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Sample records for smolenice castle slovakia

  1. Castle series, 1954. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E.J.; Rowland, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    CASTLE was an atmospheric nuclear weapons test series held in the Marshall Islands at Enewetak and Bikini atolls in 1954. This is a report of DOD peronnel in CASTLE with an emphasis on operations and radiological safety.

  2. Layer Charge of Clay Minerals; Selected papers from the Symposium on Current Knowledge on the Layer Charge of Clay Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This Special issue contains papers based on the contributions presented during the workshop “Current Knowledge on the Layer Charge of Clay Minerals”, held on September 18 and 19, 2004, in the Smolenice Castle, Slovakia. Layer charge is one of the most important characteristics of clay minerals as it...

  3. Speleothems and Sand Castles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hance, Trevor; Befus, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The idea of building sand castles evokes images of lazy summer days at the beach, listening to waves crash, enjoying salty breezes, and just unplugging for a while to let our inner child explore the wonderful natural toys beneath our feet. The idea of exploring caves might evoke feelings and images of claustrophobia or pioneers and Native…

  4. Carisbrooke Castle. Teachers' Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Rosemary

    Carisbrooke Castle in England, Charles I's prison for nearly a year, is a complex historic site with walls dating from the early 12th century and additions and alterations incorporated over later centuries. This guide may be used by teachers preparing their students for an on-site visit, or as an independent study of an English medieval castle.…

  5. Castles and Inverted Castles: The Work of Marcia J. Bates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Jenna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Theorist Howard D. White has made a call to action for "scientist-poets" to synthesize concepts and oeuvres in the centrifugal literature of information science. In response, this paper interprets the work of canonical information scientist Marcia J. Bates through the original metaphor of "castles and inverted…

  6. Frombork Castle and Nicolas Copernicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogure, Tomokazu

    2004-10-01

    Nicolas Copernicus spent his last half life at Frombork Castle in Poland, where he wrote "On the Revolution of the Celestial Bodies." The author visited Frombork and had a strong impression by his great personality in late Renaissance, not only in astronomy, but also in activities in a wide field of economical, political affaires, renovation of currency.

  7. Dental hygiene in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Luciak-Donsberger, C; Krizanová, M

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on the development of the dental hygiene profession in Slovakia from a global perspective. The aim is to inform about current developments and to examine, how access to qualified dental hygiene care might be improved and how professional challenges might be met. For an international study on dental hygiene, secondary source data were obtained from members of the House of Delegates of the International Federation of Dental Hygienists (IFDH) or by fax and e-mail from experts involved in the national professional and educational organization of dental hygiene in non-IFDH member countries, such as Slovakia. Responses were followed-up by interviews, e-mail correspondence, visits to international universities, and a review of supporting studies and reference literature. Results show that the introduction of dental hygiene in Slovakia in 1992 was inspired by the delivery of preventive care in Switzerland. Initiating local dentists and dental hygienists strive to attain a high educational level, equitable to that of countries in which dental hygiene has an established tradition of high quality care. Low access to qualified dental hygiene care may be a result of insufficient funding for preventive services, social and cultural lack of awareness of the benefits of preventive care, and of limitations inherent in the legal constraints preventing unsupervised dental hygiene practice. These may be a result of gender politics affecting a female-dominated profession and of a perception that dental hygiene is auxiliary to dental care. International comparison show that of all Eastern European countries, the dental hygiene profession appears most advanced in Slovakia. This is expressed in high evidence-based academic goals, in extensive work with international consultants from the Netherlands and Switzerland, in annual congresses of high professional quality, and in the establishment of a profession, which has not been introduced in all Western EU countries

  8. View of trolley tracks in front of the Castle Shannon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of trolley tracks in front of the Castle Shannon Municipal Building, Castle Shannon, Pennsylvania outbound from Pittsburgh - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, South Hills Junction, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  9. William B. Castle and intrinsic factor.

    PubMed

    Kass, L

    1978-12-01

    Fifty years ago, William B. Castle described the properties of intrinsic factor. By so doing, he advanced the first acceptable theory of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of pernicious anemia. Enveloping Castle's discovery were prevalent ideas in the medical community of the time, such as the importance of nutritional factors in the pathogenesis of disease, and the intriguing possibility that many disorders could be ameliorated or even cured by administration of a "missing" substance. When viewed in a contemporary perspective, Castle's observations of a half century ago are remarkable examples of ingenuity and single-minded dedication to uncovering the pathogenetic mechanism of a previously fatal disorder.

  10. Implications of Using the CASTLE Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosca, Eugene P.; De Jong, Marvin L.

    1993-01-01

    Critiques the Capacitor-Aided System for Teaching and Learning Electricity (CASTLE) curriculum. Criticism is made of the model's use of a compressible-fluid model to demonstrate charge conduction. An alternative model is proposed. (ZWH)

  11. Enviroment, from southwest, showing Castle Garden Bridge and alignment of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Enviroment, from southwest, showing Castle Garden Bridge and alignment of Township Road 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  12. Enviroment, from north, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Enviroment, from north, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  13. Environment, from east, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environment, from east, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road 343 over Bennets Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  14. Environment, from west, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environment, from west, showing Castle Garden Bridge carrying Township Road 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnermahoning Creek - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  15. 77 FR 7231 - Public Notice for Release of Aeronautical Property at New Castle Airport (ILG), New Castle, DE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... (ILG), New Castle, DE AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation. ACTION...), New Castle, DE, situated northwesterly of Dupont Highway, U.S. Route 13 and northeasterly of New... Highway, New Castle, DE 19720-5124, 302-325-5124; and at the FAA Harrisburg Airports District...

  16. [History of Oncology in Slovakia].

    PubMed

    Ondruš, D; Kaušitz, J

    2016-01-01

    The history of oncology in Slovakia is closely linked to the history of St. Elizabeth Hospital, which was set up in the mid-18th century by nuns of the St. Elizabeth Order in Bratislava. In the first half of the 20th century, a unit was set up in the hospital dedicated to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Shortly after World War II, the unit was turned into the Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment. In 1950, St. Elizabeth Hospital was nationalized, and the Cancer Research Institute of the Slovak Academy of Science and the Institute of Clinical Oncology were located there as centers for oncological diagnosis and treatment. After the restitution of church property in the early 1990s, the hospital was returned to the Order of St. Elizabeth, which set up the St. Elisabeth Cancer Institute in the hospital premises in January of 1996. This year marks the 20th anniversary of this institute in its new premises and the 85th anniversary of the Institute of Radiumtherapy founded in Bratislava, and thus the establishment of institutional healthcare for cancer patients in Slovakia is the reason for balancing. We present a view of the consecutive changes in the organization, space and staff of the Institute and evaluate the impact of celebrities on medicine who developed oncology as a clinical, scientific and educational discipline in Bratislava and in other cities and regions of Slovakia. PMID:27296401

  17. [History of Oncology in Slovakia].

    PubMed

    Ondruš, D; Kaušitz, J

    2016-01-01

    The history of oncology in Slovakia is closely linked to the history of St. Elizabeth Hospital, which was set up in the mid-18th century by nuns of the St. Elizabeth Order in Bratislava. In the first half of the 20th century, a unit was set up in the hospital dedicated to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Shortly after World War II, the unit was turned into the Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment. In 1950, St. Elizabeth Hospital was nationalized, and the Cancer Research Institute of the Slovak Academy of Science and the Institute of Clinical Oncology were located there as centers for oncological diagnosis and treatment. After the restitution of church property in the early 1990s, the hospital was returned to the Order of St. Elizabeth, which set up the St. Elisabeth Cancer Institute in the hospital premises in January of 1996. This year marks the 20th anniversary of this institute in its new premises and the 85th anniversary of the Institute of Radiumtherapy founded in Bratislava, and thus the establishment of institutional healthcare for cancer patients in Slovakia is the reason for balancing. We present a view of the consecutive changes in the organization, space and staff of the Institute and evaluate the impact of celebrities on medicine who developed oncology as a clinical, scientific and educational discipline in Bratislava and in other cities and regions of Slovakia.

  18. GHGs emission inventory in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Mareckova, K.

    1996-12-31

    The results of Country Study project in Slovakia are presented. The gases included in the inventory are CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O. While the combustion of fossil fuels accounts for about 96 percent of total Slovak carbon dioxide emissions, CO{sub 2} also results directly from industrial processes. The most relevant industrial activities in Slovakia leading to CO{sub 2} emissions were cement, magnesit, and coke production. The total CO{sub 2} emissions estimated in 1990 were 60 018 Gg and 43 449 Gg in 1994. In the forestry and land use category the net CO{sub 2} flux is estimated to have been a removal. The main sources of methane emissions are livestock, natural gas distribution networks and landfills. Total CH{sub 4} emission in 1990 were estimated to be 387 Gg respectively 315 Gg in 1994. Compared to the other GHGs the emissions of N{sub 2}O are not fully understood. The main sources are expected to be agriculture soils and waste water treatment. The 21 Gg (13.5 Gg in 1994) estimated emission is still very preliminary. To evaluate the share of different GHGs and sectors, the aggregated emissions were estimated. In the year 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions amount to 79%, CH{sub 4} emissions amount to 12%, and N{sub 2}O emissions amount to 9% of total emissions, respectively 78%, 14% and 8% in 1994.

  19. Oblique partial east elevation of Castle Garden Bridge, from south, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique partial east elevation of Castle Garden Bridge, from south, showing structural configuration of Pratt truss, including typical panels, downstream end of squared cut stone masonry center pier, and squared cut stone masonry north abutment - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  20. 5. View of former Castle Street Wye looking East ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of former Castle Street Wye - looking East along Herald Street (formerly Castle Street). To the right is the Massachusetts Turnpike and the tracks of the former B&A R.R. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. CFD: A Castle in the Sand?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, William L.; Wood, William A.

    2004-01-01

    The computational simulation community is not routinely publishing independently verifiable tests to accompany new models or algorithms. A survey reveals that only 22% of new models published are accompanied by tests suitable for independently verifying the new model. As the community develops larger codes with increased functionality, and hence increased complexity in terms of the number of building block components and their interactions, it becomes prohibitively expensive for each development group to derive the appropriate tests for each component. Therefore, the computational simulation community is building its collective castle on a very shaky foundation of components with unpublished and unrepeatable verification tests. The computational simulation community needs to begin publishing component level verification tests before the tide of complexity undermines its foundation.

  2. Geothermal eel farm in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Thomka, J.; Sarlinova, K.

    1998-12-01

    Turcianske Teplice, a small town in west-central Slovakia, has written records of using thermal waters since 1281. In 1992, an eel raising farm was started on the outskirts of the town and since 1994, it has been operated by the firm of Janex Slovensko. The farm, using a specialized water recirculation system, raises a species of migrating eels (Anguilla anguilla). A 220-meter deep well at 42 C provides 48 gpm to the facility for heating through a plate heat exchanger. This is the maximum flow permitted, so as not to influence the springs and wells at the spa about 1 km away. For this reason, the flow is monitored carefully by the state. A second geothermal well at 52 C and 1,500 meters deep is used only as an observation well. Cold water, which is heated by the geothermal water, is pumped from wells near the Turiec River 1.8 km away at 8 to 12 C, depending upon the season, for use in the various holding or raising tanks. The operation of the farm is described.

  3. The Development of Stereophonic Sound in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezina, Pavol

    2011-11-01

    The development of stereophonic sound in Slovakia in the late sixties had a profound impact on the quality of recorded music in all areas of artificial and non-artificial music and it also played an important role in composing music for radio plays. However, the Czechoslovak Radio in Bratislava was at that time the only technically equipped institute in Slovakia where a stereophonic record could be created. Therefore our research studies have particularly been concerned with examining the archives of this institution as well as the valuable information on implementation of the recordings we have collected through interviews with the former staff of the broadcasting organization. Our research focuses for the first time on the period of the beginnings of stereophonic sound in Slovakia, hence the purpose of this article is to summarize the research results.

  4. Current status of biotechnology in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

    2013-07-01

    The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity defines biotechnology as: 'Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.' In other words biotechnology is 'application of scientific and technical advances in life science to develop commercial products' or briefly 'the use of molecular biology for useful purposes'. This short overview is about different branches of biotechnology carried out in Slovakia and it shows that Slovakia has a good potential for further development of modern biotechnologies.

  5. The CASTLES Imaging Survey of Gravitational Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, C. Y.; Falco, E. E.; Lehar, J.; Impey, C. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; McLeod, B. A.; Rix, H.-W.

    1997-12-01

    The CASTLES survey (Cfa-Arizona-(H)ST-Lens-Survey) is imaging most known small-separation gravitational lenses (or lens candidates), using the NICMOS camera (mostly H-band) and the WFPC2 (V and I band) on HST. To date nearly half of the IR imaging survey has been completed. The main goals are: (1) to search for lens galaxies where none have been directly detected so far; (2) obtain photometric redshift estimates (VIH) for the lenses where no spectroscopic redshifts exist; (3) study and model the lens galaxies in detail, in part to study the mass distribution within them, in part to identify ``simple" systems that may permit accurate time delay estimates for H_0; (3) measure the M/L evolution of the sample of lens galaxies with look-back time (to z ~ 1); (4) determine directly which fraction of sources are lensed by ellipticals vs. spirals. We will present the survey specifications and the images obtained so far.

  6. Integration of Geodata in Documenting Castle Ruins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delis, P.; Wojtkowska, M.; Nerc, P.; Ewiak, I.; Lada, A.

    2016-06-01

    Textured three dimensional models are currently the one of the standard methods of representing the results of photogrammetric works. A realistic 3D model combines the geometrical relations between the structure's elements with realistic textures of each of its elements. Data used to create 3D models of structures can be derived from many different sources. The most commonly used tool for documentation purposes, is a digital camera and nowadays terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). Integration of data acquired from different sources allows modelling and visualization of 3D models historical structures. Additional aspect of data integration is possibility of complementing of missing points for example in point clouds. The paper shows the possibility of integrating data from terrestrial laser scanning with digital imagery and an analysis of the accuracy of the presented methods. The paper describes results obtained from raw data consisting of a point cloud measured using terrestrial laser scanning acquired from a Leica ScanStation2 and digital imagery taken using a Kodak DCS Pro 14N camera. The studied structure is the ruins of the Ilza castle in Poland.

  7. Students' Attitudes toward Computer Use in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2008-01-01

    ICT has a very short history in Slovakia. A majority of Slovak schools accessed computers and internet only after 2000. Different financial support and schools' participation in various projects resulted in non-random distribution of computers across Slovakian elementary schools. We examined whether 1) attitudes toward computers could be affected…

  8. Internal Indpendent Assessment Report - CASTLE-PX SQA

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, D. M.; Dancy, L. L.; Pope, V. L.

    2015-04-01

    This IIA assessed the flow down of institutional 830 Software Quality Assurance requirements through three required document templates to the CASTLE-PX software effort and the implementation of those SQA requirements. The templates flow down the DOE O 414.1D consensus standard requirements for Safety Software. This assessment did not include the flow down of NAP-24, Weapon Quality Policy, requirements. The assessment focused on the CASTLE-PX project’s software development and release processes. It did not assess Pantex’s acceptance or usage of the software. The assessment resulted in 3 Deficiencies, 5 Observations, 1 Recommendation, and 3 Strengths. Overall the CASTLE-PX team demonstrated it values quality and has worked to integrate quality practices into its software development processes. Improvement in documentation will enhance their SQA implementation.

  9. GIS coverages of the Castle Mountain Fault, south central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Labay, Keith A.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    The Castle Mountain fault is one of several major east-northeast-striking faults in southern Alaska, and it is the only fault with had historic seismicity and Holocene surface faulting. This report is a digital compilation of three maps along the Castle Mountain fault in south central Alaska. This compilation consists only of GIS coverages of the location of the fault, line attributes indicating the certainty of the fault location, and information about scarp height, where measured. The files are presented in ARC/INFO export file format and include metadata.

  10. Flight Director Robert Castle uses laptop while monitoring space walk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Flight Director Robert E. Castle uses a laptop computer to aid his busy tasks during one of the five space walks performed to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) temporarily berthed in Endeavour's cargo bay. STS-61 lead Flight Director Milt Heflin is at right edge of frame.

  11. Using Models to Teach Electricity--The CASTLE Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Melvin S.; Wainwright, Camille L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Capacitor-Aided System for Teaching and Learning Electricity (CASTLE) project which is a high school electricity curriculum developed by high school and college physics teachers. The project is motivated by research on students' conceptual difficulties in electricity. The instructional materials developed allow students to challenge…

  12. Heat waves and warm periods in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faško, Pavel; Bochníček, Oliver; Markovič, Ladislav; Švec, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The scenarios of climate change caused by human activity show that frequency of occurrence and extent of heat waves in the interior of Europe is increasing. Among the most exposed regions in this regard should the area of southeastern and eastern Austria and south-western Slovakia. The relatively faster increase in the number of heat waves in this area is related also to potential desertification in this region just east of the Alps, since during summer, weather fronts advancing from the west are consequently losing their original features and moderating influence. Summer weather patterns for this area should in the future more closely remind climate typical for some inland areas of southwestern, southern and southeastern Europe. A certain shift of climate zones from south to north should thus modify future climate and Slovakia. Despite the complex natural conditions the existing trends derived from results of meteorological measurements and observations are clear and they confirm warming of climate in this region. Observations and measurements in the recent years of the 21st century confirm, that heat waves are no longer rare phenomenon during summer, but are systematically appearing even in colder regions of northern Slovakia. What is very remarkable and will be necessary to pay more attention to, is the fact that these heat waves are expanding into previously unaffected areas, associated with the lack of rainfall and drought, on larger regional scale. In this study heat wave periods and individual heat events and days are statistically identified in the time series characteristics of air temperature at selected meteorological stations for the period from the mid-20th century until 2015, in case of available historical data even for longer period.

  13. Security Research and Safety Aspects in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinay, Juraj

    In 2004 the Slovak Republic joined the European Community. This accession called for changes in the new member state's internal and external processes, as well as the acceptance of the European Community regulatory framework and its implementation in Slovakian national legislation. Even though Slovakia had started with step-by-step integration of specific regulations during accession negotiations, final implementation was only concluded upon admission into the European Community. The process spanned the fields of occupational health and safety (Safety) and civil security (Security), notwithstanding that professionals in these areas had already been working in line with the European legislation.

  14. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudáková, Gabriela; Zeleňáková, Martina; Tometz, Ladislav

    2015-11-01

    Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  15. Q fever in Bulgaria and Slovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Serbezov, V. S.; Kazár, J.; Novkirishki, V.; Gatcheva, N.; Kovácová, E.; Voynova, V.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of dramatic political and economic changes in the beginning of the 1990s, Q-fever epidemiology in Bulgaria has changed. The number of goats almost tripled; contact between goat owners (and their families) and goats, as well as goats and other animals, increased; consumption of raw goat milk and its products increased; and goats replaced cattle and sheep as the main source of human Coxiella burnetii infections. Hundreds of overt, serologically confirmed human cases of acute Q fever have occurred. Chronic forms of Q fever manifesting as endocarditis were also observed. In contrast, in Slovakia, Q fever does not pose a serious public health problem, and the chronic form of infection has not been found either in follow-ups of a Q-fever epidemic connected with goats imported from Bulgaria and other previous Q-fever outbreaks or in a serologic survey. Serologic diagnosis as well as control and prevention of Q fever are discussed. PMID:10341175

  16. Transformation of the Adult Education System in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švec, Štefan

    1998-07-01

    This article examines trends in adult education in Slovakia since it became a separate republic in 1993. Economic and social transformations during this period have led to a re-thinking of the adult education system. The author describes four basic modalities for providing adult education in Slovakia: (1) schools and colleges; (2) cultural centres and similar institutions; (3) institutions for vocational training; (4) voluntary organizations such as trade unions, political parties and ethnic minority groups.

  17. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Montezuma Castle National Monument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Drost, Charles A.; Halvorson, William Lee

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarize past inventory efforts for vascular plants and vertebrates at Montezuma Castle National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 784 species recorded at Montezuma Castle NM, of which 85 (11%) are non-native. In each taxon-specific chapter we highlight areas of resources that contributed to species richness or unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Montezuma Well and Beaver and Wet Beaver creeks and the surrounding riparian vegetation, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest numbers of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of park units. Beaver Creek is also home to populations of federally-listed fish species of concern. Other important resources include the cliffs along the creeks and around Montezuma Well (for cliff and cave roosting bats). Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventory for most taxa is nearly complete, though some rare or elusive species will be added with additional survey effort. We recommend additional inventory, monitoring and research studies.

  18. Hydrology of the Castle Lake blockage, Mount St Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, William; Sabol, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The debris avalanche that occurred during the May 19, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens blocked South Fork Castle Creek and created Castle Lake. Stability of the blockage was of concern, and a digital model that simulates three-dimensional groundwater movement in the blockage was constructed as part of the analysis used in a follow-up study that assessed the blockage 's stability. Slug test results in the debris avalanche deposits and model results indicate that the average horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the blockage material is approximately 2.5 ft/day, whereas the ratio of horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity is approximately 10 to 1. The model was calibrated to seasonally high groundwater levels and groundwater discharge. Model-predicted recharge rates for this time period were 0.97 cu ft/sec. Most of the recharge (81%) results from the infiltration of precipitation, whereas discharge by seeps through the blockage accounts for 81% of the total discharge. Because water levels under the crest of the blockage are higher than lake level, the movement of groundwater is toward the lake and the toe of the blockage. The model allows the water levels to be estimated at any location in the blockage. This information is required for making estimates of the stability of the blockage against failure by gravitational-induced or earthquake-induced slope failure, liquefaction, the process of seepage erosion, or by erosion. (Lantz-PTT)

  19. Geophysical characterisation of Carlo's V Castle (Crotone, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, M.; Giocoli, A.; Rizzo, E.; Lapenna, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Carlo's V Castle, located in Crotone Town, on the Ionian coast of the Calabria Region (Italy), date back to the 13th century d.C. (Fig. 1). During its long life, the building changed several owners and sustained the damages and the consequent reconstructions due to the innumerable naval battles. Moreover, the castle suffered the action of the earthquakes which always afflict the region. With the principal aim of detecting the location, depth and geometry of the rests of destroyed structures, a systematic Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey was carried out in the area inside the boundary walls. The results are sixty-two one-meter-spaced, filtered and migrated radargrams arranged in four 3D data-sets. From each data-set, the most significant time-slice was extracted. To reduce the ambiguity in the GPR data interpretation, additional geophysical techniques, such as Magnetic (M), and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), were carried out with a partial superimposition with the GPR data. A comparison and a joint interpretation amongst different geophysical data pointed out some very remarkable features associated to buried remains and possible buried cannonballs. With the secondary aim to check the presence of an old military walkway linking two bastions a GPR profile was carried out on the sea side boundary wall. The GPR results are in agreement with an ERT survey carried out on the same profile and consistent with the presence of an underground passage.

  20. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Várady, M; Königová, A; Corba, J

    2000-12-20

    The present study included 19 stud farms, including 243 horses, that were investigated for the occurrence of anthelmintic resistant cyathostomes. The number of horses on the farms varied from nine to more than 100, and horses of all ages were included. A minimum of seven horses were used for faecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. The anthelmintics included were: fenbendazole (paste formulation), ivermectin (paste formulation) and pyrantel (powder). Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 14 farms, with FECR values ranging from 65.1 to 86.3%. Larval cultures after fenbendazole treatment revealed exclusively cyathostome larvae. Ivermectin was tested on eight farms and proved to be effective on all. Pyrantel was tested on two farms and FECR test indicated high efficacy (92-97%). Egg hatch assay (EHA) results showed that mean concentrations of thiabendazole that inhibited hatching in 50% of the eggs (ED(50)) in resistant populations were over 0.1 microg ml(-1). The results of our study suggest widespread resistance to fenbendazole in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia, and possible strategies to delay anthelmintic resistance are discussed briefly.

  1. Flood Warning and Forecasting System in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskova, Danica

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, it finished project Flood Warning and Forecasting System (POVAPSYS) as part of the flood protection in Slovakia till 2010. The aim was to build POVAPSYS integrated computerized flood forecasting and warning system. It took a qualitatively higher level of output meteorological and hydrological services in case of floods affecting large territorial units, as well as local flood events. It is further unfolding demands on performance and coordination of meteorological and hydrological services, troubleshooting observation, evaluation of data, fast communication, modeling and forecasting of meteorological and hydrological processes. Integration of all information entering and exiting to and from the project POVAPSYS provides Hydrological Flood Forecasting System (HYPOS). The system provides information on the current hydrometeorological situation and its evolution with the generation of alerts and notifications in case of exceeding predefined thresholds. HYPOS's functioning of the system requires flawless operability in critical situations while minimizing the loss of its key parts. HYPOS is a core part of the project POVAPSYS, it is a comprehensive software solutions based on a modular principle, providing data and processed information including alarms, in real time. In order to achieve full functionality of the system, in proposal, we have put emphasis on reliability, robustness, availability and security.

  2. Studies of the astronomical array at the castle in Olsztyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szubiakowski, Jacek P.

    2014-12-01

    The paper describes a mathematical model simulating the operation of the board for Sun observation located in Olsztyn castle. The board was made around 1517, when Nicolaus Copernicus held the office of the property administrator of the Warmian Chapter. The idea of the functioning of the array is adapted to the lighting conditions of the cloister. As an indicator of the instantaneous position of the Sun and the moment of time a ray of sunshine reflected from the mirror mounted horizontally on the windowsill of arcade was used. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the calendar lines as well as the hour lines. The architectural conditions determining the hours of operation of the array in different months and the factors affecting its accuracy has also been examined.

  3. Development of the mitigation plan for Slovakia energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Mojik, I.

    1996-12-31

    According to the review of national communications from Annex I countries (FCCC/AGBM/1996/7), Slovakia is in 21st place among countries in descending order of GHG emissions. With respect to GHG emission per capita Slovakia is in 14th place and from the point of view of GHG emissions per GDP unit Slovakia is in 7th place. However, within world wide GHG emissions those originating from Slovakia are nearly negligible, but GHG emissions related to per capita or even to GDP are significantly high. Since energy production is responsible for more than 70% of GHG emissions (88% of CO{sub 2} emission) the high ranking of Slovakia is evidence of the high energy intensity of the Slovak Economy. As is common in countries with economies in transition there is no stable trend in macroeconomical values in Slovakia. Although the general shape of possible development curves is known, in fact the exact level of the real curve is not predictable. According to their analyses the Slovak Republic surely will meet the basic UN FCCC obligation for Annex I countries, i.e. to limit anthropogenic emissions of GHG in the year 2000 to the level of 1990. However, the above mentioned uncertainties are the main reason why they have no firm guaranty of fulfilling their domestic target (20% CO{sub 2} reduction in 2005 compared to 1988). Analyses made within the Country Study program have indicated that there is good possibility of reaching the domestic target but uncertainty is high and certain conditions have to be met.

  4. [Epidemiologic and microbiologic aspects of mycobacteriosis in Slovakia. M. fortuitum].

    PubMed

    Badalík, L; Svejnochová, M; Honzátková, Z; Kristúfek, P

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to confront the knowledge about the epidemiology of this disease abroad with information obtained in Slovakia. The methodology of this paper is based upon surveillance of tuberculosis as applied on mycobacterioses. Pulmonary infections caused by M. fortuitum presents only 10% of pulmonary mycobacterioses caused by facultative pathogenic mycobacteria. Since the year 1979 were in the territory of Slovakia newly discovered 5 cases of mycobacterioses caused by M. fortuitum. 4 of them are men (age 61-77 years old) and 1 women (57 years old). 3 patients are from Eastern Slovakia and 2 patients are from Central Slovakia. All of them had pulmonary location of disease. Another 8 cases (5 men and 3 women) are suspect for mycobacterioses for the meantime. In each isolation of the agents was made 5-8 times but without verification of clinical activity. Findings of M. fortuitum in biological material even when repeated can mean contamination only. During the period of last 10 years 768 isolations of M. fortuitum from 496 persons were registered. (Ref. 36.)

  5. Rickettsia species in fleas collected from small mammals in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Špitalská, Eva; Boldiš, Vojtech; Mošanský, Ladislav; Sparagano, Olivier; Stanko, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological and epizootiological studies of Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia spp. are very important, because their natural cycle has not yet been established completely. In total, 315 fleas (Siphonaptera) of 11 species of Ceratophyllidae, Hystrichopsyllidae and Leptopsyllidae families were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species and Coxiella burnetii with conventional and specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Fleas were collected from five rodent hosts (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Microtus subterraneus, Microtus arvalis) and three shrew species (Sorex araneus, Neomys fodiens, Crocidura suaveolens) captured in Eastern and Southern Slovakia. Overall, Rickettsia spp. was found in 10.8% (34/315) of the tested fleas of Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Ctenophthalmus solutus, Ctenophthalmus uncinatus and Nosopsyllus fasciatus species. Infected fleas were coming from A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, and M. glareolus captured in Eastern Slovakia. C. burnetii was not found in any fleas. R. felis, Rickettsia helvetica, unidentified Rickettsia, and rickettsial endosymbionts were identified in fleas infesting small mammals in the Košice region, Eastern Slovakia. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in C. solutus male flea collected from A. agrarius in Slovakia. PMID:26346455

  6. Stigma and Roma Education Policy Reform in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, William

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses reform of Roma education in Slovakia against the backdrop of continued stigmatization of Roma students. Transnational NGOs and IGOs promote rights-based solutions leading to the fullest possible inclusion of Roma students in mainstream education. The Slovak state promotes educational policies that lead to the fullest…

  7. First molecular evidence for Puumala hantavirus in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Leitmeyer, K; Sibold, C; Meisel, H; Ulrich, R; Labuda, M; Krüger, D H

    2001-01-01

    We report on the first Puumala hantavirus nucleotide sequence (strain Opina-916) amplified from a bank vole trapped in Slovakia, central Europe. Phylogenetic analysis of the S-segment sequence grouped the virus within the western/central European sublineage of Puumala virus. In the neighborhood of the rodent trapping site two cases of human infection by the Puumala virus were verified. PMID:11724269

  8. Rickettsia species in fleas collected from small mammals in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Špitalská, Eva; Boldiš, Vojtech; Mošanský, Ladislav; Sparagano, Olivier; Stanko, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological and epizootiological studies of Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia spp. are very important, because their natural cycle has not yet been established completely. In total, 315 fleas (Siphonaptera) of 11 species of Ceratophyllidae, Hystrichopsyllidae and Leptopsyllidae families were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species and Coxiella burnetii with conventional and specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Fleas were collected from five rodent hosts (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Microtus subterraneus, Microtus arvalis) and three shrew species (Sorex araneus, Neomys fodiens, Crocidura suaveolens) captured in Eastern and Southern Slovakia. Overall, Rickettsia spp. was found in 10.8% (34/315) of the tested fleas of Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Ctenophthalmus solutus, Ctenophthalmus uncinatus and Nosopsyllus fasciatus species. Infected fleas were coming from A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, and M. glareolus captured in Eastern Slovakia. C. burnetii was not found in any fleas. R. felis, Rickettsia helvetica, unidentified Rickettsia, and rickettsial endosymbionts were identified in fleas infesting small mammals in the Košice region, Eastern Slovakia. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in C. solutus male flea collected from A. agrarius in Slovakia.

  9. Penalobo "Castle Rocks" - First approach to valuing this geoforms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinharandas, Carlos; Nobre, José; Gomes, Ana

    2013-04-01

    The village of Penalobo, located in the municipality of Sabugal (Portugal) is characterized by hercynian granites with interesting geological features, including pegmatite veins and quartz crystals with exotic forms, and presents some steep slopes and plateaus. From the mountainous configuration highlight some more pronounced elevations called "Castle Rocks". Such structures are composed by granites, which present greater fracturing at the top, which leads to the formation of large granite blocks. In less fractured zones it is possible to observe small folds. An excavation existing in one of those elevations allows us to observe a basic rock outcropping with clusters of crystals mottled with circular shape, which are indicative of the presence of late fluid during crystallization. In the zone of contact with the enclosing granite, there are small folds caused by magma intrusion. Those evidences led us to hypothesize that the peaks observed in the area of Penalobo village were due to the intrusion on basic magma. All this framework and geological environment becomes an asset for the scientific, educational and economic development of the region. On the other hand, it has a vital importance in the context of a strategy of forming a geological park, in the point of view of tourism, research and interpretation.

  10. The past, present and future evolution of Hurst Castle spit, Hampshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Webber, N. B.

    Previous models of the evolution of Hurst Castle Spit over-emphasised longshore growth at the expense of other processes, particularly rise in sea-level. Initially, a Pleistocene valley system was submerged creating a tidal strait, the West Solent, between Christchurch Bay and the East Solent. This almost certainly caused a major hydrodynamic change, transforming much of Christchurch Bay and the West Solent from a low to a high tidal energy environment. Hurst Castle Spit and the Shingles Bank then began to form due to a combination of an easterly littoral drift, offshore gravel movement due to the high tidal energy, a rising sea-level, the transgression of Hurst Beach due to overwashing and the formation of recurves due to waves in the West Solent. The growth of the Shingles Bank due to offshore sediment movement from Hurst Castle Spit was of particular importance because of its influence on the wave energy along Hurst Beach. Significant local supplies of shingle in the vicinity of Hurst Castle Spit, reworked from Quatenary deposits, were also of importance. Thus, it is not a classic multi-recurved spit and the transgressive segment, Hurst Beach, has much in common with barrier coastlines. The same processes are continuing to shape Hurst Castle Spit at present, with the additional effects of human interference in the coastal sediment system. The construction of sea defences at Milford-on-Sea in the period 1936 to 1968 has modified the sediment budget and Hurst Castle Spit is experiencing a phase of rapid evolution: maximum recession rates have increased from 1.5m a -1 (1867-1968) to 3.5m a -1 (1968-1982). It is difficult to quantify the exact role of sea-level rise in the present evolution of Hurst Castle Spit. The future evolution of Hurst Castle Spit will depend largely on man. If there is no further interference, which is highly unlikely, the beach volume will continue to decline, resulting in a further increase in the rate of recession. Ultimately, a true tidal

  11. Microalgae on dimension stone of a medieval castle in Thuringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallmann, C.; Stannek, L.; Fritzlar, D.; Hoppert, M.

    2012-04-01

    Phototrophic microorganisms are important primary producers on hard rock substrata as well as on building facades. These eukaryotic microalgae and cyanobacteria, along with lichens, have also been recognized as important factors for rock weathering and stone decay. The rock substratum itself mostly provides extreme environmental conditions. Composition and diversity of sub-aeric phototrophic microbial communities is up to now poorly understood. Here we present a comparative study addressing the composition of algal biofilms on sandstone substrata based on the analysis of rDNA clone libraries from environmental samples and enrichment cultures. From a W-exposed, shaded wall area of a medieval castle ruin (Burg Gleichen, Thuringia, Germany cf. Hallmann et al., 2011), green algae like Prasiococcus, Prasiola and Elliptochloris could be retrieved. A ESE, sun-exposed wall section was colonized mainly by Apatococcus, Phyllosiphon and the lichen alga Trebouxia and Myrmecia. Accordingly, cyanobacterial communities show clear differences between both wall areas: the sun exposed area was dominated by Synechococcus-like organisms while on the W-exposed area cyanobacteria were almost absent. Just a few species, in particular Stichococcus-related strains, are ubiquitous in both areas. It is obvious that, apart from few generalists, different species colonize the wall areas that are situated in close vicinity, but provide different microclimatic conditions. These differences are discussed in view of biogenic weathering phenomena: certain microalgal species colonize crusts and scales along fracture planes and may contribute to rapid detachment and turnover of dimension stone surfaces. Hallmann, C., Fritzlar, D., Stannek, L., Hoppert, M. (2011) Ascomycete fungi on dimension stone of the "Burg Gleichen", Thuringia. Env. Earth Sci. 63, 1713-1722.

  12. Recent archaeomagnetic studies in Slovakia: Comparison of methodological approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubišová, Lenka

    2016-03-01

    We review the recent archaeomagnetic studies carried out on the territory of Slovakia, focusing on the comparison of methodological approaches, discussing pros and cons of the individual applied methods from the perspective of our experience. The most widely used methods for the determination of intensity and direction of the archaeomegnetic field by demagnetisation of the sample material are the alternating field (AF) demagnetisation and the Thellier double heating method. These methods are used not only for archaeomagnetic studies but also help to solve some geological problems. The two methods were applied to samples collected recently at several sites of Slovakia, where archaeological prospection invoked by earthwork or reconstruction work of developing projects demanded archaeomagnetic dating. Then we discuss advantages and weaknesses of the investigated methods from different perspectives based on several examples and our recent experience.

  13. 75 FR 70029 - Notice of Temporary Closure of Castle Rocks Inter-Agency Recreation Area in Cassia County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Temporary Closure of Castle Rocks Inter-Agency Recreation Area in...- Agency Recreation Area that are administered by the Burley Field Office, Bureau of Land Management. DATES... the BLM at Castle Rocks Inter-Agency Recreation Area in Cassia County, Idaho. Lands in the...

  14. Checklist of water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha) of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Klementová, Barbora Reduciendo; Kment, Petr; Svitok, Marek

    2015-12-16

    The water bugs represent a significant component of the freshwater biota, play an important role in trophic webs, and may have considerable economic importance. Nevertheless, systematic research of this group has been underdeveloped in Slovakia (central Europe) for decades. This work presents a list of water bug species of Slovakia based on an exhaustive review of the literature (time span: 1808-2013) and on more than 14,000 individuals collected during extensive field campaigns (2010-2014) or obtained from insect collections. Fifty-six species belonging to 11 families of Heteroptera were recorded from a total of 767 sites. Seven species were recorded for the first time from Slovakia during our research. Among those, the first exact records of Corixa panzeri Fieber, 1848, Sigara (Subsigara) distincta (Fieber, 1848), Notonecta (Notonecta) lutea Müller, 1776, Notonecta (Notonecta) maculata Fabricius, 1794 and Microvelia (Microvelia) buenoi Drake, 1920 are provided here. Confusion concerning the records of two additional species, Arctocorisa carinata carinata (C. R. Sahlberg, 1819) and Hesperocorixa parallela (Fieber, 1860) is clarified. The water bugs species inventory appears to be nearly complete (~97 %) given an asymptotic richness estimate. The occurrence of other species is discussed taking into account their habitat requirements and distribution in neighbouring countries. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  15. Hepatozoon canis infection in Slovakia: imported or autochthonous?

    PubMed

    Majláthová, Viktória; Hurníková, Zuzana; Majláth, Igor; Petko, Branislav

    2007-01-01

    Tissue samples from nine red foxes (four samples of striated muscle tissue and five samples of heart tissue) that originated from the Michalovce district (Slovakia), an area with endemic occurrence of canine babesiosis were examined by PCR method using primers amplifying a fragment of the 18S rRNA spanning the V4 region of Babesia and Theileria. An unexpected determination of 450 bp DNA fragment of Hepatozoon canis was found in four samples. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene from the H. canis showed 100% similarity with the sequence from Brasil isolate of H. canis from a pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) (AY471615) as well as from a fox in Spain (AY150067) and from a dog in Brazil (AY864677). In the present study, we report the first PCR detection of Hepatozoon canis in a naturally infected red fox from Slovakia, a Rhipicephalus sanguineus-free region. We assume that the infection was spread by infected R. sanguineus that might have been brought to Slovakia by travelers, by golden jackals, or by foxes migrating because of expansion of golden jackals and environmental and climate changes. PMID:17627439

  16. Checklist of water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha) of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Klementová, Barbora Reduciendo; Kment, Petr; Svitok, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The water bugs represent a significant component of the freshwater biota, play an important role in trophic webs, and may have considerable economic importance. Nevertheless, systematic research of this group has been underdeveloped in Slovakia (central Europe) for decades. This work presents a list of water bug species of Slovakia based on an exhaustive review of the literature (time span: 1808-2013) and on more than 14,000 individuals collected during extensive field campaigns (2010-2014) or obtained from insect collections. Fifty-six species belonging to 11 families of Heteroptera were recorded from a total of 767 sites. Seven species were recorded for the first time from Slovakia during our research. Among those, the first exact records of Corixa panzeri Fieber, 1848, Sigara (Subsigara) distincta (Fieber, 1848), Notonecta (Notonecta) lutea Müller, 1776, Notonecta (Notonecta) maculata Fabricius, 1794 and Microvelia (Microvelia) buenoi Drake, 1920 are provided here. Confusion concerning the records of two additional species, Arctocorisa carinata carinata (C. R. Sahlberg, 1819) and Hesperocorixa parallela (Fieber, 1860) is clarified. The water bugs species inventory appears to be nearly complete (~97 %) given an asymptotic richness estimate. The occurrence of other species is discussed taking into account their habitat requirements and distribution in neighbouring countries. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:26701521

  17. Test Scores in New Castle County, DE.--Before and After Busing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, William D., Comp.

    This analysis compares student test scores before and after school busing in New Castle County, Delaware, in an attempt to see if busing to achieve racial balance reduces the achievement gap between black and white students. School authorities pre-tested students with the California Achievement Test (CAT) in 1978-79, the first year of busing, and…

  18. Capturing the Castle: An Exploration of Changes in the Democratic Accountability of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gann, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    The history of the forced conversion to sponsored academy status of Castle Primary School in south Somerset is a tale of broken promises, lies, and a blatant breach of statutory procedures. Yet the Department for Education, the local Member of Parliament (and schools minister) and the local authority stood by--sometimes participated--while a small…

  19. 76 FR 75543 - Castle Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ..., 2011, the City of Aspen, Colorado, filed an application for a successive preliminary permit, pursuant... Creek Hydroelectric Project to be located on Castle Creek, near the town of Aspen, Pitkin County... output would be approximately 7.7 gigawatthours. Applicant Contact: David Hornbacher, The City of...

  20. PodCastle: A Spoken Document Retrieval System Improved by User Contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Masataka; Ogata, Jun; Eto, Kouichirou

    In this paper, we describe a public web service, ``PodCastle'', that provides full-text searching of speech data (Japanese podcasts) on the basis of automatic speech recognition technologies. This is an instance of our research approach, ``Speech Recognition Research 2.0'', which is aimed at providing users with a web service based on Web 2.0 so that they can experience state-of-the-art speech recognition performance, and at promoting speech recognition technologies in cooperation with anonymous users. PodCastle enables users to find podcasts that include a search term, read full texts of their recognition results, and easily correct recognition errors by simply selecting from a list of candidates. Even if a state-of-the-art speech recognizer is used to recognize podcasts on the web, a number of errors will naturally occur. PodCastle therefore encourages users to cooperate by correcting these errors so that those podcasts can be searched more reliably. Furthermore, using the resulting corrections to train the speech recognizer, it implements a mechanism whereby the speech recognition performance is gradually improved. Our experience with this web service showed that user contributions we collected actually improved the performance of PodCastle.

  1. The Castle in the Classroom: Story as a Springboard for Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharyya, Ranu

    2010-01-01

    "The Castle in the Classroom" describes a year in a kindergarten classroom as the children embark on literary exploration. Each child approaches the journey from a different perspective--some are self-sufficient, others more hesitant; some are literary adventurers, others shyly reluctant. The detailed focus lessons throughout the book use the…

  2. Quantum error-correcting codes from algebraic geometry codes of Castle type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munuera, Carlos; Tenório, Wanderson; Torres, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    We study algebraic geometry codes producing quantum error-correcting codes by the CSS construction. We pay particular attention to the family of Castle codes. We show that many of the examples known in the literature in fact belong to this family of codes. We systematize these constructions by showing the common theory that underlies all of them.

  3. Quantum error-correcting codes from algebraic geometry codes of Castle type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munuera, Carlos; Tenório, Wanderson; Torres, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    We study algebraic geometry codes producing quantum error-correcting codes by the CSS construction. We pay particular attention to the family of Castle codes. We show that many of the examples known in the literature in fact belong to this family of codes. We systematize these constructions by showing the common theory that underlies all of them.

  4. Environmental assessment of metal exposure to corals living in Castle Harbour, Bermuda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, N.G.; Goodkin, N.F.; Jones, R.; Lamborg, C.H.; Storlazzi, C.D.; Hughen, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental contamination in Castle Harbour, Bermuda, has been linked to the dissolution and leaching of contaminants from the adjacent marine landfill. This study expands the evidence for environmental impact of leachate from the landfill by quantitatively demonstrating elevated metal uptake over the last 30 years in corals growing in Castle Harbour. Coral Pb/Ca, Zn/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios and total Hg concentrations are elevated relative to an adjacent control site in John Smith's Bay. The temporal variability in the Castle Harbour coral records suggests that while the landfill has increased in size over the last 35 years, the dominant input of metals is through periodic leaching of contaminants from the municipal landfill and surrounding sediment. Elevated contaminants in the surrounding sediment suggest that resuspension is an important transport medium for transferring heavy metals to corals. Increased winds, particularly during the 1990s, were accompanied by higher coral metal composition at Castle Harbour. Coupled with wind-induced resuspension, interannual changes in sea level within the Harbour can lead to increased bioavailability of sediment-bound metals and subsequent coral metal assimilation. At John Smith's Bay, large scale convective mixing may be driving interannual metal variability in the coral record rather than impacts from land-based activities. Results from this study provide important insights into the coupling of natural variability and anthropogenic input of contaminants to the nearshore environment.

  5. Environmental analyse of soil organic carbon stock changes in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koco, Š.; Barančíková, G.; Skalský, R.; Tarasovičová, Z.; Gutteková, M.; Halas, J.; Makovníková, J.; Novákova, M.

    2012-04-01

    The content and quality of soil organic matter is one of the basic soil parameters on which soil production functioning depends as well as it is active in non production soil functions like an ecological one especially. Morphologic segmentation of Slovakia has significant influence of structure in using agricultural soil in specific areas of our territory. Also social changes of early 90´s of 20´th century made their impact on change of using of agricultural soil (transformation from large farms to smaller ones, decreasing the number of livestock). This research is studying changes of development of soil organic carbon stock (SOC) in agricultural soil of Slovakia as results of climatic as well as social and political changes which influenced agricultury since last 40 years. The main goal of this research is an analysis of soil organic carbon stock since 1970 until now at specific agroclimatic regions of Slovakia and statistic analysis of relation between modelled data of SOC stock and soil quality index value. Changes of SOC stock were evaluated on the basis SOC content modeling using RothC-26.3 model. From modeling of SOC stock results the outcome is that in that time the soil organic carbon stock was growing until middle 90´s years of 20´th century with the highest value in 1994. Since that year until new millennium SOC stock is slightly decreasing. After 2000 has slightly increased SOC stock so far. According to soil management SOC stock development on arable land is similar to overall evolution. In case of grasslands after slight growth of SOC stock since 1990 the stock is in decline. This development is result of transformational changes after 1989 which were specific at decreasing amount of organic carbon input from organic manure at grassland areas especially. At warmer agroclimatic regions where mollic fluvisols and chernozems are present and where are soils with good quality and steady soil organic matter (SOM) the amount of SOC in monitored time is

  6. Volcano-tectonic evolution of the Castle Mountains: 22 to 14 MA

    SciTech Connect

    Capps, R.C. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The alkali-calcic Castle Mountains Volcanic rocks (CMV) are host to major gold mineralization. They are located about 100 km south of Las Vegas, Nevada and are on the boundary between the Basin and Range Province and Colorado River extensional corridor (35[degree]18 minutes 45 seconds N, 115[degree]05 minutes 10 seconds W). New data show the following chronology. 22 Ma. A regional rhyolite ash-flow tuff, the Castle Mountain Tuff member, was deposited on a Proterozoic-Paleozoic basement of low relief. <22 Ma - > 17 Ma. Normal faulting (N30--60[degree]W, 60--65[degree]NE) formed half-grabens. Latite and basalt flows, minor ash-flow tuffs, lahars and sediments (Jacks Well member - JW) were deposited unconformably. JW magmas are enriched in light REE compared to the younger CMV. <17 Ma to 15.5 Ma. Oxidizing upper portions (796 C) of a shallowly emplaced silicic melt erupted to form the high-silica rhyolite dome complexes and intrusives (Linder Peak member - LP) of the NNE-striking Castle Mountains. NW-striking transverse structures caused discontinuities in strike direction of the subvolcanic intrusive and domes and helped form a synvolcanic depression. During a hiatus in volcanism, early Hart Peak member (HP) sediments were deposited marginal to the Castle Mountains. Major gold mineralization and widespread hydrothermal alteration occurred at about 15.5 Ma. 16 Ma to 14 Ma. Early HP volcaniclastic sediments, rhyolite pyroclastic-surge tuff, and basaltic flows, were deposited during late hydrothermal alteration and then fractured and displaced by NNE-striking normal faults, especially in the eastern and northeastern CMV. < 14 Ma. Tectonically significant flat-lying boulder conglomerate and unconformably overlying, largely andesitic flows fill depressions in the Castle Mountains and the Piute Range to the east.

  7. Ground-water resources of southern New Castle County, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rima, Donald Robert; Coskery, O.J.; Anderson, P.W.

    1964-01-01

    Southern New Castle County has a land area of 190 square miles in northcentral Delaware. It is predominantly a rural area with a population of about 9,500 people who are engaged chiefly in agriculture. By and large, the residents are dependent upon ground water as a source of potable water. This investigation was made to provide knowledge of the availability and quality of .the ground-water supply to aid future development. The climate, surface features, and geology of the area are favorable for the occurrence of ground water. Temperatures are generally mild and precipitation is normally abundant and fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. The topography of the area is relatively fiat and, hence, the streams have low gradients. The surface is underlain to a considerable depth by highly permeable unconsolidated sediments that range in age from Early Cretaceous to Recent. Nearly all the subsurface stratigraphic units yield some water to wells, but only four parts or combinations of these units are sufficiently permeable, to yield large supplies. These are, from oldest to youngest, the nonmarine Cretaceous sediments and the Magothy Formation, the Monmouth Group, the Rancocas Formation, and .the surficial terrace and valley-fill deposits. In the northern part of the area the nonmarine Cretaceous sediments and the Magothy Formation can be reached economically by wells. Yields in excess of 300 gpm (gallons per minute) have been obtained from wells screened in this aquifer, but the maximum productivity of the aquifer has not been .tested. The Monmouth Group is used as a source of water in the central part of the area, where some wells yield as much as 125 gpm. The Rancocas Formation is the principal aquifer in the southern part of the area. Yields of 200-400 gpm can be expected from this aquifer, owing to its uniformly coarse texture, particularly in the upper part of the formation. The terrace deposits compose the shallow watertable aquifer throughout the area. In

  8. The Research of Historical Trusses in Northern Regions of Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenková, Renáta; Krušinský, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The blanket research of historical trusses in the territory of Slovakia has been running at our department since 2008. This research is done as teamwork in cooperation with experts from the field of conservation, and it is mainly focused on typology, construction, and the current technical and constructional state of investigated trusses. The long-time support of the grant scheme from the Ministry of Culture allows to get a fair amount of different data related to individual buildings and structures, which enables to carry out the in-depth research. In terms of their conservation and maintenance with an effort to extend their lifetime (the oldest known historical trusses in Slovakia are those of the 13th century), it is necessary to look into the microclimate impact of the under-roof space on wooden roof structures as well as to monitor the contemporary constructional and technical condition of a roof structure itself. The suitable microclimate in the under-roof space is influenced by a number of marginal conditions, constructional solutions of roof details, proper space ventilation etc

  9. Stable isotope composition of human fingernails from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Grolmusová, Zuzana; Rapčanová, Anna; Michalko, Juraj; Čech, Peter; Veis, Pavel

    2014-10-15

    Stable isotope composition of human fingernails has proven to be useful for documenting human dietary information and geographical patterns in archeological, forensic, anthropological and biological studies. Therefore, it is of interest to detect all factors influencing the stable isotopic composition in the certain regions in the world. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data of human fingernail keratin from 52 individuals from Slovakia were reported in this study. The online combustion and continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometer Delta V Advantage was used for δ(13)C and δ(15)N analysis of fingernail keratin samples from 24 vegetarian and 28 omnivorous individuals. A group of people with frequent meat consumption showed enrichment in (13)C and (15)N isotopes in fingernails. A similar trend was observed with increasing seafood in an individual's diet. Moreover a significant difference was revealed between smokers and nonsmokers for both δ(13)C and δ(15)N values. These data were compared to previously published δ(13)C and δ(15)N fingernail values from across the globe. This study brings new information on the stable isotope signature of individuals from Slovakia and characterizes the Central European region for the first time. The stable isotope composition of fingernails is influenced by the frequency of meat and seafood consumption as well as smoking.

  10. Laser cleaning of the interior stone decoration of King Sigismund's Chapel at Wawel Castle in Cracow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marczak, Jan; Strzelec, Marek; Koss, Andrzej

    2005-09-01

    The paper presents a part of the results of EUREKA E!2542 RENOVA LASER project "Laser renovation of monuments and works of art", realized in the years 2001-2004, aimed to the application of laser technique to the conservation of artworks and historic objects in architectural scale. Laser technology has been blended into the full program of conservation and restoration of Sigismund's Chapel at Wawel Castle in Cracow, Poland, including more than 800 m2 of decorative, XVI century sculptor's surfaces.

  11. Dynamics and conceptual model of the Rossena castle landslide (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelli, A.; Mandrone, G.; Ruffini, A.; Truffelli, G.

    2005-11-01

    In the Northern Apennines there are many historical villages and castles, which are of great value and represent a cultural heritage of great importance. Their presence within a territory greatly affected by landslide hazards creates, in many circumstances, the need to solve problems of land management and to act for the preservation of historical monuments. This paper describe an interesting landslide, failed during the night of 28 February 2004, that involved the village of Rossena: the failure damaged the village (Fig. 1), the road and the fields down to the stream but, fortunately, the castle just upslope the village was not involved at all. The 10th century massive castle of Rossena stands on the top of a cliff at about 500 m a.s.l., on the border between the provinces of Parma and Reggio Emilia, and it is surrounded by a small ancient village. The castle of Rossena is the best preserved stronghold of the Longobard times, enlarged and reinforced in the tenth century and partially rebuilt by Bonifacio, the father of Matilda of Canossa (the Vice-Queen of Italy and probably the most important woman in the Middle Ages) as a defensive structure guarding the Enza Valley. In addition, at Conossa, very close to Rossena, there was the meeting between Pope Gregory VII and the Emperor of Germany Henry IV, during the historical event known as "fight for the investitures". For these reasons, the area of Rossena is one of the most relevant from a historical point of view in the entire western part of the Emilia Romagna Region and it also has a high value as a geosite (Coratza et al., 2004).

  12. Preliminary geological and geophysical evaluation of the Castle Dome HDR geothermal prospect, Southwestern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Gutmann, J.T.; Aiken, C.L.V.; Ander, M.E.; Laney, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The Castle Dome HDR geothermal prospect is located in Yuma County, Arizona, in a region centered about 80 km north of Yuma along US Rte. 95. The area of interest is broadly defined by a negative residual Bouguer gravity anomaly which is about 45 km across, steep-sided in many places, and as much as 30 mgals in magnitude. The geology of this Basin and Range area is poorly known, but the few published reports and current Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) field studies indicate that the Castle Dome Mountains and adjacent ranges are chiefly a thick pile of welded ash-flow tuffs of probable mid-Tertiary age. The tuffs rest unconformably on Mesozoic metasedimentary rocks exposed only outside steep edges of the gravity low. This gravity anomaly may reflect the presence of a large caldera. A regional magnetotelluric study now in progress will define the depths to electrical conductors within the crust and upper mantle and contribute to understanding of crustal structure, the gravity anomaly, and the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal potential of the Castle Dome area.

  13. AlpArray Austria & Slovakia: Site description and noise characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Kolinsky, Petr; Gröschl, Gidera; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the European joint research initiative AlpArray we deployed 30 seismic broadband stations in Eastern Austria and Western Slovakia. Stations were installed between Spring and Winter 2015, with an expected deployment duration of two to three years. Our installations comprising 60s Reftek sensors and Reftek digitizers as well as 3G telemetry are typically located inside shelters like abandoned or rarely used huts and small houses. In this poster, we describe the station setting and surroundings for each of the 30 stations in detail and discuss noise levels and site effects. The description documents technical information for any future studies involving data from temporary AlpArray stations.

  14. Inter-laboratory comparison measurements of radiochemical laboratories in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Meresová, J; Belanová, A; Vrsková, M

    2010-01-01

    The first inter-laboratory comparison organized by the radiochemistry laboratory of Water Research Institute (WRI) in Bratislava was carried out in 1993 and since then is it realized on an annual basis and about 10 radiochemical laboratories from all over Slovakia are participating. The gross alpha and gross beta activities, and the activity concentrations of (222)Rn, tritium, and (226)Ra, and U(nat) concentration in synthetic water samples are compared. The distributed samples are covering the concentration range prevailing in potable and surface waters and are prepared by dilution of certified reference materials. Over the course of the years 1993-2008, we observed the improvement in the quality of results for most of the laboratories. However, the success rate of the gross alpha determination activity is not improving as much as the other parameters.

  15. Toxic elements in environmental samples from selected regions in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Ursinyova, M.; Hladikova, V.; Uhnak, J.; Kovacicova, J.

    1997-06-01

    The excessive content of toxic elements in the human environment is associated with the etiology of a number of diseases, especially with cardiovascular, kidney, nervous as well as bone diseases. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Ph) and mercury (Hg) belong to those heavy metals posing the greatest hazard to human health. Therefore, monitoring of their levels in human environment is required. The purpose of this work is to present the results of a study on the levels of toxic metals in soils and dustfall from selected regions of Slovakia affected by industrial and agricultural activities, and the absorption of the metals from soils to plants grown in the studied areas. The findings of metals were compared with data by other authors and with the respective guidelines. 8 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. The Customer Relationship Management in Terms of Business Practice in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urdziková, Jana; Jakábová, Martina; Saniuk, Sebastian

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the article is to present the results of the research on focus on the customer in relation to the use of customer relationship management in selected business subjects in Slovakia. The main goal of the research is the mapping of current state to ensure the principle of customer orientation and utilizing of CRM in organizations and industrial enterprises in Slovakia. This is the mapping of the current situation of that problem in practical conditions and determines potential opportunities for improvement.

  17. The hill forts and castle mounds in Lithuania: interaction between geodiversity and human-shaped landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante; Satkunas, Jonas

    2015-04-01

    Lithuania is famous for its abundant, picturesque hill forts and castle mounds of natural origin. In Lithuania as well as in whole Europe the fortified hills were used as the society dwelling place since the beginning of the Late Bronze Age. Their importance increased when Livonian and Teutonic Orders directed a series of military campaigns against Lithuania with the aim of expansion of Christianity in the region at the end of 1st millennium AD, and they were intensively used till the beginning of the 15th c. when most of them were burned down during fights with the Orders or just abandoned due to the changing political and economical situation. What types of the geodiversity were used for fortified dwellings? The choice in a particular area depended on a variety of geomorphology left behind the retreating ice sheets. High spots dominating their surroundings were of prime interest. In E and SE Lithuania, the Baltic Upland hills marking the eastern margin of the last Weichselian glacier hosted numerous fortified settlements from the end of 2nd millennium BC to the Medieval Ages (Narkunai, Velikuskes etc). In W Lithuania, plateau-like hills of the insular Samogitian Upland had been repeatedly fortified from the beginning of 1st millennium AD to the 14th century (Satrija, Medvegalis etc). Chains of hill forts and castle mounds feature the slopes of glaciofluvial valleys of Nemunas, Neris and other rivers where the slopes were dissected by affluent rivulets and ravines and transformed into isolated, well protected hills (Kernave, Punia, Veliuona etc). Peninsulas and headlands formed by the erosion of fluvial and lacustrine deposits were used in the lowlands, e.g. in central and N Lithuania (Paberze, Mezotne etc). How much the landscape was modified for defense purposes? Long-term erosion and overgrowing vegetation damaged the former fortified sites, however some remains and the archeological excavations allowed their reconstruction. The fortified Bronze Age settlements

  18. Distribution of transmissivity and yield of the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers in Northern New Hanover County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Nagy, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Data were collected from more than 230 wells in northern New Hanover County, North Carolina, to evaluate the distribution of transmissivity and yield of the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province. Constant-rate,single-well aquifer test data were obtained and analyzed to calculate additional transmissivity values for 25 production wells that were completed in the Castle Hayne or Peedee aquifer. In the surficial aquife, transmissivity values ranged from 400 to 12,700 feet squared per day, and reported yields ranged from 6 to 100 gallons per minute. In the Castle Hayne aquifer, transmissivity values ranged from 1,400 to 18,700 feet squared per day, and reported yields ranged from 9 to 640 gallons per minute. In the Peedee aquifer, transmissivity values ranged from 530 to 18,600 feet squared per day, and reported yields ranged from 8 to 1,000 gallons per minute.

  19. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-07-01

    A solar energy system located at the Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware is described. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat - new addition, domestic water - entire facility, and pool heating - entire facility. On a cost basis for 2920 hours of operation, the heat reclaimed would cost $969.66 annually if provided by gas at 3.79 per million Btu's. At 5.5 centers per kwh, heat recovery costs of $481.80 percent a net savings of $487.86 annually.

  20. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A solar energy system located at the Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware is described. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat - new addition, domestic water - entire facility, and pool heating - entire facility. On a cost basis for 2920 hours of operation, the heat reclaimed would cost $969.66 annually if provided by gas at 3.79 per million Btu's. At 5.5 centers per kwh, heat recovery costs of $481.80 percent a net savings of $487.86 annually.

  1. Hydrology of Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tracts, central Utah, and potential effects of coal mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Baskin, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Alkali Creek coal-lease tract includes about 2,150 acres in the Book Cliffs coal field in central Utah, and the Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tract includes about 3,360 acres in the Wasatch Plateau coal field, also in central Utah. Both the Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tracts are near areas where coal is currently (1987) mined by underground methods from the Cretaceous Blackhawk Formation. The Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge areas have intermittent streams in which flow after snowmelt runoff is locally sustained into midsummer by springflow. The only perennial stream is South Fork Corner Canyon Creek in the Castle Valley Ridge area. Peak flow in both areas generally is from snowmelt runoff; however, peak flow from thunderstorm runoff in the Alkali Creek area can exceed that from snowmelt runoff. Estimated annual source-area sediment yield was 0.5 acre-ft/sq mi in the Alkali Creek lease tract and it was 0.3 acre-ft/sq mi in the Castle Valley Ridge lease tract. Groundwater in the Alkali Creek area occurs in perched aquifers in the Flagstaff Limestone and in other formations above the coal-bearing Blackhawk Formation. The principal source of recharge to the aquifers is snowmelt on outcrops. Faults may be major conduits and control the movement of groundwater. Groundwater discharges at formation contacts, between zones of differing permeability within a formation, near faults and into mines. Water sampled from 13 springs in the Alkali Creek area contained dissolved solids at concentrations ranging from 273 to 5,210 mg/L. Water sampled from 17 springs in the Castle Valley Ridge area contained dissolved solids at concentrations ranging from 208 to 579 mg/L. The composition of water from a recently abandoned part of an active mine the Wasatch Plateau closely resembles that of water discharging from a nearby mine that has been abandoned for more than 30 years. Mining of the Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tracts likely will

  2. Distributions of (137)Cs and (210)Pb in moss collected from Belarus and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Aleksiayenak, Yu V; Frontasyeva, M V; Florek, M; Sykora, I; Holy, K; Masarik, J; Brestakova, L; Jeskovsky, M; Steinnes, E; Faanhof, A; Ramatlhape, K I

    2013-03-01

    In the present work, moss samples collected in Slovakia and Belarus were assayed with respect to gamma-emitting radionuclides. The results for (137)Cs and (210)Pb are discussed. Moss was used for the first time in Belarus, as a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution in consequence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In Belarus, the maximum activity of (137)Cs was observed in the Gomel region near Mazyr (6830 Bq/kg) and the minimum activity in the Vitebsyevsk Region near Luzhki-Yazno (5 Bq/kg). "Hot spots" were also observed near the towns Borisow and Yuratsishki. The results of measurements of (137)Cs in moss samples collected in 2000, 2006 and 2009 in the same localities of Slovakia are presented and compared with the results of air monitoring of (137)Cs carried out in Slovakia from 1977 until 2010. Measurements of the (210)Pb concentration in moss samples collected over the territory of Slovakia showed, that the median value exceed 2.3 times median value of (210)Pb obtained for Belarus moss. For that reason, the inhalation dose for man from (210)Pb and (137)Cs in Slovakia is more than twice as high as in Belarus, in spite of the initially very high (137)Cs exposure in the latter country.

  3. Geologic framework and hot dry rock geothermal potential of the Castle Dome area, Yuma County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Gutmann, J.T.

    1981-02-01

    The Castle Dome Mountains and surrounding ranges constitute a voluminous pile of silicic volcanic rocks within the Basin and Range province of southwestern Arizona. Previously reported as Cretaceous and Quaternary in age, these volcanics all are of late Oligocene to early Miocene age as indicated by five new K-Ar dates. Reconnaissance field studies indicate that the volcanic section locally has undergone large rotations that contrast with the usual structural style of the Basin and Range and resemble the thin-skinned rotational tectonics documented for earlier, mid-Tertiary extensional deformation in ranges to the north and northeast. Significant geothermal potential of the Castle Dome area is suggested by a shallow depth to the Curie isotherm and by the apparent presence of a good electrical conductor at anomalously shallow depth in the crust. Warm wells exist in the area and Shearer (1979) reported a geothermal gradient of about 70/sup 0/C/km in a dry well near the center of the gravity low. Radiogenic heat production in the silicic batholith inferred above constitutes a reasonable candidate for a shallow regional heat source.

  4. Castle of Gerace. Integrated survey at the study and conservation of architectural-archaeological heritage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annaloro, Salvatore; Sapio, Gianluca; Saraceno, Domenico

    2010-05-01

    The research, funded by CNR, suggests the creation of a corpus of data aiming at the rediscovery of the castle of Gerace (RC) and its links to the territory. The aim of the research is to establish a sampling of documents, materials, techniques and ideas, representing the "matter" of the monument. The final aim of the contribution is to safeguard and increase the value of the heritage, to realize the territory's potentialities that risk to get lost or to be "unexpressed" for the physical decadence of the castle. The study, starting from a historical-archive research, has dealt with the analysys of materials and the fenomena of deterioration. as well as using the most common instruments of survey and mapping, GPS stations integrated with Laser Scanner have been used. The acquisition of orthophotos has allowed to underiline many characters of the site, making possible to identify a wider range of anthropic anomalies; the 3-d modelling with laser scanner survey has permitted a global investigation of the area. The final elaboration of data will allow to examine several information layers especially those related to archaeological evidences, anthropic anomalies, landslide front and the risk of rock stability.

  5. Geologic framework and hot dry rock geothermal potential of the Castle Dome area, Yuma County, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmann, J. T.

    1981-02-01

    The Castle Dome Mountains and surrounding ranges constitute a voluminous pile of silicic volcanic rocks within the Basin and Range province of southwestern Arizona. Previously reported as Cretaceous and Quaternary in age, these volcancies all are of late Oligocene to early Miocene age as indicated by five new K-Ar dates. Reconnaissance field studies indicate that the volcanic section locally has undergone large rotations that contrast with the usual structural style of the Basin and Range and resemble the thin skinned rotational tectonics documented for earlier, mid Tertiary extensional deformation in ranges to the north and northeast. Significant geothermal potential of the Castle Dome area is suggested by a shallow depth to the Curie isotherm and by the apparent presence of a good electrical conductor at anomalously shallow depth in the crust. Warm wells exist in the area as well as a geothermal gradient of about 700 C/km in a dry well near the center of the gravity low radiogenic heat production in the silicic batholith inferred above constitutes a reasonable candidate for a shallow regional heat source.

  6. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  7. Prognosis of groundwater drought occurrence in selected catchments of Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojkovova, M.; Machlica, A.; Bara, M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper contains results on prognosis of groundwater drought occurrence in six selected catchments of Slovakia with different geological, hydrogeological and climatic conditions. Prognoses were made using BILAN model. Climatic scenarios CCCM1997, CCCM2000 (Canadian model CGCM.1 and CGCM.2 modified on conditions in Slovakia) and GISS1998 were used. Groundwater drought occurrence was assessed for time-frames 2030 and 2075. Each year of the whole assessed period of 24 years (1982-2005) was classified according to the water bearing degree of the stream taking into account the yearly precipitation amounts (Majercakova, et al., 2007). Three types of dry years - very dry, medium dry and moderately dry were defined. The prognosis values for 2030 and 2075 were compared with the reference period 1971-1990. Chvojnica River catchment (Lopasov profile), located in Neogene sedimentary rocks is characterized by occurrence of 26 % of dry years (very dry, medium or moderately dry) within the period 1982-2005. Prognosis of the groundwater runoff changes showed not very expressive decrease, in about 3.6-4 % in comparison with the reference period. Tuzina River catchment (Tuzina profile), located in crystalline, Mesozoic and Neogene sedimentary rocks, is characterized by occurrence of 25 % of dry years. Values of the groundwater runoff would decrease not very expressively, in about 5-7 %. These two catchments were assessed using GISS1998 climate change scenario. Groundwater changes in four other catchments were evaluated using CCCM scenarios. Topla River catchment (Bardejov profile), located in Paleogene flysh rocks, is characterized by occurrence of 58 % of dry periods. Values of the groundwater runoff would decrease importantly - in about 59-88 %. Bela River catchment (Podbanske profile), built by granitic and glaciofluvial rocks, is characterized by occurrence of 13 % of dry periods. Values of the groundwater runoff would decrease in about 42-63 %. Boca River catchment (Kralova

  8. Gastrointestinal microbiota in children with autism in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Tomova, Aleksandra; Husarova, Veronika; Lakatosova, Silvia; Bakos, Jan; Vlkova, Barbora; Babinska, Katarina; Ostatnikova, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Development of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), including autism, is based on a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Recent data propose the etiopathogenetic role of intestinal microflora in autism. The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in fecal microbiota in children with autism and determine its role in the development of often present gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and possibly other manifestations of autism in Slovakia. The fecal microflora of 10 children with autism, 9 siblings and 10 healthy children was investigated by real-time PCR. The fecal microbiota of autistic children showed a significant decrease of the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and elevation of the amount of Lactobacillus spp. Our results also showed a trend in the incidence of elevated Desulfovibrio spp. in children with autism reaffirmed by a very strong association of the amount of Desulfovibrio spp. with the severity of autism in the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) restricted/repetitive behavior subscale score. The participants in our study demonstrated strong positive correlation of autism severity with the severity of GI dysfunction. Probiotic diet supplementation normalized the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, Desulfovibrio spp. and the amount of Bifidobacterium spp. in feces of autistic children. We did not find any correlation between plasma levels of oxytocin, testosterone, DHEA-S and fecal microbiota, which would suggest their combined influence on autism development. This pilot study suggests the role of gut microbiota in autism as a part of the "gut-brain" axis and it is a basis for further investigation of the combined effect of microbial, genetic, and hormonal changes for development and clinical manifestation of autism.

  9. Development of the central Carpathian Paleogene basin, west Carpathians, Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Nemcok, M. ); Neese, D.G. )

    1993-09-01

    The central Carpathian Paleogene basin, corresponding to one of the regions of Slovakia having a hydrocarbon potential, forms part of the Carpathian system. In the west Carpathians, synorogenic sediments, derived from the rising orogene, comprise an up to 3.5-km-thick sequence of Middle Eocene to Early Oligocene clastics. Flysch-type sediments dominate and are locally cut by canyon-focused submarine fans. The morphology of the floor of the central Carpathian Paleogene basin developed during the Albian and Maastrichtian in response to pre-Senonian nappe emplacement in the inner Carpathians and Late Cretaceous thrusting in the Pieniny Klippen belt. By the end of the Cretaceous, the inner Carpathians formed an emergent orogenic belt, providing a southern source for the sedimentary fill of the central Carpathian Paleogene basin. To the north, this basin was bounded by the Pieniny Klippen belt, forming at that time an irregular chain of islands, upheld by compressionally deformed pre-Tertiary rocks. Uplift of this northern barrier may explain the development of the central Carpathian Paleogene current system. Senonian shortening was subparallel to the present strike of the Pieniny Klippen belt. During the Paleogene and Miocene, shortening changed to a northern or northeastern direction. Differential shortening gave rise to the development of major strike-slip zones and numerous strike-slip faults that accommodated differential motion of thrust slices along the orogenic front. The northern, frontal portions of the basin were shortened by thrusting, whereas its basinal and proximal parts were affected by contemporaneous transtensional strike-slip faulting. Paleogene uplift of the frontal part of the evolving mountain belt is recorded by high-slump activity in areas of flysch deposition. A minimum of 2 km of sediments are missing from the basin due to Miocene erosion. At present, only structural remnants of the ancestral Paleogene basin are preserved.

  10. Illegal Drug Use among Female University Students in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Matejovičová, Barbora; Trandžík, Jozef; Schlarmannová, Janka; Boledovičová, Mária; Velemínský, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is focused on the issue of illegal drug use among female university students preparing to become teachers. The main aim was to determine the frequency of drug abuse in a group of young women (n=215, mean age 20.44 years). Material/Methods Using survey methods, we determined that 33.48% of female university students in Slovakia use illegal drugs and 66.51% of students have never used illegal drugs. Differences between these groups were determined using statistical analysis, mostly in 4 areas of survey questions. Results We determined that education of parents has a statistically significant influence on use of illegal drugs by their children (χ2=10.14; P<0.05). Communication between parents and children and parental attention to children have a significant role in determining risky behavior (illegal drug use, χ2=8.698, P<0.05). Parents of students not using illegal drugs were interested in how their children spend their free time (68.53%). We confirmed the relationship between consumption of alcohol and illegal drug use (χ2=16.645; P<0.001) and smoking (χ2=6.226; P<0.05). The first contact with drugs occurs most frequently at high school age. The most consumed “soft” drug in our group of female university students is marijuana. Conclusions Our findings are relevant for comparison and generalization regarding causes of the steady increase in number of young people using illegal drugs. PMID:25602526

  11. Flashiness of mountain streams in Slovakia and Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holko, Ladislav; Parajka, Juraj; Kostka, Zdeno; Škoda, Peter; Blöschl, Günter

    2011-08-01

    SummaryThis article evaluates the spatial and temporal changes in streamflow flashiness in 122 mountain catchments in Slovakia and Austria. The flashiness is quantified by the Richards-Baker flashiness index ( FI), which is the ratio of absolute day-to-day fluctuations of streamflow relative to total flow in a year. The analysis is based on daily streamflow data from the period 1976 to 2005. The results show that the average day-to-day fluctuations of streamflow vary from 6% to 43%, depending on the catchment. The spatial pattern of the FI reflects the variations in the main geological units and generally shows a trend of decreasing flashiness with increasing size of the catchment. Statistically significant temporal trends in flashiness are found in 7 Slovak and 22 Austrian catchments. Most of these trends are related to anthropogenic effects, while, in a few catchments, the change in annual flashiness appears to be caused by changes in precipitation seasonality. A multivariate statistical analysis of FI indicates negative correlations with catchment area, mean catchment elevation, percents of forest cover, agricultural land and Quaternary geology. Positive correlations are found between FI and Tertiary and Calcareous geologies. Extrapolating the regression models beyond the observed range of catchment attributes used in the estimation leads to significant prediction errors. In order to better interpret the FI values, a statistically significant relationship was found between the FI and the frequency of peak flows exceeding the long-term mean as well as between the FI and the 5% quantile of daily streamflow.

  12. 75 FR 1052 - Castle Energy Services, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Castle Energy Services, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization December 30, 2009. This is a supplemental notice in the...

  13. [Organization and management of nationalized pharmaceutical industry in Slovakia from 1945 to 1948].

    PubMed

    Senček, Richard R

    2013-02-01

    The paper discusses a short but important period in the history of pharmaceutical industry with regard to Slovakia. The complicated post-war situation required peremptory interventions from the state, which attempted to secure the operation of strategic firms by means of National Administration Boards and nationalization. The firms which were nationalized by this measure were managed by the Ministry of Industry. They included also the pharmaceutical firms nationalized in Slovakia. The situation which produced contradictory responses in society and political scene culminated in the communist coup detat and nationalization of virtually all industries.Key words: nationalization pharmaceutical industry Ministry of Industry.

  14. A seismic source zone model for the seismic hazard assessment of Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hók, Jozef; Kysel, Robert; Kováč, Michal; Moczo, Peter; Kristek, Jozef; Kristeková, Miriam; Šujan, Martin

    2016-06-01

    We present a new seismic source zone model for the seismic hazard assessment of Slovakia based on a new seismotectonic model of the territory of Slovakia and adjacent areas. The seismotectonic model has been developed using a new Slovak earthquake catalogue (SLOVEC 2011), successive division of the large-scale geological structures into tectonic regions, seismogeological domains and seismogenic structures. The main criteria for definitions of regions, domains and structures are the age of the last tectonic consolidation of geological structures, thickness of lithosphere, thickness of crust, geothermal conditions, current tectonic regime and seismic activity. The seismic source zones are presented on a 1:1,000,000 scale map.

  15. Chemical constituents in the Peedee and Castle Hayne aquifers: Porters Neck area, New Hanover County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, T.L.; Harris, W.B.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns about overuse and potential contamination of major aquifers in the southeastern part of North Carolina resulted in the initiation of a subsurface water quality study in February 2001. The focus of this study was to examine variations in nutrients (NO3-, TRP, SO42- Cl-, NH4+) and total dissolved Fe in the Cretaceous Peedee and Tertiary Castle Hayne Limestone aquifers of northeastern New Hanover County. Water samples were collected monthly for one year from sixteen wells located in the Porters Neck area (west of the Intracoastal Waterway and south of Futch Creek) and four springs located on the south side of Futch Creek. Variations in selective nutrient concentrations were measured between and within each aquifer. Concentrations of NH4+ and Fe increased in the Peedee sandstone aquifer during the warmer summer and early fall months. In late summer to early fall, Fe, NO 3-, NH4+, and TRP concentrations in the Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer were significantly higher than in the spring and winter months. Chloride and SO 42- concentrations for the Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer both increased during the warmer months, probably as a result of saltwater intrusion. Factors considered for nutrient and Fe variance include: temperature variation, anaerobic conditions, subsurface stratigraphy/structure, recharge locations, site location and surface fertilization. The shallower Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer showed seasonal variability in the study area, whereas the Peedee sandstone aquifer showed little to no seasonal variability. Increases in NO3- and TRP lagged slightly behind periods of high fertilization and were more prevalent down-dip of a major golf course. Nutrient content and seasonal variation of Futch Creek springs indicated that they originate from the Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer.

  16. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System located at the Wilmington, Swim School, New Castle, Delaware. This active solar system is composed of 2,700 square feet of Revere liquid flat plate collectors piped to a 2,800 gallon concrete storage tank located below ground near the building. A micro-computer based control system selects the optimal applications of the stored energy among space, domestic water and pool alternatives. The controlled logic is planned for serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat-new addition, domestic water-entire facility, and pool heating-entire facility. A modified trombe wall passive operation the active system will bypass the areas being served passively. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution.

  17. Paleomagnetism of Cretaceous and Paleocene sedimentary rocks across the Castle Mountain Fault, south central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatakos, John A.; Kodama, K. P.; Vittorio, L. F.; Pavlis, T. L.

    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analyses on 217 samples from 13 sites in the Paleocene Chickaloon Formation south of the Castle Mountain Fault and 111 samples from 9 sites in the coeval, but lithologically distinct, Arkose Ridge Formation north of this fault indicate that these rocks contain a pre-folding magnetization carried by fine grained (<1.0μm) single domain magnetite. Secondary magnetizations are common, possibly as the result of the presence of authigenic or hydrothermal pyrrhotite. Although characteristic magnetizations were isolated for the Chickaloon and Arkose Ridge rocks, the best results were obtained from demagnetization plane analysis which estimates the location of the paleomagnetic pole for the Chickaloon Formation at 50.5°N, 277.2°E, δm = 12.2°, δP = 7.77deg;, and a paleomagnetic pole for the Arkose Ridge Formation at 60.4°N, 138.6°E, δm = 11.6°, δp = 6.4°. These results suggest that there is no paleomagnetically discernible latitudinal offset across the Castle Mountain Fault since Paleocene time, but that both the Chickaloon and Arkose Ridge rocks, as part of the Peninsular terrane, originated approximately 1600±1200 km south of their present position with respect to North America. One possible explanation of these data is that the Peninsular terrane was accreted to North America at mid-latitudes in the Cretaceous and was subsequently translated northward by right-lateral strike-slip faulting parallel to the North American margin. Hence, the Arkose Ridge and Chickaloon results may be indicative of the cumulative right-hand displacement occurring on these faults since Paleocene time. However, a calculation using the pole to the small circle fit of the present-day curvature of the Tintina-Northern Rocky Mountain Trench and Denali fault systems, and the maximum amount of structurally estimated offset across these fault systems, indicates that motion on these faults can account for no more than half of the paleomagnetically observed

  18. A magnetic investigation of the Round Mountain plug, Castle Valley, Grand County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, R.A.

    1953-01-01

    A magnetic survey was made in Castle Valley, Grand County, Utah, to determine if the Round Mountain plug was fed laterally from the La Sal Mountains or vertically from a source at depth. Additional measurements were made around the exposure of igneous rock to obtain the shape of the plug at depth. No indication of a buried lateral igneous feeder was detected on the magnetic profileso The magnetic contour map showed that the plug was much larger than indicated by the diorite porphyry outcrop, and that the buried part of the plug southeast of Round Mountain has a higher magnetic susceptibility than the diorite outcrop. Theoretical anomalies, calculated using the susceptibility of the diorite outcrop, indicate that a lateral feeder at a depth of greater than 200 feet could not be detected. The size and shape of the magnetic anomaly as shown on the contour map suggest that the plug was fed from a source at depth.

  19. European Gender Lessons: Girls and Boys at Scout Camps in Denmark, Portugal, Russia and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

    2004-01-01

    The article investigates the tensions between and within models of gender equality and gender complementarity by studying children who are in the midst of learning to apply these gender models in practice. Children (aged 11-15 years) were observed and interviewed while they participated in scout camps in Denmark, Portugal, Slovakia and Russia.…

  20. Teaching Translation and Interpreting in Slovakia: Is There Anything Other than Levý and Popovic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biloveský, Vladimír; Djovcoš, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Institutional translation and interpreting training has a long lasting tradition in Slovakia mainly thanks to such significant translation scholars as Anton Popovic, František Miko, Ján Vilikovský and many others. However the situation has changed after the Velvet Revolution in 1989 and the education needed to start adapting to the new market…

  1. Alternative Civil Enculturation: Political Disenchantment and Civic Attitudes in Minority Schools in Estonia, Latvia, and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubeva, Maria; Austers, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates the ways in which minority schools in Latvia, Estonia, and Slovakia resist the dominant narratives of nation and citizenship and provide an alternative model of civil enculturation for students. It provides evidence to support the hypothesis that differences between competing narratives of statehood and nationhood among…

  2. Beware of the Dog! Private Linguistic Landscapes in Two "Hungarian" Villages in South-West Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laihonen, Petteri

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates how a single type of sign can be connected to language policy on a larger scale. Focusing on the relationship between language policy and language ideologies, I investigate the private Linguistic Landscape (LL) of Hungarians living in two villages in Slovakia. Through an examination of "beware of the dog" signs,…

  3. National study of illicit drug use in Slovakia based on wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Skubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman; Ryba, Jozef; Birošová, Lucia; Fedorova, Ganna; Spalková, Viera; Bodík, Igor

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze illicit drugs and their metabolites in wastewater from eight selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Slovakia. The effect of two of the biggest music festivals in Slovakia on illicit drugs in wastewater was also investigated. Urinary bio-markers of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, cannabis and ecstasy use were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We then compared our results with data obtained in other parts of Europe and the world. This study demonstrates that Slovakia has one of highest methamphetamine consumption rates in Europe. Within Slovakia, the highest level of methamphetamine consumption was found in Petržalka, where the mean specific load of this drug in sewage was 169 mg/day/1000 inhabitants; the next highest loads were detected in Piešťany (128 mg/day/1000 inhabitants) and Bratislava (124 mg/day/1000 inhabitants). Amphetamine, ecstasy and cannabis consumption in our study were comparable to that found in other European cities, whereas cocaine consumption was lower. We also analyzed the pattern of drug consumption over the course of a week. The load of the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine in wastewater increased during the weekend. The use of this drug was most common in the capital of Slovakia. Increased consumption was also found during a folk festival in Piešťany. The ecstasy load in wastewater from larger cities also significantly increased over the weekend. An increase of drug consumption was also detected during a music festival in Trenčín, especially for ecstasy. The specific load of ecstasy during this festival increased from 3mg/day/1000 inhabitants to 29 mg/day/1000 inhabitants. The possible influence of music styles on the consumption of certain drugs was also observed. During a folk festival, methamphetamine and cocaine were more commonly used.

  4. Flood hazards along the Toutle and Cowlitz rivers, Washington, from a hypothetical failure of Castle Lake blockage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius; Orzol, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    A recent evaluation of groundwater and material in the blockage impounding Castle Lake shows that the blockage is potentially unstable against failure from piping due to heave and internal erosion when groundwater levels are seasonally high. There is also a remote possibility that a 6.8 or greater magnitude earthquake could occur in the Castle Lake area when groundwater levels are critically high. If this situation occurs, the debris blockage that confines Castle Lake could breach from successive slope failure with liquefaction of a portion of the blockage. A dam-break computer model was used to simulate discharge through a hypothetical breach in the Castle Lake blockage that could be caused by failure by heave, internal erosion, or liquefaction. Approximately 18,500 acre-ft of stored water would be released from an assumed breach that fully developed to a 1,000-ft width over a 15-minute time period. The resulting flood, incorporating 3.4 x 10 to the 6th power cu yd of the debris blockage, would reach a peak magnitude of 1,500,000 cu ft/s (cubic feet per second). The flood is also assumed to incorporate an additional 137x10 to the 6th power cu yd of saturated debris material from downstream deposits. Flow is considered to be hyperconcentrated with sediment throughout the course of the flood. The hypothetical hyperconcentrated flow is routed downstream, superimposed on normal winter flood flows by use of a one-dimensional unsteady-state numerical streamflow simulation model. From a starting magnitude of 1,500,000 cu ft/s, the peak increases to 2,100,000 cu ft/s at N-1 Dam (12 mi downstream) and attenuates to 1,200,000 cu ft/s at Kid Valley (25 mi downstream) , to 100,000 cu ft/s at Longview and the confluence of the Columbia River (65 mi downstream). From time of breach, the flood peak would take 2.2 hr to reach Toutle, 3.8 hr to reach Castle Rock, and 8.5 hr to reach Longview. Communities of Toutle , Castle Rock, Kelso, and Longview would experience extreme to

  5. Geochemical map of the Mount Eddy and Castle Crags Roadless Areas, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, J.A.; Caress, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Mount Eddy and Castle , Crags Roadless Areas occupy 9,600 acres (39 km2) and 3,300 acres (13 km2), respectively, in Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity Counties, Calif., approximately 8 mi (13 km) west of the towns of Mount Shasta City and Dunsmuir (fig. 1). Access is provided by secondary roads and trails from Interstate Highway 5, which passes through Mount Shasta City and Dunsmuir. The areas are located in rugged terrane in the easternmost part of the Klamath Mountains where altitudes range from about 2,500 ft (7.62 m) in the southern Castle Crags area to 9,025 ft (2,751 m) on Mount Eddy. Manzanita and other brush are ubiquitous at lower elevations whereas vegetation is lacking at higher elevations except for occasional gnarled conifers and ground-level plants.

  6. Data from core analyses, aquifer testing, and geophysical logging of Denver Basin bedrock aquifers at Castle Pines, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, S.G.; Banta, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains data pertaining to the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the bedrock aquifers of the Denver basin at a site near Castle Pines, Colorado. Data consist of a lithologic- description of about 2,400 ft of drill core and laboratory determinations of mineralogy, grain size, bulk and grain density, porosity, specific yield, and specific retention for selected core samples. Water-level data, atmospheric-pressure measurements, aquifer-compression measurements, and borehole geophysical logs also are included.

  7. On Social Interactions through the Reported Dreams of Japanese Students by the Hall and van de Castle Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Toyohiko

    This paper presents research on dreams of college male and female students during a 10-year interval. In Japan, there have been a number of studies on dreams, but there has been no study of dreams using the Hall-Van de Castle Scales. For this reason, a comparable study was conducted between dreams collected in 1986/7 and 1996/7. It questioned…

  8. Miocene calc-alkaline magmatism, calderas, and crustal extension in the Kofa and Castle Dome Mountains, southwestern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Grubensky, M.J. ); Bagby, W.C. )

    1990-11-10

    Two widespread lower Miocene rhyolite ash flow tuffs in the Kofa and Castle Dome Mountains of southwestern Arizona are products of caldera-forming eruptions. These closely erupted tuffs, the tuff of Yaqui Tanks and the tuff of Ten Ewe Mountain, are approximately 22 Ma in age and their eruptions culminate a 1- to 2-m.y.-long burst of calc-alkaline volcanic activity centered on the northern Castle Dome Mountains. Exotic blocks of Proterozoic and Mesozoic crystalline rocks up to 20 m across are present in exposures of the tuff of Yaqui Tanks exposed in the central Castle Dome Mountains and the southern Kofa Mountains. A single, thick cooling unit of the tuff of Ten Ewe Mountain that includes thick lenses of mesobreccia marks the location of the younger caldera that extends from Palm Canyon in the western Kofa Mountains eastward more than 7 km along strike to the central part of the range. Large residual Bouguer gravity anomalies, one beneath each inferred caldera, are interpreted as batholithic rocks or low-density caldera fill. Caldera-related volcanism in the Kofa region occurred during a transition in extensional tectonic regimes: From a regime of east-west trending uplifts and basins to a regime manifest primarily by northwest striking normal faults. A narrow corridor of folding and strike-slip faulting formed during volcanism in the southern Kofa Mountains. Upper Oligocene or lower Miocene coarse sedimentary rocks along the southern flank of the Chocolate Mountains anticlinorium in the southern Castle Dome Mountains mark the periphery of a basin similar to other early and middle Tertiary basins exposed in southern California. The volcanic section of the Kofa region was dissected by high-angle normal faults related to northeast-southwest oriented crustal extension typical of the southern Basin and Range province.

  9. Experience Of Implementing The Integrated Management System In Manufacturing Companies In Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestyánszka Škůrková, Katarína; Kučerová, Marta; Fidlerová, Helena

    2015-06-01

    In corporate practice, the term of Integrated Management System means a system the aim of which is to manage an organization regarding the quality, environment, health and safety at work. In the first phase of the VEGA project No. 1/0448/13 "Transformation of ergonomics program into the company management structure through interaction and utilization QMS, EMS, HSMS", we focused on obtaining information about the way or procedure of implementing the integrated management systems in manufacturing companies in Slovakia. The paper considers characteristics of integrated management system, specifies the possibilities for successive integration of the management systems and also describes the essential aspects of the practical implementation of integrated management systems in companies in Slovakia.

  10. The struggle to address woman battering in Slovakia: stories from service providers.

    PubMed

    Miller, Susan L; Wasileski, Gabriela

    2015-06-01

    Following the fall of communism, Slovakia found itself in a challenging position: to openly acknowledge the existence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its disproportionate effect on women and children without an infrastructure to address victim safety, and provide resources and legal help. With collaboration with non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the government responded by developing shelters and introducing legislation that criminalized IPV and created social services for victims. To assess implementation efforts, we conducted in-depth interviews with governmental officials and NGO personnel who provide services for battered women. We focus on the operation and efficacy of shelters to discover what services are most needed for battered women, the criminal justice system's response to IPV, and what long-range goals will facilitate more permanent solutions to the social problem of violence against women in Slovakia. PMID:25845616

  11. Minimal change of thermal continentality in Slovakia within the period 1961-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilček, Jozef; Škvarenina, Jaroslav; Vido, Jaroslav; Nalevanková, Paulína; Kandrík, Radoslav; Škvareninová, Jana

    2016-08-01

    Thermal continentality plays an important role not only in the basic characterisation of the climate in particular regions but also in the phytogeographic distribution of plants and ecosystem formation. Due to ongoing climate change, questions surrounding the changes of thermal continentality are very relevant. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of thermal continentality and its temporal changes in the Slovak Republic between the years of 1961 and 2013. The study was carried out on several meteorological stations selected in respect to the geographical and geomorphological heterogeneity of Slovakia. Our results show that the continentality of Slovakia increased in the period 1961 to 2013; however, this trend is not significant. These non-significant trends are confirmed at all the stations. Nevertheless, it is necessary to be aware of this signal, especially because these changes could cause changes in ecosystem formation in future.

  12. The struggle to address woman battering in Slovakia: stories from service providers.

    PubMed

    Miller, Susan L; Wasileski, Gabriela

    2015-06-01

    Following the fall of communism, Slovakia found itself in a challenging position: to openly acknowledge the existence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its disproportionate effect on women and children without an infrastructure to address victim safety, and provide resources and legal help. With collaboration with non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the government responded by developing shelters and introducing legislation that criminalized IPV and created social services for victims. To assess implementation efforts, we conducted in-depth interviews with governmental officials and NGO personnel who provide services for battered women. We focus on the operation and efficacy of shelters to discover what services are most needed for battered women, the criminal justice system's response to IPV, and what long-range goals will facilitate more permanent solutions to the social problem of violence against women in Slovakia.

  13. Downhole measurements and fluid chemistry of a castle rock steam well, the Geysers, Lake County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Nathenson, M.; Frye, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Wellbore and reservoir processes in a steam well in the Castle Rock field of The Geysers have been studied by means of down-hole pressure and temperature measurements and analyses of ejected water and steam produced under bleed and full flow. Down-hole measurements show that below a vapor zone there is liquid water in the well in pressure equilibrium with reservoir steam at a depth of 2290 m. The progressive decreases, from 1973 to 1977, of pressure and temperature in the vapor zone indicate that wellbore heat loss is high enough to condense a large fraction of the steam inflow. The chemical composition of water ejected from the well is consistent with an origin from wellbore condensation of steam. Calculations using the differences in gas and isotopic compositions between bleed and full-flow steam show that about half of the full-flow steam originated as liquid water in the reservoir and that about 30% of the steam entering the well under bleed was condensed in the wellbore and drained downward. Heat loss calculations are also consistent with this amount of condensation. ?? 1981.

  14. Stratigraphy and economic potential of Castle Gate area, Carbon County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Russon, M.

    1984-07-01

    Unexcelled exposures of the coal-bearing Blackhawk Formation near Castle Gate, Utah, provide a cross section of sediments deposited by wave-dominated deltas along the western shoreline of the Cretaceous Interior seaway. Four sandstone tongues resulted from deltaic sedimentation, each overlain by thick coal. A clear genetic relationship exists between the occurrence of coal and geometries of paleoshorelines and fluvial channels. Coals are thickest where underlain by thin shoreface sandstones, and they pinch out abruptly against beach-ridge sandstones responsible for swamp proliferation. Fluvial channels subsequently cut wide swaths in swamp deposits normal to shoreline trends. Commonly, thick coals of different seams occur together, as the compaction of vegetables controlled subsequent swamp accumulation. Excellent exposures and considerable subsurface data provide the details necessary to construct a predictive exploration model useful in the Cretaceous coals of the central Rockies. Cretaceous deltaic deposits also create hydrocarbon potential, as three facies associated with Blackhawk deposition produce ideal stratigraphic relationships for hydrocarbon accumulation. Porous delta-front sandstones interfinger with the underlying organic-rich marine shale of the Mancos formation. Shale and siltstone of the flood plain then cap the sandstone. Hydrocarbons derived from the marine shale or from associated coal may accumulate in porous sands of stream channels or in mouth-bar or beach-ridge deposits of the delta front. A clear understanding of deltaic sedimentation, provided by analysis of the Blackhawk model, could aid in predicting the occurrences of similar subsurface sandstones.

  15. Microbial diversity of Loki's Castle black smokers at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, A; Jørgensen, S L; Bernasconi, S M; Pedersen, R B; Thorseth, I H; Früh-Green, G L

    2012-11-01

    Hydrothermal vent systems harbor rich microbial communities ranging from aerobic mesophiles to anaerobic hyperthermophiles. Among these, members of the archaeal domain are prevalent in microbial communities in the most extreme environments, partly because of their temperature-resistant and robust membrane lipids. In this study, we use geochemical and molecular microbiological methods to investigate the microbial diversity in black smoker chimneys from the newly discovered Loki's Castle hydrothermal vent field on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) with vent fluid temperatures of 310-320 °C and pH of 5.5. Archaeal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids (GDGTs) and H-shaped GDGTs with 0-4 cyclopentane moieties were dominant in all sulfide samples and are most likely derived from both (hyper)thermophilic Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Crenarchaeol has been detected in low abundances in samples derived from the chimney exterior indicating the presence of Thaumarchaeota at lower ambient temperatures. Aquificales and members of the Epsilonproteobacteria were the dominant bacterial groups detected. Our observations based on the analysis of 16S rRNA genes and biomarker lipid analysis provide insight into microbial communities thriving within the porous sulfide structures of active and inactive deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Microbial cycling of sulfur, hydrogen, and methane by archaea in the chimney interior and bacteria in the chimney exterior may be the prevailing biogeochemical processes in this system.

  16. Molecular evidence for the presence of Dirofilaria repens in beech marten (Martes foina) from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, M; Hurníková, Z; Zaleśny, G; Chovancová, B

    2013-09-23

    Herein we present the first finding of Dirofilaria repens, agent of the subcutaneous form of dirofilariosis, in Martes foina. Molecular analyses from the spleen of 3 individuals originated from Tatra National Park, Northern Slovakia, confirmed the presence of D. repens in one of them. Finding of D. repens in beech marten instigates to more intense research on free living carnivores as the potential source of Dirofilaria parasites.

  17. Programs and measures to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture and waste treatment in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Mareckova, K.; Bratislava, S.; Kucirek, S.

    1996-12-31

    Slovakia is a UN FCCC Annex I country and is obliged to limit its anthropogenic GHG emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 level. The key greenhouse gas in Slovakia is CO{sub 2} resulting mainly from fuel combustion processes. However the share of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is approximately 20% of the total emissions on GWP basis. These gases are occurring mainly in non-energy sectors. The construction of the non-CO{sub 2} emission scenarios to reduce GHG and the uncertainty in N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emission estimation are discussed focusing on agriculture and waste treatment. The presentation will also include information on emission trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O since 1988. There are already implemented measures reducing GHG emissions in Slovakia, however, not motivated by global warming. A short view of implemented measures with an assessment of their benefit concerning non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions reduction and some proposed mitigation options for agriculture and waste treatment are shown. Expected difficulties connected with preparing scenarios and with implementation of reducing measures are discussed.

  18. Recording and Modeling of Fortresses and Castles with Uas. Some Study Cases in Jaen (southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenal, J.; Pérez, J. L.; Mata, E.; Delgado, J.; Gómez-López, J. M.; Colomo, C.; Mozas, A.

    2016-06-01

    The province of Jaen (Southern Spain) has one of the largest concentrations of medieval fortresses of all Europe. Moreover ancient Iberian settlements located in oppida (fortified villages) and dated at VI-IV BC also are outstanding examples of historical heritage landmarks in the region. Most of these places are being restored or under documentation analysis to prevent their progressive deterioration. These places have several geometric characteristics in common, such as isolated locations, elongated shapes, largemedium size objects (in the order of tens to few hundred of meters), architectural features with vertical development (such as masonry or rammed earth walls, towers, gates, battlements, etc) or without it (walls, buildings or paths layouts at ground level). The object size, the required level of details and accuracy (of the order of some few cm) and both vertical and horizontal features imply that present UAS techniques can be advantageously used with respect to conventional aerial and terrestrial photogrammetric techniques. Vertical stereoscopic and oblique convergent UAS photogrammetric networks combined with processing techniques based on Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithms allow detailed low cost 2D/3D products. The proper selection of the UAS, camera, image acquisition mode (stop and/or cruising), the network and the processing software will determine the quality of final products and their usefulness in metric documentation, 3D modelization or museology. The efficiency of the use of UAS has been analyzed in several selected examples in Jaen (Burgalimar and Berrueco castles, Xth and XIIIth centuries, respectively, and the Iberian Puente Tablas oppidum, Vth-IVth centuries BC).

  19. Multianalytical approach to diagnosis and conservation of building materials: the case of Punta Troia Castle in Marettimo (Aegadian Islands—Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonelli, Fabrizio; Savalli, Angela; Cantisani, Emma; Fratini, Fabio; Giamello, Marco; Lezzerini, Marco; Pecchioni, Elena; Tesser, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the results of a multianalytical study carried out through laboratory investigations on building materials of "Punta Troia Castle" in Marettimo Island (Sicily). The main aims of the work were to characterize the petrographic nature and to determine the geological provenance of the stone materials used to build the castle as well as to define the causes and mechanisms at the origin of their decay, in order to support and ensure greater durability to the restoration interventions. Based on the collected data, the local dolomitic limestone may be stated as the main stone for reconstruction purposes. In fact, this building stone shows low porosity, high compactness and a very good durability with respect to any other lithotypes identified in the building structure of the castle.

  20. HIV and risk behaviour among men who have sex with men in Slovakia (2008-2009).

    PubMed

    Staneková, Danica; Kramárová, Patrícia; Wimmerová, Soňa; Hábeková, Monika; Takáčová, Mária; Mojzesová, Mária

    2014-12-01

    The HIV infection remains a major public health issue in the world and especially in those countries where there exists unprotected sexual intercourse between people of the same sex. It is namely the category of men having sex with men (MSM) that still represents a group at high risk of being infected with HIV or transmitting the virus. The aim of our study was to present HIV 2nd generation surveillance data on MSM in Slovakia in the period between the years 2008 and 2009. Time-location sampling (TLS) was used to recruit participants and oral fluid samples together with completed anonymous questionnaires were collected simultaneously. The oral fluids were tested with use of the Genscreen HIV ½ version 2, (Bio-Rad) and Western Blot (Genlabs) diagnostic kits. The data analysis was performed using Stata version 8. Saliva testing revealed HIV prevalence of 6.1% (21/349) among MSM in Slovakia. 75% of HIV-positive cases were undiagnosed. The high-risk behaviour of MSM in respect to the number of their sexual partners as well as drug and condom usage did not correspond with their relatively high knowledge about HIV/AIDS. People's attitude towards MSM was found to be the worst in the religious context. Though our results reflect a relative good knowledge of MSM about HIV/AIDS infection, new HIV-positive cases and high-risk behaviour still appear, suggesting the need for more effective HIV prevention among members of this high-risk group in Slovakia. PMID:25622481

  1. First molecular identification of Babesia gibsoni in dogs from Slovakia, central Europe.

    PubMed

    Víchová, Bronislava; Horská, Mária; Blaňarová, Lucia; Švihran, Milan; Andersson, Martin; Peťko, Branislav

    2016-02-01

    Canine babesiosis is a severe and potentially life threatening infection. In Europe, Babesia canis is considered to be the most common species responsible for the disease. We report two cases of babesiosis caused by Babesia gibsoni. The polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and further sequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragments from blood samples of both dogs revealed the identity of isolates with B. gibsoni genotypes from other dogs worldwide. This species was previously not known to infect dogs in Slovakia. It is resistant to traditional anti-babesial therapy. Therefore, correct diagnosis is crucial for the successful treatment, especially in dogs with hemolytic anemia and febrile conditions.

  2. Allele frequencies and population data for 11 Y-chromosome STRs in samples from Eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Petrejčíková, Eva; Soták, Miroslav; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Bernasovský, Ivan; Rębała, Krzysztof; Sovičová, Adriana; Boroňová, Iveta; Bôžiková, Alexandra; Gabriková, Dana; Svíčková, Petra; Mačeková, Soňa; Carnogurská, Jana; Lohaj, Roman; Vlček, Dávid

    2011-06-01

    Haplotype data of 11 Y-STR loci (DYS391, DYS389I, DYS439, DYS389II, DYS438, DYS437, DYS19, DYS392, DYS393, DYS390 and DYS385) was obtained from 629 Slovak Caucasian men living in Eastern Slovakia. A total of 474 haplotypes were identified, of which 395 were unique. The haplotype diversity value was 0.9982. Pairwise haplotype distances showed that the Eastern Slovak Caucasian population is not significantly different from the Slavs populations and is separated from the Balkan nations and the German speaking populations. PMID:20837407

  3. A personal review of the history of the Royal Greenwich Observatory at Herstmonceux Castle, 1948-1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, G. A.

    2008-01-01

    The Royal Greenwich Observatory took its new name in 1948 at the start of the move to Herstmonceux Castle, when Sir Harold Spencer Jones was the Astronomer Royal. The move of the departments from their wartime bases to new buildings around the Castle was not completed until 1958, by which time the Astronomer Royal was Richard Woolley. He changed the primary emphasis of the astronomical work from long-term data-gathering programmes to astrophysical research. The transfer of responsibility for the Observatory from the Admiralty to the Science Research Council, in 1965, led eventually to a further major change in the 1970s, when Alan Hunter and Graham Smith were the Directors, as the primary task became the building of a new observatory on La Palma. During the 1980s, when Alec Boksenberg was Director, there were major cuts in staffing levels, especially for the public-service activities, and the RGO was moved to a new building in Cambridge in 1990.

  4. Multiple episodes of dolomitization in Mississippian Castle Reef formation, northwestern Montana: evidence for meteoric( ) dissolution and precipitation of dolomite

    SciTech Connect

    Whitsitt, P.M.; Dorobek, S.L.; Nichols, K.M.

    1989-03-01

    The Castle Reef formation (Osagian-Meramecian) in the Sawtooth Range of northwestern Montana is a massively dolomitized shallow-water carbonate sequence. The unit is capped by a major unconformity that developed sometime prior to deposition of overlying Jurassic strata. The time represents by the unconformity surface is approximately 180 m.y. Four regionally correlative pre-Jurassic dolomite phases have been recognized based on their cathodoluminescence characteristics. Each dolomite phase is separated from successive phases by an irregular dissolution boundary. The first episode of dolomitization massively replaced the precursor carbonate. Subsequent dolomite phases partially to completely occlude intercrystalline and intracrystalline dissolution porosity within the earliest replacive dolomite. The second dolomite phase is most pervasive near the pre-Jurassic unconformity at the top of the Castle Reef formation. Pyrobitumens locally fill intercrystalline porosity; hydrocarbon migration postdates all phases of dolomite formation. The petrographic data suggest that the massive replacement dolomite was susceptible to dissolution by meteoric waters originating at the unconformity surface and that an extensive network of dissolution porosity developed prior to precipitation of later dolomite phases. Ongoing geochemical analyses of individual dolomite generations will help to constrain the chemistry of dolomite-precipitating solutions.

  5. Detection of West Nile virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus in birds in Slovakia, using a universal primer set.

    PubMed

    Csank, Tomáš; Bhide, Katarína; Bencúrová, Elena; Dolinská, Saskia; Drzewnioková, Petra; Major, Peter; Korytár, Ľuboš; Bocková, Eva; Bhide, Mangesh; Pistl, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne neurotropic pathogen that presents a major public health concern. Information on WNV prevalence and circulation in Slovakia is insufficient. Oral and cloacal swabs and bird brain samples were tested for flavivirus RNA by RT-PCR using newly designed generic primers. The species designation was confirmed by sequencing. WNV was detected in swab and brain samples, whereas one brain sample was positive for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). The WNV sequences clustered with lineages 1 and 2. These results confirm the circulation of WNV in birds in Slovakia and emphasize the risk of infection of humans and horses. PMID:27001305

  6. Molecular screening for bacteria and protozoa in great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) nesting in Slovakia, central Europe.

    PubMed

    Víchová, Bronislava; Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Hurníková, Zuzana; Turčeková, Ĺudmila

    2016-09-01

    This study brings the data about the occurrence of bacterial and protozoan pathogens in 32 great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), representing approximately 20% of the population nesting in the surroundings of water basin Liptovská Mara (northern part of Central Slovakia). A survey revealed the presence of tick-borne bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum (6.25%) and parasitic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii (3.1%). These data indicate an infectious status of the great cormorant population nesting in Slovakia; they might suggest a degree of environmental contamination by infectious agents and demonstrate the role of migratory seabirds in the circulation and dispersal of pathogens with zoonotic potential.

  7. Molecular screening for bacteria and protozoa in great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) nesting in Slovakia, central Europe.

    PubMed

    Víchová, Bronislava; Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Hurníková, Zuzana; Turčeková, Ĺudmila

    2016-09-01

    This study brings the data about the occurrence of bacterial and protozoan pathogens in 32 great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), representing approximately 20% of the population nesting in the surroundings of water basin Liptovská Mara (northern part of Central Slovakia). A survey revealed the presence of tick-borne bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum (6.25%) and parasitic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii (3.1%). These data indicate an infectious status of the great cormorant population nesting in Slovakia; they might suggest a degree of environmental contamination by infectious agents and demonstrate the role of migratory seabirds in the circulation and dispersal of pathogens with zoonotic potential. PMID:27447224

  8. Microbial community composition in the deep sea sediments surrounding the Loki castle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, S. L.; Lanzèn, A.; Baumberger, T.; Pedersen, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Flesland, K.; Øvreås, L.; Steen, I.; Schleper, C.

    2010-12-01

    The influence of volcanism and hydrothermal activity on microbial community composition in deep sea sediments is largely unknown. However, it could be speculated that the input of chemical compounds from such activity will have an influence on the microbial community. Volcanic and hydrothermal activity is mainly located at or near the mid-ocean ridges where low sedimentation rate in combination with ocean-floor spreading prevents accumulation of significant amounts of sediments. One exception is the arctic Mohns-Knipovich Ridges with its ultra-slow spreading and vicinity to continental margins and the Bear island fan. This enables a relatively thick sediment cover to accumulate within the rift valley and makes it a unique sampling site. Several gravity cores (3-4 metres deep) retrieved from the area surrounding the Loki’s castle hydrothermal vent field during the H2DEEP cruise 2008 have been analysed by a XRF core scanner system for geochemical composition. In addition, total inorganic and organic carbon contents (TIC and TOC) of the sediment and the pore water chemistry (e.g. ammonium, sulphide, sulphate, major elements) of distinct layers in each core have been analysed. In order to relate these data to microbial community composition, diversity and function, cell numbers (archaea, bacteria and crenarcheota) have been estimated by real time qPCR. Further, the microbial diversity and taxonomy in each layer have been analysed using massive parallel sequencing of the 16S rDNA region. This novel technique enables us to make a taxonomic profiling of the microbial community with an unprecedented high resolution. Results indicate a dynamic system with relatively high organic carbon content where iron, manganese, ammonium and sulphur compounds seem to play important roles in microbial metabolism and thus the microbial community composition. The sediment cores are highly stratified, with distinct layers of hydrothermal and/or volcanic origin, containing compounds such

  9. Paleoseismology at high latitudes: Seismic disturbance of upper Quaternary deposits along the Castle Mountain fault near Houston, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, P.J.; Best, T.C.; Waythomas, C.F.

    2002-01-01

    Most paleoseismic studies are at low to moderate latitudes. Here we present results from a high-latitude (61??30??? N) trenching study of the Castle Mountain fault in south-central Alaska. This fault is the only one known in the greater Anchorage, Alaska, area with historical seismicity and a Holocene fault scarp. It strikes eastnortheast and cuts glacial and postglacial sediments in an area of boreal spruce-birch forest, shrub tundra, and sphagnum bog. The fault has a prominent vegetation lineament on the upthrown, north side of the fault. Nine trenches were logged across the fault in glacial and postglacial deposits, seven along the main trace, and two along a splay. In addition to thrust and strike-slip faulting, important controls on observed relationships in the trenches are the season in which faulting occurred, the physical properties of the sediments, liquefaction, a shallow water table, soil-forming processes, the strength of the modern root mat, and freeze-thaw processes. Some of these processes and physical properties are unique to northern-latitude areas and result in seismic disturbance effects not observed at lower latitudes. The two trenches across the Castle Mountain fault splay exposed a thrust fault and few liquefaction features. Radiocarbon ages of soil organic matter and charcoal within and overlying the fault indicate movement on the fault at ca. 2735 cal. (calendar) yr B.P. and no subsequent movement. In the remaining seven trenches, surface faulting was accompanied by extensive liquefaction and a zone of disruption 3 m or more wide. The presence of numerous liquefaction features at depths of <0.5-1.0 m indicates faulting when the ground was not frozen-i.e., from about April to October. Sandy-matrix till, sand, silt, gravel, and pebbly peat were injected up to the base of the modern soil, but did not penetrate the interlocking spruce-birch root mat. The strength of the root mat prohibited development of a nonvegetated scarp face and colluvial

  10. Health status among young people in Slovakia: comparisons on the basis of age, gender and education.

    PubMed

    Sleskova, Maria; Salonna, Ferdinand; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P; Groothoff, Johan W

    2005-12-01

    This study examines the health status of young people in Slovakia. Six subjective health indicators (self-rated health, long-standing illness, vitality, mental health, long-term well-being over the last year and occurrence of health complaints during the previous month) were used to assess the health status of three age groups: first grade secondary school students (mean age 15.9 years), third grade students (mean age 17.8 years) and secondary school leavers (mean age 19.6 years). Females rated their health worse than males on all six indicators (most of these differences were statistically significant). For males, younger age was associated with better self-rated health, less long-standing illness and higher levels of long-term well-being during the previous year. For females, the age differences were more complicated: third grade females reported significantly worse health status in terms of vitality, long-standing illness and number of health complaints than the other two age groups. An analysis of health status by educational level (attendance at or completion of grammar, technical or apprentice school), revealed that grammar school third grade females reported worse health than all other respondents on all six indicators. The third grade of grammar school in Slovakia puts particular stresses on students and, since it has been suggested that females may react more negatively than males to stressful events, this may contribute to their more negative self reports.

  11. Wastewater analysis: the mean of the monitoring of frequently prescribed pharmaceuticals in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Birošová, Lucia; Gál, Miroslav; Bodík, Igor; Grabic, Roman; Ryba, Jozef; Škubák, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of medication use is based on the statistical data from pharmacies and hospitals. Excessive use or misuse of some compounds, especially psychoactive medications, has not yet been monitored in Slovakia. Wastewater analysis provides useful data about the medication use and misuse in individual regions. This study is focused on the analysis of 23 substances in the wastewaters of Slovakia. The monitoring programme has included stimulants, opioid and morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, drug precursors and their metabolites. Urinary markers of these compounds were analysed at WWTP influent in seven regions (Bratislava, Košice, Zvolen, Banská Bystrica, Trenčín, Prešov a Piešťany) using LC-MS/MS technique. The analysis was performed from March to October 2013. The pattern in use of these compounds was also monitored. Tramadol and venlafaxine were found to be the most concentrated compounds among of all studied psychoactive pharmaceuticals. The highest specific loads of tramadol were detected in Piešťany (409 mg/day/1000 inhabitants) and Zvolen (366 mg/day/1000 inhabitants). There is a considerable number of spa facilities (hotels) situated in these cities and this fact contributes to a higher occurrence of these psychoactive compounds in respective wastewaters. PMID:26650204

  12. Health and chemical environment in Czecho-Slovakia, international cooperation context.

    PubMed

    Trnovec, T; Rosival, L

    1993-02-01

    This review provides a record of the present situation with regard to public health and environmental degradation and its underlying causes in Czecho-Slovakia, taking into account "ways of life," which is a synonym for its two components: environment and behavior. It gives attention to the priorities which include air and water pollution and food contamination. "Environmental protection" includes the human health protection from air, water, land, and groundwater pollution, ecological protection and natural resource preservation, use of pesticides, food and consumer product safety, and safety associated with the introduction of new chemicals into commerce. Further, this review focuses on the fundamental building blocks for a new environmental policy and management system (Constitution Act, 1991; Environmental Law, 1991; Chemical Act, in preparation; standards regarding chemicals, etc.). With regard to the international concern about the dangers of chemicals for humanity and the natural environment, attention is drawn to the collaboration of Czecho-Slovakia in chemical safety with WHO, IRPTC, and OECD. An important task is to determine what scientific research is needed and to educate administrators, politicians, and the general public in chemical safety. PMID:8441829

  13. Health and chemical environment in Czecho-Slovakia, international cooperation context.

    PubMed

    Trnovec, T; Rosival, L

    1993-02-01

    This review provides a record of the present situation with regard to public health and environmental degradation and its underlying causes in Czecho-Slovakia, taking into account "ways of life," which is a synonym for its two components: environment and behavior. It gives attention to the priorities which include air and water pollution and food contamination. "Environmental protection" includes the human health protection from air, water, land, and groundwater pollution, ecological protection and natural resource preservation, use of pesticides, food and consumer product safety, and safety associated with the introduction of new chemicals into commerce. Further, this review focuses on the fundamental building blocks for a new environmental policy and management system (Constitution Act, 1991; Environmental Law, 1991; Chemical Act, in preparation; standards regarding chemicals, etc.). With regard to the international concern about the dangers of chemicals for humanity and the natural environment, attention is drawn to the collaboration of Czecho-Slovakia in chemical safety with WHO, IRPTC, and OECD. An important task is to determine what scientific research is needed and to educate administrators, politicians, and the general public in chemical safety.

  14. Molecular characterization of 'Candidatus Rickettsia vini' in Ixodes arboricola from the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Novakova, Marketa; Bulkova, Alexandra; Costa, Francisco B; Kristin, Anton; Krist, Milos; Krause, Frantisek; Liznarova, Eva; Labruna, Marcelo B; Literak, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of rickettsiae in the tree-hole tick Ixodes arboricola in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. During May to September of 2009 and 2013, bird boxes belonging to three different areas were screened for ticks. In total, 454 nestlings and 109 nests of 10 hole-breeding bird species were examined. Ticks were found on Ficedula albicollis, Parus major, Cyanistes caeruleus and Sitta europaea and/or in their nests. In total, 166 ticks (17 nymphs, 10 males and 139 females) were found at 3 areas (arithmetic mean±standard error: 55.3±45.9). All ticks were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species by polymerase chain reaction targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, ompB and htrA and amplicon sequencing. All individuals except 3 nymphs were infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia vini'. Multilocus sequence typing showed closest proximity to Rickettsia japonica and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis cluster. The presence of 'Ca. R. vini' is reported for the first time in Slovakia.

  15. Application of geophysical methods to the delineation of paleochannels and missing confining units above the Castle Hayne Aquifer at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, C. C.; Miller, R.D.; Wrege, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, is underlain by four freshwater-bearing aquifers--the surficial, Yorktown, and upper and lower Castle Hayne. The upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers serve as the principal supply of freshwater for the Air Station. The potential for movement of contaminated water from the surficial aquifer downward to the water-supply aquifer is greatest in areas where clay confining units are missing. Missing confining units may indicate the presence of paleochannels filled with permeable material. Seismic-reflection techniques were successful in delinea- ting paleochannels of Quaternary and Tertiary age within unconsoli- dated sediments less than 180 feet deep at several locations. Continuous single-channel marine seismic-reflection profiling in the Neuse River was effective in delineating a large paleochannel complex consisting of at least two superimposed paleochannels within hydrogeologic units overlying the upper Castle Hayne aquifer. The complex was found immediately north of the Air Station and is thought to continue south beneath the Air Station. Shallow high-resolution land seismic-reflection techniques were used at the Air Station to delineate structures and correlate strati- graphy between the limestone of the upper Castle Hayne aquifer and the Yorktown confining unit. Three different land seismic-reflection techniques proved effective for the horizontal extrapolation of geo- logic features and identification of paleochannels at several locations. The northeastern margin of a large paleochannel was identified beneath the southern part of the Air Station. This feature strikes northwest to southeast and cuts through the Yorktown and upper Castle Hayne aquifer confining units.

  16. Loki's Castle: A sediment-influenced hydrothermal vent field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumberger, T.; Frueh-Green, G. L.; Pedersen, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Lilley, M. D.; Moeller, K.

    2010-12-01

    The chemical composition as well as the stable and radiogenic isotope signatures of hydrothermal fluids from the Loki’s Castle vent field, located at the Mohns-Knipovich bend in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea (73°N), are substantially different from sediment-starved mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. Geochemical studies of the hydrothermal vent fluids and the adjacent rift valley sediments provide insights into the influence of sediments on the hydrothermal fluid composition and provide constraints on acting redox conditions. Additionally, they reflect the degree of fluid-rock-sediment interaction at this arctic hydrothermal vent field. Here we present an overview of the geochemical characteristics of the hydrothermal and sedimentary components at Loki’s Castle, obtained during expeditions in 2008, 2009 and 2010, with emphasis on the stable and radiogenic isotope signatures. We compare these data with other sediment-influenced and sediment-starved mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. The hydrothermal vent fluids are characterized by a pH of ˜ 5.5 and by elevated concentrations of methane, hydrogen and ammonia, which reflect a sedimentary contribution. δ13CDIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) are depleted relative to mantle carbon values, consistent with an organic carbon input. The δ18OH2O values of the vents fluids are enriched compared to background bottom seawater, whereas the δD values are not. 87Sr/86Sr ratios are more radiogenic than those characteristic of un-sedimented mid-ocean ridge vent fluids. S-isotope data reflect mixing of a MORB source with sulphide derived from reduced seawater sulphate. To document the background sediment input of the ridge system, short gravity cores and up to 18 m long piston cores were recovered from various localities in the rift valley. The pore-fluid isotope chemistries of the sediments show vertical gradients that primarily reflect diagenesis and degradation of organic matter. The vertical gradient is locally enhanced

  17. Holocaust Education in the "Black Hole of Europe": Slovakia's Identity Politics and History Textbooks Pre- and Post-1989

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    Holocaust education in Slovakia stands at the confluence of diverse discourses of state and supra-national legitimation. Principles of national self-determination, minority rights, and political ideologies inform and lend credence to how Slovaks' national and state identities are narrated in Slovak history textbooks. For small nation-states with…

  18. Cross-cultural comparison of seven morningness and sleep-wake measures from Germany, India and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Randler, Christoph; Prokop, Pavol; Sahu, Subhashis; Haldar, Prasun

    2015-08-01

    Morningness-eveningness or circadian typology can be viewed as an interesting aspect of individual differences. Morningness-eveningness is a preference for a given time of day for physical or mental performance, but also reflects aspects of affect. Here, we used seven different measures to assess differences in morningness-eveningness between Germany, Slovakia and India. The hypothesis was that Indians should be earliest chronotypes, followed by Slovakia and then Germany, because of higher temperatures in India, and the fact that Slovakia is located farther east compared to Germany. We applied the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM), the Circadian Energy Scale (CIRENS), the CAEN Chronotype Questionnaire (CCQ), and habitual sleep-wake variables to calculate sleep duration, midpoint of sleep and social jetlag. Sample sizes were N = 300 (Germany), N = 482 (Slovakia) and N = 409 (India). Country had the strongest influence on morningness-eveningness. Germans were latest chronotypes and differed in all seven measures from Indians but differed from Slovakians only in the energy level at the evening and midpoint of sleep. Slovakians and Indians differed in all measures but the energy level (CIRENS). Women scored higher on the CSM, lower on CIRENS, lower on the morningness-eveningness (ME) scale, but higher on distinctness (DI) scale. Women slept longer and had an earlier midpoint of sleep.

  19. Fall of the iron curtain: male life expectancy in Slovakia, in the Czech Republic and in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Emil; Simko, Vladimir; Wsolova, Ladislava

    2009-12-01

    Year 1989, the fall of communism, represents a dramatic watershed. Changes and reforms reflected also upon the quality of health care and the health of populations living on eastern side of the divide. Until then, Eastern Europe had free socialized medicine, albeit troubled by lack of up-to-date medications and absence of modern diagnostic equipment. Noting the admirable progress in health in some regions of the former Soviet empire during its transformation provides invaluable sociological lesson. Furthermore, focusing on health trends in two Central European countries, the Czech republic (CZ) and Slovakia (SK), brings about another quality to such evaluation. Dramatic improvement in the life expectancy (LE) is represented mainly in the decrease of cardiovascular mortality, more in the Czech Republic than in Slovakia. Favorable trend of male LE in the Czech Republic exceeded several established West European countries, while in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine the life expectancy actually deteriorated. When life expectancy in Slovakia is compared with the Czech Republic, its poorer outcome results from a higher cardiovascular mortality, as well as from liver, digestive and respiratory disorders. Root causes of this difference are possibly in a marked difference in funding of health care between SK and CZ, higher consumption of alcohol and cigarettes, as well as in a sizeable disadvantaged Roma minority in Slovakia.

  20. Executive Functioning in Three Groups of Pupils in D-KEFSs: Selected Issues in Adapting the Test Battery for Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferjencík, Ján; Slavkovská, Miriam; Kresila, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on the adaptation of a D-KEFS test battery for Slovakia. Drawing on concrete examples, it describes and illustrates the key issues relating to the transfer of test items from one socio-cultural environment to another. The standardisation sample of the population of Slovak pupils in the fourth year of primary school included 250…

  1. Geophysical Exploration of Castle Remains in Barwałd Górny (Near Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, Poland) Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) with Assistance of Depth of Investigation Index (DOI) Method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazer, Michał; Kula, Damian; Saternus, Robert; Lewicki, Paweł

    2014-09-01

    In March of 2014 at ruins of the 14th century castle, situated at the top of Mount Żar in Małopolska region, Poland, geophysical surveys were performed. Surveys were planned to investigate remains of the castle that could remain in the ground. Electrical Resistivity Tomography method was used there. In the paper 4 sections have been presented. During interpretation, as the supporting method, maps of Depth-of-Investigation (DOI) index have been used. Results of the surveys can point out potential remains of the castle walls and ruins of buildings that were situated in the stronghold

  2. Multi-analytical characterization of archaeological ceramics. A case study from the Sforza Castle (Milano, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberini, V.; Maspero, F.; Galimberti, L.; Fusi, N.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization, using several analytical techniques, of a sample of ancient pottery found during archaeological excavations in the 14th century's Sforza Castle in Milano. The use of a multi-analytical approach is well established in the study of archaeological materials (e.g. Tite et al. 1984, Ribechini et al. 2008). The chemical composition of the sample was determined with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The chemical composition is: SiO2 61.3(±3)%, Al2O3 22.5(±2)%, Fe2O3 7.19(±6)%, K2O 3.85(±1)%, MgO 1.6(±1)%, Na2O 1.6(±4)% (probably overestimated), TiO2 1.02(±2)%, CaO 0.93(±1)%, MnO 0.15(±1)% and P2O5 0.06(±2)%. The K2O content, important when dealing with TL dating, was determined also with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The K2O content determined with atomic absorption is 3.86(±3)%, in agreement with X-ray fluorescence analysis. The mineralogical composition of the sample was determined with X-ray powder diffraction: quartz 59.6(±1) wt%, mica 37.8(±3) wt% and feldspar (plagioclase) 2.6(±2) wt%. The sample homogeneity was assessed with X-ray computerised tomography (CT), which is a very powerful non-destructive analysis tool for 3D characterization (Sèguin, 1991). CT images show differences in materials with different X-ray absorption (mainly depending on different densities) and 3D reconstruction has many interesting archaeological applications (e.g. study of sealed jars). CT images of the studied sample showed the presence of angular fragments (probably quartz) few millimetres wide immersed in a fine grained matrix. Moreover, before and after the CT analysis, some ceramic powder was sampled to perform thermoluminescence analysis (TL, the powder used for this analysis can not be recovered). It was thus possible to evaluate the dose absorbed by the material due the X-ray irradiation. The dose absorbed after 3 hours of irradiation, the time needed for a complete scan of a 7 x 5 x 1 cm, is about 100 Gy, which

  3. Determination of soil degradation from flooding for estimating ecosystem services in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavcova, Kamila; Szolgay, Jan; Karabova, Beata; Kohnova, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    Floods as natural hazards are related to soil health, land-use and land management. They not only represent threats on their own, but can also be triggered, controlled and amplified by interactions with other soil threats and soil degradation processes. Among the many direct impacts of flooding on soil health, including soil texture, structure, changes in the soil's chemical properties, deterioration of soil aggregation and water holding capacity, etc., are soil erosion, mudflows, depositions of sediment and debris. Flooding is initiated by a combination of predispositive and triggering factors and apart from climate drivers it is related to the physiographic conditions of the land, state of the soil, land use and land management. Due to the diversity and complexity of their potential interactions, diverse methodologies and approaches are needed for describing a particular type of event in a specific environment, especially in ungauged sites. In engineering studies and also in many rainfall-runoff models, the SCS-CN method has remained widely applied for soil and land use-based estimations of direct runoff and flooding potential. The SCS-CN method is an empirical rainfall-runoff model developed by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly called the Soil Conservation Service or SCS). The runoff curve number (CN) is based on the hydrological soil characteristics, land use, land management and antecedent saturation conditions of soil. Since the method and curve numbers were derived on the basis of an empirical analysis of rainfall-runoff events from small catchments and hillslope plots monitored by the USDA, the use of the method for the conditions of Slovakia raises uncertainty and can cause inaccurate results in determining direct runoff. The objective of the study presented (also within the framework of the EU-FP7 RECARE Project) was to develop the SCS - CN methodology for the flood conditions in Slovakia (and especially for the RECARE pilot site

  4. Mycobiota of Underground Habitats: Case Study of Harmanecká Cave in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Ogórek, Rafał; Višňovská, Zuzana; Tančinová, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Harmanecká Cave is located in the Harmanec Valley to the northwest of Banská Bystrica city, in the southern part of the Great Fatra Mountains, Slovakia. This cave is the most important underground locality of bat occurrence in Slovakia (population of 1000 to 1500 individuals). The study aimed at mycological evaluation of the air, the water, and the rock surface of Harmanecká Cave in Slovakia. The samples were taken on 24 July 2014. To examine the air, the Air Ideal 3P sampler was used. Microbiological evaluation of the rock surface was performed using swab sampling and the water by using the serial dilution technique. The authors observed a relationship between air temperature and the concentration of fungi. The concentration of airborne fungi increased with the increase in the air temperature and decreased with distance from the entrance to the cave. The density of airborne fungi isolated from the outdoor air samples was 810.5 colony-forming units (CFU) per 1 m3 of air and from 27.4 to 128.5 CFU for the indoor air samples. From the rock surface inside the cave, 45.0 to 106.6 CFU per 1 cm2 were isolated, whereas from the water, 29.9 CFU per 1 ml were isolated. Seven species of filamentous fungi were isolated from the external air samples and 12 species of filamentous fungi and 3 species of yeast-like fungi from the internal air samples. From the surface of the rocks inside the cave, 5 species of filamentous fungi and 1 species of yeast-like fungi were cultured, whereas from the water samples, 6 species of filamentous fungi were cultured. Cladosporium spp. were the fungi most frequently isolated from the external air; from the internal air, Penicillium urticae was most frequently isolated; from the rock surface, it was Gliocladium roseum; and from the water, it was P. chrysogenum. The species found in the cave can be pathogenic for humans and animals, especially for immunocompromised persons, and they can also cause biodegradation of the rocks. However, the

  5. Impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation on winter precipitation totals in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskova, Livia; Stastny, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the most important circulation mode in the Northern Hemisphere, which impacts climate in Europe in various ways. The strongest impacts of oscillation on air temperature and precipitation regime are detected in Scandinavia and Mediterranean region, but impacts have opposite effect. Therefore, assessment of the relation between NAO and precipitation totals seems to be interesting in Slovakia, because of the country location in the centre between above mentioned regions. Our former research detected only the relation between NAO and a winter precipitation totals in Slovakia. More detailed aspects of this relation is analysed in this paper. A correlation method was used at two resolution levels, which detected opposite spatial impact of NAO on above mentioned seasonal precipitation. The first generalised level was based on the precipitation regions, which were distinguished on the base of characteristic precipitation regime of individual regions. The second level was more detailed and the correlation method was applied on data of every individual rain gauge station from the set of 202 rain gauge stations with complete data for period 1901 - 2010 in Slovakia. In the northern part of the country (Orava and Kysuce regions), there was found the positive correlation. Increase in the winter precipitation totals was recorded in the same regions and general precipitation trend in this area was similar to the trend in used Hurrell oscillation index. It means, following the increasing trend in oscillation course, we can also expect the increase in precipitation totals in these regions in the near future. In a southward direction, this correlation changed to the negative values and the most negative correlation coefficients were reached in the lowland regions (Podunajská and Východoslovenská nížina) and in the region of Juhoslovenská kotlina. This last mentioned region is located in multiple precipitation shadow of Carpathians

  6. Mineral resource potential map of the Mount Eddy and Castle Crags Roadless Areas, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jocelyn A.; Caress, Mary E.; Denton, David K.; Spear, James M.

    1983-01-01

    Although ultramafic terranes such as that underlying the Mount Eddy and Castle Crags Roadless Areas may contain chromite, nickel, platinum-group metals, cobalt, and asbestos, there are no significant identified concentrations of these resources within the roadless areas. Platinum-group metals were sought but not detected in stream-sediment concentrates, although this does not rule out their possible occurrence. Nickel and cobalt did not occur in anomalous amounts although slightly higher nickel values in the northern part of the Mount Eddy Roadless Area may indicate low-grade mineralization within small dunite bodies, if the nickel occurs in sulfide phases rather than in olivine. The region has been examined on the surface for chromite and asbestos. Although both minerals are ubiquitous there is probably only a low potential for asbestos on the basis of the small size of veins at the surface. Only a few small areas of chromite were noted in the Mount Eddy Roadless Area; without subsurface data, however, any dunite body must be considered to have potential for chromite. The geochemical data for boron, barium, and mercury plus abundant quartz veining in gabbro and hornblende diorite suggest pervasive hydrothermal alteration, which could have formed mercury or vein gold deposits. Sand and gravel deposits occur in the Castle Crags Roadless Area but they cannot compete with superior deposits closer to markets. At a borrow pit northwest of the Mount Eddy Roadless Area, sheared serpentinite is quarried for road metal; similar rock occurs in the roadless area; however, better material is more readily available elsewhere.

  7. Engineering-Geological Maps of Geological Factors of the Environment in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baliak, František; Brček, Martin

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed very frequent natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, storms and similar. In most cases, disasters are caused by geological factors, especially geobarriers. Geobarriers threaten the life and works of man or reduce the effectiveness of the construction and operation of technical works, or harm the environment by negative anthropogenic influences. An important task in assessing the technical and environmental aspects of particular engineering activity is to assess the impact of constructions on the production and protection of the environment. The important part of the environment is the geological environment. In this paper, we give an overview of geological factors of the environment and the way how they are illustrated in the engineering-geological maps made in Slovakia.

  8. Dark stains on rock surfaces in Driny Cave (Little Carpathian Mountains, Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Ogórek, Rafał; Dyląg, Mariusz; Kozak, Bartosz

    2016-09-01

    Mycobiota are important in underground ecology. In 2014, we discovered dark stains on clayey sediments on the walls of Driny Cave, Slovakia. Our description is based on the morphology of the fungus and the phylogenetic relationships of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. In addition, data on its capacity for the production of extracellular enzymes, growth, and survival in vitro at different temperatures are reported. Our analyses revealed that this dark stains on the wall was produced by Penicillium glandicola. The fungus was able to synthesize amylases, proteases and cellulases, but not pectinases and keratinases. The vegetative structures of mycelium of this fungus are viable in vitro after storage at cool temperatures (from -72 to 5 °C), and show active growth at temperatures from 5 to 25 °C, but without spore germination, and without active growth at 30 and 37 °C. Penicillium glandicola is a psychrotolerant species and belong to var. glandicola.

  9. [Epidemiologic data of hyperuricaemia prevalence in the conditions of primary care in Slovakia].

    PubMed

    Dukát, Andrej; Sabaka, Peter; Gajdošík, Ján; Vrbnjak, Marjan; Tlcimuka, Oliver; Gavorník, Peter; Gašpar, L'udovít; Simko, F

    2015-12-01

    Hyperuricaemia represents nowaday the new risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Prevalence data and its treatment in our patient's population are still missing. Literature data shows, that its prevalence differs in various populations significantly from 4% up to 40% with race and geographical means. In the hospital population its prevalence is about 7% and represents the important predictor of hospital mortality, e.i with heart failure. From the Framingham data relative risk was estimated of 25% for cardiovascular diseases, coronary heart disease and all-course mortality. From the epidemiologic survey Mirror Slovakia hyperuricaemia was evaluated from the sample of 20 000 patients from the primare care physicians in order to see the picture on this newer risk factor. PMID:27124966

  10. [Epidemiologic data of hyperuricaemia prevalence in the conditions of primary care in Slovakia].

    PubMed

    Dukát, Andrej; Sabaka, Peter; Gajdošík, Ján; Vrbnjak, Marjan; Tlcimuka, Oliver; Gavorník, Peter; Gašpar, L'udovít; Simko, F

    2015-12-01

    Hyperuricaemia represents nowaday the new risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Prevalence data and its treatment in our patient's population are still missing. Literature data shows, that its prevalence differs in various populations significantly from 4% up to 40% with race and geographical means. In the hospital population its prevalence is about 7% and represents the important predictor of hospital mortality, e.i with heart failure. From the Framingham data relative risk was estimated of 25% for cardiovascular diseases, coronary heart disease and all-course mortality. From the epidemiologic survey Mirror Slovakia hyperuricaemia was evaluated from the sample of 20 000 patients from the primare care physicians in order to see the picture on this newer risk factor.

  11. Dark stains on rock surfaces in Driny Cave (Little Carpathian Mountains, Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Ogórek, Rafał; Dyląg, Mariusz; Kozak, Bartosz

    2016-09-01

    Mycobiota are important in underground ecology. In 2014, we discovered dark stains on clayey sediments on the walls of Driny Cave, Slovakia. Our description is based on the morphology of the fungus and the phylogenetic relationships of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. In addition, data on its capacity for the production of extracellular enzymes, growth, and survival in vitro at different temperatures are reported. Our analyses revealed that this dark stains on the wall was produced by Penicillium glandicola. The fungus was able to synthesize amylases, proteases and cellulases, but not pectinases and keratinases. The vegetative structures of mycelium of this fungus are viable in vitro after storage at cool temperatures (from -72 to 5 °C), and show active growth at temperatures from 5 to 25 °C, but without spore germination, and without active growth at 30 and 37 °C. Penicillium glandicola is a psychrotolerant species and belong to var. glandicola. PMID:27315167

  12. First molecular identification of Babesia gibsoni in dogs from Slovakia, central Europe.

    PubMed

    Víchová, Bronislava; Horská, Mária; Blaňarová, Lucia; Švihran, Milan; Andersson, Martin; Peťko, Branislav

    2016-02-01

    Canine babesiosis is a severe and potentially life threatening infection. In Europe, Babesia canis is considered to be the most common species responsible for the disease. We report two cases of babesiosis caused by Babesia gibsoni. The polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and further sequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragments from blood samples of both dogs revealed the identity of isolates with B. gibsoni genotypes from other dogs worldwide. This species was previously not known to infect dogs in Slovakia. It is resistant to traditional anti-babesial therapy. Therefore, correct diagnosis is crucial for the successful treatment, especially in dogs with hemolytic anemia and febrile conditions. PMID:26304014

  13. Molecular surveillance of Theileria equi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in horses from Ukraine, Poland and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Slivinska, Kateryna; Víchová, Bronislava; Werszko, Joanna; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Wróblewski, Zbigniew; Peťko, Branislav; Ragač, Ondrej; Demeshkant, Vitaliy; Karbowiak, Grzegorz

    2016-01-15

    A survey was undertaken to assess the prevalence of Theileria equi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in some regions of Ukraine, Poland and Slovakia. Using a specific PCR assays, blood samples from 215 horses were tested. The prevalence of T. equi and A. phagocytophilum infection was 13.95% and 1.4%, respectively. BLAST analysis showed the isolates closest to the T. equi 18S rRNA and A. phagocytophilum msp4 gene sequences in GenBank with a similarity of ≥99%. No significant association was found between the T. equi PCR positivity and the age or sex of the horses. There was a significant association between the origin of horses and T. equi-PCR positivity. No significant association was found between the A. phagocytophilum-PCR positivity and the age, sex or origin.

  14. Mercury contamination from historical mining territory at Malachov Hg-deposit (Central Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Dadová, Jana; Andráš, Peter; Kupka, Jiří; Krnáč, Jozef; Andráš, Peter; Hroncová, Emília; Midula, Pavol

    2016-02-01

    Environmental contamination caused by mercury is a serious problem worldwide. The study was conducted in order to identify Hg contamination in soil, technosoil from dumps, groundwater, and surface water in the surroundings of the abandoned Hg deposit of Malachov in Central Slovakia. Soil from the Malachovský brook valley was classified as cambi-soil (rendzina). The highest Hg concentrations (44.24 mg kg(-1)) were described in the soil from the mining area at the Vel'ká Studňa locality. In the groundwater, the maximal Hg content is 0.84 μg L(-1), and in the surface water it is 394 μg L(-1). The speciation study proved that in most samples, Hg occurs in the form of cinnabarite. The release of Hg into the environment as a consequence of weathering is limited.

  15. First detection and genotyping of human-associated microsporidia in wild waterfowl of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Malčeková, B; Valenčáková, A; Molnár, L; Kočišová, A

    2013-03-01

    A total of 47 avian faecal samples of wild waterfowl (great cormorant - Phalacrocorax carbo, great crested grebe - Podiceps cristatus, white stork - Ciconia ciconia) trapped in the eastern Slovakia were screened for the presence of human pathogenic microsporidia by microscopy and real-time SYBR Green PCR method using species primers and sequenced. Microscopic analysis showed presence in 32 samples (29 cormorants, 3 dippers). Microsporidial DNA (Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype I) was identified in 19 faeces samples (40.4%) namely cormorants in 17 out of 40, one dipper of 5 and a stork out of 2. The present work describes three new host species of the bird population in microsporidium Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype I which confirms the theory of low specificity of this species. PMID:23377906

  16. Seasonal analysis of Rickettsia species in ticks in an agricultural site of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Špitalská, Eva; Stanko, Michal; Mošanský, Ladislav; Kraljik, Jasna; Miklisová, Dana; Mahríková, Lenka; Bona, Martin; Kazimírová, Mária

    2016-03-01

    Many rickettsiae of the spotted fever group are emerging pathogens causing serious diseases associated with vertebrate hosts. Ixodidae ticks are known as their vectors. Investigation of the relative abundance of questing Ixodes ricinus and their infection with Rickettsia spp. in an agricultural site comprising a game reserve in Slovakia was the aim of this study. In total, 2198 I. ricinus (492 larvae, 1503 nymphs and 203 adults) were collected by flagging the vegetation along 100 m(2) transects in Rozhanovce (eastern Slovakia): 334, 595 and 1269 in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Considering questing nymphs and adults, the highest relative density of 81 individuals/100 m(2) was observed in May 2013, the lowest of 0.3 individuals/100 m(2) in March 2012. A total of 1056 ticks (853 nymphs, 100 females and 103 males; 2011: n = 329, 2012: n = 509 and 2013: n = 218) were individually screened by PCR-based methods for the presence of Rickettsia spp. The overall prevalences were 7.3% for nymphs, 15% for females, 7.8% for males; 7.0% in 2011, 8.4% in 2012, and 8.7% in 2013. The maximum prevalences were observed in July in nymphs and in May in adults. Sequencing showed infection with R. helvetica in 73 ticks (72.6% nymphs, 16.4% females, 11% males) and with R. monacensis in 11 ticks (8 nymphs, 3 females). The results showed the circulation of pathogenic Rickettsia species in the agricultural site and a potential risk for humans to encounter infected ticks.

  17. An updated numerical simulation of the ground-water flow system for the Castle Lake debris dam, Mount St. Helens, Washington, and implications for dam stability against heave

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeloffs, Evelyn A.

    1994-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the ground-water flow system in the Castle Lake debris dam, calibrated to data from the 1991 and 1992 water years, was used to estimate factors of safety against heave and internal erosion. The Castle Lake debris dam, 5 miles northwest of the summit of Mount St. Helens, impounds 19,000 acre-ft of water that could pose a flood hazard in the event of a lake breakout. A new topographic map of the Castle Lake area prior to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was prepared and used to calculate the thickness of the debris avalanche deposits that compose the dam. Water levels in 22 piezometers and discharges from seeps on the dam face measured several times per year beginning in 1990 supplemented measurements in 11 piezometers and less frequent seep discharge measurements made since 1983. Observations in one group of piezometers reveal heads above the land surface and head gradients favoring upward flow that correspond to factors of safety only slightly greater than 2. The steady-state ground-water flow system in the debris dam was simulated using a threedimensional finite difference computer program. A uniform, isotropic model having the same shape as the dam and a hydraulic conductivity of 1.55 ft/day simulates the correct water level at half the observation points, but is in error by 10 ft or more at other points. Spatial variations of hydraulic conductivity were required to calibrate the model. The model analysis suggests that ground water flows in both directions between the debris dam and Castle Lake. Factors of safety against heave and internal erosion were calculated where the model simulated upward flow of ground water. A critical gradient analysis yields factors of safety as low as 2 near the piezometers where water level observations indicate low factors of safety. Low safety factors are also computed near Castle Creek where slumping was caused by a storm in January, 1990. If hydraulic property contrasts are present in areas of the

  18. Medicine and Charity in Eighteenth-century Northumberland: The Early Years of the Bamburgh Castle Dispensary and Surgery, c. 1772–1802

    PubMed Central

    Withey, Alun

    2016-01-01

    In 1772 in Bamburgh Castle, Northumberland, a charitable institution was established by Dr John Sharp to offer medical provision to the poor of the parish, which was remote from the Newcastle and Edinburgh Infirmaries. Unlike urban institutions, which have dominated hospital historiography, the Bamburgh dispensary was small, occupying only a few rooms in the castle, and situated in a remote, coastal location. And yet, at its height, the Bamburgh dispensary treated thousands of patients per year, often exceeding dispensaries in large towns, and was equipped with the latest medical technologies. Unlike the majority of infirmaries and dispensaries it was not funded by subscription, nor run by governors, but was entirely funded by the Lord Crewe Trust, and administered by Dr Sharp. While Bamburgh is certainly an anomaly, it raises new questions about voluntary institutional medical provision for rural populations, and forms of medical philanthropy. PMID:27482145

  19. The effects of ground water, slope stability, and seismic hazards on the stability of the South Fork Castle Creek blockage in the Mount St. Helens area, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, William; Sabol, M.A.; Glicken, H.X.; Voight, Barry

    1985-01-01

    A slope stability analysis on the South Fork Castle Creek debris avalanche blockage, near Mount St. Helens, Washington, was conducted to determine the likelihood of mass failure of the blockage and resultant breakout of South Fork Castle Creek Lake. On the basis of material properties, groundwater levels, and seismic history of the blockage, slope stability with and without earthquake-induced forces was determined. Results indicated that the blockage will not fail from gravitational forces at September 1983 groundwater levels. An increase of 25 feet or more in water levels could cause local failures, but massive failure of the blockage is improbable. Blockage slopes are potentially unstable for present and higher water levels if an earthquake with magnitude greater than 6.0 should occur. Retrogressive slope failures are possible, but lowering of the blockage crest below lake level and consequent lake breakout are considered remote. Significant earthquake shaking could cause cracks in the blockage that might facilitate piping. (USGS)

  20. Clinical significance of hyperbilirubinemia among HIV-1-infected patients treated with atazanavir/ritonavir through 96 weeks in the CASTLE study.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Cheryl; Uy, Jonathan; Hu, Wenhua; Wirtz, Victoria; Juethner, Salome; Butcher, David; McGrath, Donnie; Farajallah, Awny; Moyle, Graeme

    2012-05-01

    CASTLE was a randomized 96-week study that demonstrated that atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) was noninferior to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. Analyses were carried out among patients who received ATV/r in the CASTLE study to better understand the clinical significance of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia associated with administration of boosted ATV. Hyperbilirubinemia was defined as total bilirubin (conjugated and unconjugated) elevation greater than 2.5 times the upper limit of normal (grade 3-4). Patients in the ATV/r arm were assessed based on the presence or absence of hyperbilirubinemia through week 96. Analyses included number of confirmed virologic responders (CVR; HIV RNA<50 copies per milliliter), impact of hyperbilirubinemia on symptoms, elevations in liver enzymes, patient quality of life, and medication adherence. Through 96 weeks in the CASTLE study, 44% of patients who received ATV/r had hyperbilirubinemia at any time point, and between 12.5% and 21.6% had hyperbilirubinemia at any single study visit. At 96 weeks, 74% of patients overall and 84% and 69% of patients with and without hyperbilirubinemia, respectively, achieved CVR. Symptoms of jaundice or scleral icterus occurred in 5% of patients overall and in 11% with hyperbilirubinemia and 0% without hyperbilirubinemia. Four percent of patients with and 3% of patients without hyperbilirubinemia had grade 3-4 elevations in liver transaminases. Less than 1% of patients discontinued treatment due to hyperbilirubinemia. There were no differences in quality of life or adherence between patients with or without hyperbilirubinemia. In the CASTLE study, hyperbilirubinemia observed in the ATV/r group did not negatively impact clinical outcomes in HIV-infected patients.

  1. Checklist and distribution of ciliates from the family Euplotidae Ehrenberg, 1838 (Protista: Ciliophora: Spirotrichea) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tirjaková, Eva; Botlíková, Simona; Vďačný, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A checklist of ciliates from the family Euplotidae recorded in the territory of Slovakia, Central Europe was assembled. Altogether, 11 species belonging to three genera of the family Euplotidae have been reported there: Euplotes alatus, Euplotes charon, Euplotes moebiusi, Euplotoides aediculatus, Euplotoides eurystomus, Euplotoides patella, Euplotoides woodruffi, Euplotopsis affinis, Euplotopsis finki, Euplotopsis muscicola, and Euplotopsis novemcarinata. However, records of the marine species E. alatus and E. charon are doubtful and very likely represent misidentifications of E. moebiusi. Since the euryhaline species E. woodruffi was found for the first time in Slovakia, its morphology is described. Based on the literature data and our own observations, the present checklist is also accompanied with distribution data on the 11 aforementioned species. As concerns ecology, Slovak euplotids typically occurred in freshwater bodies having higher trophic levels. Only two species, E. finki and E. muscicola, were isolated from terrestrial habitats, especially, from mosses, leaf-litter, and decaying wood mass. PMID:25781253

  2. [A fourth-generation doctor - Hans Selye and his origins from Felvidék (today Slovakia)].

    PubMed

    Kiss, László

    2016-08-01

    Hans Selye regarded himself as the fourth generation of medical dynasty, but in his books he did not name his ancestors. Based on facts from archives and contemporary literature the author demonstrated that the grandfather of Hans Selye was called Schlesinger and he worked in Pruszka (county Trencsén; (today: Pruské, county Trenčín, Slovakia) as a district physician. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(33), 1331-1333. PMID:27523317

  3. Long-term variability and changes in thunderstorm induced extreme precipitation in Slovakia over 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecho, J.; Faško, P.; Bližák, V.; Kajaba, P.; Košálová, J.; Bochníček, O.; Lešková, L.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that extreme precipitation associated with intensive rains, in summer induced mostly by local thunderstorm activity, could cause very significant problems in economical and social spheres of the countries. Heavy precipitation and consecutive flash-floods are the most serious weather-related hazards over the territory of Slovakia. The extreme precipitation analyses play a strategic role in many climatological and hydrological evaluations designed for the wide range of technical and engineering applications as well as climate change impact assessments. A thunderstorm, as a violent local storm produced by a cumulonimbus cloud and accompanied by thunder and lightning, represents extreme convective activity in the atmosphere depending upon the release of latent heat, by the condensation of water vapor, for most of its energy. Under the natural conditions of Slovakia the incidence of thunderstorms has been traditionally concentrated in the summer or warm half-year (Apr.-Sept.), but increasing air temperature resulting in higher water vapor content and more intense short-term precipitation is associated with more frequent thunderstorm occurrence in early spring as well as autumn. It is the main reason why the studies of thunderstorm phenomena have increased in Slovakia in recent years. It was found that thunderstorm occurrence, in terms of incidence of storm days, has profoundly changed particularly in spring season (~ 30 % in April and May). The present contribution is devoted to verifying the hypothesis that recently the precipitation has been more intense and significant shifts in seasonal incidence have occurred in particular regions in Slovakia. On the basis of the 60-year (1951-2010) meteorological observation series obtained from more than 20 synoptic stations, the analysis of trends and long-term variability of the days with thunderstorms and the accompanying precipitation for seasons was undertaken. Contribution also attempts to explain the main

  4. Historical events associated with fallout from Bravo Shot-Operation castle and 25 y of medical findings

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkite, E.P.; Conard, R.A.; Bond, V.P.

    1997-07-01

    The events prior to Bravo Shot-Operation Castle that led to a decision not to evacuate the Marshallese prior to testing the thermonuclear bombs are presented as are the actions taken after the fallout incident in evacuating the exposed Marshallese and the military personnel. The initial medical effects (findings during first 6 wk after exposure) are briefly described and are followed by description of long term effects, namely, induction of one case or fatal acute myeloid leukemia and a large number of thyroid tumors (benign and malignant) in addition to hypothyroidism in adults and children and two cases of cretinism. The hypothyroidism and cretinism responded well to administration of oral thyroxine. During the first 25 y, there was also much unrest and political agitation initiated by exposed and unexposed Marshallese who were very unhappy as a result of relocation and inability to return to their homelands and feeling that all illness and deaths were due to the mysterious radiation, which they understandably did not understand. The difficulties in part were ameliorated by financial aid from the U.S. Congress. In view of one of us (EPC), no one agency or person in the U.S. Government was willing to take the responsibility for care of the Marshallese and its financing. The exposed and non-exposed Marshallese had their lifestyle changed, some of their homelands made uninhabitable for several years and could aptly be called {open_quotes}nuclear nomads,{close_quotes} an expression coined by others. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Analysis of radiation exposure for Naval personnel at Operation Castle. Technical report, 1 January 1983-31 January 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.; Goetz, J.; Klemm, J.; Weitz, R.

    1984-02-28

    Film-badge doses are reconstructed for sixteen ships and the residence islands of Enewetak and Kwajalein Atolls resulting from the six nuclear detonations comprising Operation CASTLE (March-May 1954). Fallout from Shots BRAVO and ROMEO was the major source of contamination on most of the ships and islands. Varying amounts of fallout from Shots UNION, YANKEE, and NECTAR contributed somewhat to the total doses of the shipboard and island-based personnel; no fallout was experienced as a result of Shot KOON. Shipboard personnel received additional exposure from hulls and salt water piping systems that had become contaminated from operating in the radioactive waters of Bikini Lagoon. From the reconstructed radiation environments, both topside and below, an equivalent film badge dose is calculated and compared to actual dosimetry data. Agreement is very good during badged periods when the ships received significant fallout. When topside intensities were not documented, generally late in the operation when intensity levels were low, agreement is not as good. Calculated ship contamination doses of significance are in excellent agreement with limited available dosimetry data. Calculated average doses for shipboard personnel range from a low of 0.19 rem for the crew of the USS LST-825 to a high of 3.56 rem for the crew of the USS PHILIP. Average doses on the residence islands of Enewetak and Kwajalein Atolls are 1.09 rem and 0.32 rem, respectively.

  6. Long-term UHF RiverSonde river velocity observations at Castle Rock, Washington and Threemile Slough, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teague, C.C.; Barrick, D.E.; Lilleboe, P.M.; Cheng, R.T.; Ruhl, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term, non-contact river velocity measurements have been made using a UHF RiverSonde system for several months at each of two locations having quite different flow characteristics. Observations were made on the Cowlitz River at Castle Rock, Washington from October 2003 to June 2004, where the unidirectional flow of the river ranged from about 1.0 to 3.5 m/s. The radar velocity was highly correlated with the stage height which was continually measured by the U. S. Geological Survey. The profile of the along-channel velocity across the water channel also compared favorably with in-situ measurements performed by the Survey. The RiverSonde was moved to Threemile Slough, in central California, in September 2004 and has been operating there for several months. At Threemile Slough, which connects the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, the flow is dominated by tidal effects and reverses direction four times per day, with a maximum speed of about 0.8 m/s in each direction. Water level and water velocity are continually measured by the Survey at the Threemile Slough site, with velocity recorded every 15 minutes from measurements made by an ultrasonic velocity meter (UVM). Over a period of several months, the radar and UVM velocity measurements have been highly correlated, with a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.976. ??2005 IEEE.

  7. Hydrogeology, hydraulic characteristics, and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers of the greater New Hanover County area, North Carolina, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Gurley, Laura N.; Antolino, Dominick J.

    2014-01-01

    A major issue facing the greater New Hanover County, North Carolina, area is the increased demand for drinking water resources as a result of rapid growth. The principal sources of freshwater supply in the greater New Hanover County area are withdrawals of surface water from the Cape Fear River and groundwater from the underlying Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers. Industrial, mining, irrigation, and aquaculture groundwater withdrawals increasingly compete with public-supply utilities for freshwater resources. Future population growth and economic expansion will require increased dependence on high-quality sources of fresh groundwater. An evaluation of the hydrogeology and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers was conducted in New Hanover, eastern Brunswick, and southern Pender Counties, North Carolina. A hydrogeologic framework was delineated by using a description of the geologic and hydrogeologic units that compose aquifers and their confining units. Current and historic water-level, water-quality, and water-isotope data were used to approximate the present boundary between freshwater and brackish water in the study area. Water-level data collected during August–September 2012 and March 2013 in the Castle Hayne aquifer show that recharge areas with the highest groundwater altitudes are located in central New Hanover County, and the lowest are located in a discharge area along the Atlantic Ocean. Between 1964 and 2012, groundwater levels in the Castle Hayne aquifer in central New Hanover County have rebounded by about 10 feet, but in the Pages Creek area groundwater levels declined in excess of 20 feet. In the Peedee aquifer, the August–September 2012 groundwater levels were affected by industrial withdrawals in north-central New Hanover County. Groundwater levels in the Peedee aquifer declined more than 20 feet between 1964 and 2012 in northeastern New Hanover County because of increased withdrawals. Vertical gradients

  8. Landscape change analysis and assessment (case studies in Slovakia and Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feranec, Jan; Kopecka, Monika; Vatseva, Rumiana; Stoimenov, Anton; Otahel, Jan; Betak, Juraj; Husar, Karol

    2009-03-01

    Landscape change assessment was conducted in selected areas of Slovakia and Bulgaria in 1990-2000 using CORINE land cover (CLC) data layer analysis. Assessment of causes that led to these changes was undertaken, with an emphasis on those that determined the extensification of agriculture. The LC data were obtained under the CLC90 and I&CLC2000 projects, jointly managed by the European Environment Agency in Copenhagen, Denmark and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission in Ispra, Italy. The CLC1990-2000-changes data layer was generated by overlaying the CLC90 and CLC2000 data layers for change in areas of a minimum 5 ha. The analysed causes of changes (driving forces) were then classified. Land cover (LC) changes characterizing urbanization processes occurred only in the Trnava and Tatras areas. Intensification of agriculture was also higher in these two areas. LC changes characterizing the extensification of agriculture were dominant in Plovdiv and Trnava. Deforestation and forestation were identified in all areas (Trnava, Tatras, Plovdiv, and Burgas). The basic reasons of these changes were related to the transformation of national economies from being centrally planned to market controlled, following the fall of socialism and before the countries joined the European Union.

  9. The spatial distribution of human exposure to PCBs around a former production site in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Wimmerová, Soňa; Watson, Alan; Drobná, Beata; Šovčíková, Eva; Weber, Roland; Lancz, Kinga; Patayová, Henrieta; Richterová, Denisa; Koštiaková, Vladimíra; Jurečková, Dana; Závacký, Pavol; Strémy, Maximilián; Jusko, Todd A.; Murínová, L'ubica Palkovičová; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated concentrations of 15 PCB congeners in blood serum of 2,047 adults, 431 8-9-years old children and 1,134 mother-child pairs born in 2001-2003. These subjects were long-standing residents living up to 70 km (to the north) and up to 50 km (to the south) of the former Chemko Strážske PCB production facility in the Michalovce district of Slovakia. We plotted serum concentration against distance from the plant both with and without consideration of the direction of their homes from the site. The decrease in exposure with distance could be described by an exponential function which was dependent on direction and climatic parameters. By kriging we created maps depicting predicted isoconcentration contours for sex- and age-adjusted serum concentration of ΣPCBs for the same group of children, adults and mothers. The principle of our risk analysis was to relate serum concentration data, reflecting PCB body burden, using the critical concentrations established by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES 2010) as thresholds below which the probability of effects on health is regarded as negligible. We conclude that 10 years ago around 200,000 residents were at risk in this densely populated area. Exposure has since decreased but the mechanism for this has not yet been studied. PMID:26250810

  10. Ecophysiological and ultrastructural effects of dust pollution in lichens exposed around a cement plant (SW Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Guttová, Anna; Grassi, Alice; Lackovičová, Anna; Senko, Dušan; Sorbo, Sergio; Basile, Adriana; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated the ecophysiological and ultrastructural effects of dust pollution from a cement industry in the lichen species Evernia prunastri and Xanthoria parietina, which were exposed for 30, 90 and 180 days around a cement mill, two quarries, and inhabited and agricultural sites in SW Slovakia. The results showed that dust deposition from quarrying activities and cement works at the cement mill (mainly enriched in Ca, Fe and Ti) significantly affected the photosynthetic apparatus of E. prunastri (sensitive to dust and habitat eutrophication), while X. parietina (tolerant to dust and habitat eutrophication) adapted to the new environment. The length of the exposure strongly affected the vitality of the mycobiont (measured as dehydrogenase activity) in transplanted lichens. Dust deposition led to ultrastructural alterations, including lipid droplets increase, swelling of cellular components, thylakoid degeneration and sometimes plasmolysis, which, on the whole, gave the cells an aged appearance. Photosynthetic parameters deserve further attention as potential indicators for monitoring early biological symptoms of the air pollution caused during cement production. PMID:26044142

  11. Lower Miocene plant assemblage with coastal-marsh herbaceous monocots from the Vienna Basin (Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvaček, Zlatko; Teodoridis, Vasilis; Kováčová, Marianna; Schlögl, Ján; Sitár, Viliam

    2014-06-01

    A new plant assemblage of Cerová-Lieskové from Lower Miocene (Karpatian) deposits in the Vienna Basin (western Slovakia) is preserved in a relatively deep, upper-slope marine environment. Depositional conditions with high sedimentation rates allowed exceptional preservation of plant remains. The plant assemblage consists of (1) conifers represented by foliage of Pinus hepios and Tetraclinis salicornioides, a seed cone of Pinus cf. ornata, and by pollen of the Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Pinus sp. and Cathaya sp., and (2) angiosperms represented by Cinnamomum polymorphum, Platanus neptuni, Potamogeton sp. and lauroid foliage, by pollen of Liquidambar sp., Engelhardia sp. and Craigia sp., and in particular by infructescences (so far interpreted as belonging to cereal ears). We validate genus and species assignments of the infructescences: they belong to Palaeotriticum Sitár, including P. mockii Sitár and P. carpaticum Sitár, and probably represent herbaceous monocots that inhabited coastal marshes, similar to the living grass Spartina. Similar infructescences occur in the Lower and Middle Miocene deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep (Slup in Moravia), Tunjice Hills (Žale in Slovenia), and probably also in the Swiss Molasse (Lausanne). This plant assemblage demonstrates that the paleovegetation was represented by evergreen woodland with pines and grasses in undergrowth, similar to vegetation inhabiting coastal brackish marshes today. It also indicates subtropical climatic conditions in the Vienna Basin (central Paratethys), similar to those implied by other coeval plant assemblages from Central Europe

  12. Reproduction and morphology of the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) from montane populations in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Horváthová, Terézia; Baláž, Michal; Jandzik, David

    2013-02-01

    The common lizard, Zootoca vivipara (Lichtenstein, 1823), shows high variation in life histories and morphology across its range, which comprises almost the entire Palearctic region. However, this variation is not congruent with the species phylogeny. This suggests an important role of the environment in shaping the variation in morphology and life histories of this species. As most data on life histories originate from only a small number of populations and do not cover the species' geographic range and phylogenetic diversity, to fill a gap and provide more information for future comparative studies we investigated reproduction and morphology in two montane populations from Slovakia, central Europe. This region is characterized by taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity and both montane and lowland ecological forms of the common lizard occur here. The common lizards from the Slovak populations are sexually dimorphic, with females having larger body and abdomen lengths and males having larger heads and longer legs. Female common lizards start to reproduce at a relatively large size compared to most other populations. This is consistent with a relatively short activity season, which has been shown to be the main factor driving variation in body size in the common lizard. Clutch size was also relatively high and positively correlated with body size, abdomen size and head size. One third of all females attaining the size of the smallest gravid female showed no signs of reproductive activity despite mating opportunities, suggesting that not all females reproduce annually in this population.

  13. Region-specific differences in colorectal cancer: Slovakia and Hungary have highest incidence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Simko, V; Ginter, E

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data on colorectal cancer (CRC) exhibit high incidence in Central East Europe. Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia represent the lead. For decades it was the Czech Republic but it attained the fourth rank after the mid-2000. Remarkably, the Ashkenazi Jews who imigrated to the USA from Central Europe have the highest incidence of CRC among US minorities. They also have high incidence of inflammatory bowel disease, a risk for CRC. Notably, countries surrounding the Central European focus of CRC, Austria, Germany, Poland, Romania, Ukraine and Russia have substantially lower incidence. CRC in Central Europe has higher incidence than CRC among the highest at-risk cohort in the USA, the elderly blacks. Research and the genome wide screening identified genetic mutations associated with CRC in Ashkenazis from Central Europe. Some risk factors for CRC are non genotypic as evidenced by wide variation in CRC incidence in the course of only a few decades. Recent trends offer hope that identification of the non-innate pathogenic mechanisms would potentially reduce the burden of this third most lethal malignancy (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 40).

  14. Case study of a severe windstorm over Slovakia and Hungary on 25 June 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, André; Kaňák, Ján; Sokol, Alois; Putsay, Mária; Uhrínová, Lucia; Csirmaz, Kálmán; Okon, Ľuboslav; Habrovský, Richard

    2011-06-01

    A system of thunderstorms approached the Slovakia and Hungary in the late evening hours of 25 June 2008, causing extensive damage and peak wind gusts up to 40 m/s. This study examines the macro- and mesosynoptic conditions for the windstorm using soundings, analyses, and forecasts of numerical models (ALADIN, ECMWF). A derecho-like character of the event is discussed. Meteosat Second Generation imagery and convective indices inferred from satellite and model data are used to assess the humidity distribution and the conditional instability of the thunderstorm environment. An intrusion of the environmental dry air into the convective system and intensification of downdrafts is considered to be one of the reasons for the damaging winds observed at some areas. This is supported by the radar imagery showing a sudden drop of radar reflectivity and creation of line echo wave patterns and bow echoes. A numerical simulation provided by the non-hydrostatic MM5 model indicated the development of meso-γ scale vortices embedded in the convective system. The genesis and a possible role of such vortices in creating rear-inflow jets and intensifying the low level winds are investigated with the help of the vorticity equation and several other diagnostic parameters. In addition, the effect of various physical parameterisations on the forecast of the windstorm is evaluated.

  15. Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol in Wheat in Slovakia during 2010 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Šliková, Svetlana; Gavurníková, Soňa; Šudyová, Valéria; Gregová, Edita

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a total of 299 grain samples of wheat were collected from four production regions: the maize, sugar beet, potato and feed sectors of Slovakia. The samples were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON) content by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Ridascreen® Fast DON. Analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between years in DON contents (p < 0.027). The occurrence of samples with DON was 82.2% in 2010, with maximum DON content of 7.88 mg kg−1, and 70.7% in 2011, with maximum DON content of 2.12 mg·kg−1. The total mean DON content was 0.62 mg·kg−1; in the feed region 0.22 mg·kg−1; 0.63 mg·kg−1 in the maize region; 0.78 mg·kg−1 in the sugar beet region; 0.45 mg·kg−1 the potato region. The limit of 1.25 mg·kg−1 imposed by the European Union (EU) for DON content was exceeded in 13.7% of the studied samples. The average monthly rainfall for May to June played a critical role in DON content of wheat grains for maize and sugar beet producing regions. The present results indicate that DON content was at a high level in grains from wheat grown during 2010. PMID:23917334

  16. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in wheat in Slovakia during 2010 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Sliková, Svetlana; Gavurníková, Soňa; Sudyová, Valéria; Gregová, Edita

    2013-08-01

    In this study, a total of 299 grain samples of wheat were collected from four production regions: the maize, sugar beet, potato and feed sectors of Slovakia. The samples were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON) content by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Ridascreen® Fast DON. Analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between years in DON contents (p < 0.027). The occurrence of samples with DON was 82.2% in 2010, with maximum DON content of 7.88 mg kg⁻¹, and 70.7% in 2011, with maximum DON content of 2.12 mg·kg⁻¹. The total mean DON content was 0.62 mg·kg⁻¹; in the feed region 0.22 mg·kg⁻¹; 0.63 mg·kg⁻¹ in the maize region; 0.78 mg·kg⁻¹ in the sugar beet region; 0.45 mg·kg⁻¹ the potato region. The limit of 1.25 mg·kg⁻¹ imposed by the European Union (EU) for DON content was exceeded in 13.7% of the studied samples. The average monthly rainfall for May to June played a critical role in DON content of wheat grains for maize and sugar beet producing regions. The present results indicate that DON content was at a high level in grains from wheat grown during 2010.

  17. Ecophysiological and ultrastructural effects of dust pollution in lichens exposed around a cement plant (SW Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Guttová, Anna; Grassi, Alice; Lackovičová, Anna; Senko, Dušan; Sorbo, Sergio; Basile, Adriana; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated the ecophysiological and ultrastructural effects of dust pollution from a cement industry in the lichen species Evernia prunastri and Xanthoria parietina, which were exposed for 30, 90 and 180 days around a cement mill, two quarries, and inhabited and agricultural sites in SW Slovakia. The results showed that dust deposition from quarrying activities and cement works at the cement mill (mainly enriched in Ca, Fe and Ti) significantly affected the photosynthetic apparatus of E. prunastri (sensitive to dust and habitat eutrophication), while X. parietina (tolerant to dust and habitat eutrophication) adapted to the new environment. The length of the exposure strongly affected the vitality of the mycobiont (measured as dehydrogenase activity) in transplanted lichens. Dust deposition led to ultrastructural alterations, including lipid droplets increase, swelling of cellular components, thylakoid degeneration and sometimes plasmolysis, which, on the whole, gave the cells an aged appearance. Photosynthetic parameters deserve further attention as potential indicators for monitoring early biological symptoms of the air pollution caused during cement production.

  18. Response of surface and groundwater on meteorological drought in Topla River catchment, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendekova, Miriam; Fendek, Marian; Vrablikova, Dana; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Slivova, Valeria; Horvat, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Continuously increasing number of drought studies published in scientific journals reflects the attention of the scientific community paid to drought. The fundamental works among many others were published by Yevjevich (1967), Zelenhasic and Salvai (1987), later by Tallaksen and van Lanen Eds. (2004). The aim of the paper was to analyze the response of surface and groundwater to meteorological drought occurrence in the upper and middle part of the Topla River Basin, Slovakia. This catchment belongs to catchments with unfavourable hydrogeological conditions, being built of rocks with quite low permeability. The basin is located in the north-eastern part of Slovakia covering the area of 1050.05 km2. The response was analyzed using precipitation data from the Bardejov station (long-term annual average of 662 mm in 1981 - 2012) and discharge data from two gauging stations - Bardejov and Hanusovce nad Toplou. Data on groundwater head from eight observation wells, located in the catchment, were also used, covering the same observation period. Meteorological drought was estimated using characterisation of the year humidity and SPI index. Hydrological drought was evaluated using the threshold level method and method of sequent peak algorithm, both with the fixed and also variable thresholds. The centroid method of the cluster analysis with the squared Euclidean distance was used for clustering data according to occurrence of drought periods, lasting for 100 days and more. Results of the SPI index showed very good applicability for drought periods identification in the basin. The most pronounced dry periods occurred in 1982 - 1983, 1984, 1998 and 2012 being classified as moderately dry, and also in 1993 - 1994, 2003 - 2004 and 2007 evolving from moderately to severely dry years. Short-term drought prevailed in discharges, only three periods of drought longer than 100 days occurred during the evaluated period in 1986 - 1987, 1997 and 2003 - 2004. Discharge drought in the

  19. Acanthocephalans of the genus Centrorhynchus (Palaeacanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) of birds of prey (Falconiformes) and owls (Strigiformes) in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Komorová, P; Špakulová, M; Hurníková, Z; Uhrín, M

    2015-06-01

    Three species of thorny-headed worms of the genus Centrorhynchus were found to parasitize birds of prey and owls in the territory of the Slovakia during the years 2012-2014. Out of 286 examined bird individuals belonging to 23 species, only Buteo buteo, Buteo rufinus, Falco tinnunculus (Falconiformes), Asio otus, Strix aluco, Strix uralensis and Tyto alba (Strigiformes) were infected by acanthocephalans. All the bird species except for S. aluco represent new host records for Slovakia. The most prevalent acanthocephalan Centrorhynchus aluconis was detected in all 15 examined birds of non-migratory Ural owl S. uralensis (P = 100%); however, it was found occasionally also in two individuals of the tawny owl S. aluco (P = 20%), one long-eared owl A. otus (P = 7.7%), one barn owl T. alba (P = 33.3%) and the common buzzard B. buteo (P = 0.8%). Two other thorny-headed worms occurred exclusively in Falconiformes in raw or mixed infections: Centrorhynchus buteonis was found in 11 individuals of B. buteo (P = 9.2%), and two birds (B. buteo and B. rufinus) were parasitized simultaneously by C. buteonis and the species Centrorhynchus globocaudatus. Moreover, the latest, relatively rare acanthocephalan was found alone in two common kestrels F. tinnunculus (P = 2.7%). Regarding intensity of infection, it ranged from a single female of C. buteonis, C. globocaudatus or C. aluconis per host (four cases) to a maximum of 82 C. aluconis per an Ural owl. The difference in acanthocephalan species spectrum between birds of prey and owls in Slovakia was apparent.

  20. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Hepatozoon spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents from Slovakia and Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hamšíková, Zuzana; Silaghi, Cornelia; Rudolf, Ivo; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mahríková, Lenka; Slovák, Mirko; Mendel, Jan; Blažejová, Hana; Berthová, Lenka; Kocianová, Elena; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schnittger, Leonhard; Kazimírová, Mária

    2016-10-01

    By amplification and sequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragments, Hepatozoon spp. DNA was detected in 0.08 % (4/5057) and 0.04 % (1/2473) of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Slovakia and Czech Republic, respectively. Hepatozoon spp. DNA was also detected in spleen and/or lungs of 4.45 % (27/606) of rodents from Slovakia. Prevalence of infection was significantly higher in Myodes glareolus (11.45 %) than in Apodemus spp. (0.28 %) (P < 0.001). Sequencing of 18S rRNA Hepatozoon spp. gene amplicons from I. ricinus showed 100 % identity with Hepatozoon canis isolates from red foxes or dogs in Europe. Phylogenetic analysis showed that at least two H. canis 18S rRNA genotypes exist in Slovakia of which one was identified also in the Czech Republic. The finding of H. canis in questing I. ricinus suggests the geographical spread of the parasite and a potential role of other ticks as its vectors in areas where Rhipicephalus sanguineus is not endemic. Sequencing of 18S rRNA gene amplicons from M. glareolus revealed the presence of two closely related genetic variants, Hepatozoon sp. SK1 and Hepatozoon sp. SK2, showing 99-100 % identity with isolates from M. glareolus from other European countries. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that 18S rRNA variants SK1 and SK2 correspond to previously described genotypes UR1 and UR2 of H. erhardovae, respectively. The isolate from Apodemus flavicollis (Hepatozoon sp. SK3b) was 99 % identical with isolates from reptiles in Africa and Asia. Further studies are necessary to identify the taxonomic status of Hepatozoon spp. parasitizing rodents in Europe and the host-parasite interactions in natural foci.

  1. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Hepatozoon spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents from Slovakia and Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hamšíková, Zuzana; Silaghi, Cornelia; Rudolf, Ivo; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mahríková, Lenka; Slovák, Mirko; Mendel, Jan; Blažejová, Hana; Berthová, Lenka; Kocianová, Elena; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schnittger, Leonhard; Kazimírová, Mária

    2016-10-01

    By amplification and sequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragments, Hepatozoon spp. DNA was detected in 0.08 % (4/5057) and 0.04 % (1/2473) of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Slovakia and Czech Republic, respectively. Hepatozoon spp. DNA was also detected in spleen and/or lungs of 4.45 % (27/606) of rodents from Slovakia. Prevalence of infection was significantly higher in Myodes glareolus (11.45 %) than in Apodemus spp. (0.28 %) (P < 0.001). Sequencing of 18S rRNA Hepatozoon spp. gene amplicons from I. ricinus showed 100 % identity with Hepatozoon canis isolates from red foxes or dogs in Europe. Phylogenetic analysis showed that at least two H. canis 18S rRNA genotypes exist in Slovakia of which one was identified also in the Czech Republic. The finding of H. canis in questing I. ricinus suggests the geographical spread of the parasite and a potential role of other ticks as its vectors in areas where Rhipicephalus sanguineus is not endemic. Sequencing of 18S rRNA gene amplicons from M. glareolus revealed the presence of two closely related genetic variants, Hepatozoon sp. SK1 and Hepatozoon sp. SK2, showing 99-100 % identity with isolates from M. glareolus from other European countries. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that 18S rRNA variants SK1 and SK2 correspond to previously described genotypes UR1 and UR2 of H. erhardovae, respectively. The isolate from Apodemus flavicollis (Hepatozoon sp. SK3b) was 99 % identical with isolates from reptiles in Africa and Asia. Further studies are necessary to identify the taxonomic status of Hepatozoon spp. parasitizing rodents in Europe and the host-parasite interactions in natural foci. PMID:27245074

  2. Intestinal and liver flukes of birds of prey (Accipitriformes, Falconiformes, Strigiformes) from Slovakia: uniform or diverse compound?

    PubMed

    Komorová, Petronela; Sitko, Jiljí; Špakulová, Marta; Hurníková, Zuzana

    2016-07-01

    During 2012-2014 up to 286 birds of the orders Falconiformes (5 species), Accipitriformes (11 species), and Strigiformes (7 species) were examined for trematodes and this represents the first detailed study in Slovakia. A total of 12 trematode species belonging to the families Diplostomidae, Cyathocotylidae, Strigeidae, and Opisthorchiidae were identified. Rare infections were found in falcons where only two species (40 %) and three of 85 examined birds (3.5 %) were infected with a low range of two to four worms of generalists Strigea falconis or Plagiorchis elegans. Contrary to that, ten accipitriformes species (90.9 %) and 63 of 156 bird individuals (40.4 %) were infected with nine flukes: Conodiplostomum perlatum, Conodiplostomum spathula, Neodiplostomum attenuatum, Neodiplostomum spathoides, Parastrigea flexilis, Strigea falconis, Strigea vandenbrokae, Paracoenogonimus ovatus, and Metorchis bilis. S. falconis and N. attenuatum were the most frequent, occurring in parallel in eight and four bird species, in numbers up to 575 and 224. The intensity of infection with other fluke species was low ranging from one to 13 worms. Three owl (Strigiformes) representatives (42.9 %) were exclusive hosts for Neodiplostomum canaliculatum and Strigea strigis, and the proportion of positive and dissected individual birds was 10:45 (22.2 %). Both trematodes occurred in two or three owl species. In conclusion, apparent dissimilarity of trematode load of three unrelated lines of falcons, eagles, and owls was revealed. The present study extends our knowledge on the composition of the trematode fauna in Slovakia as all species except S. falconis and P. elegans that represent new host and species records in Slovakia. PMID:27055533

  3. Acanthocephalans of the genus Centrorhynchus (Palaeacanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) of birds of prey (Falconiformes) and owls (Strigiformes) in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Komorová, P; Špakulová, M; Hurníková, Z; Uhrín, M

    2015-06-01

    Three species of thorny-headed worms of the genus Centrorhynchus were found to parasitize birds of prey and owls in the territory of the Slovakia during the years 2012-2014. Out of 286 examined bird individuals belonging to 23 species, only Buteo buteo, Buteo rufinus, Falco tinnunculus (Falconiformes), Asio otus, Strix aluco, Strix uralensis and Tyto alba (Strigiformes) were infected by acanthocephalans. All the bird species except for S. aluco represent new host records for Slovakia. The most prevalent acanthocephalan Centrorhynchus aluconis was detected in all 15 examined birds of non-migratory Ural owl S. uralensis (P = 100%); however, it was found occasionally also in two individuals of the tawny owl S. aluco (P = 20%), one long-eared owl A. otus (P = 7.7%), one barn owl T. alba (P = 33.3%) and the common buzzard B. buteo (P = 0.8%). Two other thorny-headed worms occurred exclusively in Falconiformes in raw or mixed infections: Centrorhynchus buteonis was found in 11 individuals of B. buteo (P = 9.2%), and two birds (B. buteo and B. rufinus) were parasitized simultaneously by C. buteonis and the species Centrorhynchus globocaudatus. Moreover, the latest, relatively rare acanthocephalan was found alone in two common kestrels F. tinnunculus (P = 2.7%). Regarding intensity of infection, it ranged from a single female of C. buteonis, C. globocaudatus or C. aluconis per host (four cases) to a maximum of 82 C. aluconis per an Ural owl. The difference in acanthocephalan species spectrum between birds of prey and owls in Slovakia was apparent. PMID:25786606

  4. Intestinal and liver flukes of birds of prey (Accipitriformes, Falconiformes, Strigiformes) from Slovakia: uniform or diverse compound?

    PubMed

    Komorová, Petronela; Sitko, Jiljí; Špakulová, Marta; Hurníková, Zuzana

    2016-07-01

    During 2012-2014 up to 286 birds of the orders Falconiformes (5 species), Accipitriformes (11 species), and Strigiformes (7 species) were examined for trematodes and this represents the first detailed study in Slovakia. A total of 12 trematode species belonging to the families Diplostomidae, Cyathocotylidae, Strigeidae, and Opisthorchiidae were identified. Rare infections were found in falcons where only two species (40 %) and three of 85 examined birds (3.5 %) were infected with a low range of two to four worms of generalists Strigea falconis or Plagiorchis elegans. Contrary to that, ten accipitriformes species (90.9 %) and 63 of 156 bird individuals (40.4 %) were infected with nine flukes: Conodiplostomum perlatum, Conodiplostomum spathula, Neodiplostomum attenuatum, Neodiplostomum spathoides, Parastrigea flexilis, Strigea falconis, Strigea vandenbrokae, Paracoenogonimus ovatus, and Metorchis bilis. S. falconis and N. attenuatum were the most frequent, occurring in parallel in eight and four bird species, in numbers up to 575 and 224. The intensity of infection with other fluke species was low ranging from one to 13 worms. Three owl (Strigiformes) representatives (42.9 %) were exclusive hosts for Neodiplostomum canaliculatum and Strigea strigis, and the proportion of positive and dissected individual birds was 10:45 (22.2 %). Both trematodes occurred in two or three owl species. In conclusion, apparent dissimilarity of trematode load of three unrelated lines of falcons, eagles, and owls was revealed. The present study extends our knowledge on the composition of the trematode fauna in Slovakia as all species except S. falconis and P. elegans that represent new host and species records in Slovakia.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH IN ROMA VILLAGES IN SLOVAKIA AND ROMANIA

    PubMed Central

    Majdan, Marek; Coman, Alexandru; Gallová, Eva; Ďuricová, Janka; Kállayová, Daniela; Kvaková, Mária; Bošák, Ľuboš

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The objective of this paper is to provide information on indoor air quality and on the quality of the broader indoor environment of the houses in Roma villages in Slovakia and Romania and to discuss possible implications for health. Methods Indoor air was sampled in 11 houses in a Romanian Roma village and in 19 houses in a Slovakian Roma village. Levels of Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), total particulate matter (PM), temperature and humidity were measured. A questionnaire and a checklist were used to obtain additional information on the indoor environment and behavioural factors. We have sampled the same houses in winter and in summer. Results Levels of CO and CO2 were higher in winter in both countries as compared to summer. The limit value of 10 mg/m3 CO was exceeded in a few cases in both countries. In general, levels of CO, CO2 and PM were higher in Romania. Further environmental and behavioural hazards such as indoor smoking, pets inside or lack of ventilation were found. The reported self-perceived quality of the indoor environment was poor in many aspects. Conclusions Our findings of CO, CO2 and PM levels suggest that indoor air pollution in Roma settlements has the potential to be a health threat. The fact that the inhabitants spend a relatively long time inside the houses and that a number of additional environmental and behavioural hazards were identified by our study emphasizes the importance of the indoor air quality for health and thus priority attention should be paid to these issues by health authorities and researchers. Further research is essential and study designs must consider cultural background and specific characteristics of the community, especially in order to obtain valid data on health outcomes. PMID:23285520

  6. Preliminary business plan: District Heating Company for the city of Handlova, Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The city of Handlova, Slovakia, needs to replace its district heating system, which is old, unreliable, and expensive to maintain. The current plant is owned by a state-run utility, the Slovensky Energeticky Podnik (SEP). The plan is to privatize the heating plant, acquire capital to rehabilitate the central plant (converting it to a cogeneration facility), install a new hot-water distribution system, and implement an extensive energy efficiency effort in the residential buildings on the system. System capacity is 100 MWt, with annual heat sales estimated to be 450,000 gigajoules per year (GJ/yr). The capital necessary for system improvements is estimated to be 465 million Slovakian Krowns (SK) (in 1997 price levels). The total market value of existing fixed assets that will survive the rehabilitation effort as part of the new systems is estimated at 342 million SK. There has been substantial analysis and preparation for this activity, which is documented in demand-side and supply-side technical and economic analyses, an integrated demand/supply report, and this preliminary business plan. The preparation includes investigation of ownership, management, and technology alternatives; estimation of the market value of existing assets and investment requirements; and forecasting of future cash flows. These preliminary projections indicate that the cost of heating from the new system will be reasonable from both a cost per unit of energy basis (SK/GJ) and, form the perspective of an apartment dweller in Handlova, on a total cost per year basis. Delivering heat at the projected cost will, however, require a substantial change in the way that the heating plant is run, with proportionally very large reductions in labor, operations and maintenance, and overhead charges. In addition, there will need to be significant revenues from the sale of electricity to the national grid.

  7. Sulfur and nitrogen emissions in the Czech Republic and Slovakia from 1850 till 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopáček, Jiří; Veselý, Josef

    The respective rates of SO 2, NO x, and NH 3 anthropogenic emissions in the former Czechoslovakia (the Czech Republic and Slovakia (CS)) were <10, <5, and 33 mmol m -2 yr -1 in 1850, increased slowly until 1950 and rapidly in the 1950-1980 period, and peaked at ˜380, ˜180 and ˜80 mmol m -2 yr -1 in the 1980s. The emissions declined markedly after the political and economical changes in 1989 due to (1) restructuring of industry and farming in the early 1990s (˜35% decrease in energy production and 50-60% decrease in cattle numbers and fertilization rate of farmland), (2) sulfur emission controls, (3) changes in fuel supply, and (4) optimization of combustion regimes at stationary sources of NO x. The CS emission rates of SO 2, NO x, and NH 3 were 87%, 51%, and ˜44% lower, respectively, in 2000 than in 1985. Emissions of SO 2 declined linearly throughout the 1990s (to 47 mmol m -2 yr -1 in 2000), while NO x and NH 3 emissions declined rapidly during 1989-1994 and then slowly to ˜85 and ˜44 mmol m -2 yr -1, respectively, in 2000. Similar declines in SO 2 and NO x emissions occurred in the entire central European region, while NH 3 emission decreased less over a wider region due predominantly to more stable emission rates of NH 3 in Germany. Emission rates of S and N compounds correlated tightly ( P<0.001) with their deposition in the CS region.

  8. The importance of arbuscular mycorrhiza for Cyclamen purpurascens subsp. immaculatum endemic in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Rydlová, Jana; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Slavíková, Renata; Turis, Peter

    2015-11-01

    At present, there is no relevant information on arbuscular mycorrhiza and the effect of the symbiosis on the growth of wild populations of cyclamens. To fill this gap, two populations of Cyclamen purpurascens subsp. immaculatum, endemic in Nízke Tatry (NT) mountains and Veľká Fatra (VF) mountains, Slovakia, were studied in situ as well as in a greenhouse pot experiment. For both populations, mycorrhizal root colonization of native plants was assessed, and mycorrhizal inoculation potential (MIP) of the soils at the two sites was determined in 3 consecutive years. In the greenhouse experiment, the growth response of cyclamens to cross-inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was tested: plants from both sites were grown in their native soils and inoculated with a Septoglomus constrictum isolate originating either from the same or from the other plant locality. Although the MIP of soil at the NT site was significantly higher than at the VF site, the level of AMF root colonization of C. purpurascens subsp. immaculatum plants in the field did not significantly differ between the two localities. In the greenhouse experiment, inoculation with AMF generally accelerated cyclamen growth and significantly increased all growth parameters (shoot dry weight, leaf number and area, number of flowers, tuber, and root dry weight) and P uptake. The two populations of C. purpurascens subsp. immaculatum grown in their native soils, however, differed in their response to inoculation. The mycorrhizal growth response of NT plants was one-order higher compared to VF plants, and all their measured growth parameters were stimulated regardless of the fungal isolates' origin. In the VF plants, only the non-native (NT originating) isolate showed a significant positive effect on several growth traits. It can be concluded that mycorrhiza significantly increased fitness of C. purpurascens subsp. immaculatum, despite the differences between plant populations, implying that AMF

  9. Spectroscopic and bond-topological investigation of interstitial volatiles in beryl from Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridrichová, Jana; Bačík, Peter; Bizovská, Valéria; Libowitzky, Eugen; Škoda, Radek; Uher, Pavel; Ozdín, Daniel; Števko, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Nine beryl samples from Western Carpathians, Slovakia, were investigated by infrared and Raman spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis. Two types of water H2O I and H2O II were detected. Infrared spectroscopy proved the presence of water type I and II in the presence of alkali cations with several bands: (1) symmetric stretching vibration—ν1; (2) antisymmetric stretching mode—ν3; (3) bending vibration—ν2. The presence of singly and doubly coordinated type II water (IIs and IId) was confirmed by single-crystal IR spectroscopy. From Raman spectra a band at 3606 cm-1 was assigned to ν1 of water type I and the range of 3597-3600 cm-1 to water type II. The presence of doubly coordinating water indicates a relatively highly hydrated environment with the presence of alkali ions including Na as the dominant cation coordinated by H2O II. CO2 bands were detected only by single-crystal IR spectroscopy. Thermal analysis proved total water loss in the range of 1.4-2.0 wt% and three main dehydration events. Based on the study of bond-topological arrangements two molecules of H2O IId are each bound with two H···O1 bonds and one Na-OW bond with an angular distortion, and by releasing one H2O molecule more stable H2O IIs is produced. The H2O I molecule is bound only by two equivalent hydrogen bonds. The H2O IIs molecule with a Na-OW bond strength of 0.28 vu and two H···O1 bonds of 0.14 vu without any forced angular distortion is the most stable of all.

  10. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) - reservoir host of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Derdáková, Markéta; Čobádiová, Andrea; Hisira, Vladimír

    2016-03-01

    In Central Europe the wild boar population is permanently growing and consequently Cf foodborne infections. In this study serological and molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wild boars was evaluated. Moreover, same samples were screened for the presence and genetic variability of tick-borne bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Blood samples collected from 113 wild boars from Southern Slovakia were examined for antibodies to T. gondii by indirect and to N. caninum by competitive ELISA. The presence of parasitic DNA in blood samples was determined by standard or real time PCR techniques. Antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum were detected in 45 (39.8%) and 38 (33.6%) animals, respectively. Females were more frequently infected for both pathogens than males. The high seropositivity against both coccidia indicates a permanent occurrence of these pathogens in the studied locality. T. gondii DNA was confirmed in five seropositive boars (4.4%) and N. caninum in 23 blood samples (20.4%). Three out of 23 N. caninum PCR positive animals did not show seropositivity. Three out of 113 blood samples of wild boars were positive for A. phagocytophilum (2.7%). The obtained A. phagocytophilum sequences were 100% identical with GenBankTM isolates from Slovak dog (KC985242); German horse (JF893938) or wild boar (EF143810) and red deer (EF143808) from Poland. Coinfections of T. gondii with N. caninum and N. caninum with A. phagocytophilum were detected in single cases. Results suggest a potential zoonotic risk of toxoplasmosis transmission to humans and the spread of neosporosis to farm animals. PMID:27078648

  11. Environmental and health risk assessment in abandoned mining area, Zlata Idka, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapant, S.; Dietzová, Z.; Cicmanová, S.

    2006-11-01

    The Zlata Idka village is a typical mountainous settlement. As a consequence of more than 500 years of mining activity, its environment has been extensively affected by pollution from potentially toxic elements. This paper presents the results of an environmental-geochemical and health research in the Zlata Idka village, Slovakia. Geochemical analysis indicates that arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) are enriched in soils, groundwater, surface water and stream sediments. The average As and Sb contents are 892 mg/kg and 818 mg/kg in soils, 195 mg/kg and 249 mg/kg in stream sediments, 0.028 mg/l and 0.021 mg/l in groundwater and 0.024 mg/l and 0.034 mg/l in surface water. Arsenic and Sb concentrations exceed upper permissible limits in locally grown vegetables. Within the epidemiological research the As and Sb contents in human tissues and fluids have been observed (blood, urine, nails and hair) in approximately one third of the village’s population (120 respondents). The average As and Sb concentrations were 16.3 μg/l and 3.8 μg/l in blood, 15.8 μg/l and 18.8 μg/l in urine, 3,179 μg/kg and 1,140 μg/kg in nails and 379 μg/kg and 357 μg/kg in hair. These concentrations are comparatively much higher than the average population. Health risk calculations for the ingestion of soil, water, and vegetables indicates a very high carcinogenic risk (>1/1,000) for as content in soil and water. The hazard quotient [HQ=average daily dose (ADD)/reference dose (RfD)] calculation method indicates a HQ>1 for groundwater As and Sb concentrations.

  12. The Magnetic Properties of Lichens Exposed Around a Cement Plant in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Aldo; Paoli, Luca; Guttová, Anna; Loppi, Stefano; Sagnotti, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    A cement industry is a source of dust pollution, from quarrying and grinding of the raw material to kiln operations. Airborne pollutants related to combustion processes are also emitted, especially during kiln operations and power generation. The use of biomonitors can provide valuable information about the impact of airborne pollutants released during cement production and lichens are suitable bioindicators of air pollution, providing reliable information on the quality of the environment. We investigated the magnetic hysteresis properties and the elemental concentrations of epiphytic lichens from selected sites (a cement mill, two quarries, agricultural areas, and villages) in SW Slovakia; in particular, both transplanted and in situ lichens, bark, soil and rock samples from the sampling sites, as well as pre-transplant samples have been characterized. Evernia prunastri transplants, exposed up to 180 days, showed excellent correlations between the saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs) values and the Fe concentrations; the analyzed samples were magnetically homogeneous, with marked differences only for the sample from a basalt quarry. Xanthoria parietina autochthonous samples have also a similar magnetic mineralogy; anyway their Ms and Mrs values were two orders of magnitude higher with respect to those from the transplants, implying increased concentration of magnetic particles according to the different lichen species and to the prolonged exposure. Magnetic methods can be valuable for discriminating various natural and anthropogenic sources of dust. In this study, we point out that the magnetic properties may also reflect the influence of the basalt quarry activity, of the soil and of the bedrock. For a proper evaluation of the pollution related to human activities, it is thus essential to verify the nature of the substrate and to select suitable and homogeneous pre/post lichen transplant sites.

  13. Evaluating Early Upper Palaeolithic Open-Air Surface Finds from Northern Hungary and Southern Slovakia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wei; Zeeden, Christian; Mester, Zsolt; Lengyel, Gyuri; Kaminská, Ľubomíra

    2016-04-01

    The way in which Modern Humans first penetrated the European continent has been a recent focus of Upper Palaeolithic archaeological research. One hypothesis posits that the Danube River served as a main conduit for modern human movement from Southeastern into Central and Western Europe. However, a critical challenge to this theory has been the scarcity of Early Upper Palaeolithic sites along the Middle Danube catchment (Carpathian Basin). Though several sites with Early Upper Palaeolithic characteristics (Szeletian, Aurignacian) are known from surface prospections, very few have been archaeologically investigated. Our aim was to elucidate this long-standing deficiency by evaluating six known-surface sites from the Northern Middle Danube Basin in the Cserhát and Mátra Mountains (Hungary) and the nearby Košice Basin (Slovakia) through a series of "keyhole" excavations. Our objectives were (1) to see if in situ stratified material still existed at these locations, (2) to characterize their archaeological assemblages and (3) to provide radiometric dates for these assemblages. Additionally, we employed sediment grain-size and color analyses to resolve if the surrounding sedimentary matrix was aeolian loess and/or if it had been mixed with underlying older deposits. Our results suggest that many of the archaeological assemblages represent early Upper Palaeolithic assemblages experienced post-depositional mixing. However, two sites (Sena, Nagyréde) showed more nuanced taphonomic processes and may contain in situ artifacts warranting further exploration. These studies highlight the under-explored nature of archaeological and sedimentological research in the area and underscore the importance of integrating sedimentological research with archaeological investigations. It also suggests that the scarcity of archaeological sites in the region may in part be the result of a dynamic Pleistocene geomorphological evolution rather than a true demographic absence. Our results

  14. Trends in the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in Slovakia, 1978-1995.

    PubMed

    Plesko, I; Severi, G; Obsitníková, A; Boyle, P

    2000-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) incidence in Slovakia in the period 1978-1995 was analyzed. A total of 38,629 microscopically confirmed NMSC cases (19,600 in males and 19,029 in females) were registered by the National Cancer Registry: 31,714 (82.1%) were basal cell carcinomas (BCC), 6,396 (16.6%) squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and only 519 (1.3%) other NMSC. Age standardized rates of NMSC increased in the given period by 59.1% in males and 58.5% in females. The greatest increase was observed for BCC, 70.4% and 65.0% in males and females respectively, the smaller for SCC, 13.5 and 18.8%. In the period 1993-1995 age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 were 38.0 for BCC, 6.7 for SCC and 45.5 for all NMSC in males and 29.2, 3.8 and 33.6, respectively in females. The observed marked increase of incidence with age was particularly pronounced for SCC. In both sexes, head and neck was the most common localization of BCC and SCC (84.2 to 74.7%), followed by trunk for BCC (17.0% in males and 10.8% in females) and by upper limbs for SCC (with 11.6% in males and 12.5% in females). Very fast increase of BCC incidence over time, its slower increase with age as compared to SCC incidence and body-site distribution suggest that BCC etiology is much more similar to melanoma etiology than SCC one. Registration of NMSC in relation to changes in possible risk factors (i.e. sun exposure/protection, ozone layer decrease) is important to study the mechanism of disease occurrence and to support public health interventions.

  15. Incidence of fumonisins, moniliformin and Fusarium species in poultry feed mixtures from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Labuda, Roman; Parich, Alexandra; Vekiru, Elisavet; Tancinová, Dana

    2005-01-01

    A total of 50 samples of poultry feed mixtures of Slovak origin were analysed for fumonisin B(1) and B(2) (FB(1), FB(2)) and moniliformin (MON) using SAX-clean up procedure being detected by high pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), respectively. The samples were also simultaneously investigated for Fusarium species occurrence, and for the capability of Fusarium isolates recovered to produce FB(1) and MON in vitro. FB1 was detected in 49 samples (98 %) in concentrations ranging from 43 to 798 microg x kg(-1), and FB(2) in 42 samples (84 %) in concentrations ranging from 26 to 362 microg x kg(-1). MON was detected in 26 samples (52 %) in concentrations that ranged from 42 to 1,214 microg x kg(-1). Only two Fusarium populations were encountered, namely F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans, of which the former was the most dominant and frequent. All 86 F. proliferatum isolates tested for FB1-production ability proved to be producers of the toxin although none of them produced MON. On the contrary, MON production was observed in a half out of 16 F. subglutinans isolates tested, yet no FB1 production was detected in this case. Despite the limited number of samples investigated during this study, it is obvious that poultry feed mixtures may represent a risk from a toxicological point of view and should be regarded as a potential source of the Fusarium mycotoxins in central Europe. This is the first reported study dealing with fumonisin and moniliformin contamination of poultry feeds from Slovakia.

  16. Relative density of host-seeking ticks in different habitat types of south-western Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Kazimírová, Mária; Hamšíková, Zuzana; Kocianová, Elena; Marini, Giovanni; Mojšová, Michala; Mahríková, Lenka; Berthová, Lenka; Slovák, Mirko; Rosá, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Ixodes ricinus is a vector of microbial pathogens of medical and veterinary importance in Europe. Recently, increasing abundance of ticks has been observed in urban and suburban areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the tick species composition and examine correlations between local environmental variables and the relative density of host-seeking I. ricinus in two habitat types. Questing ticks were collected along six 100 m(2) transects in urban/suburban locations of Bratislava town, and in a non-fragmented deciduous forest in the Small Carpathians Mountains (south-western Slovakia) during 2011-2013. In total, 6015 I. ricinus were collected (3435 and 2580 in the urban/suburban and natural habitat, respectively), out of which over 80 % were nymphs. Haemaphysalis concinna comprised 1.3 % of the tick collections. Peak I. ricinus nymph and adult host-seeking activities were registered in April-June. Spatial and temporal variation in tick relative density and differences in the subadult/adult ratio were observed between habitats and between locations within the same habitat type. The relative density of questing I. ricinus nymphs correlated negatively with altitude, geographical aspect and saturation deficit in a 64-day period comprising the 8-day period including the date of tick sampling and previous 56 days. No significant correlation was found between roe deer density and questing nymph density. The study revealed the presence of abundant I. ricinus populations in green areas of Bratislava, suggesting a risk of exposure of town dwellers and domestic and companion animals to potentially infected ticks.

  17. Relative density of host-seeking ticks in different habitat types of south-western Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Kazimírová, Mária; Hamšíková, Zuzana; Kocianová, Elena; Marini, Giovanni; Mojšová, Michala; Mahríková, Lenka; Berthová, Lenka; Slovák, Mirko; Rosá, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Ixodes ricinus is a vector of microbial pathogens of medical and veterinary importance in Europe. Recently, increasing abundance of ticks has been observed in urban and suburban areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the tick species composition and examine correlations between local environmental variables and the relative density of host-seeking I. ricinus in two habitat types. Questing ticks were collected along six 100 m(2) transects in urban/suburban locations of Bratislava town, and in a non-fragmented deciduous forest in the Small Carpathians Mountains (south-western Slovakia) during 2011-2013. In total, 6015 I. ricinus were collected (3435 and 2580 in the urban/suburban and natural habitat, respectively), out of which over 80 % were nymphs. Haemaphysalis concinna comprised 1.3 % of the tick collections. Peak I. ricinus nymph and adult host-seeking activities were registered in April-June. Spatial and temporal variation in tick relative density and differences in the subadult/adult ratio were observed between habitats and between locations within the same habitat type. The relative density of questing I. ricinus nymphs correlated negatively with altitude, geographical aspect and saturation deficit in a 64-day period comprising the 8-day period including the date of tick sampling and previous 56 days. No significant correlation was found between roe deer density and questing nymph density. The study revealed the presence of abundant I. ricinus populations in green areas of Bratislava, suggesting a risk of exposure of town dwellers and domestic and companion animals to potentially infected ticks. PMID:26926874

  18. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA region 3): Delaware City PVC (Polyvinylchloride Resin) Site, New Castle County, Delaware, September 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-30

    The Delaware City PVC site is located two miles northwest of Delaware City, New Castle County, Delaware. In 1966 Stauffer Chemical Company (SCC) of Westport, Connecticut, founded the Delaware City PVC Plant, which is used for the manufacturing of polyvinylchloride resin (PVC), polyvinyl acetate, and other polymers. An EPA-conducted inspection in May 1982 indicated serious contamination of the shallow ground water. Currently, ground water, surface water, and soils are contaminated with PVC, benzyl chloride monomer (VCM), TCE, and 1,2-dichloroethane (EDC).

  19. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 81-138-1563, Fillmore Dole Mushrooms, Castle and Cooke Foods, Fillmore, Utah. [Analyses for bacteria, fungi, formaldehyde, and vapona

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, B.J.; Thoburn, T.W.; Lockey, J.E.; Kullman, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for bacteria, fungi, formaldehyde, and 2,2-dichlorovinyldimethylphosphate (vapona) at Fillmore Dole Mushrooms, Castle and Cooke Foods, Fillmore, Utah in June, 1981. The survey was requested by the workers to evaluate respiratory problems. A total of 111 workers, including 59 Southeast Asians, were interviewed by questionnaire. There were 48 English-speaking and 18 Asian comparisons. The authors conclude that a potential hazard exists due to exposure to airborne fungi and bacteria. Formaldehyde and vapona are not a problem. Recommendations include conducting more intensive medical studies of the exposed workers and repeating the survey in about 5 years.

  20. A Note on the Chemical Composition of Nuffieldite Solid-Solution From Sulphide Mineralizations in the Western Carpathians, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prşek, Jaroslav; Makovicy, Emil; Chovan, Martin; Smirnov, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    The chemistry of the rare sulphosalt nuffieldite from three localities in Slovakia is examined. Nuffieldite is a part of a complex association of Bi sulphosalts accompanying tetrahedrite mineralization in some sulphide deposits in the Western Carpathians. Cu + Pb = (Bi, Sb) + vac. substitution in nuffieldite and the general formula Cu1+xPb2Bi2(PbxSbyBi1-x-y)S7 where 0 < x < 0.34; and 0.32 < y < 0.45 are confirmed. Decreasing Sb content with increasing copper content indicates a predominant substitution of Bi by Sb in nuffieldite.

  1. Potential mosquito (Diptera:Culicidae) vector of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis in urban areas of Eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Bocková, Eva; Iglódyová, Adriana; Kočišová, Alica

    2015-12-01

    This paper follows the study from 2013 focused on the molecular screening of mosquitoes as vectors of Dirofilaria spp. which provided the information on Aedes vexans as a potential vector of Dirofilaria repens in Slovakia. Current entomological and molecular research indicates that Ae. vexans can participate also in the transmission of Dirofilaria immitis within the region. Using the standard PCR method, we examined 10,500 mosquitoes (Ae. vexans, Ae. rossicus, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Ochlerotatus sticticus, Ochlerotatus cantans, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culex pipiens/Culex torrentium, Coquillettidia richiardii), collected using CO2-baited traps at six locations in the Eastern Slovakia. Out of 105 pools, 6 pools of mosquitoes Ae. vexans were positive for D. repens DNA (minimum infective rate in Ae. vexas was 6:6.900, i.e. 0.8 per 1.000 mosquitoes), within which 4 were concurrently positive for D. immitis (minimum infective rate in Ae. vexans was 4:6.900 i.e. 0.5 per 1.000 mosquitoes).

  2. Potential mosquito (Diptera:Culicidae) vector of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis in urban areas of Eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Bocková, Eva; Iglódyová, Adriana; Kočišová, Alica

    2015-12-01

    This paper follows the study from 2013 focused on the molecular screening of mosquitoes as vectors of Dirofilaria spp. which provided the information on Aedes vexans as a potential vector of Dirofilaria repens in Slovakia. Current entomological and molecular research indicates that Ae. vexans can participate also in the transmission of Dirofilaria immitis within the region. Using the standard PCR method, we examined 10,500 mosquitoes (Ae. vexans, Ae. rossicus, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Ochlerotatus sticticus, Ochlerotatus cantans, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culex pipiens/Culex torrentium, Coquillettidia richiardii), collected using CO2-baited traps at six locations in the Eastern Slovakia. Out of 105 pools, 6 pools of mosquitoes Ae. vexans were positive for D. repens DNA (minimum infective rate in Ae. vexas was 6:6.900, i.e. 0.8 per 1.000 mosquitoes), within which 4 were concurrently positive for D. immitis (minimum infective rate in Ae. vexans was 4:6.900 i.e. 0.5 per 1.000 mosquitoes). PMID:26391170

  3. Fluid composition of the sediment-influenced Loki's Castle vent field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumberger, Tamara; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Hamelin, Cédric; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Okland, Ingeborg E.; Pedersen, Rolf B.

    2016-08-01

    The hydrothermal vent field Loki's Castle is located in the Mohns-Knipovich bend (73°N) of the ultraslow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) close to the Bear Island sediment fan. The hydrothermal field is venting up to 320° C hot black smoker fluids near the summit of an axial volcanic ridge. Even though the active chimneys have grown on a basaltic ridge, geochemical fluid data show a strong sedimentary influence into the hydrothermal circulation at Loki's Castle. Compelling evidence for a sediment input is given by high alkalinity, high concentrations of NH4+, H2, CH4, C2+ hydrocarbons as well as low Mn and Fe contents. The low δ13C values of CO2 and CH4 and the thermogenic isotopic pattern of the C2+ hydrocarbons in the high-temperature vent fluids clearly point to thermal degradation of sedimentary organic matter and illustrate diminution of the natural carbon sequestration in sediments by hydrothermal circulation. Thus, carbon-release to the hydrosphere in Arctic regions is especially relevant in areas where the active Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge system is in contact with the organic matter rich detrital sediment fans.

  4. Study of a unique 16th century Antwerp majolica floor in the Rameyenhof castle's chapel by means of X-ray fluorescence and portable Raman analytical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Voorde, Lien; Vandevijvere, Melissa; Vekemans, Bart; Van Pevenage, Jolien; Caen, Joost; Vandenabeele, Peter; Van Espen, Piet; Vincze, Laszlo

    2014-12-01

    The most unique and only known 16th century Antwerp majolica tile floor in Belgium is situated in a tower of the Rameyenhof castle (Gestel, Belgium). This exceptional work of art has recently been investigated in situ by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy in order to study the material characteristics. This study reports on the result of the analyses based on the novel combination of non-destructive and portable instrumentation, including a handheld XRF spectrometer for obtaining elemental information and a mobile Raman spectrometer for retrieving structural and molecular information on the floor tiles in the Rameyenhof castle and on a second, similar medallion, which is stored in the Rubens House museum in Antwerp (Belgium). The investigated material, majolica, is a type of ceramic, which fascinated many people and potters throughout history by its beauty and colourful appearance. In this study the characteristic major/minor and trace element signature of 16th century Antwerp majolica is determined and the pigments used for the colourful paintings present on the floor are identified. Furthermore, based on the elemental fingerprint of the white glaze, and in particular on the presence of zinc in the tiles - an element that was not used for making 16th century majolica - valuable information about the originality of the chapel floor and the two central medallions is acquired.

  5. The Castle Mountain fault, south-central Alaska: New lidar-based observations on the sense of slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, R. D.; Reger, D.; Frohman, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Castle Mountain fault extends along the southern Talkeetna Mountains rangefront and across the Susitna Lowland in south-central Alaska. The fault is an active structural element of the Aleutian forearc and has formed a 4-km-wide anticline associated with at least 0.5 km of north-side-up displacement. Right-lateral bedrock offsets along the eastern part of the fault are poorly constrained to ~14 km. In the Susitna Lowland, the fault is expressed at the surface by a distinct south-facing scarp. Previous paleoseismic studies have described the fault as both a strike-slip fault and a reverse fault, attributed the scarp to the occurrence of one to four paleoearthquakes, and estimated a Holocene right-lateral slip rate of ~3mm/yr. Motivated by inspection of new lidar data along the fault indicating that Holocene landforms are not laterally offset, we performed surficial-geologic mapping and field surveys with an emphasis on better characterizing the sense of slip. Field work was conducted along approximately 12 km of the scarp between Houston and Susitna River. Surficial-geologic mapping indicates that the fault displaces late Elmendorf (14-15 ka) glacial and Holocene deposits including glacial drift, sandy fan deltas, outwash plains, grounding-line moraines, basal-crevasse-fill complexes, stream terraces, oxbow lakes, and swamps. Where the scarp cuts these deposits it varies in height from ~ 0.5-4 m and is un-beveled. The surface trace also consists of left-stepping en echelon scarps and grabens. The grabens occur up to 400 m north of the scarp and indicate a wide zone of deformation. Numerous abandoned channels and stabilized sand dunes oriented orthogonal to the scarp are vertically offset and have negligible strike-slip displacement. The observations are consistent with reverse faulting above a north dipping fault associated with bending moment extensional grabens in the hanging wall. The en echelon pattern of scarps suggests a minor oblique component of slip. We

  6. Mineralogy, 40Ar/ 39Ar dating and apatite fission track dating of rocks along the Castle Mountain fault, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, W. T.; Bunds, M. P.; Bruhn, R. L.; Hall, C. M.; Murphy, J. M.

    2001-07-01

    The Castle Mountain fault is a 200-km-long, right-lateral fault that forms the northern boundary of the Cook Inlet basin and Matanuska Valley, Alaska. Fault gouge and fault rock at six localities contain the clay minerals illite, smectite, chlorite, and interstratified illite/smectite. At one locality, gouge contains deformed illite/smectite with very little wall rock chlorite contamination. Fine (<0.03 μm), medium (0.03-0.2 μm), and coarse (0.2-2.0 μm) illite/smectite from this site were dated using 40Ar/ 39Ar micro-encapsulation and laser microprobe methods. Total gas ages for the three size fractions are 28.21±0.12, 32.42±0.11 and 36.24±0.08 Ma for fine to coarse sizes respectively. Argon retention ages obtained from 40Ar and 39Ar retained in the three size fractions of illite at room temperature during neutron irradiation are 37.36±0.15, 42.11±0.14 and 47.20±0.10 respectively. Apatite fission track ages were measured in arkose at a locality on the fault 60 km west of the gouge locality. Three samples of arkose were dated: one within 10 m of the fault core, one 170 m from the fault, and one 335 m from the fault. The sample nearest to the fault yielded an age of 29.3±2.8 Ma, but it only had four track lengths at 10-13 μm. Two apatite grains from the intermediate sample yielded a pooled age of 34.3±6.1 Ma. The distant sample (25 grains counted, 101 track lengths) yielded an age of 32.0±2.9 Ma. This sample has a broad distribution of track lengths and a broad distribution of individual grain ages ranging from 14.8±5.1 to 67.8±8.8 Ma. Monte Carlo modeling of the apatite age and track length data is consistent with hydrothermal mineralization at 37-39 Ma followed by rapid uplift and cooling after 10 Ma. The 40Ar/ 39Ar total gas ages (K-Ar) are minimum ages, and the argon retention ages are maximum ages. The thermal model derived from the fission track data, and the argon retention age for the finest illite fraction of ˜37 Ma date a hydrothermal

  7. Loki's Castle: Discovery and geology of a black smoker vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Lilley, M. D.; Barriga, F. J.; Früh-Green, G.; Nakamura, K.

    2010-12-01

    Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting at the ultraslow spreading and magma starved parts of the Arctic Mid Ocean Ridge (AMOR) have been unsuccessful. A black smoker vent field was eventually discovered at the Mohns-Knipovich bend at 73.5°N in 2008, and the field was revisited in 2009 and 2010. The Loki’s Castle vent field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge that is bordered by a tectonic terrain dominated by core complexes to the NW, and a ridge flank that is buried by sediments from the Bear Island Fan to the SE. Fluid compositions are anomalous to other basalt-hosted fields and indicate interactions with sediments at depths. The vent field is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting occurs at ultraslow spreading ridges despite the strongly reduced magmatic heat budget. ROV surveys have shown that venting occurs in two areas separated by around 100 m. Micro-bathymetry acquired by a Hugin AUV documents that two 20-30 tall mounds that coalesce at the base have developed around the vent sites. The micro-bathymetry also shows that the venting is located above two normal faults that define the NW margin of a rift that runs along the crest of the volcano. The black smoker fluids reach 317 °C, with an end-member SiO2 content of 16 mmol/kg. End-member chlorinity is around 85% of seawater suggesting that the fluids have phase-separated at depth. The fluid compositions indicate that the rock-water reactions occur around 2 km below the seafloor. The crustal thickness is estimated to be 4 +/- 0.5 km in the area. Whereas the depth of the reaction zone is comparable with faster spreading ridges, the fraction of crust cooled convectively by hydrothermal circulation is two times that of vent fields at ridges with normal crustal thickness.

  8. A review of the ectoparasitic mites (Acari: Dermanyssoidea) associated with birds and their nests in Slovakia, with notes on identification of some species.

    PubMed

    Mašán, Peter; Fenďa, Peter; Krištofík, Ján; Halliday, Bruce

    2014-12-05

    We review the parasitic mites of the superfamily Dermanyssoidea found in the nests of Slovakian domestic and wild birds (and a few mammals), compiled from new data and literature sources. Three mite genera are included, namely Dermanyssus Dugès (Dermanyssidae), Ornithonyssus Sambon and Pellonyssus Clark & Yunker (Macronyssidae), in which we recognised nine reliably documented species. Pellonyssus is represented by one species, Dermanyssus by five species, and Ornithonyssus by three species. We compiled information on the ecological requirements and host preferences of these mite species, including data on geographic distribution, altitudinal distribution, and occurrence in different habitats and nest types. An identification key to the species occurring in Slovakia is provided, together with taxonomic remarks on the identification and external morphology of some selected species. Parasitic mites have been reported from 119 taxa of Slovakian vertebrates (including man), of which 108 belong to 17 orders of birds. Dermanyssus americanus Ewing and Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese) are reported from Slovakia for the first time. Examination of older voucher material collected in Slovakia revealed many misidentified specimens: the name Dermanyssus hirundinis (Hermann) has been widely used for misidentified specimens of Dermanyssus carpathicus Zeman; D. americanus was confused with D. hirundinis; while O. bursa has been confused with Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago). Slovakia is the second country in Europe with known occurrence of the genus Pellonyssus. 

  9. International Survey in Eight Countries about Teachers and Teaching Profession: Belgium, Cyprus, Italy, Libya, Poland, Slovakia, Turkey, United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chistolini, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    An international team of experts from Belgium, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Turkey and the USA employed a questionnaire to identify the deontology of teachers from infant to secondary school in eight countries. The survey was implemented between 2004 and 2007. The socio-cultural concept of "Verstehen" (understanding) as described in the work…

  10. Staircases, Towers, and Castles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Melike; Eames, Cheryl L.; Miller, Amanda L.; Chieu, Annie

    2015-01-01

    The very nature of algebra concerns the generalization of patterns (Lee 1996). Patterning activities that are geometric in nature can serve as powerful contexts that engage students in algebraic thinking and visually support them in constructing a variety of generalizations and justifications (e.g., Healy and Hoyles 1999; Lannin 2005). In this…

  11. Castles of Ice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lied, Nils

    Intended for students aged 11 to 13 years, this is the true story of an Antarctic exploration as told by one of the participants. In 1956, he and two companions, along with a team of huskies started from the Australian base at Mawson, Antarctica and journeyed across the sea ice to locate the Douglas Islands and fix them on the map. The story tells…

  12. Cartographic evidence of the disastrous ice flood of 1809 and its aftermath (Danube River, Slovakia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pišút, P.

    2009-04-01

    The 18th and early 19th century river maps are important data sources for studying past landscapes. This is not only as a result of improved surveying techniques, but also because they depict landscape during probably the most important climatic and land-use changes since the Middle Ages. In this phase of the increased river activity during the last onset of the so-called Little Ice Age period, several major flood events occured. Local manuscript maps, which often depict the channel in major detail, help us to obtain a better understanding of their geomorphic and other impacts. The catastrophic ice flood, which occured on the Middle Danube river at the end of January 1809 was undoubtedly the most disastrous event of its kind in Slovakia, although it also hit a number of settlements in Lower Austria and Hungary. Several people drowned and the flood also resulted in great damage to settlements and livestock. Devastating effects of this flood particularly as to the towns of Bratislava and Komárno/Komárom were comparable with effects of disastrous floods of February 1830 in Vienna (Austria), March 1838 in Buda/Pest (Hungary) or 1845 flood in Prague (Czech Republic), respectively. In case of the present Slovakian capital Bratislava, on January 29, 1809, two ice barriers suddenly rose the water up to 10 m above the zero level and the river quickly overflowed its banks inundating the low-lying parts of the town. The flood blacked out communications with neighbouring regions. Record-breaking height of water led to breaches of the important right-bank embankment (constructed in 1770s). Through several openings water flooded the right bank, almost completely destroying the adjacent village of Petržalka/Engerau. The damage to Vienna highway levee was so massive that it only could be repaired 16 years later, in 1825-6 (although this was also due to Napoleonic wars). The flood also reactivated the Chorvátske rameno anabranch, 33 years after its abandonment. A number of

  13. Microbial life associated with low-temperature hydrothermal venting and formation of barite chimneys at Loki's Castle vent field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorseth, I. H.; Steen, I.; Roalkvam, I.; Dahle, H.; Stokke, R.; Rapp, H.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    A low-temperature diffuse venting area with numbers of small barite chimneys is located on the flank of the large sulphide mound of the Loki’s Castle black smoker vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). White cotton-like microbial mats on top of the barite chimneys and associated siboglinid tubeworms were observed. The temperature was determined to 20°C for the surface sediment and 0°C for the white microbial mats, just above the ambient bottom seawater temperature of -0.8°C. The microbial mats were sampled using a remote operating vehicle (ROV) equipped with a hydraulic sampling cylinder (biosyringe) and the chimneys using an aluminum scuffle box. Black colored interior flow channels surrounded by white outer sections of nearly pure barite, were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of mats showed numerous microbial cells and large amounts of extracellular thread-like material with attached barite crystals. Inside the chimneys microbial cells are partially embedded in barite, and individual crystals are also frequently covered by extracellular material. The microbial activity could thus have an important influence on the nucleation and growth of the barite crystals and thus on the formation of the chimneys. To reveal the microbial community structure, 16S rRNA gene sequence tag-encoded pyrosequencing (1.1 x 104 - 3.5 x 104 amplicons per library) followed by taxonomic classification of the reads using the MEGAN software, were performed. Organisms assigned to a genus of sulfide oxidizers (Sulfurimonas) within the e-Proteobacteria were abundant in each chimney structure; the white microbial mats (86-96% of the reads), the white barite (36% of total reads); the black flow channel (9.9%). The second most dominating taxon in the white chimney barite, including 26% of the reads, was anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME) of the ANME-1 clade, indicating anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) as a major microbial process. Furthermore, the novel AOM associated clade

  14. Keratinophilic fungi isolated from soils of long-term fold-grazed, degraded pastures in national parks of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Javoreková, Soňa; Labuda, Roman; Maková, Jana; Novák, Ján; Medo, Juraj; Majerčíková, Kamila

    2012-09-01

    A total of 939 isolates of 11 genera representing 15 species of keratinophilic fungi were isolated and identified from the soils of three long-term fold-grazed pastures in national parks of Slovakia (Pod Ploskou, Strungový príslop, and Pod Kečkou) and one non-fold-grazed pasture in sierra Stolicke vrchy (Diel) using the hair-baiting technique. Keratinophilic fungi were present in all soil samples with a prevalence of Trichophyton ajelloi and Paecilomyces lilacinus. These fungi were more abundant in soil from fold-grazed pasture (Strungový príslop) compared to non-fold-grazed pasture (Diel). The occurrence of the other keratinophilic fungi was substantially lower, likely because of low pH in some soils.

  15. Effect of heavy metals on soil enzyme activity at different field conditions in Middle Spis mining area (Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Angelovičová, Lenka; Lodenius, Martin; Tulisalo, Esa; Fazekašová, Danica

    2014-12-01

    Heavy metals concentrations were measured in the former mining area located in Hornad river valley (Slovakia). Soil samples were taken in 2012 from 20 sites at two field types (grasslands, heaps of waste material) and two different areas. Total content of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg), urease (URE), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), soil reaction (pH) were changing depending on the field/area type. The tailing pond and processing plants have been found as the biggest sources of pollution. URE, ACP and ALP activities significantly decreased while the heavy metal contents increased. Significant differences were found among area types in the heavy metal contents and activity of URE. No statistical differences in the content of heavy metals but significant statistical differences for soil pH were found for field types (grassland and heaps). Significant negative correlation was found for URE-Pb, URE-Zn and also between soil reaction and ACP and ALP. PMID:25293393

  16. The results of integration measurements of indoor radon activity concentration in houses in Ružomberok town (Northern Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetanová, Iveta; Műllerová, Monika; Holý, Karol; Moravcsík, Attila; Kovács, Tibor; Csordás, Anita; Neznal, Martin; Neznal, Matej; Kozak, Krzysztof; Mazur, Jadwiga; Grzadziel, Dominik

    2015-03-01

    Integration measurements of indoor radon in houses were performed within the framework of the project "Harmonization of determining the radiation dose of the population originating from radon in V4 countries". In Slovakia, the survey was performed in three localities: Záhorská Bystrica, Mochovce and Ružomberok. Monitoring started in March 2012 and lasted for one year. In Ružomberok ten houses were selected for monitoring purposes. The houses built before 1990 were predominantly chosen for the investigation. In selected houses in Ružomberok, radon activity concentration rarely exceeded 400 Bq/m3 in a three month period, in this case the inhabitants were advised how to lower radon exposure. No house was found with an annual radon activity concentration of more than 400 Bq/m3.

  17. Susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and selected herbaceous plants to plum pox virus isolates from western Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Glasa, M; Matisová, J; Hricovský, I; Kúdela, O

    1997-12-01

    The susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and herbaceous plants to five plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from orchards of western Slovakia was investigated. PPV was isolated from diseased plum, apricot and peach trees, and transmitted by chip-budding to peach GF 305. The herbaceous plants were infected by mechanical inoculation. The transmission was analysed by symptomatology and double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Infected peaches developed leaf distortion, tissue clearing along the veins and small chlorotic spots (isolate BOR-3). With exception of BOR-3, the PPV isolates transmitted from peach caused local chlorotic spots on Chenopodium foetidum. The character of symptoms changed when a sap from PPV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana was used as virus inoculum. From N. benthamiana, the PPV isolates could be transmitted to Pisum sativum, cv. Colmo (light green mosaic), N. clevelandii and N. clevelandii x N. glutinosa hybrid (latent infection or chlorotic spots).

  18. Changes in retention characteristics of 9 historical artificial water reservoirs near Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubinský, Daniel; Weis, Karol; Fuska, Jakub; Lehotský, Milan; Petrovič, František

    2015-12-01

    The article is focused on the evaluation of accumulation volume changes in 9 water reservoirs near Banská Štiavnica (Slovakia) by comparing historical maps and using modern bathymetric surveying technologies. The mining region of Banská Štiavnica has been inscribed into the UNESCO List of the World and Cultural Heritage in 1993. Accumulation and transfer of sediments depend mainly on changes of land cover in the watersheds that lead to the loss of retention capacity and reduction of life span of reservoirs. The results of a comparison of two 3D models, one created from historic documentation and the other created from data of field surveying have shown overall reduction in the volume of water totalling 446484m3, i.e. 16.70%from past to current time. Causes of sedimentation were searched in watersheds changes over time. These were identified by comparison of historical aerial imagery (1949) with existing aerial photographs.

  19. National Initiatives to Improve Healthcare Outcomes: A Comparative Study of Health Delivery Systems in Slovakia and the United States.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Robert; Caplanova, Anetta; Novak, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    While the United States and Slovakia offer different healthcare delivery systems, each country faces the same challenges of improving the health status of their populations. The authors explore the impact of their respective systems on the health of their populations and compare the health outcomes of both nations. They point out that socioeconomic factors play a far more important role in determining population health outcomes than do the structures of the systems surrounding the care delivery. The authors illustrate this finding through a comparison of the poverty and education levels of a selected minority group from each country in relation to the health outcomes for each population group. The comparison reveals that education is a more influential determinant in a population's health outcomes, than the improved access to care offered by a universal system. PMID:26684681

  20. Effect of heavy metals on soil enzyme activity at different field conditions in Middle Spis mining area (Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Angelovičová, Lenka; Lodenius, Martin; Tulisalo, Esa; Fazekašová, Danica

    2014-12-01

    Heavy metals concentrations were measured in the former mining area located in Hornad river valley (Slovakia). Soil samples were taken in 2012 from 20 sites at two field types (grasslands, heaps of waste material) and two different areas. Total content of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg), urease (URE), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), soil reaction (pH) were changing depending on the field/area type. The tailing pond and processing plants have been found as the biggest sources of pollution. URE, ACP and ALP activities significantly decreased while the heavy metal contents increased. Significant differences were found among area types in the heavy metal contents and activity of URE. No statistical differences in the content of heavy metals but significant statistical differences for soil pH were found for field types (grassland and heaps). Significant negative correlation was found for URE-Pb, URE-Zn and also between soil reaction and ACP and ALP.

  1. Utilisation and Improvement of the Initialisation of Project Communication Processes During the Management of Projects in Industrial Enterprises in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samáková, Jana; Šujanová, Jana; Špirková, Marta

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, project communication is slowed due to the need for compliance with strict rules. Therefore the aim of this paper is to analyse the use of the communication environment as a basic part of the initialisation of project communication in industrial enterprises in Slovakia, and to propose measures to improve the process of initialisation of project communication in these enterprises. In this paper, theoretical and empirical research (quantitative and qualitative) approaches were chosen. On the basis of the research we can conclude, that communication as a basic part of the "Initialisation of project communication" is not adequately elaborated in international methodologies and standards of project management and in industrial enterprises. Industrial enterprises do not deal with processes of the communication environment and this results in negative consequences.

  2. Model of the porphyry copper and polymetallic vein family of deposits - Applications in Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    A tectonic model useful in estimating the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper and polymetallic vein systems has been developed. This model is based on the manner in which magmatic and hydrothermal fluids flow and are trapped in fault systems as far-field stress is released in tectonic strain features above subducting plates (e.g. strike-slip fault systems). The structural traps include preferred locations for stock emplacement and tensional-shear fault meshes within the step-overs that localize porphyry- and vein-style deposits. The application of the model is illustrated for the porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Central Slovakian Volcanic Field, Slovakia; the Ma??tra Mountains, Hungary; and the Apuseni Mountains, Romania.

  3. PCDD, PCDF, PCB and PBDE concentrations in breast milk of mothers residing in selected areas of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Chovancová, Jana; Čonka, Kamil; Kočan, Anton; Sejáková, Zuzana Stachová

    2011-05-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in 33 breast milk samples collected in 2006-2007 from primipara mothers close to four industrial areas of Slovak Republic were determined. The total PCDDs/PCDFs and dl-PCBs expressed as TEQ based on WHO TEFs 1998 in breast milk samples varied from 5.0 to 51.8 pg g(-1) fat (median: 13.1 pg g(-1) fat; mean: 18.0 pg g(-1) fat). The measurements of seven PBDE congeners (IUPAC No. 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and 183) were performed for the first time in human milk from Slovakia. PBDE levels ranged between 0.22 and 1.62 ng g(-1) fat, with median and mean value of 0.43 ng g(-1) fat and 0.57 ng g(-1) fat respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between studied areas in total PBDE concentrations. Furthermore, this study presents first results concerning the daily intake (DI) of PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like compounds for the most vulnerable breast-fed infant population in Slovakia. The total PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB DI for an infant during the first 2 months of life was estimated in a range from 14.4 to 230 pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w., with a median value of 58.9 pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w.. The DI values substantially exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) 1-4 pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w. recommended by WHO. The dietary infant intake concerning PBDEs was estimated to be between 0.69 and 7.1 ng kg(-1)b.w.d(-1), with median value of 1.7 ng kg(-1)b.w.d(-1).

  4. Mineralogy and Acid-Extractable Geochemistry from the Loki's Castle Hydrothermal Field, Norwegian Sea at 74 degrees N (South Knipovich Ridge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga, F. J.; Fonseca, R.; Dias, S.; Cruz, I.; Carvalho, C.; Relvas, J. M.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Loki’s Castle hydrothermal vent field was discovered in the summer of 2008 during a cruise led by the Centre of Geobiology of the University of Bergen, integrated in the H2Deep Project (Eurocores, ESF; see Pedersen et al., 2010, AGU Fall Meeting, Session OS26). Fresh volcanic glasses analyzed by EPMA are basalts. The vent site is composed of several active, over 10 m tall chimneys, producing up to 320 C fluid, at the top of a very large sulfide mound (estimated diameter 200 m). Mineralogy: The main sulfide assemblage in chimneys consists of sphalerite (Sp), pyrite (Py) and pyrrhotite, with lesser chalcopyrite (Ccp). Sulphide-poor selected samples collected at the base of chimneys are mostly composed of anhydrite (Anh), gypsum and talc (Tlc). Association of quartz, anhydrite, gypsum and barite were also found in some of the samples. The sulphide-poor samples from the base of the chimneys denote seawater interaction with the hydrothermal fluid and consequent decrease in temperature, precipitating sulfates. Sphalerite compositions are Zn(0.61-0.70)Fe(0.39-0.30)S. The variations in Fe content are consistent with those of hot, reduced hydrothermal fluids. The observed sulfide assemblage is consistent with the temperature of 320C measured in Loki’s Castle vents. Compositional zonation in sphalerites suggests different pulses of activity of the hydrothermal system, with higher contents of Zn in the center of the crystals. Geochemistry: Here we report preliminary data part of a major analytical task of sequential extraction of metals from sediments in the vicinity of Loki’s Castle, in an attempt to detect correlations with microbial populations and/or subseafloor mineralized intervals. The abundances of Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Zn, Fe, Mn and Co in sediments were determined by aqua regia extraction on subsamples from 7 gravity cores. Several anomalous intervals were sampled, in which Cu<707ppm, Ni shows many weak peaks (<50ppm), Cr shows 6 peaks (<121ppm), Zn shows 4 well

  5. Diversity of microbial communities of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeschke, A.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.; Früh-Green, G.

    2010-12-01

    Here we present an organic geochemical study of Loki’s Castle, a black smoker field recently discovered at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea at around 73.2°N. Located at the Mohn-Knipovich Ridge, which is one of the slowest spreading ridge segments on Earth, Loki’s Castle is the most northerly major hydrothermal vent field known to date. The vent field is composed of five actively venting (320°C) black-smoker chimneys that tower on top of a large mound of hydrothermal sulfide deposits. Loki’s Castle is a basalt-hosted hydrothermal system, but high methane and ammonium contents in the vent fluids strongly indicate a sedimentary component below the volcanic ridge. In 2009, another site of low-temperature hydrothermal venting hosting numerous barite chimneys was discovered in the vicinity of the black smokers, which probably results from subsurface mixing of diffuse hydrothermal fluid with seawater. In our study, variations in microbial communities associated with the formation of actively venting, sulfide and sulfate chimneys in this essentially unexplored ultraslow spreading ridge system are assessed based on biomarker lipid and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses. Lipid extracts from an active, high-temperature sulfide chimney yielded abundant archaeal di- and tetraether lipids as well as irregular isoprenoidal hydrocarbons (PMIs) that are associated with archaeal methanogens and methanotrophs. Predominant archaeal biomarker lipids include archaeol, sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol as well as glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) containing 0-4 cyclopentyl moieties. In addition, GDGTs with an additional covalent bond between the isoprenoid hydrocarbon chains, so-called H-shaped GDGTs, containing 0-4 cyclopentyl rings were also found to be abundant components and are indicative of hyperthermophilic methanogens. Biomarkers characteristic of eukaryotes (sterols) and bacteria (fatty acids and hopanoids) were less prevalent in

  6. Utilizing Undergraduate Research Projects to Assist in the Development of Interpretive Resources at City of Rocks National Reserve and Castle Rocks State Park, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogue, K. R.

    2003-12-01

    In the Albion Mountains of southern Idaho, granitic rock of the 28 Ma Almo pluton and 2.5 Ga Green Creek Complex of southern Idaho has weathered and eroded into a spectacular landscape of towers and spires. These unusual landforms impressed travelers on the California Trail who compared their shapes to cathedrals, castles, pyramids, and other man-made structures. The region eventually became know as the City of Rocks and was a local scenic attraction until City of Rocks National Reserve (CRNR) was established in 1989 to provide more effective management for the main group of spires which were drawing an increasing number of tourists. In 2003, Castle Rocks State Park (CRSP) was created to provide both access and protection to a less extensive group of spires located a few kilometers north of the City of Rocks. Interpretive resources at CRNR have generally focused on the human history of the region, particularly its importance to the California Trail, and have largely neglected the fascinating geologic story. Although the general framework of the geology of the Albion Mountains is reasonably well known, this "big-picture" geology does little to answer many of the questions posed by the average visitor. During the summer of 2001, a Keck Geology Consortium undergraduate research project was conducted in CRNR to seek answers to these types of questions. CRNR staff could then utilize the students' research to develop interpretive resources. Six students and two professors spent 4 weeks in the field investigating the structures and processes that have contributed to the architecture of the City of Rocks. The general geomorphology of the Albion Mountains was the focus of a Keck Geology Consortium undergraduate research project conducted during the summer of 2002. Nine students and three professors studied the glacial and landslide history of the highest peaks and the geomorphic evolution of the proposed CRSP. Students working in the Castle Rocks had 2 main goals: 1

  7. A study on the applicability of the ecosystem model on water quality prediction in urban river outer moats of Yedo Castle, Nihonbashi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakinuma, Daiki; Tsushima, Yuki; Ohdaira, Kazunori; Yamada, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the study is to elucidate the waterside environment in the outer moats of Yedo Castle and the downstream of Nihonbashi River in Tokyo. Scince integrated sewage system has been installed in the area around the outer moats of Yedo Castle and the Nihon River basin, when rainfall exceeds more than the sewage treatment capacity, overflowed untreated wastewater is released into the moats and the river. Because the moats is a closed water body, pollutants are deposited to the bottom without outflowing. While reeking offensive odors due to the decomposition, blue-green algae outbreaks affected by the residence time and eluted nutrient causes problems. Scince the Nihonbashi River is a typical tidal river in urban area, the water pollution problems in the river is complicated. This study clarified the characteristics of the water quality in terms of dissolved oxygen saturation through on-site observations. In particular, dissolved oxygen saturation in summer, it is clarified that variations from a supersaturated state due to the variations of horizontal insolation intensity and water temperature up to hypoxic water conditions in the moats. According to previous studies on the water quality of Nihonbashi River, it is clarified that there are three types of variations of dissolved oxygen which desided by rainfall scale. The mean value of dissolved oxygen saturation of all layers has decreased by about 20% at the spring tide after dredging, then it recoveres gradually and become the value before dredging during about a year. Further more, in places where sewage inflows, it is important to developed a ecosystem medel and the applicability of the model. 9 variables including cell quota (intracellular nutrients of phytoplankton) of phosphorus and nitrogen with considerring the nitrification of ammonia nitrogen are used in the model. This model can grasp the sections (such as oxygen production by photosynthesis of phytoplankton, oxygen consumption by respiration of

  8. Hydrology of the Ferron sandstone aquifer and effects of proposed surface-coal mining in Castle Valley, Utah; with a section on Stratigraphy and Leaching of overburden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lines, Gregory C.; Morrissey, Daniel J.; Ryer, Thomas A.; Fuller, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Coal in the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age has traditionally been mined by underground techniques in the Emery Coal Field in the southern end of Castle Valley in east-central Utah. However, approximately 99 million tons are recoverable by surface mining. Ground water in the Ferron is the sole source of supply for the town of Emery, but the aquifer is essentially untapped outside the Emery area. The Ferron Sandstone Member crops out along the eastern edge of Castle Valley and generally dips 2 ? to 10 ? to the northwest. Sandstones in the Ferron are enclosed between relatively impermeable shale in the Tununk and Blue Gate Members of the Mancos Shale. Along the outcrop, the Ferron ranges in thickness from about 80 feet in the northern part of Castle Valley to 850 feet in the southern part. The Ferron also generally thickens in the subsurface downdip from the outcrop. Records from wells and test holes indicate that the full thickness of the Ferron is saturated with water in most areas downdip from the outcrop area. Tests in the Emery area indicate that transmissivity of the Ferron sandstone aquifer ranges from about 200 to 700 feet squared per day where the Ferron is fully saturated. Aquifer transmissivity is greatest near the Paradise Valley-Joes Valley fault system where permeability has been increased by fracturing. Storage coefficient ranges from about 10 .6 to 10 -3 where the Ferron sandstone aquifer is confined and probably averages 5 x 10 -2 where it is unconfined. The largest source of recharge to the Ferron sandstone aquifer in the Emery area is subsurface inflow from the Wasatch Plateau to the west (about 2.4 cubic feet per second during 1979), most of which moves laterally through the more permeable zone along the Paradise Valley-Joes Valley fault system. Little water is recharged to the aquifer by the 8 inches of normal annual precipitation on the outcrop area. Natural discharge from the aquifer is mainly leakage to alluvium

  9. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Panigaj, Ľubomír; Zach, Peter; Honěk, Alois; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year-1, similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader. PMID:24899863

  10. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Panigaj, Lubomír; Zach, Peter; Honěk, Alois; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year(-1), similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader. PMID:24899863

  11. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Panigaj, Lubomír; Zach, Peter; Honěk, Alois; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year(-1), similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader.

  12. Comparative analysis of selected snow cover characteristics in Slovakia within the 1950/1951-1979-1980 and 1980/1981-2009/2010 winters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecho, Jozef; Faško, Pavel; Mikulová, Katarína; Å¥Astný, Pavel Å.; Nejedlík, Pavol; Košå¥Álová, Júlia

    2010-05-01

    Snow cover and its characteristics are pretty sensitive to any kind of air temperature and precipitation changes. In association with long-term changes of the air temperature as well as precipitation through the last two or three decades (from the beginning of 80s) it would be very interesting to compare a regime of snow cover in the periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010, respectively. In particular, we have recognized notable snow cover changes in different regions from the beginning of 90s. Slovakia situated in the western part of the Carpathians, has the complex geographical conditions and from this reason there has not been recorded similar snow cover trends even in the similar altitudes. Moreover, some mountainous regions with high altitude (the High and Low Tatras, and especially numerous mid-altitude localities, etc.) show the evidences of existing significantly negative trends of some selected characteristics of snow cover. It is well-known that snow cover and precipitation regime of selected region in Slovakia are substantially influenced by the circulation patterns in wider European space, and furthermore in the Carpathians, analogously to the situation in the Alps, windward as well as leeward effects have also relevant consequences in the mountainous regions. Moreover, climate differences between northern and southern, as well as western and eastern regions in Slovakia also play the crucial role. These factors markedly influence the long-term tendencies of snow cover characteristics in particular localities.

  13. A new earthquake catalogue for seismic hazard assessment of the NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia, site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysel, Robert; Kristek, Jozef; Moczo, Peter; Csicsay, Kristian; Cipciar, Andrej; Srbecky, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    According to the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Safety Guide No. SSG-9, an earthquake catalogue should comprise all information on pre-historical, historical and seismometrically recorded earthquakes in the region which should cover geographic area not smaller than a circle with radius of 300 km around the site. Jaslovske Bohunice is an important economic site. Several nuclear facilities are located in Jaslovske Bohunice - either in operation (NPP V2, national radioactive waste repository) or in decommissioning (NPP A1, NPP V1). Moreover, a new reactor unit is being planned for the site. Jaslovske Bohunice site is not far from the Dobra Voda seismic source zone which has been the most active seismic zone at territory of Slovakia since the beginning of 20th century. Relatively small distances to Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovak capital Bratislava make the site a prominent priority in terms of seismic hazard assessment. We compiled a new earthquake catalogue for the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice region following the recommendations of the IAEA Safety Guide. The region includes parts of the territories of Slovakia, Hungary, Austria, the Czech Republic and Poland, and it partly extends up to Germany, Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The catalogue is based on data from six national earthquake catalogues, two regional earthquake catalogues (ACORN, CENEC) and a catalogue from the local NPP network. The primarily compiled catalogue for the time period 350 - 2011 consists of 9 142 events. We then homogenized and declustered the catalogue. Eventually we checked the catalogue for time completeness. For homogenization, we divided the catalogue into preseismometric (350 - 1900) and seismometric (1901-2011) periods. For earthquakes characterized by the epicentral intensity and local magnitude we adopted relations proposed for homogenization of the CENEC catalogue (Grünthal et al. 2009). Instead of assuming the equivalency between local magnitudes reported by the

  14. Mechanism of cross-sectoral coordination between nature protection and forestry in the Natura 2000 formulation process in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Sarvašová, Zuzana; Sálka, Jaroslav; Dobšinská, Zuzana

    2013-09-01

    Nature protection as a policy sector is not isolated and is directly or indirectly influenced by many other sectors (e.g. forestry, water management, rural development, energy, etc.). These policy sectors are neither completely segmented nor unaffected by the decisions taken in other policy sectors. Policy formulation in nature protection is therefore also influenced by different sectors. For that reason it is inevitable to stress the need for inter-sectoral coordination to assure their policy coherence. The aim of this article is to describe the mechanism and modes of cross-sectoral coordination and to analyze the relevant actors and their interaction, using the case of the Natura 2000 formulation process in Slovakia. The European Union (EU) set up an ecological network of special protected areas, known as Natura 2000 to ensure biodiversity by conserving natural habitats and wild fauna and flora in the territory of the Member States. An optimized nature protection must therefore carefully consider existing limits and crossdisciplinary relationships at the EU, national and regional levels. The relations between forestry and biodiversity protection are analyzed using the advocacy coalition framework (ACF). The ACF is used for analyzing how two coalitions, in this case ecological and forest owners' coalitions, advocate or pursue their beliefs from the nature protection and forestry policy field. The whole process is illustrated at the regional scale on the case study of Natura 2000 sites formulation in the Slovak Republic. For better reliability and validity of research, a combination of various empiric research methods was used, supported by existing theories. So called triangulation of sociological research or triangulation of methods consists of mutual results testing of individual methodological steps through identifying corresponding political-science theories, assessing their formal points using primary and secondary document analysis and assessing their

  15. Mechanism of cross-sectoral coordination between nature protection and forestry in the Natura 2000 formulation process in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Sarvašová, Zuzana; Sálka, Jaroslav; Dobšinská, Zuzana

    2013-09-01

    Nature protection as a policy sector is not isolated and is directly or indirectly influenced by many other sectors (e.g. forestry, water management, rural development, energy, etc.). These policy sectors are neither completely segmented nor unaffected by the decisions taken in other policy sectors. Policy formulation in nature protection is therefore also influenced by different sectors. For that reason it is inevitable to stress the need for inter-sectoral coordination to assure their policy coherence. The aim of this article is to describe the mechanism and modes of cross-sectoral coordination and to analyze the relevant actors and their interaction, using the case of the Natura 2000 formulation process in Slovakia. The European Union (EU) set up an ecological network of special protected areas, known as Natura 2000 to ensure biodiversity by conserving natural habitats and wild fauna and flora in the territory of the Member States. An optimized nature protection must therefore carefully consider existing limits and crossdisciplinary relationships at the EU, national and regional levels. The relations between forestry and biodiversity protection are analyzed using the advocacy coalition framework (ACF). The ACF is used for analyzing how two coalitions, in this case ecological and forest owners' coalitions, advocate or pursue their beliefs from the nature protection and forestry policy field. The whole process is illustrated at the regional scale on the case study of Natura 2000 sites formulation in the Slovak Republic. For better reliability and validity of research, a combination of various empiric research methods was used, supported by existing theories. So called triangulation of sociological research or triangulation of methods consists of mutual results testing of individual methodological steps through identifying corresponding political-science theories, assessing their formal points using primary and secondary document analysis and assessing their

  16. Serotypes, virulence genes, and PFGE profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from pigs with postweaning diarrhoea in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Vu Khac, Hung; Holoda, Emil; Pilipcinec, Emil; Blanco, Miguel; Blanco, Jesús E; Mora, Azucena; Dahbi, Ghizlane; López, Cecilia; González, Enrique A; Blanco, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Background Postweaning diarrhoea (PWD) in pigs is usually the main infectious problem of large-scale farms and is responsible for significant losses worldwide. The disease is caused mainly by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC). In this study a total of 101 E. coli isolated from pigs with PWD in Slovakia were characterized using phenotypic and genotypic methods. Results These 101 isolates belonged to 40 O:H serotypes. However, 57% of the isolates belonged to only six serotypes (O9:H51, O147:H-, O149:H10, O163:H-, ONT:H-, and ONT:H4), including two new serotypes (O163:H- and ONT:H4) not previously found among porcine ETEC and STEC isolated in other countries. Genes for EAST1, STb, STa, LT and Stx2e toxins were identified in 64%, 46%, 26%, 20%, and 5% of isolates, respectively. PCR showed that 35% of isolates carried genes for F18 colonization factor, and further analyzed by restriction endonuclease revealed that all of them were F18ac. Genes for F4 (K88), F6 (P987), F17, F5 (K99), F41, and intimin (eae gene) adhesins were detected in 19 %, 5%, 3%, 0.9%, 0.9%, and 0.9% of the isolates, respectively. The study of genetic diversity, carried out by PFGE of 46 representative ETEC and STEC isolates, revealed 36 distinct restriction profiles clustered in eight groups. Isolates of the same serotype were placed together in the dendrogram, but high degree of polymorphism among certain serotypes was detected. Conclusion Seropathotype O149:H10 LT/STb/EAST1/F4 (14 isolates) was the most commonly detected followed by O163:H- EAST1/F18 (six isolates), and ONT:H4 STa/STb/Stx2e/F18 (five isolates). Interestingly, this study shows that two new serotypes (O163:H- and ONT:H4) have emerged as pig pathogens in Slovakia. Furthermore, our results show that there is a high genetic variation mainly among ETEC of O149:H10 serotype. PMID:16549022

  17. Pilot study of seasonal occurrence and distribution of antibiotics and drug resistant bacteria in wastewater treatment plants in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Birošová, Lucia; Mackulak, Tomáš; Bodík, Igor; Ryba, Jozef; Škubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman

    2014-08-15

    This work presents environmental and quality-control data from the analyses of 33 antibiotics in influent and effluent water from two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the capital and the biggest city of Slovakia. Seeing that consumption of antibiotics depends on epidemiological season, samples were collected during February and August. Among assessed antibiotics ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin were detected in highest concentrations in influent water. Seasonal changes were observed only in plant A when antibiotic concentrations decreased. On the other hand an increase in some cases was observed in plant B. Insufficient degradation of some macrolides, sulfonamides and trimethoprim was detected according to their higher concentrations in effluent water. Contact of antibiotics in subinhibitory concentrations and sludge bacteria in WWTPs represent the base for the development of significant levels of microbial resistance. Simultaneously, antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci from sewage sludge was evaluated. Majority of coliform bacteria were found to be resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin. A significant seasonal difference was determined only in case of high-level resistance. In summer samples, an increase in the strains resistant to concentrations higher than the resistance breakpoints established by EUCAST and NCCLS was observed. No antibiotic resistance in streptococci was observed. However, as a part of sewage sludge is mixed with compost and utilized in agriculture, better processing of sludge should be considered.

  18. Taphonomy and diversity of Middle Miocene decapod crustaceans from the Novohrad-Nógrad Basin, Slovakia, with remarks on palaeobiography

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš; Hudáčková, Natália; Szalma, Štefan

    2016-01-01

    Decapod crustacean assemblages from the Middle Miocene (lower ‘Badenian’=Langhian) volcanoclastic Plášťovce Beds (Sebechleby Formation) in the Slovakian part of the Novohrad-Nógrad Basin comprise five species in five families (Callianassidae, Laomediidae, Munididae, Cancridae and Retroplumidae) and are dominated by the cancrid crab Tasadia carniolica (Bittner, 1884). Munida sp. constitutes the first record of this genus from Slovakia and the second from the European Neogene. Burrowing shrimp (Jaxea kuemeli Bachmayer, 1954) are associated with burrows tentatively attributed to this species. The occurrence of Retropluma slovenica Gašparič & Hyžný, 2014, previously recorded from the Lower Miocene of Slovenia, extends both the geographical distribution and stratigraphical range of the species. Differential decapod diversity at four localities in the Plášťovce area can be explained by collecting bias and palaeoenvironmental factors. The palaeosetting is interpreted as a muddy-bottom, nearshore zone with a water depth of approximately 100 m. Abundant articulated crabs suggest rapid burial. Third maxillipeds in open posture in some specimens may indicate respiratory stress of the animals, suggesting episodic events of rapid volcanoclastic flows responsible for killing crabs and promoting their preservation. Species composition of the decapod fauna of the Plášťovce Beds further strengthens similarities with Miocene faunas from the North Sea Basin. PMID:27499675

  19. Decrease in air pollution load in urban environment of Bratislava (Slovakia) inferred from accumulation of metal elements in lichens.

    PubMed

    Guttová, Anna; Lackovičová, Anna; Pišút, Ivan; Pišút, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The study illustrates the response of epiphytic lichens to changing atmospheric conditions in Central Europe, where the emission of air pollutants has significantly decreased from 1990, in the area in and around Bratislava City. Variation in concentrations of seven metal elements (Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the thalli of Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Parmelia sulcata is assessed. Samples of these species were exposed in lichen bags in 39 sites throughout the territory of the city (more than 300 km(2)) during the period December 2006-February 2007. The samples were analyzed by AAS for metal element contents prior to and after exposure. The decrease in air pollution (for all studied elements by more than 90%) corresponded to a decrease in the accumulation of elements in lichen thalli, e.g. the contents of Pb decreased by 69% and of Cd by 34% on average. The results show also variations in accumulation between with different lichen species. The background values of metal element contents in thalli of H. physodes growing in situ were measured in semi-natural sites in Slovakia. It is suggested that these can be used as a reference in large-scale monitoring studies in Central Europe. Analysis of compatible data from the current study, and the study performed at the end of 1990s shows a significant decrease of metal elements in the air pollution load. PMID:21327486

  20. Elemental and mineral inventory of tailing impoundments near Pezinok, Slovakia and possible courses of action for their remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majzlan, Juraj; Brecht, Björn; Lalinská, Bronislava; Chovan, Martin; Moravanský, Daniel; Uhlík, Peter

    2010-01-01

    An effective remediation strategy for a polluted site should take the absolute amount of the pollutant(s) into account. Here, we present an elemental budget for As, Sb and Fe in two tailing impoundments of the former Sb-Au deposit near Pezinok, Slovakia. The two impoundments contain 5,740×103 kg As, 6,360×103 kg Sb and 50,105×103 kg Fe. An estimated total Au content in the impoundments is 132 kg. The most abundant minerals in the tailings are quartz, illite, and chlorite. The content of carbonates in the tailings is 3.5-10.5 wt% calcite equivalent and we estimate that the carbonates are sufficiently abundant to buffer the pH at circumneutral values, up to the point when all pyrite decomposes. The possible courses of action are i) do nothing, ii) build an active barrier to capture the released As and Sb, iii) isolate the impoundments from rain and ground water and iv) use the impoundments as a source of Sb and redeposit the waste in a safer form. The simplest approach is to do nothing, which seems to be the most likely course of events, given the current economic, political and societal state of the Slovak Republic. Although this action costs nothing in the short term, it may cause significant damage to the environment, especially to the alluvial sediments and associated water resources in the long term.

  1. Association between arsenic exposure from a coal-burning power plant and urinary arsenic concentrations in Prievidza District, Slovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Ranft, Ulrich; Miskovic, Peter; Pesch, Beate; Jakubis, Pavel; Fabianova, Elenora; Keegan, Tom; Hergemöller, Andre; Jakubis, Marian; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2003-01-01

    To assess the arsenic exposure of a population living in the vicinity of a coal-burning power plant with high arsenic emission in the Prievidza District, Slovakia, 548 spot urine samples were speciated for inorganic As (Asinorg), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and their sum (Assum). The urine samples were collected from the population of a case-control study on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). A total of 411 samples with complete As speciations and sufficient urine quality and without fish consumption were used for statistical analysis. Although current environmental As exposure and urinary As concentrations were low (median As in soil within 5 km distance to the power plant, 41 micro g/g; median urinary Assum, 5.8 microg/L), there was a significant but weak association between As in soil and urinary Assum(r = 0.21, p < 0.01). We performed a multivariate regression analysis to calculate adjusted regression coefficients for environmental As exposure and other determinants of urinary As. Persons living in the vicinity of the plant had 27% higher Assum values (p < 0.01), based on elevated concentrations of the methylated species. A 32% increase of MMA occurred among subjects who consumed homegrown food (p < 0.001). NMSC cases had significantly higher levels of Assum, DMA, and Asinorg. The methylation index Asinorg/(MMA + DMA) was about 20% lower among cases (p < 0.05) and in men (p < 0.05) compared with controls and females, respectively. PMID:12782488

  2. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and Agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria) as Indicators of Geogenic Contamination of Flysch Soils in Eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Čurlík, Ján; Kolesár, Martin; Ďurža, Ondrej; Hiller, Edgar

    2016-04-01

    Contents of potentially toxic elements Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, V, Cu, and Mo were determined in common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria) to show their usefulness as bioindicators of geogenic soil pollution. Both plants were collected on geochemically anomalous soils developed on flysch sedimentary rocks (Paleogene) of Eastern Slovakia, which also are composed of weathered detritus of some ultramafic rocks. Generally, contents of the investigated association of potentially toxic elements are highly increased in these "serpentine"-like soils. Elevated concentrations were detected in both shoots and roots of the plants. The highest values, which exceed world average values for plants, were observed for Ni content. They ranged from 1.7 to 16.3 mg kg(-1) in dandelion and from 1.6 to 22.6 mg kg(-1) in agrimony. Essential elements, such as Mo, Cu, and Mn, were the most concentrated in plants, whereas Co, V, and Cr were the least concentrated. Although the bioindication value of the common dandelion for anthropogenic soil pollution is well known, it is not mentioned for agrimony in literature, and no data exist to indicate the geogenic pollution for both plants. Dandelion and agrimony are widely used as herbal drugs; therefore, our intention also was to point out another fact, namely, possible high uptake of potentially toxic elements by herbal plants growing on similar soils.

  3. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and Agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria) as Indicators of Geogenic Contamination of Flysch Soils in Eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Čurlík, Ján; Kolesár, Martin; Ďurža, Ondrej; Hiller, Edgar

    2016-04-01

    Contents of potentially toxic elements Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, V, Cu, and Mo were determined in common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria) to show their usefulness as bioindicators of geogenic soil pollution. Both plants were collected on geochemically anomalous soils developed on flysch sedimentary rocks (Paleogene) of Eastern Slovakia, which also are composed of weathered detritus of some ultramafic rocks. Generally, contents of the investigated association of potentially toxic elements are highly increased in these "serpentine"-like soils. Elevated concentrations were detected in both shoots and roots of the plants. The highest values, which exceed world average values for plants, were observed for Ni content. They ranged from 1.7 to 16.3 mg kg(-1) in dandelion and from 1.6 to 22.6 mg kg(-1) in agrimony. Essential elements, such as Mo, Cu, and Mn, were the most concentrated in plants, whereas Co, V, and Cr were the least concentrated. Although the bioindication value of the common dandelion for anthropogenic soil pollution is well known, it is not mentioned for agrimony in literature, and no data exist to indicate the geogenic pollution for both plants. Dandelion and agrimony are widely used as herbal drugs; therefore, our intention also was to point out another fact, namely, possible high uptake of potentially toxic elements by herbal plants growing on similar soils. PMID:26254898

  4. Decrease in air pollution load in urban environment of Bratislava (Slovakia) inferred from accumulation of metal elements in lichens.

    PubMed

    Guttová, Anna; Lackovičová, Anna; Pišút, Ivan; Pišút, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The study illustrates the response of epiphytic lichens to changing atmospheric conditions in Central Europe, where the emission of air pollutants has significantly decreased from 1990, in the area in and around Bratislava City. Variation in concentrations of seven metal elements (Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the thalli of Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Parmelia sulcata is assessed. Samples of these species were exposed in lichen bags in 39 sites throughout the territory of the city (more than 300 km(2)) during the period December 2006-February 2007. The samples were analyzed by AAS for metal element contents prior to and after exposure. The decrease in air pollution (for all studied elements by more than 90%) corresponded to a decrease in the accumulation of elements in lichen thalli, e.g. the contents of Pb decreased by 69% and of Cd by 34% on average. The results show also variations in accumulation between with different lichen species. The background values of metal element contents in thalli of H. physodes growing in situ were measured in semi-natural sites in Slovakia. It is suggested that these can be used as a reference in large-scale monitoring studies in Central Europe. Analysis of compatible data from the current study, and the study performed at the end of 1990s shows a significant decrease of metal elements in the air pollution load.

  5. Clinical and economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia among adults in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Tichopad, Ales; Roberts, Craig; Gembula, Igor; Hajek, Petr; Skoczynska, Anna; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Jahnz-Rozyk, Karina; Prymula, Roman; Solovič, Ivan; Kolek, Vitězslav

    2013-01-01

    We estimate and describe the incidence rates, mortality, and cost of CAP (community-acquired pneumonia), in both inpatient and outpatient settings, in the Czech Republic (CZ), Slovakia (SK), Poland (PL), and Hungary (HU). A retrospective analysis was conducted on administrative data from the health ministry and insurance reimbursement claims with a primary diagnosis of pneumonia in 2009 to determine hospitalization rates, costs, and mortality in adults ≥50 years of age. Patient chart reviews were conducted to estimate the number of outpatient cases. Among all adults ≥50 years, the incidence of hospitalized CAP per 100,000 person years was: 456.6 (CZ), 504.6 (SK), 363.9 (PL), and 845.3 (HU). The average fatality rate for all adults ≥50 is 19.1%, and for each country; 21.7% (CZ), 20.9% (SK), 18.6% (PL), 17.8% (HU). Incidence, fatality, and likelihood of hospitalization increased with advancing age. Total healthcare costs of CAP in EUR was 12,579,543 (CZ); 9,160,774 (SK); 22,409,085 (PL); and 18,298,449 (HU); with hospitalization representing over 90% of the direct costs of treatment. The burden of CAP increases with advancing age in four CEE countries, with hospitalizations driving the costs of CAP upwards in the elderly population. Mortality rates are generally higher than reported in Western EU countries.

  6. Application of WetSpa model for assessing land use impacts on floods in the Margecany-Hornad watershed, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Bahremand, A; De Smedt, F; Corluy, J; Liu, Y B; Poórová, J; Velcická, L; Kunikova, E

    2006-01-01

    The spatially distributed hydrologic model WetSpa combines elevation, soil and land use data within GIS, to predict flood hydrographs and spatial distribution of hydrologic characteristics in a watershed. The model is applied to the Margecany-Hornad river basin (1131 km2) in Slovakia. Daily hydrometeorological data from 1991-2000, including precipitation data from nine stations, temperature data from four stations and evaporation data measured at one station are used as input to the model. Three base maps, i.e. DEM, land use and soil type are prepared in GIS form, using 100 x 100 m cell size. Results of the simulations show good agreement between calculated and measured hydrographs. The model predicts the daily/hourly hydrographs with 75-80% accuracy according to the Nash-Sutcliff criteria. For assessing the impact of land use changes on floods, the calibrated model is applied for a reforestation scenario, which considers a 50% increase of forest areas. The model results show that the reforestation scenario decreases the peak discharge by 12%. Investigation of peak discharges from the whole simulation period, shows that the scenario results are reduced by 18% on average, while for small discharges the reduction is even about 34%. The time to peak of the simulated hydrograph of the reforestation scenario is 20 hours longer than for the present land use.

  7. ESF-EMBO Symposium “Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence” Sept 29–Oct 4, Polonia Castle Pultusk, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Beat W.; Koscielniak, Ewa; Kovar, Heinrich; Fulda, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and Ewing sarcoma (ES) are among the most common pediatric sarcomas (Arndt et al., 2012). Despite sarcomas representing a highly heterogeneous group of tumors, ES and alveolar RMS (ARMS) typically share one common genetic characteristic, namely a specific chromosomal translocation (Helman and Meltzer, 2003; Lessnick and Ladanyi, 2012). These translocations generate fusion proteins, which are composed of two transcription factors (TF). Typically, one TF is a developmentally regulated factor that is essential for proper specification of a given lineage and provides the DNA-binding domain, while the partner TF contributes a transactivation domain that drives aberrant expression of target genes. Based on these common genetic characteristics, the first ESF-EMBO research conference entitled “Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence” with special focus on RMS and ES was held at the Polonia Castle in Pultusk, Poland. The conference gathered 70 participants from more than 15 countries and several continents representing most research groups that are active in this field. PMID:23761860

  8. A search for aquifers of sand and gravel by electrical-resistivity methods in north-central New Castle County, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spicer, H. Cecil; McCullough, Richard A.; Mack, Frederick K.

    1955-01-01

    A search for aquifers in an area immediately north of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal in New Castle, Del., has been made by an electrical resistivity study.  The search located 32 sites that may be underlain by sand and gravel. The thicker deposits are significant with respect to the occurrence of ground water, and all of them are of interest as possible sources of sand and gravel for construction purposes, such as for highway construction.  The thickness of these deposits ranges from 4.4 feet to 77 feet, and the computed resistivity for these ranges from a low of 97,800 ohm-cms to a high of 423,800 ohm-cms.  The study located with certainty one buried channel filled with sand and gravel deposits and pointed out the possibility of others that may be aquifers.  The interpretations show that a large deposit of sand and gravel is present in the eastern part of the area investigated and it is tentatively assumed that this deposit is continuous and may yield large quantities of ground water.  Places where the deposit was found to be the thickest and of high resistivity are described.

  9. Biosignatures in chimney structures and sediment from the Loki's Castle low-temperature hydrothermal vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, Andrea; Eickmann, Benjamin; Lang, Susan Q; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Strauss, Harald; Früh-Green, Gretchen L

    2014-05-01

    We investigated microbial life preserved in a hydrothermally inactive silica–barite chimney in comparison with an active barite chimney and sediment from the Loki's Castle low-temperature venting area at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) using lipid biomarkers. Carbon and sulfur isotopes were used to constrain possible metabolic pathways. Multiple sulfur (dδ34S, Δ33S) isotopes on barite over a cross section of the extinct chimney range between 21.1 and 22.5 % in δ34S, and between 0.020 and 0.034 % in Δ33S, indicating direct precipitation from seawater. Biomarker distributions within two discrete zones of this silica–barite chimney indicate a considerable difference in abundance and diversity of microorganisms from the chimney exterior to the interior. Lipids in the active and inactive chimney barite and sediment were dominated by a range of 13C-depleted unsaturated and branched fatty acids with δ13C values between -39.7 and -26.7 %, indicating the presence of sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The majority of lipids (99.5 %) in the extinct chimney interior that experienced high temperatures were of archaeal origin. Unusual glycerol monoalkyl glycerol tetraethers (GMGT) with 0–4 rings were the dominant compounds suggesting the presence of mainly (hyper-) thermophilic archaea. Isoprenoid hydrocarbons with δ13C values as low as -46 % also indicated the presence of methanogens and possibly methanotrophs.

  10. Atmospheric dispersion modeling for assessment of exposure to arsenic for epidemiological studies in the Nitra Valley, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvile, R. N.; Stevens, E. C.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.; Keegan, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    The short-range atmospheric dispersion model UK-ADMS has been applied to calculate ground-level concentrations of arsenic within 20 km of the Nováky Power Plant, Nitra Valley, Slovakia, as a function of distance and direction from source and year of operation, for application to an assessment of local population exposure to arsenic, and hence to two epidemiological studies of the effect of arsenic exposure on skin, lung, and bladder cancer in an east European population. A simple approach, where the effect of complex terrain is included by using local observations for meteorological input to the model, is sufficient for initial screening to compare atmospheric dispersion with other exposure pathways. This shows that isopleths of ground-level annual average arsenic concentration in air (excluding periods when there is no wind) are elongated aligned with the axis of the valley. The maxima of concentration occur about 2 km to the northeast and southwest of the source, and a factor of 30 reduction in concentration is found from there to a distance 10 km away. The value of this information for epidemiological studies is discussed. If atmospheric concentration is found to be an important determinant of arsenic exposure for the Nitra Valley population, it will be necessary to carry out further investigation of the dispersion of the plume in complex terrain when there is no wind in the valley, which is the case in 13% of the observations and is estimated could contribute more than 50% of the annual average arsenic concentration close to the source.

  11. Influence of benomyl and prometryn on the soil microbial activities and community structures in pasture grasslands of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Javoreková, Sona; Svrceková, Ivana; Maková, Jana

    2010-10-01

    The effects of pesticides (a herbicide and a fungicide) on the microbial community structure and their activity were analyzed in soil from four alpine pasture grasslands in Slovakia. Specifically, the effects of the herbicide, Gesagard (prometryn active ingredient), and fungicide, Fundazol 50 WP (benomyl active ingredient), on the microbial respiration activity (CO2 production), the numbers of selective microbial physiological groups (CFU.g(-1)) and the structure (relative abundance) of soil microbial communities [(phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA)] were analyzed under controlled laboratory conditions. All treatments including the treatments with pesticides increased (statistically significantly) the production of CO2 in all fields during 21 days of incubation and posed a statistically insignificant negative influence on the numbers of the observed physiological groups of microorganisms. The significantly negative influence was evaluated only in the numbers of two physiological groups; spores of bacteria utilizing organic nitrogen and bacteria, and their spores utilizing inorganic nitrogen. A shift in the microbial composition was evident when the PLFA patterns of samples from different sites and treatments were compared by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). According to the second component PCA 2 (15.95 %) the locations were grouped into two clusters. The first one involved the Donovaly and Dubakovo sites and the second one contained the Velka Fatra and Mala Fatra locations. The PLFA composition of the soils showed important changes after the treatment with pesticides according to PCA 1 (66.06 %). Other treatments had not had a significant effect on the soil microbial community with the exception of the population of fungi. The lower relative abundance (significant effect) of Gram-positive bacteria, actinomycetes and general group of bacteria were determined in samples treated by the herbicide Gesagard. The application of fungicide Fundazol decreased

  12. Occupational dermatoses caused by contact with metalworking fluids in the region of central slovakia from 2000 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Urbanček, Slavomir; Kuklová-Bieliková, Marianna; Fetisovová, Želmira; Klimentová, Gabriela; Vilček, Rober

    2014-01-01

    Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are a common cause of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. MWFs being currently used are mostly water based, containing biocides, emulsifiers, and other additives. We performed a retrospective analysis of the etiology of the occupational dermatoses caused by metalworking fluids in three regions of Central Slovakia (population of approximately 2 million) between 2000 and 2012. The primary aim was the analysis of metalworking fluid-induced dermatoses, which involved determining the particular disease type (allergic or irritant), its regional distribution, and the specific chemical causing the disease. The secondary aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge and competence among dermatologists in performing patch testing for allergens contained in metalworking fluids using a study-specific questionnaire. Of the total number of 422 dermatoses during the analyzed period, 64 (41 in men and 23 in women) were caused by metalworking fluids. The implicated fluids were all aqueous, synthetic MWFs. 39 patients developed an allergic and 25 an irritant-induced contact dermatitis. 51 patients were tested using a special Trolab® metalworking battery (Almirall Hermal GmbH, Reinbek, Germany). The test identified a positive reaction to one of the following chemicals: methylchoroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), formaldehyde, 1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one, abietic acid, chloroxylenol, triclosan, amerchol L101, dichlorophene, propylenglycol, metylene (bis-methyl oxazolidine), monoethanolamine, and diethanolamine. The questionnaire showed that a large majority of Slovak dermatologists have no experiences with testing of MWFs. Metalworking fluids were found to be the most frequent cause of occupational contact dermatitis. They also are the second largest group of all occupational dermotoses. Their incidence corresponded with the presence of machine industry in the region. Several unresolved problems include detection of specific

  13. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and tick-transmitted bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in one selected goat farm in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Čobádiová, Andrea; Reiterová, Katarina; Derdáková, Markéta; Špilovská, Silvia; Turčeková, Ludmila; Hviščová, Ivana; Hisira, Vladimir

    2013-12-01

    Parasitic diseases of livestock together with poor welfare conditions can negatively affect the health status and production of small ruminants. Protozoan parasites and tick-borne infectious agents are common threat of livestock including small ruminants mostly during the pasture season. Therefore the priority of the study was to analyse the circulation and presence of two protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum as well as tick-transmitted bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum in one selected goat farm in Eastern Slovakia. Throughout a three-year study period we have repeatedly screened the sera and blood of goats and dogs from monitored farm. In total, 343 blood serum samples from 116 goats were examined by ELISA. The mean seropositivity for T. gondii was 56.9% (66/116, CI (95%) = 48-66.0) and 15.5% (18/116, CI (95%) = 9.3-22.7) for N. caninum. The permanent occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma and anti-Neospora antibodies was detected in repeatedly examined goats during the whole monitored period. The presence of both parasites in the flock was analysed by PCR. DNA of T. gondii was confirmed in 12 out of 25 Toxoplasma-seropositive goats and N. caninum in 14 samples out of 18 Neospora-seropositive animals; four goats were co-infected with both pathogens. The risk of endogenous transmission of both parasites was pursued by examination of 41 kid's sera, where seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was 31.7% and for neosporosis 14.6%. In dogs 61.1% seropositivity for T. gondii and 38.9% for N. caninum was found, however, their faeces were negative for coccidian oocysts. Eight out of 108 tested animals were infected with A. phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever. Seven of them were simultaneously infected with T. gondii and A. phagocytophilum, out of which four goats were concurrently infected with all three pathogens.

  14. State of Water Molecules and Silanol Groups in Opal Minerals: a Near Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Opals from Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobon, Miroslav; Christy, Alfred A.; Kluvanec, Daniel; Illasova, L'udmila

    2011-06-01

    Recently near infrared spectroscopy in combination with double derivative technique has been effectively used by Christy [1] to differentiate between free silanol groups and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on silica gel. The method has given some insight into the type of functionalities and their location in silica gel samples. The inportant information in this respect comes from the overtones of the OH groups of water molecules hydrogen bonded to free silanol groups, and hydrogen bonded silanol groups absorbing in the region 5500- 5100 Cm-1 region. The approach was adapted to study the state of water and silanol functionalities and their locations in opals from Slovakia. Twenty opal samples classified into CT and A classes and one quartz sample were used in this work. The samples were crushed using a hydrolic press and powderised. Each sample was then subjected to evacuation process to remove surface adsorbed water at 200°C and the near infrared spectrum of the sample was measured using a Perkin Elmer NTS near infrared spectrometer equipped with a transflectance accessory. The detailed analysis of the sample was carried out using the second derivative profile of the spectrum. The samples were also heated to 750°C to study the state of water molecules in Opal minerals. The results indicate that the opal samples contain 1) surface adsorbed water 2) free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on the surface 3) Trapped water in the bulk 4) free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups in the cavity surfaces in the bulk. A part of the water molecules found in the bulk of opal minerals are free molecules and the rest are found in hydrogen bonded state to free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups. [1] A. A. Christy, New insights into the surface functionalities and adsorption evolution of water molecules on silica gel surface: A study by second derivative Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Vib. Spectrosc. 54 (2010) 42-49.

  15. Inorganic Arsenic and Basal Cell Carcinoma in Areas of Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, Giovanni; Vahter, Marie; Clemens, Felicity; Goessler, Walter; Gurzau, Eugen; Hemminki, Kari; Hough, Rupert; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Kumar, Rajiv; Rudnai, Peter; Surdu, Simona

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a potent carcinogen, but there is a lack of information about cancer risk for concentrations < 100 μg/L in drinking water. Objectives: We aimed to quantify skin cancer relative risks in relation to iAs exposure < 100 μg/L and the modifying effects of iAs metabolism. Methods: The Arsenic Health Risk Assessment and Molecular Epidemiology (ASHRAM) study, a case–control study, was conducted in areas of Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia with reported presence of iAs in groundwater. Consecutively diagnosed cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin were histologically confirmed; controls were general surgery, orthopedic, and trauma patients who were frequency matched to cases by age, sex, and area of residence. Exposure indices were constructed based on information on iAs intake over the lifetime of participants. iAs metabolism status was classified based on urinary concentrations of methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Associations were estimated by multivariable logistic regression. Results: A total of 529 cases with BCC and 540 controls were recruited for the study. BCC was positively associated with three indices of iAs exposure: peak daily iAs dose rate, cumulative iAs dose, and lifetime average water iAs concentration. The adjusted odds ratio per 10-μg/L increase in average lifetime water iAs concentration was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.28). The estimated effect of iAs on cancer was stronger in participants with urinary markers indicating incomplete metabolism of iAs: higher percentage of MA in urine or a lower percentage of DMA. Conclusion: We found a positive association between BCC and exposure to iAs through drinking water with concentrations < 100 μg/L. PMID:22436128

  16. Surface and groundwater drought evaluation with respect to aquatic habitat quality in the upper Nitra River Basin in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendekova, M.; Fendek, M.; Macura, V.; Kralova, J.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrological drought is being broadly studied within last decades in many countries. It is because of increasing frequency of drought periods occurrence also in mild climate conditions, leading to unexpected and undesired consequences for environment and various spheres of the state economy. Drought affects water availability for plants, animals and human society. Natural conditions of drought occurrence are often combined with human activities strengthening drought consequences. Lack of water in the nature, connected to meteorological and hydrological drought occurrence, increases at the same time needs for surface and groundwater in many types of human activities (agriculture, industrial production, electric power generation…). Drought can be identified within the low flow phase of the flow regime. Flow regime is considered for one of the most important conditions influencing quality of the river ecosystems. Occurrence of meteorological, surface and groundwater droughts was analyzed for the upper part of the Nitra River catchment in Slovakia. Drought occurrence was studied in two gauging profiles on the Nitra River - in Klacno and Nedozery, both representing the headwater profiles. The threshold level method was used for groundwater drought analysis. Base flow values were separated from the discharge hydrograms using the HydroOffice 2010 statistical program package. The influence of surface water drought on groundwater level was analyzed. Habitat suitability curves derived according to IFIM methodology were constructed for different fish species at Nedozery profile. The influence of different low flow values from 600 to 150 L/s on fish amount, size and species variability was studied. In the end, the minimum flow, bellow which unfavourable life conditions occur, was estimated. The results showed the necessity of taking into account the ecological parameters when estimating the ecological status of surface water bodies. Such an approach is fully compatible with

  17. The natural infection of birds and ticks feeding on birds with Rickettsia spp. and Coxiella burnetii in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Berthová, Lenka; Slobodník, Vladimír; Slobodník, Roman; Olekšák, Milan; Sekeyová, Zuzana; Svitálková, Zuzana; Kazimírová, Mária; Špitalská, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are known as primary vectors of many pathogens causing diseases in humans and animals. Ixodes ricinus is a common ectoparasite in Europe and birds are often hosts of subadult stages of the tick. From 2012 to 2013, 347 birds belonging to 43 species were caught and examined for ticks in three sites of Slovakia. Ticks and blood samples from birds were analysed individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and Coxiella burnetii by PCR-based methods. Only I. ricinus was found to infest birds. In total 594 specimens of bird-attached ticks were collected (451 larvae, 142 nymphs, 1 female). Altogether 37.2% (16/43) of bird species were infested by ticks and some birds carried more than one tick. The great tit, Parus major (83.8%, 31/37) was the most infested species. In total, 6.6 and 2.7% of bird-attached ticks were infected with Rickettsia spp. and C. burnetii, respectively. Rickettsia helvetica predominated (5.9%), whereas R. monacensis (0.5%) was only sporadically detected. Coxiella burnetii was detected in 0.9%, Rickettsia spp. in 8.9% and R. helvetica in 4.2% of bird blood samples. The great tit was the bird species most infested with I. ricinus, carried R. helvetica and C. burnetti positive tick larvae and nymphs and was found to be rickettsaemic in its blood. Further studies are necessary to define the role of birds in the circulation of rickettsiae and C. burnetii in natural foci.

  18. Regional and local phenomena influencing the thermal state in the Flysch belt of the northeastern part of Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majcin, Dušan; Bilčík, Dušan; Kutas, Roman; Hlavňová, Petra; Bezák, Vladimír; Kucharič, Ľudovít

    2014-12-01

    The locality of the northeastern most part of Slovakian Flysch belt belongs to interesting areas in terms of the interpretation of geothermal conditions in mutual relation with the lithosphere structure and their tectonic development. The evaluation of the geothermal energy sources parameters of this locality is likewise worthwhile. The region under study has the centre in position of the borehole Zboj ZB-1 and spreads out Slovakia also in Poland and Ukraine. Our contribution provides the analyses of existing geothermal data enhanced by the construction of temperature field models corresponding to the global and local aspects that influence the temperature and heat flow density distributions. The analyses are related to the structures and effects of separate phenomena along as well as across the Carpathian arc. The model calculations were carried out both by analytical and numerical methods of solving the heat transfer equations including their steady state forms and transient cases too. Besides the regional trend of thermal activity decrease in direction from East-Slovakian Basin to the outer Carpathian units the combined local influences are applied: subsurface thermophysical parameters of rock complexes distributions, non-stationary sources from supposed subvolcanic bodies in close surroundings of borehole Zboj ZB-1, and the effects of the hydrological factors. Considering the observed higher thermal activity in arched zone along the Carpathian structures we discussed the thermal effects of rock complexes supposed as a source of regional Carpathian Conductivity Anomaly and the transfer of heat from East-Slovakian Basin to Outer Carpathian Flysch units. The analysis and the modelling results suggest that the mentioned activity is caused by the influences of source type phenomena mainly related to deep fault systems at the margin of the European Platform. That means the anomalies in heat flow density distribution can reach the value 70 mW/m2 and more in the zone

  19. Influence of benomyl and prometryn on the soil microbial activities and community structures in pasture grasslands of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Javoreková, Sona; Svrceková, Ivana; Maková, Jana

    2010-10-01

    The effects of pesticides (a herbicide and a fungicide) on the microbial community structure and their activity were analyzed in soil from four alpine pasture grasslands in Slovakia. Specifically, the effects of the herbicide, Gesagard (prometryn active ingredient), and fungicide, Fundazol 50 WP (benomyl active ingredient), on the microbial respiration activity (CO2 production), the numbers of selective microbial physiological groups (CFU.g(-1)) and the structure (relative abundance) of soil microbial communities [(phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA)] were analyzed under controlled laboratory conditions. All treatments including the treatments with pesticides increased (statistically significantly) the production of CO2 in all fields during 21 days of incubation and posed a statistically insignificant negative influence on the numbers of the observed physiological groups of microorganisms. The significantly negative influence was evaluated only in the numbers of two physiological groups; spores of bacteria utilizing organic nitrogen and bacteria, and their spores utilizing inorganic nitrogen. A shift in the microbial composition was evident when the PLFA patterns of samples from different sites and treatments were compared by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). According to the second component PCA 2 (15.95 %) the locations were grouped into two clusters. The first one involved the Donovaly and Dubakovo sites and the second one contained the Velka Fatra and Mala Fatra locations. The PLFA composition of the soils showed important changes after the treatment with pesticides according to PCA 1 (66.06 %). Other treatments had not had a significant effect on the soil microbial community with the exception of the population of fungi. The lower relative abundance (significant effect) of Gram-positive bacteria, actinomycetes and general group of bacteria were determined in samples treated by the herbicide Gesagard. The application of fungicide Fundazol decreased

  20. Adolescent growth: genes, hormones and the peer group. Proceedings of the 20th Aschauer Soiree, held at Glücksburg castle, Germany, 15th to 17th November 2013.

    PubMed

    Hermanussen, M; Meitinger, T; Veldhuis, J D; Low, M J; Pfäffle, R; Staub, K; Panczak, R; Groth, D; Brabec, M; von Salisch, M; Loh, C P A; Tassenaar, V; Scheffler, C; Mumm, R; Godina, E; Lehmann, A; Tutkuviene, J; Gervickaite, S; Nierop, A F M; Holmgren, A; Assmann, C; van Buuren, S; Koziel, S; Zadzińska, E; Varela-Silva, I; Vignerová, J; Salama, E; El-Shabrawi, M; Huiji, A; Satake, T; Bogin, B

    2014-03-01

    The association between poverty, malnutrition, illness and poor socioeconomic conditions on the one side, and poor growth and short adult stature on the other side, is well recognized. Yet, the simple assumption by implication that poor growth and short stature result from poor living conditions, should be questioned. Recent evidence on the impact of the social network on adolescent growth and adult height further challenges the traditional concept of growth being a mirror of health. Twenty-nine scientists met at Glücksburg castle, Northern Germany, November 15th - 17th 2013, to discuss genetic, endocrine, mathematical and psychological aspects and related issues, of child and adolescent growth and final height.

  1. Heterotrophic microflora of highly alkaline (pH > 13) brown mud disposal site drainage water near Ziar nad Hronom (Banska Bystrica region, Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Stramova, Zuzana; Remenar, Matej; Javorsky, Peter; Pristas, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Brown mud is a waste by-product of alumina production by Bayer process. Due to extensive sodium hydroxide use in the process, brown mud disposal site near Ziar nad Hronom (Banska Bystrica region, Slovakia) and drainage water are ones of the greatest environmental burdens in Slovakia. Drainage water from this landfills has pH value higher than 13, and it contains many heavy metals and elevated salt content. In our experiments, relatively numerous bacterial population was detected in the drainage water with frequency of about 80 cfu/ml using cultivation approach. The alkalitolerant heterotrophic isolates were identified by combination of MALDI-TOF and 16S rDNA analysis. Drainage water population was dominated by Actinobacteria (Microbacterium spp. and Micrococcus spp.) followed by low G + C-content gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus spp.). Two isolates belonged to gram-negative bacteria only, identified as Brevundimonas spp. Phylogenetic and biochemical analyses indicate that nearly half of the bacteria isolated are probably representatives of a new species. Brown mud disposal site is proposed as a source of new bacterial taxa possibly used in bioremediation processes. PMID:26077319

  2. Exposure to Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in the Prenatal Period and Subsequent Neurodevelopment in Eastern Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Youn; Park, June-Soo; Sovcikova, Eva; Kocan, Anton; Linderholm, Linda; Bergman, Ake; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2009-01-01

    Background Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), unlike PCBs, are in general readily excreted yet are still detected in humans and animals. Active transport of OH-PCBs across the placenta and hydroxylation of PCBs by the fetus suggest the potential for greater impact on the fetus compared with the parent PCB compounds, but little is known about their health effects, particularly in humans. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between prenatal OH-PCB exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 16 months of age in eastern Slovakia. Methods A birth cohort (n = 1,134) was enrolled during 2002–2004. We analyzed six OH-PCB metabolites (4-OH-CB-107, 3-OH-CB-153, 4-OH-CB-146, 3′-OH-CB-138, 4-OH-CB-187, and 4′-OH-CB-172) in a subset of the cohort. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered to the children at the 16-month follow-up visit. We developed multiple linear regression models predicting standardized scores for the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) from maternal (n = 147) and cord (n = 80) serum OH-PCB concentrations, adjusting for sex of child, district, HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) score, and maternal score on Raven’s Progressive Matrices. Results Cord 4-OH-CB-107 was significantly associated with lower MDI (β = −2.27; p = 0.01) and PDI (β = −4.50; p = 0.004). Also, maternal 4-OH-CB-107 was significantly associated with lower MDI (β = −1.76; p = 0.03) but not PDI. No other OH-PCB metabolites were associated with decreased PDI or MDI. Conclusions Our findings showed a significant association of 4-OH-CB-107 with decreased MDI, which can possibly be mediated by endocrine disruption, altered neurotransmitter functions, or reduced thyroid hormone concentrations in brain. PMID:20019912

  3. State of water molecules and silanol groups in opal minerals: a near infrared spectroscopic study of opals from Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boboň, Miroslav; Christy, Alfred A.; Kluvanec, Daniel; Illášová, L'udmila

    2011-12-01

    Recently, near infrared spectroscopy in combination with double derivative technique has been effectively used by Christy (Vib Spectrosc 54:42-49, 2010) to study and differentiate between free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on silica gel surface. The method has given some insight into the type of functionalities, their location in silica gel samples, and the way the water molecules bind onto the silanol groups. The important information in this respect comes from the overtones of the OH groups of water molecules hydrogen-bonded to free silanol groups, and hydrogen-bonded silanol groups absorbing in the region 5,500-5,100 cm-1. Chemically, opal minerals are hydrated silica and the same approach was adapted to study the state of water molecules, silanol functionalities, and their locations in opal samples from Slovakia. Twenty opal samples classified into CT and A classes and one quartz sample were used in this work. The samples were crushed using a hydraulic press and powderized. Each sample was then subjected to evacuation process to remove surface-adsorbed water at 200°C, and the near infrared spectrum of each sample was measured using a Perkin Elmer NTS FT-NIR spectrometer equipped with a transflectance accessory and a DTGS detector. The samples were also heated to 750°C to remove the hydrogen-bonded silanol groups on the surface to reveal their locality. Second derivative profiles of the near infrared reflectance spectra were obtained using the instrument's software and used in the detailed analysis of the samples. The analysis of the near infrared spectra and their second derivative profiles had the aim in finding relationships between the surface chemical structure and the classification of opal samples. The dry opal samples were also tested for their surface adsorption effectivity toward water molecules. The results indicate that the opal samples contain (1) surface-adsorbed water, (2) free and hydrogen-bonded silanol groups on the surface, (3) trapped

  4. The Formation, Structure, and Ageing of As-Rich Hydrous Ferric Oxide at the Abandoned Sb Deposit Pezinok (Slovakia)

    SciTech Connect

    Majzlan,J.; Lalinska, B.; Chovan, M.; Jurkovic, L.; Milovska, S.; Gottlicher, J.

    2007-01-01

    The abandoned Sb deposit Pezinok in Slovakia is a significant source of As and Sb pollution that can be traced in the upper horizons of soils kilometers downstream. The source of the metalloids are two tailing impoundments which hold {approx}380,000 m{sup 3} of mining waste. The tailings and the discharged water have circumneutral pH values (7.0 {+-} 0.6) because the acidity generated by the decomposition of the primary sulfides (pyrite, FeS{sub 2}; arsenopyrite, FeAsS; berthierite, FeSb{sub 2}S{sub 4}) is rapidly neutralized by the abundant carbonates. The weathering rims on the primary sulfides are iron oxides which act as very efficient scavengers of As and Sb (with up to 19.2 wt% As and 23.7 wt% Sb). In-situ {mu}-XANES experiments indicate that As in the weathering rims is fully oxidized (As{sup 5+}). The pore solutions in the impoundment body contain up to 81 ppm As and 2.5 ppm Sb. Once these solutions are discharged from the impoundments, they precipitate or deposit masses of As-rich hydrous ferric oxide (As-HFO) with up to 28.3 wt% As{sub 2}O{sub 5} and 2.7 wt% Sb. All As-HFO samples are amorphous to X-rays. They contain Fe and As in their highest oxidation state and in octahedral and tetrahedral coordination, respectively, as suggested by XANES and EXAFS studies on Fe K and As K edges. The iron octahedra in the As-HFO share edges to form short single chains and the chains polymerize by sharing edges or corners with the adjacent units. The arsenate ions attach to the chains in a bidentate-binuclear and monodentate fashion. In addition, hydrogen-bonded complexes may exist to satisfy the bonding requirements of all oxygen atoms in the first coordination sphere of As{sup 5+}. Structural changes in the As-HFO samples were traced by chemical analyses and Fe EXAFS spectroscopy during an ageing experiment. As the samples age, As becomes more easily leachable. EXAFS spectra show a discernible trend of increasing number of Fe-Fe pairs at a distance of 3

  5. Supplement to the Study on the Structures of the Education and Initial Training Systems in the European Union. The Situation in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    This document consists of six reports that each provide essential basic information on the organization of the education system of one of the following countries as of 1995-1996: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia. Each report includes information on some or all of the following aspects of the given country's initial…

  6. Occurrence and distribution of arsenic and radon in water from private wells in the Rancocas aquifer, southern New Castle and northern Kent Counties, Delaware, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denver, Judith M.

    2016-10-12

    Water samples were collected and analyzed for arsenic and radon from 36 private, mostly domestic wells that tap the Rancocas aquifer in southern New Castle and northern Kent Counties, Delaware, during the summer of 2015. Both arsenic and radon are from natural mineral sources, in particular glauconitic and other marine-derived sediments, which are important components of the geologic formations comprising the Rancocas aquifer. Routine testing of domestic wells is not required in Delaware; as a result, many homeowners are not aware of potential water-quality problems with these chemicals in their well water. Arsenic has previously been detected at levels of potential concern for human health in this aquifer in adjacent parts of Maryland where it is referred to as the Aquia aquifer. Arsenic and radon also have previously been detected in several Rancocas aquifer wells in Delaware. The Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control intends to use the data from this project to better identify areas with potential for levels of concern for domestic well owners. This report includes chemical results and maps showing the distribution of sampled wells and concentrations of arsenic and radon. All data collected for this study also are available in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System database.Arsenic was detected above the minimum reporting limit of 0.1 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 34 of the 36 wells sampled with concentrations ranging from about 0.11 to 27 µg/L. In 15 of the samples, arsenic concentrations were at or above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 µg/L for public wells. Most of the higher concentrations are clustered along a band running from the southwest to northeast in the southern part of the study area.Radon, which is an inert gas derived from radium, was detected in all water samples with concentrations ranging from 85 to 1,870 picocuries per liter (p

  7. Barite in hydrothermal environments as a recorder of subseafloor processes: a multiple-isotope study from the Loki's Castle vent field.

    PubMed

    Eickmann, B; Thorseth, I H; Peters, M; Strauss, H; Bröcker, M; Pedersen, R B

    2014-07-01

    Barite chimneys are known to form in hydrothermal systems where barium-enriched fluids generated by leaching of the oceanic basement are discharged and react with seawater sulfate. They also form at cold seeps along continental margins, where marine (or pelagic) barite in the sediments is remobilized because of subseafloor microbial sulfate reduction. We test the possibility of using multiple sulfur isotopes (δ34S, Δ33S, ∆36S) of barite to identify microbial sulfate reduction in a hydrothermal system. In addition to multiple sulfur isotopes, we present oxygen (δ18O) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes for one of numerous barite chimneys in a low-temperature (~20 °C) venting area of the Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultraslow-spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). The chemistry of the venting fluids in the barite field identifies a contribution of at least 10% of high-temperature black smoker fluid, which is corroborated by 87Sr/86 Sr ratios in the barite chimney that are less radiogenic than in seawater. In contrast, oxygen and multiple sulfur isotopes indicate that the fluid from which the barite precipitated contained residual sulfate that was affected by microbial sulfate reduction. A sulfate reduction zone at this site is further supported by the multiple sulfur isotopic composition of framboidal pyrite in the flow channel of the barite chimney and in the hydrothermal sediments in the barite field, as well as by low SO4 and elevated H2S concentrations in the venting fluids compared with conservative mixing values. We suggest that the mixing of ascending H2- and CH4-rich high-temperature fluids with percolating seawater fuels microbial sulfate reduction, which is subsequently recorded by barite formed at the seafloor in areas where the flow rate is sufficient. Thus, low-temperature precipitates in hydrothermal systems are promising sites to explore the interactions between the geosphere and biosphere in order to evaluate the microbial impact on

  8. Novel Barite Chimneys at the Loki's Castle Vent Field Shed Light on Key Factors Shaping Microbial Communities and Functions in Hydrothermal Systems.

    PubMed

    Steen, Ida H; Dahle, Håkon; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Daae, Frida-Lise; Rapp, Hans Tore; Pedersen, Rolf B; Thorseth, Ingunn H

    2015-01-01

    In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4) structures (≤ 1 m high) covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM), 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within a vent field

  9. Barite in hydrothermal environments as a recorder of subseafloor processes: a multiple-isotope study from the Loki's Castle vent field.

    PubMed

    Eickmann, B; Thorseth, I H; Peters, M; Strauss, H; Bröcker, M; Pedersen, R B

    2014-07-01

    Barite chimneys are known to form in hydrothermal systems where barium-enriched fluids generated by leaching of the oceanic basement are discharged and react with seawater sulfate. They also form at cold seeps along continental margins, where marine (or pelagic) barite in the sediments is remobilized because of subseafloor microbial sulfate reduction. We test the possibility of using multiple sulfur isotopes (δ34S, Δ33S, ∆36S) of barite to identify microbial sulfate reduction in a hydrothermal system. In addition to multiple sulfur isotopes, we present oxygen (δ18O) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes for one of numerous barite chimneys in a low-temperature (~20 °C) venting area of the Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultraslow-spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). The chemistry of the venting fluids in the barite field identifies a contribution of at least 10% of high-temperature black smoker fluid, which is corroborated by 87Sr/86 Sr ratios in the barite chimney that are less radiogenic than in seawater. In contrast, oxygen and multiple sulfur isotopes indicate that the fluid from which the barite precipitated contained residual sulfate that was affected by microbial sulfate reduction. A sulfate reduction zone at this site is further supported by the multiple sulfur isotopic composition of framboidal pyrite in the flow channel of the barite chimney and in the hydrothermal sediments in the barite field, as well as by low SO4 and elevated H2S concentrations in the venting fluids compared with conservative mixing values. We suggest that the mixing of ascending H2- and CH4-rich high-temperature fluids with percolating seawater fuels microbial sulfate reduction, which is subsequently recorded by barite formed at the seafloor in areas where the flow rate is sufficient. Thus, low-temperature precipitates in hydrothermal systems are promising sites to explore the interactions between the geosphere and biosphere in order to evaluate the microbial impact on

  10. Novel Barite Chimneys at the Loki's Castle Vent Field Shed Light on Key Factors Shaping Microbial Communities and Functions in Hydrothermal Systems

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Ida H.; Dahle, Håkon; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Daae, Frida-Lise; Rapp, Hans Tore; Pedersen, Rolf B.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4) structures (≤ 1 m high) covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM), 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within a vent field

  11. Evaluation of undiscovered natural gas in the Upper Cretaceous Ferron Coal/Wasatch Plateau Total Petroleum System, Wasatch Plateau and Castle Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, M.E.; Finn, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Total Petroleum System approach was used to estimate undiscovered gas potential of the Wasatch Plateau and Castle Valley, central Utah. The Ferron Coal/Wasatch Plateau Total Petroleum System was geologically defined and subdivided into seven assessment units, six of which were formally evaluated. Geologic data considered in defining the assessment unit boundaries included thermal maturity, coal presence and thickness, overburden thickness, and faulting intensity. Historical production data were also used to estimate volumes of gas from undrilled areas. The one conventional assessment unit includes almost the entire area of the petroleum system and is characterized by known accumulations that occur in structural or combination traps in sandstone reservoirs. The estimated undiscovered conventional producible gas that may be added to reserves of this unit ranges from a low (F95) of 14.8 billion cubic feet (BCFG) [419 million cubic meters (Mm3)] of gas to a high (F5) of 82 BCFG [2321 Mm3] and a mean value of 39.9 BCFG [1130 Mm3]. Continuous gas accumulations are those in which the entire assessment unit is considered to be gas-charged. Within these assessment units, there may be wells drilled that are not economic successes but all are expected to contain gas. Coalbed gas is in this continuous category. Mean estimates of undiscovered gas for the five continuous assessment units are: (1) Northern Coal Fairway/Drunkards Wash-752.3 BCFG [21,323 Mm3]; (2) Central Coal Fairway/Buzzard Bench-536.7 BCFG [15,194 Mm3]; (3) Southern Coal Fairway-152.6 BCFG [4320 Mm3]; (4) Deep (6000 feet plus) Coal and Sandstone-59.1 BCFG [1673 Mm3]; (5) Southern Coal Outcrop-10.6 BCFG [300 Mm3]; and Joes Valley and Musinia Grabens-not assessed.The mean estimate of undiscovered gas for the entire TPS is 1551.2 BCFG [43,914 Mm3]. There is a 95% chance that at least 855.7 BCFG [24,225 Mm3] and a 5% chance that at least 2504 BCFG [70,888 Mm3] of undiscovered producible gas remain in the TPS

  12. Geothermal utilization at Castle Oaks subdivision, Castle Rock, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garing, K. L.; Coury, G. E.; Goering, S. W.

    1982-04-01

    Designs of geothermal systems for using warm water from four aquifers of the Denver Basin are presented. Advantages of using heat pumps with the geothermal resource are discussed. Two design cases, one with separate heat load and heat pump, and the other with the heat pump and heat load located at the well site are evaluated in terms of pump costs, operating costs, and payback periods. The 20 year delivered energy costs for the two geothermal systems would be slightly less than those for natural gas ($5.64 to $6.42 versus $6.70 per million Btu).

  13. Cytogeography of Pilosella officinarum (Compositae): Altitudinal and Longitudinal Differences in Ploidy Level Distribution in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and the General Pattern in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Mráz, Patrik; Šingliarová, Barbora; Urfus, Tomáš; Krahulec, František

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Pilosella officinarum (syn. Hieracium pilosella) is a highly structured species with respect to the ploidy level, with obvious cytogeographic trends. Previous non-collated data indicated a possible differentiation in the frequency of particular ploidy levels in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Therefore, detailed sampling and ploidy level analyses were assessed to reveal a boundary of common occurrence of tetraploids on one hand and higher ploids on the other. For a better understanding of cytogeographic differentiation of P. officinarum in central Europe, a search was made for a general cytogeographic pattern in Europe based on published data. Methods DNA-ploidy level and/or chromosome number were identified for 1059 plants using flow cytometry and/or chromosome counting on root meristem preparations. Samples were collected from 336 localities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and north-eastern Hungary. In addition, ploidy levels were determined for plants from 18 localities in Bulgaria, Georgia, Ireland, Italy, Romania and Ukraine. Key Results Four ploidy levels were found in the studied area with a contrasting pattern of distribution. The most widespread cytotype in the western part of the Czech Republic is tetraploid (4x) reproducing sexually, while the apomictic pentaploids and mostly apomictic hexaploids (5x and 6x, respectively) clearly prevail in Slovakia and the eastern part of the Czech Republic. The boundary between common occurrence of tetraploids and higher ploids is very obvious and represents the geomorphologic boundary between the Bohemian Massif and the Western Carpathians with the adjacent part of Pannonia. Mixed populations consisting of two different ploidy levels were recorded in nearly 11% of localities. A statistically significant difference in a vertical distribution of penta- and hexaploids was observed in the Western Carpathians and the adjacent Pannonian Plain. Hexaploid populations tend to occur at lower elevations

  14. Heat waves frequency analysis and spatial-temporal variability of daily maximum temperature in southern Slovakia within the 1951, respectively 1961-2008 periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecho, J.; Faško, P.; Mikulová, K.; Šâstný, P.

    2009-09-01

    Heat waves temporal and spatial analysis at selected meteorological stations in southern part of Slovakia within the 1951, respectively 1961-2008 periods is a goal of the presented contribution. It is expected that climate change in terms of global warming would amplify temporal frequency and spatial extension of extreme heat wave incidence in region of central Europe in the next few decades. The frequency of occurrence and amplitude of heat waves may be impacted by changes in the temperature regime. Heat waves can cause severe thermal environmental stress leading to higher hospital admission rates, health complications, and increased mortality. These effects arise because of one or more meteorology-related factors such as higher effective temperatures, sunshine, more consecutive hot days and nights, stagnation, increased humidity, increased pollutant emissions, and accelerated photochemical smog and particulate formation. Heat waves bring about higher temperatures, increased solar heating of buildings, inhibited ventilation, and a larger number of consecutive warm days and nights. All of these effects increase the thermal loads on buildings, reduce their ability to cool down, and increase indoor temperatures. The paper deals with analysis of temporal and spatial variability of heat waves occurrence at meteorological station Hurbanovo (time series of daily maximum air temperature available from at least 1901) and some other climatological stations in lowlands of southern Slovakia (Žiharec, Bratislava-airport, Jaslovské Bohunice, Kráľová pri Senci, etc.). We can characterize the heat waves by its magnitude and duration, hence both of these characteristics need to be investigated together using sophisticated statistical methods developed particularly for the analysis of extreme hydrological events. These methods are quite similar to the intensity-duration-frequency approach often used in the analysis of extreme precipitation events. The HDF-curves (heatwave

  15. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) (Košice, Slovakia, 23-27 July 2007).

    PubMed

    Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan; Kováč, Josef; Václavíková, Miroslava; Odenbach, Stefan

    2008-05-21

    The 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) was held in Košice, Slovakia between 23-27 July 2007. Attendance at the conference was high and its motivation was in line with the ten previous ICMF conferences organized in Udine, Orlando, Bangor, Sendai-Tokyo, Riga, Paris, Bhavnagar, Timisoara, Bremen and Guarujá. The conference in Slovakia reflected the scientific community's enthusiasm and worldwide support, with 256 participants, from 30 countries attending.The main objective of ICMF 11 was to promote progress and knowledge in the field of magnetic fluids regarding their chemistry, physical and magnetic properties, heat and mass transfer, surface phenomena, as well as their technological and biomedical applications. As research on magnetic fluids is essentially interdisciplinary, experts from related areas were invited to present their contributions with a view to increasing knowledge in the field and highlighting new trends. Submitted communications were refereed by members of the Scientific Organizing Committee and abstracts were assembled in a book of abstracts. Participants presented 180 posters in two poster sessions and 56 oral presentations. All presentations contributed to a greater understanding of the area, and helped to bridge the gap between physics, chemistry, technology, biology and medical sciences. Contributions to this conference are presented in 115 scientific papers, with some published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and the rest in Magnetohydrodynamics. The organization of the conference was made possible by generous support from the Institute of Experimental Physics and Institute of Geotechnics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, the University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik and the Slovak Physical Society. Financial support from Ferrotec, Cryosoft Ltd, Mikrochem, Liquids Research Ltd, Askony and US Steel Košice, is also gratefully acknowledged. PMID:21694229

  16. Preface: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) (Košice, Slovakia, 23 27 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan; Kováč, Josef; Václavíková, Miroslava; Odenbach, Stefan

    2008-05-01

    The 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) was held in Košice, Slovakia between 23-27 July 2007. Attendance at the conference was high and its motivation was in line with the ten previous ICMF conferences organized in Udine, Orlando, Bangor, Sendai-Tokyo, Riga, Paris, Bhavnagar, Timisoara, Bremen and Guarujá. The conference in Slovakia reflected the scientific community's enthusiasm and worldwide support, with 256 participants, from 30 countries attending.The main objective of ICMF 11 was to promote progress and knowledge in the field of magnetic fluids regarding their chemistry, physical and magnetic properties, heat and mass transfer, surface phenomena, as well as their technological and biomedical applications. As research on magnetic fluids is essentially interdisciplinary, experts from related areas were invited to present their contributions with a view to increasing knowledge in the field and highlighting new trends. Submitted communications were refereed by members of the Scientific Organizing Committee and abstracts were assembled in a book of abstracts. Participants presented 180 posters in two poster sessions and 56 oral presentations. All presentations contributed to a greater understanding of the area, and helped to bridge the gap between physics, chemistry, technology, biology and medical sciences. Contributions to this conference are presented in 115 scientific papers, with some published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and the rest in Magnetohydrodynamics. The organization of the conference was made possible by generous support from the Institute of Experimental Physics and Institute of Geotechnics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, the University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik and the Slovak Physical Society. Financial support from Ferrotec, Cryosoft Ltd, Mikrochem, Liquids Research Ltd, Askony and US Steel Košice, is also gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) (Košice, Slovakia, 23-27 July 2007).

    PubMed

    Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan; Kováč, Josef; Václavíková, Miroslava; Odenbach, Stefan

    2008-05-21

    The 11th International Conference on Magnetic Fluids (ICMF 11) was held in Košice, Slovakia between 23-27 July 2007. Attendance at the conference was high and its motivation was in line with the ten previous ICMF conferences organized in Udine, Orlando, Bangor, Sendai-Tokyo, Riga, Paris, Bhavnagar, Timisoara, Bremen and Guarujá. The conference in Slovakia reflected the scientific community's enthusiasm and worldwide support, with 256 participants, from 30 countries attending.The main objective of ICMF 11 was to promote progress and knowledge in the field of magnetic fluids regarding their chemistry, physical and magnetic properties, heat and mass transfer, surface phenomena, as well as their technological and biomedical applications. As research on magnetic fluids is essentially interdisciplinary, experts from related areas were invited to present their contributions with a view to increasing knowledge in the field and highlighting new trends. Submitted communications were refereed by members of the Scientific Organizing Committee and abstracts were assembled in a book of abstracts. Participants presented 180 posters in two poster sessions and 56 oral presentations. All presentations contributed to a greater understanding of the area, and helped to bridge the gap between physics, chemistry, technology, biology and medical sciences. Contributions to this conference are presented in 115 scientific papers, with some published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and the rest in Magnetohydrodynamics. The organization of the conference was made possible by generous support from the Institute of Experimental Physics and Institute of Geotechnics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, the University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik and the Slovak Physical Society. Financial support from Ferrotec, Cryosoft Ltd, Mikrochem, Liquids Research Ltd, Askony and US Steel Košice, is also gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Castles, Kings...and Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Susan M.

    2001-01-01

    Standards can help integrate a curriculum, as a fourth-grade teacher discovered when implementing a unit on the Middle Ages. Students created a medieval fair that demonstrated their learning in medieval history (social studies), pulleys and gears (science and technology), story telling (language arts), and costume and dance (fine arts). (MLH)

  19. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of a neutral, low-sulfide/high-carbonate tailings impoundment, Markušovce, eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Edgar; Petrák, Marián; Tóth, Roman; Lalinská-Voleková, Bronislava; Jurkovič, L'ubomír; Kučerová, Gabriela; Radková, Anežka; Sottník, Peter; Vozár, Jaroslav

    2013-11-01

    Tailings deposits generated from mining activities represent a potential risk for the aquatic environment through the release of potentially toxic metals and metalloids occurring in a variety of minerals present in the tailings. Physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of tailings such as total concentrations of chemical elements, pH, ratio of acid-producing to acid-neutralizing minerals, and primary and secondary mineral phases are very important factors that control the actual release of potentially toxic metals and metalloids from the tailings to the environment. The aims of this study are the determination of geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of tailings deposited in voluminous impoundment situated near the village of Markušovce (eastern Slovakia) and identification of the processes controlling the mobility of selected toxic metals (Cu, Hg) and metalloids (As, Sb). The studied tailings have unique features in comparison with the other tailings investigated previously because of the specific mineral assemblage primarily consisting of barite, siderite, quartz, and minor sulfides. To meet the aims, samples of the tailings were collected from 3 boreholes and 15 excavated pits and subjected to bulk geochemical analyses (i.e., determination of chemical composition, pH, Eh, acid generation, and neutralization potentials) combined with detailed mineralogical characterization using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), and micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD). Additionally, the geochemical and mineralogical factors controlling the transfer of potentially toxic elements from tailings to waters were also determined using short-term batch test (European norm EN 12457), sampling of drainage waters and speciation-equilibrium calculations performed with PHREEQC. The tailings mineral assemblage consists of siderite, barite, quartz, and dolomite. Sulfide minerals constitute only a minor proportion of the tailings

  20. Determination of low-level mercury in coralline aragonite by calcination-isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and its application to Diploria specimens from Castle Harbour, Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamborg, Carl H.; Swarr, Gretchen; Hughen, Konrad; Jones, Ross J.; Birdwhistell, Scot; Furby, Kathryn; Murty, Sujata A.; Prouty, Nancy; Tseng, Chun-Mao

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a technique that combines a high temperature quartz furnace with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the determination of Hg stored in the annual CaCO3 bands found in coral skeletons. Substantial matrix effects, presumably due to the discontinuous introduction of CO2 to the gas stream, were corrected for by simultaneously supplying a stream of argon containing highly enriched elemental 202Hgo and observing peaks in the 200Hg/202Hg signal as the sample was decomposed. Primary signal calibration for Hg was achieved using gas injections from a saturated vapor standard. The absolute instrument detection limit was low (about 0.2 fmol), with a practical limit of detection (3σ of blanks) of 2 fmol. Reproducibility of samples was (RSD) 15-27%. We applied this method to the determination of Hg concentrations in two colonies of Diploria labyrinthiformis collected from Castle Harbour, Bermuda, at a site about to be buried under the municipal waste landfill. The temporal reconstructions of Castle Harbour seawater Hg concentrations implied by the coral record show a decline throughout the period of record (1949-2008). The coral archived no apparent signal associated with waste disposal practices in the Harbour (bulk waste land-filling or, since 1994, disposal of waste incinerator ash), and mercury concentrations in the coral did not correlate to growth rate as assessed by linear extension. There was, however, a large and nearly exponential decrease in apparent Hg concentration in the Harbour which circumstantially implicates the dredging and/or landfilling operations associated with the construction of the airport on St. David's Island.

  1. Comparative spatial and statistical analysis of selected snow cover climatological characteristics and extremes in Slovakia within the 1950/1951-1979-1980 and 1980/1981-2009/2010 winters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecho, J.; Faško, P.; Mikulová, K.; Nejedlík, P.; Å¥Astný, P. Å.; Košå¥Álová, J.

    2010-09-01

    Snow cover and its characteristics are pretty sensitive to any kind of air temperature and precipitation changes. In association with long-term changes of the air temperature as well as precipitation through the last two or three decades (from the beginning of 80s) it would be very interesting to compare a regime of snow cover in the periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010, respectively. In particular, we have recognized notable snow cover changes in different regions from the beginning of 90s. Slovakia situated in the western part of the Carpathians, has the komplex geographical conditions and from this reason there has not been recorded similar snow cover trends even in the similar altitudes. Moreover, some mountainous regions with high altitude (the High and Low Tatras, and especially numerous mid-altitude localities, etc.) show the evidences of existing significantly negative trends of some selected characteristics of snow cover. It is well-known that snow cover and precipitation regime of selected region in Slovakia are substantially influenced by the circulation patterns in wider European space, and furthermore in the Carpathians, analogously to the situation in the Alps, windward as well as leeward effects have also relevant consequences in the mountainous regions. Moreover, climate differences between northern and southern, as well as western and eastern regions in Slovakia also play the crucial role. These factors markedly influence the long-term tendencies of snow cover characteristics in particular localities.

  2. Prevalence of avian influenza viruses, Borrelia garinii, Mycobacterium avium, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in waterfowl and terrestrial birds in Slovakia, 2006.

    PubMed

    Gronesova, Paulina; Ficova, Martina; Mizakova, Adriana; Kabat, Peter; Trnka, Alfred; Betakova, Tatiana

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of Borrelia, Mycobacteria and avian influenza virus (AIV) infections, together with the distribution of different AIV subtypes, was studied in migratory waterfowl and terrestrial birds trapped in three localities in Slovakia during 2006. Samples obtained from waterfowl captured in the Senianske Ponds area of Eastern Slovakia showed the highest diversity of AIV isolates. A total of 13 different subtypes were detected in 19 samples from this location (H1N2, H2N2, H3N2, H6N6, H7N6, H9N2, H9N5, H9N6, H10N5, H10N6, H12N6, H13N6, and H16N6). H3N5 virus was detected in 50% of passerines testing positive for AIV in the Parizske Wetlands, with H7N2, H9N2, H9N5, H12N1, and H13N2 infections also recorded at this locality. H9N5 virus predominated in passerines captured at Trnava Ponds, with isolates H1N6, H6N5, H7N2, H7N6, H10N3, and H10N6 also detected at this location. There were five cases where different AIV infections were detected in oropharyngeal and cloacal samples originating from the same bird (H13N6 and H1N2; H10N5 and H12N6; H9N5 and H6N5; H10N6 and H7N6; and H9N2 and H3N5 in the oropharynx and cloaca, respectively). Between 21% and 52% of captured birds tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with the proportion infected depending on bird species and locality. Samples were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and identified as Borrelia garinii species (either B/B' or R/R' pattern). Mycobacteria were detected in 42% and 26% of waders captured at Senianske Ponds and marsh-dwelling passerines captured in the Parizske Wetlands, respectively. Interestingly, forest-dwelling passerine species caught in the Trnava Ponds region were tested negative for Mycobacteria. PMID:18798030

  3. Prevalence of avian influenza viruses, Borrelia garinii, Mycobacterium avium, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in waterfowl and terrestrial birds in Slovakia, 2006.

    PubMed

    Gronesova, Paulina; Ficova, Martina; Mizakova, Adriana; Kabat, Peter; Trnka, Alfred; Betakova, Tatiana

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of Borrelia, Mycobacteria and avian influenza virus (AIV) infections, together with the distribution of different AIV subtypes, was studied in migratory waterfowl and terrestrial birds trapped in three localities in Slovakia during 2006. Samples obtained from waterfowl captured in the Senianske Ponds area of Eastern Slovakia showed the highest diversity of AIV isolates. A total of 13 different subtypes were detected in 19 samples from this location (H1N2, H2N2, H3N2, H6N6, H7N6, H9N2, H9N5, H9N6, H10N5, H10N6, H12N6, H13N6, and H16N6). H3N5 virus was detected in 50% of passerines testing positive for AIV in the Parizske Wetlands, with H7N2, H9N2, H9N5, H12N1, and H13N2 infections also recorded at this locality. H9N5 virus predominated in passerines captured at Trnava Ponds, with isolates H1N6, H6N5, H7N2, H7N6, H10N3, and H10N6 also detected at this location. There were five cases where different AIV infections were detected in oropharyngeal and cloacal samples originating from the same bird (H13N6 and H1N2; H10N5 and H12N6; H9N5 and H6N5; H10N6 and H7N6; and H9N2 and H3N5 in the oropharynx and cloaca, respectively). Between 21% and 52% of captured birds tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with the proportion infected depending on bird species and locality. Samples were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and identified as Borrelia garinii species (either B/B' or R/R' pattern). Mycobacteria were detected in 42% and 26% of waders captured at Senianske Ponds and marsh-dwelling passerines captured in the Parizske Wetlands, respectively. Interestingly, forest-dwelling passerine species caught in the Trnava Ponds region were tested negative for Mycobacteria.

  4. Simulating spatial aspects of a flash flood using the Monte Carlo method and GRASS GIS: a case study of the Malá Svinka Basin (Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofierka, Jaroslav; Knutová, Monika

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on the flash flood assessment using a spatially-distributed hydrological model based on the Monte Carlo simulation method. The model is implemented as r.sim.water module in GRASS GIS and was applied to the Malá Svinka Basin in Eastern Slovakia where a heavy rainfall (100 mm/hr.) caused a flash flood event with deadly consequences in July 1998. The event was simulated using standard datasets representing elevation, soils and land cover. The results were captured in time series of water depth maps showing gradual changes in water depths across the basin. The hydrological effects of roads in the study area were simulated using the preferential flow feature of the model. This simulation helped to identify source areas contributing to flooding in built-up areas. The implementation in a GIS environment simplifies the data preparation and eventual modification for various scenarios and flood protection measures. The simulation confirmed excellent robustness and flexibility of the method.

  5. Britholite, monazite, REE carbonates, and calcite: Products of hydrothermal alteration of allanite and apatite in A-type granite from Stupné, Western Carpathians, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uher, Pavel; Ondrejka, Martin; Bačík, Peter; Broska, Igor; Konečný, Patrik

    2015-11-01

    An uncommon assemblage of primary and secondary accessory REE minerals was identified in a Permian A-type granite clast in polymict conglomerates intercalated in the Cretaceous flysch sequence of the Pieniny Klippen Belt, Western Carpathians, northwest Slovakia. A detailed electron-microprobe study of the granite reveals extensive subsolidus alteration of primary magmatic allanite-(Ce) to ferriallanite-(Ce) and fluorapatite. The Y, Ce-rich fluorapatite was replaced by the dissolution-reprecipitation process to the britholite group mineral members: fluorbritholite-(Y), britholite-(Y), fluorcalciobritholite, and its hydroxyl-dominant analogue ("calciobritholite"). Britholite-(Y) contains up to 5.2 wt.% ThO2 (0.15 apfu Th); the highest Th content yet reported in naturally occurring Y-dominant britholites. Moreover, the alteration of (ferri)allanite-(Ce) resulted to complex pseudomorphs and overgrowths, including mainly REE carbonate phases: [synchysite-(Ce) to its hydroxyl-dominant analogue "hydroxylsynchysite-(Ce)", bastnäsite-(Ce)] and calcite, rarely monazite-(Ce), epidote, clinochlore, titanite, TiO2 phase, and pseudorutile. In some cases, secondary carbonate minerals (mainly synchysite and calcite) replaced a substantial part of former allanite crystals. Moreover, primary magmatic biotite (annite) was partly transformed to acicular stilpnomelane. Textural and compositional data indicate extensive replacement and breakdown of the primary magmatic allanite and apatite by aqueous fluids rich in fluorine and carbon, liberated during a younger post-magmatic, low-temperature hydrothermal-metamorphic overprint of the granite.

  6. Two-stage breakdown of monazite by post-magmatic and metamorphic fluids: An example from the Veporic orthogneiss, Western Carpathians, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondrejka, Martin; Uher, Pavel; Putiš, Marián; Broska, Igor; Bačík, Peter; Konečný, Patrik; Schmiedt, Ivan

    2012-06-01

    The initial to advanced stage of monazite breakdown was identified in a granitic orthogneiss from the pre-Alpine basement in the Veľký Zelený Potok Valley (the Veporic Unit, Western Carpathians, central Slovakia). Monazite-(Ce) formed during Variscan metamorphism of the original Cambrian to Ordovician granitic rock. Two younger, Permian post-magmatic hydrothermal, and Cretaceous metamorphic-hydrothermal events caused a breakdown of the monazite to secondary egg-shaped coronal structures (100 to 500 μm in diameter) with concentric newly-formed mineral phases. Two principal breakdown stages and newly formed mineral assemblages are recognizable: (1) partial to complete replacement of primary monazite with an internal apatite + ThSiO4 (huttonite or thorite) zone and an external allanite-(Ce) to clinozoisite zone; (2) hydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce) partly replacing apatite + ThSiO4 and allanite to clinozoisite aggregates. The monazite breakdown was initiated by fluid sources differing in composition. Stage (1) originated due to post-magmatic hydrothermal fluids, whereas stage (2) indicates an input of younger, CO2-bearing metamorphic-hydrothermal fluids.

  7. Episodic construction of the Tatra granitoid intrusion (Central Western Carpathians, Poland/Slovakia): consequences for the geodynamics of Variscan collision and Rheic Ocean closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawęda, Aleksandra; Burda, Jolanta; Klötzli, Urs; Golonka, Jan; Szopa, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    The Tatra granitoid pluton (Central Western Carpathians, Poland/Slovakia) is an example of composite polygenetic intrusion, comprising many magmatic pulses varying compositionally from diorite to granite. The U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS zircon dating of successive magma batches indicates the presence of magmatic episodes at 370-368, 365, 360, 355 and 350-340 Ma, all together covering a time span of 30 Ma of magmatic activity. The partial resorption and recycling of former granitoid material ("petrological cannibalism") was a result of the incremental growth of the pluton and temperature in the range of 750-850 °C. The long-lasting granitoid magmatism was connected to the prolonged subduction of oceanic crust and collision of the Proto-Carpathian Terrane with a volcanic arc and finally with Laurussia, closing the Rheic Ocean. The differences in granitoid composition are the results of different depths of crustal melting. More felsic magmas were generated in the outer zone of the volcanic arc, whilst more mafic magmas were formed in the inner part of the supra-subduction zone. The source rocks of the granitoid magmas covered the compositional range of metapelite-amphibolite and were from both lower and upper crust. The presence of the inherited zircon cores suggests that the collision and granitoid magmatism involved crust of Cadomian consolidation age (c. 530 and 518 Ma) forming the Proto-Carpathian Terrane, crust of Avalonian affinity (462, 426 Ma) and melted metasedimentary rocks of volcanic arc provenance.

  8. First detections of Rickettsia helvetica and R. monacensis in ectoparasitic mites (Laelapidae and Trombiculidae) infesting rodents in south-western Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miťková, Katarína; Berthová, Lenka; Kalúz, Stanislav; Kazimírová, Mária; Burdová, Lenka; Kocianová, Elena

    2015-07-01

    Information on circulation of rickettsiae between small mammals and their ectoparasitic mites is scarce. In this study, we investigated infestation rates of rodents with mites in some areas of SW Slovakia and the role of mites as possible vectors of pathogenic rickettsiae. A total of 615 rodents of five species were caught during 2010-2012. All individuals were examined for ectoparasites which resulted in 2821 mites belonging to three species of Laelapidae and six species of Trombiculidae. The most common Laelapidae species was Laelaps agilis (81.25 %), followed by Haemogamasus nidi, and Eulaelaps stabularis. Hirsutiella zachvatkini (16.52 %) was the dominant species of the family Trombiculidae. DNA extracted from rodent blood and ectoparasitic mites was examined for the presence of rickettsiae by PCR. By pooling mites, 345 pool samples were created, of which 112 (32.46 %) were found to be positive for the rickettsial DNA. From 487 examined rodent blood samples, rickettsial DNA was found in 46 (9.44 %). Sequencing DNA from the positive blood samples and mites revealed the identity of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis. The results of the study suggest that ectoparasitic mites may be reservoirs as well as vectors of some pathogenic rickettsiae.

  9. Ghost shrimps (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) as producers of an Upper Miocene trace fossil association from sublittoral deposits of Lake Pannon (Vienna Basin, Slovakia)

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš; Šimo, Vladimír; Starek, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Numerous trace fossils are described from the Late Miocene sediments of the Bzenec Formation exposed at the Gbely section (the Vienna Basin, Slovakia). During deposition of the sediments the area was part of the large, long-lived brackish to freshwater Lake Pannon. Most of the trace fossils are attributed herein to Egbellichnus jordidegiberti igen et ispec. nov. and are interpreted as burrows produced by decapod crustaceans, specifically by a ghost shrimp of the family Callianassidae. This interpretation is based on two independent lines of evidence: environmental requirements of large bioturbators and the burrow morphology itself. The new ichnotaxon is distinguished from other related ichnotaxa by a combination of typically inclined (roughly at an angle of 45°) cylindrical burrows, absence of lining, and tunnels making loops or bends at approximately right angles. The burrow systems at Gbely document the survival of ghost shrimp long after the closure of all seaways and the origin of Lake Pannon. As today, no ghost shrimp are known from long-lived brackish lakes. Egbellichnus from Gbely is the only, although indirect, record of ghost shrimp from a brackish lake environment reported so far. PMID:26089575

  10. Fluid-driven destabilization of REE-bearing accessory minerals in the granitic orthogneisses of North Veporic basement (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondrejka, M.; Putiš, M.; Uher, P.; Schmiedt, I.; Pukančík, L.; Konečný, P.

    2016-02-01

    A variety of rare earth elements-bearing (REE) accessory mineral breakdowns were identified in granitic orthogneisses from the pre-Alpine basement in the Veporic Unit, Central Western Carpathians, Slovakia. The Ordovician granitic rocks were subjected to Variscan metamorphic-anatectic overprint in amphibolite facies. Chemical U-Th-Pb dating of monazite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y) reveal their primary magmatic Lower to Middle Ordovician age (monazite: 472 ± 4 to 468 ± 6 Ma and xenotime: 471 ± 13 Ma) and/or metamorphic-anatectic Variscan (Carboniferous, Visean) age (monazite: 345 ± 3 Ma). Younger fluid-rock interactions caused breakdown of primary magmatic and/or metamorphic-anatectic monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y), fluorapatite and allanite-(Ce). Fluid-induced breakdown of xenotime-(Y) produced numerous tiny uraninite inclusions within the altered xenotime-(Y) domains. The monazite-(Ce) breakdown produced secondary egg-shaped coronal structures of different stages with well-developed concentric mineral zones. Secondary sulphatian monazite-(Ce) (up to 0.15 apfu S) occasionally formed along fluorapatite fissures. Localized fluorapatite and monazite-(Ce) recrystallization resulted in a very fine-grained, non-stoichiometric mixture of REE-Y-Fe-Th-Ca-P-Si phases. Finally, allanite-(Ce) decomposed to secondary REE carbonate minerals (members of the bastnäsite and synchysite groups) and calcite in some places. Although the xenotime alteration and formation of uraninite inclusions is believed to be the result of dissolution-reprecipitation between early magmatic xenotime and late-magmatic granitic fluids, the monazite, apatite and allanite breakdowns were driven by metamorphic hydrothermal fluids. While earlier impact of post-magmatic fluids originated probably from Permian acidic volcanic and microgranitic veins crosscutting the orthogneisses, another fluid-rock interaction event most likely occurred during Late Cretaceous metamorphism in the Veporic basement and covering

  11. Fluid-driven destabilization of REE-bearing accessory minerals in the granitic orthogneisses of North Veporic basement (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondrejka, M.; Putiš, M.; Uher, P.; Schmiedt, I.; Pukančík, L.; Konečný, P.

    2016-10-01

    A variety of rare earth elements-bearing (REE) accessory mineral breakdowns were identified in granitic orthogneisses from the pre-Alpine basement in the Veporic Unit, Central Western Carpathians, Slovakia. The Ordovician granitic rocks were subjected to Variscan metamorphic-anatectic overprint in amphibolite facies. Chemical U-Th-Pb dating of monazite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y) reveal their primary magmatic Lower to Middle Ordovician age (monazite: 472 ± 4 to 468 ± 6 Ma and xenotime: 471 ± 13 Ma) and/or metamorphic-anatectic Variscan (Carboniferous, Visean) age (monazite: 345 ± 3 Ma). Younger fluid-rock interactions caused breakdown of primary magmatic and/or metamorphic-anatectic monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y), fluorapatite and allanite-(Ce). Fluid-induced breakdown of xenotime-(Y) produced numerous tiny uraninite inclusions within the altered xenotime-(Y) domains. The monazite-(Ce) breakdown produced secondary egg-shaped coronal structures of different stages with well-developed concentric mineral zones. Secondary sulphatian monazite-(Ce) (up to 0.15 apfu S) occasionally formed along fluorapatite fissures. Localized fluorapatite and monazite-(Ce) recrystallization resulted in a very fine-grained, non-stoichiometric mixture of REE-Y-Fe-Th-Ca-P-Si phases. Finally, allanite-(Ce) decomposed to secondary REE carbonate minerals (members of the bastnäsite and synchysite groups) and calcite in some places. Although the xenotime alteration and formation of uraninite inclusions is believed to be the result of dissolution-reprecipitation between early magmatic xenotime and late-magmatic granitic fluids, the monazite, apatite and allanite breakdowns were driven by metamorphic hydrothermal fluids. While earlier impact of post-magmatic fluids originated probably from Permian acidic volcanic and microgranitic veins crosscutting the orthogneisses, another fluid-rock interaction event most likely occurred during Late Cretaceous metamorphism in the Veporic basement and covering

  12. Perch and Its Parasites as Heavy Metal Biomonitors in a Freshwater Environment: The Case Study of the Ružín Water Reservoir, Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Brázová, Tímea; Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana; Šalamún, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations were determined in 43 perches (Perca fluviatilis) and in two of its most common parasites, the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii and the cestode Proteocephalus percae, collected in the period 2009–2010 from Ružín, a seriously polluted water reservoir in Slovakia. Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, brain, male and female reproductive organs and adipose tissue of fish and both parasites were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, by ICP-MS. Mean concentrations of individual heavy metals in all fish samples decreased in the order zinc > copper > manganese > mercury > arsenic > chromium > cadmium > nickel > lead. Zinc was found to be the dominant element and its antagonistic interaction with copper was confirmed. The kidney was a key target organ receiving the highest mean concentrations of all analyzed metals, but some metals showed specific affinity for particular tissues. In terms of human health, concentration of Hg in fish muscle, which exceeded more than two-times its maximum level admitted in foodstuffs in European countries, is of great importance and should be taken into account. Bioaccumulation factors (C[parasite]/C[fish tissue]) calculated for all elements indicated much higher detection skills of A. lucii and P. percae parasites than fish organs and hence, present results allow proposing both parasite models as useful tools to monitor aquatic environmental quality. Acanthocephalans, however, seem to be superior for heavy metal monitoring, also demonstrated under experimental conditions. Present results also indicate the decreasing heavy metal burden of the reservoir and its gradual recovery in the course of time. PMID:22736993

  13. Heat wave phenomenon in southern Slovakia: long-term changes and variability of daily maximum air temperature in Hurbanovo within the 1901-2009 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecho, J.; Výberči, D.; Jarošová, M.; Å¥Astný, P. Å.

    2010-09-01

    Analysis of long-term changes and temporal variability of heat waves incidence in the region of southern Slovakia within the 1901-2009 periods is a goal of the presented contribution. It is expected that climate change in terms of global warming would amplify temporal frequency and spatial extension of extreme heat wave incidence in region of central Europe in the next few decades. The frequency of occurrence and amplitude of heat waves may be impacted by changes in the temperature regime. Heat waves can cause severe thermal environmental stress leading to higher hospital admission rates, health complications, and increased mortality. These effects arise because of one or more meteorology-related factors such as higher effective temperatures, sunshine, more consecutive hot days and nights, stagnation, increased humidity, increased pollutant emissions, and accelerated photochemical smog and particulate formation. Heat waves bring about higher temperatures, increased solar heating of buildings, inhibited ventilation, and a larger number of consecutive warm days and nights. All of these effects increase the thermal loads on buildings, reduce their ability to cool down, and increase indoor temperatures. The paper is focused to analysis of long-term and inter-decadal temporal variability of heat waves occurrence at meteorological station Hurbanovo (time-series of daily maximum air temperature available from at least 1901). We can characterize the heat waves by its magnitude and duration, hence both of these characteristics need to be investigated together using sophisticated statistical methods developed particularly for the analysis of extreme hydrological events. We investigated particular heat wave periods either from the severity point of view using HWI index. In the paper we also present the results of statistical analysis of daily maximum air temperature within 1901-2009 period. Apart from these investigation efforts we also focused on synoptic causes of heat wave

  14. Intensive low-temperature tectono-hydrothermal overprint of peraluminous rare-metal granite: a case study from the Dlhá dolina valley (Gemericum, Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Karel; Broska, Igor; Uher, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    A unique case of low-temperature metamorphic (hydrothermal) overprint of peraluminous, highly evolved rare-metal S-type granite is described. The hidden Dlhá dolina granite pluton of Permian age (Western Carpathians, eastern Slovakia) is composed of barren biotite granite, mineralized Li-mica granite and albitite. Based on whole-rock chemical data and evaluation of compositional variations of rock-forming and accessory minerals (Rb-P-enriched K-feldspar and albite; biotite, zinnwaldite and di-octahedral micas; Hf-(Sc)-rich zircon, fluorapatite, topaz, schorlitic tourmaline), the following evolutionary scenario is proposed: (1) Intrusion of evolved peraluminous melt enriched in Li, B, P, F, Sn, Nb, Ta, and W took place followed by intrusion of a large body of biotite granites into Paleozoic metapelites and metarhyolite tuffs; (2) The highly evolved melt differentiated in situ forming tourmaline-bearing Li-biotite granite at the bottom, topaz-zinnwaldite granite in the middle, and quartz albitite to albitite at the top of the cupola. The main part of the Sn, Nb, and Ta crystallized from the melt as disseminated cassiterite and Nb-Ta oxide minerals within the albitite, while disseminated wolframite appears mainly within the topaz-zinnwaldite granite. The fluid separated from the last portion of crystallized magma caused small scale greisenization of the albitite; (3) Alpine (Cretaceous) thrusting strongly tectonized and mylonitized the upper part of the pluton. Hydrothermal low-temperature fluids enriched in Ca, Mg, and CO2 unfiltered mechanically damaged granite. This fluid-driven overprint caused formation of carbonate veinlets, alteration and release of phosphorus from crystal lattice of feldspars and Li from micas, precipitating secondary Sr-enriched apatite and Mg-rich micas. Consequently, all bulk-rock and mineral markers were reset and now represent the P-T conditions of the Alpine overprint.

  15. Geophysical fingerprints of shallow cultural structures from microgravity and GPR measurements in the Church of St. George, Svätý Jur, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panisova, Jaroslava; Murín, Igor; Pašteka, Roman; Haličková, Jana; Brunčák, Peter; Pohánka, Vladimír; Papčo, Juraj; Milo, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Recording of the historic edifice using the state-of-the-art geodetic and geophysical techniques brings easier visualisation in form of a three-dimensional (3D) model, thus allowing better understanding of its historical construction by the public and non-experts. We have applied this approach at the Church of St. George, one of the most significant religious buildings in south-western Slovakia, which dominates a silhouette of the town Svätý Jur. The geodetic survey allowed to record the actual state of the church. The church exterior was surveyed using a total station. Due to the intricate shape of the interior components of the church, it was decided to use a terrestrial laser scanner to generate the point cloud data, which were processed into floor plan, elevations, sectional 2D drawings and 3D model. The geophysical survey was carried out in the interior of the church in order to identify potential subsurface anthropogenic structures. Microgravity and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were selected as the most effective geophysical tools for such task. In microgravity data processing we focused on the calculation and removal of the gravitational effects of the building masses. The main negative gravity anomalies of interest in the nave, which also have been confirmed by GPR measurements, are interpreted as medieval crypts. Another very important outcome of the geophysical survey is the discovery of the west wall foundations of the oldest Romanesque construction. From each geophysical data acquired we derived 3D polygonal models, which are compared to achieve more realistic picture of the subsurface structures. Verification of these structures by means of archaeological excavation has not been carried out yet.

  16. Paleofloristic and paleofaunistic analysis of Dudváh River oxbow and implication for Late Holocene paleoenvironmental development of the Žitný ostrov Island (SW Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pišút, Peter; Břízová, Eva; Čejka, Tomáš; Pipík, Radovan

    2010-12-01

    Žitný ostrov, the largest island of the Danube River (SW Slovakia) gained its present shape in the Neoholocene period. As a result of increased flood and geomorphological Danube river activity dated to 1378-1528 AD, the Lower Dudváh River was abandoned and its alluvium became a part of the Žitný ostrov. Study of a Dudváh terrestrialized paleomeander by means of pollen and macrofossil analysis provides new information about the paleoenvironments of the Danubian Plain. The meander under study was cut-off during the Sub-Boreal period when the land was mostly covered by oak-dominated mixed forest with a notable high frequency of Fagus and Abies. In low-lying depressions, Alnus glutinosa formed typical alder carrs. The largest decline of the mixed forest occurred during the Sub-Atlantic period. Until the mid-19th century the region was strongly influenced by shallow groundwater and periodical floods, as reflected by pollen of aquatics and marsh species. Amongst non-arboreal taxa, pollen of Cyperaceae, Brassicaceae/Cuscuta, Poaceae and Apiaceae prevailed. Local successional changes started with i) stage of abandoned oxbow still with influx of moving water, poor in both macrophytes and molluscs, ii) shallow eutrophic oxbow lake with slowly flowing or stagnant water overgrown with aquatics (Ranunculus subgen. Batrachium, Potamogeton sp., Ceratophyllum demersum etc.) and abundant molluscs, iii) an open marsh dominated by Cyperaceae (mainly Carex riparia) with Atriplex prostrata, supporting diverse molluscan and Ostracod fauna. Present-day habitat is a result of landscape changes, which have been associated with draining, intensified agriculture, ruderalisation and spread of invasive species.

  17. Variscan thrusting in I- and S-type granitic rocks of the Tribeč Mountains, Western Carpathians (Slovakia): evidence from mineral compositions and monazite dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broska, Igor; Petrík, Igor

    2015-12-01

    The Tribeč granitic core (Tatric Superunit, Western Carpathians, Slovakia) is formed by Devonian/Lower Carboniferous, calc-alkaline I- and S-type granitic rocks and their altered equivalents, which provide a rare opportunity to study the Variscan magmatic, post-magmatic and tectonic evolution. The calculated P-T-X path of I-type granitic rocks, based on Fe-Ti oxides, hornblende, titanite and mica-bearing equilibria, illustrates changes in redox evolution. There is a transition from magmatic stage at T ca. 800-850 °C and moderate oxygen fugacity (FMQ buffer) to an oxidation event at 600 °C between HM and NNO up to the oxidation peak at 480 °C and HM buffer, to the final reduction at ca. 470 °C at ΔNN= 3.3. Thus, the post-magmatic Variscan history recorded in I-type tonalites shows at early stage pronounced oxidation and low temperature shift back to reduction. The S-type granites originated at temperature 700-750 °C at lower water activity and temperature. The P-T conditions of mineral reactions in altered granitoids at Variscan time (both I and S-types) correspond to greenschist facies involving formation of secondary biotite. The Tribeč granite pluton recently shows horizontal and vertical zoning: from the west side toward the east S-type granodiorites replace I-type tonalites and these medium/coarse-grained granitoids are vertically overlain by their altered equivalents in greenschist facies. Along the Tribeč mountain ridge, younger undeformed leucocratic granite dykes in age 342±4.4 Ma cut these metasomatically altered granitic rocks and thus post-date the alteration process. The overlaying sheet of the altered granites is in a low-angle superposition on undeformed granitoids and forms "a granite duplex" within Alpine Tatric Superunit, which resulted from a syn-collisional Variscan thrusting event and melt formation ~340 Ma. The process of alteration may have been responsible for shifting the oxidation trend to the observed partial reduction.

  18. Update on rickettsioses in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Sekeyová, Z; Socolovschi, C; Spitalská, E; Kocianová, E; Boldiš, V; Diaz, M Quevedo; Berthová, L; Bohácsová, M; Valáriková, J; Fournier, P Edouard; Raoult, D

    2013-01-01

    The reported incidence of vector-borne diseases including various cases of Rickettsioses in humans is increasing due to a combination of climatic and social factors, escalating the opportunities for contact between people and ticks, fleas or lice. Many of the emerging infectious diseases currently challenging human health in Europe are transmitted by ticks which normally feed on domestic or wild animals. Each Rickettsia spp. has one or several tick vectors, and their geographical distribution varies according to geographical conditions; e.g.; altitude or temperature, which is gradually changing due to a global warming. Evidence of Rickettsia spp. particularly of a newly discovered species is a strong indication that a great number of diseases may be caused by so far undetected or unrecognized organisms. Their diagnosis relies mostly on rare "spot like" cooperation of clinicians with scientists, the members of the working groups that are devoted to the scientific studies of the corresponding research areas. The clinical picture of the disease caused by rickettsiae varies significantly from flu like symptoms to severe fatal outcomes, reflecting the various factors, e.g. a variability of virulence of rickettsial species due to cell invasion, dissemination of rickettsiae, genomics, immune response of an infected organism, or a tricky impact of a treatment. Several major reviews on rickettsioses have been previously published, e.g. in 1997 (Raoult and Roux, 1997a), in 2005 (Parola et al., 2005), and in 2011 (Botelho-Nevers and Raoult, 2011). In this work we intend to present a short historical overview and to describe new trends in research studies of rickettsiology. The main focus will be on rickettsioses affecting Europe΄s population.

  19. Accretionary wedge harzburgite serpentinization and rodingitization constrained by perovskite U/Pb SIMS age, trace elements and Sm/Nd isotopes: Case study from the Western Carpathians, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xian-Hua; Putiš, Marián; Yang, Yue-Heng; Koppa, Matúš; Dyda, Marian

    2014-09-01

    Perovskite-bearing harzburgites occur in a “mélange” type blueschist-bearing accretionary wedge complex of the Inner Western Carpathians Meliata Unit in Slovakia. Although dark rounded, slightly hydrated relic “cores” of harzburgite boulders are perovskite-free, perovskite (Prv) occurrence in the surrounding serpentinites and rodingites enabled dating of hydration, resulting in two metamorphic-metasomatic Prv generations. Perovskite (1) grows parallel to relic clinopyroxene exsolution lamellae or forms randomly oriented grain clusters in serpentinized orthopyroxene (Opx1) porphyroclasts, often accompanied by tiny andradite lamellae clusters, or it is partly replaced by Ti-andradite. Perovskite crystallization indicates evolving rodingitization fluids pervading the boundary between the harzburgite “cores” and Prv-free serpentinite. This strictly limited occurrence of Prv (1) within a 1 to 20-cm across-zone implies slightly postponed Prv crystallization to serpentinization by LREE(Ce,La), Ca2+, Ti/Fe3+-enriched aqueous fluids. A grain scale metasomatic mechanism partitioned Ca and Ti from the host orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, spinel (Ti) and grain-boundary pervasive fluids to Prv. In contrast, Prv (2) occurs in a 1 to 3 cm across chlorite-rich blackwall zone between hosting serpentinite and rodingite veins, thus indicating channelled rodingitization fluid flow and accompanying hydraulic fracturing. Here, Prv (2) is ingrown by chlorite and apatite. Part of this Prv (2) formed in a rodingite vein mineral assemblage composed of diopside, andradite, vesuvianite, epidote/zoisite, apatite and chlorite. Both perovskite 1 and 2 are replaced by pyrophanite along the grain rims and interiors; most likely via fluid-aided coupled dissolution-reprecipitation at increased Si-Fe-Mn-Al element solubility in rodingitization fluids pervading serpentinized harzburgite. Both Prv generations, especially Prv (2), can be partly to almost totally replaced by (Ti-) Adr

  20. A synopsis of records of myxozoan parasites (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) from shrews, with additional data on Soricimyxum fegati from common shrew Sorex araneus in Hungary and pygmy shrew Sorex minutus in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Csaba; Atkinson, Stephen D; Molnar, Kalman; Egyed, Laszlo; Gubanyi, Andras; Cech, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Myxozoans (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) are almost exclusively endoparasites of aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates, with the notable exception being two species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 described from terrestrial shrews (Soricidae) in central Europe. Myxospores of the two parasites are morphologically indistinguishable, but have SSU rDNA sequences that differ by about 4%. Herein, we report additional molecular and histology data from Soricimyxum fegati Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 from common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus) from Hungary, and add a new geographic record for S. fegati in pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus Linnaeus) from Slovakia. A limited survey of shrews from the northern United States, Blarina brevicauda Say and Sorex sp. from New York, and Sorex spp. from Oregon, did not discover any infections, which is in stark contrast to the relatively high infection rates (up to 66%) in European shrew populations. We also provide a summary and discussion of literature records of species of Soricimyxum and a host survey. Given the lack of distinguishing morphological or morphometric characters between Soricimyxum spp., and the overlap in vertebrate hosts and geographic ranges, unambiguous identification of these closely related shrew parasites can presently only be achieved through sequence comparison of one or more variable SSU rDNA regions. PMID:27312127

  1. Comparison of arsenic levels in fingernails with urinary As species as biomarkers of arsenic exposure in residents living close to a coal-burning power plant in Prievidza District, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Michael; Pesch, Beate; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Jakubis, Pavel; Miskovic, Peter; Keegan, Tom; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Ranft, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    The associations between As levels in fingernails with both As concentrations in urine and environmental samples are reported. The participants (aged 20-80 years, mean 66 years) lived in the vicinity of a coal-burning power plant with high As emissions in the Prievidza District, Slovakia. Samples were taken in 1999 and 2000. The As levels in fingernails (n = 524) were measured after washing and digestion with microwave heating by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The spot urine samples (n = 436) were speciated for inorganic As (As(inorg)), monomethylarsonic (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) by hydride-cryogenic trap-atomic absorption spectrometry. The geometric mean As level in fingernails was 0.10 mug/g (range, <0.01-2.94 microg/g). There was a clear association between As in fingernails and the distance of the home to the power plant (P<0.001). Geometric mean As levels were: 0.17 microg/g distance < or = 5 km, 0.10 microg/g 6-10 km and 0.08 microg/g > 10 km. The association between the distance to the power plant and total urinary As (As(sum)) (n = 436, no fish consumption during the last 3 days before sample collection) was less pronounced (P = 0.018). The As levels in fingernails were positively correlated to As in soil (n = 207, r = 0.23, P<0.001) and to As in house dust (n = 209, r = 0.30, P<0.001). The associations between urinary As(sum) and As concentrations in soil (n = 159, r = 0.13, P<0.105) and in house dust (n = 162, r = 0.14, P<0.081) were quite similar. As levels in fingernails were associated with urinary As(sum) and with the different As species in urine. It is concluded that As levels in fingernails are a reliable marker of environmental As exposure, and that As concentrations in fingernails reflect the As exposure in a similar manner compared with urinary As(sum) and As species.

  2. Otomycoses of candidal origin in eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Dorko, E; Jenca, A; Orencák, M; Virágová, S; Pilipcinec, E

    2004-01-01

    Mycological analysis of swabs and scraping samples from the external ear canals of 40 patients with clinically diagnosed otomycosis (10 neonates, 30 adults) revealed the presence of fungi as etiological agents. They were investigated microscopically using 20 % potassium hydroxide, and by cultivation on Sabouraud's glucose agar. The Candida species were identified using the germ-tube test, micromorphology observations of colonies on rice agar, and particularly by the commercial kit AUXAcolor. The following Candida species were identified in the aural material examined: C. albicans (n = 21; 52.5 %), C. parapsilosis (11; 27.5), C. tropicalis (3; 7.5), C. krusei (3; 7.5), C. guilliermondii (2; 5.0). The above yeasts were present in samples together with Staphylococcus epidermidis (31), S. aureus (16), alpha-hemolytic streptococci (14), Neisseria spp. (14), Proteus mirabilis (3), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3), Escherichia coli (1) and Haemophilus influenzae (1). The most frequent predisposing factors for otomycosis were swimming in public pools and/or bath, spa and diabetes mellitus.

  3. The Meteoroids 2013, Proceedings of the Astronomical Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jopek, T. J.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Watanabe, J.; Williams, I. P.

    2014-07-01

    The idea of holding a conference on meteors and interplanetary dust emerged at the commission 22 meetings during the IAU General Assembly in Baltimore and was firmed up at the next meeting in Buenos Aires, where it was decided to hold a conference in Czechoslovakia in 1992. This was 25 years since a meeting "Physics and Dynamics of Meteors" was held at Tatranska Lomnica, Czechoslovakia. The first Meteoroids Conference was held in Smolenice July 6-10 1992. Interestingly, by the time the proceedings were published (Meteoroids and their Parent Bodies) Czechoslovakia had divided into two independent countries and the book was published by the Slovak Academy of Sciences. Since that beginning, meetings have been held at roughly three year intervals (Bratislava, Slovakia, 1994; Tatranska Lomica, Slovakia, 1997; Kiruna, Sweden, 2001; London, Canada, 2004; Barcelona, Spain, 2007; Breckenridge, USA, 2010) and this volume publishes papers presented at the eighth meeting held at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland 26 - 30 August 2013. This meeting, as did the first meeting in Smolenice and some of the others, followed the annual meeting of the International Meteor Organization, thus allowing a continuation of the fruitful collaboration between professional and amateur astronomers that is common in meteor astronomy, by allowing participants to easily attend both meetings. A special session on outreach and relation with amateur meteor astronomers was included in the program. There were 103 participants from 27 countries at the conference. A signicant part of the conference was devoted to the results from the spectacular and large fireball that was observed over Chelyabinsk in Russia on 15th February 2013 and to meteorite falls in general as well as meteoroid interactions with the planetary atmospheres. Other areas of science covered were Observation techniques; Sporadic and shower meteoroids; Physical properties of meteoroids; Meteoroid parent bodies; interplanetary

  4. Multiscale Interactive Communication: Inside and Outside Thun Castle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massari, G. A.; Luce, F.; Pellegatta, C.

    2011-09-01

    The applications of informatics to architecture have become, for professionals, a great tool for managing analytical phases and project activities but also, for the general public, new ways of communication that may relate directly present, past and future facts. Museums in historic buildings, their installations and the recent experiences of eco-museums located throughout the territory provide a privileged experimentation field for technical and digital representation. On the one hand, the safeguarding and the functional adaptation of buildings use 3D computer graphics models that are real spatially related databases: in them are ordered, viewed and interpreted the results of archival, artistic-historical, diagnostic, technological-structural studies and the assumption and feasibility of interventions. On the other hand, the disclosure of things and knowledge linked to collective memory relies on interactive maps and hypertext systems that provide access to authentic virtual museums; a sort of multimedia extension of the exhibition hall is produced to an architectural scale, but at landscape scale the result is an instrument of cultural development so far unpublished: works that are separated in direct perception find in a zenith view of the map a synthetic relation, related both to spatial parameters and temporal interpretations.

  5. The wizard and the gatekeeper: of castles and contracts.

    PubMed

    Herd, B; Herd, A; Mathers, N

    1995-04-22

    The wizards and the gatekeepers were unhappy. There were many reasons for their unhappiness. They worked hard but felt that too much was being demanded of them. The poorly people's charter was resulting in unrealistic expectations, and changes in the apprenticeship for wizards were putting great strain on their mentors. The wizards enjoyed their work less and less, and it was getting difficult to find new gatekeepers. On the other hand, the way the system worked meant that there had to be plenty of goblins and the number of scrolls that had to be filled in was rising sharply. The wizards and gatekeepers tried to point out ways to improve things that would ensure that poorly people were better treated, but there was no easy solution. With the ominous sign that the recruitment of wizards and gatekeepers was becoming more difficult, an answer was needed--and soon.

  6. The wizard and the gatekeeper: of castles and contracts.

    PubMed Central

    Herd, B.; Herd, A.; Mathers, N.

    1995-01-01

    The wizards and the gatekeepers were unhappy. There were many reasons for their unhappiness. They worked hard but felt that too much was being demanded of them. The poorly people's charter was resulting in unrealistic expectations, and changes in the apprenticeship for wizards were putting great strain on their mentors. The wizards enjoyed their work less and less, and it was getting difficult to find new gatekeepers. On the other hand, the way the system worked meant that there had to be plenty of goblins and the number of scrolls that had to be filled in was rising sharply. The wizards and gatekeepers tried to point out ways to improve things that would ensure that poorly people were better treated, but there was no easy solution. With the ominous sign that the recruitment of wizards and gatekeepers was becoming more difficult, an answer was needed--and soon. PMID:7728059

  7. Thoreau and His Friends: Building Castles in the Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokarz, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    A seventh-grade teacher describes how her students gradually became engaged in a year-long project on Thoreau. Although initially resistant and unenthusiastic, the students became interested after two field trips involving living-history experiences, and went on to write a play involving Thoreau, his contemporary and 20th-century "friends," and…

  8. Taking It to the Streets... and Bridges, Squares, and Castles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiaverina, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Each May a Slovenian science extravaganza called Znanstival (Sciencetival, www.sciencetival.si) fills the streets and other public venues with the excitement of science. Organized by the staff of Hisa eksperimentov (House of Experiments or simply HE, www.he.si), a jewel of a science museum located in the Slovenian capital of Ljubljana, the annual…

  9. Castles or boarding-houses: a new concept of security.

    PubMed

    Kent, B

    2000-01-01

    Current concepts of security, even if valid in the past, are inappropriate now. We need a new concept of security based on co-operation and interdependence, not military (and especially nuclear) confrontation. The International Court of Justice Advisory Opinion on the legality of nuclear weapons, international concern on the dangers of the arms trade, the landmines campaign, and statements by retired military leaders, are all signs of hope. But others, including non-governmental organizations, must also learn to co-operate. The Year of the Culture of Peace is an opportunity to make co-operation more effective and, particularly in schools, to make the United Nations better known and better appreciated. PMID:10824519

  10. Castle Towns: An Introduction to Tokugawa Japan. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit introduces students to the historical tradition of a non-Western nation seen within the comparative concept of feudalism. This is done partly through a look at Tokugawa Japan and partly through a comparative examination of the concept of feudalism. Although the unit deals mainly with a specific time span in Japanese history, it also…

  11. The Poster Visits Nottingham Castle in England | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Last September, Nadya Tarasova, Ph.D., head, Synthetic Biologics and Drug Discovery Facility, Cancer and Inflammation Program, traveled to Nottingham, England, where she was an invited speaker and chaired a session on JAK/STAT signaling in cancer at the second special meeting of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS).

  12. Species composition of Malassezia yeasts in dogs in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Sihelská, Zuzana; Váczi, Peter; Conková, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Malassezia (M.) pachydermatis is the lipophilic yeast, which is normally present on the skin and in the ear canal of dogs but under certain conditions it may cause dermatitis and otitis. There is less known about the occurrence of lipid-dependent Malassezia species in dogs. The aim of this study was to detect whether lipid-dependent yeasts are part of the normal microflora in dogs. Two groups of animals were selected for comparison. The group of healthy dogs contained samples of 118 individuals and the group of dogs with cutaneous lesions or otitis externa comprised 328 dogs. The isolates of Malassezia were identified by using genotypic methods that allow the precise identification. M. pachydermatis was the most frequently isolated species in this study (121 isolates). Only four isolates were identified as M. furfur and one isolate was identified as M. nana. PMID:27529998

  13. Species composition of Malassezia yeasts in dogs in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Sihelská, Zuzana; Váczi, Peter; Conková, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Malassezia (M.) pachydermatis is the lipophilic yeast, which is normally present on the skin and in the ear canal of dogs but under certain conditions it may cause dermatitis and otitis. There is less known about the occurrence of lipid-dependent Malassezia species in dogs. The aim of this study was to detect whether lipid-dependent yeasts are part of the normal microflora in dogs. Two groups of animals were selected for comparison. The group of healthy dogs contained samples of 118 individuals and the group of dogs with cutaneous lesions or otitis externa comprised 328 dogs. The isolates of Malassezia were identified by using genotypic methods that allow the precise identification. M. pachydermatis was the most frequently isolated species in this study (121 isolates). Only four isolates were identified as M. furfur and one isolate was identified as M. nana.

  14. Teaching about Money, Cultural Heritage, and Citizenship in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    One crucial role of the teacher of citizenship education is to facilitate and help legitimize the "pupils' voice" in the classroom. The teacher should abdicate the "talking head" role and replace it with one that encourages and validates pupil owners

  15. PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICLES IN BANSKA BYSTRICA, SLOVAKIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have associated adverse health impacts with ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM), though these studies have been limited in their characterization of personal exposure to PM. An exposure study of healthy nonsmoking adults and children was cond...

  16. Topical Issue on Optical Particle Characterization and Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere: Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Videen, Gorden; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Sun, Wenbo; Kai, Kenji; Kawamoto, Kazuaki; Horvath, Helmuth; Mishchenko, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Increasing our understanding of the Earth-atmosphere system has been a scientific and political priority for the last few decades. This system not only touches on environmental science, but it has applicability to our broader understanding of planetary atmospheres in general. While this issue focuses primarily on electromagnetics, other fundamental fields of science, including fluid and thermodynamics play major roles. In recent years, significant research efforts have led to advances in the fields of radiative transfer and electromagnetic scattering from irregularly shaped particles. Recently, several workshops and small conferences have taken place to promote the fusion of these efforts. Late in 2013, for instance, two such meetings took place. The Optical Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols (OCAA) meeting took place in Smolenice, Slovakia to promote a better understanding of microphysical properties of aerosol particles, and the characterization of such atmospheric particles using optical techniques. A complementary conference was organized in Nagoya, Japan, the 3rd International Symposium on Atmospheric Light Scattering and Remote Sensing (ISALSaRS), whose goal is to fuse the advances achieved in particle characterization with remote-sensing techniques. While the focus of these meetings is slightly different, they represent the same aspects of this rapidly growing field. This Topical Issue is the first of two parts. Within this issue we analyze different aspects of the problem of atmospheric characterization and present a broad overview of the topical area. Research includes theory and experiment, ranging from fundamental microphysical properties of individual aerosol particles to broad characterizations of atmospheric properties. Since this is an active field, we also have encouraged the submission of ideas for new methodologies that may represent the future of the field.

  17. Health assessment for Pigeon Point Landfill Site (New Castle City Landfill), New Castle, Delaware, Region 3. CERCLIS No. DED980494603. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-11

    The Pigeon Point Landfill 180-acre site includes a former municipal landfill that reportedly received industrial wastes during the period from 1968 to 1985. Initial sampling of groundwater and leachate revealed inorganic and organic chemicals at levels of health concern; however, per anecdotal information received from EPA, subsequent sampling has not confirmed initial sampling results. Only the original sampling data were available for this health assessment and since the data are questionable, they are not reported here. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via groundwater and leachate. However, information available on the site at present is of questionable validity. Additional information on contaminants released, populations potentially exposed, and environmental pathways through which the contaminants can reach these populations is needed.

  18. Surficial geologic map along the Castle Mountain Fault between Houston and Hatcher Pass Road, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, Peter J.

    1998-01-01

    The surficial geology of the map area is dominated by sedimentary deposits laid down during and after the Naptowne glaciation (Karlstrom, 1964) of late Pleistocene age. During this episode, a large valley glacier flowed westward down the Matanuska Valley along the southern flank of the Talkeetna Mountains. The youngest of two documented advances has been referred to as the Elmendorf stade, which reached its maximum extent about 12,000 radiocarbon years ago (Schmoll and others, 1972; Reger and Updike, 1983). Deposits from this stade in the map area include: glacial till (Qg), lateral moraine (Qml) and kame terrace (Qk) deposits. Older episodes of glaciation have been inferred by a number of workers (e.g., Karlstrom, 1964; Reger and Updike, 1983; Reger and Updike, 1989; Schmoll and Yehle, 1986). The ridge above and north of the map area, Bald Mountain Ridge, is rounded in contrast to higher areas of the Talkeetna Mountains to the east. Therefore, within the map area older glacial deposits (Qg2) are inferred to lie above the highest Naptowne deposits. After reaching its maximum extent the valley glacier stagnated (Reger and Updike, 1983), as indicated by a crevasse-fill-ridge complex south of Houston in the map area, perched drainages along the sides of the Talkeetna Mountains, and an esker (unit Qe in the middle of the western map area). The ancient stream deposits (unit Qad) are perched on the southern flanks of the Talkeetna Mountains and were deposited by westward flowing streams as the valley glacier stagnated. These sinuous ancient drainages commonly incised up to 20 m into the underlying glacial till. Because stream flow is not as high today as when the drainages formed, the modern streams flowing within these drainages are underfit, and the ancient drainage courses are commonly filled with peat deposits (Qp). After ice of the Elmendorf stade melted, modern stream courses were established. These include the southward flowing streams on the flank of the Talkeetna Mountains as well as the west-southwestward flowing Little Susitna River. The Little Susitna River cut down through older river terrace deposits (Qat) to form the active alluvial plain (Qaa). Alluvium from the southward flowing streams (Qas) forms alluvial fans on top of, and presumably interfingering with, active alluvium along the Little Susitna River.

  19. Our Princess Is in Another Castle: A Review of Trends in Serious Gaming for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.; Slota, Stephen; Cutter, Andrew B.; Jalette, Gerard; Mullin, Greg; Lai, Benedict; Simeoni, Zeus; Tran, Matthew; Yukhymenko, Mariya

    2012-01-01

    Do video games show demonstrable relationships to academic achievement gains when used to support the K-12 curriculum? In a review of literature, we identified 300+ articles whose descriptions related to video games and academic achievement. We found some evidence for the effects of video games on language learning, history, and physical education…

  20. Installation guidelines for Solar Heating System, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Heating System installer guidelines are provided for each subsystem and includes testing and filling the system. This single-family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: liquid cooled flat plate collectors; water storage tank; passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; electric hot water heater; heat pump with electric backup; solar hot water coil unit; tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; control system; and air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is also provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance. Information consists of written procedures, schematics, detail drawings, pictures and manufacturer's component data.

  1. Installation guidelines for solar heating system, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating system installer guidelines are presented for each subsystem. This single family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: (1) liquid cooled flat plate collectors; (2) water storage tank; (3) passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; (4) electric hot water heater; (5) heat pump with electric backup; (6) solar hot water coil unit; (7) tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; (8) control system; and (9) air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance in the form of written descriptions, schematics, detail drawings, pictures, and manufacturer's component data.

  2. Entrepreneurial Universities for the UK: A "Stanford University" at Bamburgh Castle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etzkowitz, Henry

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that the value of projected cuts in UK higher education spending should be redirected to fund start-up entrepreneurial universities as part of a strategy for knowledge-based economic growth. Two specific elements of academic entrepreneurial redesign are outlined: the Professor of Practice, linking university and industry through…

  3. Operation Castle. Operation Plan Number 1-53. Task Group 7. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, W.E.

    1984-08-31

    Overseas experimentation depends upon progress of construction, reliability of instrumentation and the overcoming of obstacles presented by local conditions. This Operation Plan is intended to be used as a guide for TG 7.1 personnel since it represents a record of agreements arrived at prior to its compilation.

  4. Castles in the Clouds: The Irrelevance of Vertical Scales for Most Practical Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This is a response to a focus article by Briggs and Peck (2015) in issue 13(2). It should have been published in issue 13(3-4) alongside a rejoinder by Briggs and Peck that did appear. Due to an oversight, it was not published there and appears here. See issue 13(3-4) for a rejoinder to this response. Briggs and Peck (2015) propose what amounts to…

  5. Fairy Castle or Steamer Trunk? Creating Place in O. E. Rolvaag's "Giants in the Earth"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quantic, Diane

    2003-01-01

    Rolvaag's story is grounded in the relationship between the undifferentiated environment and the built environment--that is, the structures that anchor people in place and define the parameters of human existence where geographical landmarks are few. This article is a discussion of the ways Rolvaag elicits this process in both the land and the…

  6. Solar energy heating system design package for a single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design of a solar heating and hot water system for a single family dwelling is described. Cost trade studies on the energy conservation and architectural features of the solar house are discussed. The present status of verification for the single family heating system, i.e., proof that the components and the system meet applicable physical and functional requirements, is reported. The system integration drawings, the major subsystems drawings, and the architect's specifications and plans are included.

  7. Rochester Castle MMORPG: Instructional Gaming and Collaborative Learning at a Western Australian School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mark J. W.; Eustace, Ken; Fellows, Geoff; Bytheway, Allan; Irving, Leah

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the first stage of a project to develop and test the use of massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs) for promoting computer supported collaborative learning through instructional gaming in the high school classroom. Teachers and students of English and Science at Swan View Senior High School, Western…

  8. Minds "and" Hearts: Using Jeannette Walls's Memoir, "The Glass Castle", to Teach Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    English teachers have those favorite characters in the literature they choose to study with their students, from the classics of Lennie and George in "Of Mice and Men" to more contemporary characters such as Arnold in "The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian" who was "born with water on the brain" (Alexie 1). The author loves allowing…

  9. An analysis of trichloroethylene movement in groundwater at castle Air Force Base, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avon, L.; Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A trichloroethylene (TCE) plume has been identified in the groundwater under a U.S. Air Force Base in the Central Valley of California. An areal, two-dimensional numerical solute transport model indicates that the movement of TCE due to advection, dispersion, and linear sorption is simulated over a 25-year historic period. The model is used in several ways: (1) to estimate the extent of the plume; (2) to confirm the likely sources of contamination as suggested by a soil organic vapor survey of the site; and (3) to make predictions about future movement of the plume. Despite the noisy and incomplete data set, the model reproduces the general trends in contamination at a number of observation wells. The analysis indicates that soil organic vapor monitoring is an effective tool for identifying contaminant source locations. Leaky sewer pipes and underground tanks are the indicated pathways for TCE to have entered the groundwater system. The chemical mass balance indicates that a total of about 100 gallons of TCE - a relatively small amount of organic solvent - has created the observed groundwater plume. ?? 1989.

  10. Rapid changes in dissolved humic substances in Spirit Lake and South Fork Castle Lake, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Thorn, K.A.; Wershaw, R. L.; Bracewell, J.M.; Robertson, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    One major effect of the eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, was a large increase of dissolved organic material in the lakes of the area devastated near the volcano. Much of this material was aquatic fulvic acid derived from plants and soils from the surrounding watershed. During the 3 yr after the eruption, substantial chemical changes occurred in the aquatic fulvic acid. -from Authors

  11. Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations.

    PubMed

    Rowberry, Matt D; Martí, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco J; Briestenský, Miloš

    2016-06-01

    Cave radon concentration measurements reflect the outcome of a perpetual competition which pitches flux against ventilation and radioactive decay. The mass balance equations used to model changes in radon concentration through time routinely treat flux as a constant. This mathematical simplification is acceptable as a first order approximation despite the fact that it sidesteps an intrinsic geological problem: the majority of radon entering a cavity is exhaled as a result of advection along crustal discontinuities whose motions are inhomogeneous in both time and space. In this paper the dynamic nature of flux is investigated and the results are used to predict cave radon concentration for successive iterations. The first part of our numerical modelling procedure focuses on calculating cave air flow velocity while the second part isolates flux in a mass balance equation to simulate real time dependence among the variables. It is then possible to use this information to deliver an expression for computing cave radon concentration for successive iterations. The dynamic variables in the numerical model are represented by the outer temperature, the inner temperature, and the radon concentration while the static variables are represented by the radioactive decay constant and a range of parameters related to geometry of the cavity. Input data were recorded at Driny Cave in the Little Carpathians Mountains of western Slovakia. Here the cave passages have developed along splays of the NE-SW striking Smolenice Fault and a series of transverse faults striking NW-SE. Independent experimental observations of fault slip are provided by three permanently installed mechanical extensometers. Our numerical modelling has revealed four important flux anomalies between January 2010 and August 2011. Each of these flux anomalies was preceded by conspicuous fault slip anomalies. The mathematical procedure outlined in this paper will help to improve our understanding of radon migration

  12. Multi-temporal analysis of an agricultural landscape transformation and abandonment (Lubietová, Central Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masný, Matej; Zaušková, Lubica

    2015-12-01

    Socio-political changes in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe in the era of socialism had significant effects on agricultural landscape. Collectivisation (1950 - 1970) lost almost all of traditional agricultural landscapes. On the other hand, the phenomenon of agricultural abandonment started to be significant after 1989. In the model area (part of The Polana Biosphere Reserve) these two processes that formed the agricultural landscape structure were analysed. The analyses were carried out using orthophotos that represented the landscape structure in 1949, 1986 and 2006. It was found that almost complete extinction of the traditional agricultural landscape represented by a mosaic of narrow fields and permanent grasslands occurred during the period. At the same time, increasing trend of abandonment processes was observed. In 2006, non-forestwoody vegetation covered 48% of agricultural land.Natural reforestation as the final stage of agricultural abandonment extended to 46% on the former agricultural land in 2006. Abandonment processes were the most significant already in the period of socialist agriculture. To describe the changes, landscape metrics such as Number of patches (NP), Mean patch size (MPS), Patch size standard deviation (PSSD) and Mean shape index (MSI) were used.

  13. Safety Assessment for VLLW Disposal at the National Radioactive Waste Repository Mochovce in Slovakia - 13508

    SciTech Connect

    Biurrun, E.; Haverkamp, B.; Lazaro, A.; Miralles, A.

    2013-07-01

    Recent developments in the Slovak Republic have prompted the need to introduce the new category of very low level waste (VLLW) in the operation of the country's repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW). By doing this, significant savings are expected to be achieved while disposing the waste resulting from early decommissioning of older, Soviet type reactors. To study the feasibility and the likely impact of such introduction, a project was launched and assigned in international competition to a German-Spanish consortium. The study confirmed by means of a safety assessment the feasibility of this waste category in the specific context of the Slovakian repository. Moreover, the advantages that such new waste category would render were stressed and the best option for enlargement of the repository, the construction of a module for LILW disposal within the limits of the existing repository, was identified. (authors)

  14. Geochronological evidence for the Alpine tectono-thermal evolution of the Veporic Unit (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtko, Rastislav; Králiková, Silvia; Jeřábek, Petr; Schuster, Ralf; Danišík, Martin; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Minár, Jozef; Madarás, Ján

    2016-01-01

    Tectono-thermal evolution of the Veporic Unit was revealed by multiple geochronological methods, including 87Rb/86Sr on muscovite and biotite, zircon and apatite fission-track, and apatite (U-Th)/He analysis. Based on the new data, the following Alpine tectono-thermal stages can be distinguished: The Eo-Alpine Cretaceous nappe stacking (~ 135-95 Ma) resulted in burial of the Veporic Unit beneath the northward overthrusting Gemeric Unit and overlying Jurassic Meliata accretionary wedge. During this process the Veporic Unit reached metamorphic peak of greenschist- to amphibolite facies accompanied by orogen-parallel flow in its lower and middle crust. The subsequent evolution of this crust is associated with two distinct exhumation mechanisms related to collision with the northerly Tatric-Fatric basement. The first mechanism (~ 90-80 Ma) is associated with internal subhorizontal shortening of the Veporic Unit reflected by large-scale upright folding and heterogeneous exhumation of the Veporic lower crust in the cores of crustal-scale antiforms. This led to juxtaposition of the higher and lower grade parts of basement, all cooled down to ~ 350 °C by ~ 80 Ma. The second mechanism is associated with the overthrusting of the Veporic Unit over the attenuated Fatric crust. This led to a passive en-block exhumation of the Veporic crust from ~ 350 °C to 60 °C between ~ 80 and 55 Ma followed by erosion (~ 55-35 Ma). The erosion processes resulted in formation of planation surface before the Late Eocene transgression. After erosion and planation, a new sedimentary cycle of the Central Carpathian Palaeogene Basin was deposited with the sedimentary strata thickness of ~ 1.5-2.0 km (~ 21-17 Ma). The early to middle Miocene is characterised by destruction tectonic disintegration and erosion of this basin (~ 20-13 Ma) and formation of the Neogene Vepor Stratovolcano (~ 13 Ma). The final shaping of the area has been linked to erosional processes of the volcanic structure since the Late Sarmatian with accelerated processes during the Plio-Quaternary.

  15. Mycobiota and mycotoxins in bee pollen collected from different areas of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Kačániová, Miroslava; Juráček, Miroslav; Chlebo, Róbert; Kňazovická, Vladimíra; Kadasi-Horáková, Miriam; Kunová, Simona; Lejková, Jadža; Haščík, Peter; Mareček, Ján; Simko, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Contamination by microscopic fungi and mycotoxins in different bee pollen samples, which were stored under three different ways of storing as freezing, drying and UV radiation, was investigated. During spring 2009, 45 samples of bee-collected pollen were gathered from beekeepers who placed their bee colonies on monocultures of sunflower, rape and poppy fields within their flying distance. Bee pollen was collected from bees' legs by special devices placed at the entrance to hives. Samples were examined for the concentration and identification of microscopic fungi able to grow on Malt and Czapek-Dox agar and mycotoxins content [deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2), zearalenone (ZON) and total aflatoxins (AFL), fumonisins (FUM), ochratoxins (OTA)] by direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The total number of microscopic fungi in this study ranged from 2.98 ± 0.02 in frozen sunflower bee pollen to 4.06 ± 0.10 log cfu.g(-1) in sunflower bee pollen after UV radiation. In this study, 449 isolates belonging to 21 fungal species representing 9 genera were found in 45 samples of bee pollen. The total isolates were detected in frozen poppy pollen 29, rape pollen 40, sunflower pollen 80, in dried poppy pollen 12, rape pollen 36, sunflower 78, in poppy pollen after UV radiation treatment 54, rape 59 and sunflower 58. The most frequent isolates of microscopic fungi found in bee pollen samples of all prevalent species were Mucor mucedo (49 isolates), Alternaria alternata (40 isolates), Mucor hiemalis (40 isolates), Aspergillus fumigatus (33 isolates) and Cladosporium cladosporioides (31 isolates). The most frequently found isolates were detected in sunflower bee pollen frozen (80 isolates) and the lowest number of isolates was observed in poppy bee pollen dried (12 isolates). The most prevalent mycotoxin of poppy bee pollen was ZON (361.55 ± 0.26 μg.kg(-1)), in rape bee pollen T-2 toxin (265.40 ± 0.18 μg.kg(-1)) and in sunflower bee pollen T-2 toxin (364.72 ± 0.13 μg.kg(-1)) in all cases in frozen samples.

  16. Lung nematodes of chamois, Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica, from the Tatra National Park, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Stefancíková, A; Chovancová, B; Dubinský, P; Tomasovicová, O; Corba, J; Königová, A; Hovorka, I; Vasilková, Z

    1999-09-01

    A larvoscopic examination of faeces collected from localities inhibited by chamois in the Tatra National Park (TANAP) in 1997 demonstrated the presence of the lung nematodes Muellerius spp. (likely to be M. tenuispiculatus and M. capillaris) and Neostrongylus linearis. The overall prevalence of lung nematodes in chamois herds in TANAP was 48.4% with prevalences of 45.6% and 11.9% for Muellerius spp. and N. linearis, respectively. No significant differences in lung nematode prevalences were observed in the biotopes of TANAP with prevalence values of 44.9% being recorded in the High Tatras and 58.5% in the Belianske Tatras. Individual species were in equal proportion in both biotopes, although N. linearis was significantly less prevalent (11.2-13.8%). The prevalence of lung nematodes in the High Tatras varied from 25.0 to 84.2% within individual localities, while in the Belianske Tatras it was more proportionate (50.0-85.7%). In the High Tatras, the prevalence of lung nematodes in the chamois herds peaked during August, declining to its lowest in October. A similar prevalence was also recorded for Muellerius species, while the minimum prevalence of N. linearis was found in July. In the Belianske Tatras, the prevalence of lung nematodes including both species of Muellerius peaked in July and gradually decreased until October. On the other hand, N. linearis was most prevalent in October. The mean L1 count per gram faeces was low (7.6 +/- 13.2 larvae g-1).

  17. A late Burdigalian bathyal mollusc fauna from the Vienna Basin (Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg; Schlögl, Jan

    2011-06-01

    This is the first record of a bathyal mollusc fauna from the late Early Miocene of the Central Paratethys. The assemblage shows clear affinities to coeval faunas of the Turin Hills in the Mediterranean area and the Aquitaine Basin in France. The overall biostratigraphic value of the assemblage is hard to estimate due to the general very poor knowledge of Miocene bathyal faunas. Several species, however, are known from deep water deposits of the Middle Miocene Badenian stage as well. This implies Early Miocene roots of parts of the Middle Miocene deep water fauna and suggests a low turnover for bathyal mollusc communities at the Early-Middle Miocene boundary. The nassariid gastropod Nassarius janschloegli Harzhauser nov. sp. and the naticid gastropod Polinices cerovaensis Harzhauser nov. sp. are introduced as new species.

  18. The diversity of yeasts associated with grapes and musts of the Strekov winegrowing region, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Nemcová, Kornélia; Breierová, Emília; Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana

    2015-03-01

    Many different yeast species have been isolated from grapes and musts worldwide. The diversity and frequency of yeasts depend on a number of factors such as the grape variety, the physical damage of the grapes, the weather conditions and the chemical composition of must. A total of 366 isolates were associated with the three grape cultivars: Blue Frankish, Green Veltliner and Sauvignon blanc over four consecutive years. Yeast cultures were isolated from the grapes and from the fermenting musts after the first and seventh days. The ascomycetous yeasts of the genera Aureobasidium, Candida, Hanseniaspora, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Saccharomycopsis together with basidiomycetous yeasts of the genera Cryptococcus, Dioszegia, Filobasidium, Rhodotorula and Sporidiobolus were associated with the three grape varieties. Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii and Sporidiobolus pararoseus were found on the berries in significant amounts. P. kluyveri and P. kudriavzevii were more associated with the damaged grapes, whereas Sp. pararoseus with intact ones. H. uvarum and M. pulcherrima were present on both types of grapes almost equally. The yeast composition and quantitative representation of yeast species varied over the grape varieties and the years examined. Although the basidiomycetous species formed a significant proportion of the yeast population in some individual grape variety/year combinations, the ascomycetous species were dominant. PMID:25253264

  19. Isotopie tracing of groundwater at Žitný ostrov (SW Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povinec, P. P.; Ženišová, Z.; Breier, R.; Richtáriková, M.; Šivo, A.

    2012-04-01

    Geostatistical analysis of experimental isotope data has been carried out with the aim to study spatial variations in the distribution of water isotopes and radiocarbon in groundwater of Žitný ostrov (Rye Island), which is the largest reservoir (about 10 Gm3) of groundwater in the Central Europe. Subsurface water profiles showed enriched δ18O levels at around 20 m water depth and depleted values below 30 m, which are similar to those observed in the Danube River. The core of the subsurface 14C profile represents contemporary groundwater with 14C values above 80pMC.

  20. Mineralogical composition of Sb-rich mine waste in Pezinok, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majzlan, J.; Chovan, M.; Lalinska, B.; Göttlicher, J.; Steininger, R.

    2009-04-01

    Antimony is classified as a priority pollutant; it is known to be toxic and probably also carcinogenic. Nevertheless, little attention is paid to this pollutant in comparison with its geochemical cousin, the element arsenic, because they commonly occur together. At past or active mining sites, the primary Sb minerals (mostly stibnite, Sb2S3) weather to form Sb oxides, Sb-rich hydrous ferric oxide, or to release Sb into the environment. The Pezinok deposit was mined until 1992 and left ~380000 m3 of waste behind. Beside the rock-forming silicates, the waste contains mostly Fe oxides enriched in Sb and As. A minor fraction of the grains represents Sb oxides where Sb prevails over Fe and As. The back-scattered electron images suggest that the Fe-rich grains grew by precipitation from the aqueous solutions. On the other hand, the Sb-rich grains formed most likely by in-situ oxidation and transformation from stibnite (Sb2S3). X-ray microdiffraction was carried out at the SUL-X beamline at the ANKA synchrotron source to identify the mineral phases present in the waste. The most common phase is goethite, very often with elevated Sb content. Interestingly, Fe oxides with higher As content appear to be X-ray amorphous. The grains where Sb dominates over Fe are poorly crystalline; Rietveld refinement of our patterns hints that this material is structurally close to the mineral tripuhyite (FeSbO4). The presence of poorly crystalline iron oxides (ferrihydrite) is likely but was obscured by intense background from the supporting glass. X-ray fluorescence confirmed the close association of Fe and As in the studied samples. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra measured on multiple weathering grains showed that arsenic is always present in its highest oxidation state, i.e., as As5+. The collected extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectra can be interpreted in terms of tetrahedral coordination of As by oxygen (as (AsO4)3-); the weaker features in the second coordination shell correspond probably to the bidentate-binuclear complex that has been postulated on the iron oxides in previously published studies. Currently, we are analysing the As EXAFS spectra from grains where Sb predominates and is assumed to be pentavalent.

  1. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Slovakia 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Marta; Aichova, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    The decisions related to the national curriculum are made at central level. The curriculum development is under responsibility of the National Institute for Education (organisation directly managed by the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic). "Zakladna skola" provides teaching of compulsory subjects, included separate compulsory art…

  2. Medical geochemistry research in Spissko-Gemerské rudohorie Mts., Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Rapant, S; Cvecková, V; Dietzová, Z; Khun, M; Letkovicová, M

    2009-02-01

    This study presents an assessment of the potential impact of geological contamination of the environment on the health of the population in Spissko-Gemerské rudohorie Mts. (SGR Mts.). The concentration levels of potentially toxic elements (mainly As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn) were determined in soils, groundwater, surface water, and stream sediments as well as in the food chain (locally grown vegetables). A medical study included some 30 health indicators for all 98 municipalities of the study area. The As and Sb contents in human fluids and tissues were analyzed in one municipality identified to be at the highest risk. Based on element content, environmental and health risks were calculated for respective municipalities. Out of 98 municipalities 14 were characterized with extremely high environmental risk and 10 were characterized with very high carcinogenic risk from arsenic (groundwater). Extensive statistical analysis of geochemical data (element contents in soils, groundwater, surface water, and stream sediments) and health indicators was performed. Significant correlations between element contents in the geological environment and health indicators, mainly cancer and cardiovascular diseases, were identified. Biological monitoring has confirmed the transfer of elements from the geological environment to human fluids and tissues as well as to the local food chain.

  3. Application of the Rural Development Index to Analysis of Rural Regions in Poland and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalek, Jerzy; Zarnekow, Nana

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to construct a multi-dimensional (composite) index measuring the overall level of rural development and quality of life in individual rural regions of a given EU country. In the Rural Development Index (RDI) the rural development domains are represented by hundreds of partial socio-economic, environmental,…

  4. Fatal alcohol intoxication in women: A forensic autopsy study from Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Plenty of information related to alcoholism can be found in the literature, however, the studies have mostly dealt with the predominance of male alcoholism and data related to addiction in women are desperately scarce and difficult to find. Basic demographic data focusing on the impact of acute alcohol intoxication on the circumstances of death and social behaviour in the alcohol addicted female population are needed especially in the prevention of alcohol related mortality. Methods A retrospective forensic autopsy study of all accidental deaths due to alcohol intoxication over a 12-year period was performed in order to evaluate the locations, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. Results A sample of 171 cases of intoxicated women who died due to blood alcohol concentration (BAC) equal to or higher than 2 g/kg was selected. Among them 36.26% (62/171) of women died due to acute alcohol intoxication (AAI). We noted an increase in the number of deaths in women due to AAI from 2 in 1994 up to 5 in 2005 (an elevation of 150% between the years 1994-2005). The age structure of deaths in women due to BAC and AAI followed the Gaussian distribution with a dominant group of women aged 41-50 years (45.16% and 35.09% respectively). The most frequent place of death (98%) among women intoxicated by alcohol was their own home. The study suggests a close connection between AAI and violence against women. Conclusions The increasing number of cases of death of women suffering from AAI has drawn attention to the serious problem of alcoholism in women in the Slovak Republic during the process of integration into "western" lifestyle and culture. PMID:22168833

  5. Homocysteine and its nutritional determinants in two ethnic groups of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Blazícek, P; Ginter, E; Valachicová, M

    2004-12-01

    Determinants of total homocysteine involve demographic (age, sex, ethnic origin), genetic (enzymatic defects of metabolic homocysteine pathways) and acquired factors (deficiency of B-group vitamins, state of health, lifestyle). Plasma levels of total homocysteine and serum levels of vitamin B12, folic acid, vitamin B6 were measured in adult apparently healthy Romany minority subjects (n=119) and compared with those levels in apparently healthy subjects of majority Slovak population (n=146). Mean homocysteine level was similar in both groups (9.92 micromol/l in the Romany vs. 9.61 micromol/l in majority group). Hyperhomocysteinemia was only observed in 3% of both ethnic probands. Vitamin B12 level was equal (301 micromol/l in the Romany and 311 micromol/ in majority group). Deficient levels were found in 4% of the Romany subjects and 9% of the majority subjects. Folic acid level was significantly lower in Romany group (11.3 nmol/l vs. 14.8 nmol/l) with deficiency in 42% of the Romany subjects vs. 28% in the majority subjects. This finding is a consequence of lower consumption of fruit, vegetables, pulses and whole grain products in the Romany group. Vitamin B6 deficiency was found in 68% of the Romany subjects and 40% of majority subjects. This vitamin is homocysteine determinant under excessive methionine intake (overnutrition with predominance of animal protein intake). As was demonstrated in a dietetic questionnaires, the Romany subjects are more frequent consumers of meat and eggs. This nutrition regime should indicate an increased homocysteine level under vitamin B6 deficiency. The results of normal homocysteine levels in the Romany population under condition of higher folic acid and vitamin B6 deficiencies, smoking and higher alcohol consumption may suggest a more effective homocysteine metabolism in relation to different ethnic origin.

  6. A new IBA-AMS laboratory at the Comenius University in Bratislava (Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povinec, Pavel P.; Masarik, Jozef; Kúš, Peter; Holý, Karol; Ješkovský, Miroslav; Breier, Robert; Staníček, Jaroslav; Šivo, Alexander; Richtáriková, Marta; Kováčik, Andrej; Szarka, Ján; Steier, Peter; Priller, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    A Centre for Nuclear and Accelerator Technologies (CENTA) has been established at the Comenius University in Bratislava comprising of a tandem laboratory designed for Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), Ion Beam Modification (IBM) of materials and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The main equipment of the laboratory, i.e. Alphatross and MC-SNICS ion sources, 3 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator, and analyzers of accelerated ions are described. Optimization of ion beam characteristics for different ion sources with gas and solid targets, for transmission of accelerated ions with different energy and charge state, for different parameters of the high-energy ion analyzers, as well as first AMS results are presented. The scientific program of the CENTA will be devoted mainly to nuclear, environmental, life and material sciences.

  7. Prevalence of Sedentary Behaviour in Young People in Romania and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soos, Istvan; Biddle, Stuart; Boros-Balint, Iuliana; Sandor, Iosif; Szabo, Peter; Hamar, Pal; Simonek, Jaromir

    2012-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour is becoming a popular area of health research, but most studies report data on samples from Australia, the UK and USA, and on a narrow range of behaviours. The present study reports on the prevalence of multiple sedentary behaviours in a sample of secondary school students (n = 635; mean age 16.0 years) from Romania and…

  8. The occurrence of coliform bacteria in the cave waters of Slovak Karst, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Seman, Milan; Gaálová, Barbora; Cíchová, Marianna; Prokšová, Miloslava; Haviarová, Dagmar; Fľaková, Renáta

    2015-05-01

    The diversity and abundance of coliform bacteria (taxonomically enterobacterias), an important quality water indicator, were determined for four representative caves in Slovak Karst: Domica Cave, Gombasecká Cave, Milada Cave and Krásnohorská Cave. Three hundred and fifty-two enterobacterial isolates were successfully identified by biochemical testing (commercial ENTEROtest 24) and selected isolates confirmed by molecular techniques (PCR, 16S rDNA sequence analysis). A total of 39 enterobacterial species were isolated from cave waters, with predominance of Escherichia coli, Serratia spp. and Enterobacter spp. PCR amplification of lacZ gene is not specific enough to provide a reliable detection of coliform bacteria isolated from the environment. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA confirmed that all of the selected isolates belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. In general, physical and chemical parameters of cave waters in Slovak Karst corresponded to national drinking water quality standards.

  9. A moat around castle walls. The role of axillary and facial hair in lymph node protection from mutagenic factors.

    PubMed

    Komarova, Svetlana V

    2006-01-01

    Axillary hair is a highly conserved phenotypical feature in humans, and as such deserves at least consideration of its functional significance. Protection from environmental factors is one of the main functions attributed to hair in furred vertebrates, but is believed to be inapplicable to humans. I considered the hypothesis that the phenotypic preservation of axillary hair is due to its unrecognized role in the organism protection. Two immediate questions arise--what exactly is being protected and what it is protected from. A large group of axillary lymph nodes represents a major difference between underarms and the adjacent areas of the trunk. The consideration of potential factors from which hair can offer protection identifies sunlight as the most likely candidate. Intense sweat production underarms may represent an independent defense mechanism, specifically protecting lymph nodes from overheating. Moreover, the pattern of facial hair growth in males strikingly overlaps with the distribution of superficial lymph nodes, suggesting potential role for facial hair in protection of lymph nodes, and possibly thymus and thyroid. The idea of lymph node protection from environmental mutagenic factors, such as UV radiation and heat, appears particularly important in light of wide association of lymph nodes with cancers. The position of contemporary fashion towards body hair is aggressively negative, including the social pressure for removal of axillary and bikini line hair for women, facial hair for men in many professional occupations, and even body hair for men. If this hypothesis is proven to be true, the implications will be significant for immunology (by providing new insights in lymph node physiology), health sciences (depilation is painful and therefore easily modifiable habit if proven to increase disease risk), as well as art, social fashion and economy.

  10. "The Castle of Remembrance": New insights from a cognitive training programme for autobiographical memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lalanne, Jennifer; Gallarda, Thierry; Piolino, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Autobiographical memory deficits are prominent from the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and result in a loss of personal identity. Nevertheless, standardised methods of autobiographical memory stimulation for the neuropsychological rehabilitation of patients with AD remain underdeveloped. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of a new cognitive training programme for autobiographical memory (REMau) on both the episodic and semantic components of autobiographical memory performance across lifetime periods, as well as on mood. Pre/post evaluations were conducted on two groups of patients with early to moderate AD, assigned to one of two different training activities: either the REMau or a cognitive training programme focused on collective semantic memory. Statistical comparisons showed significant improvement of episodic and semantic autobiographical memory performance in the REMau group, which was more pronounced for the semantic component, as well as improved mood. By contrast, deleterious pre/post differences were observed in the other group. Most interestingly, this study showed that the REMau programme boosted autobiographical memory from the reminiscence bump period, which is considered crucial for the construction and maintenance of personal identity. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these results for the reduction of autobiographical memory deficits in AD. PMID:25122521

  11. Operation Castle. Project 7. 1. Electromagnetic radiation calibration, Pacific )roving ground. Report for March-May 1954

    SciTech Connect

    Olseon, M.H.

    1984-08-31

    A total of 17 stations, one close-in (320 km from Bikini and 23 km from Eniwetok) and the balance at distances, were operated for the electromagnetic experimental effort. Seventy-four sets of data were obtained from a possible total of 102. Of the remaining 28 sets, no data were obtained because equipment was not in operation, records were not readable, the alert notifications were not received, signals were not discernible, or equipment malfunctioned.

  12. Sāfitā castle and rockfalls in the 'dead villages' of coastal Syria - an archaeoseismological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kázmér, Miklós; Major, Balázs

    2015-07-01

    Sāfītā, a crusader fortification in Tartūs Governorate, coastal Syria, bears major damages of earthquake origin. The tower suffered heavy vibration, which produced fractures across the thick walls, widening the central portion of the building, and causing arch keystones to slide downwards. Apparently a ∼north-south strong motion was responsible for the damages. Further north, at Khirbat al-Qurshiyya, an abandoned village from Late Antiquity, a quarry abounds with fallen blocks. These display displacement predominantly in a northerly direction, suggesting a north-south strong motion. 'Ayn-Qadīb, a small village in the Jabal Ansāriyya ranges, was damaged by a northward-directed rockfall. A contemporary letter testifies to the fact that Sāfītā donjon was heavily damaged by the AD 1202 earthquake. The Yammouneh Fault, which probably caused the damage, is only 50 km away further south.

  13. Paleogene volcanic rocks of the Matanuska Valley area and the displacement history of the Castle Mountain fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberman, M. L.; Grantz, A.

    Primitive strontium-isotopic composition and overall bimodal distribution of silica in upper Paleocene and Eocene subalkalic tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalt and low-potassium rhyolite of the Matanuska Valley and southern Talkeetna Mountains suggest that these rocks were derived from the mantle with little contamination by continental crust. The volcanic rocks consist of rhyolite tuff and ash flows, as well as basalt flows and dikes, in the nonmarine Arkose Ridge Formation of the southwestern Talkeetna Mountains; of subaerial basalt and andesite flows, tuff, and mafic intrusions in the southeastern Talkeetna Mountains; and of felsic and mafic dikes, sills, and small plutons in the Matanuska Valley. The generalized geology of the area in which the volcanic rocks occur and the localities sampled for potassium-argon-age determinations and for chemical and strontinum-isotopic analysis are shown. The analytical results are listed.

  14. 78 FR 64912 - Approval of Expansion of Subzone 99E, Delaware City Refining Company LLC, New Castle County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Expansion of Subzone 99E, Delaware City Refining Company LLC, New... application to the Board to expand Subzone 99E at the facilities of Delaware City Refining Company LLC... inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (78 FR 25698-25699, 05-02-13) and...

  15. Total Quality & Basic Skills. The TQ Castle--Using Basic Skills Development to Evade Alligators in the Moat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewe, Glenda

    1994-01-01

    Key skills required in the total quality workplace are cross-functional teaming, interpreting charts/graphs, oral communication, brainstorming, understanding cause/effect, categorizing ideas, critical pathing, formulating suggestions, analyzing the needs of internal and external customers, and writing status reports. (SK)

  16. Harpactoxanthopsis quadrilobata (Desmarest, 1822) from the Eocene of Slovakia and Italy: the phenomenon of inverted images of fossil heterochelous crabs

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    This short note provides details on a specimen of Harpactoxanthopsis quadrilobata (Desmarest, 1822) deposited in the Natural History Museum of Slovak National Museum in Bratislava which was figured in the monograph by Lőrenthey and Beurlen (1929). The phenomenon of inverted images of fossil heterochelous crabs in the literature published in the 19th century is documented on the example of H. quadrilobata from the Eocene of Italy. PMID:25983384

  17. Possibilities of Implementation of Small Business Check-Up Methodology in Comparative Analysis of Secondary Schools and Universities in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Štofková, Katarína; Strícek, Ivan; Štofková, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The paper is aimed to evaluate the possibility of applying new methods and tools of more effective educational processes, with an emphasis on increasing their quality especially aimed on educational processes at secondary schools and universities. There are some contributions from practice for the effective implementation of time management, such…

  18. Do eating habits of the population living in Roma settlements differ from those of the majority population in Slovakia?

    PubMed

    Hijová, Emília; Gecková, Andrea Madarasová; Babinská, Ingrid

    2014-03-01

    Living in Roma settlements is associated with worse health in comparison with the majority population; this might be partially explained by socioeconomic disadvantages as well as cultural differences, including lifestyle. Eating habits represent an important part of lifestyle closely related to primary causes of morbidity and mortality, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases or cancers. The eating habits of the population living in Roma settlements in comparison with those of the majority population were explored using the cross-sectional epidemiological HepaMeta study conducted in 2011. A representative sample of Roma (n = 452, mean age = 34.7; 35.2% men) and non-Roma (n = 403, mean age = 33.5; 45.9% men) aged 18-55 years living in the Kosice region were asked about breakfasting and recent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, meat products, meat, farinaceous dishes, and soft drinks. A logistic regression model was used separately for male and female participants. The population living in Roma settlements reported the recent consumption of fruit, vegetables and dairy products significantly less frequently in comparison with the majority population. Moreover, Roma females, in comparison with non-Roma females, reported significantly more frequently the consumption of meat and soft drinks. No differences were found between Roma and non-Roma in the consumption of meat products and farinaceous dishes. The population living in Roma settlements reported more frequently unhealthy eating habits in comparison with the majority population; this might contribute to worse health status of this population. The differences might be attributed to cultural differences between ethnic as well as socioeconomic groups, reduced availability of certain food items due to segregation or poverty and lower health literacy.

  19. Impact of Air Pollution on Age and Gender Related Increase in Cough Reflex Sensitivity of Healthy Children in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Demoulin-Alexikova, Silvia; Plevkova, Jana; Mazurova, Lenka; Zatko, Tomas; Alexik, Mikulas; Hanacek, Jan; Tatar, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies show higher cough reflex sensitivity (CRS) and cough outcomes in children compared to adults and in females compared to males. Despite close link that exists between cough and environment the potential influence of environmental air pollution on age- and gender -related differences in cough has not been studied yet. Purpose: The purpose of our study was to analyse whether the effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from parental smoking and PM10 from living in urban area are implied in age- and gender-related differences in cough outcomes of healthy, non-asthmatic children. Assessment of CRS using capsaicin and incidence of dry and wet cough was performed in 290 children (mean age 13.3 ± 2.6 years (138 females/152 males). Results: CRS was significantly higher in girls exposed to ETS [22.3 μmol/l (9.8–50.2 μmol/l)] compared to not exposed girls [79.9 μmol/l (56.4–112.2 μmol/l), p = 0.02] as well as compared to exposed boys [121.4 μmol/l (58.2–253.1 μmol/l), p = 0.01]. Incidence of dry cough lasting more than 3 weeks was significantly higher in exposed compared to not exposed girls. CRS was significantly higher in school-aged girls living in urban area [22.0 μmol/l (10.6–45.6 μmol/l)] compared to school-aged girls living in rural area [215.9 μmol/l (87.3–533.4 μmol/l); p = 0.003], as well as compared to teenage girls living in urban area [108.8 μmol/l (68.7–172.9 μmol/l); p = 0.007]. No CRS differences were found between urban and rural boys when controlled for age group. No CRS differences were found between school-aged and teenage boys when controlled for living area. Conclusions: Our results have shown that the effect of ETS on CRS was gender specific, linked to female gender and the effect of PM10 on CRS was both gender and age specific, related to female gender and school-age. We suggest that age and gender related differences in incidence of cough and CRS might be, at least partially, ascribed to the effect of environmental pollutants. The role of age and gender in the effect of air pollution on cough strongly suggest some interplay of development with biological and behavioral factors. PMID:26941651

  20. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Nižná Boca Sb-Au Hydrothermal Ore Deposit (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Alexander; Pršek, Jaroslav; Chovan, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Samples from hydrothermal Sb-Au mineralization in the area SE of Nižná Boca village in the N&iAzke Tatry Mountains were investigated using a variety of geochemical and mineralogical methods. Ore minerals typically occur in N-S striking quartz-carbonate veins hosted by an I-type biotite granodiorite to tonalite of Variscan Age (the Ďumbier Type). Paragenetic associations in the deposit are comparable to other mineralizations of the same type in the Ďumbierske Nízke Tatry Mountains. A quartz-arsenopyrite, pyrite stage of mineralization is the oldest with a calculated temperature of formation of about 445°C. It is followed by a quartz-carbonate-stibnite, zinkenite stage and, in turn, a quartz-carbonate-sphalerite-galena, boulangerite-gold stage. The gold typically contains between 9-18 wt.% Ag regardless of mineral association. No evidence for further generations of gold was found although it is possible that some gold was remobilized from the structure of the auriferous arsenopyrite. The Au and Ag content of the bulk ore ranges from 0.53 g.t-1 to 20.2 g.t-1 and from 0.9 g.t-1 to 31.2 g.t-1, respectively. A tetrahedrite-chalcopyrite stage is followed by a barite-hematite stage - the youngest assemblage in the deposit. Fluid inclusions from the first mineralization stage are usually less than 3 μm in size and contain less than 3.6 wt.% CO2; salinity, density and homogenization temperature range from 2.7-16.3 wt.% NaCl(eq), 0.85-1.03 g.cm-1 and 128-280°C, respectively.

  1. Stratigraphy, plankton communities, and magnetic proxies at the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary in the Pieniny Klippen Belt (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalík, Jozef; Reháková, Daniela; Grabowski, Jacek; Lintnerová, Otília; Svobodová, Andrea; Schlögl, Ján; Sobień, Katarzyna; Schnabl, Petr

    2016-08-01

    A well preserved Upper Tithonian-Lower Berriasian Strapkova sequence of hemipelagic limestones improves our understanding of environmental changes occurring at the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary in the Western Carpathians. Three dinoflagellate and four calpionellid zones have been recognized in the section. The onset of the Alpina Subzone of the standard Calpionella Zone, used as a marker of the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary is defined by morphological change of Calpionella alpina tests. Calpionellids and calcified radiolarians numerically dominate in microplankton assemblages. The first occurrence of Nannoconus wintereri indicates the beginning of the nannofossil zone NJT 17b Subzone. The FO of Nannoconus steinmannii minor was documented in the lowermost part of the Alpina Subzone. This co-occurrence of calpionellid and nannoplankton events along the J/K boundary transition is typical of other Tethyan sections. Correlation of calcareous microplankton, of stable isotopes (C, O), and TOC/CaCO3 data distribution was used in the characterization of the J/K boundary interval. δ13C values (from +1.09 to 1.44 ‰ VPDB) do not show any temporal trends and thus show a relatively balanced carbon-cycle regime in sea water across the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary. The presence of radiolarian laminites, interpreted as contourites, and relatively high levels of bioturbation in the Berriasian prove oxygenation events of bottom waters. The lower part of the Crassicolaria Zone (up to the middle part of the Intermedia Subzone) correlates with the M19r magnetozone. The M19n magnetozone includes not only the upper part of the Crassicollaria Zone and lower part of the Alpina Subzone but also the FO of Nannoconus wintereri and Nannoconus steinmannii minor. The reverse Brodno magnetosubzone (M19n1r) was identified in the uppermost part of M19n. The top of M18r and M18n magnetozones are located in the upper part of the Alpina Subzone and in the middle part of the Ferasini Subzone, respectively. The Ferasini/Elliptica subzonal boundary is located in the lowermost part of the M17r magnetozone. A little bit higher in the M17r magnetozone the FO of Nannoconus steinmannii steinmannii was identified.

  2. Developing a Motivational Teaching Practice in EFL Teachers in Slovakia: Challenges of Promoting Teacher Change in EFL Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubanyiova, Magdalena

    2006-01-01

    Raising awareness of the teacher's role in creating conducive learning environments has not traditionally been part of the aims of EFL teacher preparation programmes. This longitudinal mixed methods study explores the impact of a 20-hour experiential in-service teacher development course with the knowledge base drawn from L2 motivation theory,…

  3. 77 FR 74555 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 242... diseases not currently present or prevalent in this country. The regulations in 9 CFR part 94 (referred to... regulations provide for the listing of regions of the world that APHIS considers free of, or low- risk...

  4. In-situ ground gamma spectrometry — an effective tool for geological mapping (the Male Karpaty Mts., Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojzeš, Andrej; Porubčanová, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    This contribution presents the results of profile in-situ gamma spectrometry measurements that sought to determine the content of natural radionuclides 40K, 238U and 232Th in a near surface horizon of rocks, their weathering cover and soils in the area of the Malé Karpaty Mts. It is widely established that the exploration of radioactivity of bedrocks and cover rocks can be a very effective and useful tool for both geological mapping, for identifying deposits of mineral resources, and even addressing the issues of structural and tectonic geology. This assertion is equally confirmed by the ground gamma spectrometry measurements carried out as part of this case study on larger scales, seeking more detailed geological structure solutions. The results obtained provide a welcome addition to an already existing database, which monitors the content of naturally occurring radionuclides individually for every rock lithotype of the Western Carpathians, by elaborating on the data collected by previous research and by updating this database for any future needs. The presented results confirmed the low to medium radioactivity levels of rocks and soils in the studied area. The highest values were detected in granitoids and metamorfic phyllitic rocks of the Malé Karpaty Mts. core; the lowest values were detected in carbonates, arenaceous sediments and, above all, amphibolite bodies. In this way, the presented results of the interpreted profile (P5) confirm the model of local geological structure as represented on the most up-to-date edition of the geological map of the Male Karpaty Mts. (Polak et al. 2011).

  5. Sympatric occurrence of Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks and Rickettsia and Babesia species in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Svehlová, Andrea; Berthová, Lenka; Sallay, Balázs; Boldiš, Vojtech; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Spitalská, Eva

    2014-09-01

    Vojka nad Dunajom in the south-west of the Slovak Republic is a locality with sympatric occurrence of 3 species of ticks. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus, Ixodes ricinus, and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks in this area and determined the prevalence of Babesia and Rickettsia species in questing adults of these tick species considered as potential risk for humans and animals. Ticks were collected by blanket dragging over the vegetation from September 2011 to October 2012. All ticks were subjected to DNA extraction and individually assayed with PCR-based methods targeting the gltA, sca4, 23S rRNA genes of Rickettsia spp. and the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. D. reticulatus was the dominant species occurring in this area (67.7%, n=600), followed by I. ricinus (31.8%, n=282) and H. concinna (0.5%, n=4) ticks. Rickettsial infection was determined in 10.8% (n=65) and 11.7% (n=33) of D. reticulatus and I. ricinus ticks, respectively. Babesia spp. infection was confirmed in 1.8% (n=11) of D. reticulatus and 0.4% (n=1) of I. ricinus ticks. DNA of 6 different pathogenic tick-borne species, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia slovaca, Rickettsia raoultii, Babesia canis, and Babesia venatorum were identified in this locality with sympatric occurrence of I. ricinus, D. reticulatus, and H. concinna ticks.

  6. Content of metals and metabolites in honey originated from the vicinity of industrial town Košice (eastern Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Grúz, Jiří; Biba, Ondřej; Hedbavny, Josef

    2016-03-01

    Composition of three types of honey (mixed forest honey and monofloral-black locust and rapeseed honeys) originated from the vicinity of an industrial town (Košice, Slovak Republic) was compared. Higher content of minerals including toxic metals in forest honey (1358.6 ng Ni/g, 85.6 ng Pb/g, and 52.4 ng Cd/g) than in rapeseed and black locust honeys confirmed that botanical origin rather than the distance for eventual source of pollution (steel factory) affects metal deposition. Benzoic acid derivatives were typically more accumulated in forest but cinnamic acid derivatives and some flavonoids in rapeseed honey (in free and/or glycoside-bound fraction). In terms of quantity, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids were mainly abundant. Total phenols, thiols, and proteins were abundant in forest honey. Some metals and phenols contributed to separation of honeys based on principal component analysis (PCA). Native amount of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural was not related to honey type (~11 μg/g) and was elevated after strong acid hydrolysis (200-350 μg/g) but it did not interfere with the assay of phenols by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. This is the first report of metals and metabolites in the same study, and data are discussed with available literature. We conclude that black locust (acacia) honey is the most suitable for daily use and that central European monofloral honeys contain lower amounts of toxic metals in comparison with other geographical regions.

  7. Integrated assessment of supply and efficiency resources for the district heating system, City of Handlova, Republic of Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This city needs to replace its old district heating system which is unreliable and expensive to maintain. Current plant is owned by a state-run utility; the plant is scheduled for privatization, and the city is examining options for its upgrade. Analysis and preparation for this activity is documented in demand-side and supply-side technical and economic analyses and in this integrated demand/supply report. Preliminary projections indicate the cost of heating from a cost per unit of energy basis and from the perspective of an apartment dweller in Handlova on a total cost per year basis. The centralized coal cogeneration option is the least expensive on a levelized energy cost both with and without energy efficiency. Centralized coal/gas dual-fuel cogeneration is a close second, and the decentralized gas natural gas boilers is significantly more expensive. When the effect of building efficiency measures is evaluated, efficiency always increases the cost on a levelized energy cost basis, but on a levelized cost per flat basis, both centralized systems with buildings efficiency are less expensive than without.

  8. The first finding of Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs in Slovakia: an emerging risk for spreading of infection.

    PubMed

    Antolová, D; Reiterová, K; Miterpáková, M; Dinkel, A; Dubinský, P

    2009-03-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the metacestode Echinococcus multilocularis, is a zoonosis of public health significance. Apart from red foxes, other carnivore species can also serve as definitive hosts of this parasite. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of E. multilocularis in dogs in the Slovak Republic and identify risk factors for acquiring the infection. Out of 289 dogs examined, E. multilocularis was detected in eight samples (2.8%). Positive results were observed in shepherd dogs (12.5%), guard dogs (7.1%), hunting dogs (2.4%) and in one dog with unknown usage (2.5%). Catching rodents and feeding with raw viscera were confirmed to be the most important risk factors for E. multilocularis infection. On the contrary, the way of dog use, frequency of going to the rural areas, the age and gender of animals seem not to be risk factors for infection. No significant association was observed between the positivity of dogs coming from high endemic or non-endemic regions. This is the first report of E. multilocularis in dogs in the Slovak Republic that confirms substantial contribution of dogs to the transmission of the tapeworm in this territory and urges the necessity of prophylactic measures for dog owners.

  9. 76 FR 7721 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... the Federal Register on May 30, 2002 (67 FR 37663-37664, Docket No. 01-041-2), and had listed Hungary... FR 28216-28218, Docket No. 93-172-2), and SVD in a final rule published in the Federal Register on August 2, 1973 (38 FR 20610-20611). Summary of Proposed Changes In this document, we are proposing to...

  10. Content of metals and metabolites in honey originated from the vicinity of industrial town Košice (eastern Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Grúz, Jiří; Biba, Ondřej; Hedbavny, Josef

    2016-03-01

    Composition of three types of honey (mixed forest honey and monofloral-black locust and rapeseed honeys) originated from the vicinity of an industrial town (Košice, Slovak Republic) was compared. Higher content of minerals including toxic metals in forest honey (1358.6 ng Ni/g, 85.6 ng Pb/g, and 52.4 ng Cd/g) than in rapeseed and black locust honeys confirmed that botanical origin rather than the distance for eventual source of pollution (steel factory) affects metal deposition. Benzoic acid derivatives were typically more accumulated in forest but cinnamic acid derivatives and some flavonoids in rapeseed honey (in free and/or glycoside-bound fraction). In terms of quantity, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids were mainly abundant. Total phenols, thiols, and proteins were abundant in forest honey. Some metals and phenols contributed to separation of honeys based on principal component analysis (PCA). Native amount of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural was not related to honey type (~11 μg/g) and was elevated after strong acid hydrolysis (200-350 μg/g) but it did not interfere with the assay of phenols by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. This is the first report of metals and metabolites in the same study, and data are discussed with available literature. We conclude that black locust (acacia) honey is the most suitable for daily use and that central European monofloral honeys contain lower amounts of toxic metals in comparison with other geographical regions. PMID:26517990

  11. 15 CFR 742.6 - Regional stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain..., Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and..., the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South...

  12. 15 CFR 742.6 - Regional stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain..., Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and..., the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South...

  13. 15 CFR 742.6 - Regional stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain..., Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and..., the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South...

  14. Descriptions and characterizations of water-level data and groundwater flow for the Brewster Boulevard and Castle Hayne Aquifer Systems and the Tarawa Terrace Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faye, Robert E.; Jones, L. Elliott; Suárez-Soto, René J.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement of Chapter A (Supplement 3) summarizes results of analyses of groundwater-level data and describes corresponding elements of groundwater flow such as vertical hydraulic gradients useful for groundwater-flow model calibration. Field data as well as theoretical concepts indicate that potentiometric surfaces within the study area are shown to resemble to a large degree a subdued replica of surface topography. Consequently, precipitation that infiltrates to the water table flows laterally from highland to lowland areas and eventually discharges to streams such as Northeast and Wallace Creeks and New River. Vertically downward hydraulic gradients occur in highland areas resulting in the transfer of groundwater from shallow relatively unconfined aquifers to underlying confined or semi-confined aquifers. Conversely, in the vicinity of large streams such as Wallace and Frenchs Creeks, diffuse upward leakage occurs from underlying confined or semi-confined aquifers. Point water-level data indicating water-table altitudes, water-table altitudes estimated using a regression equation, and estimates of stream levels determined from a digital elevation model (DEM) and topographic maps were used to estimate a predevelopment water-table surface in the study area. Approximate flow lines along hydraulic gradients are shown on a predevelopment potentiometric surface map and extend from highland areas where potentiometric levels are greatest toward streams such as Wallace Creek and Northeast Creek. The distribution of potentiometric levels and corresponding groundwater-flow directions conform closely to related descriptions of the conceptual model.

  15. Geohydrology and simulation of ground-water flow in the Red Clay Creek Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania, and New Castle County, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, K.L.; Reif, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    The 54-square-mile Red Clay Creek Basin, located in the lower Delaware River Basin, is underlain primarily by metamorphic rocks that range from Precambrian to Lower Paleozoic in age. Ground water flows through secondary openings in fractured crystalline rock and through primary openings below the water table in the overlying saprolite. Secondary porosity and permeability vary with hydrogeologic unit, topographic setting, and depth. Thirty-nine percent of the water-bearing zones are encountered within 100 feet of the land surface, and 79 percent are within 200 feet. The fractured crystalline rock and overlying saprolite act as a single aquifer under unconfined conditions. The water table is a subdued replica of the land surface. Local ground-water flow systems predominate in the basin, and natural ground-water discharge is to streams, comprising 62 to 71 percent of streamflow. Water budgets for 1988-90 for the 45-square-mile effective drainage area above the Woodale, Del., streamflow-measurement station show that annual precipitation ranged from 43.59 to 59.14 inches and averaged 49.81 inches, annual streamflow ranged from 15.35 to 26.33 inches and averaged 20.24 inches, and annual evapotranspiration ranged from 27.87 to 30.43 inches and averaged 28.98 inches. The crystalline rocks of the Red Clay Creek Basin were simulated two-dimensionally as a single aquifer under unconfined conditions. The model was calibrated for short-term steady-state conditions on November 2, 1990. Recharge was 8.32 inches per year. Values of aquifer hydraulic conductivity in hillside topographic settings ranged from 0.07 to 2.60 feet per day. Values of streambed hydraulic conductivity ranged from 0.08 to 26.0 feet per day. Prior to simulations where ground-water development was increased, the calibrated steady-state model was modified to approximate long-term average conditions in the basin. Base flow of 11.98 inches per year and a ground-water evapotranspiration rate of 2.17 inches per year were simulated by the model. Different combinations of ground-water supply and wastewater-disposal plans were simulated to assess their effects on the stream-aquifer system. Six of the simulations represent an increase in population of 14,283 and water use of 1.07 million gallons per day. One simulation represents an increase in population of 28,566 and water use of 2.14 million gallons per day. Reduction of average base flow is greatest for development plans with wastewater removed from the basin through sewers and is proportional to the amount of water removed from the basin. The development plan that had the least effect on water levels and base flow included on-lot wells and on-lot septic systems. Five organochlorine insecticides--lindane, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor, and methoxychlor--were detected in ground water. Four organophosphorus insecticides--malathion, parathion, diazinon, and phorate--were detected in ground water. Four volatile organic compounds--benzene, toluene, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene--were detected in ground water. Phenol was detected at concentrations up to 8 micrograms per liter in water from 50 percent of 14 wells sampled. The concentration of dissolved nitrate in water from 18 percent of wells sampled exceeded 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen; concentration of nitrate were as high as 19 milligrams per liter. PCB was detected in the bottom material of West Branch Red Clay Creek at Kennet Square at concentrations up to 5,600 micrograms per kilogram.

  16. OES-IA Annex IV: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices - Report from the Experts’ Workshop September 27th – 28th 2010 Clontarf Castle, Dublin Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; O'Toole, Michael J.

    2010-12-02

    An experts' workshop was convened in Dublin Ireland September 27th – 28th 2010 in support of IEA Ocean Energy Systems Implementing Agreement Annex IV. PNNL was responsible for organizing the content of the workshop, overseeing the contractors (Irish Marine Institute) hosting the event, presenting material on Annex IV and materials applicable to the workshop intent. PNNL is also overseeing a contractor (Wave Energy Center/University of Plymouth – WEC/UP) in the collection and analysis of the Annex IV data. Fifty-eight experts from 8 countries attended the workshop by invitation, spending two days discussing the needs of Annex IV. Presentations by DOE (background on Annex IV), PNNL (process for developing Annex IV; presentation of the draft database for PNNL project, plans for incorporating Annex IV data), WEC/UP on the environmental effect matrix, and four MHK developers (two from the UK, one from Ireland and one from Sweden; each discussing their own projects and lessons learned for measuring and mitigating environmental effects, as well as interactions with consenting [permitting] processes) helped provide background. The workshop participants worked part of the time in the large group and most of the time in four smaller breakout groups. Participants engaged in the process and provided a wealth of examples of MHK environmental work, particularly in the European nations. They provided practical and actionable advice on the following: • Developing the Annex IV database, with specific uses and audiences • Strong consensus that we should collect detailed metadata on available data sets, rather than attempting to draw in copious datasets. The participants felt there would then be an opportunity to then ask for specific set of data as needed, with specific uses and ownership of the data specified. This is particularly important as many data collected, particularly in Europe but also in Canada, are proprietary; developers were not comfortable with the idea of handing over all their environmental effects data, but all said they would entertain the request if they specifics were clear. • The recommendation was to collect metadata via an online interactive form, taking no more than one hour to complete. • Although the idea of cases representing the “best practices” was recognized as useful, the participants pointed out that there are currently so few MHK projects in the water, that any and all projects were appropriate to highlight as “cases”. There was also discomfort at the implication that “best practices” implied “lesser practices”; this being unhelpful to a new and emerging industry. • Workshop participants were asked if they were willing to continue to engage in the Annex IV process; all expressed willingness. The workshop was successful in adequately addressing its objectives and through participation and interaction in the breakout sessions around the various topics. As a result of the workshop, many delegates are now better informed and have a greater understanding of the potential environmental effects of MHK devices on the marine environment. There is now a greater sense of understanding of the issues involved and consensus by those regulators, developers and scientists who attended the workshop. A strong network has also been built over the two days between European and US/Canadian technical experts in wave and tidal energy.

  17. Analytical results and sample locality map of heavy-mineral-concentrate and rock samples from the Castle Peaks Wilderness Study Area (CDCA- 266), San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adrian, B.M.; Frisken, J.G.; Malcolm, M.J.; Crock, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The report presents water-quality and geohydrologic information for 106 public water-supply wells in Illinois. These wells were sampled during April to December 1984 as part of a pilot program to develop a ground-water observation network in the State. The pilot program was designed to sample single-aquifer wells from three major aquifer systems--(1) sand and gravel, both confined and unconfined; (2) Silurian dolomite; and (3) the Ironton-Galesville deep sandstone. Data are tabulated for water temperature, pH, specific conductance, oxidation-reduction potential, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate + nitrite nitrogen, phosphorus, silica, arsenic, lead, mercury, fluoride, chloride, sulfate, cyanide, phenols, selenium, residue on evaporation at 180 degrees Celsius, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, barium, boron, beryllium, cadmium, chormium, copper, cobalt, iron, aluminum, manganese, nickel, silver, strontium, vanadium, zinc, and selected geohydrologic information.

  18. Hydrogeologic characterization and assessment of bioremediation of chlorinated benzenes and benzene in wetland areas, Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2009-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles W.; Baker, Anna C.; Teunis, Jessica A.; Majcher, Emily H.; Brayton, Michael J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments with a continuous flow, fixed-film bioreactor seeded with native microorganisms in groundwater from the wetland area showed both aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of dichlorobenzenes, monochlorobenzene, and benzene, although monochlorobenzene and benzene degradation rates decreased under anaerobic conditions compar

  19. Fields of Conflict and Castles in the Air. Some Thoughts and Observations on the Role of Communication in Public Sphere Innovation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeuwis, Cees

    2004-01-01

    Building on the tradition of agricultural extension, this article discusses several changes in thinking regarding the relations between communication and innovation. Starting from the idea that network building, social learning and conflict management are key processes to be supported by communication professionals, the article makes critical…

  20. Hydrogeologic characterization and assessment of bioremediation of chlorinated benzenes and benzene in wetland areas, Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2009-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles W.; Baker, Anna C.; Teunis, Jessica A.; Majcher, Emily H.; Brayton, Michael J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments with a continuous flow, fixed-film bioreactor seeded with native microorganisms in groundwater from the wetland area showed both aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of dichlorobenzenes, monochlorobenzene, and benzene, although monochlorobenzene and benzene degradation rates decreased under anaerobic conditions compared to aerobic conditions. In two bioreactors with established biofilms of WBC-2, percent removals of all chlorinated benzene compounds (medians of 86 to 94 percent) under anaerobic conditions were as high as those observed for the bioreactors seeded only with native microorganisms from the site groundwater, and benzene removal was greater in the WBC-2 bioaugmented bioreactors. The high percent removals in the WBC-2 bioreactors without the need for an acclimation period indicates that the same dechlorinators are involved in the chlorinated benzene degradation as those for the chlorinated ethanes and ethenes that the culture was developed to degrade. The ability of the WBC-2 culture to completely reduce the chlorinated benzenes and benzene, even in the presence of high sulfate and sulfide concentrations, is unique for known dechlorinating cultures. The availability of the established culture WBC-2, as well as the ability of the native wetland microbial community to degrade the site contaminants under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, provides flexibility in considering bioremediation options for the wetland areas at SCD.

  1. Digitization of Cultural Heritage of Slovak Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehovská, J.; Brunčák, P.; Dedík, L.; Kravjanská, I.; Sučíková, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Monuments Board of the Slovak Republic within the Operational Programme Information Society from 2012, is digital documenting selected national cultural monuments of the Slovak Republic. Within this project 1,855 architectural objects in Slovakia has been digitized by internal component of the The Monuments Board SR and external suppliers. For measurement there were used the most modern surveying technologies - digital photogrammetry (DP) of land and aerial images and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The outputs of digitization are point cloud, highly detailed polygon models, orthoimages, gigapixel images and 2D drawing documentations. During the project, arose the need to process the huge number of images (thousands or tens of thousands) and also need a TLS connection to DP. For this reason, started Slovak commercial firm developing of new software which enable this processing and connection. The outcomes are unique spatial models of large architectural complexes (castles, monasteries, churches...) with high detail and accuracy up to 1 cm. Article is devoted to the project description and the method of digitization for the specific types of the cultural monuments.

  2. Superdense CO2 inclusions in Cretaceous quartz stibnite veins hosted in low-grade Variscan basement of the Western Carpathians, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Márian; Thomas, Rainer; Hurai, Vratislav; Koneèný, Patrik; Chovan, Martin

    2006-03-01

    CO2 inclusions with density up to 1,197 kg m-3 occur in quartz stibnite veins hosted in the low-grade Palaeozoic basement of the Gemericum tectonic unit in the Western Carpathians. Raman microanalysis corroborated CO2 as dominant gas species accompanied by small amounts of nitrogen (<7.3 mol%) and methane (<2.5 mol%). The superdense CO2 phase exsolved from an aqueous bulk fluid at temperatures of 183 237°C and pressures between 1.6 and 3.5 kbar, possibly up to 4.5 kbar. Low thermal gradients (˜12 13°C km-1) and the CO2 CH4 N2 fluid composition rule out a genetic link with the subjacent Permian granites and indicate an external, either metamorphogenic (oxidation of siderite, dedolomitization) or lower crustal/mantle, source of the ore-forming fluids. According to microprobe U Pb Th dating of monazite, the stibnite-bearing veins formed during early Cretaceous thrusting of the Gemeric basement over the adjacent Veporic unit. The 15- to 18-km depth of burial estimated from the fluid inclusion trapping PT parameters indicates a 8- to 11-km-thick Upper Palaeozoic Jurassic accretionary complex overlying the Gemeric basement and its Permo-Triassic autochthonous cover.

  3. The influence of aspect and altitude on the size, shape and spatial distribution of glacial cirques in the High Tatras (Slovakia, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Křížek, Marek; Mida, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The shape of glacial cirques is generally considered to result from the combined actions of climate, topography, and geology. The goal of this article was to determine the dependence of cirque morphology on mesoclimatic conditions defined by altitude and aspect in the highest part of the Carpathians — the High Tatras. The morphology of each of 116 analyzed cirques was described using a set of 12 morphometric characteristics. The relationships between the obtained data were evaluated using simple and multivariate statistical methods. The results indicate that cirques in the High Tatras are scale-specific landforms with allometric development. Their occurrence increases with altitude, but their size decreases. The shape of the cirques is determined by altitude only to a small extent, with the exception of an increase in the degree of incision with altitude. The spatial distribution of cirques is negatively influenced by incoming solar radiation and positively influenced by moisture sources, which came mainly from the NW to N during the cold phases of the Pleistocene. For this reason, north-facing cirques have proportionally stronger representation and are more incised with steep slopes. Thus, cirques have proportionally stronger representation on the northern slopes and represent more developed glacial erosion landforms than those on the southern slopes. Although some relationships were detected between cirque morphology and mesoclimatic factors (such as altitude and aspect), a general discriminant analysis showed that these environmental factors did not explain variations in cirque morphology with sufficient cogency.

  4. Aerosol radioactivity record in Bratislava/Slovakia following the Fukushima accident--a comparison with global fallout and the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Povinec, P P; Sýkora, I; Holý, K; Gera, M; Kováčik, A; Brest'áková, L

    2012-12-01

    Results of radioactivity measurements in Bratislava aerosols following the Fukushima accident showed that at least three radioactive plumes arrived to Bratislava as indicated by (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratios. When compared with the Chernobyl results available for the Bratislava station, the Fukushima radionuclide levels were almost five orders of magnitude lower, with the maximum values for (131)I and (137)Cs of 0.5 and 0.07 mBq/m(3), respectively. The (131)I and (137)Cs vs. (7)Be aerosol activity records showed that the increases in (131)I and (137)Cs activity concentrations were accompanied by (7)Be increases, indicating that both the horizontal and vertical transports of radionuclides were responsible for observed radionuclide concentrations. The (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio was close to 1, as has also been reported by other investigators.

  5. Sources of PM10 Air Pollution in Rural Area in the Vicinity of a Highway In Žilina Selfgoverning Region, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandačka, Dušan

    2015-05-01

    Particulate matter results as an aftermath of numerous distinctive processes in the atmosphere and they become a part of everyday life. Their harmful effect and impact on the ambient environment is determined predominantly by the presence of various chemical substances and elements. The chemical composition of these particles (organic and elemental carbon, mineral dust, sea aerosols, secondary particles, especially sulphates and nitrates, heavy metals and further elements) is mainly impacted on by their origin, whereas the primary source of the particulate matter is determined and specified by the profile of chemical elements and substances. Particulate Matter (PM) may originate in various natural resources or anthropogenic sources. Among the natural sources sea salt is to be counted on, dust of the earth crust, pollen and volcanic ashes. Anthropogenic sources do include, predominantly, burning fossil fuels in the fossil-fuel power plants, local heating of households, burning liquefied fossil fuels in the combustion engines of vehicles, noncombustion related emissions as a result of vehicular traffic, resuspension of the road-traffic-related dust.

  6. Human exposure to heavy metals and possible public health risks via consumption of wild edible mushrooms from Slovak Paradise National Park, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Árvay, Július; Tomáš, Ján; Hauptvogl, Martin; Massányi, Peter; Harangozo, Ľuboš; Tóth, Tomáš; Stanovič, Radovan; Bryndzová, Štefánia; Bumbalová, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The contamination level of 92 samples (12 species) of wild edible mushrooms and underlying substrates with heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) in the Slovak Paradise National Park that borders with a region of historical mining and processing of polymetallic ores, were determined. The collected samples were analyzed using of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The metals were determined separately in hymenophore (H) and rest of fruit bodies (RFB). Bioaccumulation factor as well as ratio of metal content in H and RFB were calculated. Cadmium and lead contents in hymenophore exceeded statutory limits of the EU (Cd: 0.5 mg/kg dry weight (dw), Pb: 1.0 mg/kg dw) for edible mushrooms in 96% and 83% of the samples, respectively. The risk from the consumption of the collected mushroom species was calculated based on the provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values, and the highest health risk arising with consumption of particularly Macrolepiota procera, Marasmius oreades and Russula vesca from the observed area was demonstrated. It was shown that average weekly consumption of tested mushrooms species results the threat of exceeding of PTWI limits in the case of cadmium values (by 164%, 86% and 4% of PTWI for M. oreades, R. vesca and R. puellaris, respectively) and of mercury (by 96% of PTWI for M. procera) but not lead.

  7. Reconstruction of dietary habits on the basis of dental microwear and trace elements analysis of individuals from Gán cemetery (district Galanta, Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Tibenská, Kristína Domonkosová; Bodoriková, Silvia; Katina, Stanislav; Kovácsová, Veronika; Kubová, Jana; Takács, Michal

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the diet of a historical human population. Dental microwear and trace elements were analyzed. Although 38 individuals had been buried in the cemetery, only 13 of them were suitable for the analysis of trace elements and 17 skeletal remains for microwear analysis. Buccal microwear has been studied in a sample of 17 teeth from Gán cemetery. Teeth molds of the buccal surface were obtained and observed at 120x magnification with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Length and orientation of each striation have been determined with a SigmaScan Pro 5.0 image analysis program. The results of the analysis from Gán were compared with the previous study in a sample of 153 molar teeth from different modern hunter-gatherer, pastorals, and agriculturalist groups, with different diets (Inuit, Fueguians, Bushmen, Australian aborigines, Andaman's, Indians from Vancouver, Veddahs, Tasmanians, Lapps, and Hindus), preserved at museum collections. Buccal dental microwear density and length by orientation showed almost an inclination to hunter-gatherers from tropic and arid climates. The sample for the trace elements analysis consisted of 10 permanent molars and 3 permanent premolars. All analyzed teeth were intact, with fully developed roots, without dental caries, calculus and abrasion. Samples were analyzed using the method of optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Three elements: Ca, Sr, and Zn were chosen as basic diet determinants. Concentrations of these elements and their ratios were used for description of a relative proportion of plant and animal protein in a diet. The values of the Sr and Zn concentrations indicate that a diet of investigated population was rich in plant food. Higher Sr values in women can indicate lower proportion of animal protein in a diet, but significant differences have not been found. Differences between non-adult and adult individuals and between individuals with and without grave furnishings have also not been significant. PMID:20954457

  8. Long-term trends and spatial variability in nitrate leaching from alpine catchment-lake ecosystems in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia-Poland).

    PubMed

    Kopácek, Jirí; Stuchlík, Evzen; Wright, Richard F

    2005-07-01

    Relationships between catchment characteristics of 31 alpine lakes and observed trends in lake water concentrations of nitrate were evaluated in the Tatra Mountains. Nitrate concentrations increased from background levels <4 microeql(-1) in the 1930s to maxima (up to 55 microeql(-1)) in the 1980s, after which they declined to 4-44 microeql(-1) by the late 1990s. In-lake nitrate concentrations correlated negatively with parameters characterising catchment-weighted mean pools (CWM; kgm(-2)) of soil, i.e. with percent land cover with meadow and soil depth, and positively with grade of terrain, annual precipitation, and the highest elevation in the catchment. The CWM pool of soil and annual precipitation explained together 65% of the current spatial variability in nitrate concentrations. Denitrification and direct N deposition on surface area explained 14% of the variability. Increased atmospheric N deposition and declining net N retention in soils were responsible for long-term changes in nitrate concentrations. Long-term decline in %N retention in soils decreased along with the estimated decline in C:N ratios (from 21 to 18 on average during the last 70 years). An empirical model linking nitrate concentrations in different types of alpine Tatra Mountain lakes to four independent variables (CWM soil pool, annual precipitation, increased N deposition, and average trend in soil C:N ratios) explained 80% of the observed spatial and temporal nitrate variability over the period 1937-2000.

  9. Poland and Czecho-Slovakia in the 1990's: Social, Political and Economic Transformations. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program. Summer 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    This document features writings and curriculum projects developed by teachers who traveled to Poland and Czechoslovakia in the summer of 1992 as members of a Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar. The following items are among those included: "Curriculum Project: Women and Work: A Global Perspective" (Joan K. Burton); "The Community College and Eastern…

  10. Assessment of Hard-to-Detect Radionuclide Levels in Decommissioning Waste From the Bohunice NPP-A1, Slovakia, for Clearance and Disposal Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Slavik, O.; Moravek, J.; Stubna, M.

    2002-02-26

    For assessments of hard-to-detect radionuclides (HD-RN) contents in various type of radwastes at the NPP-A1, available empirical data referenced to 137Cs (actinides, 90Sr, 99Tc, 63Ni, 14C) and the theoretical assessment for the remaining HD-RN using calculated RN inventory and a simple model with effective relative (137Cs) spent fuel release fractions was applied. The analytical data of extended radiochemical analysis for the existing available operational radwaste forms have been reviewed for this purpose. 137Cs, 90Sr and 241Am were set up as release markers for partial spent fuel release groups of HD-RNs within which the total fractions of HD-RN released to the operational radwastes were assumed to be constant. It was shown by the assessment carried out that 137Cs and HD-RNs 129I, 99Tc, and partly 79Se and 14C are the main contributors to the disposal dose limit for the radioactive concentrate at NPP A-1. In the case of the radioactive sludge from the operational radwaste system the role of predominant dose contributors belongs to actinides 239,240Pu and 241Am. In the case of clearance of radioactive material from the NPP-A1 site, only the reference radionuclide, 137Cs was predicted to be the most dominant dose contributor. In all of these cases the estimated contributions of other hard-to-detect radionuclides to respective disposal or release dose limit are lower by 2 and more orders of magnitude. As a lesson learned, the most attention is proposed to focus on the control and measurement of the critical HD-RNs indicated by the assessment. For the control of less important HD-RNs, the developed release coefficient method is sufficient to be applied.

  11. The impact of disturbance and ensuing forestry practices on Collembola in monitored stands of windthrown forest in the Tatra National Park (Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Čuchta, Peter; Miklisová, Dana; Kováč, Lubomír

    2013-06-01

    Soil Collembola communities were investigated in spruce forest stands of the High Tatra Mts that had been heavily damaged by a windstorm in November 2004 and subsequently by a wildfire in July 2005. The study focused on the impact of these disturbances and forestry practices on collembolan community distribution and structure 4 years after the disturbance. Four different treatments were selected for this study: intact forest stands (REF), non-extracted windthrown stands (NEX), clear-cut windthrown stands (EXT) and burnt windthrown stands (FIR). From a total of 7,820 individuals, 72 species were identified. The highest total abundance mean was recorded in FIR stands followed by NEX and EXT stands and, surprisingly, the lowest in REF stands. The highest total species richness was observed in REF stands, followed by NEX stands and FIR stands and the lowest in EXT stands. In REF and NEX stands, the most abundant species were Folsomia penicula and Tetracanthella fjellbergi, while in heavily damaged stands, the most abundant was Anurophorus laricis. The ordination method used demonstrated a significant influence of treatment on the abundance of Collembola. ANOVA used confirmed significant differences for all dominant species between treatments. The present study shows the negative impact of windthrow on Collembola communities as reflected in decreased species richness and abundance. However, disturbance by fire caused a considerable increase in collembolan abundance 3 years after the event. Moreover, we show that clearing of windthrown spruce forests after a windstorm is less favourable for communities of soil collembolans and slows down the recovery process.

  12. Human exposure to heavy metals and possible public health risks via consumption of wild edible mushrooms from Slovak Paradise National Park, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Árvay, Július; Tomáš, Ján; Hauptvogl, Martin; Massányi, Peter; Harangozo, Ľuboš; Tóth, Tomáš; Stanovič, Radovan; Bryndzová, Štefánia; Bumbalová, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The contamination level of 92 samples (12 species) of wild edible mushrooms and underlying substrates with heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) in the Slovak Paradise National Park that borders with a region of historical mining and processing of polymetallic ores, were determined. The collected samples were analyzed using of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The metals were determined separately in hymenophore (H) and rest of fruit bodies (RFB). Bioaccumulation factor as well as ratio of metal content in H and RFB were calculated. Cadmium and lead contents in hymenophore exceeded statutory limits of the EU (Cd: 0.5 mg/kg dry weight (dw), Pb: 1.0 mg/kg dw) for edible mushrooms in 96% and 83% of the samples, respectively. The risk from the consumption of the collected mushroom species was calculated based on the provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values, and the highest health risk arising with consumption of particularly Macrolepiota procera, Marasmius oreades and Russula vesca from the observed area was demonstrated. It was shown that average weekly consumption of tested mushrooms species results the threat of exceeding of PTWI limits in the case of cadmium values (by 164%, 86% and 4% of PTWI for M. oreades, R. vesca and R. puellaris, respectively) and of mercury (by 96% of PTWI for M. procera) but not lead. PMID:26357894

  13. Dietary reconstruction from trace element analysis and dental microwear in an Early Medieval population from Gán (Galanta district, Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Bodoriková, Silvia; Tibenská, Kristína Domonkosová; Katina, Stanislav; Uhrová, Petra; Dörnhöferová, Michaela; Takács, Michal; Urminský, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the diet of an historical human population using the trace elements in dental tissues and dental buccal microwear. Although 38 individuals had been buried in the cemetery, preservation of the remains did not allow analysis of all of them. A total of 13 individuals were analysed, of which the samples for trace-element analysis consisted of 12 permanent premolars from 12 individuals. Buccal microwear was studied in a sample of nine teeth from nine individuals. Both trace-element and microwear analyses were performed on eight individuals. All analyzed teeth were intact, with fully developed roots, without dental calculus and macro-abrasion. Concentrations of Sr, Zn, and Ca, and their ratios, were used to determine the relative proportions of plant and animal protein in the diet. Samples were analyzed using optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The values of the Sr and Zn concentrations indicate that a diet of the investigated population was of a mixed character with approximately the same proportion of plants and meat in their food. Buccal microwear was studied in molds ofbuccal surfaces and observed at 100x magnification with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Length and orientation of striations were determined with the SigmaScan Pro 5.0 image analysis program. The results obtained from microwear analysis correspond with those from trace-element analysis and showed that the population consumed a mixed diet. The density of the scratches indicates that the diet contained a considerable vegetable component. The high number of vertical scratches and their high average length suggest that individuals also consumed a large portion of meat. The results of both analyses showed that there were also individuals whose diet had probably been poor, i.e. richer in animal protein, which probably could be related to their health or social status in the population. PMID:23980395

  14. Second Giessen International Workshop on Interactions of Exocrine and Endocrine Pancreatic Diseases. Castle of Rauischholzhausen of the Justus-Liebig-university, Giessen (Rauischholzhausen), Germany. March 7-8, 2008.

    PubMed

    Andren-Sandberg, Ake; Hardt, Philip D

    2008-07-10

    The 'Second Giessen International Workshop on Interactions of Exocrine and Endocrine Pancreatic Diseases' was organized in order to reflect and discuss recent developments in the field, especially the progress that has been achieved since the first meeting in March 2005. About thirty international specialists were invited to share their experience and thoughts covering the main topics of: A) pancreatic diabetes (type 3c); B) chronic inflammation of the pancreas. The presentations of session A covered an overview about the frequency of exocrine dysfunction in diabetes mellitus, the relation between diabetes, celiac disease and the exocrine pancreas, the prevalence of type 3c diabetes, damage to the pancreas caused by genes, the role of incretins in type 2 and type 3 diabetes, the role of exocrine tissue in beta cell homeostasis, peculiarities in the treatment of type 3c diabetes and a lecture on incretins: from concept to treatment. Session B included presentations about the frequency of chronic inflammation of the pancreas and therapeutical implications, the role of ACE in the pancreas, genomics and the metabolic hypothesis of chronic pancreatitis, nutritional aspects of pancreatic diseases, the stellate cell concept, autoimmunity, genetic background of chronic pancreatitis and the hypothesis of chronic obstruction induced by gallstone disease. The meeting resulted in several new projects that will be started by the participants in the near future.

  15. Ecosystem Health in Mineralized Terrane-Data from Podiform Chromite (Chinese Camp Mining District, California), Quartz Alunite (Castle Peak and Masonic Mining Districts, Nevada/California), and Mo/Cu Porphyry (Battle Mountain Mining District, Nevada) Deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blecker, Steve W.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Ippolito, James A.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    The myriad definitions of soil/ecosystem quality or health are often driven by ecosystem and management concerns, and they typically focus on the ability of the soil to provide functions relating to biological productivity and/or environmental quality. A variety of attempts have been made to create indices that quantify the complexities of soil quality and provide a means of evaluating the impact of various natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Though not without their limitations, indices can improve our understanding of the controls behind ecosystem processes and allow for the distillation of information to help link scientific and management communities. In terrestrial systems, indices were initially developed and modified for agroecosystems; however, the number of studies implementing such indices in nonagricultural systems is growing. Soil quality indices (SQIs) are typically composed of biological (and sometimes physical and chemical) parameters that attempt to reduce the complexity of a system into a metric of a soil's ability to carry out one or more functions. The indicators utilized in SQIs can be as varied as the studies themselves, reflecting the complexity of the soil and ecosystems in which they function. Regardless, effective soil quality indicators should correlate well with soil or ecosystem processes, integrate those properties and processes, and be relevant to management practices. Commonly applied biological indicators include measures associated with soil microbial activity or function (for example, carbon and nitrogen mineralization, respiration, microbial biomass, enzyme activity. Cost, accessibility, ease of interpretation, and presence of existing data often dictate indicator selection given the number of available measures. We employed a large number of soil biological, chemical, and physical measures, along with measures of vegetation cover, density, and productivity, in order to test the utility and sensitivity of these measures within various mineralized terranes. We were also interested in examining these relations in the context of determining appropriate reference conditions with which to compare reclamation efforts. The purpose of this report is to present the data used to develop indices of soil and ecosystem quality associated with mineralized terranes (areas enriched in metal-bearing minerals), specifically podiform chromite, quartz alunite, and Mo/Cu porphyry systems. Within each of these mineralized terranes, a nearby unmineralized counterpart was chosen for comparison. The data consist of soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters, along with vegetation measurements for each of the sites described below. Synthesis of these data and index development will be the subject of future publications.

  16. Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and refined conceptual model of groundwater flow for Coastal Plain aquifers at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2005-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brayton, Michael J.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Myers, Luke; Degnan, James R.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.

    2015-01-01

    The regional hydrogeologic framework indicates that the site is underlain by Coastal Plain sediments of the Columbia, Merchantville, and Potomac Formations. Two primary aquifers underlying the site, the Columbia and the upper Potomac, are separated by the Merchantville Formation confining unit. Local groundwater flow in the surficial (Columbia) aquifer is controlled by topography and generally flows northward and discharges to nearby surface water. Regional flow within the Potomac aquifer is towards the southeast, and is strongly influenced by major water withdrawals locally. Previous investigations at the site indicated that contaminants, primarily benzene and chlorinated benzene compounds, were present in the Columbia aquifer in most locations; however, there were only limited detections in the upper Potomac aquifer as of 2004. From 2005 through 2012, the USGS designed a monitoring network, assisted with exploratory drilling, collected data at monitoring wells, conducted geophysical surveys, evaluated water-level responses in wells during pumping of a production well, and evaluated major aquifer withdrawals. Data collected through these efforts were used to refine the local conceptual flow system. The refined conceptual flow system for the site includes: (a) identification of gaps in confining units in the study area, (b) identification and correlation of multiple water-bearing sand intervals within the upper Potomac Formation, (c) connections between groundwater and surface water, (d) connections between shallow and deeper groundwater, (e) new water-level (or potentiometric surface) maps and inferred flow directions, and (f) identification of major local pumping well influences. The implications of the revised conceptual flow system on the occurrence and movement of site contaminants are that the resulting detection of contaminants in the upper Potomac aquifer at specific well locations can be attributed primarily to either advective lateral transport, direct vertical contaminant transport, or a combination of vertical and lateral movement resulting from changes in water withdrawal rates over time.

  17. 75 FR 18553 - New Jersey Disaster # NJ-00014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    .... Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road, Fort Worth, TX...: Burlington, Camden, Cumberland, Hudson, Hunterdon, Ocean, Salem, Sussex, Warren. Delaware: New Castle....

  18. 77 FR 71667 - Delaware Disaster #DE-00014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Kingsport Road, Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster... Counties: Kent, New Castle, Sussex. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage:...

  19. 76 FR 33360 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... County Gramse, The, 2203 Broadway St., Indianapolis, 11000384 Indianapolis White Castle Number 3, 660 Fort Wayne Ave., Indianapolis, 11000385 Porter County Bloch, Conrad and Catherine, House, 608...

  20. 76 FR 64420 - New Jersey Disaster #NJ-00022

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road, Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER... Jersey: Atlantic, Camden, Cumberland, Salem. Delaware: New Castle. Pennsylvania: Delaware,...

  1. 76 FR 62132 - Delaware Disaster #DE-00009

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road, Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER... determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: New Castle. Contiguous...

  2. 76 FR 56859 - New Jersey Disaster Number NJ-00023

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road, Fort...: Burlington, Ocean. Delaware: New Castle. Pennsylvania: Bucks, Delaware, Monroe, Northampton,...

  3. Hydrogeologic framework of U.S. Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardinell, A.P.; Berg, S.A.; Lloyd, O.B.

    1993-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework at Camp Lejeune consists of the surficial, Castle Hayne, Beaufort, and Peedee aquifers and intervening confining units. The Castle Hayne aquifer furnishes about 7 million gallons of water per day to Camp Lejeune, but the surficial, Beaufort, and Peedee aquifers, which contain freshwater in places, are not used for supply. The Castle Hayne aquifer is composed of 60 to 90 percent sand and limestone with clay and silt beds, and ranges from 156 to 400 feet thick. Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer ranges from 14 to 91 feet per day. The Castle Hayne confining unit, which overlies the Castle Hayne aquifer, is composed of silt and sandy clay and averages 9 feet thick where present. This confining unit is incised by the New River and its tributaries, as well as some paleochannels. The effects of pumping from the Castle Hayne aquifer have not significantly affected natural head gradients in the aquifer. However, the potential exists for lateral migration of saltwater where wells are located near streams or paleochannels that have incised the confining unit. Except for one measurement of 960 milligrams per liter chloride in a water sample from the bottom of the Castle Hayne aquifer, dissolved-chloride concentrations in water samples from the Castle Hayne aquifer were less than 120 milligrams per liter. It is not known whether this occurrence of saltwater in the Castle Hayne aquifer is widespread or localized, but its presence indicates a potential for upward movement of saltwater beneath pumped wells.

  4. Elevation of Warrington Avenue Bridge, southbound of Warrington Avenue ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of Warrington Avenue Bridge, southbound of Warrington Avenue - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, Warrington Avenue Bridge, Overbrook Trolley Line, Crossing Warrington Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  5. View of the Warrington Avenue Bridge portal, inbound from Pittsburgh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the Warrington Avenue Bridge portal, inbound from Pittsburgh - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, Warrington Avenue Bridge, Overbrook Trolley Line, Crossing Warrington Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  6. View of the Warrington Avenue Bridge portal, outbound from Pittsburgh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the Warrington Avenue Bridge portal, outbound from Pittsburgh - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, Warrington Avenue Bridge, Overbrook Trolley Line, Crossing Warrington Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  7. 75 FR 80526 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Restricted, Pompey, 10001127 Indian Castle Village Site, Address Restricted, Manlius, 10001126 VIRGINIA Bland County Wolf Creek Bridge, Old SR 61-Wolf Creek Rd, Rocky Gap, 10001114 Southampton County...

  8. A new cave species of the genus Protaphorura Absolon, 1901 (Collembola, Onychiuridae) from the Western Carpathians (Slovakia) with critical comments to the Palaearctic representatives of the genus.

    PubMed

    Parimuchová, Andrea; Kováč, Ľubomír

    2016-01-01

    The new species Protaphorura borinensis sp. nov. from a cave of the Western Carpathians, Central Europe, is described. It belongs to congeners with ~40 vesicles in PAO and three pseudocelli at the base of antennae and the hind margin of head. P. borinensis sp. nov. has coarse granulation of cuticle on head, and specific distribution of "s" chaetae on abdominal terga and chaetotaxy of ventral tube. Critical comments to the Palaearctic representatives of the genus Protaphorura and an identification key to 85 species are provided. PMID:27394585

  9. U-Pb-Th geochronology of monazite and zircon in albitite metasomatites of the Rožňava-Nadabula ore field (Western Carpathians, Slovakia): implications for the origin of hydrothermal polymetallic siderite veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurai, V.; Paquette, J.-L.; Lexa, O.; Konečný, P.; Dianiška, I.

    2015-10-01

    Sodic metasomatites (albitites) occur around and within siderite veins in the southern part of the Gemeric tectonic unit of the Western Carpathians. Accessory minerals of the metasomatites represented by monazite, zircon, apatite, rutile, tourmaline and siderite are basically identical with the quartz-tourmaline stage of other siderite and stibnite veins of the tectonic unit. Statistical analysis of chemical Th-U(total)-Pb isochron method (CHIME) of monazite dating yielded Jurassic-Cretaceous ages subdivided into 3-4 modes, spreading over time interval between 78 and 185 Ma. In contrast, LA-ICPMS 206Pb/238U dating carried out on the same monazite grains revealed a narrow crystallization interval, showing ages of Th-poor cores with phengite inclusions identical within the error limit with Th-rich rims with cauliflower-like structure. The determined lower intercept at 139 ± 1 Ma overlapped the Vallanginian-Berriasian boundary, thus corroborating the model of formation of hydrothermal vein structures within an arcuate deformation front built up in the Variscan basement as a response to Early Cretaceous compression, folding and thrusting. In contrast, associated zircons are considerably older than the surrounding Early-Palaeozoic volcano-sedimentary rocks, showing Neoproterozoic ages. The zircon grains in albitite metasomatites are thus interpreted as fragments of Pan-African magmatic detritus incorporated in the vein structures by buoyant hydrothermal fluids.

  10. Ontogenetic variations in the diet of two invasive gobies, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814) and Ponticola kessleri (Günther, 1861), from the middle Danube (Slovakia) with notice on their potential impact on benthic invertebrate communities.

    PubMed

    Števove, Barbora; Kováč, Vladimír

    2016-07-01

    In this study, ontogenetic variations in diet of invasive bighead goby Ponticola kessleri and round goby Neogobius melanostomus from the middle Danube were analysed. Index of stomach fullness, Fulton's condition factor, index of food importance, frequency of occurrence, biomass, electivity, and proportions of invasive organisms in their diet were examined. Changes in the diet during ontogeny of both species emphasise the differences in their trophic niches. Our results combined with literary data suggest that bighead goby may threaten small native benthic fish species as a predator (especially in the invasion front), whereas round goby can potentially impact native fish species of all ontogenetic phases by competing for food. Round goby appear to have strong impact on bivalves, especially in the invasion front. High consumption of invasive organisms by bighead goby may help the native macroinvertebrate community. Thus, in contrast to round goby, bighead goby does not seem to be a hot candidate for being a nuisance invader.

  11. 40 CFR 73.21 - Phase II repowering allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in the following table Unit Year 2000 adjusted basic allowances RE Burger 1 1273 RE Burger 2 1245 RE Burger 3 1286 RE Burger 4 1316 RE Burger 5 1336 RE Burger 6 1332 New Castle 1 1334 New Castle 2 1485...

  12. 76 FR 52879 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... Board of News-Press. Commissioners, 100 3rd Street, Castle Rock, CO 80104. Douglas (FEMA Docket No.: B.... Commissioners, 100 3rd Street, Castle Rock, CO 80104. * * * * * * * 0 2. On the same page, in the same table... Fort Mayor, City of Worth Star-Telegram. Mansfield, 1200 East Broad Street, Mansfield, TX...

  13. 76 FR 28173 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... No. FDC date Subject 2-Jun-11 IN New Castle New Castle-Henry Co 1/5020 4/6/11 NDB RWY 27, Amdt 5A.../11 Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig County Muni. 2-Jun-11 AR Fort Smith Fort Smith Rgnl........

  14. The Role of Technology in America's Schools. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Washington, DC, March 8, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    The Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families, Committee on Education and the Workforce, Washington, DC met in Washington, DC on March 8, 2000 to hear testimony on the role of technology in America's schools. Chairman of the Subcommittee Michael Castle presided. Contents include the opening statements of Chairman Michael Castle and of…

  15. 76 FR 69279 - Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period for a Resource Management Plan (RMP) Amendment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... (RMP) Amendment and Associated Environmental Assessment for the Castle Rocks and Cedar Fields Areas, Burley Field Office, ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Extension. SUMMARY... Associated Environmental Assessment for the Castle Rocks and Cedar Fields Areas in the Federal Register...

  16. 15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Surinam, Swaziland..., Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, or the United Kingdom; and (ii) “Development” and...

  17. 15 CFR 740.16 - Additional permissive reexports (APR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom if: (i) Such cameras are...

  18. 78 FR 6322 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ..., Malaysia, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Turkey, and...: Netherlands, Japan, United Arab Emirates, United States, South Korea, and Thailand. The balance of the...

  19. 15 CFR 743.3 - Thermal imaging camera reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, or the United Kingdom must be reported to...

  20. 15 CFR 742.4 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom for those cameras in ECCN...

  1. 15 CFR 743.3 - Thermal imaging camera reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, or the United Kingdom must be reported to...

  2. 15 CFR 742.4 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom for those cameras in ECCN...

  3. 15 CFR 743.3 - Thermal imaging camera reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, or the United Kingdom must be reported to...

  4. 15 CFR 742.4 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom for those cameras in ECCN...

  5. 15 CFR 740.16 - Additional permissive reexports (APR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom if: (i) Such cameras are...

  6. 15 CFR 743.3 - Thermal imaging camera reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, or the United Kingdom must be reported to...

  7. 15 CFR 740.16 - Additional permissive reexports (APR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom if: (i) Such cameras...

  8. 15 CFR 742.4 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom for those cameras in ECCN...

  9. 15 CFR 740.16 - Additional permissive reexports (APR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom if: (i) Such cameras...

  10. 15 CFR 740.16 - Additional permissive reexports (APR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom if: (i) Such cameras...

  11. 32 CFR 750.13 - Claims: Single service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Grenada, Honduras, Hungary, Korea, Iraq, Kuwait, Latvia, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands, the Netherlands... Endeavor, including the former Yugoslavia, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, as well as the...

  12. 32 CFR 750.13 - Claims: Single service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Grenada, Honduras, Hungary, Korea, Iraq, Kuwait, Latvia, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands, the Netherlands... Endeavor, including the former Yugoslavia, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, as well as the...

  13. 32 CFR 750.13 - Claims: Single service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Grenada, Honduras, Hungary, Korea, Iraq, Kuwait, Latvia, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands, the Netherlands... Endeavor, including the former Yugoslavia, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, as well as the...

  14. 32 CFR 750.13 - Claims: Single service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Grenada, Honduras, Hungary, Korea, Iraq, Kuwait, Latvia, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands, the Netherlands... Endeavor, including the former Yugoslavia, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, as well as the...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 743 - Wassenaar Arrangement Participating States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION... New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Slovakia Slovenia South Africa South Korea...

  16. 15 CFR 742.6 - Regional stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... that are subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (22 CFR Parts 120-130). (2..., New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain..., Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey,...

  17. Inclusive Education in the Slovak Republic Two Decades after the Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miškolci, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The fall of Communist regime in 1989 and the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993 significantly affected the educational system of today's Slovakia. As a sovereign state, Slovakia has ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities obliging its signatories to practise "inclusive education." This article explores the…

  18. Longitudinal Comparison of Early Speech and Language Milestones in Children with Cleft Palate: A Comparison of US and Slovak Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Nancy J.; Oravkinova, Zuzana; McBee, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare early speech and language development of children with and without cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) in the US and Slovakia from 6 to 24 months of age. Thirty-two children from the US (eight with CLP and eight noncleft) and Slovakia (eight with CLP and eight noncleft) participated in this study. The children…

  19. Critical and Higher Order Thinking in Online Threaded Discussions in the Slovak Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisutova-Gerber, Katarina; Malovicova, Jana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes efforts to use collaborative asynchronous discussion forums in a three semester online education program for NGO leaders and managers in Slovakia. Slovakia, as a country with autocratic styles of teacher-centered education, presents strong barriers to the implementation of collaborative learning activities. The…

  20. Profile of the Present Slovak Society and Its Regional Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podolak, Peter; Michalek, Anton

    2008-01-01

    The article is the first attempt in assessment of the development and the present situation of social structure and stratification in Slovakia. Its principal aim is to develop the profile of the present society in Slovakia, which reflects the pace and complexity of the transformation process and its impact on society. Processing of Micro census…

  1. 9. Dairy barn and milk house yard wall, detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Dairy barn and milk house yard wall, detail of construction near southeast corner - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  2. 12. Dairy barn, east and north sides, milk house to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Dairy barn, east and north sides, milk house to left and barn ramp at center - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  3. 78 FR 32366 - Notice of Petitions by Firms for Determination of Eligibility To Apply for Trade Adjustment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... manufactures Castle Rock, CO 80109. artificial stone and stone veneer products. Peet Shoe Dryer, Inc. (dba Peet Dryer).. 919 St. Maries River Road, 5/20/2013 Firm manufacturers St. Maries, ID 83861. electric...

  4. 75 FR 18245 - Delaware Disaster # DE-00007

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Center, 14925 Kingsport Road, Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A Escobar, Office of... Counties: Kent, New Castle, Sussex. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage:...

  5. Aerial view, view south with Hagley area lower right, TylerMcconnell ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view, view south with Hagley area lower right, Tyler-Mcconnell Bridge middleground, and Henry Clay Village and Walkers Mill in upper background - Charles I. Du Pont House, 162 Main Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  6. View northwest, Brandywine Creek with Walkers Mill on right, Brecks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, Brandywine Creek with Walkers Mill on right, Brecks Mill on left, and the Charles I. Du Pont House in center background - Charles I. Du Pont House, 162 Main Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey W. S. Stewart, Photographer Sept.14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey W. S. Stewart, Photographer Sept.14, 1936 SMOKE HOUSE (EAST ELEVATION) BELIEVED TO HAVE BEEN USED AS BLOCK HOUSE - Thomas Cooch House, 961 Old Baltimore Pike, Newark, New Castle County, DE

  8. 22. THIRD FLOOR, 202 EAST FOURTH STREET LOOKING SOUTHEAST, PARTITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. THIRD FLOOR, 202 EAST FOURTH STREET LOOKING SOUTHEAST, PARTITION SCAR MARKED BY CONTRASTING WALLPAPER TREATMENTS - Phillips-Thompson Building, 200-206 East Fourth Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  9. 18. SECOND FLOOR, 202 EAST FOURTH STREET LOOKING NORTHWEST, BEARING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SECOND FLOOR, 202 EAST FOURTH STREET LOOKING NORTHWEST, BEARING WALL BETWEEN 202 AND 204, INSIGNIA OF FOURTH WARD REPUBLICAN CLUB - Phillips-Thompson Building, 200-206 East Fourth Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  10. 8. DETAIL OF NOTCHED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT IN GRILLAGE AT WESTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF NOTCHED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT IN GRILLAGE AT WESTERN EDGE OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. TIDE APPROACHING. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  11. Detail, northwest wingwall of north abutment, from west, showing original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, northwest wingwall of north abutment, from west, showing original squared cut stone masonry construction and portion of non-original concrete apron - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  12. 3. VIEW OF EDGEBROOK STOP AS CROSSING THE REFLECTORVILLE VIADUCT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF EDGEBROOK STOP AS CROSSING THE REFLECTORVILLE VIADUCT, INBOUND TO PITTSBURGH - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, Reflectorville Viaduct, Overbrook Trolley Line, crossing near Edgebrook Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 3. DETAIL VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN BRIDGE PORTAL OF COVERTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN BRIDGE PORTAL OF COVERTS CROSSING BRIDGE. FACING NORTHEAST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  14. 2. WIDEANGLE VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN BRIDGE APPROACH TO COVERTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WIDE-ANGLE VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN BRIDGE APPROACH TO COVERTS CROSSING BRIDGE. FACING NORTHEAST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  15. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF THE NORTHERN BRIDGE APPROACH TO COVERTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF THE NORTHERN BRIDGE APPROACH TO COVERTS CROSSING BRIDGE. FACING SOUTHWEST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  16. 1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  17. 4. EAST VIEW OF HEAVILY DETERIORATED SECTION OF SEA WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EAST VIEW OF HEAVILY DETERIORATED SECTION OF SEA WALL LOOKING ACROSS ERODED EASTERN CORNER OF PEA PATCH ISLAND. BUILDING FOUNDATION REMAINS IN FOREGROUND. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  18. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE - Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  19. 75 FR 47810 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ..., Inc. G Hampton Roads Bankshares, Inc. 20100895 G AIF VII Euro Holdings, L.P. G Carib Holdings, Inc. G Carib Holdings, Inc. 20100899 G Crown Castle International Corp. G NewPath Networks, Inc. G...

  20. 13. VIEW OF CANTILEVERED NORTHERN TRUSS SECTION (LOWER CENTER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF CANTILEVERED NORTHERN TRUSS SECTION (LOWER CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH), SHOWING LINKAGES TO THE CENTRAL BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE. FACING NORTHEAST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  1. 14. VIEW OF CANTILEVERED SOUTHERN TRUSS SECTION AND WOOD DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF CANTILEVERED SOUTHERN TRUSS SECTION AND WOOD DECK FROM THE CENTRAL BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE SHOWN IN PA-474-13. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  2. Elevation of Warrington Avenue Bridge and cut stone retaining wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of Warrington Avenue Bridge and cut stone retaining wall southbound on Warrington Avenue - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, Warrington Avenue Bridge, Overbrook Trolley Line, Crossing Warrington Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 169. Credit FM. Remains of H.H. Noble residence, destroyed by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. Credit FM. Remains of H.H. Noble residence, destroyed by fire. 'Noble Castle' stood atop the ridge near Lakes Grace and Nora, overlooking Volta. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  4. 7. Bank level: perspective of framing on east side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Bank level: perspective of framing on east side of runway and west side of outside stone wall on east side looking northeast - Dennison Bank Barn, Corner of Brackenville & Limestone Roads, Brackenville, New Castle County, DE

  5. 4. INTERIOR VIEW NORTHWEST, ALLEYWAY PASSAGE BETWEEN 216 AND 218 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW NORTHWEST, ALLEYWAY PASSAGE BETWEEN 216 AND 218 KING STREET SHOWING MASONRY ARCHED CONSTRUCTION SUPPORTING UPPER STORIES - King Street, 200 Block, 216 King Street (Commercial Building), Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  6. Libraries in Colorado: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 659-2472 http://www.anythinklibraries.org/ Castle Rock Douglas County Libraries Phillip S. Miller Library 100 South Wilcox ... yourcommunityhospital.com/Health_Resources_and_Library.cfm ST MARYS HOSPITAL AND MEDICAL CENTER DR E. H. MUNRO ...

  7. 1. VIEW SOUTHEAST SHOWING NORTHWEST (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF 214 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SOUTHEAST SHOWING NORTHWEST (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF 214 AND 212 KING STREET (HABS NO. DE-129-I) - King Street, 200 Block, 214 King Street (Commercial Building), Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  8. 1. VIEW SOUTHEAST SHOWING NORTHWEST (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF 220 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SOUTHEAST SHOWING NORTHWEST (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF 220 AND 218 KING STREET (HABS NO. DE-129-F) - King Street, 200 Block, 220 King Street (Commercial Building), Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  9. Detail, east truss of south span, showing railing, vertical UL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, east truss of south span, showing railing, vertical U-L, diagonal eyebar U-L with turnbuckle - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  10. 1. View north along old section of New Bridge Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View north along old section of New Bridge Road, western estate wall and Temple of Love to right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Junction of State Route 141 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  11. 4. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, WITH SUBASSEMBLY OF END SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, WITH SUBASSEMBLY OF END SECTION SHEAR PLATE FOR HOPPER CAR AND NINA CASTLE, CLASS A WELDER. - Pullman Standard Company Plant, Fabrication Assembly Shop, 401 North Twenty-fourth Street, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  12. 3. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, WITH SUBASSEMBLY OF END SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, WITH SUBASSEMBLY OF END SECTION SHEAR PLATE FOR HOPPER CAR AND NINA CASTLE, CLASS A WELDER. - Pullman Standard Company Plant, Fabrication Assembly Shop, 401 North Twenty-fourth Street, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  13. 11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. SOUTHERN END OF NORTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL IN BACKGROUND. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  14. Mission Control activities during Day 1 First TV Pass of STS-11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Robert E. Castle, integrated communications officer (INCO), at a console in the JSC mission operations control room (MOCR) in the mission control center. He is responsible for ground controlled television from the orbiter on his shift for 41-B.

  15. 11. Photocopy of pre1905 photograph copied by John Schram. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of pre-1905 photograph copied by John Schram. Original owned by Miss Marion Rich, Castle Island, Truro. JOSHUA RICH HOUSE BEFORE IT WAS MOVED, VIEW FROM NORTHWEST - Rich-Higgins House, Longnook Road, Truro, Barnstable County, MA

  16. 9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN ROCKFACED DRESSED AND MORTARED STONE ABUTMENT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN ROCKFACED DRESSED AND MORTARED STONE ABUTMENT, SHOWING STEEL CROSSBEAMS, TORSIONAL DIAGONAL STRUTS, AND WOODEN STRINGERS. FACING SOUTHWEST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  17. A Medieval Example of Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, William S.; Tremblay, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the operation of the trebuchet, a medieval device used to throw objects over castle walls. The trebuchet does not use torsion or elasticity for power, only gravity. Provides mathematical computations to find the velocity of thrown objects. (MVL)

  18. 76 FR 55702 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... County Camp Crowder Gymnasium, 205 Shiloh Dr., Sulpher Springs, 11000685 Clark County Okolona Colored... University Ave., Los Altos, 11000696 DELAWARE New Castle County Water Witch Steam Fire Engine Company No....

  19. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND SPILLWAY, LOOKING SOUTH - Whitman Estate, Lower Pond Spillway, Approx. .5 mile south of intersection of DE72 & Ebeneezer Church Road, Newark, New Castle County, DE

  20. 1. Environmental view looking from the east past the coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Environmental view looking from the east past the coast guard station; note, in the background, is the observation tower (HABS No. NH-239-I) - Fort Point, 25 Wentworth Road, New Castle, Rockingham County, NH

  1. 2. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF LOWER POND AND SPILLWAY WITH FOREBAY IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH - Whitman Estate, Lower Pond Spillway, Approx. .5 mile south of intersection of DE72 & Ebeneezer Church Road, Newark, New Castle County, DE

  2. Monel Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Castle Industries, Inc. is a small machine shop manufacturing replacement plumbing repair parts, such as faucet, tub and ballcock seats. Therese Castley, president of Castle decided to introduce Monel because it offered a chance to improve competitiveness and expand the product line. Before expanding, Castley sought NERAC assistance on Monel technology. NERAC (New England Research Application Center) provided an information package which proved very helpful. The NASA database was included in NERAC's search and yielded a wealth of information on machining Monel.

  3. Geologic map of the Hart Peak Quadrangle, California and Nevada: a digital database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielson, Jane E.; Turner, Ryan D.; Bedford, David R.

    1999-01-01

    The Hart Peak 1:24,000-scale quadrangle is located about 12 km southwest of Searchlight, Nevada, comprehending the eastern part of the Castle Peaks, California, and most of the Castle Mountains and the northwestern part of the Piute Range, in California and Nevada. The Castle Peaks area constitutes the northeasternmost part of the northeast-trending New York Mountains. The Castle Mountains straddle the California-Nevada State line between the Castle Peaks and north-trending Piute Range. The southern part of the Piute Range, near Civil War-era Fort Piute, adjoins Homer Mountain mapped by Spencer and Turner (1985). Adjacent and nearby 1:24,000-scale quadrangles include Castle Peaks, East of Grotto Hills, Homer Mountain, and Signal Hill, Calif.; also Tenmile Well and West of Juniper Mine, Calif. and Nev. The oldest rocks in the Hart Peak quadrangle are Early Proterozoic gneiss and foliated granite that crop out in the northern part of the quadrangle on the eastern flank of the Castle Peaks and in the central Castle Mountains (Wooden and Miller, 1990). Paleozoic rocks are uncommon and Mesozoic granitic rocks are not found in the map area. The older rocks are overlain nonconformably by several km of Miocene volcanic deposits, which accumulated in local basins. Local dikes and domes are sources of most Miocene eruptive units; younger Miocene intrusions cut all the older rocks. Upper Miocene to Quaternary gravel deposits interfinger with the uppermost volcanic flows; the contact between volcanic rocks and the gravel deposits is unconformable locally. Canyons and intermontane valleys contain dissected Quaternary alluvialfan deposits that are mantled by active drainage and alluvial fan detritus.

  4. A comparison of developmental dynamics of Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabr.) of different geographic origins and their affection by different microclimate.

    PubMed

    Daniel, M; Szymański, S; Cerný, V; Dusbábek, F; Honzáková, E; Olejnícek, J

    1980-01-01

    Developmental dynamics of D. reticulatus ticks of different geographic origins (NE Poland and SW Slovakia) were investigated and compared. A long-term field experiment was conducted in South Moravia in the zone of thermophilic oak forest. Ticks were studied in two different biotopes: in an open grassy area and in deciduous forest. Differences between the tick populations collected in Poland and Slovakia were observed in the duration of developmental cycle and in the outcome of metamorphosis, depending on biotope. The tick development in the open grassy area was more rapid, but with greater losses. The total production of adults was higher in the population originating from Slovakia.

  5. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF ARCTIC MIXED PHASE BOUNDARY LAYER CLOUDS OBSERVED FROM A TETHERED BALLOON INSTRUMENT PLATFORM: PART II a M. Sikand, a J. Koskulics, a K. Stamnes, b B. Hamre, b J.J. Stamnes, c R.P. Lawson a Department of Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, 1 Castle point, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA b Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 55, Bergen, Norway c SPEC Incorporated, 3022 Sterling Circle, Suite 200, Boulder, CO 80301, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikand, M. V.; Stamnes, K. H.; Koskulics, J.; Stamnes, J.; Hamre, B.; Lawson, P.

    2011-12-01

    Tethered balloon microphysical and radiative measurements in boundary-layer mixed phase clouds, consisting of ice crystals and liquid droplets, observed in the Arctic have been analyzed. The cloud microphysical and radiometric measurements were collected during a May-June 2008 experimental campaign in Ny Ålesund, Norway, located high in the Arctic at 78.9° N. A state of the art radiative transfer model DISORT is used to analyze the radiometric measurements in order to understand the cloud microphysical properties in mixed phase clouds. The instruments deployed on the tethered balloon system including a radiometer, a cloud particle imager and a meteorological package provide information about the optical properties of mixed phase clouds in the Arctic. These measurements can, therefore, be used to investigate the vertical distribution of the mixed phase arctic clouds. This information will be useful to improve the description of mixed phase clouds in climate models, and thereby reduce the large uncertainty in such models associated with the current lack of data on mixed-phase clouds. The time evolution of cloud optical properties such as cloud optical depth is estimated by using a two layer cloud model based on cloud particle images. Our results show a unique vertical profile of mixed phase clouds as observed on 16 May, 2008 and 29 May, 2008. These results, derived from radiative transfer simulations, show how the vertical distribution of the mixed phase clouds evolves with time. This kind of unique information is difficult to retrieve from satellite observations, which are hampered by low visible contrast between cloud and snow-ice covered surfaces and temperature inversions in the infrared region as well as aircrafts limited by the time of flight. We have found that the mean intensity measured at the balloon is sensitive to the vertical structure of the cloud optical depth. We use the measured mean intensity to estimate the cloud optical depths at 500nm and 800nm that provide the best match between our model results and the measurements.

  6. Minima Times of Selected Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parimucha, S.; Dubovsky, P.; Kudak, V.; Perig, V.

    2016-05-01

    We present 221 CCD minima times of the 76 selected eclipsing binaries obtained during 2013-2016 at Observatory at Kolonica Saddle in Slovakia and Observatory of Laboratory of Space Research, Uzhhorod National University in Ukraine

  7. News Lists Registration

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-09-04

    ... Niue Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands North Korea Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Palestinian Territory Panama ... Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Korea ...

  8. 77 FR 15440 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 66180 (January 18, 2012), 77 FR 3532 (``Notice''). II. Description of the..., Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain. The euro is managed and administered...

  9. Two new species of the genus Syringophilopsis Kethley, 1970 (Acari: Syringophilidae) parasitizing quills of true shrikes (Aves: Laniidae).

    PubMed

    Skoracki, M; Tryjanowski, P; Hromada, M

    2002-03-01

    Two new species of syringophilid mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) are described from quills of true shrikes (Passeriformes: Laniidae): Syringophilopsis kristini sp. n. from Lesser Grey Shrike, Lanius minor, from Slovakia, and Syringophiopsis yosefi sp. n. from Lanius sp. from Cameroun.

  10. 77 FR 68776 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ..., Poland, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Turkey, and United Kingdom. Interested... Emirates, United States, South Korea, and Thailand. The balance of the foreign production will be sold...

  11. 9 CFR 327.2 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of products into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume..., Romania, San Marino, 1 Scotland, Slovakia, 2 Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia....

  12. The world's air transportation services : data as to passengers, mail, and goods carried by American and European transportation services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    This report presents detailed descriptions, statistics, and graphs on European and American air transport. The European countries listed are Belgium, Czecho-Slovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, and Italy.

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Favorable Treatment Countries Austria Australia Belgium Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia... Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden...

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Favorable Treatment Countries Austria Australia Belgium Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia... Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Favorable Treatment Countries Austria Australia Belgium Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia... Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden...

  16. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Favorable Treatment Countries Austria Australia Belgium Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia... Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden...

  17. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Favorable Treatment Countries Austria Australia Belgium Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia... Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden...

  18. Central European MetEor NeTwork: Current status and future activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srba, J.; Koukal, J.; Ferus, M.; Lenža, L.; Gorková, S.; Civiš, S.; Simon, J.; Csorgei, T.; Jedlièka, M.; Korec, M.; Kaniansky, S.; Polák, J.; Spurný, M.; Brázdil, T.; Mäsiar, J.; Zima, M.; Delinèák, P.; Popek, M.; Bahýl, V.; Piffl, R.; Èechmánek, M.

    2016-06-01

    The Central European video Meteor Network (CEMeNt) established in 2010 is a platform for cross-border cooperation in the field of video meteor observations between Czech Republic and Slovakia. During five years of operation the CEMeNt network went through an extensive development. In total, 37 video systems were working on 20 permanent stations located in Czech Republic and Slovakia during 2015. In this paper we summarize CEMeNt current status and introduce some future activities.

  19. Work-site hypertension prevalence and control in three Central European Countries.

    PubMed

    Fodor, J G; Lietava, J; Rieder, A; Sonkodi, S; Stokes, H; Emmons, T; Turton, P

    2004-08-01

    Compared to Austria, cerebrovascular stroke (CVS) mortality is three times higher in Hungary, and twice as high in Slovakia. We hypothesized that this is due to better treatment and control of hypertension in Austria. To test this hypothesis, we carried out a cross-sectional survey of 'blue collar' employees on work sites in each of these countries. Blood pressure screening was carried out at three work sites in Austria, one in Hungary and one in Slovakia. A standardized protocol was followed in each of these countries. The Bp-TRU(TM) measuring instrument was used to provide accurate reproducible readings and eliminate interobserver error. After the exclusion of missing data and women, the study population included 323 males screened in Austria, 600 in Hungary, and 751 in Slovakia. The mean ages of the respondents ranged from 35 to 42 years. The prevalence of hypertension was 29% in Austria, 28% in Hungary and 40% in Slovakia. Of those identified as hypertensive, 73% in Austria, 45% in Hungary and 67% in Slovakia were newly diagnosed as a result of this screening. Of those treated for hypertension, 10% in Austria, 15% in Hungary and 5% in Slovakia were controlled. The differences in CVS mortality cannot be explained by better control of hypertension in Austria but indicate the involvement of other determinants.

  20. High-resolution hydro- and geo-stratigraphy at Atlantic Coastal Plain drillhole CR-622 (Strat 8)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wrege, B.M.; Isely, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    We interpret borehole geophysical logs in conjunction with lithology developed from continuous core to produce high-resolution hydro- and geo-stratigraphic profiles for the drillhole CR-622 (Strat 8) in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina. The resulting hydrologic and stratigraphic columns show a generalized relation between hydrologic and geologic units. Fresh-water aquifers encountered are the surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River and Castle Hayne. Geologic units present are of the middle and upper Tertiary and Quaternary periods, these are the Castle Hayne (Eocene), Pungo River (Miocene), Yorktown (Pliocene), James City and Flanner Beach (Pleistocene), and the topsoil (Holocene). The River Bend Formation (Oligocene) is missing as a distinct unit between the Pungo River Formation and the Castle Hayne Formation. The confining unit underlying the Yorktown Aquifer corresponds to the Yorktown Geologic Unit. The remaining hydrologic units and geologic units are hydrologically transitional and non-coincident. The lower Pungo River Formation serves as the confining unit for the Castle Hayne Aquifer, rather than the River Bend Aquifer, and separates the Pungo River Aquifer from the upper Castle Hayne Aquifer. All geologic formations were bound by unconformities. All aquifers were confined by the anticipated hydrologic units. We conclude that CR-622 (Strat 8) represents a normal sequence in the Atlantic Coastal Plain.