar retained in the three size fractions of illite at room temperature during neutron irradiation are 37.36±0.15, 42.11±0.14 and 47.20±0.10 respectively. Apatite fission track ages were measured in arkose at a locality on the fault 60 km west of the gouge locality. Three samples of arkose were dated: one within 10 m of the fault core, one 170 m from the fault, and one 335 m from the fault. The sample nearest to the fault yielded an age of 29.3±2.8 Ma, but it only had four track lengths at 10-13 μm. Two apatite grains from the intermediate sample yielded a pooled age of 34.3±6.1 Ma. The distant sample (25 grains counted, 101 track lengths) yielded an age of 32.0±2.9 Ma. This sample has a broad distribution of track lengths and a broad distribution of individual grain ages ranging from 14.8±5.1 to 67.8±8.8 Ma. Monte Carlo modeling of the apatite age and track length data is consistent with hydrothermal mineralization at 37-39 Ma followed by rapid uplift and cooling after 10 Ma. The 40Ar/ 39Ar total gas ages (K-Ar) are minimum ages, and the argon retention ages are maximum ages. The thermal model derived from the fission track data, and the argon retention age for the finest illite fraction of ˜37 Ma date a hydrothermal

  11. The Castle Mountain fault, south-central Alaska: New lidar-based observations on the sense of slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, R. D.; Reger, D.; Frohman, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Castle Mountain fault extends along the southern Talkeetna Mountains rangefront and across the Susitna Lowland in south-central Alaska. The fault is an active structural element of the Aleutian forearc and has formed a 4-km-wide anticline associated with at least 0.5 km of north-side-up displacement. Right-lateral bedrock offsets along the eastern part of the fault are poorly constrained to ~14 km. In the Susitna Lowland, the fault is expressed at the surface by a distinct south-facing scarp. Previous paleoseismic studies have described the fault as both a strike-slip fault and a reverse fault, attributed the scarp to the occurrence of one to four paleoearthquakes, and estimated a Holocene right-lateral slip rate of ~3mm/yr. Motivated by inspection of new lidar data along the fault indicating that Holocene landforms are not laterally offset, we performed surficial-geologic mapping and field surveys with an emphasis on better characterizing the sense of slip. Field work was conducted along approximately 12 km of the scarp between Houston and Susitna River. Surficial-geologic mapping indicates that the fault displaces late Elmendorf (14-15 ka) glacial and Holocene deposits including glacial drift, sandy fan deltas, outwash plains, grounding-line moraines, basal-crevasse-fill complexes, stream terraces, oxbow lakes, and swamps. Where the scarp cuts these deposits it varies in height from ~ 0.5-4 m and is un-beveled. The surface trace also consists of left-stepping en echelon scarps and grabens. The grabens occur up to 400 m north of the scarp and indicate a wide zone of deformation. Numerous abandoned channels and stabilized sand dunes oriented orthogonal to the scarp are vertically offset and have negligible strike-slip displacement. The observations are consistent with reverse faulting above a north dipping fault associated with bending moment extensional grabens in the hanging wall. The en echelon pattern of scarps suggests a minor oblique component of slip. We

  12. Loki's Castle: Discovery and geology of a black smoker vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Lilley, M. D.; Barriga, F. J.; Früh-Green, G.; Nakamura, K.

    2010-12-01

    Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting at the ultraslow spreading and magma starved parts of the Arctic Mid Ocean Ridge (AMOR) have been unsuccessful. A black smoker vent field was eventually discovered at the Mohns-Knipovich bend at 73.5°N in 2008, and the field was revisited in 2009 and 2010. The Loki’s Castle vent field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge that is bordered by a tectonic terrain dominated by core complexes to the NW, and a ridge flank that is buried by sediments from the Bear Island Fan to the SE. Fluid compositions are anomalous to other basalt-hosted fields and indicate interactions with sediments at depths. The vent field is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting occurs at ultraslow spreading ridges despite the strongly reduced magmatic heat budget. ROV surveys have shown that venting occurs in two areas separated by around 100 m. Micro-bathymetry acquired by a Hugin AUV documents that two 20-30 tall mounds that coalesce at the base have developed around the vent sites. The micro-bathymetry also shows that the venting is located above two normal faults that define the NW margin of a rift that runs along the crest of the volcano. The black smoker fluids reach 317 °C, with an end-member SiO2 content of 16 mmol/kg. End-member chlorinity is around 85% of seawater suggesting that the fluids have phase-separated at depth. The fluid compositions indicate that the rock-water reactions occur around 2 km below the seafloor. The crustal thickness is estimated to be 4 +/- 0.5 km in the area. Whereas the depth of the reaction zone is comparable with faster spreading ridges, the fraction of crust cooled convectively by hydrothermal circulation is two times that of vent fields at ridges with normal crustal thickness.

  13. Hydrogeologic and Biogeochemical Controls on the Fate and Transport of Nitrate and Pesticides in the Riparian Zone of Cow Castle Creek, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckett, L. J.; Hughes, W. B.

    2001-12-01

    Riparian zones often contain large amounts of organic carbon and small concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) resulting in reducing conditions that favor removal of nitrate through denitrification, and in some cases pesticides. We investigated the transport and fate of nitrate, several commonly used pesticides, and selected metabolites at a farm in South Carolina adjacent to Cow Castle Creek. Sixteen shallow water-table wells were installed to map the water table and ground water was sampled using 7 multi-port wells installed at depths ranging from 0.5 to 10 m along a 1-km flow system bracketing several types of land use including a cornfield, pine forest, hay field, riparian forest, and the discharge area at Cow Castle Creek. Ground-water recharge dates, based on CFC age dating, were from the mid-to-late 1970s below the riparian zone and Cow Castle Creek indicating a maximum residence time of approximately 23-years. Organic carbon under the riparian zone was as high as 0.97 percent. DO concentrations were variable with the smallest values immediately under the riparian zone. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations varied over the site from about 28 mg/L immediately down gradient of the cornfield to below detection (<0.05 mg/L) under the hayfield. Large decreases in nitrate-nitrogen were detected at the edge of the riparian zone and immediately below it. Nitrate concentrations initially increased with depth below the riparian zone then decreased again in deeper samples while beneath Cow Castle Creek they varied from 2.8 to 4.7 mg/L. Excess nitrogen gas concentrations, presumably derived from denitrification, varied from 1.4 to 4.1 mg/L under the riparian zone. Atrazine, metolachlor and their metabolites were the most commonly detected pesticides and were generally restricted to samples collected under and adjacent to the cornfield however, there were a few detections of atrazine, simazine, chlorpyrifos, and deethyl atrazine under and adjacent to the riparian zone. Flow

  14. The damages of Ksiaz Castle architecture in relation to new informations on the structure and indications of recent tectonic activity in Świebodzice Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasza, Damian; Kaczorowski, Marek; Zdunek, Ryszard; Wronowski, Roman

    2017-04-01

    First informations about the aspects of recent tectonic activity in Książ area (Świebodzice Depression) come from indications of horizontal pendulums (HP), launched in 1974 in Książ. Over 40-years long series of observation have provided informations about the periods when it came to a sudden change of WP's measuring azimuths. This phenomenon has been interpreted as the result of tilting of rock blocks on which HPs are installed. Recent tectonic activity was confirmed by water-tube tiltmeters (WT) which have recorded episodically appeared events of tiltings of foundation and vertical movements. The consequences of strike-slip movements in Książ area are reflected both in the structure of the Świebodzice Basin (e.g. displacements of geological formations, deformations of the geometry of the Pełcznica River valley) as well as damages of architectural elements of the Książ Castle, where the underground Geodynamic Laboratory of Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences is located (GL SRC PAS). Tectonic phenomena recorded by both types of tiltmeters (HP and WT) are observed in forms of tilting of foundation and vertical movements. The cause of these effects are horizontal strike-slip movements on the surface of discontinuities (faults) in the Książ massif. From the mechanical point of view faults are the nodes of distribution for these movements. Because of the faults orientation in relation to the main direction of tectonic displacement GL's measuring instruments show transformation of the horizontal component of the movement to vertical movements and tiltings of foundation. Geological and geodetic works carried out in the Książ area allowed for identification and measurement of faults visible in underground corridors of GL. Analysis of the direction parameters of identified surface of discontinuities allowed to build a model of the structure of Książ massif. Created model contains 12 interpreted main zones of dislocation. Determined routes

  15. National Initiatives to Improve Healthcare Outcomes: A Comparative Study of Health Delivery Systems in Slovakia and the United States.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Robert; Caplanova, Anetta; Novak, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    While the United States and Slovakia offer different healthcare delivery systems, each country faces the same challenges of improving the health status of their populations. The authors explore the impact of their respective systems on the health of their populations and compare the health outcomes of both nations. They point out that socioeconomic factors play a far more important role in determining population health outcomes than do the structures of the systems surrounding the care delivery. The authors illustrate this finding through a comparison of the poverty and education levels of a selected minority group from each country in relation to the health outcomes for each population group. The comparison reveals that education is a more influential determinant in a population's health outcomes, than the improved access to care offered by a universal system.

  16. Effect of heavy metals on soil enzyme activity at different field conditions in Middle Spis mining area (Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Angelovičová, Lenka; Lodenius, Martin; Tulisalo, Esa; Fazekašová, Danica

    2014-12-01

    Heavy metals concentrations were measured in the former mining area located in Hornad river valley (Slovakia). Soil samples were taken in 2012 from 20 sites at two field types (grasslands, heaps of waste material) and two different areas. Total content of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg), urease (URE), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), soil reaction (pH) were changing depending on the field/area type. The tailing pond and processing plants have been found as the biggest sources of pollution. URE, ACP and ALP activities significantly decreased while the heavy metal contents increased. Significant differences were found among area types in the heavy metal contents and activity of URE. No statistical differences in the content of heavy metals but significant statistical differences for soil pH were found for field types (grassland and heaps). Significant negative correlation was found for URE-Pb, URE-Zn and also between soil reaction and ACP and ALP.

  17. Limited genetic diversity of Aerococcus viridans strains isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of bovine mastitis in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Spaková, T; Elecko, J; Vasil, M; Legáth, J; Pristas, P; Javorský, P

    2012-01-01

    The Aerococcus viridans isolates from bovine mastitis in Slovakia were isolated and characterized by classical microbiological and biochemical, and molecular techniques including IGS-PCR and rep-PCR, ARDRA and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The substantial variability of antibiotic resistance patterns was observed. The majority of strains were resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics, the resistance to tetracycline was observed in 3 tested strains, resistance to lincomycin was found in 4 strains and practically all tested strains were sensitive to neomycin and ciprofloxacin. While variable at a phenotypic level, no significant genetic variability among A. viridans isolates was detected by molecular DNA based methods. The data obtained suggest that a few A. viridans strains spread among cow's population in Slovak farms.

  18. Keratinophilic fungi isolated from soils of long-term fold-grazed, degraded pastures in national parks of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Javoreková, Soňa; Labuda, Roman; Maková, Jana; Novák, Ján; Medo, Juraj; Majerčíková, Kamila

    2012-09-01

    A total of 939 isolates of 11 genera representing 15 species of keratinophilic fungi were isolated and identified from the soils of three long-term fold-grazed pastures in national parks of Slovakia (Pod Ploskou, Strungový príslop, and Pod Kečkou) and one non-fold-grazed pasture in sierra Stolicke vrchy (Diel) using the hair-baiting technique. Keratinophilic fungi were present in all soil samples with a prevalence of Trichophyton ajelloi and Paecilomyces lilacinus. These fungi were more abundant in soil from fold-grazed pasture (Strungový príslop) compared to non-fold-grazed pasture (Diel). The occurrence of the other keratinophilic fungi was substantially lower, likely because of low pH in some soils.

  19. A budget impact model for biosimilar infliximab in Crohn's disease in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Brodszky, Valentin; Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Baji, Petra; Lakatos, Péter L; Gulácsi, László

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the budget impact of the introduction of biosimilar infliximab for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. A 3-year, prevalence-based budget impact analysis for biosimilar infliximab to treat CD was developed from third-party payers' perspective. The model included various scenarios depending on whether interchanging originator infliximab with biosimilar infliximab was allowed or not. Total cost savings achieved in biosimilar scenario 1 (interchanging not allowed) and BSc2 (interchanging allowed in 80% of the patients) were estimated to €8.0 million and €16.9 million in the six countries. Budget savings may cover the biosimilar infliximab therapy for 722-1530 additional CD patients. Introduction of biosimilar infliximab to treat CD may offset the inequity in access to biological therapy for CD between Central and Eastern European countries.

  20. Susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and selected herbaceous plants to plum pox virus isolates from western Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Glasa, M; Matisová, J; Hricovský, I; Kúdela, O

    1997-12-01

    The susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and herbaceous plants to five plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from orchards of western Slovakia was investigated. PPV was isolated from diseased plum, apricot and peach trees, and transmitted by chip-budding to peach GF 305. The herbaceous plants were infected by mechanical inoculation. The transmission was analysed by symptomatology and double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Infected peaches developed leaf distortion, tissue clearing along the veins and small chlorotic spots (isolate BOR-3). With exception of BOR-3, the PPV isolates transmitted from peach caused local chlorotic spots on Chenopodium foetidum. The character of symptoms changed when a sap from PPV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana was used as virus inoculum. From N. benthamiana, the PPV isolates could be transmitted to Pisum sativum, cv. Colmo (light green mosaic), N. clevelandii and N. clevelandii x N. glutinosa hybrid (latent infection or chlorotic spots).

  1. Model of the porphyry copper and polymetallic vein family of deposits - Applications in Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    A tectonic model useful in estimating the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper and polymetallic vein systems has been developed. This model is based on the manner in which magmatic and hydrothermal fluids flow and are trapped in fault systems as far-field stress is released in tectonic strain features above subducting plates (e.g. strike-slip fault systems). The structural traps include preferred locations for stock emplacement and tensional-shear fault meshes within the step-overs that localize porphyry- and vein-style deposits. The application of the model is illustrated for the porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Central Slovakian Volcanic Field, Slovakia; the Ma??tra Mountains, Hungary; and the Apuseni Mountains, Romania.

  2. Utilisation and Improvement of the Initialisation of Project Communication Processes During the Management of Projects in Industrial Enterprises in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samáková, Jana; Šujanová, Jana; Špirková, Marta

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, project communication is slowed due to the need for compliance with strict rules. Therefore the aim of this paper is to analyse the use of the communication environment as a basic part of the initialisation of project communication in industrial enterprises in Slovakia, and to propose measures to improve the process of initialisation of project communication in these enterprises. In this paper, theoretical and empirical research (quantitative and qualitative) approaches were chosen. On the basis of the research we can conclude, that communication as a basic part of the "Initialisation of project communication" is not adequately elaborated in international methodologies and standards of project management and in industrial enterprises. Industrial enterprises do not deal with processes of the communication environment and this results in negative consequences.

  3. Cartographic evidence of the disastrous ice flood of 1809 and its aftermath (Danube River, Slovakia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pišút, P.

    2009-04-01

    The 18th and early 19th century river maps are important data sources for studying past landscapes. This is not only as a result of improved surveying techniques, but also because they depict landscape during probably the most important climatic and land-use changes since the Middle Ages. In this phase of the increased river activity during the last onset of the so-called Little Ice Age period, several major flood events occured. Local manuscript maps, which often depict the channel in major detail, help us to obtain a better understanding of their geomorphic and other impacts. The catastrophic ice flood, which occured on the Middle Danube river at the end of January 1809 was undoubtedly the most disastrous event of its kind in Slovakia, although it also hit a number of settlements in Lower Austria and Hungary. Several people drowned and the flood also resulted in great damage to settlements and livestock. Devastating effects of this flood particularly as to the towns of Bratislava and Komárno/Komárom were comparable with effects of disastrous floods of February 1830 in Vienna (Austria), March 1838 in Buda/Pest (Hungary) or 1845 flood in Prague (Czech Republic), respectively. In case of the present Slovakian capital Bratislava, on January 29, 1809, two ice barriers suddenly rose the water up to 10 m above the zero level and the river quickly overflowed its banks inundating the low-lying parts of the town. The flood blacked out communications with neighbouring regions. Record-breaking height of water led to breaches of the important right-bank embankment (constructed in 1770s). Through several openings water flooded the right bank, almost completely destroying the adjacent village of Petržalka/Engerau. The damage to Vienna highway levee was so massive that it only could be repaired 16 years later, in 1825-6 (although this was also due to Napoleonic wars). The flood also reactivated the Chorvátske rameno anabranch, 33 years after its abandonment. A number of

  4. Ground surface thermal regime of rock glaciers in the High Tatra Mts., Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uxa, Tomáš; Mida, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Numerous lobate- or tongue-shaped debris accumulations, mostly interpreted as rock glaciers, have recently been recognized in the High Tatra Mts., Slovakia (49˚ 10' N, 20˚ 08' E). These prominent landforms arise due to creep of voluminous debris-ice mixtures, and as such they are excellent indicators of present or past permafrost existence. Hence rock glaciers are extensively utilized to model the distribution of permafrost in mountain areas. However, commonly applied rules of thumb may not be entirely indicative to discriminate particularly between the inactive (permafrost in disequilibrium with present climate) and relict (without permafrost) rock glaciers, which may substantially complicate permafrost modelling. Accordingly, the information about their thermal state is essential to calibrate and validate regional permafrost models. Limited ground temperature data have been, however, available from the High Tatra Mts. to date and therefore, we bring the updated and enhanced results from the thermal investigations of eleven rock glaciers located in the Slavkovská dolina and Veľká Studená dolina valleys at elevations between 1832 and 2090 m asl. Ground surface temperature (GST) has been continuously monitored at seven rock glaciers between October 2014 and September 2016 using nine Minikin Tie (EMS Brno Inc.) and iButton DS1922L (Maxim Integrated Inc.) loggers with an accuracy of ±0.2 and ±0.5 ˚ C, respectively. In addition, the bottom temperature of snow (BTS) was measured at 306 locations during spring of 2015 and 2016 to map potential permafrost occurrence within all the surveyed rock glaciers and in their immediate surroundings. Mean annual ground surface temperature (MAGST) of the rock glaciers ranged between -1.3 ˚ C and +2.6 ˚ C and averaged +1.0 ˚ C and +0.8 ˚ C in 2014-2015 and 2015-2016, respectively. Two sites continually showed negative MAGST and two other sites were below +0.5 ˚ C and +1.0 ˚ C, respectively. This strongly contrasts with

  5. Assessment of the aquatic habitat quality of the mountain streams in Eastern Slovakia by bioindication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalcovikova, Monika; Skrovinova, Marcela; Stankoci, Ivan; Bajtek, Zbynek

    2010-05-01

    In 2008 was implemented topographical and ichtyological research on the chosen streams on the east of Slovakia. For hydraulic modeling was used RHABSIM model which is component of the IFIM (Instream Flow Incremental Methodology). IFIM is an interdisciplinary decision-making system, which has arisen as a result of the knowledge that most fish species prefer certain combinations of water depths, flow velocities, hiding places and materials of a riverbed. The research was aimed at the relationship between the quantitative parameters of ichthyofauna as a bioindicator and the ratio of habitat suitability. In the IFIM methodology the relationship between abiotic and biotic characteristics is represented by the habitat suitability curves of various fish species. Fish are the best bioindicators that most sensitively indicate the quality of a stream microhabitat. The habitat suitability curves of particular fish species are determined for the two most important abiotic characteristics - flow velocity and water depth. From our research, it follows that the technique of processing for the habitat suitability curve is a very important factor that significantly influences the whole process of habitat modeling. The assessment of the habitat quality proves the appropriate input for water-management planning and decision-making, e.g. determination of the minimal (ecological) flow, river restoration planning, or the assessment of the river regulation influence on the quality and quantity of its biological guilds. It can also be used as a substitute of the ichthyofauna biodiversity assessment. These models provide a basic overview of time and spatial interaction of physical and biological components of the river system. This methodology can even be used for modeling the unaffected character of stream according to the EU framework directive 2000/60/EC. Modeling of the aquatic habitat quality using the RHABSIM model requires the simulation of the velocity field verified for two water

  6. Final Treatment Center Project for Liquid and Wet Radioactive Waste in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Kravarik, K.; Stubna, M.; Pekar, A.; Krajc, T.; Zatkulak, M.; Holicka, Z.; Slezak, M.

    2006-07-01

    The Final Treatment Center (FTC) for Mochovce nuclear power plant (NPP) is designed for treatment and final conditioning of radioactive liquid and wet waste produced from plant operation. Mochovce NNP uses a Russian VVER-440 type reactor. Treated wastes comprise radioactive concentrates, spent resin and sludge. VUJE Inc. as an experienced company in field of treatment of radioactive waste in Slovakia has been chosen as main contractor for technological part of FTC. This paper describes the capacity, flow chart, overall waste flow and parameters of the main components in the FTC. The initial project was submitted for approval to the Slovak Electric plc. in 2003. The design and manufacture of main components were performed in 2004 and 2005. FTC construction work started early in 2004. Initial non-radioactive testing of the system is planned for summer 2006 and then radioactive tests are to be followed. A one-year trial operation of facility is planned for completion in 2007. SE - VYZ will be operates the FTC during trial operation and after its completion. SE - VYZ is subsidiary company of Slovak Electric plc. and it is responsible for treatment with radioactive waste and spent fuel in the Slovak republic. SE - VYZ has, besides of other significant experience with operation of Jaslovske Bohunice Treatment Centre. The overall capacity of the FTC is 870 m{sup 3}/year of concentrates and 40 m{sup 3}/year of spent resin and sludge. Bituminization and cementation were provided as main technologies for treatment of these wastes. Treatment of concentrate is performed by bituminization. Concentrate and bitumen are metered into a thin film evaporator with rotating wiping blades. Surplus water is evaporated and concentrate salts are embedded in bitumen. Bitumen product is discharged into 200 l steel drums. Spent resin and sludge are decanted, dried and mixed with bitumen. These mixtures are also discharged into 200 l steel drums. Drums are moved along bituminization line on a

  7. Clinical and biochemical determinants of metabolic syndrome among Roma and non-Roma subjects in the eastern part of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Fedacko, Ján; Pella, Daniel; Jarcuska, Peter; Siegfried, Leonard; Janicko, Martin; Veselíny, Eduard; Sabol, Frantisek; Jarcuska, Pavol; Mareková, Mária; Gecková, Andrea Madarasová; Pazinka, Peter; Jankajová, Monika; Kmec, Ján; Babcák, Marián; Kalanin, Peter; Drazilová, Sylvia

    2014-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clustering of cardiovascular risk. The high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among populations of lower socioeconomic status is a cause of concern and calls for an effective public health response. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Roma population compared with the non-Roma population in the eastern part of Slovakia and to determine the parameter which has the strongest association with metabolic syndrome. 123 Roma and 79 non-Roma patients with metabolic syndrome were evaluated. In the subgroup of Roma men, we found that waist circumference conferred the highest chance of MS (more than 12-times), followed by triglycerides (TG) (3.670-times). In the subgroup of non-Roma men, we found that waist circumference conferred the highest chance of MS (more than 16-times), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (4.348-times increased risk per one unit decrease in HDL). In the subgroup of Roma women as well as non-Roma women, we found that serum TG conferred the highest chance of MS, followed by waist circumference for Roma women. Comparing non-classical risk factors for MS we found that only age (with OR 1.977) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (OR 1.887) were significant and independent predictors of MS in Roma men. Among Roma women apolipoprotein B100 was also found to be an independent predictor of MS, besides age and hsCRP. Our study confirmed that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is strongly associated with hypertriglyceridemic waist, besides other risk factors, a marker of the atherogenic metabolic triad among younger Roma population, which may be the reason for the increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in elderly Roma compared with non-Roma. In light of these results, better prevention of CV events for Roma minority settlements in Slovakia should be provided.

  8. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium with vanA gene isolated for the first time from wildlife in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Oravcova, Veronika; Hadelova, Daniela; Literak, Ivan

    2016-10-15

    Corvids have been identified as an important vector of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in several European countries. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of VRE in wildlife in Slovakia and to characterize vanA-carrying VRE. At the beginning of 2013, we collected 287 fecal samples of common raven (Corvus corax) in Petrovce and 99 fecal samples of rooks (Corvus frugilegus) in Kosice. Samples were cultured selectively on Slanetz-Bartley agar with vancomycin and screened for vanA, other resistance genes, and virulence genes. PCR mapping of Tn1546 carrying vanA gene was performed. Multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were used to examine the genotypic diversity of vanA-containing VRE. The mobility of vancomycin resistance traits was tested in vitro, using filter mating experiments. VRE with the vanA gene were found in 4 (1.4%) of 287 raven samples and in one (1%) of 99 rook samples. All 5 isolates belonged to Enterococcus faecium and were multiresistant with resistance to erythromycin encoded by the erm(B) gene, tetracycline (tet(M) and tet(L) genes), and ampicillin (mutations in C-terminal region of pbp5 gene). Isolates from Petrovce also were resistant to chloramphenicol. Virulence genes were not proven. The vanA gene was carried by Tn1546 types E (combined with insertion sequence IS1216) or F5 (IS1251). One isolate from a rook in Kosice belonged to ST (sequence type) 6 and the remaining four from ravens in Petrovce belonged to new ST917 (a single locus variant of ST18). All tested VRE were able to transfer the vancomycin resistance trait. In conclusion, we identified clinically important enterococci with the vanA gene in corvids in Slovakia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Engineer Buttons and Castle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    the truth, he blushed the color of his company guidon to recall that he had stuttered something about “that building out by the reservoir in...be interested, the following infor- mation is presented . Historical Data According to General Harts,1 the gateway to the city of Verdun was taken by...influence exerted upon Colonel Williams during his residence in France as an American Agent at the time of the Revolutionary War. There is at present in

  10. Castles of Ice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lied, Nils

    Intended for students aged 11 to 13 years, this is the true story of an Antarctic exploration as told by one of the participants. In 1956, he and two companions, along with a team of huskies started from the Australian base at Mawson, Antarctica and journeyed across the sea ice to locate the Douglas Islands and fix them on the map. The story tells…

  11. Staircases, Towers, and Castles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Melike; Eames, Cheryl L.; Miller, Amanda L.; Chieu, Annie

    2015-01-01

    The very nature of algebra concerns the generalization of patterns (Lee 1996). Patterning activities that are geometric in nature can serve as powerful contexts that engage students in algebraic thinking and visually support them in constructing a variety of generalizations and justifications (e.g., Healy and Hoyles 1999; Lannin 2005). In this…

  12. CASTLE Series, 1954.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    of the activities and associated radiation exposure risks of DOD personnel for interested former participants and for use in public health research...Assembly). Like TU 2, this unit was composed of employees of an A:C contractor, the Cam- bridge Corporation of Denve-. Cclorado. This group also left...MX-5, and the Nu- clear Corporation 2610 (Reference 17, p. 42). * For the NECTAR shot on Enewetak, no evacuation was necessary. The de- vice was not

  13. Staircases, Towers, and Castles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Melike; Eames, Cheryl L.; Miller, Amanda L.; Chieu, Annie

    2015-01-01

    The very nature of algebra concerns the generalization of patterns (Lee 1996). Patterning activities that are geometric in nature can serve as powerful contexts that engage students in algebraic thinking and visually support them in constructing a variety of generalizations and justifications (e.g., Healy and Hoyles 1999; Lannin 2005). In this…

  14. Castles of Ice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lied, Nils

    Intended for students aged 11 to 13 years, this is the true story of an Antarctic exploration as told by one of the participants. In 1956, he and two companions, along with a team of huskies started from the Australian base at Mawson, Antarctica and journeyed across the sea ice to locate the Douglas Islands and fix them on the map. The story tells…

  15. Microbial life associated with low-temperature hydrothermal venting and formation of barite chimneys at Loki's Castle vent field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorseth, I. H.; Steen, I.; Roalkvam, I.; Dahle, H.; Stokke, R.; Rapp, H.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    A low-temperature diffuse venting area with numbers of small barite chimneys is located on the flank of the large sulphide mound of the Loki’s Castle black smoker vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). White cotton-like microbial mats on top of the barite chimneys and associated siboglinid tubeworms were observed. The temperature was determined to 20°C for the surface sediment and 0°C for the white microbial mats, just above the ambient bottom seawater temperature of -0.8°C. The microbial mats were sampled using a remote operating vehicle (ROV) equipped with a hydraulic sampling cylinder (biosyringe) and the chimneys using an aluminum scuffle box. Black colored interior flow channels surrounded by white outer sections of nearly pure barite, were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of mats showed numerous microbial cells and large amounts of extracellular thread-like material with attached barite crystals. Inside the chimneys microbial cells are partially embedded in barite, and individual crystals are also frequently covered by extracellular material. The microbial activity could thus have an important influence on the nucleation and growth of the barite crystals and thus on the formation of the chimneys. To reveal the microbial community structure, 16S rRNA gene sequence tag-encoded pyrosequencing (1.1 x 104 - 3.5 x 104 amplicons per library) followed by taxonomic classification of the reads using the MEGAN software, were performed. Organisms assigned to a genus of sulfide oxidizers (Sulfurimonas) within the e-Proteobacteria were abundant in each chimney structure; the white microbial mats (86-96% of the reads), the white barite (36% of total reads); the black flow channel (9.9%). The second most dominating taxon in the white chimney barite, including 26% of the reads, was anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME) of the ANME-1 clade, indicating anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) as a major microbial process. Furthermore, the novel AOM associated clade

  16. 7th EFIS Tatra Immunology Conference. Molecular determinants of T-cell immunity. 24-28 June 2006, High Tatra Mountains, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Leishman, Andrew J

    2006-10-01

    This meeting was hosted by the European Federation of Immunological Societies celebrating its 7th meeting in the High Tatra Mountains of Slovakia on 24-28 June 2006. Entitled molecular determinants of T-cell immunity, the meeting covered a wide range of novel methods to regulate an unwanted immune response in autoimmunity and boost the immune system to combat viral infection and cancer.

  17. Mineralogy and Acid-Extractable Geochemistry from the Loki's Castle Hydrothermal Field, Norwegian Sea at 74 degrees N (South Knipovich Ridge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga, F. J.; Fonseca, R.; Dias, S.; Cruz, I.; Carvalho, C.; Relvas, J. M.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Loki’s Castle hydrothermal vent field was discovered in the summer of 2008 during a cruise led by the Centre of Geobiology of the University of Bergen, integrated in the H2Deep Project (Eurocores, ESF; see Pedersen et al., 2010, AGU Fall Meeting, Session OS26). Fresh volcanic glasses analyzed by EPMA are basalts. The vent site is composed of several active, over 10 m tall chimneys, producing up to 320 C fluid, at the top of a very large sulfide mound (estimated diameter 200 m). Mineralogy: The main sulfide assemblage in chimneys consists of sphalerite (Sp), pyrite (Py) and pyrrhotite, with lesser chalcopyrite (Ccp). Sulphide-poor selected samples collected at the base of chimneys are mostly composed of anhydrite (Anh), gypsum and talc (Tlc). Association of quartz, anhydrite, gypsum and barite were also found in some of the samples. The sulphide-poor samples from the base of the chimneys denote seawater interaction with the hydrothermal fluid and consequent decrease in temperature, precipitating sulfates. Sphalerite compositions are Zn(0.61-0.70)Fe(0.39-0.30)S. The variations in Fe content are consistent with those of hot, reduced hydrothermal fluids. The observed sulfide assemblage is consistent with the temperature of 320C measured in Loki’s Castle vents. Compositional zonation in sphalerites suggests different pulses of activity of the hydrothermal system, with higher contents of Zn in the center of the crystals. Geochemistry: Here we report preliminary data part of a major analytical task of sequential extraction of metals from sediments in the vicinity of Loki’s Castle, in an attempt to detect correlations with microbial populations and/or subseafloor mineralized intervals. The abundances of Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Zn, Fe, Mn and Co in sediments were determined by aqua regia extraction on subsamples from 7 gravity cores. Several anomalous intervals were sampled, in which Cu<707ppm, Ni shows many weak peaks (<50ppm), Cr shows 6 peaks (<121ppm), Zn shows 4 well

  18. Health assessment for Harvey and Knott Drum National Priorities List (NPL) Site, New Castle County, Delaware, Region 3. CERCLIS No. DED980713093. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-10

    The Harvey Knott Drum National Priorities List site, located near Kirkwood in New Castle County, Delaware, is an inactive landfill that had received sanitary, municipal and industrial wastes. Contaminants released from the site include heavy metals and organic compounds and have entered groundwater, soils, sediments, and surface waters. The principal concern is that contaminated groundwater may migrate to off-site domestic, public, and agricultural water supply wells. Also, contaminants in off-site surface water and sediments pose some concern for recreational use and consumption of fish. Off-site contaminated soils near the west property line may be a threat to persons that trespass into that area. The site is of potential health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects.

  19. Installation Restoration Program. Site Investigation Report for 166th Tactical Airlift Group, Delaware Air National Guard, Greater Wilmington Airport, New Castle, Delaware

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    was originally used by the Air Force. From 1960 to 1974 Capital Airways leased the area from the city of New Castle, and in 1976 the Base expanded the...dLU " S C Ao u 200 ail~u 1-9 cc 8 w ON I-j I- (UADN 1i331 N NOIIVA313~g 0 L w WU Ix m A- IA II M PA Z4 4I Ilia IM Nx a I, ,I OADN) 133.4 N6...9I9L 9 I ; I- C- Iw - 4 _j - j _ju fAI-- U WI Z LU g~~-~fl zz 6 JI I CLI 0... II , Z919191 I 66 I 7 I IU CL 0 ’ 40, (9W L 9M 9 9 9 9 99 9I11911m .. 4L

  20. Diversity of microbial communities of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeschke, A.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.; Früh-Green, G.

    2010-12-01

    Here we present an organic geochemical study of Loki’s Castle, a black smoker field recently discovered at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea at around 73.2°N. Located at the Mohn-Knipovich Ridge, which is one of the slowest spreading ridge segments on Earth, Loki’s Castle is the most northerly major hydrothermal vent field known to date. The vent field is composed of five actively venting (320°C) black-smoker chimneys that tower on top of a large mound of hydrothermal sulfide deposits. Loki’s Castle is a basalt-hosted hydrothermal system, but high methane and ammonium contents in the vent fluids strongly indicate a sedimentary component below the volcanic ridge. In 2009, another site of low-temperature hydrothermal venting hosting numerous barite chimneys was discovered in the vicinity of the black smokers, which probably results from subsurface mixing of diffuse hydrothermal fluid with seawater. In our study, variations in microbial communities associated with the formation of actively venting, sulfide and sulfate chimneys in this essentially unexplored ultraslow spreading ridge system are assessed based on biomarker lipid and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses. Lipid extracts from an active, high-temperature sulfide chimney yielded abundant archaeal di- and tetraether lipids as well as irregular isoprenoidal hydrocarbons (PMIs) that are associated with archaeal methanogens and methanotrophs. Predominant archaeal biomarker lipids include archaeol, sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol as well as glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) containing 0-4 cyclopentyl moieties. In addition, GDGTs with an additional covalent bond between the isoprenoid hydrocarbon chains, so-called H-shaped GDGTs, containing 0-4 cyclopentyl rings were also found to be abundant components and are indicative of hyperthermophilic methanogens. Biomarkers characteristic of eukaryotes (sterols) and bacteria (fatty acids and hopanoids) were less prevalent in

  1. Utilizing Undergraduate Research Projects to Assist in the Development of Interpretive Resources at City of Rocks National Reserve and Castle Rocks State Park, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogue, K. R.

    2003-12-01

    In the Albion Mountains of southern Idaho, granitic rock of the 28 Ma Almo pluton and 2.5 Ga Green Creek Complex of southern Idaho has weathered and eroded into a spectacular landscape of towers and spires. These unusual landforms impressed travelers on the California Trail who compared their shapes to cathedrals, castles, pyramids, and other man-made structures. The region eventually became know as the City of Rocks and was a local scenic attraction until City of Rocks National Reserve (CRNR) was established in 1989 to provide more effective management for the main group of spires which were drawing an increasing number of tourists. In 2003, Castle Rocks State Park (CRSP) was created to provide both access and protection to a less extensive group of spires located a few kilometers north of the City of Rocks. Interpretive resources at CRNR have generally focused on the human history of the region, particularly its importance to the California Trail, and have largely neglected the fascinating geologic story. Although the general framework of the geology of the Albion Mountains is reasonably well known, this "big-picture" geology does little to answer many of the questions posed by the average visitor. During the summer of 2001, a Keck Geology Consortium undergraduate research project was conducted in CRNR to seek answers to these types of questions. CRNR staff could then utilize the students' research to develop interpretive resources. Six students and two professors spent 4 weeks in the field investigating the structures and processes that have contributed to the architecture of the City of Rocks. The general geomorphology of the Albion Mountains was the focus of a Keck Geology Consortium undergraduate research project conducted during the summer of 2002. Nine students and three professors studied the glacial and landslide history of the highest peaks and the geomorphic evolution of the proposed CRSP. Students working in the Castle Rocks had 2 main goals: 1

  2. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Panigaj, Ľubomír; Zach, Peter; Honěk, Alois; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year-1, similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader. PMID:24899863

  3. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Panigaj, Lubomír; Zach, Peter; Honěk, Alois; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year(-1), similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader.

  4. A study on the applicability of the ecosystem model on water quality prediction in urban river outer moats of Yedo Castle, Nihonbashi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakinuma, Daiki; Tsushima, Yuki; Ohdaira, Kazunori; Yamada, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the study is to elucidate the waterside environment in the outer moats of Yedo Castle and the downstream of Nihonbashi River in Tokyo. Scince integrated sewage system has been installed in the area around the outer moats of Yedo Castle and the Nihon River basin, when rainfall exceeds more than the sewage treatment capacity, overflowed untreated wastewater is released into the moats and the river. Because the moats is a closed water body, pollutants are deposited to the bottom without outflowing. While reeking offensive odors due to the decomposition, blue-green algae outbreaks affected by the residence time and eluted nutrient causes problems. Scince the Nihonbashi River is a typical tidal river in urban area, the water pollution problems in the river is complicated. This study clarified the characteristics of the water quality in terms of dissolved oxygen saturation through on-site observations. In particular, dissolved oxygen saturation in summer, it is clarified that variations from a supersaturated state due to the variations of horizontal insolation intensity and water temperature up to hypoxic water conditions in the moats. According to previous studies on the water quality of Nihonbashi River, it is clarified that there are three types of variations of dissolved oxygen which desided by rainfall scale. The mean value of dissolved oxygen saturation of all layers has decreased by about 20% at the spring tide after dredging, then it recoveres gradually and become the value before dredging during about a year. Further more, in places where sewage inflows, it is important to developed a ecosystem medel and the applicability of the model. 9 variables including cell quota (intracellular nutrients of phytoplankton) of phosphorus and nitrogen with considerring the nitrification of ammonia nitrogen are used in the model. This model can grasp the sections (such as oxygen production by photosynthesis of phytoplankton, oxygen consumption by respiration of

  5. The use of microgravity technique in archaeology: A case study from the St. Nicolas Church in Pukanec, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pánisová, Jaroslava; Pašteka, Roman

    2009-01-01

    The detection of subsurface cavities, such as crypts, cellars and tunnels, in churches and castles belongs to successful applications of the employment of surface gravity measurement techniques in archaeo-prospecting. The old historic building exploration requires using of non-invasive methods, and hence the microgravity technique is a proper candidate for this task. On a case study from the Roman-Catholic Church of St. Nicolas in the town Pukanec the results of using microgravity for detection and delineation of local density variations caused by a near-surface void are shown. The acquired negative anomaly in the residual Bouguer anomalies field suggested the presence of a possible void feature. Euler deconvolution and 3D modelling were used to estimate the depth and shape of the anomalous source. Additionally, measurements of the vertical gravity gradient on several stations were performed. We tested how the use of a downward continuation of gravity, utilizing the real vertical gravity gradient, influences the shape and amplitude of the final Bouguer anomaly map.

  6. Serotypes, virulence genes, and PFGE profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from pigs with postweaning diarrhoea in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Vu Khac, Hung; Holoda, Emil; Pilipcinec, Emil; Blanco, Miguel; Blanco, Jesús E; Mora, Azucena; Dahbi, Ghizlane; López, Cecilia; González, Enrique A; Blanco, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Background Postweaning diarrhoea (PWD) in pigs is usually the main infectious problem of large-scale farms and is responsible for significant losses worldwide. The disease is caused mainly by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC). In this study a total of 101 E. coli isolated from pigs with PWD in Slovakia were characterized using phenotypic and genotypic methods. Results These 101 isolates belonged to 40 O:H serotypes. However, 57% of the isolates belonged to only six serotypes (O9:H51, O147:H-, O149:H10, O163:H-, ONT:H-, and ONT:H4), including two new serotypes (O163:H- and ONT:H4) not previously found among porcine ETEC and STEC isolated in other countries. Genes for EAST1, STb, STa, LT and Stx2e toxins were identified in 64%, 46%, 26%, 20%, and 5% of isolates, respectively. PCR showed that 35% of isolates carried genes for F18 colonization factor, and further analyzed by restriction endonuclease revealed that all of them were F18ac. Genes for F4 (K88), F6 (P987), F17, F5 (K99), F41, and intimin (eae gene) adhesins were detected in 19 %, 5%, 3%, 0.9%, 0.9%, and 0.9% of the isolates, respectively. The study of genetic diversity, carried out by PFGE of 46 representative ETEC and STEC isolates, revealed 36 distinct restriction profiles clustered in eight groups. Isolates of the same serotype were placed together in the dendrogram, but high degree of polymorphism among certain serotypes was detected. Conclusion Seropathotype O149:H10 LT/STb/EAST1/F4 (14 isolates) was the most commonly detected followed by O163:H- EAST1/F18 (six isolates), and ONT:H4 STa/STb/Stx2e/F18 (five isolates). Interestingly, this study shows that two new serotypes (O163:H- and ONT:H4) have emerged as pig pathogens in Slovakia. Furthermore, our results show that there is a high genetic variation mainly among ETEC of O149:H10 serotype. PMID:16549022

  7. Preliminary Results of Modeling Along Celebration 2000 Profiles Crossing The Western Carpathians In Eastern Slovakia and Northern Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozar, J.; Bielik, M.; Hegedus, E.; Celebration Working Group

    Project CELEBRATION 2000 Part Western Carpathians - Slovakia is financially sup- ported by Ministry of Environment of Slovak Republic and realized by Geological Survey of Slovak Republic Bratislava in cooperation with Geophysical Institute of Slovak Acad. of Science Bratislava, Geocomplex Inc. Bratislava and Eötvös Lorand Geophysical Institute Budapest, under co-ordination and support of Geoph. Institute of Polish Acad, of Science and University of El Paso. The Western Carpathians Mts. Belt is characterised by dominantly North vergent multi-nappe structure with gen- erally W-E zoning. They are classified according to the age of development of the Alpine nappe structure as the Outer Western Carpathians with Neo-Alpine nappes and the Inner Western Carpathians with Paleo-Alpine - Pre-Paleogene nappe structure. The Klippen belt marks the boundary between the two. Preliminary investigation of the Western Carpathians in Eastern Slovakia and Northern Hungary focused on two refraction profiles. The seismic sections show good quality data with clear first arrivals up to distances of 200-250 km. The tomographic inversion method of C. Zelt (1998) was used to determine the seismic P-wave velocity distribution in the crust using first arrivals only. For the 2D modeling first arrivals along CEL 04 and CEL 06 profiles were used. The 2D initial velocity model was calculated from the available basement depth and velocity data. The net of interlocking profiles provided substantial 3D cov- erage over a 100 km by 150 km area of interest. The total number of ray paths was 2600, for tomographic modeling 1800 picks of P-wave first arrivals were utilized. The starting velocity model was established along equidistant nodes in three dimensions, with a cell size of 0.5 km. The size of the model was 441 by 321 by 101 nodes, con- sisting of more than 14 million cells. The iterations were carried out in three steps with 10 by 10 by 5 km, 5 by 5 by 2 km and 2 by 2 by 1 km grids. The forward

  8. Development of the distributed hydrological model FRIER for modelling and forecasting runoff in mountainous basins in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, O.; Hlavcova, K.; Szolgay, J.; Kohnova, S.; Danko, M.

    2009-04-01

    The spatially distributed rainfall-runoff model FRIER (Horvát, 2006) developed at the Slovak University of Technology is based on the structure of the physically-based WetSpa model which was originally developed by Wang et al. (1997) and adapted for flood prediction by De Smedt et al. (2000) and Liu et al. (2003). Several of model's components were changed in order to make it more appropriate for modelling and forecasting runoff from rainfall and snowmelt in selected basins of the High Core Mountains of Slovakia. The applicability of the conceptualization of runoff generation in this model has proved under various physiographic conditions in Slovakia, e.g. in the Hron, Hornad and Torysa River basins and within the framework of the Tisza River Project. The FREIR rainfall-runoff model divides basins into uniform spatial units on a grid scale, in which the hydrological balance and the runoff simulation are calculated up to the basin's outlet. Several methods, classifications and determinations of many hydrologic processes and parameters are included in the model. The individual components of the hydrological balance are liquid and solid precipitation, interception, soil moisture, infiltration, actual evapotranspiration, surface runoff, interflow in the root zone, percolation into the groundwater, groundwater runoff and production of a groundwater recharge in the saturated zone. Transformation of the surface runoff in the catchment is simulated by approximating a diffusive wave model using geometric and hydraulic characteristics of hillslopes and of the stream network. Routing parameters are generated from input layers of a digital elevation model and a type of land use. The model is executed as an ArcView GIS extension, and the whole preparation of the spatial distributed data is linked to the GIS interface. The hydrological and climatic data are daily or hourly precipitation totals and mean daily or hourly values of air temperature. Besides of the large number of

  9. Mechanism of cross-sectoral coordination between nature protection and forestry in the Natura 2000 formulation process in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Sarvašová, Zuzana; Sálka, Jaroslav; Dobšinská, Zuzana

    2013-09-01

    Nature protection as a policy sector is not isolated and is directly or indirectly influenced by many other sectors (e.g. forestry, water management, rural development, energy, etc.). These policy sectors are neither completely segmented nor unaffected by the decisions taken in other policy sectors. Policy formulation in nature protection is therefore also influenced by different sectors. For that reason it is inevitable to stress the need for inter-sectoral coordination to assure their policy coherence. The aim of this article is to describe the mechanism and modes of cross-sectoral coordination and to analyze the relevant actors and their interaction, using the case of the Natura 2000 formulation process in Slovakia. The European Union (EU) set up an ecological network of special protected areas, known as Natura 2000 to ensure biodiversity by conserving natural habitats and wild fauna and flora in the territory of the Member States. An optimized nature protection must therefore carefully consider existing limits and crossdisciplinary relationships at the EU, national and regional levels. The relations between forestry and biodiversity protection are analyzed using the advocacy coalition framework (ACF). The ACF is used for analyzing how two coalitions, in this case ecological and forest owners' coalitions, advocate or pursue their beliefs from the nature protection and forestry policy field. The whole process is illustrated at the regional scale on the case study of Natura 2000 sites formulation in the Slovak Republic. For better reliability and validity of research, a combination of various empiric research methods was used, supported by existing theories. So called triangulation of sociological research or triangulation of methods consists of mutual results testing of individual methodological steps through identifying corresponding political-science theories, assessing their formal points using primary and secondary document analysis and assessing their

  10. Simulating rainfall-runoff dynamics of selected flash flood events in Slovakia using the KLEM hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, O.; Hlavcova, K.; Kohnova, S.; Szolgay, J.; Remiasova, R.

    2009-04-01

    The HYDRATE project (Hydrometeorological Data Resources and Technologies for Effective Flash Flood Forecasting) objective is to improve the scientific basis of flash flood forecasting by extending the understanding of past flash flood events and developing a coherent set of technologies and tools for effective early warning systems. To understand rainfall-runoff processes during selected extreme flash floods occurred in the past in Slovakia, runoff responses during selected major events were examined by using the spatially distributed hydrologic model KLEM (Kinematic Local Excess Model (Borga et al., 2007)). The distributed hydrological model is based on availability of raster information of the landscape topography, the soil and vegetation properties and radar rainfall data. In the model, the SCS-Curve Number procedure is applied on a grid way for the spatially distributed representation of runoff generating processes. For representing runoff routing a description of the drainage system response is used. In Slovakia, 3 extreme events selected from the HYDRATE flash-flood database were simulated by the model. Three selected major flash floods occurred 20th of July 1998 in the Malá Svinka and Dubovický creeks, 24th of July 2001 in the Štrbský Creek (both with more than 1000-years return period) and 19th of June 2004 in the Turniansky Creek (with 100-years return period). Rainfall-runoff characteristics of the floods in the Malá Svinka, Dubovický and Štrbský creek basins were similar and the floods had a similar progress. A value of runoff coefficient varied from 0.39 to 0.56. Opposite to them, the highest runoff coefficient in the Turniansky Creek Basin only reached a value equal to 0.26. The simulated values by the KLEM model were comparable with maximum peaks estimated on the base of post event surveying. The consistency of the estimated and simulated values by the KLEM model was evident both in time and space and the methodology has shown its

  11. A new earthquake catalogue for seismic hazard assessment of the NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia, site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysel, Robert; Kristek, Jozef; Moczo, Peter; Csicsay, Kristian; Cipciar, Andrej; Srbecky, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    According to the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Safety Guide No. SSG-9, an earthquake catalogue should comprise all information on pre-historical, historical and seismometrically recorded earthquakes in the region which should cover geographic area not smaller than a circle with radius of 300 km around the site. Jaslovske Bohunice is an important economic site. Several nuclear facilities are located in Jaslovske Bohunice - either in operation (NPP V2, national radioactive waste repository) or in decommissioning (NPP A1, NPP V1). Moreover, a new reactor unit is being planned for the site. Jaslovske Bohunice site is not far from the Dobra Voda seismic source zone which has been the most active seismic zone at territory of Slovakia since the beginning of 20th century. Relatively small distances to Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovak capital Bratislava make the site a prominent priority in terms of seismic hazard assessment. We compiled a new earthquake catalogue for the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice region following the recommendations of the IAEA Safety Guide. The region includes parts of the territories of Slovakia, Hungary, Austria, the Czech Republic and Poland, and it partly extends up to Germany, Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The catalogue is based on data from six national earthquake catalogues, two regional earthquake catalogues (ACORN, CENEC) and a catalogue from the local NPP network. The primarily compiled catalogue for the time period 350 - 2011 consists of 9 142 events. We then homogenized and declustered the catalogue. Eventually we checked the catalogue for time completeness. For homogenization, we divided the catalogue into preseismometric (350 - 1900) and seismometric (1901-2011) periods. For earthquakes characterized by the epicentral intensity and local magnitude we adopted relations proposed for homogenization of the CENEC catalogue (Grünthal et al. 2009). Instead of assuming the equivalency between local magnitudes reported by the

  12. Elemental and mineral inventory of tailing impoundments near Pezinok, Slovakia and possible courses of action for their remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majzlan, Juraj; Brecht, Björn; Lalinská, Bronislava; Chovan, Martin; Moravanský, Daniel; Uhlík, Peter

    2010-01-01

    An effective remediation strategy for a polluted site should take the absolute amount of the pollutant(s) into account. Here, we present an elemental budget for As, Sb and Fe in two tailing impoundments of the former Sb-Au deposit near Pezinok, Slovakia. The two impoundments contain 5,740×103 kg As, 6,360×103 kg Sb and 50,105×103 kg Fe. An estimated total Au content in the impoundments is 132 kg. The most abundant minerals in the tailings are quartz, illite, and chlorite. The content of carbonates in the tailings is 3.5-10.5 wt% calcite equivalent and we estimate that the carbonates are sufficiently abundant to buffer the pH at circumneutral values, up to the point when all pyrite decomposes. The possible courses of action are i) do nothing, ii) build an active barrier to capture the released As and Sb, iii) isolate the impoundments from rain and ground water and iv) use the impoundments as a source of Sb and redeposit the waste in a safer form. The simplest approach is to do nothing, which seems to be the most likely course of events, given the current economic, political and societal state of the Slovak Republic. Although this action costs nothing in the short term, it may cause significant damage to the environment, especially to the alluvial sediments and associated water resources in the long term.

  13. Stability of kaolin sand from the Vyšný Petrovec deposit (south Slovakia) in an acid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Pentrák; Jana, Madejová; Slávka, Andrejkovičová; Peter, Uhlík; Peter, Komadel

    2012-12-01

    Comprehensive characterization of kaolin sand from the Vyšný Petrovec (VP) deposit in Slovakia by a variety of experimental methods was performed. The quantitative XRD analysis (RockJock software) revealed that the acid-untreated sample contained mainly kaolinite (~60 wt. %), a considerable amount of dioctahedral micas (~32 wt. %) and quartz (~ 7 wt. %). The Hinckley index (HI) and Aparicio-Galán-Ferrel index (AGFI) calculated from the 02l and 11l reflections showed medium-defect kaolinite to be present in the VP kaolin. The influence of the mineral composition of VP kaolin on its stability in 6 mol · dm-3 HCl at 95 °C was investigated. The solid reaction products were examined by chemical analysis; XRD and infrared spectroscopy in both middle (MIR) and near (NIR) regions. Considerably higher dissolution rate of Fe compared to Al indicated that Fe was bounded in a readily soluble phase rather than in kaolinite. While the MIR spectra confirmed the gradual release of the central atoms from the clay minerals layers and creation of amorphous silica upon acid treatment, the NIR spectra revealed the formation of Si-OH groups in the solid reaction product. Relatively high dissolution rate of VP kaolin resulted from the presence of small-grains of mediumdefect kaolinite and clay admixtures in VP kaolin sand.

  14. Taphonomy and diversity of Middle Miocene decapod crustaceans from the Novohrad-Nógrad Basin, Slovakia, with remarks on palaeobiography

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš; Hudáčková, Natália; Szalma, Štefan

    2016-01-01

    Decapod crustacean assemblages from the Middle Miocene (lower ‘Badenian’=Langhian) volcanoclastic Plášťovce Beds (Sebechleby Formation) in the Slovakian part of the Novohrad-Nógrad Basin comprise five species in five families (Callianassidae, Laomediidae, Munididae, Cancridae and Retroplumidae) and are dominated by the cancrid crab Tasadia carniolica (Bittner, 1884). Munida sp. constitutes the first record of this genus from Slovakia and the second from the European Neogene. Burrowing shrimp (Jaxea kuemeli Bachmayer, 1954) are associated with burrows tentatively attributed to this species. The occurrence of Retropluma slovenica Gašparič & Hyžný, 2014, previously recorded from the Lower Miocene of Slovenia, extends both the geographical distribution and stratigraphical range of the species. Differential decapod diversity at four localities in the Plášťovce area can be explained by collecting bias and palaeoenvironmental factors. The palaeosetting is interpreted as a muddy-bottom, nearshore zone with a water depth of approximately 100 m. Abundant articulated crabs suggest rapid burial. Third maxillipeds in open posture in some specimens may indicate respiratory stress of the animals, suggesting episodic events of rapid volcanoclastic flows responsible for killing crabs and promoting their preservation. Species composition of the decapod fauna of the Plášťovce Beds further strengthens similarities with Miocene faunas from the North Sea Basin. PMID:27499675

  15. Comparison of the performance of hydrological flow routing methods used for flow forecasting on the Morava River in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spál, Peter; Danáčová, Michaela; Úrek, Peter Å.; Szolgay, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Beside numerical hydraulic models, as a rational alternative to hydraulic routing, models belonging to the class of non-storage routing methods and conceptual hydrological models are still in operational use in Slovakia. In this contribution the forecasting performance of several hydrologic routing models was compared. First two alternatives to standard non-storage routing on the Morava River were tested. In these both governing relationships (the relationship between the travel time of flood peaks and discharge and the relationship between upstream and downstream peak discharges) were modelled by empirical engineering estimates, multiple linear regression and artificial neural networks. The relationships between flood peak travel times and discharge were also used as indicators for the change of the travel time parameter of the Kalinin Miljukov flood routing model with discharge. In this model the model travel-time parameter vs. discharge relationship was also assessed by optimisation of the model performance with the help of a genetic algorithm. The performance of the models was compared against existing approaches used in practice near simulated environment. The results showed that the inclusion of empirical information on the variability of the travel-time with discharge into all models enabled the prediction of flood propagation with satisfactory accuracy.

  16. RADIATION EXPOSURE OF THE POPULATION FROM 222Rn AND OTHER NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES AROUND MOCHOVCE NUCLEAR POWER PLANT, SLOVAKIA.

    PubMed

    Bulko, Martin; Holý, Karol; Pohronská, Žofia; Mullerová, Monika; Böhm, Radoslav; Holá, Ol'ga

    2017-09-18

    In this article, the effective dose to the population from natural sources of ionizing radiation in the vicinity of Mochovce nuclear power plant in Slovakia is presented. All major contributions to the effective dose were taken into account, including the contributions from gamma radiation of soil and rocks, cosmic radiation, and indoor and outdoor radon and thoron. On the basis of recent indoor radon measurements in Slovak cities and publicly available data about radon concentration in the soil air, a roughly linear relationship was found between these variables. Consequently, the annual effective dose from indoor radon and thoron was conservatively estimated. For the area of interest, a map of conservatively estimated potential effective doses was created. For the villages in the vicinity of Mochovce, the conservatively estimated effective dose to the population from natural sources ranged from 5.4 to 14.6 mSv, which is four orders of magnitude higher than the contribution of radioactive discharges from Mochovce nuclear power plant. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Lower Viral Response to Pegylated Interferon Alpha 2a Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B in Roma People in Eastern Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Drazilova, Sylvia; Janicko, Martin; Kristian, Pavol; Schreter, Ivan; Kucinsky, Branislav; Kozlej, Marek; Hockickova, Ivana; Jarcuska, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the compliance and virological response to pegylated interferon alpha 2a treatment of chronic hepatitis B in Roma population compared to majority Caucasian population in Slovakia. Methods. Retrospective evaluation of a cohort of all Roma patients treated with pegylated interferon alpha 2a from 2007 to 2013 in 3 centers for treatment of chronic viral hepatitis B. The Study included 43 Roma patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and randomly selected control group. Treatment duration was 48 weeks. Viral response was evaluated after 24 weeks, at the end of treatment, and 24 weeks after the end of treatment. Results. Complete treatment course was finished by 79.1% of Roma patients compared to all patients from the control group (p = 0.0009). There was a tendency toward lower viral response rate in Roma at all time points; however significant difference was only at end of treatment viral response (51.2% Roma versus 81.4% majority, p = 0.003). We also did not find significant difference at the rate of HBsAg loss. Conclusion. Roma patients with chronic hepatitis B have significantly worse compliance to treatment with pegylated interferon and they have significantly lower rate of end of treatment viral response. PMID:26858755

  18. Is the cardiovascular risk profile of people living in Roma settlements worse in comparison with the majority population in Slovakia?

    PubMed

    Babinska, Ingrid; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Bobakova, Daniela; Pella, Daniel; Panico, Salvatore; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Jarcuska, Peter; Jarcuska, Pavol; Zezula, Ivan; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova

    2013-06-01

    Roma constitute a large minority in several Central European countries, with a mostly disadvantaged societal and health position. The aim of this study was to assess biological and other cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in people living in Roma settlements and to compare them with non-Roma. We used data from the cross-sectional Hepa-Meta study conducted in Slovakia. The sample consisted of 452 Roma (mean age = 34.7, 35.2 % men) and 403 non-Roma (mean age = 33.5, 45.9 % men). The effect of ethnicity was analysed using logistic regression adjusted for age and stratified by gender. Roma were more likely to have obesity, low HDL cholesterol, normal total cholesterol, and to smoke than non-Roma. Moreover, Roma women were more likely to have abdominal obesity and Roma men to have normal LDL cholesterol than non-Roma. No significant differences by ethnicity were found regarding hypertriglyceridaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension. Our study confirmed higher rates of some CVD risk factors in Roma compared with non-Roma. Our findings call for interventions aiming at decreasing CVD risks and improving health literacy among Roma, to reduce CVD morbidity and premature mortality.

  19. Decrease in air pollution load in urban environment of Bratislava (Slovakia) inferred from accumulation of metal elements in lichens.

    PubMed

    Guttová, Anna; Lackovičová, Anna; Pišút, Ivan; Pišút, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The study illustrates the response of epiphytic lichens to changing atmospheric conditions in Central Europe, where the emission of air pollutants has significantly decreased from 1990, in the area in and around Bratislava City. Variation in concentrations of seven metal elements (Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the thalli of Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Parmelia sulcata is assessed. Samples of these species were exposed in lichen bags in 39 sites throughout the territory of the city (more than 300 km(2)) during the period December 2006-February 2007. The samples were analyzed by AAS for metal element contents prior to and after exposure. The decrease in air pollution (for all studied elements by more than 90%) corresponded to a decrease in the accumulation of elements in lichen thalli, e.g. the contents of Pb decreased by 69% and of Cd by 34% on average. The results show also variations in accumulation between with different lichen species. The background values of metal element contents in thalli of H. physodes growing in situ were measured in semi-natural sites in Slovakia. It is suggested that these can be used as a reference in large-scale monitoring studies in Central Europe. Analysis of compatible data from the current study, and the study performed at the end of 1990s shows a significant decrease of metal elements in the air pollution load.

  20. Pilot study of seasonal occurrence and distribution of antibiotics and drug resistant bacteria in wastewater treatment plants in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Birošová, Lucia; Mackulak, Tomáš; Bodík, Igor; Ryba, Jozef; Škubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman

    2014-08-15

    This work presents environmental and quality-control data from the analyses of 33 antibiotics in influent and effluent water from two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the capital and the biggest city of Slovakia. Seeing that consumption of antibiotics depends on epidemiological season, samples were collected during February and August. Among assessed antibiotics ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin were detected in highest concentrations in influent water. Seasonal changes were observed only in plant A when antibiotic concentrations decreased. On the other hand an increase in some cases was observed in plant B. Insufficient degradation of some macrolides, sulfonamides and trimethoprim was detected according to their higher concentrations in effluent water. Contact of antibiotics in subinhibitory concentrations and sludge bacteria in WWTPs represent the base for the development of significant levels of microbial resistance. Simultaneously, antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci from sewage sludge was evaluated. Majority of coliform bacteria were found to be resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin. A significant seasonal difference was determined only in case of high-level resistance. In summer samples, an increase in the strains resistant to concentrations higher than the resistance breakpoints established by EUCAST and NCCLS was observed. No antibiotic resistance in streptococci was observed. However, as a part of sewage sludge is mixed with compost and utilized in agriculture, better processing of sludge should be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of the molecular and biological variability of zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates from Slovakia and Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Glasa, Miroslav; Svoboda, Jirí; Nováková, Slavomíra

    2007-10-01

    The diversity of ZYMV isolates was analysed by the biological and molecular characterisation of 11 isolates sampled from cucumber, squash and zucchini between 2001 and 2006 in various localities of Slovakia and Czech Republic. Analysis of the molecular variability targeting three separate genomic regions of the ZYMV genome [P1, P3 and (Cter)NIb-(Nter)CP] revealed a remarkable low level of nucleotide variability between isolates, despite their temporal and spatial distinction. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 5'-terminal part of the CP gene highlighted the close relatedness of Slovak, Czech and other central European isolates. Low level of genetic diversity within central European ZYMV isolates is in contrast to the diversity observed for isolates from other geographical regions, in particular Asia. No evidence of recombination in the ZYMV genome was detected. Sequence comparison between aggressive and moderate ZYMV isolates revealed one amino acid difference in the N-terminal part of the P3 protein, potentially involved in the tolerance breaking.

  2. Publication of PWV and ZTD time series and models of PWV and nPWV over Slovakia and vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igondova, Miroslava; Hefty, Jan; Cibulka, Dusan

    2010-05-01

    More than 50 permanent GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations are processed continually within the Central European Permanent Network at the Slovak University of Technology, Department of Theoretical Geodesy. Zenith Total Delay (ZTD), one of the processing outputs, reflects delay of the GNSS signal caused by troposphere. Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV) is calculated if ground meteorological observations are available. Model of PWV over Slovakia and vicinity is produced using digital terrain model data for height correction in grid points. Real variation of PWV over the area shows model of normalized PWV (nPWV) created from PWV values reduced by theoretical PWV value corresponding to altitude and latitude of the station. Mathematical background for computing PWV and nPWV models will be presented. All computations on the way from discrete ZTD values to PWV time series and models are realized using Perl scripts. Time series of ZTD and PWV since 1996 and models of PWV and nPWV are published on the server freely available in the internet using Web Map Service, PHP, JavaScript and other web technologies. All the data are available in one hour interval. Data are continually updated and can be downloaded for scientific applications.

  3. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and Agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria) as Indicators of Geogenic Contamination of Flysch Soils in Eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Čurlík, Ján; Kolesár, Martin; Ďurža, Ondrej; Hiller, Edgar

    2016-04-01

    Contents of potentially toxic elements Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, V, Cu, and Mo were determined in common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria) to show their usefulness as bioindicators of geogenic soil pollution. Both plants were collected on geochemically anomalous soils developed on flysch sedimentary rocks (Paleogene) of Eastern Slovakia, which also are composed of weathered detritus of some ultramafic rocks. Generally, contents of the investigated association of potentially toxic elements are highly increased in these "serpentine"-like soils. Elevated concentrations were detected in both shoots and roots of the plants. The highest values, which exceed world average values for plants, were observed for Ni content. They ranged from 1.7 to 16.3 mg kg(-1) in dandelion and from 1.6 to 22.6 mg kg(-1) in agrimony. Essential elements, such as Mo, Cu, and Mn, were the most concentrated in plants, whereas Co, V, and Cr were the least concentrated. Although the bioindication value of the common dandelion for anthropogenic soil pollution is well known, it is not mentioned for agrimony in literature, and no data exist to indicate the geogenic pollution for both plants. Dandelion and agrimony are widely used as herbal drugs; therefore, our intention also was to point out another fact, namely, possible high uptake of potentially toxic elements by herbal plants growing on similar soils.

  4. Pilot Cross-Sectional Study of Three Zoonoses (Lyme Disease, Tularaemia, Leptospirosis) among Healthy Blood Donors in Eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Zákutná, Ľubica; Dorko, Erik; Rimárová, Kvetoslava; Kizeková, Marianna

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of three zoonotic infections among healthy blood donors/volunteers in Eastern Slovakia. Sera from 124 blood donors were investigated for the presence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Francisella tularensis and Leptospira pomona. The participants also completed the questionnaire about demographic, exposure and epidemiological characteristics. Two serological methods were used for the diagnosis: the enzyme linked protein A/G assay (ELPAGA) and the Western blot (WB). First, sera were screened by ELPAGA (except for leptospirosis). The observed seroprevalence was 15% for Lyme borreliosis (LB) and 4% for tularaemia (TUL). The results were confirmed by WB. Positive IgG antibodies (WB method) were detected only in 1.6% of examined for LB and 0.8% for TUL. Our results did not identify any antibodies against Leptospira pomona agent in the examined healthy blood donors group. ELPAGA seroprevalence for TUL was significantly higher in blood donors working in the agricultural area in the direct contact with hay, straw, manure, and agricultural land. Our outputs determine tick bite as a significant risk factor for LB. The study confirms the explosion of tick-borne diseases in the healthy population of people. The exposure risk for leptospirosis seems to be minimal. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  5. Pre-eruptive volatile content of mafic magma from the 2.0-1.7 ka Castle Creek eruptive period, Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, J.; Wallace, P. J.; Clynne, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Among global convergent margins, the Cascade arc (Pacific Northwest, North America) has an atypically warm thermal profile due to the young age of the subducting ocean crust (≤10 Ma) and slow rate of subduction (3.5 cm/yr) in this region. Slab dehydration is thus expected to occur at relatively shallow subduction depths, resulting in high fluid fluxes in the mantle wedge below the forearc, with minimal addition of volatiles directly beneath the main volcanic front. Across-arc trends in magmatic volatiles should be most visible within particularly wide (E-W) portions of the active volcanic arc, such as are observed in Southern Washington, Central Oregon, and Northern California. As part of an ongoing study aimed at constraining variations in magmatic volatiles using monogenetic cinder cones across the Southern Washington Cascades, we analyzed the H2O and CO2 contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in basaltic scoria (Bu tephra) from the Castle Creek eruptive period (2.0-1.7 ka) of Mount St. Helens (MSH). The defining feature of this period is the first appearance of mafic magma at the surface, which initiated the modern Mount St. Helens and its variety of rock compositions (Mullineaux, 1996). Andesite, dacite, and basalt all were erupted during Castle Creek time, producing pyroclastic flows, surges, and tephra as well as lava flows. Our initial results show pre-eruptive H2O contents of 0.4-1.3 wt. % H2O and CO2 values that are below detection (<25-50 ppm). The morphology of the olivine crystals and their melt inclusions indicate relatively rapid crystallization. Given the low CO2 values, we conclude that the melt inclusions trapped partially degassed melts at relatively low pressure in a volcanic conduit or shallow storage reservoir. MSH represents the western extent of a stretch of volcanism extending ~100 km to the east; MSH magmas are thus expected to have high volatile contents relative to the other volcanic centers at this latitude.

  6. Does the population living in Roma settlements differ in physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption from the majority population in Slovakia?

    PubMed

    Babinská, Ingrid; Gecková, Andrea Madarasová; Jarcuska, Peter; Pella, Daniel; Mareková, Mária; Stefková, Gabriela; Veselská, Zuzana Dankulincová

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have revealed a high prevalence of risk factors associated with unhealthy lifestyle among individuals with lower socioeconomic status. In Slovakia, one of the most socially and health-disadvantaged groups is the Roma minority. The aim of this study is to explore differences in physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population in Slovakia. Data from the cross-sectional epidemiological HepaMeta study conducted in Slovakia in 2011 were used. The sample consisted of 452 Roma (mean age = 34.7; 35.2% men) and 403 non-Roma (mean age = 33.5; 45.9% men) respondents. The differences in health-related behaviour between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population were analysed using logistic models separately for males and females. These data show a clear difference between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population with regard to leisure-time physical activity (only in women) and smoking, although not alcohol consumption. The prevalence of leisure-time physical activities such as walking or some other type of sport was significantly lower among Roma women than among non-Roma women. Men and women living in Roma settlements are more likely to smoke on a daily basis and they are heavier smokers in comparison with the majority population. HepaMeta study did not find differences in alcohol consumption between the Roma and non-Roma men. However, Roma women reported less frequent recent drinking and binge-drinking of 6 or more doses of alcohol on a single occasion. The higher prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle activities among Roma seem to contribute to these inequalities in cardiovascular diseases morbidity and mortality in comparison with the majority population.

  7. Molecular detection of co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or Babesia canis canis in Dirofilaria-positive dogs from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Víchová, Bronislava; Miterpáková, Martina; Iglódyová, Adriana

    2014-06-16

    Recently, several arthropod-borne infections have been introduced into previously non-endemic regions in Europe as the result of various global changes. At the same time, endemic regions are expanding and the risk of co-infections is rising, due to climate change that allows vectors to move and spread infectious diseases into new areas. The aim of the current study was to confirm simultaneous infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or Babesia canis canis in Dirofilaria-infected dogs from Slovakia, central Europe. Genomic DNA was isolated from 366 blood samples of microfilaraemic dogs without clinical signs of infection. Samples were further screened for the presence of canine tick-borne pathogens using PCR and sequencing. This survey revealed co-infection with four arthropod-borne pathogens, in particular, Dirofilaria repens, Dirofilaria immitis, A. phagocytophilum, and B. canis canis. While D. repens, responsible for canine subcutaneous dirofilariosis, is scattered through the whole territory of the country, D. immitis occurs only in endemic areas of southeastern and southwestern Slovakia in mixed infection with D. repens. Co-infection with A. phagocytophilum was reported in 3.27% of the dogs positive for D. repens; mixed infection with D. repens and B. canis canis was detected in 3.55% of the tested blood samples. Eastern Slovak Lowland represents a natural focus of B. canis canis and is a highly endemic area for canine dirofilariosis. The presence of triple infection with D. repens, A. phagocytophilum, and B. canis canis was detected in one dog originating from the eastern lowland region of Slovakia. This study highlights the importance of co-infected, clinically healthy dogs in the spreading of several different arthropod-borne pathogens and the necessity for detailed epidemiological surveys, especially in newly infested areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Occupational dermatoses caused by contact with metalworking fluids in the region of central slovakia from 2000 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Urbanček, Slavomir; Kuklová-Bieliková, Marianna; Fetisovová, Želmira; Klimentová, Gabriela; Vilček, Rober

    2014-01-01

    Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are a common cause of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. MWFs being currently used are mostly water based, containing biocides, emulsifiers, and other additives. We performed a retrospective analysis of the etiology of the occupational dermatoses caused by metalworking fluids in three regions of Central Slovakia (population of approximately 2 million) between 2000 and 2012. The primary aim was the analysis of metalworking fluid-induced dermatoses, which involved determining the particular disease type (allergic or irritant), its regional distribution, and the specific chemical causing the disease. The secondary aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge and competence among dermatologists in performing patch testing for allergens contained in metalworking fluids using a study-specific questionnaire. Of the total number of 422 dermatoses during the analyzed period, 64 (41 in men and 23 in women) were caused by metalworking fluids. The implicated fluids were all aqueous, synthetic MWFs. 39 patients developed an allergic and 25 an irritant-induced contact dermatitis. 51 patients were tested using a special Trolab® metalworking battery (Almirall Hermal GmbH, Reinbek, Germany). The test identified a positive reaction to one of the following chemicals: methylchoroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), formaldehyde, 1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one, abietic acid, chloroxylenol, triclosan, amerchol L101, dichlorophene, propylenglycol, metylene (bis-methyl oxazolidine), monoethanolamine, and diethanolamine. The questionnaire showed that a large majority of Slovak dermatologists have no experiences with testing of MWFs. Metalworking fluids were found to be the most frequent cause of occupational contact dermatitis. They also are the second largest group of all occupational dermotoses. Their incidence corresponded with the presence of machine industry in the region. Several unresolved problems include detection of specific

  9. Long-term trend and multi-annual variability of water temperature in the pristine Bela River basin (Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekárová, Pavla; Miklánek, Pavol; Halmová, Dana; Onderka, Milan; Pekár, Ján; Kučárová, Katarína; Liová, Soňa; Škoda, Peter

    2011-04-01

    SummaryBiological processes in surface waters appreciably depend on temperature of water. This paper summarizes our investigations of water temperature in the Bela River. The Bela River is a mountainous stream not influenced by direct human activities, draining the headwaters of the Vah River basin in the Tatra National Park (TANAP), Slovakia. Our primary aim was to identify the long-term trends and multi-annual variability of the annual water temperature at the Podbanske gauging station, using temperature readings taken at 7.00 am for the period of 50 years (1959-2008). Long-term mean of the annual water temperature of the Bela River at the Podbanske gauging station (922 m a.s.l.) was 4.2 °C, the air temperature at Podbanske meteorological station (972 m a.s.l.) was 5.0 °C. Both, air and water temperature, show an increasing trend. While the air temperature within 50-years increased significantly by 1.5 °C, in the case of water temperature this increase was merely by 0.12 °C. On November 19, 2004, a wind-throw brushed the investigated area with an aftermath of 15.4% destroyed forest in the Bela basin, mainly along the area adjacent to the river. Therefore, in the second part of the study, the impact of the riparian vegetation growing along the river banks was evaluated for two distinctive periods, i.e. the period prior and after the wind-throw. We statistically analysed the changes in water temperature on 6-year time series of daily water temperature (November 2001 through November 2007). The results presented herein may be useful for defining boundary values for surface water temperature, as required by the EC Water Framework Directive.

  10. Does the influence of peers and parents on adolescents' drunkenness differ between Roma and non-Roma adolescents in Slovakia?

    PubMed

    Bobakova, Daniela; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Klein, Daniel; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2012-01-01

    Roma adolescents have been shown to use less alcohol than non-Roma adolescents. This could be due to the protective influences of peers and parents. The purpose of this study was to explore differences in the levels of peer and parental influence and their effects on drunkenness between Roma and non-Roma adolescents. Data were obtained in Eastern Slovakia from 330 Roma (mean age=14.50; 48.5% boys) and 722 non-Roma (mean age=14.86; 53.2% boys) primary school pupils. We analysed data on adolescent drunkenness (being drunk at least once in the past four weeks), parental monitoring (parents knowing with whom their children are when they go out) and peer influence (best friend drinking alcohol at least once a week) using logistic regression. Roma adolescents self-reported more parental monitoring and less peer influence when compared with their non-Roma counterparts (p<0.001). Less parental monitoring contributed to the probability of drunkenness only among girls (OR/CI: 4.17/2.00-8.69). This effect of parental monitoring was not modified by ethnicity. Peer influence affected drunkenness in both boys (OR/CI: 3.34/1.91-5.85) and girls (4.84/2.55-9.19), but there was no significant interaction of ethnicity with peer influence. While both boys and girls seem to be sensitive to peer influence, only girls appear to be sensitive to parental monitoring in regard to drunkenness. Stronger parental monitoring and weaker peer influence partially explain the lower prevalence of drunkenness among Roma adolescents, whereas the effects of these factors per level do not vary between Roma and non-Roma adolescents.

  11. The mediating effect of discrimination, social support and hopelessness on self-rated health of Roma adolescents in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Van Dijk, Jitse P

    2015-11-19

    According to the EU-MIDIS report on discrimination, Roma are the most discriminated against group in Europe. Research suggests that experiencing discrimination may itself be detrimental to health. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether discrimination, hopelessness and social support mediate differences in self-rated health (SRH) between Roma and non-Roma adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study among Roma from separated and segregated settlements in the eastern part of Slovakia (N = 330; mean age = 14.50; interview) and non-Roma adolescents (N = 722; mean age = 14.86; questionnaire); only non-missing data were used for analyses (n = 759). The effect of perceived discrimination, mother and father social support, and hopelessness on SRH was analysed as crude and adjusted for ethnicity, age, gender, parental education and social desirability. Mediating effects were separately assessed using the Sobel test and structural equation modelling. Roma adolescents reported poorer SRH and more discrimination, mother and father social support, hopelessness and social desirability. Roma ethnicity (Odds ratio/95 %-Confidence interval 3.27/2.40-4.47), discrimination (2.66/1.82-3.88), hopelessness (1.35/1.20-1.51) and mother (0.92/0.88-0.97) and father social support (0.96/0.93 - 0.997) were statistically significant predictors of poor SRH. Perceived discrimination, social support and hopelessness mediated the ethnicity-health association, with adjustment for social support increasing its strength and the other two variables decreasing it. Perceived discrimination, social support and hopelessness mediate a part of the association between Roma ethnicity and poor SRH, with discrimination and hopelessness being risk factors and social support a protective factor.

  12. Assessment of clinical biochemical parameters in Roma minority residing in eastern Slovakia compared with the majority population.

    PubMed

    Hubková, Beáta; Maslanková, Jana; Stupák, Marek; Guzy, Juraj; Kovácová, Anna; Pella, Daniel; Jarcuska, Peter; Mareková, Mária

    2014-03-01

    Roma constitute the largest ethnic minority in Europe and the second largest minority in Slovakia. Their health problems originate mainly from their low socioeconomic status, certain cultural aspects and their health-threatening lifestyle as well as the psycho-social burden arising from poverty and frequent migration. Evaluation of glucose, albumin, triacylglycerol (TAG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations did not reveal any clue about the presumed deteriorated health of the Roma population. Higher proportions of subjects with elevated serum total cholesterol were found in Roma women as compared to both control groups of women (p = 0.027, p = 0.006) and in Roma men as compared to the male control group living in standard conditions. Only the low level of HDL-cholesterol gives a glimpse of their deteriorated health. Significantly lower levels of serum HDL-C were reported in Roma men and women compared to the respondents in both control groups with a p value of p < 0.001. Comparing the ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C yielded significant differences between the number of physiological values in Roma men and men from the control group 1 (p = 0.022) in favour of the control group. When comparing the number of people with physiological values of cholesterols and with worsening TAG parameters at the same time, the increased risk of Roma men compared with men from the control group 1 became evident, with a level of significance of p = 0.023. Evaluation of urine samples pointed to significantly higher concentrations of urinary protein in Roma women compared with women in the control group 1 (p = 0.012).

  13. Long-range transported atmospheric pollutants in snowpacks accumulated at different altitudes in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Arellano, Lourdes; Fernández, Pilar; Tatosova, Jolana; Stuchlik, Evzen; Grimalt, Joan O

    2011-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), endosulfans, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were analyzed in snowpack samples collected along an altitudinal gradient (1683-2634 meters above sea level) in the High Tatra Mountains (Slovakia). All analyzed compounds were found at all altitudes, pointing to their global distribution. The presence of PBDEs, particularly BDE 209, in the snowpack samples is especially relevant, as it reflects the air transport capacity of this low volatile, very hydrophobic pollutant to remote mountain regions. The most abundant compounds at all altitudes were PAHs, with mean values ranging from 90 to 300 ngL(-1), 1 order of magnitude higher than concentrations of other compounds. PCBs (sum of PCB 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138, and 180) and BDE 209 were the dominant organohalogen pollutants, with concentrations from 550 to 1600 pg L(-1) and from 670 to 2000 pgL(-1), respectively. Low brominated PBDEs, endosulfans, HCHs and HCB were consistently found in all samples at lower concentrations. The concentrations of these compounds correlated positively with altitude (i.e., negatively with temperature), which is consistent with cold-trapping effects. The regression coefficients were positive and statistically significant (p < 0.05) for all compounds except BDE 209, endosulfan sulfate, HCB and α-HCH. Contrariwise, the concentrations of BDE 209 and endosulfan sulfate exhibited a statistically significant positive correlation with total particle amount, which agrees with long-range atmospheric transport associated to aerosols according to the physical-chemical properties of these compounds. Snow specific surface area, which determines the maximum amount of each organic compound that can be sorbed by snow, proved utile for describing the distribution of the more volatile compounds, namely α-HCB and HCB, in the snowpack.

  14. The first finding of Neospora caninum and the occurrence of other abortifacient agents in sheep in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Spilovská, S; Reiterová, K; Kovácová, D; Bobáková, M; Dubinský, P

    2009-10-14

    Neosporosis is an infection of animals caused by an intracellular coccidian parasite, Neospora caninum, closely related to Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite is one of important abortifacient agents of bovine abortions worldwide. The aim of the study was to detect the prevalence of anti-Neospora antibodies in dairy aborting sheep from two eastern Slovak regions and to compare it with the occurrence of other potential abortifacient agents. Sera of 382 sheep, mainly the Improved Valachian and Merino breed, were tested for the presence of anti-Neospora and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies by ELISA, anti-Leptospira sp. by micro-agglutination-assay and anti-Chlamydophila antibodies using the complement fixation test. The mean seroprevalence of N. caninum was 3.7% and of T. gondii, 24.3%. This phenomenon of higher susceptibility of sheep to T. gondii is in the opposite of N. caninum infection in cattle. Anti-Leptospira antibodies were observed in 2.9% of serum samples with titres from 800 to 1600, whereas IgG antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus were found in 13.6% with titres from 64 to 1024. Half of N. caninum positive sera were simultaneously positive for T. gondii and one sample for C. abortus. From examined abortifacient agents the most important, from the frequency point of view, were toxoplasmosis (24.3%) and chlamydiosis (13.6%). No significant association between the frequencies of the abortions and mean seroprevalence of the abortifacient agents in Kosice region was determined. Likewise, no significant differences between the mean seroprevalence of neosporosis and toxoplasmosis in the two regions were detected. The first survey of neosporosis in aborting sheep from eastern Slovakia revealed a low prevalence resulting in a lower impact on reproduction losses in these small ruminants.

  15. Influence of benomyl and prometryn on the soil microbial activities and community structures in pasture grasslands of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Javoreková, Sona; Svrceková, Ivana; Maková, Jana

    2010-10-01

    The effects of pesticides (a herbicide and a fungicide) on the microbial community structure and their activity were analyzed in soil from four alpine pasture grasslands in Slovakia. Specifically, the effects of the herbicide, Gesagard (prometryn active ingredient), and fungicide, Fundazol 50 WP (benomyl active ingredient), on the microbial respiration activity (CO2 production), the numbers of selective microbial physiological groups (CFU.g(-1)) and the structure (relative abundance) of soil microbial communities [(phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA)] were analyzed under controlled laboratory conditions. All treatments including the treatments with pesticides increased (statistically significantly) the production of CO2 in all fields during 21 days of incubation and posed a statistically insignificant negative influence on the numbers of the observed physiological groups of microorganisms. The significantly negative influence was evaluated only in the numbers of two physiological groups; spores of bacteria utilizing organic nitrogen and bacteria, and their spores utilizing inorganic nitrogen. A shift in the microbial composition was evident when the PLFA patterns of samples from different sites and treatments were compared by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). According to the second component PCA 2 (15.95 %) the locations were grouped into two clusters. The first one involved the Donovaly and Dubakovo sites and the second one contained the Velka Fatra and Mala Fatra locations. The PLFA composition of the soils showed important changes after the treatment with pesticides according to PCA 1 (66.06 %). Other treatments had not had a significant effect on the soil microbial community with the exception of the population of fungi. The lower relative abundance (significant effect) of Gram-positive bacteria, actinomycetes and general group of bacteria were determined in samples treated by the herbicide Gesagard. The application of fungicide Fundazol decreased

  16. The natural infection of birds and ticks feeding on birds with Rickettsia spp. and Coxiella burnetii in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Berthová, Lenka; Slobodník, Vladimír; Slobodník, Roman; Olekšák, Milan; Sekeyová, Zuzana; Svitálková, Zuzana; Kazimírová, Mária; Špitalská, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are known as primary vectors of many pathogens causing diseases in humans and animals. Ixodes ricinus is a common ectoparasite in Europe and birds are often hosts of subadult stages of the tick. From 2012 to 2013, 347 birds belonging to 43 species were caught and examined for ticks in three sites of Slovakia. Ticks and blood samples from birds were analysed individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and Coxiella burnetii by PCR-based methods. Only I. ricinus was found to infest birds. In total 594 specimens of bird-attached ticks were collected (451 larvae, 142 nymphs, 1 female). Altogether 37.2% (16/43) of bird species were infested by ticks and some birds carried more than one tick. The great tit, Parus major (83.8%, 31/37) was the most infested species. In total, 6.6 and 2.7% of bird-attached ticks were infected with Rickettsia spp. and C. burnetii, respectively. Rickettsia helvetica predominated (5.9%), whereas R. monacensis (0.5%) was only sporadically detected. Coxiella burnetii was detected in 0.9%, Rickettsia spp. in 8.9% and R. helvetica in 4.2% of bird blood samples. The great tit was the bird species most infested with I. ricinus, carried R. helvetica and C. burnetti positive tick larvae and nymphs and was found to be rickettsaemic in its blood. Further studies are necessary to define the role of birds in the circulation of rickettsiae and C. burnetii in natural foci.

  17. Groundwater vulnerability assessment and validation on the example of Gömör-Torna Karst, Hungary and Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iván, Veronika; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive resource and source groundwater vulnerability assessment was carried out on a transboundary test site of the Gömör-Torna Karst (Hungary and Slovakia). The main goal of the investigation was to understand and map vulnerability in a more general hydrogeological context, taking into consideration the special characteristics of gravity-driven groundwater flow systems, i.e. the flow dynamics in the area. In order to assess vulnerability, parametric, semi-quantitative approaches were adapted, applied, compared and validated on the test area. Focusing on the usual "weak points" of the assessment (as crucial but nonetheless mainly just roughly estimated parameters), complementary investigations were carried out with diverse techniques. The characteristic clayey sediment cover may have major impact on the infiltration. Its spatial extension and role in the infiltration process were investigated by means of geophysical techniques and grain-size measurements. In order to understand the flow dynamics in the saturated zone better, results of tracer tests were analyzed. Besides that, spring hydrograph and recession curve analysis were carried out based on long-term daily spring discharge data series. The study provides an approach in order to improve the reliability of vulnerability maps. The well-studied and intensively karstified area of the Gömör-Torna Karst serves also as an appropriate example for further similar studies to find the best possible investigation and mapping strategies and thus to create comprehensive, reliable, process-based vulnerability maps. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Geogold Kárpátia Environmental Consulting Ltd and the Aggtelek National Park Directorate for involvement in the project and sharing geophysical and tracer test data.

  18. Surface and groundwater drought evaluation with respect to aquatic habitat quality in the upper Nitra River Basin in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendekova, M.; Fendek, M.; Macura, V.; Kralova, J.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrological drought is being broadly studied within last decades in many countries. It is because of increasing frequency of drought periods occurrence also in mild climate conditions, leading to unexpected and undesired consequences for environment and various spheres of the state economy. Drought affects water availability for plants, animals and human society. Natural conditions of drought occurrence are often combined with human activities strengthening drought consequences. Lack of water in the nature, connected to meteorological and hydrological drought occurrence, increases at the same time needs for surface and groundwater in many types of human activities (agriculture, industrial production, electric power generation…). Drought can be identified within the low flow phase of the flow regime. Flow regime is considered for one of the most important conditions influencing quality of the river ecosystems. Occurrence of meteorological, surface and groundwater droughts was analyzed for the upper part of the Nitra River catchment in Slovakia. Drought occurrence was studied in two gauging profiles on the Nitra River - in Klacno and Nedozery, both representing the headwater profiles. The threshold level method was used for groundwater drought analysis. Base flow values were separated from the discharge hydrograms using the HydroOffice 2010 statistical program package. The influence of surface water drought on groundwater level was analyzed. Habitat suitability curves derived according to IFIM methodology were constructed for different fish species at Nedozery profile. The influence of different low flow values from 600 to 150 L/s on fish amount, size and species variability was studied. In the end, the minimum flow, bellow which unfavourable life conditions occur, was estimated. The results showed the necessity of taking into account the ecological parameters when estimating the ecological status of surface water bodies. Such an approach is fully compatible with

  19. Inorganic Arsenic and Basal Cell Carcinoma in Areas of Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, Giovanni; Vahter, Marie; Clemens, Felicity; Goessler, Walter; Gurzau, Eugen; Hemminki, Kari; Hough, Rupert; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Kumar, Rajiv; Rudnai, Peter; Surdu, Simona

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a potent carcinogen, but there is a lack of information about cancer risk for concentrations < 100 μg/L in drinking water. Objectives: We aimed to quantify skin cancer relative risks in relation to iAs exposure < 100 μg/L and the modifying effects of iAs metabolism. Methods: The Arsenic Health Risk Assessment and Molecular Epidemiology (ASHRAM) study, a case–control study, was conducted in areas of Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia with reported presence of iAs in groundwater. Consecutively diagnosed cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin were histologically confirmed; controls were general surgery, orthopedic, and trauma patients who were frequency matched to cases by age, sex, and area of residence. Exposure indices were constructed based on information on iAs intake over the lifetime of participants. iAs metabolism status was classified based on urinary concentrations of methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Associations were estimated by multivariable logistic regression. Results: A total of 529 cases with BCC and 540 controls were recruited for the study. BCC was positively associated with three indices of iAs exposure: peak daily iAs dose rate, cumulative iAs dose, and lifetime average water iAs concentration. The adjusted odds ratio per 10-μg/L increase in average lifetime water iAs concentration was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.28). The estimated effect of iAs on cancer was stronger in participants with urinary markers indicating incomplete metabolism of iAs: higher percentage of MA in urine or a lower percentage of DMA. Conclusion: We found a positive association between BCC and exposure to iAs through drinking water with concentrations < 100 μg/L. PMID:22436128

  20. Generation of daylight reference years for two European cities with different climate: Athens, Greece and Bratislava, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markou, M. T.; Kambezidis, H. D.; Bartzokas, A.; Darula, S.; Kittler, R.

    2007-12-01

    In this work, daylight reference years (DRYs), based on daylight and solar radiation measurements, are designed for two European cities, Athens, Greece and Bratislava, Slovakia, by using the Danish method, the Festa-Ratto technique and the Modified Sandia National Laboratories methodology. The data basis consists of 5-minute values of global and diffuse horizontal illuminance, global and diffuse horizontal irradiance, zenith luminance and solar altitude as well as of daily values of sunshine duration for 5 years for Athens and 8 years for Bratislava. Moreover, Linke's turbidity factor, luminous turbidity factor and relative sunshine duration are calculated and utilized. Then, for each DRY, the predominant sky-luminance distributions over Athens and Bratislava are identified, by using the methodology of Kittler et al., who corresponded the main sky conditions to 15 theoretical sky standards in diagrams of the ratio of zenith luminance to diffuse horizontal illuminance against solar altitude. For both cities the three aforementioned methods do not create identical DRYs. Despite the differences, the sky types defined for each of the two places seem not to depend on the choice of DRY. The predominant sky standard, for all of them, is a cloudless, polluted sky with a broad solar corona for Athens and an overcast sky with slight brightening towards the sun as well as very clear sky with low atmospheric turbidity for Bratislava. However, the selection of the DRY, which represents best the daylight conditions, is necessary for studies in saving energy in buildings. The DRY, which is created by the Modified Sandia National Laboratories method, is chosen for most cases, while the one created by the Danish method is also useful on certain occasions.

  1. Prevalence of zoonotic Campylobacter spp. in rectal swabs from dogs in Slovakia: special reference to C. jejuni and C. coli.

    PubMed

    Badlík, Marián; Holoda, Emil; Pistl, Juraj; Koscová, Jana; Sihelská, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    This work focused on the isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in samples obtained from dog droppings. There were 135 samples collected and examined from both clinically healthy and diseased dogs from households, clinics, rehabilitation centres and dog shelters in eastern Slovakia. The isolation of the Campylobacter spp. was achieved by the use of combined selective cultivation methods, followed by confirmation and species identification of the isolates using the PCR method.The overall prevalence of Campylobacter in dogs was 30.4%. Statistically significant differences were recorded (P < 0.05) within the age groups of all dogs examined: 40.6% of the older dogs (> or = 1 year) tested positive, compared to 19.7% of the younger ones (< 1 year). There was no significant difference in relation to dog gender. The most frequently isolated species was Campylobacter (C.) jejuni, present in 51.2% of all positive samples. Campylobacter coli was present in 9.8% of the samples. The remaining positive samples (39%) were confirmed as C upsaliensis, based on phenotypic traits. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter was found in samples from shelters (50%) and the lowest in those from households (11.5%), with samples from rehabilitation centres (42.3%) and clinics (18.8%) coming in second and third place.The high prevalence of Campylobacter confirms the hypothesis that dogs, mainly the ones kept in groups, are a source of Campylobacter spp. Further investigation is required to determine to what extent infected dogs may be a potential source of infection in humans.

  2. ESF-EMBO Symposium "Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence" Sept 29-Oct 4, Polonia Castle Pultusk, Poland.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Beat W; Koscielniak, Ewa; Kovar, Heinrich; Fulda, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and Ewing sarcoma (ES) are among the most common pediatric sarcomas (Arndt et al., 2012). Despite sarcomas representing a highly heterogeneous group of tumors, ES and alveolar RMS (ARMS) typically share one common genetic characteristic, namely a specific chromosomal translocation (Helman and Meltzer, 2003; Lessnick and Ladanyi, 2012). These translocations generate fusion proteins, which are composed of two transcription factors (TF). Typically, one TF is a developmentally regulated factor that is essential for proper specification of a given lineage and provides the DNA-binding domain, while the partner TF contributes a transactivation domain that drives aberrant expression of target genes. Based on these common genetic characteristics, the first ESF-EMBO research conference entitled "Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence" with special focus on RMS and ES was held at the Polonia Castle in Pultusk, Poland. The conference gathered 70 participants from more than 15 countries and several continents representing most research groups that are active in this field.

  3. ESF-EMBO Symposium “Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence” Sept 29–Oct 4, Polonia Castle Pultusk, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Beat W.; Koscielniak, Ewa; Kovar, Heinrich; Fulda, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and Ewing sarcoma (ES) are among the most common pediatric sarcomas (Arndt et al., 2012). Despite sarcomas representing a highly heterogeneous group of tumors, ES and alveolar RMS (ARMS) typically share one common genetic characteristic, namely a specific chromosomal translocation (Helman and Meltzer, 2003; Lessnick and Ladanyi, 2012). These translocations generate fusion proteins, which are composed of two transcription factors (TF). Typically, one TF is a developmentally regulated factor that is essential for proper specification of a given lineage and provides the DNA-binding domain, while the partner TF contributes a transactivation domain that drives aberrant expression of target genes. Based on these common genetic characteristics, the first ESF-EMBO research conference entitled “Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence” with special focus on RMS and ES was held at the Polonia Castle in Pultusk, Poland. The conference gathered 70 participants from more than 15 countries and several continents representing most research groups that are active in this field. PMID:23761860

  4. Biosignatures in chimney structures and sediment from the Loki's Castle low-temperature hydrothermal vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, Andrea; Eickmann, Benjamin; Lang, Susan Q; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Strauss, Harald; Früh-Green, Gretchen L

    2014-05-01

    We investigated microbial life preserved in a hydrothermally inactive silica–barite chimney in comparison with an active barite chimney and sediment from the Loki's Castle low-temperature venting area at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) using lipid biomarkers. Carbon and sulfur isotopes were used to constrain possible metabolic pathways. Multiple sulfur (dδ34S, Δ33S) isotopes on barite over a cross section of the extinct chimney range between 21.1 and 22.5 % in δ34S, and between 0.020 and 0.034 % in Δ33S, indicating direct precipitation from seawater. Biomarker distributions within two discrete zones of this silica–barite chimney indicate a considerable difference in abundance and diversity of microorganisms from the chimney exterior to the interior. Lipids in the active and inactive chimney barite and sediment were dominated by a range of 13C-depleted unsaturated and branched fatty acids with δ13C values between -39.7 and -26.7 %, indicating the presence of sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The majority of lipids (99.5 %) in the extinct chimney interior that experienced high temperatures were of archaeal origin. Unusual glycerol monoalkyl glycerol tetraethers (GMGT) with 0–4 rings were the dominant compounds suggesting the presence of mainly (hyper-) thermophilic archaea. Isoprenoid hydrocarbons with δ13C values as low as -46 % also indicated the presence of methanogens and possibly methanotrophs.

  5. Effects of ground water, slope stability, and seismic hazard on the stability of the South Fork Castle Creek blockage in the Mount St. Helens Area, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, W.; Sabol, M.A.; Glicken, H.X.; Voight, B.

    1984-01-01

    South Fork Castle Creek was blocked by the debris avalanche that occurred during the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington. A lake formed behind the blockage, eventually reaching a volume of approximately 19,000 acre-feet prior to construction of a spillway - a volume sufficiently large to pose a flood hazard of unknown magnitude to downstream areas if the lake were to break out as a result of blockage failure. Breakout of lakes formed in a similar fashion is fairly common and several such events occurring in recent times have posed hazards around the world. Analyses of blockage stability included determining the effects of gravitational forces and horizontal forces induced by credible earthquakes from the Mount St. Helens seismic zone, which passes within several miles of the blockage. The blockage is stable at September 1983 water levels under static gravitational forces. If an earthquake with magnitude near 6.0 occurred with September 1983 water levels, movement on the order of 5 feet on both upstream and downstream parts of the blockage over much of its length could potentially occur. If the sliding blocks liquified, retrogressive failure could lead to lake breakout, but this is not considered to be probable. 24 refs., 25 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. A search for aquifers of sand and gravel by electrical-resistivity methods in north-central New Castle County, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spicer, H. Cecil; McCullough, Richard A.; Mack, Frederick K.

    1955-01-01

    A search for aquifers in an area immediately north of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal in New Castle, Del., has been made by an electrical resistivity study.  The search located 32 sites that may be underlain by sand and gravel. The thicker deposits are significant with respect to the occurrence of ground water, and all of them are of interest as possible sources of sand and gravel for construction purposes, such as for highway construction.  The thickness of these deposits ranges from 4.4 feet to 77 feet, and the computed resistivity for these ranges from a low of 97,800 ohm-cms to a high of 423,800 ohm-cms.  The study located with certainty one buried channel filled with sand and gravel deposits and pointed out the possibility of others that may be aquifers.  The interpretations show that a large deposit of sand and gravel is present in the eastern part of the area investigated and it is tentatively assumed that this deposit is continuous and may yield large quantities of ground water.  Places where the deposit was found to be the thickest and of high resistivity are described.

  7. Signal frequency distribution and natural-time analyses from acoustic emission monitoring of an arched structure in the Castle of Racconigi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niccolini, Gianni; Manuello, Amedeo; Marchis, Elena; Carpinteri, Alberto

    2017-07-01

    The stability of an arch as a structural element in the thermal bath of King Charles Albert (Carlo Alberto) in the Royal Castle of Racconigi (on the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1997) was assessed by the acoustic emission (AE) monitoring technique with application of classical inversion methods to recorded AE data. First, damage source location by means of triangulation techniques and signal frequency analysis were carried out. Then, the recently introduced method of natural-time analysis was preliminarily applied to the AE time series in order to reveal a possible entrance point to a critical state of the monitored structural element. Finally, possible influence of the local seismic and microseismic activity on the stability of the monitored structure was investigated. The criterion for selecting relevant earthquakes was based on the estimation of the size of earthquake preparation zones. The presented results suggest the use of the AE technique as a tool for detecting both ongoing structural damage processes and microseismic activity during preparation stages of seismic events.

  8. The frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations in Slovak and Roma (Gypsy) ethnic group of Eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Bôžiková, Alexandra; Gabriková, Dana; Sovičová, Adriana; Behulová, Regina; Mačeková, Soňa; Boroňová, Iveta; Petrejčíková, Eva; Soták, Miroslav; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Bernasovský, Ivan

    2012-10-01

    Factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A are the two most prevalent causes of inherited thrombophilia. The prevalence of these mutations varies widely in healthy Caucasian population. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations in Slovak and Roma ethnic group from Eastern Slovakia. We analyzed 540 asymptomatic individuals (269 individuals of Slovak ethnicity and 271 individuals of Roma ethnicity) by real-time PCR method. The detected allele frequencies were 2.97 versus 6.64 % for factor V Leiden (p = 0.0049), and 0.74 versus 0.92 % for prothrombin mutation (p = 0.7463) in Slovak and Roma population, respectively. The Roma ethnic group had significantly higher prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation when compared to Slovak ethnic group. The allele frequency of factor V Leiden in ethnic Romanies from Eastern Slovakia was one of the highest in Europe. Our results confirm an uneven geographical and ethnic distribution of factor V Leiden.

  9. Heterotrophic microflora of highly alkaline (pH > 13) brown mud disposal site drainage water near Ziar nad Hronom (Banska Bystrica region, Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Stramova, Zuzana; Remenar, Matej; Javorsky, Peter; Pristas, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Brown mud is a waste by-product of alumina production by Bayer process. Due to extensive sodium hydroxide use in the process, brown mud disposal site near Ziar nad Hronom (Banska Bystrica region, Slovakia) and drainage water are ones of the greatest environmental burdens in Slovakia. Drainage water from this landfills has pH value higher than 13, and it contains many heavy metals and elevated salt content. In our experiments, relatively numerous bacterial population was detected in the drainage water with frequency of about 80 cfu/ml using cultivation approach. The alkalitolerant heterotrophic isolates were identified by combination of MALDI-TOF and 16S rDNA analysis. Drainage water population was dominated by Actinobacteria (Microbacterium spp. and Micrococcus spp.) followed by low G + C-content gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus spp.). Two isolates belonged to gram-negative bacteria only, identified as Brevundimonas spp. Phylogenetic and biochemical analyses indicate that nearly half of the bacteria isolated are probably representatives of a new species. Brown mud disposal site is proposed as a source of new bacterial taxa possibly used in bioremediation processes.

  10. Ultrastructural aspects of spermatogenesis, testes, and vas deferens in the parthenogenetic tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), a carp parasite from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Nebesářová, Jana; Oros, Mikuláš

    2011-01-01

    Spermatogenesis, testes, and vas deferens in the parthenogenetic monozoic tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) from Slovakia, parasitizing the carp Cyprinus carpio L., have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy for the first time. The present results show that helminths with parthenogenetic and normal reproduction may share some common spermatology features, e.g., dense cytoplasm of the peripherally localized spermatogonia or a rosette type of spermatogenesis. In contrast to tapeworms with normal reproduction, the most prominent ultrastructural characteristic of the spermatocytes of A. huronensis is fragmentation of their nuclei. This clear feature of cell degeneration might be a consequence of the aberrant first meiotic division. Peripheral cortical microtubules and a single centriole, indicators of the ongoing spermiogenesis, were observed only very rarely in the early spermatids. Characteristics of normal spermiogenesis, i.e., apical dense material in the zone of differentiation in early stages of spermiogenesis, flagellar rotation, and proximo-distal fusion, were never found in the present study. The testes follicles are surrounded by a thin cytoplasmic sheath underlined by a basal lamina. Vas deferens is lined by flat epithelium with numerous surface lamellae and cilia. Mature, functional spermatozoa were not observed in the vas deferens of A. huronensis from Slovakia.

  11. State of water molecules and silanol groups in opal minerals: a near infrared spectroscopic study of opals from Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boboň, Miroslav; Christy, Alfred A.; Kluvanec, Daniel; Illášová, L'udmila

    2011-12-01

    Recently, near infrared spectroscopy in combination with double derivative technique has been effectively used by Christy (Vib Spectrosc 54:42-49, 2010) to study and differentiate between free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on silica gel surface. The method has given some insight into the type of functionalities, their location in silica gel samples, and the way the water molecules bind onto the silanol groups. The important information in this respect comes from the overtones of the OH groups of water molecules hydrogen-bonded to free silanol groups, and hydrogen-bonded silanol groups absorbing in the region 5,500-5,100 cm-1. Chemically, opal minerals are hydrated silica and the same approach was adapted to study the state of water molecules, silanol functionalities, and their locations in opal samples from Slovakia. Twenty opal samples classified into CT and A classes and one quartz sample were used in this work. The samples were crushed using a hydraulic press and powderized. Each sample was then subjected to evacuation process to remove surface-adsorbed water at 200°C, and the near infrared spectrum of each sample was measured using a Perkin Elmer NTS FT-NIR spectrometer equipped with a transflectance accessory and a DTGS detector. The samples were also heated to 750°C to remove the hydrogen-bonded silanol groups on the surface to reveal their locality. Second derivative profiles of the near infrared reflectance spectra were obtained using the instrument's software and used in the detailed analysis of the samples. The analysis of the near infrared spectra and their second derivative profiles had the aim in finding relationships between the surface chemical structure and the classification of opal samples. The dry opal samples were also tested for their surface adsorption effectivity toward water molecules. The results indicate that the opal samples contain (1) surface-adsorbed water, (2) free and hydrogen-bonded silanol groups on the surface, (3) trapped

  12. Tourmalines from the siderite-quartz-sulphide hydrothermal veins, Gemeric unit, western Carpathians, Slovakia: crystal chemistry and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bačík, P.; Uher, P.; Dikej, J.; Puškelová, Ľ.

    2017-03-01

    Tourmaline is an important gangue mineral in a large number of Cretaceous siderite-quartz-sulphide hydrothermal veins in the Gemeric Unit, Slovak Ore Mountains, Slovakia, such as Dobšiná, Vlachovo, Rožňavské Bystré, Hnilčík, Rakovnica, Novoveská Huta, Gretla, Rudňany, and Bindt. In this study we combine by electron microprobe analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer and optical emission spectroscopy to determine the range of tourmaline compositions in the deposits and constrain the mechanisms of its precipitation. Selected samples from the mentioned deposits belong mostly to the alkali group, schorl to dravite series, rarely dominant X-site vacant foititic tourmaline (Vlachovo and Bindt) and oxy-dravite compositions (Hnilčík) were detected. Rim zones of some schorlitic tourmalines show high concentrations of Ti (up to 2.35 wt.% TiO2, 0.30 apfu; Rožňavské Bystré). The chemical composition is mostly controlled by alkali-deficient X □AlNa-1(Mg,Fe2+)-1 and proton-deficient AlO(Mg,Fe2+)-1(OH)-1 substitutions. Titanium is incorporated into the structure by Y Ti Y (Mg,Fe) Y Al-2, Y Ti Z Mg Y Al-1 Z Al-1, Y TiO( Y AlOH), and X Ca Y Ti Z MgO2 X □-1 Y,Z Al-2(OH)-2 substitutions. Along trace elements, Sr and V attain concentrations of 80-450 and 70-320 ppm, respectively. The unit-cell parameter a varies between 15.960 and 15.985 Å; variations in c are larger, between 7.177 and 7.236 Å indicating the presence of Fe3+ and Mg2+ at Z site. Mössbauer spectroscopy has shown variable Fe3+ proportions (0.17-0.55 apfu) in all samples. The gathered dataset suggests some qualitative considerations on the mechanisms controlling tourmaline compositions at the regional scale. The highest Fe3+ concentrations occur in samples from Rudňany and Gretla in the external part of Gemeric unit, suggesting higher oxidation during longer transport of fluids. We propose that the determined XFe in the samples are correlated with the compositions of the host rocks, as

  13. The Formation, Structure, and Ageing of As-Rich Hydrous Ferric Oxide at the Abandoned Sb Deposit Pezinok (Slovakia)

    SciTech Connect

    Majzlan,J.; Lalinska, B.; Chovan, M.; Jurkovic, L.; Milovska, S.; Gottlicher, J.

    2007-01-01

    The abandoned Sb deposit Pezinok in Slovakia is a significant source of As and Sb pollution that can be traced in the upper horizons of soils kilometers downstream. The source of the metalloids are two tailing impoundments which hold {approx}380,000 m{sup 3} of mining waste. The tailings and the discharged water have circumneutral pH values (7.0 {+-} 0.6) because the acidity generated by the decomposition of the primary sulfides (pyrite, FeS{sub 2}; arsenopyrite, FeAsS; berthierite, FeSb{sub 2}S{sub 4}) is rapidly neutralized by the abundant carbonates. The weathering rims on the primary sulfides are iron oxides which act as very efficient scavengers of As and Sb (with up to 19.2 wt% As and 23.7 wt% Sb). In-situ {mu}-XANES experiments indicate that As in the weathering rims is fully oxidized (As{sup 5+}). The pore solutions in the impoundment body contain up to 81 ppm As and 2.5 ppm Sb. Once these solutions are discharged from the impoundments, they precipitate or deposit masses of As-rich hydrous ferric oxide (As-HFO) with up to 28.3 wt% As{sub 2}O{sub 5} and 2.7 wt% Sb. All As-HFO samples are amorphous to X-rays. They contain Fe and As in their highest oxidation state and in octahedral and tetrahedral coordination, respectively, as suggested by XANES and EXAFS studies on Fe K and As K edges. The iron octahedra in the As-HFO share edges to form short single chains and the chains polymerize by sharing edges or corners with the adjacent units. The arsenate ions attach to the chains in a bidentate-binuclear and monodentate fashion. In addition, hydrogen-bonded complexes may exist to satisfy the bonding requirements of all oxygen atoms in the first coordination sphere of As{sup 5+}. Structural changes in the As-HFO samples were traced by chemical analyses and Fe EXAFS spectroscopy during an ageing experiment. As the samples age, As becomes more easily leachable. EXAFS spectra show a discernible trend of increasing number of Fe-Fe pairs at a distance of 3

  14. The formation, structure, and ageing of As-rich hydrous ferric oxide at the abandoned Sb deposit Pezinok (Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majzlan, Juraj; Lalinská, Bronislava; Chovan, Martin; Jurkovič, L.'ubomír; Milovská, Stanislava; Göttlicher, Jörg

    2007-09-01

    The abandoned Sb deposit Pezinok in Slovakia is a significant source of As and Sb pollution that can be traced in the upper horizons of soils kilometers downstream. The source of the metalloids are two tailing impoundments which hold ˜380,000 m 3 of mining waste. The tailings and the discharged water have circumneutral pH values (7.0 ± 0.6) because the acidity generated by the decomposition of the primary sulfides (pyrite, FeS 2; arsenopyrite, FeAsS; berthierite, FeSb 2S 4) is rapidly neutralized by the abundant carbonates. The weathering rims on the primary sulfides are iron oxides which act as very efficient scavengers of As and Sb (with up to 19.2 wt% As and 23.7 wt% Sb). In-situ μ-XANES experiments indicate that As in the weathering rims is fully oxidized (As 5+). The pore solutions in the impoundment body contain up to 81 ppm As and 2.5 ppm Sb. Once these solutions are discharged from the impoundments, they precipitate or deposit masses of As-rich hydrous ferric oxide (As-HFO) with up to 28.3 wt% As 2O 5 and 2.7 wt% Sb. All As-HFO samples are amorphous to X-rays. They contain Fe and As in their highest oxidation state and in octahedral and tetrahedral coordination, respectively, as suggested by XANES and EXAFS studies on Fe K and As K edges. The iron octahedra in the As-HFO share edges to form short single chains and the chains polymerize by sharing edges or corners with the adjacent units. The arsenate ions attach to the chains in a bidentate-binuclear and monodentate fashion. In addition, hydrogen-bonded complexes may exist to satisfy the bonding requirements of all oxygen atoms in the first coordination sphere of As 5+. Structural changes in the As-HFO samples were traced by chemical analyses and Fe EXAFS spectroscopy during an ageing experiment. As the samples age, As becomes more easily leachable. EXAFS spectra show a discernible trend of increasing number of Fe-Fe pairs at a distance of 3.3-3.5 Å, that is, increasing polymerization of the iron

  15. Dispersion of As and selected heavy metals around a coal-burning power station in central Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Keegan, T J; Farago, M E; Thornton, I; Hong, Bing; Colvile, R N; Pesch, B; Jakubis, P; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J

    2006-04-01

    A power station in central Slovakia emitted arsenic (As) in large quantities for over 30 years as a result of burning As-rich brown coal. Nowadays emissions of As are low. Over the lifetime of the plant's operation over 3000 tonne of As have been emitted into the environment. This paper aims to examine the concentrations of As in the soil around the power station, and also to investigate whether the coal burnt in the plant, and consequently the emissions from it, contained raised levels of six further heavy metals. Soil concentrations were compared to ground level air As concentrations predicted by an air dispersion model. Coal samples were taken from the power station and analysed to determine concentrations of As, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd. Soil samples (n=113) were taken up to 12 km from the plant along a transect designed to follow the valley floor in which the power station is situated. Soil samples were analysed for concentrations of those elements for which coal was tested. Concentrations of As in coal were high (AM 518 mug/g). Those of other heavy metals were, in general, low. Concentrations of soil As were substantially raised in the near vicinity of the plant but decreased within 5 km to concentrations similar to those in the rest of the district. Overall, levels within 10 km of the plant were slightly above those recommended for residential levels in the UK. Soil concentrations of other heavy metals were higher in the vicinity of the plant but none, overall was raised. Comparison of results from a previous air dispersion model of ground level air arsenic concentrations showed a moderate correlation (r=0.6) between modelled and measured values. Over its period of operation the power plant has contributed to raised levels of soil As in the local soils, though not substantially of other elements. Though now airborne As emissions are controlled, concern remains regarding soil arsenic concentrations and fugitive emissions from the plant that could be

  16. A new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El-Bagre, Colombia: the Hardy-Weinberg-Castle law and linked short tandem repeats

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Velez, Ana María; Robles, Edinson Villa; Howard, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We reported a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia. Aims: Our study performed Complex Segregation Analysis (CSA) and short tandem repeats to discriminate between environmental and/or genetic factors in this disorder. Materials and Methods: The CSA analysis was carried out according to the unified model, implemented using the transmission probabilities implemented in the computer program POINTER, and evaluated by using a software package for population genetic data analysis (GDA), Arlequin. We performed pedigree analyses by using Cyrillic 2.1 software, with a total of 30 families with 50 probands (47 males and 3 females) tested. In parallel to the CSA, we tested for the presence of short tandem repeats from HLA class II, DQ alpha 1, involving the gene locus D6S291 by using the Hardy-Weinberg- Castle law. Results Our results indicate that the best model of inheritance in this disease is a mixed model, with multifactorial effects within a recessive genotype. Two types of possible segregation patterns were found; one with strong recessive penetrance in families whose phenotype is more Amerindian-like, and another of possible somatic mutations. Conclusion: The penetrance of 10% or less in female patients 60 years of age or older indicates that hormones could protect younger females. The greatest risk factor for men being affected by the disorder was the NN genotype. These findings are only possible due to somatic mutations, and/or strong environmental effects. We also found a protective role for two genetic loci (D6S1019 AND D6S439) in the control group. PMID:22666691

  17. Cytogeography of Pilosella officinarum (Compositae): Altitudinal and Longitudinal Differences in Ploidy Level Distribution in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and the General Pattern in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Mráz, Patrik; Šingliarová, Barbora; Urfus, Tomáš; Krahulec, František

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Pilosella officinarum (syn. Hieracium pilosella) is a highly structured species with respect to the ploidy level, with obvious cytogeographic trends. Previous non-collated data indicated a possible differentiation in the frequency of particular ploidy levels in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Therefore, detailed sampling and ploidy level analyses were assessed to reveal a boundary of common occurrence of tetraploids on one hand and higher ploids on the other. For a better understanding of cytogeographic differentiation of P. officinarum in central Europe, a search was made for a general cytogeographic pattern in Europe based on published data. Methods DNA-ploidy level and/or chromosome number were identified for 1059 plants using flow cytometry and/or chromosome counting on root meristem preparations. Samples were collected from 336 localities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and north-eastern Hungary. In addition, ploidy levels were determined for plants from 18 localities in Bulgaria, Georgia, Ireland, Italy, Romania and Ukraine. Key Results Four ploidy levels were found in the studied area with a contrasting pattern of distribution. The most widespread cytotype in the western part of the Czech Republic is tetraploid (4x) reproducing sexually, while the apomictic pentaploids and mostly apomictic hexaploids (5x and 6x, respectively) clearly prevail in Slovakia and the eastern part of the Czech Republic. The boundary between common occurrence of tetraploids and higher ploids is very obvious and represents the geomorphologic boundary between the Bohemian Massif and the Western Carpathians with the adjacent part of Pannonia. Mixed populations consisting of two different ploidy levels were recorded in nearly 11% of localities. A statistically significant difference in a vertical distribution of penta- and hexaploids was observed in the Western Carpathians and the adjacent Pannonian Plain. Hexaploid populations tend to occur at lower elevations

  18. Founder mutations in NDRG1 and HK1 genes are common causes of inherited neuropathies among Roma/Gypsies in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Gabrikova, Dana; Mistrik, Martin; Bernasovska, Jarmila; Bozikova, Alexandra; Behulova, Regina; Tothova, Iveta; Macekova, Sona

    2013-11-01

    Autosomal recessive forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) account for less than 10 % of all CMT cases, but are more frequent in the populations with a high rate of consanguinity. Roma (Gypsies) are a transnational minority with an estimated population of 10 to 14 million, in which a high degree of consanguineous marriages is a generally known fact. Similar to the other genetically isolated founder populations, the Roma harbour a number of unique or rare autosomal recessive disorders, caused by "private" founder mutations. There are three subtypes of autosomal recessive CMT with mutations private to the Roma population: CMT4C, CMT4D and CMT4G. We report on the molecular examination of four families of Roma origin in Slovakia with early-onset demyelinating neuropathy and autosomal recessive inheritance. We detected mutation p.R148X (g.631C>T) in the NDRG1 (NM_006096.3) gene in two families and mutation g.9712G>C in the HK1 (NM_033498) gene in the other two families. These mutations cause CMT4D and CMT4G, respectively. The success of molecular genetic analysis in all families confirms that autosomal recessive forms of CMT caused by mutations on the NDRG1 and HK1 genes are common causes of inherited neuropathies among Slovak Roma. Providing genetic analysis of these genes for patients with Roma origin as a common part of diagnostic procedure would contribute to a better rate of diagnosed cases of demyelinating neuropathy in Slovakia and in other countries with a Roma minority.

  19. Preface: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) (Košice, Slovakia, 23 27 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan; Kováč, Josef; Václavíková, Miroslava; Odenbach, Stefan

    2008-05-01

    The 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) was held in Košice, Slovakia between 23-27 July 2007. Attendance at the conference was high and its motivation was in line with the ten previous ICMF conferences organized in Udine, Orlando, Bangor, Sendai-Tokyo, Riga, Paris, Bhavnagar, Timisoara, Bremen and Guarujá. The conference in Slovakia reflected the scientific community's enthusiasm and worldwide support, with 256 participants, from 30 countries attending.The main objective of ICMF 11 was to promote progress and knowledge in the field of magnetic fluids regarding their chemistry, physical and magnetic properties, heat and mass transfer, surface phenomena, as well as their technological and biomedical applications. As research on magnetic fluids is essentially interdisciplinary, experts from related areas were invited to present their contributions with a view to increasing knowledge in the field and highlighting new trends. Submitted communications were refereed by members of the Scientific Organizing Committee and abstracts were assembled in a book of abstracts. Participants presented 180 posters in two poster sessions and 56 oral presentations. All presentations contributed to a greater understanding of the area, and helped to bridge the gap between physics, chemistry, technology, biology and medical sciences. Contributions to this conference are presented in 115 scientific papers, with some published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and the rest in Magnetohydrodynamics. The organization of the conference was made possible by generous support from the Institute of Experimental Physics and Institute of Geotechnics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, the University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik and the Slovak Physical Society. Financial support from Ferrotec, Cryosoft Ltd, Mikrochem, Liquids Research Ltd, Askony and US Steel Košice, is also gratefully acknowledged.

  20. Mineralogy and technology of bricks used for the construction of the XII century ducal castle on the island of Ostrów Tumski, Wrocław (SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartz, W.; Chorowska, M.

    2016-12-01

    The historic bricks from the ducal castle on Ostrów Tumski (Wrocław), one of the first brickwork structures in the Lower Silesia, which dates back to the XII and XIII century, were studied and characterised by a combination of classical petrographic studies (polarising microscopy), scanning microscopy, thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The combined results of these methods suggest that the firing temperature ranges from 950°C, through the most common temperatures of 850-900°C, to the infrequent temperatures below 750°C. Most of the bricks were fired under oxidising conditions, occasionally over a sequence of oxidising and reducing steps, resulting in a sandwich structure. The results indicate, that low-calcareous raw materials were used, presumably Miocene-Pliocene `flamy clays', exploited a few kilometres away from the castle and tempered with locally obtained sand from the Odra river. Only small differences have been recognized in: 1) clay to aplastic material ratio, 2) amount of accessory minerals, 3) grain-size distribution of aplastic materials, but no significant changes in the brick technology were observed. The observed variability corresponds well to the different constructing phases, identified previously on the basis of archaeological work. Thus, our work proves that a detailed mineralogical and petrological study may help to identify different construction phases in historic monuments.

  1. Barite in hydrothermal environments as a recorder of subseafloor processes: a multiple-isotope study from the Loki's Castle vent field.

    PubMed

    Eickmann, B; Thorseth, I H; Peters, M; Strauss, H; Bröcker, M; Pedersen, R B

    2014-07-01

    Barite chimneys are known to form in hydrothermal systems where barium-enriched fluids generated by leaching of the oceanic basement are discharged and react with seawater sulfate. They also form at cold seeps along continental margins, where marine (or pelagic) barite in the sediments is remobilized because of subseafloor microbial sulfate reduction. We test the possibility of using multiple sulfur isotopes (δ34S, Δ33S, ∆36S) of barite to identify microbial sulfate reduction in a hydrothermal system. In addition to multiple sulfur isotopes, we present oxygen (δ18O) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes for one of numerous barite chimneys in a low-temperature (~20 °C) venting area of the Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultraslow-spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). The chemistry of the venting fluids in the barite field identifies a contribution of at least 10% of high-temperature black smoker fluid, which is corroborated by 87Sr/86 Sr ratios in the barite chimney that are less radiogenic than in seawater. In contrast, oxygen and multiple sulfur isotopes indicate that the fluid from which the barite precipitated contained residual sulfate that was affected by microbial sulfate reduction. A sulfate reduction zone at this site is further supported by the multiple sulfur isotopic composition of framboidal pyrite in the flow channel of the barite chimney and in the hydrothermal sediments in the barite field, as well as by low SO4 and elevated H2S concentrations in the venting fluids compared with conservative mixing values. We suggest that the mixing of ascending H2- and CH4-rich high-temperature fluids with percolating seawater fuels microbial sulfate reduction, which is subsequently recorded by barite formed at the seafloor in areas where the flow rate is sufficient. Thus, low-temperature precipitates in hydrothermal systems are promising sites to explore the interactions between the geosphere and biosphere in order to evaluate the microbial impact on

  2. Occurrence and distribution of arsenic and radon in water from private wells in the Rancocas aquifer, southern New Castle and northern Kent Counties, Delaware, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denver, Judith M.

    2016-10-12

    Water samples were collected and analyzed for arsenic and radon from 36 private, mostly domestic wells that tap the Rancocas aquifer in southern New Castle and northern Kent Counties, Delaware, during the summer of 2015. Both arsenic and radon are from natural mineral sources, in particular glauconitic and other marine-derived sediments, which are important components of the geologic formations comprising the Rancocas aquifer. Routine testing of domestic wells is not required in Delaware; as a result, many homeowners are not aware of potential water-quality problems with these chemicals in their well water. Arsenic has previously been detected at levels of potential concern for human health in this aquifer in adjacent parts of Maryland where it is referred to as the Aquia aquifer. Arsenic and radon also have previously been detected in several Rancocas aquifer wells in Delaware. The Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control intends to use the data from this project to better identify areas with potential for levels of concern for domestic well owners. This report includes chemical results and maps showing the distribution of sampled wells and concentrations of arsenic and radon. All data collected for this study also are available in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System database.Arsenic was detected above the minimum reporting limit of 0.1 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 34 of the 36 wells sampled with concentrations ranging from about 0.11 to 27 µg/L. In 15 of the samples, arsenic concentrations were at or above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 µg/L for public wells. Most of the higher concentrations are clustered along a band running from the southwest to northeast in the southern part of the study area.Radon, which is an inert gas derived from radium, was detected in all water samples with concentrations ranging from 85 to 1,870 picocuries per liter (p

  3. Novel Barite Chimneys at the Loki's Castle Vent Field Shed Light on Key Factors Shaping Microbial Communities and Functions in Hydrothermal Systems.

    PubMed

    Steen, Ida H; Dahle, Håkon; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Daae, Frida-Lise; Rapp, Hans Tore; Pedersen, Rolf B; Thorseth, Ingunn H

    2015-01-01

    In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4) structures (≤ 1 m high) covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM), 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within a vent field

  4. Novel Barite Chimneys at the Loki's Castle Vent Field Shed Light on Key Factors Shaping Microbial Communities and Functions in Hydrothermal Systems

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Ida H.; Dahle, Håkon; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Daae, Frida-Lise; Rapp, Hans Tore; Pedersen, Rolf B.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4) structures (≤ 1 m high) covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM), 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within a vent field

  5. High radiofrequency radiation at Stockholm Old Town: An exposimeter study including the Royal Castle, Supreme Court, three major squares and the Swedish Parliament.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Koppel, Tarmo; Hedendahl, Lena

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO in 2011. The exposure pattern is changing due to the rapid development of technology. Outdoor RF radiation level was measured during five tours in Stockholm Old Town in April, 2016 using the EME Spy 200 exposimeter with 20 predefined frequencies. The results were based on 10,437 samples in total. The mean level of the total RF radiation was 4,293 µW/m(2) (0.4293 µW/cm(2)). The highest mean levels were obtained for global system for mobile communications (GSM) + universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) 900 downlink and long-term evolution (LTE) 2600 downlink (1,558 and 1,265 µW/m(2), respectively). The town squares displayed highest total mean levels, with the example of Järntorget square with 24,277 µW/m(2) (min 257, max 173,302 µW/m(2)). These results were in large contrast to areas with lowest total exposure, such as the Supreme Court, with a mean level of 404 µW/m(2) (min 20.4, max 4,088 µW/m(2)). In addition, measurements in the streets surrounding the Royal Castle were lower than the total for the Old Town, with a mean of 756 µW/m(2) (min 0.3, max 50,967 µW/m(2)). The BioInitiative 2012 Report defined the scientific benchmark for possible health risks as 30-60 µW/m(2). Our results of outdoor RF radiation exposure at Stockholm Old Town are significantly above that level. The mean exposure level at Järntorget square was 405-fold higher than 60 µW/m(2). Our results were below the reference level on 10,000,000 µW/m(2) established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), which, however, are less credible, as they do not take non-thermal effects into consideration and are not based on sound scientific evaluation. Our highest measured mean level at Järntorget was 0.24% of the ICNIRP level. A number of studies have found adverse, non-thermal (no

  6. Evaluation of undiscovered natural gas in the Upper Cretaceous Ferron Coal/Wasatch Plateau Total Petroleum System, Wasatch Plateau and Castle Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, M.E.; Finn, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Total Petroleum System approach was used to estimate undiscovered gas potential of the Wasatch Plateau and Castle Valley, central Utah. The Ferron Coal/Wasatch Plateau Total Petroleum System was geologically defined and subdivided into seven assessment units, six of which were formally evaluated. Geologic data considered in defining the assessment unit boundaries included thermal maturity, coal presence and thickness, overburden thickness, and faulting intensity. Historical production data were also used to estimate volumes of gas from undrilled areas. The one conventional assessment unit includes almost the entire area of the petroleum system and is characterized by known accumulations that occur in structural or combination traps in sandstone reservoirs. The estimated undiscovered conventional producible gas that may be added to reserves of this unit ranges from a low (F95) of 14.8 billion cubic feet (BCFG) [419 million cubic meters (Mm3)] of gas to a high (F5) of 82 BCFG [2321 Mm3] and a mean value of 39.9 BCFG [1130 Mm3]. Continuous gas accumulations are those in which the entire assessment unit is considered to be gas-charged. Within these assessment units, there may be wells drilled that are not economic successes but all are expected to contain gas. Coalbed gas is in this continuous category. Mean estimates of undiscovered gas for the five continuous assessment units are: (1) Northern Coal Fairway/Drunkards Wash-752.3 BCFG [21,323 Mm3]; (2) Central Coal Fairway/Buzzard Bench-536.7 BCFG [15,194 Mm3]; (3) Southern Coal Fairway-152.6 BCFG [4320 Mm3]; (4) Deep (6000 feet plus) Coal and Sandstone-59.1 BCFG [1673 Mm3]; (5) Southern Coal Outcrop-10.6 BCFG [300 Mm3]; and Joes Valley and Musinia Grabens-not assessed.The mean estimate of undiscovered gas for the entire TPS is 1551.2 BCFG [43,914 Mm3]. There is a 95% chance that at least 855.7 BCFG [24,225 Mm3] and a 5% chance that at least 2504 BCFG [70,888 Mm3] of undiscovered producible gas remain in the TPS

  7. Geothermal utilization at Castle Oaks Subdivision, Castle Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Goering, S.W.

    1982-04-01

    Designs of geothermal systems for using warm water from four aquifers of the Denver Basin are presented. Advantages of using heat pumps with the geothermal resource are discussed. Two design cases-one with separate heat load and heat pump, and the other with the heat pump and heat load located at the well site-are evaluated in terms of pump costs, operating costs, and payback periods. The 20-year delivered energy costs for the two geothermal systems would be slightly less than those for natural gas ($5.64 to $6.42 versus $6.70 per million Btu).

  8. Geothermal utilization at Castle Oaks subdivision, Castle Rock, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garing, K. L.; Coury, G. E.; Goering, S. W.

    1982-04-01

    Designs of geothermal systems for using warm water from four aquifers of the Denver Basin are presented. Advantages of using heat pumps with the geothermal resource are discussed. Two design cases, one with separate heat load and heat pump, and the other with the heat pump and heat load located at the well site are evaluated in terms of pump costs, operating costs, and payback periods. The 20 year delivered energy costs for the two geothermal systems would be slightly less than those for natural gas ($5.64 to $6.42 versus $6.70 per million Btu).

  9. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of a neutral, low-sulfide/high-carbonate tailings impoundment, Markušovce, eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Edgar; Petrák, Marián; Tóth, Roman; Lalinská-Voleková, Bronislava; Jurkovič, L'ubomír; Kučerová, Gabriela; Radková, Anežka; Sottník, Peter; Vozár, Jaroslav

    2013-11-01

    Tailings deposits generated from mining activities represent a potential risk for the aquatic environment through the release of potentially toxic metals and metalloids occurring in a variety of minerals present in the tailings. Physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of tailings such as total concentrations of chemical elements, pH, ratio of acid-producing to acid-neutralizing minerals, and primary and secondary mineral phases are very important factors that control the actual release of potentially toxic metals and metalloids from the tailings to the environment. The aims of this study are the determination of geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of tailings deposited in voluminous impoundment situated near the village of Markušovce (eastern Slovakia) and identification of the processes controlling the mobility of selected toxic metals (Cu, Hg) and metalloids (As, Sb). The studied tailings have unique features in comparison with the other tailings investigated previously because of the specific mineral assemblage primarily consisting of barite, siderite, quartz, and minor sulfides. To meet the aims, samples of the tailings were collected from 3 boreholes and 15 excavated pits and subjected to bulk geochemical analyses (i.e., determination of chemical composition, pH, Eh, acid generation, and neutralization potentials) combined with detailed mineralogical characterization using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), and micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD). Additionally, the geochemical and mineralogical factors controlling the transfer of potentially toxic elements from tailings to waters were also determined using short-term batch test (European norm EN 12457), sampling of drainage waters and speciation-equilibrium calculations performed with PHREEQC. The tailings mineral assemblage consists of siderite, barite, quartz, and dolomite. Sulfide minerals constitute only a minor proportion of the tailings

  10. Castles, Kings...and Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Susan M.

    2001-01-01

    Standards can help integrate a curriculum, as a fourth-grade teacher discovered when implementing a unit on the Middle Ages. Students created a medieval fair that demonstrated their learning in medieval history (social studies), pulleys and gears (science and technology), story telling (language arts), and costume and dance (fine arts). (MLH)

  11. Castles, Kings...and Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Susan M.

    2001-01-01

    Standards can help integrate a curriculum, as a fourth-grade teacher discovered when implementing a unit on the Middle Ages. Students created a medieval fair that demonstrated their learning in medieval history (social studies), pulleys and gears (science and technology), story telling (language arts), and costume and dance (fine arts). (MLH)

  12. Health-endangering everyday settings and practices in a rural segregated Roma settlement in Slovakia: A descriptive summary from an exploratory longitudinal case study.

    PubMed

    Belak, Andrej; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-01-28

    Research into social root-causes of poor health within segregated Roma communities in Central and Eastern Europe, i.e. research into how, why and by whom high health-endangering settings and exposures are maintained here, is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the local setup of health-endangering everyday settings and practices over the long-term in one such community. It is the initial part of a larger longitudinal study qualitatively exploring the social root-causes of poor Roma health status through the case of a particular settlement in Slovakia. The study, spanning 10 years, comprised four methodologically distinct phases combining ethnography and applied medical-anthropological surveying. The acquired data consisted of field notes on participant observations and records of elicitations focusing on both the setup and the social root-causes of local everyday health-endangering settings and practices. To create the here-presented descriptive summary of the local setup, we performed a qualitative content analysis based on the latest World Health Organization classification of health exposures. Across all the examined dimensions - material circumstances, psychosocial factors, health-related behaviours, social cohesion and healthcare utilization - all the settlements' residents faced a wide range of health-endangering settings and practices. How the residents engaged in some of these exposures and how these exposures affected residents' health varied according to local social stratifications. Most of the patterns described prevailed over the 10-year period. Some local health-endangering settings and practices were praised by most inhabitants using racialized ethnic terms constructed in contrast or in direct opposition to alleged non-Roma norms and ways. Our summary provides a comprehensive and conveniently structured basis for grounded thinking about the intermediary social determinants of health within segregated Roma communities in Slovakia and beyond

  13. Determination of low-level mercury in coralline aragonite by calcination-isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and its application to Diploria specimens from Castle Harbour, Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamborg, Carl H.; Swarr, Gretchen; Hughen, Konrad; Jones, Ross J.; Birdwhistell, Scot; Furby, Kathryn; Murty, Sujata A.; Prouty, Nancy; Tseng, Chun-Mao

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a technique that combines a high temperature quartz furnace with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the determination of Hg stored in the annual CaCO3 bands found in coral skeletons. Substantial matrix effects, presumably due to the discontinuous introduction of CO2 to the gas stream, were corrected for by simultaneously supplying a stream of argon containing highly enriched elemental 202Hgo and observing peaks in the 200Hg/202Hg signal as the sample was decomposed. Primary signal calibration for Hg was achieved using gas injections from a saturated vapor standard. The absolute instrument detection limit was low (about 0.2 fmol), with a practical limit of detection (3σ of blanks) of 2 fmol. Reproducibility of samples was (RSD) 15-27%. We applied this method to the determination of Hg concentrations in two colonies of Diploria labyrinthiformis collected from Castle Harbour, Bermuda, at a site about to be buried under the municipal waste landfill. The temporal reconstructions of Castle Harbour seawater Hg concentrations implied by the coral record show a decline throughout the period of record (1949-2008). The coral archived no apparent signal associated with waste disposal practices in the Harbour (bulk waste land-filling or, since 1994, disposal of waste incinerator ash), and mercury concentrations in the coral did not correlate to growth rate as assessed by linear extension. There was, however, a large and nearly exponential decrease in apparent Hg concentration in the Harbour which circumstantially implicates the dredging and/or landfilling operations associated with the construction of the airport on St. David's Island.

  14. Delinquent and Aggressive Behavior and Social Desirability Among Roma and Non-Roma Adolescents in Slovakia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2016-02-01

    Rates of aggression and delinquency are assumed to be higher among Roma and other minorities, but sound evidence of this is lacking. Our aim was to assess delinquent and aggressive behavior among Roma and non-Roma adolescents and the effects on ethnic differences of parental education and social desirability. We conducted a cross-sectional study among Roma from separated and segregated settlements in the eastern part of Slovakia (N = 330; Mage = 14.50; interview) and non-Roma adolescents (N = 722; Mage = 14.86; questionnaire). The effect of ethnicity on antisocial behaviors was analyzed using linear regression (crude) and adjusted for gender, parental education, and social desirability. Adjustment for social desirability diminished the ethnic differences in delinquency (B = 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.12, -0.04]), led to an increase in the differences in hostility (B = 2.43; 95% CI = [0.87, 3.99]), and led to the disappearance of differences in physical aggression (B = 0.45; 95% CI = [1.14, 2.07]). Parental education did not affect the associations in an important way. Our findings indicate that Roma are not that much different from non-Roma, in terms of antisocial behavior, which contradicts the general perception of Roma. Our findings should be confirmed in other settings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Seroprevalence of human Toxocara infections in the Roma and non-Roma populations of Eastern Slovakia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Antolová, D; Jarčuška, P; Janičko, M; Madarasová-Gecková, A; Halánová, M; Čisláková, L; Kalinová, Z; Reiterová, K; Škutová, M; Pella, D; Mareková, M

    2015-07-01

    Socioeconomic conditions and health of the Roma population, the most numerous minority in Europe, are worse than that of the non-Roma population. Information about the occurrence of human toxocarosis and other parasitic diseases in the Roma population is scarce or completely missing. The aim of this study was to map the seroprevalence of toxocarosis in the population living in segregated Roma settlements and to compare the data with the occurrence of antibodies in the non-Roma population of Eastern Slovakia. The seropositivity to Toxocara in 429 examined Roma inhabitants of segregated settlements reached 22·1%, while only 4/394 samples of the non-Roma population were found to be positive (odds ratio 27·7, P < 0·0001). Headache, muscle pain, influenza-like symptoms and diarrhoea occurred significantly more often in seropositive persons than in seronegative individuals. In the Roma population positivity was not influenced by gender, level of education and poverty, but age, lack of sanitary facilities and heating with wood significantly increased the risk of infection. It can be assumed that besides the high prevalence of toxocarosis, other parasitic diseases and communicable diseases will also be more prevalent in the Roma population living in segregated settlements.

  16. Episodic construction of the Tatra granitoid intrusion (Central Western Carpathians, Poland/Slovakia): consequences for the geodynamics of Variscan collision and Rheic Ocean closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawęda, Aleksandra; Burda, Jolanta; Klötzli, Urs; Golonka, Jan; Szopa, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    The Tatra granitoid pluton (Central Western Carpathians, Poland/Slovakia) is an example of composite polygenetic intrusion, comprising many magmatic pulses varying compositionally from diorite to granite. The U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS zircon dating of successive magma batches indicates the presence of magmatic episodes at 370-368, 365, 360, 355 and 350-340 Ma, all together covering a time span of 30 Ma of magmatic activity. The partial resorption and recycling of former granitoid material ("petrological cannibalism") was a result of the incremental growth of the pluton and temperature in the range of 750-850 °C. The long-lasting granitoid magmatism was connected to the prolonged subduction of oceanic crust and collision of the Proto-Carpathian Terrane with a volcanic arc and finally with Laurussia, closing the Rheic Ocean. The differences in granitoid composition are the results of different depths of crustal melting. More felsic magmas were generated in the outer zone of the volcanic arc, whilst more mafic magmas were formed in the inner part of the supra-subduction zone. The source rocks of the granitoid magmas covered the compositional range of metapelite-amphibolite and were from both lower and upper crust. The presence of the inherited zircon cores suggests that the collision and granitoid magmatism involved crust of Cadomian consolidation age (c. 530 and 518 Ma) forming the Proto-Carpathian Terrane, crust of Avalonian affinity (462, 426 Ma) and melted metasedimentary rocks of volcanic arc provenance.

  17. Simulating spatial aspects of a flash flood using the Monte Carlo method and GRASS GIS: a case study of the Malá Svinka Basin (Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofierka, Jaroslav; Knutová, Monika

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on the flash flood assessment using a spatially-distributed hydrological model based on the Monte Carlo simulation method. The model is implemented as r.sim.water module in GRASS GIS and was applied to the Malá Svinka Basin in Eastern Slovakia where a heavy rainfall (100 mm/hr.) caused a flash flood event with deadly consequences in July 1998. The event was simulated using standard datasets representing elevation, soils and land cover. The results were captured in time series of water depth maps showing gradual changes in water depths across the basin. The hydrological effects of roads in the study area were simulated using the preferential flow feature of the model. This simulation helped to identify source areas contributing to flooding in built-up areas. The implementation in a GIS environment simplifies the data preparation and eventual modification for various scenarios and flood protection measures. The simulation confirmed excellent robustness and flexibility of the method.

  18. Human induced soil erosion and gully system development in the Late Holocene and future perspectives on landscape evolution: The Myjava Hill Land, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, Markus; Stankoviansky, Miloš; Minár, Jozef; Koco, Štefan; Papčo, Pavol

    2013-11-01

    In humid climate zones, like Central Europe, past soil erosion and gullying are strongly connected with agricultural expansion, and extreme soil erosion events often play an important role in land abandonment. This paper provides a case study to demonstrate the interaction between land use, soil erosion, floodplain development, and land use changes in a 0-order catchment in the Babikovce catchment, Myjava Hill Land, situated in western Slovakia. Sedimentological, pedological, geoarchaeological and historical data indicate two main periods of intensive hillslope erosion and gullying since the High Middle Ages. In particular, a few extreme precipitation events (or rapid snowmelts) caused intensive runoff events and gullying on cleared land. The formation of the gully system and fan deposits in the Babikovce catchment and other areas also forced the occurrence of intensive muddy floods and caused floodplain aggradation and meander changes along rivers in the Myjava Hill Land. As a result, the development of the dense network of permanent gullies in the Myjava Hill Land can be associated with the transformation of woodland into farmland and later land abandonment. Today, the area is highly truncated by soil erosion and very difficult to farm.

  19. Ghost shrimps (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) as producers of an Upper Miocene trace fossil association from sublittoral deposits of Lake Pannon (Vienna Basin, Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Hyžný, Matúš; Šimo, Vladimír; Starek, Dušan

    2015-05-01

    Numerous trace fossils are described from the Late Miocene sediments of the Bzenec Formation exposed at the Gbely section (the Vienna Basin, Slovakia). During deposition of the sediments the area was part of the large, long-lived brackish to freshwater Lake Pannon. Most of the trace fossils are attributed herein to Egbellichnus jordidegiberti igen et ispec. nov. and are interpreted as burrows produced by decapod crustaceans, specifically by a ghost shrimp of the family Callianassidae. This interpretation is based on two independent lines of evidence: environmental requirements of large bioturbators and the burrow morphology itself. The new ichnotaxon is distinguished from other related ichnotaxa by a combination of typically inclined (roughly at an angle of 45°) cylindrical burrows, absence of lining, and tunnels making loops or bends at approximately right angles. The burrow systems at Gbely document the survival of ghost shrimp long after the closure of all seaways and the origin of Lake Pannon. As today, no ghost shrimp are known from long-lived brackish lakes. Egbellichnus from Gbely is the only, although indirect, record of ghost shrimp from a brackish lake environment reported so far.

  20. Ghost shrimps (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) as producers of an Upper Miocene trace fossil association from sublittoral deposits of Lake Pannon (Vienna Basin, Slovakia)

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš; Šimo, Vladimír; Starek, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Numerous trace fossils are described from the Late Miocene sediments of the Bzenec Formation exposed at the Gbely section (the Vienna Basin, Slovakia). During deposition of the sediments the area was part of the large, long-lived brackish to freshwater Lake Pannon. Most of the trace fossils are attributed herein to Egbellichnus jordidegiberti igen et ispec. nov. and are interpreted as burrows produced by decapod crustaceans, specifically by a ghost shrimp of the family Callianassidae. This interpretation is based on two independent lines of evidence: environmental requirements of large bioturbators and the burrow morphology itself. The new ichnotaxon is distinguished from other related ichnotaxa by a combination of typically inclined (roughly at an angle of 45°) cylindrical burrows, absence of lining, and tunnels making loops or bends at approximately right angles. The burrow systems at Gbely document the survival of ghost shrimp long after the closure of all seaways and the origin of Lake Pannon. As today, no ghost shrimp are known from long-lived brackish lakes. Egbellichnus from Gbely is the only, although indirect, record of ghost shrimp from a brackish lake environment reported so far. PMID:26089575

  1. Paleofloristic and paleofaunistic analysis of Dudváh River oxbow and implication for Late Holocene paleoenvironmental development of the Žitný ostrov Island (SW Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pišút, Peter; Břízová, Eva; Čejka, Tomáš; Pipík, Radovan

    2010-12-01

    Žitný ostrov, the largest island of the Danube River (SW Slovakia) gained its present shape in the Neoholocene period. As a result of increased flood and geomorphological Danube river activity dated to 1378-1528 AD, the Lower Dudváh River was abandoned and its alluvium became a part of the Žitný ostrov. Study of a Dudváh terrestrialized paleomeander by means of pollen and macrofossil analysis provides new information about the paleoenvironments of the Danubian Plain. The meander under study was cut-off during the Sub-Boreal period when the land was mostly covered by oak-dominated mixed forest with a notable high frequency of Fagus and Abies. In low-lying depressions, Alnus glutinosa formed typical alder carrs. The largest decline of the mixed forest occurred during the Sub-Atlantic period. Until the mid-19th century the region was strongly influenced by shallow groundwater and periodical floods, as reflected by pollen of aquatics and marsh species. Amongst non-arboreal taxa, pollen of Cyperaceae, Brassicaceae/Cuscuta, Poaceae and Apiaceae prevailed. Local successional changes started with i) stage of abandoned oxbow still with influx of moving water, poor in both macrophytes and molluscs, ii) shallow eutrophic oxbow lake with slowly flowing or stagnant water overgrown with aquatics (Ranunculus subgen. Batrachium, Potamogeton sp., Ceratophyllum demersum etc.) and abundant molluscs, iii) an open marsh dominated by Cyperaceae (mainly Carex riparia) with Atriplex prostrata, supporting diverse molluscan and Ostracod fauna. Present-day habitat is a result of landscape changes, which have been associated with draining, intensified agriculture, ruderalisation and spread of invasive species.

  2. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in relation to metabolic syndrome in the Roma population compared with the non-Roma population in the eastern part of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Fedacko, Ján; Pella, Daniel; Jarcuska, Peter; Siegfried, Leonard; Janicko, Martin; Veselíny, Eduard; Pella, Jozef; Sabol, Frantisek; Jarcuska, Pavol; Mareková, Mária; Gecková, Andrea Madarasová; Pazinka, Peter; Jankajová, Monika; Kmec, Ján; Babcák, Marián; Kalanin, Peter; Drazilová, Sylvia; Babinská, Ingrid; Cecetková, Beáta

    2014-03-01

    Obesity-induced metabolic syndrome is a multiple risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and type 2 diabetes, and ethnic minorities seem to have unfavourable medical risk factors in general more frequently than majority populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in relation to metabolic syndrome in the Roma population compared with the non-Roma population residing in the eastern part of Slovakia. 123 Roma and 79 non-Roma patients with metabolic syndrome were evaluated. Men between 40-55 years of age had 4.76-times higher odds and women 5.26-times higher odds for metabolic sydrome compared with the younger population. We found statistically significant higher waist circumference in the Roma subpopulation and higher body mass index as well, although in selected population with metabolic syndrome. HDL cholesterol was significantly lower in both Roma men and women, and LDL cholesterol was not significant in men and women with metabolic syndrome. Triglycerides levels were significantly higher in non-Roma women only. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) values were not in correlation with age but were associated with the increasing number of fulfilled criteria for metabolic syndrome in both subgroups (Roma, non-Roma), independently of gender. Our study confirmed higher prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and other CV risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome among younger Roma population, which may be associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality among elderly Roma compared with non-Roma.

  3. Fluid-driven destabilization of REE-bearing accessory minerals in the granitic orthogneisses of North Veporic basement (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondrejka, M.; Putiš, M.; Uher, P.; Schmiedt, I.; Pukančík, L.; Konečný, P.

    2016-10-01

    A variety of rare earth elements-bearing (REE) accessory mineral breakdowns were identified in granitic orthogneisses from the pre-Alpine basement in the Veporic Unit, Central Western Carpathians, Slovakia. The Ordovician granitic rocks were subjected to Variscan metamorphic-anatectic overprint in amphibolite facies. Chemical U-Th-Pb dating of monazite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y) reveal their primary magmatic Lower to Middle Ordovician age (monazite: 472 ± 4 to 468 ± 6 Ma and xenotime: 471 ± 13 Ma) and/or metamorphic-anatectic Variscan (Carboniferous, Visean) age (monazite: 345 ± 3 Ma). Younger fluid-rock interactions caused breakdown of primary magmatic and/or metamorphic-anatectic monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y), fluorapatite and allanite-(Ce). Fluid-induced breakdown of xenotime-(Y) produced numerous tiny uraninite inclusions within the altered xenotime-(Y) domains. The monazite-(Ce) breakdown produced secondary egg-shaped coronal structures of different stages with well-developed concentric mineral zones. Secondary sulphatian monazite-(Ce) (up to 0.15 apfu S) occasionally formed along fluorapatite fissures. Localized fluorapatite and monazite-(Ce) recrystallization resulted in a very fine-grained, non-stoichiometric mixture of REE-Y-Fe-Th-Ca-P-Si phases. Finally, allanite-(Ce) decomposed to secondary REE carbonate minerals (members of the bastnäsite and synchysite groups) and calcite in some places. Although the xenotime alteration and formation of uraninite inclusions is believed to be the result of dissolution-reprecipitation between early magmatic xenotime and late-magmatic granitic fluids, the monazite, apatite and allanite breakdowns were driven by metamorphic hydrothermal fluids. While earlier impact of post-magmatic fluids originated probably from Permian acidic volcanic and microgranitic veins crosscutting the orthogneisses, another fluid-rock interaction event most likely occurred during Late Cretaceous metamorphism in the Veporic basement and covering

  4. Levels of Metals in Kidney, Liver, and Muscle Tissue and their Influence on the Fitness for the Consumption of Wild Boar from Western Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Gašparík, Jozef; Binkowski, Łukasz J; Jahnátek, Andrej; Šmehýl, Peter; Dobiaš, Milan; Lukáč, Norbert; Błaszczyk, Martyna; Semla, Magdalena; Massanyi, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Due to environmental pollution, wild animals are exposed to various pollutants. Some game animals, such as wild boars are used by people for food, but their meat is not evaluated regarding pollution transfer, since they are unavailable on the official market. The aim of this paper is to present the concentrations of chosen metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) in the kidneys, liver, and muscles of wild boars (n = 40) hunted in eastern Slovakia, as derivatives of physiological distribution and anthropogenic pollution. We found that sex was not a statistically significant factor for metal concentrations. Tissue differences were observed for all the metals studied except for Co. Cd, Cu, and Hg showed the highest median concentrations in kidney tissue with the lowest in muscle tissue (2.73, 3.78, and 0.061 μg/g w.w., respectively). The highest Zn median concentration was noted in the liver tissue with the lowest in muscle tissue. Co and Cu concentrations varied according to the age groups. Correlations between metal concentrations in muscle and kidney tissue were not especially strong; such relationships were not found in liver tissue. Among all the potential relationships of the given metal concentrations between tissues, the only significant relationship, albeit weak, was noted for Pb in muscle and liver tissue. The concentrations found seem not to be extremely high, but according to EU maximum permitted residue levels for Cd and Pb concentrations in meat, none of the samples studied was fully fit for human consumption. TWI and risk was also excessive for both metals.

  5. Geophysical fingerprints of shallow cultural structures from microgravity and GPR measurements in the Church of St. George, Svätý Jur, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panisova, Jaroslava; Murín, Igor; Pašteka, Roman; Haličková, Jana; Brunčák, Peter; Pohánka, Vladimír; Papčo, Juraj; Milo, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Recording of the historic edifice using the state-of-the-art geodetic and geophysical techniques brings easier visualisation in form of a three-dimensional (3D) model, thus allowing better understanding of its historical construction by the public and non-experts. We have applied this approach at the Church of St. George, one of the most significant religious buildings in south-western Slovakia, which dominates a silhouette of the town Svätý Jur. The geodetic survey allowed to record the actual state of the church. The church exterior was surveyed using a total station. Due to the intricate shape of the interior components of the church, it was decided to use a terrestrial laser scanner to generate the point cloud data, which were processed into floor plan, elevations, sectional 2D drawings and 3D model. The geophysical survey was carried out in the interior of the church in order to identify potential subsurface anthropogenic structures. Microgravity and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were selected as the most effective geophysical tools for such task. In microgravity data processing we focused on the calculation and removal of the gravitational effects of the building masses. The main negative gravity anomalies of interest in the nave, which also have been confirmed by GPR measurements, are interpreted as medieval crypts. Another very important outcome of the geophysical survey is the discovery of the west wall foundations of the oldest Romanesque construction. From each geophysical data acquired we derived 3D polygonal models, which are compared to achieve more realistic picture of the subsurface structures. Verification of these structures by means of archaeological excavation has not been carried out yet.

  6. Use of selected prediction equations (CG, MDRD4, CKD-EPI) in improving glomerular filtration rate assessment in clinical practice in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Zatko, Tomás; Kolena, Branislav; Petrovicová, Ida; Pilka, Tomás; Kolacan, Anton

    2014-03-01

    Our study aimed to establish the best prediction equation for different age ranges in estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) in clinical practice in Slovakia. The GFR by 24-hour creatinine clearance (Ccr) and the estimated GFR (eGFR) using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG), the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD4) and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations were obtained in adults aged 30-80 (n = 433, 10-years intervals). The correlation between these prediction equations and Ccr was evaluated. Errors in prediction equations were detected by moving average and by comparisons of the formulas for GFR < 1.5 ml/s and > 1.5 ml/s. The best correlations were established between Ccr and MDRD4 for women (r = 0.7790) and men (r = 0.8009), and between Ccr and CKD-EPI for women (r = 0.7780) and men (r = 0.8002) in the 60-69 age range. High correlation was also established between Ccr and CG (r = 0.8655) and MDRD4 (r = 0.8713) for men in the 40-49 age range. With the exception of the 30-40 age range, a low prediction error was observed for each age range in both genders when GFR was < 1.5 ml/s. We recommend utilization of the MDRD4 and CG equations for men (40-49 years) and MDRD4 and CKD-EPI for women and men (60-69 years), as preferred substitutes for Ccr.

  7. Perch and its parasites as heavy metal biomonitors in a freshwater environment: the case study of the Ružín water reservoir, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Brázová, Tímea; Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana; Salamún, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations were determined in 43 perches (Perca fluviatilis) and in two of its most common parasites, the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii and the cestode Proteocephalus percae, collected in the period 2009-2010 from Ružín, a seriously polluted water reservoir in Slovakia. Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, brain, male and female reproductive organs and adipose tissue of fish and both parasites were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, by ICP-MS. Mean concentrations of individual heavy metals in all fish samples decreased in the order zinc > copper > manganese > mercury > arsenic > chromium > cadmium > nickel > lead. Zinc was found to be the dominant element and its antagonistic interaction with copper was confirmed. The kidney was a key target organ receiving the highest mean concentrations of all analyzed metals, but some metals showed specific affinity for particular tissues. In terms of human health, concentration of Hg in fish muscle, which exceeded more than two-times its maximum level admitted in foodstuffs in European countries, is of great importance and should be taken into account. Bioaccumulation factors (C([parasite])/C([fish tissue])) calculated for all elements indicated much higher detection skills of A. lucii and P. percae parasites than fish organs and hence, present results allow proposing both parasite models as useful tools to monitor aquatic environmental quality. Acanthocephalans, however, seem to be superior for heavy metal monitoring, also demonstrated under experimental conditions. Present results also indicate the decreasing heavy metal burden of the reservoir and its gradual recovery in the course of time.

  8. Perch and Its Parasites as Heavy Metal Biomonitors in a Freshwater Environment: The Case Study of the Ružín Water Reservoir, Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Brázová, Tímea; Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana; Šalamún, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations were determined in 43 perches (Perca fluviatilis) and in two of its most common parasites, the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii and the cestode Proteocephalus percae, collected in the period 2009–2010 from Ružín, a seriously polluted water reservoir in Slovakia. Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, brain, male and female reproductive organs and adipose tissue of fish and both parasites were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, by ICP-MS. Mean concentrations of individual heavy metals in all fish samples decreased in the order zinc > copper > manganese > mercury > arsenic > chromium > cadmium > nickel > lead. Zinc was found to be the dominant element and its antagonistic interaction with copper was confirmed. The kidney was a key target organ receiving the highest mean concentrations of all analyzed metals, but some metals showed specific affinity for particular tissues. In terms of human health, concentration of Hg in fish muscle, which exceeded more than two-times its maximum level admitted in foodstuffs in European countries, is of great importance and should be taken into account. Bioaccumulation factors (C[parasite]/C[fish tissue]) calculated for all elements indicated much higher detection skills of A. lucii and P. percae parasites than fish organs and hence, present results allow proposing both parasite models as useful tools to monitor aquatic environmental quality. Acanthocephalans, however, seem to be superior for heavy metal monitoring, also demonstrated under experimental conditions. Present results also indicate the decreasing heavy metal burden of the reservoir and its gradual recovery in the course of time. PMID:22736993

  9. Intensive low-temperature tectono-hydrothermal overprint of peraluminous rare-metal granite: a case study from the Dlhá dolina valley (Gemericum, Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Karel; Broska, Igor; Uher, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    A unique case of low-temperature metamorphic (hydrothermal) overprint of peraluminous, highly evolved rare-metal S-type granite is described. The hidden Dlhá dolina granite pluton of Permian age (Western Carpathians, eastern Slovakia) is composed of barren biotite granite, mineralized Li-mica granite and albitite. Based on whole-rock chemical data and evaluation of compositional variations of rock-forming and accessory minerals (Rb-P-enriched K-feldspar and albite; biotite, zinnwaldite and di-octahedral micas; Hf-(Sc)-rich zircon, fluorapatite, topaz, schorlitic tourmaline), the following evolutionary scenario is proposed: (1) Intrusion of evolved peraluminous melt enriched in Li, B, P, F, Sn, Nb, Ta, and W took place followed by intrusion of a large body of biotite granites into Paleozoic metapelites and metarhyolite tuffs; (2) The highly evolved melt differentiated in situ forming tourmaline-bearing Li-biotite granite at the bottom, topaz-zinnwaldite granite in the middle, and quartz albitite to albitite at the top of the cupola. The main part of the Sn, Nb, and Ta crystallized from the melt as disseminated cassiterite and Nb-Ta oxide minerals within the albitite, while disseminated wolframite appears mainly within the topaz-zinnwaldite granite. The fluid separated from the last portion of crystallized magma caused small scale greisenization of the albitite; (3) Alpine (Cretaceous) thrusting strongly tectonized and mylonitized the upper part of the pluton. Hydrothermal low-temperature fluids enriched in Ca, Mg, and CO2 unfiltered mechanically damaged granite. This fluid-driven overprint caused formation of carbonate veinlets, alteration and release of phosphorus from crystal lattice of feldspars and Li from micas, precipitating secondary Sr-enriched apatite and Mg-rich micas. Consequently, all bulk-rock and mineral markers were reset and now represent the P-T conditions of the Alpine overprint.

  10. Association between metabolic syndrome and hepatitis B virus infection in the Roma population in eastern Slovakia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Janicko, Martin; Senajová, Gabriela; Drazilová, Sylvia; Veselíny, Eduard; Fedacko, Ján; Siegfried, Leonard; Kristian, Pavol; Virág, Ladislav; Pella, Daniel; Mareková, Mária; Gecková, Andrea Madarasová; Kalanin, Peter; Jarcuska, Peter; Halánová, Monika

    2014-03-01

    The simultaneous presence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in the high-risk Roma community constitutes a high risk for liver cirrhosis and potentially hepatocellular carcinoma. This study aims to explore the relationship between MS and CHB. Data from the cross-sectional HepaMeta Study conducted in Slovakia in 2011 among Roma living in rural communities were used. Participants were tested for the presence of MS, and lipid levels--total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein B100, and CHB HBsAg and anti-HBc IgG were also monitored. Viral load was measured in HBsAg-positive patients. A total of 452 patients were screened; MS was diagnosed in 29.6% of patients, and 12.5% had CHB. Anti-HBc IgG antibodies were present in 52.8% of patients. CHB patients had lower levels of total cholesterol (5.45 +/-1.21 vs. 4.71 +/- 1.23 mmol/l; p = 0.035), LDL cholesterol (median 2.2 mmol/l, interquartile range 0.88 mmol/l vs. 2.5 mmol/l, interquartile range 0.9 mmol/l; p = 0.01) and apolipoprotein B100 (median 0.66 mmol/l, interquartile range 0.26 mmol/l vs. 0.74 mmol/l, interquartile range 0.29 mmol/l; p = 0.025). Patients diagnosed with MS had a higher HBV DNA load than patients without MS (1,728.2 +/- 14.33 IU/ml vs. 12,779.1 +/- 20.9 IU/ml; p = 0.037). CHB patients with TC and apolipoprotein B100 within the reference range had a lower hepatitis B DNA (HBV DNA) load than patients with high or low values of TC or apolipoprotein B100. The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B and simultaneous presence of MS was high among Roma. HBsAg-positive patients had lower levels of total and LDL cholesterol along with decreased apolipoprotein B100. The viral load of chronic hepatitis B patients with MS was higher than in patients without MS.

  11. Chemical composition and evolution of tourmaline-supergroup minerals from the Sb hydrothermal veins in Rožňava area, Western Carpathians, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bačík, Peter; Dikej, Jakub; Fridrichová, Jana; Miglierini, Marcel; Števko, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Tourmaline-supergroup minerals are common gangue minerals in Sb-hydrothermal veins on Betliar - Straková, Čučma - Gabriela and Rožňava - Peter-Pavol vein deposits in the Rožňava area, Slovakia. Tourmaline-supergroup minerals form relatively large prismatic to radial aggregates of parallel black to greyish-black crystals. Tourmaline-supergroup minerals from Betliar - Straková and Rožňava - Peter-Pavol are almost homogeneous with intermediate schorl-dravite composition. Čučma - Gabriela tourmaline have distinct zoning with massive core of the schorlitic-to-feruvitic shifting to schorlitic-to-dravitic composition, and dravitic to magnesio-foititic rim. The tourmaline composition is influenced by two main substitutions, namely Ca(Mg,Fe)Na-1Al-1 and X □AlNa-1(Mg,Fe)-1. Betliar - Straková and Rožňava - Peter-Pavol tourmaline-supergroup minerals exhibit only small extents of the X □AlNa-1(Mg,Fe)-1 substitution. This substitution shifts the composition to magnesio-foitite in Čučma - Gabriela tourmaline. The decrease of Al in the core of Čučma - Gabriela tourmaline crystals is caused by extensive Ca(Mg,Fe)Na-1Al-1 substitution. The unit-cell dimensions of all investigated tourmaline-supergroup minerals indicate an octahedral disorder with the Z (Fe3++Mg) proportion calculated from empirical equations varying between 0.85 and 0.87 apfu (atoms per formula unit). Based on Mössbauer spectra, the Z Fe3+ content varied between 0.25 apfu in Betliar - Straková tourmaline and 0.45 apfu in Čučma - Gabriela sample. Based on Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratio, Betliar - Straková tourmaline is slightly enriched in Fe compared to Rožňava - Peter-Pavol, suggesting the impact of the host-rock composition; first are grown in Fe-richer acidic metarhyolitic rocks, latter in metapelites. In Čučma - Gabriela, the variations in Fe/(Fe + Mg) are very likely reflecting the change in fluid composition. Magnesio-foitite is the product of second-stage crystallization forming rims and

  12. Assessment of environmental and health risks in former polymetallic ore mining and smelting area, Slovakia: Spatial distribution and accumulation of mercury in four different ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Árvay, Július; Demková, Lenka; Hauptvogl, Martin; Michalko, Miloslav; Bajčan, Daniel; Stanovič, Radovan; Tomáš, Ján; Hrstková, Miroslava; Trebichalský, Pavol

    2017-10-01

    Former long-term mining and smelting of pollymetallic ores in the Middle Spiš area caused a serious contamination problem of the environment with heavy metals and metalloids, especially mercury (Hg). Several studies have reported concentration of Hg in the area but this paper provides first detailed characterization of Hg contamination of different environmental components in agricultural, forest, grassland and urban ecosystems. The ecosystems are in different distances from emission sources - former mercury and copper smelting plants in NE Slovakia. Total Hg content was studied in soil/substrate samples (n = 234) and characteristic biological samples (Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth, Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer, Boletus edulis Bull., Cyanoboletus pulverulentus (Opat.) Gelardi, Vizzini & Simonini, Triticum aestivum (L.), Poa pratensis (L.)) (n = 234) collected in the above-mentioned ecosystems. The level of contamination and environmental risks were assessed by contamination factor (Cf), index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) and potential environmental risk index (PER). To determine the level of transition of Hg from abiotic to biotic environment, bioconcentration factor (BCF) was used. To determine a health risk resulting from regular and long-term consumption of the locally available species, the results of the Hg content were compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) for Hg defined by World Health Organization. The results suggest that almost 63% of the area belong to the very high risk category and 80% of the sampling sites shown very high contamination factor. Geoaccumulation index showed that almost 30% of the area is very strongly contaminated and only 8% is not contaminated with Hg. Spearman's correlation relationship confirmed that the values of PER, BCF, Cf and Igeo decreased with an increasing distance from the pollution source. The percentage of contribution to PTWI ranged between 5.76-69.0% for adults and 11.5-138% for children

  13. Focal mechanisms of micro-earthquakes in the Dobrá Voda seismoactive area in the Malé Karpaty Mts. (Little Carpathians), Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fojtíková, Lucia; Vavryčuk, Václav; Cipciar, Andrej; Madarás Malé, Ján

    2010-09-01

    We have analyzed 44 micro-earthquakes with magnitudes between 1.2 and 3.4, which occurred in the Dobrá Voda area, Slovakia, in the period 2001-2009. The epicentres of the micro-earthquakes form a cluster elongated in the ENE-WSW direction. This direction coincides with the orientation of the main fault systems in the area: Dobrá Voda and Brezová faults. The depths of the hypocentres vary from 1 km to 14 km. Three different methods were used to calculate the focal mechanisms: (a) a method using the polarities of Pg and Pn waves, (b) the P-wave amplitude inversion of moment tensors, and (c) the waveform inversion of moment tensors. The majority of the analyzed micro-earthquakes have a left-lateral strike-slip focal mechanism with weak normal or reverse components. The full moment tensors comprise significant non-double-couple (non-DC) components. The non-DC components are partly numerical errors of the inversion but might be also of a physical origin. The most accurate values of the non-DC components are obtained from the P-wave amplitude inversion. For this inversion, the isotropic component (ISO) and the compensated linear vector dipole component (CLVD) are mostly positive and well correlated. This might indicate tensile faulting. Adopting the model of tensile faulting, we estimated the mean ratio of P to S wave velocities in the focal area from the values of ISO and CLVD, vP/ vS = 1.5-1.6. The three different datasets of the focal mechanisms have been inverted for the present-day tectonic stress in the Dobrá Voda area. The slip shear stress component criterion was applied in the stress inversion. The results of the three inversions are well-consistent and point to a high reliability and good accuracy of the inverted stress. The orientations of the principal stresses are (azimuth/plunge): σ1 = 210-220°/5-25°, σ2 = 70-105°/55-75°, and σ3 = 305-315°/15-25°, and the shape ratio is R = 0.45-0.60. The azimuth is measured clockwise from the north and the

  14. Evolution of borate minerals from contact metamorphic to hydrothermal stages: Ludwigite-group minerals and szaibélyite from the Vysoká - Zlatno skarn, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilohuščin, Vladimír; Uher, Pavel; Koděra, Peter; Milovská, Stanislava; Mikuš, Tomáš; Bačík, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Borate minerals of the ludwigite group (LGM) and szaibélyite in association with hydroxylclinohumite, clinochlore, a serpentine mineral, magnesian magnetite, spinel, magnesite, dolomite and sulphide minerals, occur in a magnesian exoskarn in the R-20 borehole located in the Vysoká - Zlatno Cu-Au porphyry-skarn deposit, located within the Štiavnica Neogene stratovolcano, Western Carpathians, central Slovakia. The skarn is developed along the contact of Miocene granodiorite to quartz-diorite porphyry and a Middle-Upper Triassic dolomite-shale-psammite-anhydrite sedimentary sequence. The boron minerals were investigated by electron probe micro-analyser (EPMA) and micro-Raman techniques. The source of boron could have been from the granodiorite/quartz diorite intrusion; however some supply of B from adjacent evaporite-bearing sediments is also possible. Based on textural and compositional data, the minerals originated during two stages. (1) An early high-temperature, contact-metamorphic and metasomatic stage comprises coarse-crystalline aggregate of LGM (types 1 to 3) in association with hydroxylclinohumite, magnetite, and rarely spinel inclusions in LGM. Compositional variations of LGM show a crystallization sequence from early azoproite [≤17 wt% TiO2; 0.40 atoms pre formula unit (apfu) Ti, which correspond to ≤79 mol% of the Mg2(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O2(BO3) end-member], Ti-Al-rich members of LGM, "aluminoludwigite "[≤14 wt% Al2O3; ≤0.53 apfu, ≤53 mol% of Mg2AlO2(BO3) end-member] and Al-rich ludwigite in the central zone of crystals, to Ti-Al-poor ludwigite in outer parts of crystals. (2) Minerals of the late retrograde serpentinization and hydrothermal stage form irregular veinlets and aggregates, including partial alteration of hydroxylclinohumite to the serpentine-group mineral and clinochlore, replacement of LGM by szaibélyite, formation of the latest generation of Fe-rich, Ti-Al poor ludwigite in veinlets (type 4), and precipitation of dolomite, magnesite and

  15. Bioaccumulation of six PCB indicator congeners in a heavily polluted water reservoir in Eastern Slovakia: tissue-specific distribution in fish and their parasites.

    PubMed

    Brázová, Tímea; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of six indicator PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) were measured in several organs and adipose tissue of a freshwater predatory fishes (European perch, northern pike, pike perch, wels catfish) as well as in nonpredators (common carp, freshwater bream, goldfish, white bream) and in acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii from the water reservoir Zemplínska šírava (Eastern Slovakia), which is considered to be one of the most PCB-contaminated places in Europe. Concentration of PCBs was determined by capillary gas chromatography in samples from May to September 2009. The two-way main-effect ANOVA confirmed that feeding habits of fish (P < 0.00001) and peculiarity of individual fish organs (P < 0.01) affect PCB bioaccumulation. The total amount of PCBs was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in predators compared to nonpredators. Tissue-specific differences were found in PCB accumulation in both fish groups. PCBs were predominantly accumulated in the liver and hard roe. Individual congeners were not distributed homogeneously within the investigated organs and adipose tissue. PCB 153 was present in higher concentrations than the other congeners in all fish organs as well as in adipose tissue comprising an average 31 and 34 % of ΣPCB in predators and nonpredators, respectively. Acanthocephalans, attached to the intestine of perch, absorbed significantly higher concentrations of PCBs (P < 0.001) than the muscles, liver, kidney, brain, and adipose tissue of their host. About 20 times lower amount of PCBs was detected in the liver and almost 3 times in muscles of infected perch. Data on PCB accumulation in perch infected with acanthocephalans demonstrated a decline of PCB values in all organs as well as in adipose tissue compared to noninfected fish. About 20 times lower amount of PCBs was detected in the liver and almost 3 times in muscles of infected perch. Present results could indicate that some parasitic organisms may

  16. Growth responses to climate in a multi-species tree-ring network in the Western Carpathian Tatra Mountains, Poland and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Büntgen, Ulf; Frank, David C; Kaczka, Ryszard J; Verstege, Anne; Zwijacz-Kozica, Tomasz; Esper, Jan

    2007-05-01

    We analyzed growth responses to climate of 24 tree-ring width and four maximum latewood density chronologies from the greater Tatra region in Poland and Slovakia. This network comprises 1183 ring-width and 153 density measurement series from four conifer species (Picea abies (L.) Karst., Larix decidua Mill., Abies alba (L.) Karst., and Pinus mugo (L.)) between 800 and 1550 m a.s.l. Individual spline detrending was used to retain annual to multi-decadal scale climate information in the data. Twentieth century temperature and precipitation data from 16 grid-boxes covering the 48-50 degrees N and 19-21 degrees E region were used for comparison. The network was analyzed to assess growth responses to climate as a function of species, elevation, parameter, frequency and site ecology. Twenty ring-width chronologies significantly correlated (P<0.05) with June-July temperatures, whereas the latewood density chronologies were correlated with the April-September temperatures. Climatic effects of the previous-year summer generally did not significantly influence ring formation, whereas site elevation and frequency of growth variations (i.e., inter-annual and decadal) were significant variables in explaining growth response to climate. Response to precipitation increased with decreasing elevation. Correlations between summer temperatures and annual growth rates were lower for Larix decidua than for Picea abies. Principal component analysis identified five dominant eigenvectors that express somewhat contrasting climatic signals. The first principal component contained highest loadings from 11 Picea abies ring-width chronologies and one Pinus mugo ring-width chronology and explained 42% of the network's variance. The mean of these 12 high-elevation chronologies was significantly correlated at 0.62 with June-July temperatures, whereas the mean of three latewood density chronologies, which loaded most strongly on the fourth principal component, significantly correlated at 0.69 with

  17. Accretionary wedge harzburgite serpentinization and rodingitization constrained by perovskite U/Pb SIMS age, trace elements and Sm/Nd isotopes: Case study from the Western Carpathians, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xian-Hua; Putiš, Marián; Yang, Yue-Heng; Koppa, Matúš; Dyda, Marian

    2014-09-01

    Perovskite-bearing harzburgites occur in a “mélange” type blueschist-bearing accretionary wedge complex of the Inner Western Carpathians Meliata Unit in Slovakia. Although dark rounded, slightly hydrated relic “cores” of harzburgite boulders are perovskite-free, perovskite (Prv) occurrence in the surrounding serpentinites and rodingites enabled dating of hydration, resulting in two metamorphic-metasomatic Prv generations. Perovskite (1) grows parallel to relic clinopyroxene exsolution lamellae or forms randomly oriented grain clusters in serpentinized orthopyroxene (Opx1) porphyroclasts, often accompanied by tiny andradite lamellae clusters, or it is partly replaced by Ti-andradite. Perovskite crystallization indicates evolving rodingitization fluids pervading the boundary between the harzburgite “cores” and Prv-free serpentinite. This strictly limited occurrence of Prv (1) within a 1 to 20-cm across-zone implies slightly postponed Prv crystallization to serpentinization by LREE(Ce,La), Ca2+, Ti/Fe3+-enriched aqueous fluids. A grain scale metasomatic mechanism partitioned Ca and Ti from the host orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, spinel (Ti) and grain-boundary pervasive fluids to Prv. In contrast, Prv (2) occurs in a 1 to 3 cm across chlorite-rich blackwall zone between hosting serpentinite and rodingite veins, thus indicating channelled rodingitization fluid flow and accompanying hydraulic fracturing. Here, Prv (2) is ingrown by chlorite and apatite. Part of this Prv (2) formed in a rodingite vein mineral assemblage composed of diopside, andradite, vesuvianite, epidote/zoisite, apatite and chlorite. Both perovskite 1 and 2 are replaced by pyrophanite along the grain rims and interiors; most likely via fluid-aided coupled dissolution-reprecipitation at increased Si-Fe-Mn-Al element solubility in rodingitization fluids pervading serpentinized harzburgite. Both Prv generations, especially Prv (2), can be partly to almost totally replaced by (Ti-) Adr

  18. Mineralogy, alteration patterns, geochemistry, and fluid properties of the Ag-Au epithermal deposit Nová Baňa, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majzlan, Juraj; Berkh, Khulan; Kiefer, Stefan; Koděra, Peter; Fallick, Anthony E.; Chovan, Martin; Bakos, František; Biroň, Adrián; Ferenc, Štefan; Lexa, Jaroslav

    2017-06-01

    In this contribution, we report new data on mineralogy, alteration patterns, geochemistry, fluid properties and source of fluids for the deposit Nová Baňa, one of the smaller epithermal deposits in the Middle Miocene Štiavnica andesite stratovolcano (Western Carpathians, Slovakia). Ore veins and the associated rocks were studied in samples from outcrops and old mines, grab samples, and bore holes from the central part of the deposit (ore structures Althandel, Jozef, Jakub, Vavrinec), northern part (Freischurf), SE part (Gupňa) and SW part (Šibeničný vrch). Pervasive hydrothermal alteration transformed the rock-forming minerals into a mixture of adularia and fine-grained quartz, with lesser amount of pyrite, Ti oxides and Fe oxides. This assemblage was further altered to omnipresent interstratified illite/smectite that was used in this study as a geothermometer, corroborating the results from the fluid inclusion work. Ore minerals comprise predominantly pyrite, sphalerite, galena but all sulfides are relatively sparse in the samples studied. Minerals of precious metals are electrum, Ag-tetrahedrite, acanthite, members of the polybasite-pearceite and pyrargyrite-proustite solid solution, and rare miargyrite, Hg-Ag tetrahedrite, and diaphorite. In the central part, we have found also some stibnite. In the SE part of the deposit, acanthite, uytenbogaardtite, and petrovskaite occur and seem to be related to supergene enrichment of the ores. In bulk ore samples, Zn usually dominates over Pb and Cu. The average Ag:Au ratio for the entire deposit is 64:1. The concentrations of precious metals in the grab samples reach maxima of 50 ppm Au and 570 ppm Ag in the SE part and 116 ppm Au and 1110 ppm Ag in the central part of the deposit. Fluid inclusions show signs of trapping of a heterogeneous fluid. In the central, northern and SE parts of the deposit, homogenization temperatures of 190-260 °C and consistently low salinities of <5 wt% NaCl eq were recorded. In the SW

  19. Slovakia 1944. The Forgotten Uprising

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    embodied in earlier generations of Airmen. Projects selected for publication combine solid research, innovative thought, and lucid presentation in...population.4 The dreams were fulfilled on 28 October 98 when the Czech National Committee in Prague de- clared a new “Czecho-Slovak” state and

  20. Immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children primed with the 10-valent or 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Urbancikova, Ingrid; Prymula, Roman; Goldblatt, David; Roalfe, Lucy; Prymulova, Karolina; Kosina, Pavel

    2017-09-12

    Although both the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) are widely used, it is unclear how interchangeable they are in terms of immunogenicity. Two phase 3, open-label, multicenter studies were conducted to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of PCV13 in children primed with PHiD-CV or PCV13. In the Czech Republic, 12-15-month-old children received a PCV13 booster after 3-dose priming with either PHiD-CV or PCV13. In Slovakia, 11-12-month-old children received PCV13 following 2-dose priming with either PHiD-CV or PCV13. Serum IgG concentrations were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and functional antibodies were assessed by opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) before the booster and at 1 and 12months afterward. The primary objective of these studies was to assess non-inferiority of OPA titers for serotype 19A in PHiD-CV-primed subjects compared to those in PCV13-primed children 1month post-booster. A total of 98 subjects in the Czech Republic and 89 subjects in Slovakia were included. One month after the PCV13 booster dose, the IgG and OPA immune responses to serotype 19A in subjects primed with 2 or 3 doses of PHiD-CV were non-inferior to those in subjects primed with PCV13. Non-inferior and persistent immune responses to most other vaccine serotypes were also observed after the PCV13 booster in PHiD-CV-primed subjects. No safety issues were raised in either study. Overall, robust IgG and OPA immunological responses were observed after booster vaccination with PCV13 in children primed with 2 or 3 doses of PHiD-CV or PCV13, including for serotypes not included in PHiD-CV. These results suggest that these vaccines are interchangeable in terms of safety and immunogenicity and that PCV13 can be used as a booster in the context of mixed schedules. (EudraCT numbers: 2012-005366-35 and 2012-005367-27). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  1. OPERATION CASTLE. Radiological Safety. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    a considerable extent by the successful application of graphical vectorial solutions to the equations and the assumption of workable empirical...UTIRIK (CONT’D) 5V FOOD flB VfllTg DATAt 11% QkTE CP PROCURPOMT 4-23-» ... DAIE or ACTIVITr ANALISIS Drinking Water-Cistern near

  2. Castles from Junk, Dream Homes from Scrap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Neville

    1998-01-01

    Argues that architectural models allow students to express their ideas on a range of topics from dream homes and interior decorating to historical periods and places. Provides a general outline of the process of creating architectural models, from decorating shoeboxes to creating sophisticated models. (DSK)

  3. First record and description of juvenile stages of Longidorus artemisiae Rubtsova, Chizhov & Subbotin, 1999 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Poland and new data on L. juglandicola Lišková, Robbins & Brown, 1997 based on topotype specimens from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Kornobis, Franciszek Wojciech; Renčo, Marek; Filipiak, Anna

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the first geographical record of the needle nematode Longidorus artemisiae Rubtsova, Chizhov & Subbotin, 1999 outside Russia. This species was found in Poland near the city of Skierniewice in association with nettle (Urtica dioica L.). Morphometric and morphological data are provided, including the first description of juveniles of this species. Nematodes of the Polish population differ from the type-population in Russia in possessing a thicker body (lower 'a' index) in both sexes; males having a longer body and longer spicules; different sex ratio (1:2 in Polish population vs 1:1 in the type-population) and somewhat less expanded lips. Molecularly, the Polish population was characterised by sequencing D2-D3 28S rDNA and ITS1 markers. Additionally, new data on these two markers are provided for another species, Longidorus juglandicola Lišková, Robbins & Brown, 1997, obtained from topotype specimens from Slovakia. Surprisingly, despite the high morphological similarity of these two species, analysis of their phylogenetic position did not show close phylogenetic relation and several other species (less similar in general morphology) appeared more closely related to both L. artemisiae and L. juglandicola.

  4. A synopsis of records of myxozoan parasites (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) from shrews, with additional data on Soricimyxum fegati from common shrew Sorex araneus in Hungary and pygmy shrew Sorex minutus in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Csaba; Atkinson, Stephen D; Molnar, Kalman; Egyed, Laszlo; Gubanyi, Andras; Cech, Gabor

    2016-06-13

    Myxozoans (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) are almost exclusively endoparasites of aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates, with the notable exception being two species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 described from terrestrial shrews (Soricidae) in central Europe. Myxospores of the two parasites are morphologically indistinguishable, but have SSU rDNA sequences that differ by about 4%. Herein, we report additional molecular and histology data from Soricimyxum fegati Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 from common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus) from Hungary, and add a new geographic record for S. fegati in pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus Linnaeus) from Slovakia. A limited survey of shrews from the northern United States, Blarina brevicauda Say and Sorex sp. from New York, and Sorex spp. from Oregon, did not discover any infections, which is in stark contrast to the relatively high infection rates (up to 66%) in European shrew populations. We also provide a summary and discussion of literature records of species of Soricimyxum and a host survey. Given the lack of distinguishing morphological or morphometric characters between Soricimyxum spp., and the overlap in vertebrate hosts and geographic ranges, unambiguous identification of these closely related shrew parasites can presently only be achieved through sequence comparison of one or more variable SSU rDNA regions.

  5. The Meteoroids 2013, Proceedings of the Astronomical Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jopek, T. J.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Watanabe, J.; Williams, I. P.

    2014-07-01

    The idea of holding a conference on meteors and interplanetary dust emerged at the commission 22 meetings during the IAU General Assembly in Baltimore and was firmed up at the next meeting in Buenos Aires, where it was decided to hold a conference in Czechoslovakia in 1992. This was 25 years since a meeting "Physics and Dynamics of Meteors" was held at Tatranska Lomnica, Czechoslovakia. The first Meteoroids Conference was held in Smolenice July 6-10 1992. Interestingly, by the time the proceedings were published (Meteoroids and their Parent Bodies) Czechoslovakia had divided into two independent countries and the book was published by the Slovak Academy of Sciences. Since that beginning, meetings have been held at roughly three year intervals (Bratislava, Slovakia, 1994; Tatranska Lomica, Slovakia, 1997; Kiruna, Sweden, 2001; London, Canada, 2004; Barcelona, Spain, 2007; Breckenridge, USA, 2010) and this volume publishes papers presented at the eighth meeting held at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland 26 - 30 August 2013. This meeting, as did the first meeting in Smolenice and some of the others, followed the annual meeting of the International Meteor Organization, thus allowing a continuation of the fruitful collaboration between professional and amateur astronomers that is common in meteor astronomy, by allowing participants to easily attend both meetings. A special session on outreach and relation with amateur meteor astronomers was included in the program. There were 103 participants from 27 countries at the conference. A signicant part of the conference was devoted to the results from the spectacular and large fireball that was observed over Chelyabinsk in Russia on 15th February 2013 and to meteorite falls in general as well as meteoroid interactions with the planetary atmospheres. Other areas of science covered were Observation techniques; Sporadic and shower meteoroids; Physical properties of meteoroids; Meteoroid parent bodies; interplanetary

  6. Niobium-tantalum oxide minerals in the Jezuitské Lesy granitic pegmatite, Bratislava Massif, Slovakia: Ta to Nb and Fe to Mn evolutionary trends in a narrow Be,Cs-rich and Li,B-poor dike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudík, Peter; Uher, Pavel; Gadas, Petr; Škoda, Radek; Pršek, Jaroslav

    2011-10-01

    A complex assemblage of Nb-Ta-(Sn) oxide minerals occur in a relatively narrow (~1-2 m thick) extensively albitized, Hercynian granitic pegmatite dike intruding biotite granodiorites near Bratislava, SW Slovakia. The dike shows enrichment in beryl (locally Cs-rich) but absence of Li- and B-rich phases. Compositions and textural relationships indicate complex evolutions of Nb-Ta oxide phases with several generations presenting distinct textural and compositional features. The first generation of the Nb-Ta minerals from the quartz-microcline-muscovite zone show Ta,Fe-rich compositions with Ta# [Ta/(Ta + Nb)] = 0.52-0.70 (Ct I columbite-tantalite), 0.88-0.90 (Tap I ferrotapiolite) and 0.73-0.86 (Fw I ferrowodginite); Mn# [Mn/(Mn + Fe)] = 0.32-0.49 (Ct I), 0.06-0.10 (Tap I) and 0.33-0.41 (Fw I). The 2nd generation is represented by ferrocolumbite to ferrotantalite (Ct II) in saccharoidal albite zone, replacement zones of Ct II in Ct I, and irregular overgrowths of ferrotapiolite (Tap II) and ferrowodginite (Fw II) on Tap I grains. The minerals of the 2nd generation show decreasing of Ta# in comparison to the 1st group: 0.10-0.60 (Ct II), 0.85-0.87 (Tap II) and 0.73-0.77 (Fw II); Mn# attains 0.30-0.45 (Ct II), 0.06-0.09 (Tap II) and 0.26-0.37 (Fw II). The 3rd generation includes fissure fillings, overgrowths and replacement zones of manganocolumbite and manganotantalite (Ct III), ferrotapiolite (Tap III) and ferrowodginite (Fw III) on the older Nb-Ta phases (Ct I, Tap I, Fw I, Fw II), in the coarse-grained unit. The 3rd population displays distinct Mn# increasing (Ct III: 0.51-0.69, Tap III: 0.11-0.24, Fw III: 0.40-0.41), Ta# values reach 0.16-0.79 (Ct III), 0.88-0.92 (Tap III) and 0.80-0.81 (Fw III). The latest, 4th generation of the Nb-Ta phases represents irregular veinlets and patches of fluorcalciomicrolite, replacing Ct I, Tap I, Fw I, Ct II and Tap III. Decrease of Ta/(Ta + Nb) values in Ct II from the saccharoidal albite unit can be explained by crystallization

  7. Estimating the upper limit of prehistoric peak ground acceleration using an in situ, intact and vulnerable stalagmite from Plavecká priepast cave (Detrekői-zsomboly), Little Carpathians, Slovakia-first results.

    PubMed

    Gribovszki, K; Kovács, K; Mónus, P; Bokelmann, G; Konecny, P; Lednická, M; Moseley, G; Spötl, C; Edwards, R L; Bednárik, M; Brimich, L; Tóth, L

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes hit urban centres in Europe infrequently, but occasionally with disastrous effects. Obtaining an unbiased view of seismic hazard (and risk) is therefore very important. In principle, the best way to test probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs) is to compare them with observations that are entirely independent of the procedure used to produce PSHA models. Arguably, the most valuable information in this context should be information on long-term hazard, namely maximum intensities (or magnitudes) occurring over time intervals that are at least as long as a seismic cycle. The new observations can provide information of maximum intensity (or magnitude) for long timescale as an input data for PSHA studies as well. Long-term information can be gained from intact stalagmites in natural caves. These formations survived all earthquakes that have occurred over thousands of years, depending on the age of the stalagmite. Their 'survival' requires that the horizontal ground acceleration (HGA) has never exceeded a certain critical value within that time period. Here, we present such a stalagmite-based case study from the Little Carpathians of Slovakia. A specially shaped, intact and vulnerable stalagmite in the Plavecká priepast cave was examined in 2013. This stalagmite is suitable for estimating the upper limit of horizontal peak ground acceleration generated by prehistoric earthquakes. The critical HGA values as a function of time going back into the past determined from the stalagmite that we investigated are presented. For example, at the time of Jókő event (1906), the critical HGA value cannot have been higher than 1 and 1.3 m/s(2) at the time of the assumed Carnuntum event (∼340 AD), and 3000 years ago, it must have been lower than 1.7 m/s(2). We claimed that the effect of Jókő earthquake (1906) on the location of the Plavecká priepast cave is consistent with the critical HGA value provided by the stalagmite we investigated. The approach

  8. Two-dimensional appraisal of geomorphic control on braidplain and in-channel structural connectivity of a braided-wandering river from aerial photos (case study the Belá River, Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidová, Anna; Lehotský, Milan

    2014-05-01

    Throughout the Europe, reductions in the extent of braided river reaches have occurred since the end of the 19th century and throughout the 20th century. This is a particular study priority of present braided rivers, because they are unique natural entities and rich ecosystems. Understanding the temporal and spatial connectivity that has characterised braidplain and channel behaviour will give crucial information about the evolution and management decisions of this type of rivers. The aim of the contribution is to understand how the spatial connectivity has developed on the Belá River (23.6 km, average annual discharge 6.8 m3 s-1 at mouth, Strahler ord. 5, as a laterally unconfined, gravel-bed river with braided-wandering pattern situated in the North of Slovakia); evaluate how time-spatial linkages of channel and floodplain landforms have been affected by recent large flood events and local factors. Four geomorphological coupling levels of the structural connectivity for seven time periods, using aerial photography (1949-2009) have been investigated: i. valley slope/low terraces-braidplain; ii. channel-channel level; iii. channel-bank level; iiii. bar-channel bed level. Each time horizon has been selected to be representative for estimation linkages changes after large flood event. The development of geomorphological structural connectivity is examined by documenting sequential changes in braidplain width, channel planform (braided and wandering indices), bar and bank attached erosion/accretion areas as parameters reflecting four types of connectivity. The changes in the structural connectivity is expressed in the three-point ordinal scale (1. increasing; 2. unchanging; 3. decreasing) as well as in the map expression of river reaches zonation. Generally, the width of braidplain with decreasing trend refers to long term decoupling valley slope/terraces-braidplain linkages. This trend is prove also by decreasing of the braidplain area. The values of braided indices

  9. Arbovirus isolations from mosquitoes in South Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Danielová, V; Málková, D; Minár, J; Rehse-Küpper, B; Hájková, Z; Halgos, J; Jedlicka, L

    1978-01-01

    In the years 1973 and 1975 mosquitoes and some other Diptera (Tabanidae, Simuliidae, Hippoboscidae) were tested for virus. 13,924 mosquitoes, 75 horseflies and 60 blackflies were processed in 1973. Five strains of Tahyna virus were isolated from mosquito species Aedes vexans. 3,378 mosquitoes and 12 sheep keds were tested for virus in 1975. Twelve strains of Calovo virus were isolated from Anopheles maculipennis and one strain of Tahyna virus was obtained from Aedes vexans mosquitoes.

  10. First cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Ondriska, Frantisek; Mrva, Martin; Lichvár, Martin; Ziak, Peter; Murgasová, Zuzana; Nohýnková, Eva

    2004-01-01

    We present the case report of the first identification of Acanthamoeba as a causative agent of keratitis in the Slovak Republic. For the first time, Acanthamoeba sp. Group III was isolated from a 53-year-old patient with keratitis, which was manifested after an injury of the right eye. A delayed visit to a physician as well as a late diagnosis of the illness led to the advanced stage of eye disease. As the treatment with itraconazol and cornea transplantation showed no result, enucleation of the eye was decided. Acanthamoeba ludgunensis was also the causative agent of keratitis in a 39-year-old patient wearing contact lenses. His complaints occurred a month after bathing in a thermal swimming pool. The symptoms presented in the left eye were those of herpetic keratitis, and led to a cloudy cornea with circular infliltrate and poor vision. A prompt clinical and laboratory diagnosis, along with treatment with propamidine-isetionate resulted in a significant improvement of the eye condition. Contact lenses were probably related to another case of Acanthamoeba keratitis. The patient, a 15-year-old girl, kept wearing contact lenses during bathing in various swimming pools and in the sea; her contact lenses were also regularly washed under tap water. Due to the fact that cysts of Acanthamoeba sp. group II were found in the contact lens solution, this is presumed to be the source of the eye infection.

  11. MISTY CASTLE Series. MILL RACE Event. Sanitized.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-18

    When used as a propellant, quantity-distance criteria for anhydrous ammonia tanks will conform to the requirements of AFM 127-100 with the following...certain nitrogen-containing compounds react with secondary mines, a group of organic compounds which can be considered as derived from amonia with two of

  12. Castle Towns: An Introduction to Tokugawa Japan. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit introduces students to the historical tradition of a non-Western nation seen within the comparative concept of feudalism. This is done partly through a look at Tokugawa Japan and partly through a comparative examination of the concept of feudalism. Although the unit deals mainly with a specific time span in Japanese history, it also…

  13. Castle Nugent National Historic Site Establishment Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Christensen, Donna M. [D-VI-At Large

    2009-10-06

    01/28/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Castle Nugent National Historic Site Establishment Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Christensen, Donna M. [D-VI-At Large

    2009-10-06

    Senate - 01/28/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Castles Made of Sand: Building Sustainable Digitized Collections Using XML.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragon, Bart

    2003-01-01

    Describes work at the University of Virginia library to digitize special collections. Discusses the use of XML (Extensible Markup Language); providing access to original source materials; DTD (Document Type Definition); TEI (Text Encoding Initiative); metadata; XSL (Extensible Style Language); and future possibilities. (LRW)

  16. Castles Made of Sand: Building Sustainable Digitized Collections Using XML.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragon, Bart

    2003-01-01

    Describes work at the University of Virginia library to digitize special collections. Discusses the use of XML (Extensible Markup Language); providing access to original source materials; DTD (Document Type Definition); TEI (Text Encoding Initiative); metadata; XSL (Extensible Style Language); and future possibilities. (LRW)

  17. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1 - Records Search, Castle AFB, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    shale water. * PUZ-tTZRIAAY Basement complex Metauorphic and igneous rocks. Fractures and joints locally yield small quantities of water, otherwise...Division of Mines and Geology, Bulletin 190. Dickinson, W. R. and Ernest I. Rich, 1972, Petrologic Intervals and Petrofacies in the Great Valley

  18. Taking It to the Streets... and Bridges, Squares, and Castles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiaverina, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Each May a Slovenian science extravaganza called Znanstival (Sciencetival, www.sciencetival.si) fills the streets and other public venues with the excitement of science. Organized by the staff of Hisa eksperimentov (House of Experiments or simply HE, www.he.si), a jewel of a science museum located in the Slovenian capital of Ljubljana, the annual…

  19. The Poster Visits Nottingham Castle in England | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Last September, Nadya Tarasova, Ph.D., head, Synthetic Biologics and Drug Discovery Facility, Cancer and Inflammation Program, traveled to Nottingham, England, where she was an invited speaker and chaired a session on JAK/STAT signaling in cancer at the second special meeting of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS).

  20. Thoreau and His Friends: Building Castles in the Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokarz, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    A seventh-grade teacher describes how her students gradually became engaged in a year-long project on Thoreau. Although initially resistant and unenthusiastic, the students became interested after two field trips involving living-history experiences, and went on to write a play involving Thoreau, his contemporary and 20th-century…

  1. Castle Nugent National Historic Site Establishment Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Christensen, Donna M. [D-VI-At Large

    2009-10-06

    01/28/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Analysis of Radiation Exposure for Naval Personnel at Operation CASTLE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-28

    identify by block number) -Fi lm badle doses ;ire reconstructed for sixteen ships and thle residence islands- of Enewetak anid Kwa ile in Atolls ...2.1.4 Shot UNION 23 2.1.5 Shot YANKEE 24 2.1.6 Shot NECTAR 25 2.2 RADIATION ENVIRONMENTS 26 2.2.1 Enewetak Atoll 34 2.2.2 Kwajalein Atoll 40 2.2.3 USS...Section Page S3 DOSE CALCULATIONS 117 3.1 PERSONNEL ACTIVITIES 117 3.2 CALCULATED PERSONNEL FILM BADGE DOSES 118 3.2.1 Enewetak Atoll Dose

  3. Castles in the Sand: Response to Schweinhart and Weikart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersten, Russell; White, W. A. T.

    1986-01-01

    Criticizes Lawrence J. Schweinhart and David Weikart's article on early childhood development in this "Educational Leadership" issue for overemphasizing inadequacies of the direct academic approach. Claims that findings were based on insufficient data and disclosed no significant differences in self-esteem, locus of control, suspension,…

  4. Taking It to the Streets... and Bridges, Squares, and Castles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiaverina, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Each May a Slovenian science extravaganza called Znanstival (Sciencetival, www.sciencetival.si) fills the streets and other public venues with the excitement of science. Organized by the staff of Hisa eksperimentov (House of Experiments or simply HE, www.he.si), a jewel of a science museum located in the Slovenian capital of Ljubljana, the annual…

  5. Multiscale Interactive Communication: Inside and Outside Thun Castle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massari, G. A.; Luce, F.; Pellegatta, C.

    2011-09-01

    The applications of informatics to architecture have become, for professionals, a great tool for managing analytical phases and project activities but also, for the general public, new ways of communication that may relate directly present, past and future facts. Museums in historic buildings, their installations and the recent experiences of eco-museums located throughout the territory provide a privileged experimentation field for technical and digital representation. On the one hand, the safeguarding and the functional adaptation of buildings use 3D computer graphics models that are real spatially related databases: in them are ordered, viewed and interpreted the results of archival, artistic-historical, diagnostic, technological-structural studies and the assumption and feasibility of interventions. On the other hand, the disclosure of things and knowledge linked to collective memory relies on interactive maps and hypertext systems that provide access to authentic virtual museums; a sort of multimedia extension of the exhibition hall is produced to an architectural scale, but at landscape scale the result is an instrument of cultural development so far unpublished: works that are separated in direct perception find in a zenith view of the map a synthetic relation, related both to spatial parameters and temporal interpretations.

  6. The Poster Visits Nottingham Castle in England | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Last September, Nadya Tarasova, Ph.D., head, Synthetic Biologics and Drug Discovery Facility, Cancer and Inflammation Program, traveled to Nottingham, England, where she was an invited speaker and chaired a session on JAK/STAT signaling in cancer at the second special meeting of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS).

  7. Straw Castles: A Role-Play in Group Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Jennie

    1993-01-01

    Describes a learning activity that allows participants to role play both dysfunctional and constructive roles during a group task, illustrating how group success depends on the attitudes and actions of its members. Includes instructions for the learning activity, questions for debriefing, and follow-up activities. (LP)

  8. 77 FR 7231 - Public Notice for Release of Aeronautical Property at New Castle Airport (ILG), New Castle, DE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... comprised of several small, narrow, Right-of-Way easement ``strips'' totaling 2.424 +/- acres in aggregate... narrow strips of land varying 1.272 acres to 0.054 acres. The strips of land are parts of Tax Parcel...

  9. Topical Issue on Optical Particle Characterization and Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere: Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Videen, Gorden; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Sun, Wenbo; Kai, Kenji; Kawamoto, Kazuaki; Horvath, Helmuth; Mishchenko, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Increasing our understanding of the Earth-atmosphere system has been a scientific and political priority for the last few decades. This system not only touches on environmental science, but it has applicability to our broader understanding of planetary atmospheres in general. While this issue focuses primarily on electromagnetics, other fundamental fields of science, including fluid and thermodynamics play major roles. In recent years, significant research efforts have led to advances in the fields of radiative transfer and electromagnetic scattering from irregularly shaped particles. Recently, several workshops and small conferences have taken place to promote the fusion of these efforts. Late in 2013, for instance, two such meetings took place. The Optical Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols (OCAA) meeting took place in Smolenice, Slovakia to promote a better understanding of microphysical properties of aerosol particles, and the characterization of such atmospheric particles using optical techniques. A complementary conference was organized in Nagoya, Japan, the 3rd International Symposium on Atmospheric Light Scattering and Remote Sensing (ISALSaRS), whose goal is to fuse the advances achieved in particle characterization with remote-sensing techniques. While the focus of these meetings is slightly different, they represent the same aspects of this rapidly growing field. This Topical Issue is the first of two parts. Within this issue we analyze different aspects of the problem of atmospheric characterization and present a broad overview of the topical area. Research includes theory and experiment, ranging from fundamental microphysical properties of individual aerosol particles to broad characterizations of atmospheric properties. Since this is an active field, we also have encouraged the submission of ideas for new methodologies that may represent the future of the field.

  10. [AOAC/EURACHEM symposium "Development in chemical analysis of environmental samples at the edge of the 21st century"].

    PubMed

    Cwiek-Ludwicka, K

    1997-01-01

    Information on the International Symposium on "Development in Chemical Analysis of Environmental Samples at the Edge of 21st Century" which was organized in Warsaw (21-22 Nov. 1996) by the AOAC International Central Europe Subsection in cooperation with National Section of Eurachem-Pl/Pollab-Chem was provided. The following national organizations/institutions also participated in the organization of the conference: the Committee of Analytical Chemistry Polish Academy of Sciences, Meat and Fat Research Institute, Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology, National Institute of Hygiene and Central Chemical Laboratory "Polcargo". It was the third Symposium organized annually by this AOAC Subsection since it was established. The first meeting was in Smolenice, Slovakia (1994), the second in Budapest, Hungary (1995), the third one in Warsaw, Poland (1996). In the Symposium attended the representatives from AOAC Int. (L. Kurtyka (USA), M. Lauwaars (The Netherlands) and from Eurachem-M. Walsh (Ireland) and also invited speakers from universities, research and testing institutes as well as from government authorities who presented the best knowledge coming from their experience. During two days of Symposium 11 plenary lectures and 4 short communications were presented. There were two main topic related groups of the lectures: (1) Analytical quality assurance with regard to the problems of accreditation, certification and quality control. (2) New methods and their applicability for the instrumental analysis and monitoring. In the opinion of the participants, the lectures and the following discussion provided many useful and updated information on development in analytical chemistry. The participants pointed out the need of the organisation of similar meetings aimed at the exchange of the views on the particular aspects of the chemical analysis and quality assurance in the laboratory.

  11. Borrelia lusitaniae and Green Lizards (Lacerta viridis), Karst Region, Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Majláth, Igor; Derdáková, Marketa; Víchová, Bronislava; Peťko, Branislav

    2006-01-01

    In Europe, spirochetes within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks. Specific associations are described between reservoir hosts and individual genospecies. We focused on green lizard (Lacerta viridis) as a host for ticks and potential host for borreliae. In 2004 and 2005, a total of 146 green lizards infested by ticks were captured, and 469 I. ricinus ticks were removed. Borrelial infection was detected in 16.6% of ticks from lizards. Of 102 skin biopsy specimens collected from lizards, 18.6% tested positive. The most frequently detected genospecies was B. lusitaniae (77.9%–94.7%). More than 19% of questing I. ricinus collected in areas where lizards were sampled tested positive for borreliae. B. garinii was the dominant species, and B. lusitaniae represented 11.1%. The presence of B. lusitaniae in skin biopsy specimens and in ticks that had fed on green lizards implicates this species in the transmission cycle of B. lusitaniae. PMID:17326941

  12. PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICLES IN BANSKA BYSTRICA, SLOVAKIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have associated adverse health impacts with ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM), though these studies have been limited in their characterization of personal exposure to PM. An exposure study of healthy nonsmoking adults and children was cond...

  13. PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICLES IN BANSKA BYSTRICA, SLOVAKIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have associated adverse health impacts with ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM), though these studies have been limited in their characterization of personal exposure to PM. An exposure study of healthy nonsmoking adults and children was cond...

  14. Natural and man-made health hazards in rural Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Gulis, Gabriel; Kollarová, Jana; Dietzová, Zuzana; Labancová, Jana; Behanová, Martina; Ondrusová, Martina

    2009-12-01

    There is little information on health situation of the people of rural Slovak Republic. The rural environment is often a mixture of natural and man-made hazards, which under some conditions, might turn to be a health risk to humans. The aim of this study was to compare two regions of the Slovak Republic, two different hazards (natural and man-made), two different methods of health outcome measurement (routine statistics and individual diary based data). Ecological study design with focus on cancer incidence analysis was employed in case of natural hazard analysis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated and are presented in paper. Observational study design was employed to study rural gardening practices and their impact on health. Statistically significant differences in SIR were found in rural areas of Spis-Gemer Region (SGR) among males for lip, oral cavity and larynx (1.60, CI 95% 1.12-2.34), respiratory (1.25, CI 95% 1.01-1.55) and digestive organ cancers (1.22, CI 95% 1.01-1.47); hematopoetic cancers are significantly elevated among males in rural areas as well (1.58, CI 95% 1.05-2.39). Pesticide use (83.1% of gardeners use pesticides) without any protective equipment is still widespread among gardeners in rural Slovak Republic (16.9%). The produced fruits and vegetables are substantial part of total fruit and vegetable consumption (51% in summer and 42.7% in winter season) increasing the risk of exposure to pesticides. Our study shows that on ecological level, mortality and morbidity statistics could be used to assess human health status in linkage to broad exposure measures (urban-rural); on dose response level (arsenic in soil) this method lacks sensitivity. Health survey and diary method on the other hand are useful tools in analysis of rural health especially with respect to man-made hazards.

  15. Fusarium fungi and associated metabolites presence on grapes from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Mikušová, Petra; Šrobárová, Antónia; Sulyok, Michael; Santini, Antonello

    2013-05-01

    Toxinogenic Fusarium species were identified on grape berries from Slovak vineyards, and their toxic metabolites were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS. F. subglutinans, F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. solani, F. subglutinans, and F. verticillioides were found with varying frequency. F. oxysporum and F. proliferatum, cultured in vitro on Czapek yeast autolysate agar and yeast extract sucrose agar, produced beauvericin, in the range from 3,265 to 13,400 μg/kg, and fusaproliferin in high concentration, ranging from 49,850 to 259,500 μg/kg. A maximum value of 2.24 μg/kg has been observed for beauvericin in dried grape berries. Fumonisin B1, and fumonisin B2 were also identified, and the observed levels ranged from 500 to 2,040 μg/kg. Over 2 years (namely 2008 and 2009) many other metabolites have been identified and analysed in grape berries, in particular: avenacein Y, apicidin, aurofusarin, chlamydosporol, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol, enniatin A, enniatin A1, enniatin B2, enniatin B3, and equisetin.

  16. Borrelia lusitaniae and green lizards (Lacerta viridis), Karst Region, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Majláthová, Viktória; Majláth, Igor; Derdáková, Marketa; Víchová, Bronislava; Pet'ko, Branislav

    2006-12-01

    In Europe, spirochetes within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks. Specific associations are described between reservoir hosts and individual genospecies. We focused on green lizard (Lacerta viridis) as a host for ticks and potential host for borreliae. In 2004 and 2005, a total of 146 green lizards infested by ticks were captured, and 469 I. ricinus ticks were removed. Borrelial infection was detected in 16.6% of ticks from lizards. Of 102 skin biopsy specimens collected from lizards, 18.6% tested positive. The most frequently detected genospecies was B. lusitaniae (77.9%-94.7%). More than 19% of questing I. ricinus collected in areas where lizards were sampled tested positive for borreliae. B. garinii was the dominant species, and B. lusitaniae represented 11.1%. The presence of B. lusitaniae in skin biopsy specimens and in ticks that had fed on green lizards implicates this species in the transmission cycle of B. lusitaniae.

  17. Species composition of Malassezia yeasts in dogs in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Sihelská, Zuzana; Váczi, Peter; Conková, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Malassezia (M.) pachydermatis is the lipophilic yeast, which is normally present on the skin and in the ear canal of dogs but under certain conditions it may cause dermatitis and otitis. There is less known about the occurrence of lipid-dependent Malassezia species in dogs. The aim of this study was to detect whether lipid-dependent yeasts are part of the normal microflora in dogs. Two groups of animals were selected for comparison. The group of healthy dogs contained samples of 118 individuals and the group of dogs with cutaneous lesions or otitis externa comprised 328 dogs. The isolates of Malassezia were identified by using genotypic methods that allow the precise identification. M. pachydermatis was the most frequently isolated species in this study (121 isolates). Only four isolates were identified as M. furfur and one isolate was identified as M. nana.

  18. Microbial communities in bees, pollen and honey from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Kacániová, Miroslava; Pavlicová, Simona; Hascík, P; Kociubinski, G; Kńazovická, Vladimíra; Sudzina, M; Sudzinová, Janka; Fikselová, Martina

    2009-09-01

    As the honey-bee gastrointestinal tract microflora and pollen are the primary sources for the honey microbial community, the aim of this work was to study and characterize the microbial transit among them. Therefore, an exhaustive microbial analysis of honey, adult honey-bee gastrointestinal tract, and pollen from different Slovakian regions and different seasons, was conducted. Microbial screening revealed that the primary sources of microbial community present in Slovakian honey are pollen and the honey-bees' digestive tract microflora, containing microorganisms normally present in dust, air and flowers. We found that the digestive tract of Slovakian adult honey-bees is highly populated by anaerobic, rather than aerobic bacteria, where coliforms, enterococci, staphylococci, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., microscopic fungi and yeast were found. Interestingly, statistical differences were found between the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of summer and winter bees. Pollen revealed the presence of mesophil anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms, coliforms and microscopic fungi. Among these, the most representative genera were Alternaria, Cladosporium and Penicillium . In honey the counts of total anaerobic and total aerobic bacteria, that of coliforms, enterococci, bacilli, microscopic fungi and yeasts were monitored. Most frequently microscopic fungi belonging to genera Penicillium, Cladosporium and Alternaria were found.

  19. Health assessment for Pigeon Point Landfill Site (New Castle City Landfill), New Castle, Delaware, Region 3. CERCLIS No. DED980494603. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-11

    The Pigeon Point Landfill 180-acre site includes a former municipal landfill that reportedly received industrial wastes during the period from 1968 to 1985. Initial sampling of groundwater and leachate revealed inorganic and organic chemicals at levels of health concern; however, per anecdotal information received from EPA, subsequent sampling has not confirmed initial sampling results. Only the original sampling data were available for this health assessment and since the data are questionable, they are not reported here. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via groundwater and leachate. However, information available on the site at present is of questionable validity. Additional information on contaminants released, populations potentially exposed, and environmental pathways through which the contaminants can reach these populations is needed.

  20. Minds "and" Hearts: Using Jeannette Walls's Memoir, "The Glass Castle", to Teach Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    English teachers have those favorite characters in the literature they choose to study with their students, from the classics of Lennie and George in "Of Mice and Men" to more contemporary characters such as Arnold in "The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian" who was "born with water on the brain" (Alexie 1). The author loves allowing…

  1. Rochester Castle MMORPG: Instructional Gaming and Collaborative Learning at a Western Australian School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mark J. W.; Eustace, Ken; Fellows, Geoff; Bytheway, Allan; Irving, Leah

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the first stage of a project to develop and test the use of massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs) for promoting computer supported collaborative learning through instructional gaming in the high school classroom. Teachers and students of English and Science at Swan View Senior High School, Western…

  2. Solar energy heating system design package for a single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design of a solar heating and hot water system for a single family dwelling is described. Cost trade studies on the energy conservation and architectural features of the solar house are discussed. The present status of verification for the single family heating system, i.e., proof that the components and the system meet applicable physical and functional requirements, is reported. The system integration drawings, the major subsystems drawings, and the architect's specifications and plans are included.

  3. An analysis of trichloroethylene movement in groundwater at castle Air Force Base, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avon, L.; Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A trichloroethylene (TCE) plume has been identified in the groundwater under a U.S. Air Force Base in the Central Valley of California. An areal, two-dimensional numerical solute transport model indicates that the movement of TCE due to advection, dispersion, and linear sorption is simulated over a 25-year historic period. The model is used in several ways: (1) to estimate the extent of the plume; (2) to confirm the likely sources of contamination as suggested by a soil organic vapor survey of the site; and (3) to make predictions about future movement of the plume. Despite the noisy and incomplete data set, the model reproduces the general trends in contamination at a number of observation wells. The analysis indicates that soil organic vapor monitoring is an effective tool for identifying contaminant source locations. Leaky sewer pipes and underground tanks are the indicated pathways for TCE to have entered the groundwater system. The chemical mass balance indicates that a total of about 100 gallons of TCE - a relatively small amount of organic solvent - has created the observed groundwater plume. ?? 1989.

  4. Rapid changes in dissolved humic substances in Spirit Lake and South Fork Castle Lake, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Thorn, K.A.; Wershaw, R. L.; Bracewell, J.M.; Robertson, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    One major effect of the eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, was a large increase of dissolved organic material in the lakes of the area devastated near the volcano. Much of this material was aquatic fulvic acid derived from plants and soils from the surrounding watershed. During the 3 yr after the eruption, substantial chemical changes occurred in the aquatic fulvic acid. -from Authors

  5. Installation guidelines for Solar Heating System, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Heating System installer guidelines are provided for each subsystem and includes testing and filling the system. This single-family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: liquid cooled flat plate collectors; water storage tank; passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; electric hot water heater; heat pump with electric backup; solar hot water coil unit; tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; control system; and air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is also provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance. Information consists of written procedures, schematics, detail drawings, pictures and manufacturer's component data.

  6. Radioactive Debris from Operation Castle: Aerial Survey of Open Sea Following Yankee-Nectar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1954-12-20

    and NRDL and it can be seen tha t ’the exponent is -1.2. Although reports indicated the presenae of a Large quantity of Neptunium i n the ac t...oontri- bution of Neptunium t o the sea water surface ao t iv i ty oould not be evaluate dm With a l l a e r i a l data of Figure 1 oorrected baqk t

  7. Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of Castle Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-01

    will be managed in accordance with all applicable regulations, thus, ensuring the protection of human health and the environment. A full disclosure of... Health Administration (OSHA) regulations and National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). Pesticide usage would increase from...and local regulations to minimize potential risks to human health and the environment. Natural Environment. The Proposed Action could result in minor

  8. Entrepreneurial Universities for the UK: A "Stanford University" at Bamburgh Castle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etzkowitz, Henry

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that the value of projected cuts in UK higher education spending should be redirected to fund start-up entrepreneurial universities as part of a strategy for knowledge-based economic growth. Two specific elements of academic entrepreneurial redesign are outlined: the Professor of Practice, linking university and industry through…

  9. Record of decision (ROD) on Castle Air Force Base (AFB), California. Disposal and reuse

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-03

    The purpose of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to analyze the potential environmental consequences of the disposal decisions to be made by the Air Force. This ROD addresses whether portions of the base will be transferred as excess property to other Federal agencies; whether surplus property (property no longer needed to meet Federal requirements) at the installation will be disposed of as a single parcel or as several smaller parcels; the methods of disposal; and the actions, if any, the Air Force will take to avoid or mitigate adverse environmental consequences from its disposal actions.

  10. Seismic imaging and hydrogeologic characterization of the Potomac Formation in northern New Castle County, Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zullo, Claudia Cristina

    Water supply demands of a growing population in the Coastal Plain of Delaware make detailed understanding of aquifers increasingly important. Previous studies indicate that the stratigraphy of the non-marine Potomac Formation, which includes the most important confined aquifers in the area, is complex and lithologically heterogeneous, making sands difficult to correlate. This study aimed to delineate the stratigraphic architecture of these sediments with a focus on the sand bodies that provide significant volumes of groundwater to northern Delaware. This project utilized an unconventional seismic system, a land streamer system, for collecting near-surface, high-resolution seismic reflection data on unpaved and paved public roadways. To calibrate the 20 km of seismic data to lithologies, a corehole and wireline geophysical logs were obtained. Six lithofacies (paleosols, lake, frequently flooded lake/abandoned channel, splay/levee, splay channel, fluvial channel) and their respective geophysical log patterns were identified and then correlated with the seismic data to relate seismic facies to these environments. Using seismic attribute analysis, seismic facies that correspond to four of the lithofacies were identified: fluvial channel seismic facies, paleosol seismic facies, splay/levee seismic facies, and a frequently flooded lake/abandoned channel and splay/levee combined seismic facies. Correlations for eleven horizons identified in the seismic sections and cross sections show local changes in thickness and erosional relief. The analysis of seismic facies sections provides a two-dimensional basis for detailed understanding of the stratigraphy of the Potomac Formation, and suggests an anastomosing fluvial style with poorly connected winding channel sands encased in fine-grained overbank sediments that produced a complex, labyrinth-style heterogeneity. The results indicate that the 2D lateral connectivity of the sand bodies of the Potomac Formation is limited to short distances, contrary to correlations in previous studies that have indicated connection of sands at distances of at least 3 km. The results highlight the importance of integrating multiple sources of geologic information for the interpretation of the stratigraphic architecture of non-marine sediments, and the value of roadway-based land-streamer seismic data for the interpretation of near-surface (less than 300-m-depth) aquifer sand characteristics in developed areas.

  11. Analysis of Radiation Exposure for Additional Naval Personnel at Operation CASTLE-Supplemental Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    between 0735 and 0833 hours on 1 April, prior to resuming its ASW patrols around that atoll. The ship conducted three such patrols on 1 , 9, and 10...Information is estimated to average 1 hour per reomons, Including the time for reviewimng 1 .uction . serching existing data sources. gathering and...Proect (0704-01 8. Washgton. OC 20503. 1 . AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 911001 Technical _ 890424-891120 4

  12. Operation Castle. Operation Plan Number 1-53. Task Group 7. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, W.E.

    1984-08-31

    Overseas experimentation depends upon progress of construction, reliability of instrumentation and the overcoming of obstacles presented by local conditions. This Operation Plan is intended to be used as a guide for TG 7.1 personnel since it represents a record of agreements arrived at prior to its compilation.

  13. Combined GPR and ERT exploratory geophysical survey of the Medieval Village of Pancorbo Castle (Burgos, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Álvarez, José-Paulino; Rubio-Melendi, David; Quirós Castillo, Juan Antonio; González-Quirós, Andrés; Cimadevilla-Fuente, David

    2017-09-01

    Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) have been fruitfully employed for archaeological purposes. An area at the Pancorbo medieval site in Burgos (Spain) has been jointly explored by GPR and ERT in the search for the buried remains of the Pancorbo medieval village. After data collection, quality control and merging, a shallow depth of interest was identified and studied in detail. 3D resistivity simulation, considering sensible geometrical structures of the targets helped discover anomalies present in the area. On the other hand, visual GPR inspection was considerably enhanced by trace energy attribute analysis which provided a plan view of the existing anomalies. Two posterior archaeological excavations have a very good correlation between the identified anomalies and the excavated remains. The survey also provides hints for the continuation of the excavation.

  14. Merced County Streams Project, Castle Reservoir, California Intensive Cultural Resources Survey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-29

    Sierran quarries were not systematically exploited after A.D. 500. These quarries apparently supplied most of the obsidian upon which the bifaces in...peoples in the foothills. Gayton (1948), for example, records that the Mono traded unfinished obsidian blades to theI Yokuts. If Ericson is correct... obsidian dating and tracing. Unpublished Ph.D. disser- tation, Department of Anthropology, University of Cali- fornia, Los Angeles. Fenenga, Franklin 1977

  15. Socioeconomic Impact Analysis Study. Disposal and Reuse of Castle Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    7 miles northwest of Merced in the San Joaquin Valley. The base is about 63 miles northwest of Fresno and about 29 miles southeast of Modesto ...Yosemite National Park and the Sierra Nevada are about 1 hour’s drive from the northeast side of the base. The Monterey Bay coastal areas are located about 2...SH 99 is the main highway connecting the cities of Fresno and Modesto . The area has rail freight service and Amtrak passenger service at Merced. The

  16. Installation guidelines for solar heating system, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating system installer guidelines are presented for each subsystem. This single family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: (1) liquid cooled flat plate collectors; (2) water storage tank; (3) passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; (4) electric hot water heater; (5) heat pump with electric backup; (6) solar hot water coil unit; (7) tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; (8) control system; and (9) air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance in the form of written descriptions, schematics, detail drawings, pictures, and manufacturer's component data.

  17. CASTLE BRAVO: Fifty Years of Legend and Lore. A Guide to Off-Site Radiation Exposures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    care for years. Schools had been non-existent since the war began. Everywhere there were dislocations and deprivations.” “[US Navy] military...to Rongerik at 02-00:10M ordering personnel there to immediately cease all operations and remain inside metal buildings until further notice (TGDC...group of irradiated Marshallese people offers a most valuable source of data on human beings who have sustained injury from all the possible modes of

  18. Archeological and Historical Studies in the White Castle Gap Revetment, Iberville Parish, Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Comparative View of French Louisiana, 1699-1762: The Journals of Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville and Jean - Jacques - Blaise d’Addadie. University of Southwestern...descending the river that he turned over the letter to Iberville’s brother, Jean -Baptiste le Moyne Bienville (Brasseaux 1979: 68). Iberville spent a few days...Parish). On July 30, 1821, the estate of Joseph LeBlanc was sold at a public auction. A 40x40 arpent tract of land was bought by Jean Danos, Migail

  19. Rochester Castle MMORPG: Instructional Gaming and Collaborative Learning at a Western Australian School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mark J. W.; Eustace, Ken; Fellows, Geoff; Bytheway, Allan; Irving, Leah

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the first stage of a project to develop and test the use of massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs) for promoting computer supported collaborative learning through instructional gaming in the high school classroom. Teachers and students of English and Science at Swan View Senior High School, Western…

  20. Failure Analysis and Prevention for the Air Logistics Center Engineer: CAStLE Course Development Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    and Hehemann, R.F., eds., Hydrogen Embrittlement and Stress Corrosion Cracking, American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH, 1984. Gordon, J.E...34* Common to materials subject to hostile environments -Sensitization of stainless steels - Hydrogen embrittlement -Weld Heat-Affected Zones (HAZ) .010... Hydrogen embrittle ) "* Triaxiality "* Strength of Material 14 -B67 - 7 This Page Intentionally Left Blank - B68 - USAF1Academbn (’eter for .Iircraft