Science.gov

Sample records for smooth function spaces

  1. A partial regularity result for an anisotropic smoothing functional for image restoration in BV space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderli, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Here we examine the partial regularity of minimizers of a functional used for image restoration in BV space. This functional is a combination of a regularized p-Laplacian for the part of the image with small gradient and a total variation functional for the part with large gradient. This model was originally introduced in Chambolle and Lions using the Laplacian. Due to the singular nature of the p-Laplacian we study a regularized p-Laplacian. We show that where the gradient is small, the regularized p-Laplacian smooths the image u, in the sense that u[set membership, variant]C1,[alpha] for some 0<[alpha]<1. This functional thus anisotropically smooths the image where the gradient is small and preserves edges via total variation where the gradient is large.

  2. Approximation of Bivariate Functions via Smooth Extensions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    For a smooth bivariate function defined on a general domain with arbitrary shape, it is difficult to do Fourier approximation or wavelet approximation. In order to solve these problems, in this paper, we give an extension of the bivariate function on a general domain with arbitrary shape to a smooth, periodic function in the whole space or to a smooth, compactly supported function in the whole space. These smooth extensions have simple and clear representations which are determined by this bivariate function and some polynomials. After that, we expand the smooth, periodic function into a Fourier series or a periodic wavelet series or we expand the smooth, compactly supported function into a wavelet series. Since our extensions are smooth, the obtained Fourier coefficients or wavelet coefficients decay very fast. Since our extension tools are polynomials, the moment theorem shows that a lot of wavelet coefficients vanish. From this, with the help of well-known approximation theorems, using our extension methods, the Fourier approximation and the wavelet approximation of the bivariate function on the general domain with small error are obtained. PMID:24683316

  3. An Example of the Estimation and Display of a Smoothly Varying Function of Time and Space--The Incidence of the Disease Mumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, William F.; Mockus, Audris

    1994-01-01

    Describes animation algorithms for creating smooth functions of time- and space-varying phenomenon. The incidence of the disease mumps from 1968-88 in the United States is used to demonstrate the algorithms. Figures that illustrate the findings are included. (14 references) (KRN)

  4. Vascular smooth muscle phenotypic diversity and function

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The control of force production in vascular smooth muscle is critical to the normal regulation of blood flow and pressure, and altered regulation is common to diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, and ischemia. A great deal has been learned about imbalances in vasoconstrictor and vasodilator signals, e.g., angiotensin, endothelin, norepinephrine, and nitric oxide, that regulate vascular tone in normal and disease contexts. In contrast there has been limited study of how the phenotypic state of the vascular smooth muscle cell may influence the contractile response to these signaling pathways dependent upon the developmental, tissue-specific (vascular bed) or disease context. Smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle lineages are traditionally classified into fast or slow sublineages based on rates of contraction and relaxation, recognizing that this simple dichotomy vastly underrepresents muscle phenotypic diversity. A great deal has been learned about developmental specification of the striated muscle sublineages and their phenotypic interconversions in the mature animal under the control of mechanical load, neural input, and hormones. In contrast there has been relatively limited study of smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity. This is surprising given the number of diseases in which smooth muscle contractile dysfunction plays a key role. This review focuses on smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity in the vascular system, how it is generated, and how it may determine vascular function in developmental and disease contexts. PMID:20736412

  5. Interstitial cells: regulators of smooth muscle function.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-07-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα(+) cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα(+) cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues.

  6. Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007

  7. Compressive Sensing via Nonlocal Smoothed Rank Function

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ya-Ru; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Xi-Le

    2016-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) theory asserts that we can reconstruct signals and images with only a small number of samples or measurements. Recent works exploiting the nonlocal similarity have led to better results in various CS studies. To better exploit the nonlocal similarity, in this paper, we propose a non-convex smoothed rank function based model for CS image reconstruction. We also propose an efficient alternating minimization method to solve the proposed model, which reduces a difficult and coupled problem to two tractable subproblems. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method performs better than several existing state-of-the-art CS methods for image reconstruction. PMID:27583683

  8. Compressive Sensing via Nonlocal Smoothed Rank Function.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ya-Ru; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Xi-Le

    2016-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) theory asserts that we can reconstruct signals and images with only a small number of samples or measurements. Recent works exploiting the nonlocal similarity have led to better results in various CS studies. To better exploit the nonlocal similarity, in this paper, we propose a non-convex smoothed rank function based model for CS image reconstruction. We also propose an efficient alternating minimization method to solve the proposed model, which reduces a difficult and coupled problem to two tractable subproblems. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method performs better than several existing state-of-the-art CS methods for image reconstruction.

  9. A smoothing algorithm using cubic spline functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E., Jr.; Price, J. M.; Howser, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    Two algorithms are presented for smoothing arbitrary sets of data. They are the explicit variable algorithm and the parametric variable algorithm. The former would be used where large gradients are not encountered because of the smaller amount of calculation required. The latter would be used if the data being smoothed were double valued or experienced large gradients. Both algorithms use a least-squares technique to obtain a cubic spline fit to the data. The advantage of the spline fit is that the first and second derivatives are continuous. This method is best used in an interactive graphics environment so that the junction values for the spline curve can be manipulated to improve the fit.

  10. Regulation of Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle Function by Interstitial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kenton M; Kito, Yoshihiko; Hwang, Sung Jin; Ward, Sean M

    2016-09-01

    Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin form gap junctions with smooth muscle cells in visceral smooth muscles and provide important regulatory functions. In gastrointestinal (GI) muscles, there are two distinct classes of interstitial cells, c-Kit(+) interstitial cells of Cajal and PDGFRα(+) cells, that regulate motility patterns. Loss of these cells may contribute to symptoms in GI motility disorders.

  11. Convergence rate of spherical harmonic expansions of smooth functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Feng; Wang, Kunyang

    2008-12-01

    We extend a well-known result of Bonami and Clerc on the almost everywhere (a.e.) convergence of Cesàro means of spherical harmonic expansions. For smooth functions measured in terms of [phi]-derivatives on the unit sphere, we obtained the sharp a.e. convergence rate of Cesàro means of their spherical harmonic expansions.

  12. Exponentially accurate approximations to piece-wise smooth periodic functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, James; Banerjee, Saheb

    1995-01-01

    A family of simple, periodic basis functions with 'built-in' discontinuities are introduced, and their properties are analyzed and discussed. Some of their potential usefulness is illustrated in conjunction with the Fourier series representations of functions with discontinuities. In particular, it is demonstrated how they can be used to construct a sequence of approximations which converges exponentially in the maximum norm to a piece-wise smooth function. The theory is illustrated with several examples and the results are discussed in the context of other sequences of functions which can be used to approximate discontinuous functions.

  13. On the existence of smooth Cauchy steep time functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2016-06-01

    A simple proof (based on results in Chruściel et al 2015 Ann. Henri Poincaré arXiv:1301.2909) is given that every globally hyperbolic spacetime admits a smooth Cauchy steep time function. This result is useful in order to show that globally hyperbolic spacetimes can be isometrically embedded in Minkowski spacetimes and that they split as a product. The proof is based on a recent result on the differentiability of Geroch’s volume functions.

  14. Pulmonary function in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  15. Menthol inhibiting parasympathetic function of tracheal smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsing-Won; Liu, Shao-Cheng; Chao, Pin-Zhir; Lee, Fei-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Menthol is used as a constituent of food and drink, tobacco and cosmetics nowadays. This cold receptor agonist has been used as a nasal inhalation solution in the daily life. The effect of menthol on nasal mucosa in vivo is well known; however, the effect of the drug on tracheal smooth muscle has been rarely explored. Therefore, during administration of the drug for nasal symptoms, it might also affect the trachea via oral intake or inhalation. We used our preparation to test the effectiveness of menthol on isolated rat tracheal smooth muscle. A 5 mm long portion of rat trachea was submersed in 30 ml Krebs solution in a muscle bath at 37ºC. Changes in tracheal contractility in response to the application of a parasympathetic mimetic agent were measured using a transducer connected to a Pentium III computer equipped with polygraph software. The following assessments of menthol were performed: (1) effect on tracheal smooth muscle resting tension; (2) effect on contraction caused by 10-6 M methacholine as a parasympathetic mimetic; (3) effect of the drug on electrically induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions. Results indicated that addition of a parasympathetic mimetic to the incubation medium caused the trachea to contract in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of menthol at doses of 10-5 M or above elicited a relaxation response to 10-6 M methacholine-induced contraction. Menthol could also inhibit electrical field stimulation (EFS) induced spike contraction. However, it alone had a minimal effect on the basal tension of trachea as the concentration increased. We concluded that the degree of drug-induced tracheal contraction or relaxation was dose-dependent. In addition, this study indicated that high concentrations of menthol might actually inhibit parasympathetic function of the trachea. PMID:27994497

  16. Space race functional responses.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats.

  17. Dry Lubricant Smooths the Way for Space Travel, Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Reviving industry standards for coating parts in tungsten disulfide, a dry lubricant developed for the Mariner space probes managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the 1960s and '70s, Applied Tungstenite, a relatively new Temecula, California-based company, has found a client base in the mushrooming commercial space industry, as well as other manufacturers.

  18. Approximating smooth functions using algebraic-trigonometric polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Sharapudinov, Idris I

    2011-01-14

    The problem under consideration is that of approximating classes of smooth functions by algebraic-trigonometric polynomials of the form p{sub n}(t)+{tau}{sub m}(t), where p{sub n}(t) is an algebraic polynomial of degree n and {tau}{sub m}(t)=a{sub 0}+{Sigma}{sub k=1}{sup m}a{sub k} cos k{pi}t + b{sub k} sin k{pi}t is a trigonometric polynomial of order m. The precise order of approximation by such polynomials in the classes W{sup r}{sub {infinity}(}M) and an upper bound for similar approximations in the class W{sup r}{sub p}(M) with 4/3

  19. Smooth conditional distribution function and quantiles under random censorship.

    PubMed

    Leconte, Eve; Poiraud-Casanova, Sandrine; Thomas-Agnan, Christine

    2002-09-01

    We consider a nonparametric random design regression model in which the response variable is possibly right censored. The aim of this paper is to estimate the conditional distribution function and the conditional alpha-quantile of the response variable. We restrict attention to the case where the response variable as well as the explanatory variable are unidimensional and continuous. We propose and discuss two classes of estimators which are smooth with respect to the response variable as well as to the covariate. Some simulations demonstrate that the new methods have better mean square error performances than the generalized Kaplan-Meier estimator introduced by Beran (1981) and considered in the literature by Dabrowska (1989, 1992) and Gonzalez-Manteiga and Cadarso-Suarez (1994).

  20. Approximating smooth functions using algebraic-trigonometric polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapudinov, Idris I.

    2011-01-01

    The problem under consideration is that of approximating classes of smooth functions by algebraic-trigonometric polynomials of the form p_n(t)+\\tau_m(t), where p_n(t) is an algebraic polynomial of degree n and \\tau_m(t)=a_0+\\sum_{k=1}^ma_k\\cos k\\pi t+b_k\\sin k\\pi t is a trigonometric polynomial of order m. The precise order of approximation by such polynomials in the classes W^r_\\infty(M) and an upper bound for similar approximations in the class W^r_p(M) with \\frac43 are found. The proof of these estimates uses mixed series in Legendre polynomials which the author has introduced and investigated previously. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  1. A new smoothing function to introduce long-range electrostatic effects in QM/MM calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Dong; Duke, Robert E.; Andrés Cisneros, G.

    2015-07-28

    A new method to account for long range electrostatic contributions is proposed and implemented for quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics long range electrostatic correction (QM/MM-LREC) calculations. This method involves the use of the minimum image convention under periodic boundary conditions and a new smoothing function for energies and forces at the cutoff boundary for the Coulomb interactions. Compared to conventional QM/MM calculations without long-range electrostatic corrections, the new method effectively includes effects on the MM environment in the primary image from its replicas in the neighborhood. QM/MM-LREC offers three useful features including the avoidance of calculations in reciprocal space (k-space), with the concomitant avoidance of having to reproduce (analytically or approximately) the QM charge density in k-space, and the straightforward availability of analytical Hessians. The new method is tested and compared with results from smooth particle mesh Ewald (PME) for three systems including a box of neat water, a double proton transfer reaction, and the geometry optimization of the critical point structures for the rate limiting step of the DNA dealkylase AlkB. As with other smoothing or shifting functions, relatively large cutoffs are necessary to achieve comparable accuracy with PME. For the double-proton transfer reaction, the use of a 22 Å cutoff shows a close reaction energy profile and geometries of stationary structures with QM/MM-LREC compared to conventional QM/MM with no truncation. Geometry optimization of stationary structures for the hydrogen abstraction step by AlkB shows some differences between QM/MM-LREC and the conventional QM/MM. These differences underscore the necessity of the inclusion of the long-range electrostatic contribution.

  2. A new smoothing function to introduce long-range electrostatic effects in QM/MM calculations.

    PubMed

    Fang, Dong; Duke, Robert E; Cisneros, G Andrés

    2015-07-28

    A new method to account for long range electrostatic contributions is proposed and implemented for quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics long range electrostatic correction (QM/MM-LREC) calculations. This method involves the use of the minimum image convention under periodic boundary conditions and a new smoothing function for energies and forces at the cutoff boundary for the Coulomb interactions. Compared to conventional QM/MM calculations without long-range electrostatic corrections, the new method effectively includes effects on the MM environment in the primary image from its replicas in the neighborhood. QM/MM-LREC offers three useful features including the avoidance of calculations in reciprocal space (k-space), with the concomitant avoidance of having to reproduce (analytically or approximately) the QM charge density in k-space, and the straightforward availability of analytical Hessians. The new method is tested and compared with results from smooth particle mesh Ewald (PME) for three systems including a box of neat water, a double proton transfer reaction, and the geometry optimization of the critical point structures for the rate limiting step of the DNA dealkylase AlkB. As with other smoothing or shifting functions, relatively large cutoffs are necessary to achieve comparable accuracy with PME. For the double-proton transfer reaction, the use of a 22 Å cutoff shows a close reaction energy profile and geometries of stationary structures with QM/MM-LREC compared to conventional QM/MM with no truncation. Geometry optimization of stationary structures for the hydrogen abstraction step by AlkB shows some differences between QM/MM-LREC and the conventional QM/MM. These differences underscore the necessity of the inclusion of the long-range electrostatic contribution.

  3. A new smoothing function to introduce long-range electrostatic effects in QM/MM calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Dong; Duke, Robert E.; Cisneros, G. Andrés

    2015-07-01

    A new method to account for long range electrostatic contributions is proposed and implemented for quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics long range electrostatic correction (QM/MM-LREC) calculations. This method involves the use of the minimum image convention under periodic boundary conditions and a new smoothing function for energies and forces at the cutoff boundary for the Coulomb interactions. Compared to conventional QM/MM calculations without long-range electrostatic corrections, the new method effectively includes effects on the MM environment in the primary image from its replicas in the neighborhood. QM/MM-LREC offers three useful features including the avoidance of calculations in reciprocal space (k-space), with the concomitant avoidance of having to reproduce (analytically or approximately) the QM charge density in k-space, and the straightforward availability of analytical Hessians. The new method is tested and compared with results from smooth particle mesh Ewald (PME) for three systems including a box of neat water, a double proton transfer reaction, and the geometry optimization of the critical point structures for the rate limiting step of the DNA dealkylase AlkB. As with other smoothing or shifting functions, relatively large cutoffs are necessary to achieve comparable accuracy with PME. For the double-proton transfer reaction, the use of a 22 Å cutoff shows a close reaction energy profile and geometries of stationary structures with QM/MM-LREC compared to conventional QM/MM with no truncation. Geometry optimization of stationary structures for the hydrogen abstraction step by AlkB shows some differences between QM/MM-LREC and the conventional QM/MM. These differences underscore the necessity of the inclusion of the long-range electrostatic contribution.

  4. Construction of spline functions in spreadsheets to smooth experimental data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous manuscript detailed how spreadsheet software can be programmed to smooth experimental data via cubic splines. This addendum corrects a few errors in the previous manuscript and provides additional necessary programming steps. ...

  5. A decomposition theorem for the space of C{sup 1}-smooth skew products with complicated dynamics of the quotient map

    SciTech Connect

    Efremova, L S

    2013-11-30

    We use the notions of the Ω-function and functions suitable to it, to give a detailed proof of a decomposition theorem for the space of C{sup 1}-smooth skew products of interval maps whose quotient maps have complicated dynamics and satisfy the additional condition of Ω-stability with respect to the C{sup 1}-norm. In our theorem, the space of C{sup 1}-smooth skew products is decomposed into a union of four nonempty, pairwise disjoint subspaces. We give examples of maps contained in each of the four subspaces. Bibliography: 46 titles.

  6. An improved nearly-orthogonal structured mesh generation system with smoothness control functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents an improved nearly-orthogonal structured mesh generation system with a set of smoothness control functions, which were derived based on the ratio between the Jacobian of the transformation matrix and the Jacobian of the metric tensor. The proposed smoothness control functions are...

  7. Invariant measures of smooth dynamical systems, generalized functions and summation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss conditions for the existence of invariant measures of smooth dynamical systems on compact manifolds. If there is an invariant measure with continuously differentiable density, then the divergence of the vector field along every solution tends to zero in the Cesàro sense as time increases unboundedly. Here the Cesàro convergence may be replaced, for example, by any Riesz summation method, which can be arbitrarily close to ordinary convergence (but does not coincide with it). We give an example of a system whose divergence tends to zero in the ordinary sense but none of its invariant measures is absolutely continuous with respect to the `standard' Lebesgue measure (generated by some Riemannian metric) on the phase space. We give examples of analytic systems of differential equations on analytic phase spaces admitting invariant measures of any prescribed smoothness (including a measure with integrable density), but having no invariant measures with positive continuous densities. We give a new proof of the classical Bogolyubov-Krylov theorem using generalized functions and the Hahn-Banach theorem. The properties of signed invariant measures are also discussed.

  8. Recovery of partial differential operators on classes of periodic functions with mixed smoothness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balgimbayeva, Sholpan

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of optimal linear recovery for mixed partial differential operator A on the unit ball SBpθ r(Tn) of the Nikol'skii-Besov space of periodic functions with mixed smoothness. We find error bounds sharp in order for optimal linear recovery of operator A on class SBpθ r(Tn) . As information IMδ(f ) about the functions f from class SBpθ r(Tn) we shall use Fourier coefficients with numbers from step "hyperbolic" cross. As the linear method using the information about Fourier coefficients, we shall consider action of the mixed partial differential operator A on the special "private" sum of decomposition on system (type as wavelets) trigonometric polynomials.

  9. Defining an olfactory receptor function in airway smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Aisenberg, William H.; Huang, Jessie; Zhu, Wanqu; Rajkumar, Premraj; Cruz, Randy; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Natarajan, Niranjana; Yong, Hwan Mee; De Santiago, Breann; Oh, Jung Jin; Yoon, A-Rum; Panettieri, Reynold A.; Homann, Oliver; Sullivan, John K.; Liggett, Stephen B.; Pluznick, Jennifer L.; An, Steven S.

    2016-01-01

    Pathways that control, or can be exploited to alter, the increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass and cellular remodeling that occur in asthma are not well defined. Here we report the expression of odorant receptors (ORs) belonging to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), as well as the canonical olfaction machinery (Golf and AC3) in the smooth muscle of human bronchi. In primary cultures of isolated human ASM, we identified mRNA expression for multiple ORs. Strikingly, OR51E2 was the most highly enriched OR transcript mapped to the human olfactome in lung-resident cells. In a heterologous expression system, OR51E2 trafficked readily to the cell surface and showed ligand selectivity and sensitivity to the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate and propionate. These endogenous metabolic byproducts of the gut microbiota slowed the rate of cytoskeletal remodeling, as well as the proliferation of human ASM cells. These cellular responses in vitro were found in ASM from non-asthmatics and asthmatics, and were absent in OR51E2-deleted primary human ASM. These results demonstrate a novel chemo-mechanical signaling network in the ASM and serve as a proof-of-concept that a specific receptor of the gut-lung axis can be targeted to treat airflow obstruction in asthma. PMID:27905542

  10. Defining an olfactory receptor function in airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Aisenberg, William H; Huang, Jessie; Zhu, Wanqu; Rajkumar, Premraj; Cruz, Randy; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Natarajan, Niranjana; Yong, Hwan Mee; De Santiago, Breann; Oh, Jung Jin; Yoon, A-Rum; Panettieri, Reynold A; Homann, Oliver; Sullivan, John K; Liggett, Stephen B; Pluznick, Jennifer L; An, Steven S

    2016-12-01

    Pathways that control, or can be exploited to alter, the increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass and cellular remodeling that occur in asthma are not well defined. Here we report the expression of odorant receptors (ORs) belonging to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), as well as the canonical olfaction machinery (Golf and AC3) in the smooth muscle of human bronchi. In primary cultures of isolated human ASM, we identified mRNA expression for multiple ORs. Strikingly, OR51E2 was the most highly enriched OR transcript mapped to the human olfactome in lung-resident cells. In a heterologous expression system, OR51E2 trafficked readily to the cell surface and showed ligand selectivity and sensitivity to the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate and propionate. These endogenous metabolic byproducts of the gut microbiota slowed the rate of cytoskeletal remodeling, as well as the proliferation of human ASM cells. These cellular responses in vitro were found in ASM from non-asthmatics and asthmatics, and were absent in OR51E2-deleted primary human ASM. These results demonstrate a novel chemo-mechanical signaling network in the ASM and serve as a proof-of-concept that a specific receptor of the gut-lung axis can be targeted to treat airflow obstruction in asthma.

  11. Space station functional relationships analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tullis, Thomas S.; Bied, Barbra R.

    1988-01-01

    A systems engineering process is developed to assist Space Station designers to understand the underlying operational system of the facility so that it can be physically arranged and configured to support crew productivity. The study analyzes the operational system proposed for the Space Station in terms of mission functions, crew activities, and functional relationships in order to develop a quantitative model for evaluation of interior layouts, configuration, and traffic analysis for any Station configuration. Development of the model involved identification of crew functions, required support equipment, criteria of assessing functional relationships, and tools for analyzing functional relationship matrices, as well as analyses of crew transition frequency, sequential dependencies, support equipment requirements, potential for noise interference, need for privacy, and overall compatability of functions. The model can be used for analyzing crew functions for the Initial Operating Capability of the Station and for detecting relationships among these functions. Note: This process (FRA) was used during Phase B design studies to test optional layouts of the Space Station habitat module. The process is now being automated as a computer model for use in layout testing of the Space Station laboratory modules during Phase C.

  12. Vascular smooth muscle cell functional contractility depends on extracellular mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Steucke, Kerianne E.; Tracy, Paige V.; Hald, Eric S.; Hall, Jennifer L.; Alford, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells’ primary function is to maintain vascular homeostasis through active contraction and relaxation. In diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis, this function is inhibited concurrent to changes in the mechanical environment surrounding vascular smooth muscle cells. It is well established that cell function and extracellular mechanics are interconnected; variations in substrate modulus affect cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. To date, it is unknown how the evolving extracellular mechanical environment of vascular smooth muscle cells affects their contractile function. Here, we have built upon previous vascular muscular thin film technology to develop a variable-modulus vascular muscular thin film that measures vascular tissue functional contractility on substrates with a range of pathological and physiological moduli. Using this modified vascular muscular thin film, we found that vascular smooth muscle cells generated greater stress on substrates with higher moduli compared to substrates with lower moduli. We then measured protein markers typically thought to indicate a contractile phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells and found that phenotype is unaffected by substrate modulus. These data suggest that mechanical properties of vascular smooth muscle cells’ extracellular environment directly influence their functional behavior and do so without inducing phenotype switching. PMID:26283412

  13. Accurate and efficient method for smoothly space-variant Gaussian blurring.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Timothy; Cavallaro, Andrea; Hands, David

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient algorithm for smoothly space-variant Gaussian blurring of images. The proposed algorithm uses a specialized filter bank with optimal filters computed through principal component analysis. This filter bank approximates perfect space-variant Gaussian blurring to arbitrarily high accuracy and at greatly reduced computational cost compared to the brute force approach of employing a separate low-pass filter at each image location. This is particularly important for spatially variant image processing such as foveated coding. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides typically 10 to 15 dB better approximation of perfect Gaussian blurring than the blended Gaussian pyramid blurring approach when using a bank of just eight filters.

  14. Expansion of direction space around the cardinal axes revealed by smooth pursuit eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krukowski, Anton E.; Stone, Leland S.

    2005-01-01

    It is well established that perceptual direction discrimination shows an oblique effect; thresholds are higher for motion along diagonal directions than for motion along cardinal directions. Here, we compare simultaneous direction judgments and pursuit responses for the same motion stimuli and find that both pursuit and perceptual thresholds show similar anisotropies. The pursuit oblique effect is robust under a wide range of experimental manipulations, being largely resistant to changes in trajectory (radial versus tangential motion), speed (10 versus 25 deg/s), directional uncertainty (blocked versus randomly interleaved), and cognitive state (tracking alone versus concurrent tracking and perceptual tasks). Our data show that the pursuit oblique effect is caused by an effective expansion of direction space surrounding the cardinal directions and the requisite compression of space for other directions. This expansion suggests that the directions around the cardinal directions are in some way overrepresented in the visual cortical pathways that drive both smooth pursuit and perception.

  15. Cardiovascular function in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.; Leach-Huntoon, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance and cardiac hemodynamics associated with manned space flight have been investigated on seven STS missions. Orthostatic heart rates appear to be influenced by the mission duration. The rates increase during the first 7-10 days of flight and recover partially after that. Fluid loading is used as a countermeasure to the postflight orthostatic intolerance. The carotid baroreceptor function shows only slight responsiveness to orthostatic stimulation. Plots of the baroreceptor function are presented. It is concluded that an early adaptation to the space flight conditions involves a fluid shift and that the subsequent alterations in the neutral controlling mechanisms contribute to the orthoststic intolerance.

  16. Evaluation of the performance of smoothing functions in generalized additive models for spatial variation in disease.

    PubMed

    Siangphoe, Umaporn; Wheeler, David C

    2015-01-01

    Generalized additive models (GAMs) with bivariate smoothing functions have been applied to estimate spatial variation in risk for many types of cancers. Only a handful of studies have evaluated the performance of smoothing functions applied in GAMs with regard to different geographical areas of elevated risk and different risk levels. This study evaluates the ability of different smoothing functions to detect overall spatial variation of risk and elevated risk in diverse geographical areas at various risk levels using a simulation study. We created five scenarios with different true risk area shapes (circle, triangle, linear) in a square study region. We applied four different smoothing functions in the GAMs, including two types of thin plate regression splines (TPRS) and two versions of locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (loess). We tested the null hypothesis of constant risk and detected areas of elevated risk using analysis of deviance with permutation methods and assessed the performance of the smoothing methods based on the spatial detection rate, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, power, and false-positive rate. The results showed that all methods had a higher sensitivity and a consistently moderate-to-high accuracy rate when the true disease risk was higher. The models generally performed better in detecting elevated risk areas than detecting overall spatial variation. One of the loess methods had the highest precision in detecting overall spatial variation across scenarios and outperformed the other methods in detecting a linear elevated risk area. The TPRS methods outperformed loess in detecting elevated risk in two circular areas.

  17. Evaluation of the Performance of Smoothing Functions in Generalized Additive Models for Spatial Variation in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Siangphoe, Umaporn; Wheeler, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Generalized additive models (GAMs) with bivariate smoothing functions have been applied to estimate spatial variation in risk for many types of cancers. Only a handful of studies have evaluated the performance of smoothing functions applied in GAMs with regard to different geographical areas of elevated risk and different risk levels. This study evaluates the ability of different smoothing functions to detect overall spatial variation of risk and elevated risk in diverse geographical areas at various risk levels using a simulation study. We created five scenarios with different true risk area shapes (circle, triangle, linear) in a square study region. We applied four different smoothing functions in the GAMs, including two types of thin plate regression splines (TPRS) and two versions of locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (loess). We tested the null hypothesis of constant risk and detected areas of elevated risk using analysis of deviance with permutation methods and assessed the performance of the smoothing methods based on the spatial detection rate, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, power, and false-positive rate. The results showed that all methods had a higher sensitivity and a consistently moderate-to-high accuracy rate when the true disease risk was higher. The models generally performed better in detecting elevated risk areas than detecting overall spatial variation. One of the loess methods had the highest precision in detecting overall spatial variation across scenarios and outperformed the other methods in detecting a linear elevated risk area. The TPRS methods outperformed loess in detecting elevated risk in two circular areas. PMID:25983545

  18. Approximation bounds for smooth functions in C(IRd) by neural and mixture networks.

    PubMed

    Maiorov, V; Meir, R S

    1998-01-01

    We consider the approximation of smooth multivariate functions in C(IRd) by feedforward neural networks with a single hidden layer of nonlinear ridge functions. Under certain assumptions on the smoothness of the functions being approximated and on the activation functions in the neural network, we present upper bounds on the degree of approximation achieved over the domain IRd, thereby generalizing available results for compact domains. We extend the approximation results to the so-called mixture of expert architecture, which has received considerable attention in recent years, showing that the same type of approximation bound may be achieved.

  19. Constrained minimization of smooth functions using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moerder, Daniel D.; Pamadi, Bandu N.

    1994-01-01

    The use of genetic algorithms for minimization of differentiable functions that are subject to differentiable constraints is considered. A technique is demonstrated for converting the solution of the necessary conditions for a constrained minimum into an unconstrained function minimization. This technique is extended as a global constrained optimization algorithm. The theory is applied to calculating minimum-fuel ascent control settings for an energy state model of an aerospace plane.

  20. Function Spaces for Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    We consider the relationship between three continuum liquid crystal theories: Oseen-Frank, Ericksen and Landau-de Gennes. It is known that the function space is an important part of the mathematical model and by considering various function space choices for the order parameters s, n, and Q, we establish connections between the variational formulations of these theories. We use these results to justify a version of the Oseen-Frank theory using special functions of bounded variation. This proposed model can describe both orientable and non-orientable defects. Finally we study a number of frustrated nematic and cholesteric liquid crystal systems and show that the model predicts the existence of point and surface discontinuities in the director.

  1. Families of smooth confidence bands for the survival function under the general random censorship model.

    PubMed

    Gulati, S; Padgett, W J

    1996-01-01

    Randomly right censored data often arise in industrial life testing and clinical trials. Several authors have proposed asymptotic confidence bands for the survival function when data are randomly censored on the right. All of these bands are based on the empirical estimator of the survival function. In this paper, families of asymptotic (1-alpha) 100% level confidence bands are developed from the smoothed estimate of the survival function under the general random censorship model. The new bands are compared to empirical bands, and it is shown that for small sample sizes, the smooth bands have a higher coverage probability than the empirical counterparts.

  2. Optimization with quadratic support functions in nonconvex smooth optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamisov, O. V.

    2016-10-01

    Problem of global minimization of twice continuously differentiable function with Lipschitz second derivatives over a polytope is considered. We suggest a branch and bound method with polytopes as partition elements. Due to the Lipschitz property of the objective function we can construct a quadratic support minorant at each point of the feasible set. Global minimum of of this minorant provides a lower bound of the objective over given partition subset. The main advantage of the suggested method consists in the following. First quadratic minorants usually are nonconvex and we have to solve auxiliary global optimization problem. This problem is reduced to a mixed 0-1 linear programming problem and can be solved by an advanced 0-1 solver. Then we show that the quadratic minorants are getting convex as soon as partition elements are getting smaller in diameter. Hence, at the final steps of the branch and bound method we solve convex auxiliary quadratic problems. Therefore, the method accelerates when we are close to the global minimum of the initial problem.

  3. Approximating Smooth Step Functions Using Partial Fourier Series Sums

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    interp1(xt(ii), smoothstepbez( t(ii), min(t(ii)), max(t(ii)), ’y’), t(ii), ’linear’, ’ extrap ’); ii = find( abs(t - tau/2) <= epi ); iii = t(ii...interp1( xt(ii), smoothstepbez( rt, min(rt), max(rt), ’y’), t(ii), ’linear’, ’ extrap ’ ); % stepm(ii) = 1 - interp1(xt(ii), smoothstepbez( t(ii...min(t(ii)), max(t(ii)), ’y’), t(ii), ’linear’, ’ extrap ’); In this case, because x is also defined as a function of the independent parameter

  4. Phenotypic and Functional Changes of Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Malashicheva, Anna; Kostina, Daria; Kostina, Aleksandra; Irtyuga, Olga; Voronkina, Irina; Smagina, Larisa; Ignatieva, Elena; Gavriliuk, Natalia; Uspensky, Vladimir; Moiseeva, Olga; Vaage, Jarle; Kostareva, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm develops as a result of complex series of events that alter the cellular structure and the composition of the extracellular matrix of the aortic wall. The purpose of the present work was to study the cellular functions of endothelial and smooth muscle cells from the patients with aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. We studied endothelial and smooth muscle cells from aneurysms in patients with bicuspid aortic valve and with tricuspid aortic valve. The expression of key markers of endothelial (CD31, vWF, and VE-cadherin) and smooth muscle (SMA, SM22α, calponin, and vimentin) cells as well extracellular matrix and MMP activity was studied as well as and apoptosis and cell proliferation. Expression of functional markers of endothelial and smooth muscle cells was reduced in patient cells. Cellular proliferation, migration, and synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins are attenuated in the cells of the patients. We show for the first time that aortic endothelial cell phenotype is changed in the thoracic aortic aneurysms compared to normal aortic wall. In conclusion both endothelial and smooth muscle cells from aneurysms of the ascending aorta have downregulated specific cellular markers and altered functional properties, such as growth rate, apoptosis induction, and extracellular matrix synthesis. PMID:26904289

  5. Phenotypic and Functional Changes of Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Malashicheva, Anna; Kostina, Daria; Kostina, Aleksandra; Irtyuga, Olga; Voronkina, Irina; Smagina, Larisa; Ignatieva, Elena; Gavriliuk, Natalia; Uspensky, Vladimir; Moiseeva, Olga; Vaage, Jarle; Kostareva, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm develops as a result of complex series of events that alter the cellular structure and the composition of the extracellular matrix of the aortic wall. The purpose of the present work was to study the cellular functions of endothelial and smooth muscle cells from the patients with aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. We studied endothelial and smooth muscle cells from aneurysms in patients with bicuspid aortic valve and with tricuspid aortic valve. The expression of key markers of endothelial (CD31, vWF, and VE-cadherin) and smooth muscle (SMA, SM22α, calponin, and vimentin) cells as well extracellular matrix and MMP activity was studied as well as and apoptosis and cell proliferation. Expression of functional markers of endothelial and smooth muscle cells was reduced in patient cells. Cellular proliferation, migration, and synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins are attenuated in the cells of the patients. We show for the first time that aortic endothelial cell phenotype is changed in the thoracic aortic aneurysms compared to normal aortic wall. In conclusion both endothelial and smooth muscle cells from aneurysms of the ascending aorta have downregulated specific cellular markers and altered functional properties, such as growth rate, apoptosis induction, and extracellular matrix synthesis.

  6. The evolutionarily conserved RNA binding protein SMOOTH is essential for maintaining normal muscle function.

    PubMed

    Draper, Isabelle; Tabaka, Meg E; Jackson, F Rob; Salomon, Robert N; Kopin, Alan S

    2009-01-01

    The Drosophila smooth gene encodes an RNA binding protein that has been well conserved through evolution. To investigate the pleiotropic functions mediated by the smooth gene, we have selected and characterized two sm mutants, which are viable as adults yet display robust phenotypes (including a significant decrease in lifespan). Utilizing these mutants, we have made the novel observation that disruption of the smooth/CG9218 locus leads to age-dependent muscle degeneration, and motor dysfunction. Histological characterization of adult sm mutants revealed marked abnormalities in the major thoracic tubular muscle: the tergal depressor of the trochanter (TDT). Corresponding defects include extensive loss/disruption of striations and nuclei. These pathological changes are recapitulated in flies that express a smooth RNA interference construct (sm RNAi) in the mesoderm. In contrast, targeting sm RNAi constructs to motor neurons does not alter muscle morphology. In addition to examining the TDT phenotype, we explored whether other muscular abnormalities were evident. Utilizing physiological assays developed in the laboratory, we have found that the thoracic muscle defect is preceded by dysmotility of the gastrointestinal tract. SMOOTH thus joins a growing list of hnRNPs that have previously been linked to muscle physiology/pathophysiology. Our findings in Drosophila set the stage for investigating the role of the corresponding mammalian homolog, hnRNP L, in muscle function.

  7. Cardiovascular function in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.; Leach-Huntoon, C. S.; Nicgossian, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in orthostatic heart rate have been noted universally in Soviet and U.S. crewmembers post space flight. The magnitude of these changes appears to be influenced by mission duration, with increasing orthostatic intolerance for the first 7-10 days of flight and then a partial recovery in the orthostatic heart rate response. Fluid loading has been used as a countermeasure to this postflight orthostatic intolerance. Previous reports have documented the effectiveness of this technique, but it has also been noted that the effectiveness of volume expansion diminishes as flight duration exceeds one week. The response of carotid baroreceptor function was investigated utilizing a commercially available neck collar which could apply positive and negative pressure to effect receptor stimulation. Bedrest studies had validated the usefulness and validity of the device. In these studies it was shown that carotid baroreceptor function curves demonstrated less responsiveness to orthostatic stimulation than control individuals. Twelve Space Shuttle crewmembers were examined pre- and postflight from flights lasting from 4-5 days. Plots of baroreceptor function were constructed and plotted as change in R-R interval vs. carotid distending pressure (an orthostatic stimulus). Typical sigmoidal curves were obtained. Postflight the resting heart rate was higher (smaller R-R interval) and the range of R-R value and the slope of the carotid sigmoidal response were both depressed. These changes were not significant immediately postflight (L + O), but did become significant by the second day postflight (L + 2), and remained suppressed for several days thereafter. It is hypothesized that the early adaptation to space flight involves a central fluid shift during the initial days of flight, but subsequent alterations in neural controlling mechanisms (such as carotid baroreceptor function) contribute to orthostatic intolerance.

  8. Smooth Muscle Endothelin B Receptors Regulate Blood Pressure but Not Vascular Function or Neointimal Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eileen; Czopek, Alicja; Duthie, Karolina M; Kirkby, Nicholas S; van de Putte, Elisabeth E Fransen; Christen, Sibylle; Kimmitt, Robert A; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Castellan, Raphael F P; Kotelevtsev, Yuri V; Kuc, Rhoda E; Davenport, Anthony P; Dhaun, Neeraj; Webb, David J; Hadoke, Patrick W F

    2017-02-01

    The role of smooth muscle endothelinB (ETB) receptors in regulating vascular function, blood pressure (BP), and neointimal remodeling has not been established. Selective knockout mice were generated to address the hypothesis that loss of smooth muscle ETB receptors would reduce BP, alter vascular contractility, and inhibit neointimal remodeling. ETB receptors were selectively deleted from smooth muscle by crossing floxed ETB mice with those expressing cre-recombinase controlled by the transgelin promoter. Functional consequences of ETB deletion were assessed using myography. BP was measured by telemetry, and neointimal lesion formation induced by femoral artery injury. Lesion size and composition (day 28) were analyzed using optical projection tomography, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Selective deletion of ETB was confirmed by genotyping, autoradiography, polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. ETB-mediated contraction was reduced in trachea, but abolished from mesenteric veins, of knockout mice. Induction of ETB-mediated contraction in mesenteric arteries was also abolished in these mice. Femoral artery function was unaltered, and baseline BP modestly elevated in smooth muscle ETB knockout compared with controls (+4.2±0.2 mm Hg; P<0.0001), but salt-induced and ETB blockade-mediated hypertension were unaltered. Circulating endothelin-1 was not altered in knockout mice. ETB-mediated contraction was not induced in femoral arteries by incubation in culture medium or lesion formation, and lesion size was not altered in smooth muscle ETB knockout mice. In the absence of other pathology, ETB receptors in vascular smooth muscle make a small but significant contribution to ETB-dependent regulation of BP. These ETB receptors have no effect on vascular contraction or neointimal remodeling.

  9. A Novel Selectable Islet 1 Positive Progenitor Cell Reprogrammed to Expandable and Functional Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Turner, Elizabeth C; Huang, Chien-Ling; Sawhney, Neha; Govindarajan, Kalaimathi; Clover, Anthony J P; Martin, Kenneth; Browne, Tara C; Whelan, Derek; Kumar, Arun H S; Mackrill, John J; Wang, Shaohua; Schmeckpeper, Jeffrey; Stocca, Alessia; Pierce, William G; Leblond, Anne-Laure; Cai, Liquan; O'Sullivan, Donnchadh M; Buneker, Chirlei K; Choi, Janet; MacSharry, John; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Russell, Stephen J; Caplice, Noel M

    2016-05-01

    Disorders affecting smooth muscle structure/function may require technologies that can generate large scale, differentiated and contractile smooth muscle cells (SMC) suitable for cell therapy. To date no clonal precursor population that provides large numbers of differentiated SMC in culture has been identified in a rodent. Identification of such cells may also enhance insight into progenitor cell fate decisions and the relationship between smooth muscle precursors and disease states that implicate differentiated SMC.  In this study, we used classic clonal expansion techniques to identify novel self-renewing Islet 1 (Isl-1) positive primitive progenitor cells (PPC) within rat bone marrow that exhibited canonical stem cell markers and preferential differentiation towards a smooth muscle-like fate. We subsequently used molecular tagging to select Isl-1 positive clonal populations from expanded and de novo marrow cell populations. We refer to these previously undescribed cells as the PPC given its stem cell marker profile, and robust self-renewal capacity. PPC could be directly converted into induced smooth muscle cells (iSMC) using single transcription factor (Kruppel-like factor 4) knockdown or transactivator (myocardin) overexpression in contrast to three control cells (HEK 293, endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells) where such induction was not possible. iSMC exhibited immuno- and cytoskeletal-phenotype, calcium signaling profile and contractile responses similar to bona fide SMC. Passaged iSMC could be expanded to a scale sufficient for large scale tissue replacement.  PPC and reprogramed iSMC so derived may offer future opportunities to investigate molecular, structure/function and cell-based replacement therapy approaches to diverse cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary diseases that have as their basis smooth muscle cell functional aberrancy or numerical loss. Stem Cells 2016;34:1354-1368.

  10. Smooth Muscle Endothelin B Receptors Regulate Blood Pressure but Not Vascular Function or Neointimal Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eileen; Czopek, Alicja; Duthie, Karolina M.; Kirkby, Nicholas S.; van de Putte, Elisabeth E. Fransen; Christen, Sibylle; Kimmitt, Robert A.; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Castellan, Raphael F.P.; Kotelevtsev, Yuri V.; Kuc, Rhoda E.; Davenport, Anthony P.; Dhaun, Neeraj; Webb, David J.

    2017-01-01

    The role of smooth muscle endothelinB (ETB) receptors in regulating vascular function, blood pressure (BP), and neointimal remodeling has not been established. Selective knockout mice were generated to address the hypothesis that loss of smooth muscle ETB receptors would reduce BP, alter vascular contractility, and inhibit neointimal remodeling. ETB receptors were selectively deleted from smooth muscle by crossing floxed ETB mice with those expressing cre-recombinase controlled by the transgelin promoter. Functional consequences of ETB deletion were assessed using myography. BP was measured by telemetry, and neointimal lesion formation induced by femoral artery injury. Lesion size and composition (day 28) were analyzed using optical projection tomography, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Selective deletion of ETB was confirmed by genotyping, autoradiography, polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. ETB-mediated contraction was reduced in trachea, but abolished from mesenteric veins, of knockout mice. Induction of ETB-mediated contraction in mesenteric arteries was also abolished in these mice. Femoral artery function was unaltered, and baseline BP modestly elevated in smooth muscle ETB knockout compared with controls (+4.2±0.2 mm Hg; P<0.0001), but salt-induced and ETB blockade–mediated hypertension were unaltered. Circulating endothelin-1 was not altered in knockout mice. ETB-mediated contraction was not induced in femoral arteries by incubation in culture medium or lesion formation, and lesion size was not altered in smooth muscle ETB knockout mice. In the absence of other pathology, ETB receptors in vascular smooth muscle make a small but significant contribution to ETB-dependent regulation of BP. These ETB receptors have no effect on vascular contraction or neointimal remodeling. PMID:28028193

  11. Space Shuttle critical function audit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacks, Ivan J.; Dipol, John; Su, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A large fault-tolerance model of the main propulsion system of the US space shuttle has been developed. This model is being used to identify single components and pairs of components that will cause loss of shuttle critical functions. In addition, this model is the basis for risk quantification of the shuttle. The process used to develop and analyze the model is digraph matrix analysis (DMA). The DMA modeling and analysis process is accessed via a graphics-based computer user interface. This interface provides coupled display of the integrated system schematics, the digraph models, the component database, and the results of the fault tolerance and risk analyses.

  12. A functional role for the 'fibroblast-like cells' in gastrointestinal smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, Masaaki; Zheng, Haifeng; Dwyer, Laura; Ward, Sean M; Koh, Sang Don; Sanders, Kenton M

    2011-02-01

    Smooth muscles, as in the gastrointestinal tract, are composed of several types of cells. Gastrointestinal muscles contain smooth muscle cells, enteric neurons, glial cells, immune cells, and various classes of interstitial cells. One type of interstitial cell, referred to as 'fibroblast-like cells' by morphologists, are common, but their function is unknown. These cells are found near the terminals of enteric motor neurons, suggesting they could have a role in generating neural responses that help control gastrointestinal movements. We used a novel mouse with bright green fluorescent protein expressed specifically in the fibroblast-like cells to help us identify these cells in the mixture of cells obtained when whole muscles are dispersed with enzymes. We isolated these cells and found they respond to a major class of inhibitory neurotransmitters - purines. We characterized these responses, and our results provide a new hypothesis about the role of fibroblast-like cells in smooth muscle tissues.

  13. Spaces defined by the Paley function

    SciTech Connect

    Astashkin, S V; Semenov, E M

    2013-07-31

    The paper is concerned with Haar and Rademacher series in symmetric spaces, and also with the properties of spaces defined by the Paley function. In particular, the symmetric hull of the space of functions with uniformly bounded Paley function is found. Bibliography: 27 titles.

  14. Using Cochran's Z Statistic to Test the Kernel-Smoothed Item Response Function Differences between Focal and Reference Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yinggan; Gierl, Mark J.; Cui, Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study combined the kernel smoothing procedure and a nonparametric differential item functioning statistic--Cochran's Z--to statistically test the difference between the kernel-smoothed item response functions for reference and focal groups. Simulation studies were conducted to investigate the Type I error and power of the proposed…

  15. Immunohistochemical and functional studies on calcium-sensing receptors in rat uterine smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Pistilli, Marc J; Petrik, James J; Holloway, Alison C; Crankshaw, Denis J

    2012-01-01

    1. Activation of calcium-sensing receptors (CaS) leads to relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. However, the role of CaS in uterine smooth muscle is unknown. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and function of CaS in the uterus. 2. The expression of CaS in the oestrogen-dominated rat uterus was investigated using immunohistochemistry. The effects of putative CaS ligands on oxytocin-induced contractions of longitudinally orientated uterine strips from oestrogen-dominated rats were determined at reduced extracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations using conventional organ bath techniques. 3. Immunohistochemical evidence showed the presence of CaS in the endometrium and smooth muscle layers of the rat uterus. Oxytocin-induced contractions were inhibited by cations (Gd³⁺ > Ca²⁺ = Mg²⁺), polyamines (spermine > spermidine) and the positive allosteric modulators cinacalcet and calindol. However (R)- and (S)-cinacalcet were equipotent, indicating a lack of stereoselectivity, and the negative allosteric modulator calhex-231 also caused dose-dependent relaxation. In addition, although intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and cytochrome P450-dependent signal transduction have been implicated in CaS-induced relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, neither Tram-34 nor miconazole (1 μmol/L), which block these pathways, respectively, had any effect on the ability of cinacalcet to inhibit oxytocin-induced contractions. 4. Calcium-sensing receptors are expressed in smooth muscle layers of the rat uterus and their ligands produce potent relaxation of longitudinally orientated uterine strips. However, the pharmacological profile of inhibition of contractility by CaS ligands is not consistent with a role for CaS in the regulation of uterine contractility in the rat.

  16. ECM-mimetic heparin glycosamioglycan-functionalized surface favors constructing functional vascular smooth muscle tissue in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jimin; Wang, Jianing; Wei, Yongzhen; Gao, Cheng; Chen, Xuejiao; Kong, Wei; Kong, Deling; Zhao, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Contractile vascular smooth muscle accounts for the normal physiological function of artery. Heparin, as a native glycosaminoglycan, has been well known for its important function in promoting or maintaining the contractile phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, heparin-functionalized non-woven poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) mat was fabricated by a facile and efficient surface modification protocol, which enables the control of surface heparin density within a broad range. Surface heparization remarkably increased the hydrophilicity of PCL, and reduced platelet adhesion. MTT assay showed that VSMC proliferation was evidently inhibited on the heparin-functionalized PCL surface in a dose-dependent manner. Gene analysis confirmed that surface heparization also promoted the transition of VSMCs from synthetic phenotype to contractile one. Furthermore, with a proper surface density of heparin, it allowed VSMCs to grow in a certain rate, while exhibiting contractile phenotype. Culture of VSMCs on a modified PCL mat with moderate heparin density (PCL-Hep-20) for 2 days resulted in a confluent layer of contractile smooth muscle cells. These data suggest that the heparin-modified PCL scaffolds may be a promising candidate to generate functional vascular tissues in vitro.

  17. Novel expression of a functional glycine receptor chloride channel that attenuates contraction in airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Peter D.; Gallos, George; Xu, Dingbang; Zhang, Yi; Emala, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction is an important component of the pathophysiology of asthma. Taurine, an agonist of glycine receptor chloride (GlyR Cl−) channels, was found to relax contracted ASM, which led us to question whether functional GlyR Cl− channels are expressed in ASM. Messenger RNA for β (GLRB), α1 (GLRA1), α2 (GLRA2), and α4 (GLRA4) subunits were found in human (Homo sapiens) and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) tracheal smooth muscle. Immunoblotting confirmed the protein expression of GLRA1 and GLRB subunits in ASM. Electrical activity of cultured human ASM cells was assessed using a fluorescent potentiometric dye and electrophysiological recordings. Glycine increased current and significantly increased fluorescence in a dose-dependent manner. The GlyR Cl− channel antagonist strychnine significantly blocked the effects of glycine on potentiometric fluorescence in ASM cells. Guinea pig airway ring relaxation of ACh-induced contractions by isoproterenol was significantly left-shifted in the presence of glycine. This effect of glycine was blocked by pretreatment with the GlyR Cl− channel antagonist strychnine. Glycine treatment during tachykinin- and acetylcholine-induced contractions significantly decreased the maintenance of muscle force compared to control. GlyR Cl− channels are expressed on ASM and regulate smooth muscle force and offer a novel target for therapeutic relaxation of ASM.—Yim, P. D., Gallos, G., Xu, D., Zhang, Y., Emala, C. W. Novel expression of a functional glycine receptor chloride channel that attenuates contraction in airway smooth muscle. PMID:21282206

  18. Higher order smooth fitting for the convex cavities in the multiply connected plane domain by multiple functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jialian; Wan, Chaoyan; Zhao, Wenzhong

    2013-07-01

    In order to satisfy different engineering applications, a new higher order smooth fitting method for the convex cavities in the multiply connected plane domain by multiple functions is put forward. For the boundaries of convex cavities in the multiply connected domain--every close domain, the unique fitting function KS, is represented with some fitting precision controlled by only one single parameter (Rho). The fitted smooth figure can be drawn according to the function.

  19. Graphical functions in parametric space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golz, Marcel; Panzer, Erik; Schnetz, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Graphical functions are positive functions on the punctured complex plane Csetminus {0,1} which arise in quantum field theory. We generalize a parametric integral representation for graphical functions due to Lam, Lebrun and Nakanishi, which implies the real analyticity of graphical functions. Moreover, we prove a formula that relates graphical functions of planar dual graphs.

  20. Quantization of the Sobolev space of half-differentiable functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, A. G.

    2016-10-01

    A quantization of the Sobolev space V=H_01/2(S^1, R) of half- differentiable functions on the circle, which is closely connected with string theory, is constructed. The group {QS}(S^1) of quasisymmetric circle homeomorphisms acts on V by reparametrizations, but this action is not smooth. Nevertheless, a quantum infinitesimal action of {QS}(S^1) on V can be defined, which enables one to construct a quantum algebra of observables which is associated with the system (V,{QS}(S^1)). Bibliography: 7 titles.

  1. Immune function during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Shearer, William T.

    2002-01-01

    It is very likely that the human immune system will be altered in astronauts exposed to the conditions of long-term space flight: isolation, containment, microgravity, radiation, microbial contamination, sleep disruption, and insufficient nutrition. In human and animal subjects flown in space, there is evidence of immune compromise, reactivation of latent virus infection, and possible development of a premalignant or malignant condition. Moreover, in ground-based space flight model investigations, there is evidence of immune compromise and reactivation of latent virus infection. All of these observations in space flight itself or in ground-based models of space flight have a strong resonance in a wealth of human pathologic conditions involving the immune system where reactivated virus infections and cancer appear as natural consequences. The clinical conditions of Epstein-Barr-driven lymphomas in transplant patients and Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with autoimmune deficiency virus come easily to mind in trying to identify these conditions. With these thoughts in mind, it is highly appropriate, indeed imperative, that careful investigations of human immunity, infection, and cancer be made by space flight researchers.

  2. Experimental studies of mitochondrial function in CADASIL vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Viitanen, Matti; Sundström, Erik; Baumann, Marc; Poyhonen, Minna; Tikka, Saara; Behbahani, Homira

    2013-02-01

    Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familiar fatal progressive degenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline, and recurrent stroke in young adults. Pathological features include a dramatic reduction of brain vascular smooth muscle cells and severe arteriopathy with the presence of granular osmophilic material in the arterial walls. Here we have investigated the cellular and mitochondrial function in vascular smooth muscle cell lines (VSMCs) established from CADASIL mutation carriers (R133C) and healthy controls. We found significantly lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC as compared to VSMC from controls. Cultured CADASIL VSMCs were not more vulnerable than control cells to a number of toxic substances. Morphological studies showed reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m)) showed a lower percentage of fully functional mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. For a number of genes previously reported to be changed in CADASIL VSMCs, immunoblotting analysis demonstrated a significantly reduced SOD1 expression. These findings suggest that alteration of proliferation and mitochondrial function in CADASIL VSMCs might have an effect on vital cellular functions important for CADASIL pathology.

  3. Smoothing of cost function leads to faster convergence of neural network learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Qun; Hall, Trevor J.

    1994-03-01

    One of the major problems in supervised learning of neural networks is the inevitable local minima inherent in the cost function f(W,D). This often makes classic gradient-descent-based learning algorithms that calculate the weight updates for each iteration according to (Delta) W(t) equals -(eta) (DOT)$DELwf(W,D) powerless. In this paper we describe a new strategy to solve this problem, which, adaptively, changes the learning rate and manipulates the gradient estimator simultaneously. The idea is to implicitly convert the local- minima-laden cost function f((DOT)) into a sequence of its smoothed versions {f(beta t)}Ttequals1, which, subject to the parameter (beta) t, bears less details at time t equals 1 and gradually more later on, the learning is actually performed on this sequence of functionals. The corresponding smoothed global minima obtained in this way, {Wt}Ttequals1, thus progressively approximate W-the desired global minimum. Experimental results on a nonconvex function minimization problem and a typical neural network learning task are given, analyses and discussions of some important issues are provided.

  4. [Primary culture and functional identification of distal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells in mice].

    PubMed

    Li, M C; Chen, Y Q; Zhang, C T; Jiang, Q; Lu, W J; Wang, J

    2017-02-12

    Objective: To establish a method of isolation and primary culture of mice distal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and identify the functional properties. Methods: PASMCs were harvested from the distal pulmonary artery (PA) tissue of mice by enzymatic digestion of collagenaseⅠand papain; and the growth characteristics were observed under inverted microscope and identified by Immunofluorescence technique. Effects on the intracellular calcium ion concentration of distal PASMCs were detected by Fura-2-AM fluorescent probe tracer under a fluorescence microscope in Krebs solution containing clopiazonic acid (CPA) and nifedipin (Nif). Results: PASMCs density reached approximately to 80% in a typical valley-peak-like shape after 6 days. Cell α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunofluorescence identified that 95% of the cultured cells were PASMCs. More than 95% PASMCs responded well to calcium-potassium Krebs solution (potassium ion concentration of 60 mmol/L) and showed a rapid increase in basal [Ca(2+) ](i) after 1 minute's perfusion (Δ[Ca(2+) ](i)>50), which demonstrated that the voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) of distal PASMCs were in good function; after the perfusion of calcium Krebs, calcium-free/calcium-Krebs containing CPA and Nif, distal PASMCs showed two typical peaks, indicated the full function of store-operated calcium channel (SOCC) in distal PASMCs. Conclusion: This experiment successfully established a stable and reliable mice distal PASMCs model and the study of pulmonary vascular diseases could benefit from its higher purity and better functional condition.

  5. Fast convolution with free-space Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vico, Felipe; Greengard, Leslie; Ferrando, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a fast algorithm for computing volume potentials - that is, the convolution of a translation invariant, free-space Green's function with a compactly supported source distribution defined on a uniform grid. The algorithm relies on regularizing the Fourier transform of the Green's function by cutting off the interaction in physical space beyond the domain of interest. This permits the straightforward application of trapezoidal quadrature and the standard FFT, with superalgebraic convergence for smooth data. Moreover, the method can be interpreted as employing a Nystrom discretization of the corresponding integral operator, with matrix entries which can be obtained explicitly and rapidly. This is of use in the design of preconditioners or fast direct solvers for a variety of volume integral equations. The method proposed permits the computation of any derivative of the potential, at the cost of an additional FFT.

  6. A variational multi-symplectic particle-in-cell algorithm with smoothing functions for the Vlasov-Maxwell system

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Jianyuan; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi

    2013-10-15

    Smoothing functions are commonly used to reduce numerical noise arising from coarse sampling of particles in particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulations. When applying smoothing functions to symplectic algorithms, the conservation of symplectic structure should be guaranteed to preserve good conservation properties. In this paper, we show how to construct a variational multi-symplectic PIC algorithm with smoothing functions for the Vlasov-Maxwell system. The conservation of the multi-symplectic structure and the reduction of numerical noise make this algorithm specifically suitable for simulating long-term dynamics of plasmas, such as those in the steady-state operation or long-pulse discharge of a super-conducting tokamak. The algorithm has been implemented in a 6D large scale PIC code. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the good conservation properties of the multi-symplectic algorithm and the reduction of the noise due to the application of smoothing function.

  7. Charge density distributions derived from smoothed electrostatic potential functions: design of protein reduced point charge models.

    PubMed

    Leherte, Laurence; Vercauteren, Daniel P

    2011-10-01

    To generate reduced point charge models of proteins, we developed an original approach to hierarchically locate extrema in charge density distribution functions built from the Poisson equation applied to smoothed molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) functions. A charge fitting program was used to assign charge values to the so-obtained reduced representations. In continuation to a previous work, the Amber99 force field was selected. To easily generate reduced point charge models for protein structures, a library of amino acid templates was designed. Applications to four small peptides, a set of 53 protein structures, and four KcsA ion channel models, are presented. Electrostatic potential and solvation free energy values generated by the reduced models are compared with the corresponding values obtained using the original set of atomic charges. Results are in closer agreement with the original all-atom electrostatic properties than those obtained with a previous reduced model that was directly built from the smoothed MEP functions [Leherte and Vercauteren in J Chem Theory Comput 5:3279-3298, 2009].

  8. Functional up-regulation of KCNA gene family expression in murine mesenteric resistance artery smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fountain, S J; Cheong, A; Flemming, R; Mair, L; Sivaprasadarao, A; Beech, D J

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on the hypothesis that KCNA genes (which encode KVα1 voltage-gated K+ channels) have enhanced functional expression in smooth muscle cells of a primary determinant of peripheral resistance – the small mesenteric artery. Real-time PCR methodology was developed to measure cell type-specific in situ gene expression. Profiles were determined for arterial myocyte expression of RNA species encoding KVα1 subunits as well as KVβ1, KVα2.1, KVγ9.3, BKCaα1 and BKCaβ1. The seven major KCNA genes were expressed and more readily detected in endothelium-denuded mesenteric resistance artery compared with thoracic aorta; quantification revealed dramatic differential expression of one to two orders of magnitude. There was also four times more RNA encoding KVα2.1 but less or similar amounts encoding KVβ1, KVγ9.3, BKCaα1 and BKCaβ1. Patch-clamp recordings from freshly isolated smooth muscle cells revealed dominant KVα1 K+ current and current density twice as large in mesenteric cells. Therefore, we suggest the increased RNA production of the resistance artery impacts on physiological function, although there is quantitatively less K+ current than might be expected. The mechanism conferring up-regulated expression of KCNA genes may be common to all the gene family and play a functional role in the physiological control of blood pressure. PMID:14742730

  9. Edge preserving smoothing and segmentation of 4-D images via transversely isotropic scale-space processing and fingerprint analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reutter, Bryan W.; Algazi, V. Ralph; Gullberg, Grant T; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2004-01-19

    Enhancements are described for an approach that unifies edge preserving smoothing with segmentation of time sequences of volumetric images, based on differential edge detection at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Potential applications of these 4-D methods include segmentation of respiratory gated positron emission tomography (PET) transmission images to improve accuracy of attenuation correction for imaging heart and lung lesions, and segmentation of dynamic cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images to facilitate unbiased estimation of time-activity curves and kinetic parameters for left ventricular volumes of interest. Improved segmentation of lung surfaces in simulated respiratory gated cardiac PET transmission images is achieved with a 4-D edge detection operator composed of edge preserving 1-D operators applied in various spatial and temporal directions. Smoothing along the axis of a 1-D operator is driven by structure separation seen in the scale-space fingerprint, rather than by image contrast. Spurious noise structures are reduced with use of small-scale isotropic smoothing in directions transverse to the 1-D operator axis. Analytic expressions are obtained for directional derivatives of the smoothed, edge preserved image, and the expressions are used to compose a 4-D operator that detects edges as zero-crossings in the second derivative in the direction of the image intensity gradient. Additional improvement in segmentation is anticipated with use of multiscale transversely isotropic smoothing and a novel interpolation method that improves the behavior of the directional derivatives. The interpolation method is demonstrated on a simulated 1-D edge and incorporation of the method into the 4-D algorithm is described.

  10. A method for the accurate and smooth approximation of standard thermodynamic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coufal, O.

    2013-01-01

    A method is proposed for the calculation of approximations of standard thermodynamic functions. The method is consistent with the physical properties of standard thermodynamic functions. This means that the approximation functions are, in contrast to the hitherto used approximations, continuous and smooth in every temperature interval in which no phase transformations take place. The calculation algorithm was implemented by the SmoothSTF program in the C++ language which is part of this paper. Program summaryProgram title:SmoothSTF Catalogue identifier: AENH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3807 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 131965 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Any computer with gcc version 4.3.2 compiler. Operating system: Debian GNU Linux 6.0. The program can be run in operating systems in which the gcc compiler can be installed, see http://gcc.gnu.org/install/specific.html. RAM: 256 MB are sufficient for the table of standard thermodynamic functions with 500 lines Classification: 4.9. Nature of problem: Standard thermodynamic functions (STF) of individual substances are given by thermal capacity at constant pressure, entropy and enthalpy. STF are continuous and smooth in every temperature interval in which no phase transformations take place. The temperature dependence of STF as expressed by the table of its values is for further application approximated by temperature functions. In the paper, a method is proposed for calculating approximation functions which, in contrast to the hitherto used approximations, are continuous and smooth in every temperature interval. Solution method: The approximation functions are

  11. Polynomial approximation of functions in Sobolev spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupont, T.; Scott, R.

    1980-01-01

    Constructive proofs and several generalizations of approximation results of J. H. Bramble and S. R. Hilbert are presented. Using an averaged Taylor series, we represent a function as a polynomial plus a remainder. The remainder can be manipulated in many ways to give different types of bounds. Approximation of functions in fractional order Sobolev spaces is treated as well as the usual integer order spaces and several nonstandard Sobolev-like spaces.

  12. Polynomial approximation of functions in Sobolev spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, T.; Scott, R.

    1980-04-01

    Constructive proofs and several generalizations of approximation results of J. H. Bramble and S. R. Hilbert are presented. Using an averaged Taylor series, we represent a function as a polynomical plus a remainder. The remainder can be manipulated in many ways to give different types of bounds. Approximation of functions in fractional order Sobolev spaces is treated as well as the usual integer order spaces and several nonstandard Sobolev-like spaces.

  13. Tropomyosin variants describe distinct functional subcellular domains in differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Cynthia; Appel, Sarah; Graceffa, Philip; Leavis, Paul; Lin, Jim Jung-Ching; Gunning, Peter W; Schevzov, Galina; Chaponnier, Christine; DeGnore, Jon; Lehman, William; Morgan, Kathleen G

    2011-06-01

    Tropomyosin (Tm) is known to be an important gatekeeper of actin function. Tm isoforms are encoded by four genes, and each gene produces several variants by alternative splicing, which have been proposed to play roles in motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Smooth muscle studies have focused on gizzard smooth muscle, where a heterodimer of Tm from the α-gene (Tmsm-α) and from the β-gene (Tmsm-β) is associated with contractile filaments. In this study we examined Tm in differentiated mammalian vascular smooth muscle (dVSM). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS) analysis and Western blot screening with variant-specific antibodies revealed that at least five different Tm proteins are expressed in this tissue: Tm6 (Tmsm-α) and Tm2 from the α-gene, Tm1 (Tmsm-β) from the β-gene, Tm5NM1 from the γ-gene, and Tm4 from the δ-gene. Tm6 is by far most abundant in dVSM followed by Tm1, Tm2, Tm5NM1, and Tm4. Coimmunoprecipitation and coimmunofluorescence studies demonstrate that Tm1 and Tm6 coassociate with different actin isoforms and display different intracellular localizations. Using an antibody specific for cytoplasmic γ-actin, we report here the presence of a γ-actin cortical cytoskeleton in dVSM cells. Tm1 colocalizes with cortical cytoplasmic γ-actin and coprecipitates with γ-actin. Tm6, on the other hand, is located on contractile bundles. These data indicate that Tm1 and Tm6 do not form a classical heterodimer in dVSM but rather describe different functional cellular compartments.

  14. A marginal approach to reduced-rank penalized spline smoothing with application to multilevel functional data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huaihou; Wang, Yuanjia; Paik, Myunghee Cho; Choi, H Alex

    2013-10-01

    Multilevel functional data is collected in many biomedical studies. For example, in a study of the effect of Nimodipine on patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), patients underwent multiple 4-hour treatment cycles. Within each treatment cycle, subjects' vital signs were reported every 10 minutes. This data has a natural multilevel structure with treatment cycles nested within subjects and measurements nested within cycles. Most literature on nonparametric analysis of such multilevel functional data focus on conditional approaches using functional mixed effects models. However, parameters obtained from the conditional models do not have direct interpretations as population average effects. When population effects are of interest, we may employ marginal regression models. In this work, we propose marginal approaches to fit multilevel functional data through penalized spline generalized estimating equation (penalized spline GEE). The procedure is effective for modeling multilevel correlated generalized outcomes as well as continuous outcomes without suffering from numerical difficulties. We provide a variance estimator robust to misspecification of correlation structure. We investigate the large sample properties of the penalized spline GEE estimator with multilevel continuous data and show that the asymptotics falls into two categories. In the small knots scenario, the estimated mean function is asymptotically efficient when the true correlation function is used and the asymptotic bias does not depend on the working correlation matrix. In the large knots scenario, both the asymptotic bias and variance depend on the working correlation. We propose a new method to select the smoothing parameter for penalized spline GEE based on an estimate of the asymptotic mean squared error (MSE). We conduct extensive simulation studies to examine property of the proposed estimator under different correlation structures and sensitivity of the variance estimation to the choice

  15. The expression of functional postsynaptic α2-adrenoceptors in the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sandeep; Moreland, Robert B; Yang, Stone; Gallant, Cynthia M; Goldstein, Irwin; Traish, Abdulmaged

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if corpus cavernosum smooth muscle expresses functional postsynaptic α2-adrenoceptors (AR).The α2-adrenoceptor agonist UK 14,304 elicited concentration-dependent contractions in rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM). The half-maximal response occurred at 0.32±0.03 μM and the maximum contraction at 10 μM UK 14,304.Pretreatment of CCSM strips with selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonists, rauwolscine and RS-15385, produced rightward shifts in the dose-response curves to UK 14,304 (pA2 values 7.1 and 8.5, respectively). In contrast, these antagonists did not alter contraction induced by the α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (PE) or oxymetazoline. UK 14,304-induced contractions were also inhibited by prazosin (pA2=9.08).UK 14,304-induced contractions, unlike those to PE, were highly dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+.[3H]-rauwolscine bound to CCSM membranes with high affinity (Kd=1.5 nM). [3H]-rauwolscine binding was displaced by unlabelled rauwolscine, RS-15385, UK 14,304 and prazosin, but not by PE.UK 14,304 inhibited forskolin and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1)-induced increases in intracellular cyclic AMP concentration in primary cultures of rabbit CCSM cells.These results demonstrate that CCSM expresses Gi-coupled postsynaptic α2-adrenoceptors, and activation of these receptors causes contraction of trabecular smooth muscle. PMID:9559910

  16. Ion channel regulation of intracellular calcium and airway smooth muscle function.

    PubMed

    Perez-Zoghbi, Jose F; Karner, Charlotta; Ito, Satoru; Shepherd, Malcolm; Alrashdan, Yazan; Sanderson, Michael J

    2009-10-01

    Airway hyper-responsiveness associated with asthma is mediated by airway smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and has a complicated etiology involving increases in cell contraction and proliferation and the secretion of inflammatory mediators. Although these pathological changes are diverse, a common feature associated with their regulation is a change in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Because the [Ca(2+)](i) itself is a function of the activity and expression of a variety of ion channels, in both the plasma membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum of the SMC, the modification of this ion channel activity may predispose airway SMCs to hyper-responsiveness. Our objective is to review how ion channels determine the [Ca(2+)](i) and influence the function of airway SMCs and emphasize the potential of ion channels as sites for therapeutic approaches to asthma.

  17. Experimental studies of mitochondrial function in CADASIL vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Viitanen, Matti; Sundström, Erik; Baumann, Marc; Tikka, Saara

    2013-02-01

    Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familiar fatal progressive degenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline, and recurrent stroke in young adults. Pathological features include a dramatic reduction of brain vascular smooth muscle cells and severe arteriopathy with the presence of granular osmophilic material in the arterial walls. Here we have investigated the cellular and mitochondrial function in vascular smooth muscle cell lines (VSMCs) established from CADASIL mutation carriers (R133C) and healthy controls. We found significantly lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC as compared to VSMC from controls. Cultured CADASIL VSMCs were not more vulnerable than control cells to a number of toxic substances. Morphological studies showed reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ{sub m}) showed a lower percentage of fully functional mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. For a number of genes previously reported to be changed in CADASIL VSMCs, immunoblotting analysis demonstrated a significantly reduced SOD1 expression. These findings suggest that alteration of proliferation and mitochondrial function in CADASIL VSMCs might have an effect on vital cellular functions important for CADASIL pathology. -- Highlights: ► CADASIL is an inherited disease of cerebral vascular cells. ► Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CADASIL. ► Lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC. ► Increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria and lower mitochondrial membrane potential in CADASIL VSMCs. ► Reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs.

  18. On PAC learning of functions with smoothness properties using feedforward sigmoidal networks

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.S.V.; Protopopescu, V.A.

    1996-04-01

    We consider Probably and Approximately Corrct (PAC) learning of an unknown function f: [0,1]{sup d} {r_arrow} [0,1], based on finite samples using feedforward sigmoidal networks. The unknown function f is chosen from the family F{intersection}C([0,1]{sup d}) or F{intersection}L{sup {infinity}}([0,1]{sup d}), where F has either bounded modulus of smoothness or bounded capacity or both. The learning sample is given by (X{sub 1},f(X{sub 1})),(X{sub 2},f(X{sub 2})),{hor_ellipsis},(X{sub n},f(X{sub n})), where X{sub 1},X{sub 2},{hor_ellipsis},X{sub n} are independently and identically distributed according to an unknown distribution. We consider the feedforward networks with a a single hidden layer of 1/(1 + e{sup {minus}{gamma}z})-units and bounded parameters, but the results can be extended to other neural networks where the hidden units satisfy suitable smoothness conditions. We analyze three function estimators based on nearest neighbor rule, local averaging, and Nadaraya-Watson estimator, all computed using the Haar system. It is shown that given a sufficiently large sample, each of these estimators approximates the best neural network to any given error with arbitrarily high probability. This result is crucical for establishing the essentially equivalent capabilities of neural networks and the above estimators for PAC learning from finite samples. Practical importance of this ``equivalence`` stems from the fact that computing a neural network which approximates the best possible one is computationally difficult, whereas the three estimators are linear-time computable in terms of sample size.

  19. Functional role of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Manabu; Ono, Kyoichi; Munehisa, Yoshiko; Koyama, Takashi; Nobori, Kiyoshi; Iijima, Toshihiko; Ito, Hiroshi

    2007-10-05

    We investigated the functional role of STIM1, a Ca{sup 2+} sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that regulates store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE), in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). STIM1 was mainly localized at the ER and plasma membrane. The knockdown of STIM1 expression by small interfering (si) RNA drastically decreased SOCE. In contrast, an EF-hand mutant of STIM1, STIM1{sup E87A}, produced a marked increase in SOCE, which was abolished by co-transfection with siRNA to transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1). In addition, transfection with siRNA against STIM1 suppressed phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and cell growth. These results suggest that STIM1 is an essential component of SOCE and that it is involved in VSMC proliferation.

  20. Function and regulation of large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Lubo

    2012-09-01

    Large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels are abundantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells. Activation of BK(Ca) channels leads to hyperpolarization of cell membrane, which in turn counteracts vasoconstriction. Therefore, BK(Ca) channels have an important role in regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure. The activity of BK(Ca) channels is subject to modulation by various factors. Furthermore, the function of BK(Ca) channels are altered in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions, such as pregnancy, hypertension and diabetes, which has dramatic impacts on vascular tone and hemodynamics. Consequently, compounds and genetic manipulation that alter activity and expression of the channel might be of therapeutic interest.

  1. Coulomb wave functions in momentum space

    DOE PAGES

    Eremenko, V.; Upadhyay, N. J.; Thompson, I. J.; ...

    2015-10-15

    We present an algorithm to calculate non-relativistic partial-wave Coulomb functions in momentum space. The arguments are the Sommerfeld parameter η, the angular momentum l, the asymptotic momentum q and the 'running' momentum p, where both momenta are real. Since the partial-wave Coulomb functions exhibit singular behavior when p → q, different representations of the Legendre functions of the 2nd kind need to be implemented in computing the functions for the values of p close to the singularity and far away from it. The code for the momentum-space Coulomb wave functions is applicable for values of vertical bar eta vertical barmore » in the range of 10-1 to 10, and thus is particularly suited for momentum space calculations of nuclear reactions.« less

  2. Coulomb wave functions in momentum space

    SciTech Connect

    Eremenko, V.; Upadhyay, N. J.; Thompson, I. J.; Elster, Ch.; Nunes, F. M.; Arbanas, G.; Escher, J. E.; Hlophe, L.

    2015-10-15

    We present an algorithm to calculate non-relativistic partial-wave Coulomb functions in momentum space. The arguments are the Sommerfeld parameter η, the angular momentum l, the asymptotic momentum q and the 'running' momentum p, where both momenta are real. Since the partial-wave Coulomb functions exhibit singular behavior when p → q, different representations of the Legendre functions of the 2nd kind need to be implemented in computing the functions for the values of p close to the singularity and far away from it. The code for the momentum-space Coulomb wave functions is applicable for values of vertical bar eta vertical bar in the range of 10-1 to 10, and thus is particularly suited for momentum space calculations of nuclear reactions.

  3. Prox-regular functions in Hilbert spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Frédéric; Thibault, Lionel

    2005-03-01

    This paper studies the prox-regularity concept for functions in the general context of Hilbert space. In particular, a subdifferential characterization is established as well as several other properties. It is also shown that the Moreau envelopes of such functions are continuously differentiable.

  4. Role of potassium ion channels in detrusor smooth muscle function and dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Petkov, Georgi V.

    2013-01-01

    Contraction and relaxation of the detrusor smooth muscle (DSM), which makes up the wall of the urinary bladder, facilitates the storage and voiding of urine. Several families of K+ channels, including voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa) channels, inward-rectifying ATP-sensitive K+ (Kir, KATP) channels, and two-pore-domain K+ (K2P) channels, are expressed and functional in DSM. They control DSM excitability and contractility by maintaining the resting membrane potential and shaping the action potentials that determine the phasic nature of contractility in this tissue. Defects in DSM K+ channel proteins or in the molecules involved in their regulatory pathways may underlie certain forms of bladder dysfunction, such as overactive bladder. K+ channels represent an opportunity for novel pharmacological manipulation and therapeutic intervention in human DSM. Modulation of DSM K+ channels directly or indirectly by targeting their regulatory mechanisms has the potential to control urinary bladder function. This Review summarizes our current state of knowledge of the functional role of K+ channels in DSM in health and disease, with special emphasis on current advancements in the field. PMID:22158596

  5. Molecular and functional characterization of Kv7 K+ channel in murine gastrointestinal smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Jepps, Thomas A; Greenwood, Iain A; Moffatt, James D; Sanders, Kenton M; Ohya, Susumu

    2009-07-01

    Members of the K(v)7 voltage-gated K(+) channel family are important determinants of cardiac and neuronal membrane excitability. Recently, we and others have shown that K(v)7 channels are also crucial regulators of smooth muscle activity. The aim of the present study was to assess the K(v)7 expression in different parts of the murine gastrointestinal (GI) tract and to assess their functional roles by use of pharmacological agents. Of KCNQ/K(v)7 members, both KCNQ4/K(v)7.4 and KCNQ5/K(v)7.5 genes and proteins were the most abundantly expressed K(v)7 channels in smooth muscles throughout the GI tract. Immunohistochemical staining also revealed that K(v)7.4 and K(v)7.5 but not K(v)7.1 were expressed in the circular muscle layer of the colon. In segments of distal colon circular muscle exhibiting spontaneous phasic contractions, the nonselective K(v)7 blockers XE991 and linopirdine increased the integral of tension. Increases in the integral of tension were also observed under conditions of neuronal blockade. Similar effects, although less marked, were observed in the proximal colon. As expected, the K(v)7.1-selective blocker chromanol 293B had no effect in either type of segment. These data show that K(v)7.x especially K(v)7.4 and K(v)7.5 are expressed in different regions of the murine gastrointestinal tract and blockers of K(v)7 channels augment inherent contractile activity. Drugs that selectively block K(v)7.4/7.5 might be promising therapeutics for the treatment of motility disorders such as constipation associated with irritable bowel syndrome.

  6. Space-Time Smoothing of Complex Survey Data: Small Area Estimation for Child Mortality.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Laina D; Wakefield, Jon; Pantazis, Athena; Lutambi, Angelina M; Masanja, Honorati; Clark, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Many people living in low and middle-income countries are not covered by civil registration and vital statistics systems. Consequently, a wide variety of other types of data including many household sample surveys are used to estimate health and population indicators. In this paper we combine data from sample surveys and demographic surveillance systems to produce small area estimates of child mortality through time. Small area estimates are necessary to understand geographical heterogeneity in health indicators when full-coverage vital statistics are not available. For this endeavor spatio-temporal smoothing is beneficial to alleviate problems of data sparsity. The use of conventional hierarchical models requires careful thought since the survey weights may need to be considered to alleviate bias due to non-random sampling and non-response. The application that motivated this work is estimation of child mortality rates in five-year time intervals in regions of Tanzania. Data come from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted over the period 1991-2010 and two demographic surveillance system sites. We derive a variance estimator of under five years child mortality that accounts for the complex survey weighting. For our application, the hierarchical models we consider include random effects for area, time and survey and we compare models using a variety of measures including the conditional predictive ordinate (CPO). The method we propose is implemented via the fast and accurate integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA).

  7. Interpolating Functions on Lines in 3-Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP011967 thru ADPO12009 UNCLASSIFIED Interpolating Functions on Lines in 3-Space Martin Peternell and Helmut...reproduction in any form reserved. 352 M. Peternell and H. Pottmann §2. Lines in Space An oriented line L in Euclidean 3-space E 3 is determined by a...intersection r = Q n T is a quadratic cone with vertex Z. The intersection e = E n T is a hyperplane 354 M. Peternell and H. Pottmann X t) Fig. 2. Local

  8. Localization and function of KLF4 in cytoplasm of vascular smooth muscle cell

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Xin-hua; Nie, Chan-juan; Li, Yong-hui; Wen, Jin-kun

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •PDGF-BB prompts the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm. •PDGF-BB promotes interaction between KLF4 and actin in the cytoplasm. •Phosphorylation and SUMOylation of KLF4 participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization. •KLF4 regulates cytoskeleton by promoting the expression of contraction-associated genes. -- Abstract: The Krüppel-like factor 4 is a DNA-binding transcriptional regulator that regulates a diverse array of cellular processes, including development, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The previous studies about KLF4 functions mainly focused on its role as a transcription factor, its functions in the cytoplasm are still unknown. In this study, we found that PDGF-BB could prompt the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm through CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and increased the interaction of KLF4 with actin in the cytoplasm. Further study showed that both KLF4 phosphorylation and SUMOylation induced by PDGF-BB participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton in VSMCs. In conclusion, these results identify that KLF4 participates in the cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm of VSMCs.

  9. Impaired function of alpha-2 adrenoceptors in smooth muscle of mesenteric arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Feres, T; Borges, A C; Silva, E G; Paiva, A C; Paiva, T B

    1998-11-01

    The alpha2-adrenoceptor function in mesenteric arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was investigated by comparing membrane potential changes in response to adrenergic agonists in preparations from female SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and normotensive Wistar rats (NWR). Resting membrane potential was found to be less negative in mesenteric arteries from SHR than in those from NWR and WKY. Apamin induced a decrease in the membrane potential of mesenteric artery rings without endothelium from NWR and WKY, but had no effects in those from SHR. Both UK 14,304 and adrenaline, in the presence of prazosin, induced a hyperpolarization that was significantly lower in de-endothelialized mesenteric rings from SHR than in those from NWR and WKY. In mesenteric rings with endothelium, however, similar hyperpolarization was observed in the three strains. In NWR mesenteric rings with endothelium the hyperpolarization induced by activation of alpha2-adrenoceptors was abolished by apamin, whereas in intact SHR mesenteric rings this hyperpolarization was slightly reduced by apamin and more efficiently reduced by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine. It is concluded that the activity of potassium channels coupled to alpha2-adrenoceptors is altered in the smooth muscle cells of SHR mesenteric arteries, contributing to their less negative membrane potential. On the other hand, the endothelial alpha2-receptors are functioning in mesenteric vessels from SHR and their stimulation induces a hyperpolarization mainly through the release of nitric oxide.

  10. Bioengineering functional human sphincteric and non-sphincteric gastrointestinal smooth muscle constructs.

    PubMed

    Rego, Stephen L; Zakhem, Elie; Orlando, Giuseppe; Bitar, Khalil N

    2016-04-15

    Digestion and motility of luminal content through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are achieved by cooperation between distinct cell types. Much of the 3 dimensional (3D) in vitro modeling used to study the GI physiology and disease focus solely on epithelial cells and not smooth muscle cells (SMCs). SMCs of the gut function either to propel and mix luminal contents (phasic; non-sphincteric) or to act as barriers to prevent the movement of luminal materials (tonic; sphincteric). Motility disorders including pyloric stenosis and chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO) affect sphincteric and non-sphincteric SMCs, respectively. Bioengineering offers a useful tool to develop functional GI tissue mimics that possess similar characteristics to native tissue. The objective of this study was to bioengineer 3D human pyloric sphincter and small intestinal (SI) constructs in vitro that recapitulate the contractile phenotypes of sphincteric and non-sphincteric human GI SMCs. Bioengineered 3D human pylorus and circular SI SMC constructs were developed and displayed a contractile phenotype. Constructs composed of human pylorus SMCs displayed tonic SMC characteristics, including generation of basal tone, at higher levels than SI SMC constructs which is similar to what is seen in native tissue. Both constructs contracted in response to potassium chloride (KCl) and acetylcholine (ACh) and relaxed in response to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). These studies provide the first bioengineered human pylorus constructs that maintain a sphincteric phenotype. These bioengineered constructs provide appropriate models to study motility disorders of the gut or replacement tissues for various GI organs.

  11. Interstitial cells of Cajal: a new perspective on smooth muscle function

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) were described more than 100 years ago by Ramon y Cajal. For many years these cells were identified only by non-specific histological stains and later, more reliably, by electron microscopy. Ultrastructural features and the anatomical locations of ICC suggested important physiological roles for these cells. A breakthrough occurred in our ability to study ICC when it was recognized that antibodies for Kit could be used to identify ICC, even in living tissues. Signalling via Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is also necessary for ICC development and maintenance of phenotype. Thus, blocking Kit, by a variety of techniques, caused loss of ICC in experimental animals and demonstrated the critical physiological functions of these cells in gastrointestinal motility. Loss of ICC in human gastrointestinal diseases may contribute to the motor pathologies observed. Unrestrained Kit signalling leads to the transformation of ICC and the development of gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Now ICC-like cells have been identified in a variety of smooth muscle tissues, and the race is on to discover whether these cells have equivalent or even novel functions in organs outside the gastrointestinal tract. This perspectives article gives a short overview of the history of ICC research and directions for future investigation. PMID:16873406

  12. Aging impairs smooth muscle-mediated regulation of aortic stiffness: a defect in shock absorption function?

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan Z; Saphirstein, Robert J; Yamin, Rina; Suki, Bela; Morgan, Kathleen G

    2014-10-15

    Increased aortic stiffness is an early and independent biomarker of cardiovascular disease. Here we tested the hypothesis that vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute significantly to aortic stiffness and investigated the mechanisms involved. The relative contributions of VSMCs, focal adhesions (FAs), and matrix to stiffness in mouse aorta preparations at optimal length and with confirmed VSMC viability were separated by the use of small-molecule inhibitors and activators. Using biomechanical methods designed for minimal perturbation of cellular function, we directly quantified changes with aging in aortic material stiffness. An alpha adrenoceptor agonist, in the presence of N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to remove interference of endothelial nitric oxide, increases stiffness by 90-200% from baseline in both young and old mice. Interestingly, increases are robustly suppressed by the Src kinase inhibitor PP2 in young but not old mice. Phosphotyrosine screening revealed, with aging, a biochemical signature of markedly impaired agonist-induced FA remodeling previously associated with Src signaling. Protein expression measurement confirmed a decrease in Src expression with aging. Thus we report here an additive model for the in vitro biomechanical components of the mouse aortic wall in which 1) VSMCs are a surprisingly large component of aortic stiffness at physiological lengths and 2) regulation of the VSMC component through FA signaling and hence plasticity is impaired with aging, diminishing the aorta's normal shock absorption function in response to stressors.

  13. Aging impairs smooth muscle-mediated regulation of aortic stiffness: a defect in shock absorption function?

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuan Z.; Saphirstein, Robert J.; Yamin, Rina; Suki, Bela

    2014-01-01

    Increased aortic stiffness is an early and independent biomarker of cardiovascular disease. Here we tested the hypothesis that vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute significantly to aortic stiffness and investigated the mechanisms involved. The relative contributions of VSMCs, focal adhesions (FAs), and matrix to stiffness in mouse aorta preparations at optimal length and with confirmed VSMC viability were separated by the use of small-molecule inhibitors and activators. Using biomechanical methods designed for minimal perturbation of cellular function, we directly quantified changes with aging in aortic material stiffness. An alpha adrenoceptor agonist, in the presence of NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to remove interference of endothelial nitric oxide, increases stiffness by 90–200% from baseline in both young and old mice. Interestingly, increases are robustly suppressed by the Src kinase inhibitor PP2 in young but not old mice. Phosphotyrosine screening revealed, with aging, a biochemical signature of markedly impaired agonist-induced FA remodeling previously associated with Src signaling. Protein expression measurement confirmed a decrease in Src expression with aging. Thus we report here an additive model for the in vitro biomechanical components of the mouse aortic wall in which 1) VSMCs are a surprisingly large component of aortic stiffness at physiological lengths and 2) regulation of the VSMC component through FA signaling and hence plasticity is impaired with aging, diminishing the aorta's normal shock absorption function in response to stressors. PMID:25128168

  14. Arm weight support training improves functional motor outcome and movement smoothness after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bartolo, Michelangelo; De Nunzio, Alessandro Marco; Sebastiano, Fabio; Spicciato, Francesca; Tortola, Paolo; Nilsson, Jan; Pierelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness in acute stroke patients of a rehabilitation program performed with or without an arm weight support device. Twenty-eight acute, first-ever unilateral stroke patients were enrolled in a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Clinical evaluation included Fugl-Mayer Assessment, Functional Independence Measure and kinematic analysis [maximum and mean hand velocity, maximum range of motion (Max RoM), normalized jerk (NJ)]. Patients received 12 daily 30-minute sessions (6/week) of additional upper limb therapy performed using an arm weight support device (study group) or additional traditional physiotherapy (control group). The patients were evaluated on admission and at the end of the rehabilitation intervention. The two groups were clinically comparable on admission (p>0.05). Both groups showed significant improvements in clinical scale scores and in Max RoM in flexion-extension, while only the study group showed improvements in NJ and in Max RoM in adduction-abduction. Rehabilitation training using an arm weight support device appears to be a useful method to supplement conventional therapy in acute stroke patients, increasing smoothness of movement and motor function. PMID:25014045

  15. A method for anisotropic spatial smoothing of functional magnetic resonance images using distance transformation of a structural image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Haewon; Lee, Dongha; Doo Lee, Jong; Park, Hae-Jeong

    2011-08-01

    Spatial smoothing using isotropic Gaussian kernels to remove noise reduces spatial resolution and increases the partial volume effect of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI), thereby reducing localization power. To minimize these limitations, we propose a novel anisotropic smoothing method for fMRI data. To extract an anisotropic tensor for each voxel of the functional data, we derived an intensity gradient using the distance transformation of the segmented gray matter of the fMRI-coregistered T1-weighted image. The intensity gradient was then used to determine the anisotropic smoothing kernel at each voxel of the fMRI data. Performance evaluations on both real and simulated data showed that the proposed method had 10% higher statistical power and about 20% higher gray matter localization compared to isotropic smoothing and robustness to the registration errors (up to 4 mm translations and 4° rotations) between T1 structural images and fMRI data. The proposed method also showed higher performance than the anisotropic smoothing with diffusion gradients derived from the fMRI intensity data.

  16. The effects of in utero vitamin D deficiency on airway smooth muscle mass and lung function.

    PubMed

    Foong, Rachel E; Bosco, Anthony; Jones, Anya C; Gout, Alex; Gorman, Shelley; Hart, Prue H; Zosky, Graeme R

    2015-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass and airway hyperresponsiveness in whole-life vitamin D-deficient female mice. In this study, we aimed to uncover the molecular mechanisms contributing to altered lung structure and function. RNA was extracted from lung tissue of whole-life vitamin D-deficient and -replete female mice, and gene expression patterns were profiled by RNA sequencing. The data showed that genes involved in embryonic organ development, pattern formation, branching morphogenesis, Wingless/Int signaling, and inflammation were differentially expressed in vitamin D-deficient mice. Network analysis suggested that differentially expressed genes were connected by the hubs matrix metallopeptidase 9; NF-κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells inhibitor, α; epidermal growth factor receptor; and E1A binding protein p300. Given our findings that developmental pathways may be altered, we investigated if the timing of vitamin D exposure (in utero vs. postnatal) had an impact on lung health outcomes. Gene expression was measured in in utero or postnatal vitamin D-deficient mice, as well as whole-life vitamin D-deficient and -replete mice at 8 weeks of age. Baseline lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation were measured and lungs fixed for lung structure assessment using stereological methods and quantification of ASM mass. In utero vitamin D deficiency was sufficient to increase ASM mass and baseline airway resistance and alter lung structure. There were increased neutrophils but decreased lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage. Expression of inflammatory molecules S100A9 and S100A8 was mainly increased in postnatal vitamin D-deficient mice. These observations suggest that in utero vitamin D deficiency can alter lung structure and function and increase inflammation, contributing to symptoms in chronic diseases, such as asthma.

  17. Birefringence Microscopy Platform for Assessing Airway Smooth Muscle Structure and Function in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Adams, David C.; Hariri, Lida P.; Miller, Alyssa J.; Wang, Yan; Cho, Josalyn L.; Villiger, Martin; Holz, Jasmin A.; Szabari, Margit V.; Hamilos, Daniel L.; Harris, R. Scott; Griffith, Jason W.; Bouma, Brett E.; Luster, Andrew D.; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2017-01-01

    The inability to visualize airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells in vivo is a major obstacle in understanding their role in normal physiology and diseases. At present, there is no imaging modality available to assess ASM in vivo. Confocal endomicroscopy lacks the penetration depth and field of view, and conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) does not have sufficient contrast to differentiate ASM from surrounding tissues. We have developed a birefringence microscopy platform which leverages the micro-organization of tissue to add further dimension to traditional OCT. We have utilized this technology to validate ASM measurements in ex vivo swine and canine studies, visualize and characterize volumetric representations of ASM in vivo, and to quantify and predict ASM contractile force as a function of optical retardation. We provide in vivo images and volumetric assessments of ASM in living humans and document structural disease variations in subjects with mild asthma. The opportunity to link inflammatory responses to ASM responses, and to link ASM responses to clinical responses and outcomes could lead to an increased understanding of diseases of the airway and ultimately to improved patient outcomes. PMID:27708064

  18. Effects of polydopamine functionalized titanium dioxide nanotubes on endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Si; Luo, Rifang; Wang, Xin; Tang, Linlin; Wu, Jian; Wang, Jin; Huang, Runbo; Sun, Hong; Huang, Nan

    2014-04-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) with particular structure cues could control the behavior of different types of cells, including endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Besides, polydopamine (PDA) modified surfaces were reported to be beneficial to increase the proliferation and viability of ECs and meanwhile could inhibit the proliferation of SMCs. The TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) were functionalized with polydopamine (PDA) (PDA/NTs) to study the synergetic effect of both nanotopography (NTs) and chemical cues (PDA) of TiO2 nanotubes on the regulation of cellular behavior of ECs and SMCs. The PDA-modified TiO2 nanotubes were subjected to field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and water contact angle (WCA) analysis. In vitro cell culture tests confirmed that, comparing with flat titanium (Ti) and TiO2 nanotubes, PDA/NTs surface synergistically promoted ECs attachment, proliferation, migration and release of nitric oxide (NO). Meanwhile, the PDA/NTs performed well in reducing SMCs adhesion and proliferation. This novel approach might provide a new platform to investigate the synergistic effect of local chemistry and topography, as well as the applications for the development of titanium-based implants for enhanced endothelialization.

  19. Comparison of smooth pursuit and combined eye-head tracking in human subjects with deficient labyrinthine function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leigh, R. J.; Thurston, S. E.; Sharpe, J. A.; Ranalli, P. J.; Hamid, M. A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of deficient labyrinthine function on smooth visual tracking with the eyes and head were investigated, using ten patients with bilateral peripheral vestibular disease and ten normal controls. Active, combined eye-head tracking (EHT) was significantly better in patients than smooth pursuit with the eyes alone, whereas normal subjects pursued equally well in both cases. Compensatory eye movements during active head rotation in darkness were always less in patients than in normal subjects. These data were used to examine current hypotheses that postulate central cancellation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during EHT. A model that proposes summation of an integral smooth pursuit command and VOR/compensatory eye movements is consistent with the findings. Observation of passive EHT (visual fixation of a head-fixed target during en bloc rotation) appears to indicate that in this mode parametric gain changes contribute to modulation of the VOR.

  20. Airway smooth muscle cell tone amplifies contractile function in the presence of chronic cyclic strain.

    PubMed

    Fairbank, Nigel J; Connolly, Sarah C; Mackinnon, James D; Wehry, Kathrin; Deng, Linhong; Maksym, Geoffrey N

    2008-09-01

    Chronic contractile activation, or tone, in asthma coupled with continuous stretching due to breathing may be involved in altering the contractile function of airway smooth muscle (ASM). Previously, we (11) showed that cytoskeletal remodeling and stiffening responses to acute (2 h) localized stresses were modulated by the level of contractile activation of ASM. Here, we investigated if altered contractility in response to chronic mechanical strain was dependent on repeated modulation of contractile tone. Cultured human ASM cells received 5% cyclic (0.3 Hz), predominantly uniaxial strain for 5 days, with once-daily dosing of either sham, forskolin, carbachol, or histamine to alter tone. Stiffness, contractility (KCl), and "relaxability" (forskolin) were then measured as was cell alignment, myosin light-chain phosphorylation (pMLC), and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) content. Cells became aligned and baseline stiffness increased with strain, but repeated lowering of tone inhibited both effects (P < 0.05). Strain also reversed a negative tone-modulation dependence of MLCK, observed in static conditions in agreement with previous reports, with strain and tone together increasing both MLCK and pMLC. Furthermore, contractility increased 176% (SE 59) with repeated tone elevation. These findings indicate that with strain, and not without, repeated tone elevation promoted contractile function through changes in cytoskeletal organization and increased contractile protein. The ability of repeated contractile activation to increase contractility, but only with mechanical stretching, suggests a novel mechanism for increased ASM contractility in asthma and for the role of continuous bronchodilator and corticosteroid therapy in reversing airway hyperresponsiveness.

  1. TLR4-Activated MAPK-IL-6 Axis Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Guan-Lin; Wu, Jing-Yiing; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Fu; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Juei; Kuo, Cheng-Chin

    2016-08-24

    Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into the intima is considered to be a vital event in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Despite substantial evidence supporting the pathogenic role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the progression of atherogenesis, its function in the regulation of VSMC migration remains unclear. The goal of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism by which TLR4 regulates VSMC migration. Inhibitor experiments revealed that TLR4-induced IL-6 secretion and VSMC migration were mediated via the concerted actions of MyD88 and TRIF on the activation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling. Neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibodies abrogated TLR4-driven VSMC migration and F-actin polymerization. Blockade of p38 MAPK or ERK1/2 signaling cascade inhibited TLR4 agonist-mediated activation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Moreover, siRNA-mediated suppression of CREB production repressed TLR4-induced IL-6 production and VSMC migration. Rac-1 inhibitor suppressed TLR4-driven VSMC migration but not IL-6 production. Importantly, the serum level of IL-6 and TLR4 endogenous ligand HMGB1 was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery diseases (CAD) than in healthy subjects. Serum HMGB1 level was positively correlated with serum IL-6 level in CAD patients. The expression of both HMGB1 and IL-6 was clearly detected in the atherosclerotic tissue of the CAD patients. Additionally, there was a positive association between p-CREB and HMGB1 in mouse atherosclerotic tissue. Based on our findings, we concluded that, upon ligand binding, TLR4 activates p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling through MyD88 and TRIF in VSMCs. These signaling pathways subsequently coordinate an additive augmentation of CREB-driven IL-6 production, which in turn triggers Rac-1-mediated actin cytoskeleton to promote VSMC migration.

  2. Molecular and functional significance of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Abigail S.; Ayon, Ramon J.; Wiwchar, Michael; Angermann, Jeff E.; Pritchard, Harry A. T.; Singer, Cherie A.; Valencik, Maria L.; Britton, Fiona; Greenwood, Iain A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Increased peripheral resistance of small distal pulmonary arteries is a hallmark signature of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and is believed to be the consequence of enhanced vasoconstriction to agonists, thickening of the arterial wall due to remodeling, and increased thrombosis. The elevation in arterial tone in PH is attributable, at least in part, to smooth muscle cells of PH patients being more depolarized and displaying higher intracellular Ca2+ levels than cells from normal subjects. It is now clear that downregulation of voltage-dependent K+ channels (e.g., Kv1.5) and increased expression and activity of voltage-dependent (Cav1.2) and voltage-independent (e.g., canonical and vanilloid transient receptor potential [TRPC and TRPV]) Ca2+ channels play an important role in the functional remodeling of pulmonary arteries in PH. This review focuses on an anion-permeable channel that is now considered a novel excitatory mechanism in the systemic and pulmonary circulations. It is permeable to Cl− and is activated by a rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+-activated Cl− channel, or CaCC). The first section outlines the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the channel and ends with a description of the molecular candidate genes postulated to encode for CaCCs, with particular emphasis on the bestrophin and the newly discovered TMEM16 and anoctamin families of genes. The second section provides a review of the various sources of Ca2+ activating CaCCs, which include stimulation by mobilization from intracellular Ca2+ stores and Ca2+ entry through voltage-dependent and voltage-independent Ca2+ channels. The third and final section summarizes recent findings that suggest a potentially important role for CaCCs and the gene TMEM16A in PH. PMID:26064450

  3. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Vascular Progenitor Cells Capable of Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Katherine L; Obrtlikova, Petra; Alvarez, Diego F; King, Judy A; Keirstead, Susan A; Allred, Jeremy R; Kaufman, Dan S

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Previous studies have demonstrated development of endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) as separate cell lineages derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We demonstrate CD34+ cells isolated from differentiated hESCs function as vascular progenitor cells capable of producing both ECs and SMCs. These studies better define the developmental origin and reveal the relationship between these two cell types, as well as provide a more complete biological characterization. MATERIALS AND METHODS hESCs are co-cultured on M2-10B4 stromal cells or Wnt1 expressing M2-10B4 for 13–15 days to generate a CD34+ cell population. These cells are isolated using a magnetic antibody separation kit and cultured on fibronectin coated dishes in EC medium. To induce SMC differentiation, culture medium is changed and a morphological and phenotypic change occurs within 24–48 hours. RESULTS CD34+ vascular progenitor cells give rise to ECs and SMCs. The two populations express respective cell specific transcripts and proteins, exhibit intracellular calcium in response to various agonists, and form robust tube-like structures when co-cultured in Matrigel. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultured under SMC conditions do not exhibit a change in phenotype or genotype. Wnt1 overexpressing stromal cells produced an increased number of progenitor cells. CONCLUSIONS The ability to generate large numbers of ECs and SMCs from a single vascular progenitor cell population is promising for therapeutic use to treat a variety of diseased and ischemic conditions. The step-wise differentiation outlined here is an efficient, reproducible method with potential for large scale cultures suitable for clinical applications. PMID:20067819

  4. Functional regulation of ClC-3 in the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ganapathi, Sindura B; Wei, Shun-Guang; Zaremba, Angelika; Lamb, Fred S; Shears, Stephen B

    2013-01-01

    Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into neointima contributes to atherosclerosis and restenosis. This migration requires coordinated plasmalemmal fluxes of water and ions. Here, we show that aortic VSMC migration depends on the regulation of transmembrane Cl(-) flux by ClC-3, a Cl(-) channel/transporter. The contribution of ClC-3 to plasmalemmal Cl(-) current was studied in VSMCs by electrophysiological recordings. Cl(-) current was negligible in cells perfused with 0 [Ca(2+)]. Raising intracellular [Ca(2+)] to 0.5 μM activated a Cl(-) current (I(Cl.Ca)), approximately half of which was eliminated on inhibition by KN-93 of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. I(Cl.Ca) was also halved by inositol-3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate, a cellular signal with the biological function of specifically preventing calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II from activating I(Cl.Ca). Gene disruption of ClC-3 reduced I(Cl.Ca) by 50%. Moreover, I(Cl.Ca) in the ClC-3 null VSMCs was not affected by either KN-93 or inositol-3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate. We conclude that I(Cl.Ca) is composed of 2 components, one is ClC-3 independent whereas the other is ClC-3 dependent, activated by calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and inhibited by inositol-3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate. We also assayed VSMC migration in transwell assays. Migration was halved in ClC-3 null cells versus wild-type cells. In addition, inhibition of ClC-3 by niflumic acid, KN-93, or inositol-3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate each reduced cell migration in wild-type cells but not in ClC-3 null cells. These cell-signaling roles of ClC-3 in VSMC migration suggest new therapeutic approaches to vascular remodeling diseases.

  5. Expression and function of K(V)2-containing channels in human urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Hristov, Kiril L; Chen, Muyan; Afeli, Serge A Y; Cheng, Qiuping; Rovner, Eric S; Petkov, Georgi V

    2012-06-01

    The functional role of the voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels in human detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) is largely unexplored. Here, we provide molecular, electrophysiological, and functional evidence for the expression of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and the electrically silent K(V)9.3 subunits in human DSM. Stromatoxin-1 (ScTx1), a selective inhibitor of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and K(V)4.2 homotetrameric channels and of K(V)2.1/9.3 heterotetrameric channels, was used to examine the role of these channels in human DSM function. Human DSM tissues were obtained during open bladder surgeries from patients without a history of overactive bladder. Freshly isolated human DSM cells were studied using RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, live-cell Ca(2+) imaging, and the perforated whole cell patch-clamp technique. Isometric DSM tension recordings of human DSM isolated strips were conducted using tissue baths. RT-PCR experiments showed mRNA expression of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and K(V)9.3 (but not K(V)4.2) channel subunits in human isolated DSM cells. K(V)2.1 and K(V)2.2 protein expression was confirmed by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Perforated whole cell patch-clamp experiments revealed that ScTx1 (100 nM) inhibited the amplitude of the voltage step-induced K(V) current in freshly isolated human DSM cells. ScTx1 (100 nM) significantly increased the intracellular Ca(2+) level in DSM cells. In human DSM isolated strips, ScTx1 (100 nM) increased the spontaneous phasic contraction amplitude and muscle force, and enhanced the amplitude of the electrical field stimulation-induced contractions within the range of 3.5-30 Hz stimulation frequencies. These findings reveal that ScTx1-sensitive K(V)2-containing channels are key regulators of human DSM excitability and contractility and may represent new targets for pharmacological or genetic intervention for bladder dysfunction.

  6. Microvesicles Derived from Inflammation-Challenged Endothelial Cells Modulate Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Functions

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qunwen; Liu, Hua; Zheng, Chunyan; Zhao, Yuhui; Liao, Xiaorong; Wang, Yan; Chen, Yanfang; Zhao, Bin; Lazartigues, Eric; Yang, Yi; Ma, Xiaotang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Microvesicles (MV) can modulate the function of recipient cells by transferring their contents. Our previous study highlighted that MV released from tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plus serum deprivation (SD)-stimulated endothelial progenitor cells, induce detrimental effects on endothelial cells. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of endothelial MV (EMV) on proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of human brain vascular smooth cells (HBVSMC). Methods: EMV were prepared from human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) cultured in a TNF-α plus SD medium. RNase-EMV were made by treating EMV with RNase A for RNA depletion. The proliferation, apoptosis and migration abilities of HBVSMC were determined after co-culture with EMV or RNase-EMV. The Mek1/2 inhibitor, PD0325901, was used for pathway analysis. Western blot was used for analyzing the proteins of Mek1/2, Erk1/2, phosphorylation Erk1/2, activated caspase-3 and Bcl-2. The level of miR-146a-5p was measured by qRT-PCR. Results: (1) EMV significantly promoted the proliferation and migration of HBVSMC. The effects were accompanied by an increase in Mek1/2 and p-Erk1/2, which could be abolished by PD0325901; (2) EMV decreased the apoptotic rate of HBVSMC by approximately 35%, which was accompanied by cleaved caspase-3 down-regulation and Bcl-2 up-regulation; (3) EMV increased miR-146a-5p level in HBVSMC by about 2-folds; (4) RNase-treated EMV were less effective than EMV on HBVSMC activities and miR-146a-5p expression. Conclusion: EMV generated under inflammation challenge can modulate HBVSMC function and fate via their carried RNA. This is associated with activation of theMek1/2/Erk1/2 pathway and caspase-3/Bcl-2 regulation, during which miR-146a-5p may play an important role. The data suggest that EMV derived from inflammation-challenged endothelial cells are detrimental to HBVSMC homeostatic functions, highlighting potential novel therapeutic targets for vascular diseases. PMID

  7. Space shuttle configuration accounting functional design specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the requirements for an on-line automated system which must be capable of tracking the status of requirements and engineering changes and of providing accurate and timely records. The functional design specification provides the definition, description, and character length of the required data elements and the interrelationship of data elements to adequately track, display, and report the status of active configuration changes. As changes to the space shuttle program levels II and III configuration are proposed, evaluated, and dispositioned, it is the function of the configuration management office to maintain records regarding changes to the baseline and to track and report the status of those changes. The configuration accounting system will consist of a combination of computers, computer terminals, software, and procedures, all of which are designed to store, retrieve, display, and process information required to track proposed and proved engineering changes to maintain baseline documentation of the space shuttle program levels II and III.

  8. Signal-transduction pathways that regulate visceral smooth muscle function. III. Coupling of muscarinic receptors to signaling kinases and effector proteins in gastrointestinal smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Gerthoffer, William T

    2005-05-01

    Stimulation of muscarinic M3 and M2 receptors on gastrointestinal smooth muscle elicits contraction via activation of G proteins that are coupled to a diverse set of downstream signaling pathways and effector proteins. Many studies suggest a canonical excitation-contraction coupling pathway that includes activation of phospholipases, production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol, release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, activation of L-type calcium channels, and activation of nonselective cation channels. These events lead to elevated intracellular calcium concentration, which activates myosin light chain kinase to phosphorylate and activate myosin II thus causing contraction. In addition, muscarinic receptors are coupled to signaling pathways that modulate the effect of activator calcium. The Rho/Rho kinase pathway inhibits myosin light chain phosphatase, one of the key steps in sensitization of the contractile proteins to calcium. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases and Src family tyrosine kinases are also activated by muscarinic agonists. Src family tyrosine kinases regulate L-type calcium and nonselective cation channels. Src activation also leads to activation of ERK and p38 MAPKs. ERK MAPKs phosphorylate caldesmon, an actin filament binding protein. P38 MAPKs activate phospholipases and MAPKAP kinase 2/3, which phosphorylate HSP27. HSP27 may regulate cross-bridge function, actin filament formation, and actin filament attachment to the cell membrane. In addition to the well-known role of M3 muscarinic receptors to regulate myoplasmic calcium levels, the integrated effect of muscarinic activation probably also includes signaling pathways that modulate phospholipases, cyclic nucleotides, contractile protein function, and cytoskeletal protein function.

  9. The Effects of Selection Strategies for Bivariate Loglinear Smoothing Models on NEAT Equating Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Holland, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, eight statistical strategies were evaluated for selecting the parameterizations of loglinear models for smoothing the bivariate test score distributions used in nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) equating. Four of the strategies were based on significance tests of chi-square statistics (Likelihood Ratio, Pearson,…

  10. Random function theory revisited - Exact solutions versus the first order smoothing conjecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerche, I.; Parker, E. N.

    1975-01-01

    We remark again that the mathematical conjecture known as first order smoothing or the quasi-linear approximation does not give the correct dependence on correlation length (time) in many cases, although it gives the correct limit as the correlation length (time) goes to zero. In this sense, then, the method is unreliable.

  11. Role of rho kinase in the functional and dysfunctional tonic smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Márcio A F; Rattan, Satish

    2011-07-01

    Tonic smooth muscles play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of debilitating diseases of the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Tonic smooth muscles differ from phasic smooth muscles in the ability to spontaneously develop myogenic tone. This ability has been primarily attributed to the local production of specific neurohumoral substances that can work in conjunction with calcium sensitization via signal transduction events associated with the Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA)/Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK II) pathways. In this article, we discuss the molecular pathways involved in the myogenic properties of tonic smooth muscles, particularly the contribution of protein kinase C vs the RhoA/ROCK II pathway in the genesis of basal tone, pathophysiology and novel therapeutic approaches for certain gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that manipulation of RhoA/ROCK II activity through inhibitors or silencing of RNA interface techniques could represent a new therapeutic approach for various gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Arterial wall mechanics as a function of heart rate: role of vascular smooth muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvucci, Fernando Pablo; Schiavone, Jonathan; Craiem, Damian; Barra, Juan Gabriel

    2007-11-01

    Vascular wall viscoelasticity can be evaluated using a first-order lumped model. This model consists of a spring with elastic constant E and a dashpot with viscous constant η. More importantly, this viscoelastic model can be fitted in-vivo measuring arterial pressure and diameter. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of heart rate over E and η. In two anesthetized sheep, diameter in thoracic aorta and intravascular pressure has been registered. The right atrium was connected to a programmable stimulator through a pair of pace-maker wires to produce changes in stimulation heart rate (HR) from 80 to 160 bpm. Additionally, local activation of vascular smooth muscle was induced with phenylephrine. After converting pressure and diameter signals into stress and strain respectively, E y η were calculated in control state and during muscle activation. The elastic modulus E did not present significant changes with heart rate. The viscous modulus η decreased 49% with a two-fold acceleration in heart rate from 80 to 160 bpm. However, the product η HR remained stable. The viscous modulus η increased 39% with smooth muscle activation. No significant pressure changes were registered during the experiment. The contractile action of vascular smooth muscle could contribute to increasing arterial wall viscosity. The decrease of η when HR increased might be related to smooth muscle relaxation mediated by endothelium activity, which was stimulated by flow increase. We conclude that HR can modulate arterial wall viscoelasticity through endothelium-dependent mechanisms.

  13. Free Fatty Acid Palmitate Impairs the Vitality and Function of Cultured Human Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oberbach, Andreas; Schlichting, Nadine; Heinrich, Marco; Till, Holger; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Background Incidence of urinary tract infections is elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus. Those patients show increased levels of the saturated free fatty acid palmitate. As recently shown metabolic alterations induced by palmitate include production and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukine-6 (IL-6) in cultured human bladder smooth muscle cells (hBSMC). Here we studied the influence of palmitate on vital cell properties, for example, regulation of cell proliferation, mitochondrial enzyme activity and antioxidant capacity in hBSMC, and analyzed the involvement of major cytokine signaling pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings HBSMC cultures were set up from bladder tissue of patients undergoing cystectomy and stimulated with palmitate. We analyzed cell proliferation, mitochondrial enzyme activity, and antioxidant capacity by ELISA and confocal immunofluorescence. In signal transduction inhibition experiments we evaluated the involvement of NF-κB, JAK/STAT, MEK1, PI3K, and JNK in major cytokine signaling pathway regulation. We found: (i) palmitate decreased cell proliferation, increased mitochondrial enzyme activity and antioxidant capacity; (ii) direct inhibition of cytokine receptor by AG490 even more strongly suppressed cell proliferation in palmitate-stimulated cells, while counteracting palmitate-induced increase of antioxidant capacity; (iii) in contrast knockdown of the STAT3 inhibitor SOCS3 increased cell proliferation and antioxidant capacity; (iv) further downstream JAK/STAT3 signaling cascade the inhibition of PI3K or JNK enhanced palmitate induced suppression of cell proliferation; (v) increase of mitochondrial enzyme activity by palmitate was enhanced by inhibition of PI3K but counteracted by inhibition of MEK1. Conclusions/Significance Saturated free fatty acids (e.g., palmitate) cause massive alterations in vital cell functions of cultured hBSMC involving distinct major cytokine signaling pathways. Thereby, certain

  14. The Deep Space Network. [tracking and communication functions and facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization of the Deep Space Network are summarized. The Deep Space Instrumentation Facility, the Ground Communications Facility, and the Network Control System are described.

  15. Androgen Action via Testicular Arteriole Smooth Muscle Cells Is Important for Leydig Cell Function, Vasomotion and Testicular Fluid Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Michelle; Sharpe, Richard M.; Moffat, Lindsey; Atanassova, Nina; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Kilter, Sigrid; Bergh, Anders; Smith, Lee B.

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of blood flow through the testicular microvasculature by vasomotion is thought to be important for normal testis function as it regulates interstitial fluid (IF) dynamics which is an important intra-testicular transport medium. Androgens control vasomotion, but how they exert these effects remains unclear. One possibility is by signalling via androgen receptors (AR) expressed in testicular arteriole smooth muscle cells. To investigate this and determine the overall importance of this mechanism in testis function, we generated a blood vessel smooth muscle cell-specific AR knockout mouse (SMARKO). Gross reproductive development was normal in SMARKO mice but testis weight was reduced in adulthood compared to control littermates; this reduction was not due to any changes in germ cell volume or to deficits in testosterone, LH or FSH concentrations and did not cause infertility. However, seminiferous tubule lumen volume was reduced in adult SMARKO males while interstitial volume was increased, perhaps indicating altered fluid dynamics; this was associated with compensated Leydig cell failure. Vasomotion was impaired in adult SMARKO males, though overall testis blood flow was normal and there was an increase in the overall blood vessel volume per testis in adult SMARKOs. In conclusion, these results indicate that ablating arteriole smooth muscle AR does not grossly alter spermatogenesis or affect male fertility but does subtly impair Leydig cell function and testicular fluid exchange, possibly by locally regulating microvascular blood flow within the testis. PMID:21049031

  16. Functional expression of KCNQ (Kv7) channels in guinea pig bladder smooth muscle and their contribution to spontaneous activity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, U A; Carson, C; Johnston, L; Joshi, S; Gurney, A M; McCloskey, K D

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The aim of the study was to determine whether KCNQ channels are functionally expressed in bladder smooth muscle cells (SMC) and to investigate their physiological significance in bladder contractility. Experimental Approach KCNQ channels were examined at the genetic, protein, cellular and tissue level in guinea pig bladder smooth muscle using RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, patch-clamp electrophysiology, calcium imaging, detrusor strip myography, and a panel of KCNQ activators and inhibitors. Key Results KCNQ subtypes 1–5 are expressed in bladder detrusor smooth muscle. Detrusor strips typically displayed TTX-insensitive myogenic spontaneous contractions that were increased in amplitude by the KCNQ channel inhibitors XE991, linopirdine or chromanol 293B. Contractility was inhibited by the KCNQ channel activators flupirtine or meclofenamic acid (MFA). The frequency of Ca2+-oscillations in SMC contained within bladder tissue sheets was increased by XE991. Outward currents in dispersed bladder SMC, recorded under conditions where BK and KATP currents were minimal, were significantly reduced by XE991, linopirdine, or chromanol, and enhanced by flupirtine or MFA. XE991 depolarized the cell membrane and could evoke transient depolarizations in quiescent cells. Flupirtine (20 μM) hyperpolarized the cell membrane with a simultaneous cessation of any spontaneous electrical activity. Conclusions and Implications These novel findings reveal the role of KCNQ currents in the regulation of the resting membrane potential of detrusor SMC and their important physiological function in the control of spontaneous contractility in the guinea pig bladder. PMID:23586426

  17. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions

    SciTech Connect

    Seljak, Uroš; McDonald, Patrick E-mail: pvmcdonald@lbl.gov

    2011-11-01

    We develop a phase space distribution function approach to redshift space distortions (RSD), in which the redshift space density can be written as a sum over velocity moments of the distribution function. These moments are density weighted and have well defined physical interpretation: their lowest orders are density, momentum density, and stress energy density. The series expansion is convergent if kμu/aH < 1, where k is the wavevector, H the Hubble parameter, u the typical gravitational velocity and μ = cos θ, with θ being the angle between the Fourier mode and the line of sight. We perform an expansion of these velocity moments into helicity modes, which are eigenmodes under rotation around the axis of Fourier mode direction, generalizing the scalar, vector, tensor decomposition of perturbations to an arbitrary order. We show that only equal helicity moments correlate and derive the angular dependence of the individual contributions to the redshift space power spectrum. We show that the dominant term of μ{sup 2} dependence on large scales is the cross-correlation between the density and scalar part of momentum density, which can be related to the time derivative of the matter power spectrum. Additional terms contributing to μ{sup 2} and dominating on small scales are the vector part of momentum density-momentum density correlations, the energy density-density correlations, and the scalar part of anisotropic stress density-density correlations. The second term is what is usually associated with the small scale Fingers-of-God damping and always suppresses power, but the first term comes with the opposite sign and always adds power. Similarly, we identify 7 terms contributing to μ{sup 4} dependence. Some of the advantages of the distribution function approach are that the series expansion converges on large scales and remains valid in multi-stream situations. We finish with a brief discussion of implications for RSD in galaxies relative to dark matter

  18. Calculating a parameter space to smoothly transport magnetically-trapped suspended superparamagnetic microbeads with electric-field domain wall control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLellan, Brenda; Nowakowski, Mark; Bokor, Jeffrey; Liang, Cheng-Yen; Hockel, Joshua; Wetzlar, Kyle; Keller, Scott; Sohn, Hyunmin; Carman, Gregory; Young, Anthony; Doran, Andrew; Marcus, Matthew; Klaui, Mathias; Candler, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate the capture and electrically-driven piecewise transport of superparamagnetic microbeads trapped in a magnetostatic potential energy well produced by the magnetic domain walls of Ni microrings on a [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3]0.66-[PbTiO3]0.34 (PMN-PT) substrate. Here I present micromagnetic simulations that illustrate the formation of field-initialized domain walls in Ni microrings and calculate the approximate force of attraction experienced by superparamagnetic microbeads near the domain walls. This force is estimated as a function of the ring geometry, bead diameter, and distance from the domain wall, and provides an upper bound for the strain-mediated, electrically-induced domain wall velocity that can be implemented to smoothly transport coupled microbeads within a fluidic environment. These results provide an initial estimate for important technological parameters and set a foundation for the optimization of this microfluidic magnetic control scheme. Supported by E3S and TANMS.

  19. Determination of discontinuities in the derivative of a piecewise-smooth function on the basis of the results of measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurin, L. S.; Ivanova, N. P.

    1975-01-01

    A piecewise-smooth function with discontinuity in the first derivative on a given interval is considered. The values of the function are measured at a sequence of points in the interval and a random error is included in the measurements. A method is proposed to estimate the position of the discontinuity in the derivative. Regression lines are associated with each measurement point and account for k - 1 points preceding or following the point. The estimate for the position of the discontinuity is the measurement point with the largest angle between the regression lines. The error in the estimate is analyzed and the results are verified.

  20. On the string equation with a singular weight belonging to the space of multipliers in Sobolev spaces with negative index of smoothness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, Yu V.; Sheipak, I. A.

    2016-12-01

    We study spectral properties of the boundary-value problem -y''-λρ y=0, y(0)=y(1)=0, in the case when the weight ρ belongs to the space M of multipliers from the space \\overset{\\circ}{W}{}_21 \\lbrack 0,1 \\rbrack to the dual space \\bigl(\\overset{\\circ}{W}{}_21 \\lbrack 0,1 \\rbrack \\bigr)'. We obtain a criterion for the generalized derivative (in the sense of distributions) of a piecewise-constant affinely self-similar function to lie in M. For general weights in this class we show that the spectrum of the problem is discrete and the eigenvalues grow exponentially. The nature of this growth is determined by the parameters of self-similarity. When the parameters of self-similarity reach the boundary of the set where ρ\\in M, the problem exhibits continuous spectrum.

  1. FUSED KERNEL-SPLINE SMOOTHING FOR REPEATEDLY MEASURED OUTCOMES IN A GENERALIZED PARTIALLY LINEAR MODEL WITH FUNCTIONAL SINGLE INDEX*

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fei; Ma, Yanyuan; Wang, Yuanjia

    2015-01-01

    We propose a generalized partially linear functional single index risk score model for repeatedly measured outcomes where the index itself is a function of time. We fuse the nonparametric kernel method and regression spline method, and modify the generalized estimating equation to facilitate estimation and inference. We use local smoothing kernel to estimate the unspecified coefficient functions of time, and use B-splines to estimate the unspecified function of the single index component. The covariance structure is taken into account via a working model, which provides valid estimation and inference procedure whether or not it captures the true covariance. The estimation method is applicable to both continuous and discrete outcomes. We derive large sample properties of the estimation procedure and show different convergence rate of each component of the model. The asymptotic properties when the kernel and regression spline methods are combined in a nested fashion has not been studied prior to this work even in the independent data case. PMID:26283801

  2. FUSED KERNEL-SPLINE SMOOTHING FOR REPEATEDLY MEASURED OUTCOMES IN A GENERALIZED PARTIALLY LINEAR MODEL WITH FUNCTIONAL SINGLE INDEX.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fei; Ma, Yanyuan; Wang, Yuanjia

    We propose a generalized partially linear functional single index risk score model for repeatedly measured outcomes where the index itself is a function of time. We fuse the nonparametric kernel method and regression spline method, and modify the generalized estimating equation to facilitate estimation and inference. We use local smoothing kernel to estimate the unspecified coefficient functions of time, and use B-splines to estimate the unspecified function of the single index component. The covariance structure is taken into account via a working model, which provides valid estimation and inference procedure whether or not it captures the true covariance. The estimation method is applicable to both continuous and discrete outcomes. We derive large sample properties of the estimation procedure and show different convergence rate of each component of the model. The asymptotic properties when the kernel and regression spline methods are combined in a nested fashion has not been studied prior to this work even in the independent data case.

  3. Functional expression of the TMEM16 family of calcium-activated chloride channels in airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Remy, Kenneth E.; Danielsson, Jennifer; Funayama, Hiromi; Fu, Xiao Wen; Chang, Herng-Yu Sucie; Yim, Peter; Xu, Dingbang; Emala, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness is a key component in the pathophysiology of asthma. Although calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) flux has been described in many cell types, including human airway smooth muscle (HASM), the true molecular identity of the channels responsible for this chloride conductance remains controversial. Recently, a new family of proteins thought to represent the true CaCCs was identified as the TMEM16 family. This led us to question whether members of this family are functionally expressed in native and cultured HASM. We further questioned whether expression of these channels contributes to the contractile function of HASM. We identified the mRNA expression of eight members of the TMEM16 family in HASM cells and show immunohistochemical evidence of TMEM16A in both cultured and native HASM. Functionally, we demonstrate that the classic chloride channel inhibitor, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB), inhibited halide flux in cultured HASM cells. Moreover, HASM cells displayed classical electrophysiological properties of CaCCs during whole cell electrophysiological recordings, which were blocked by using an antibody selective for TMEM16A. Furthermore, two distinct TMEM16A antagonists (tannic acid and benzbromarone) impaired a substance P-induced contraction in isolated guinea pig tracheal rings. These findings demonstrate that multiple members of this recently described family of CaCCs are expressed in HASM cells, they display classic electrophysiological properties of CaCCs, and they modulate contractile tone in airway smooth muscle. The TMEM16 family may provide a novel therapeutic target for limiting airway constriction in asthma. PMID:23997176

  4. The point-characteristic function, wavefronts, and caustic of a spherical wave refracted by an arbitrary smooth surface.

    PubMed

    Marciano-Melchor, Magdalena; Navarro-Morales, Esperanza; Román-Hernández, Edwin; Santiago-Santiago, José Guadalupe; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Suárez-Xique, Román

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to obtain expressions for the k-function, the wavefront train, and the caustic associated with the light rays refracted by an arbitrary smooth surface after being emitted by a point light source located at an arbitrary position in a three-dimensional homogeneous optical medium. The general results are applied to a parabolic refracting surface. For this case, we find that when the point light source is off the optical axis, the caustic locally has singularities of the hyperbolic umbilic type, while the refracted wavefront, at the caustic region, locally has singularities of the cusp ridge and swallowtail types.

  5. Unmasking the ancestral activity of integron integrases reveals a smooth evolutionary transition during functional innovation

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Jose Antonio; Loot, Celine; Parissi, Vincent; Nivina, Aleksandra; Bouchier, Christiane; Mazel, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine (Y)-recombinases have evolved to deliver mechanistically different reactions on a variety of substrates, but these evolutionary transitions are poorly understood. Among them, integron integrases are hybrid systems recombining single- and double-stranded DNA partners. These reactions are asymmetric and need a replicative resolution pathway, an exception to the canonical second strand exchange model of Y-recombinases. Integron integrases possess a specific domain for this specialized pathway. Here we show that despite this, integrases are still capable of efficiently operating the ancestral second strand exchange in symmetrical reactions between double-stranded substrates. During these reactions, both strands are reactive and Holliday junction resolution can follow either pathway. A novel deep-sequencing approach allows mapping of the crossover point for the second strand exchange. The persistence of the ancestral activity in integrases illustrates their robustness and shows that innovation towards new recombination substrates and resolution pathways was a smooth evolutionary process. PMID:26961432

  6. Velocity-space synthesis of ISEE-1 measurements of the three dimensional electron distribution function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Scudder, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    A computer package which produces contour plots of the three dimensional electron distribution function measured by an electron spectrometer aboard ISEE-1 is described. Examples of the contour plots and an explanation of how to use the program, including the necessary computer code for running the program on the GSFC 360/91 computer is presented. The method by which the discrete measurements of the distribution function, given by points on the four dimensional surface are synthesized into a smooth surface in a three dimensional space which can be contoured is described. The velocity components are parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, respectively, in the proper frame of the electrons.

  7. Functional renormalization group in Floquet space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissing, Anna Katharina; Meden, Volker; Kennes, Dante Marvin

    2016-12-01

    We present an extension of the functional renormalization group to Floquet space, which enables us to treat the long time behavior of interacting time periodically driven quantum dots. It is one of its strength that the method is neither bound to small driving amplitudes nor to small driving frequencies, i.e., very general time periodic signals can be considered. It is applied to the interacting resonant level model, a prototype model of a spinless, fermionic quantum dot. The renormalization in several setups with different combinations of time periodic parameters is studied, where the numerical results are complemented by analytic expressions for the renormalization in the limit of small driving amplitude. We show how the driving frequency acts as an infrared cutoff of the underlying renormalization group flow which manifests in novel power laws. We utilize the tunability of the effective reservoir distribution function in a periodically driven onsite energy setup to show how its shape is directly reflected in the renormalization group flow. This allows us to flexibly tune the power-law renormalization generically encountered in quantum dot structures. Finally, an in-phase quantum pump as well as a single parameter pump are investigated in the whole regime of driving frequency, demonstrating that the new power law in the driving frequency is reflected in the mean current of the latter.

  8. On the constrained minimization of smooth Kurdyka—Łojasiewicz functions with the scaled gradient projection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prato, Marco; Bonettini, Silvia; Loris, Ignace; Porta, Federica; Rebegoldi, Simone

    2016-10-01

    The scaled gradient projection (SGP) method is a first-order optimization method applicable to the constrained minimization of smooth functions and exploiting a scaling matrix multiplying the gradient and a variable steplength parameter to improve the convergence of the scheme. For a general nonconvex function, the limit points of the sequence generated by SGP have been proved to be stationary, while in the convex case and with some restrictions on the choice of the scaling matrix the sequence itself converges to a constrained minimum point. In this paper we extend these convergence results by showing that the SGP sequence converges to a limit point provided that the objective function satisfies the Kurdyka-Łojasiewicz property at each point of its domain and its gradient is Lipschitz continuous.

  9. Coronary endothelial function and vascular smooth muscle proliferation are programmed by early-gestation dexamethasone exposure in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Kenneth A.; Roghair, Robert D.; Jung, Felicia; Scholz, Thomas D.; Lamb, Fred S.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of the early-gestation ovine fetus to exogenous glucocorticoids induces changes in postnatal cardiovascular physiology. We sought to characterize coronary artery vascular function in this model by elucidating the contribution of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species to altered coronary vascular reactivity and examining the proliferative potential of coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells. Dexamethasone (dex, 0.28 mg·kg−1·day−1 for 48 h) was administered to pregnant ewes at 27–28-day gestation (term 145 days). Coronary arteries were isolated from 1- to 2-wk-old dex-exposed offspring and aged-matched controls. Compared with controls, coronary arteries from dex-exposed lambs demonstrated enhanced vasoconstriction to endothelin-1 and ACh that was abolished by endothelial removal or preincubation with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NNA, membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase + catalase, or apamin + charybdotoxin, but not indomethacin. The rate of coronary vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation was also significantly greater in dex-exposed lambs. Protein levels of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen were increased and α-smooth muscle actin decreased in dex-exposed coronary VSMC, consistent with a proliferative state. Finally, expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox 4, but not Nox 1, mRNA was also decreased in coronary VSMC from dex-exposed lambs. These findings suggest an important interaction exists between early-gestation glucocorticoid exposure and reactive oxygen species that is associated with alterations in endothelial function and coronary VSMC proliferation. These changes in coronary physiology are consistent with those associated with the development of atherosclerosis and may provide an important link between an adverse intrauterine environment and increased risk for coronary artery disease. PMID:20335378

  10. Adaptive smoothing of high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging data by generalized cross-validation improves Q-ball orientation distribution function reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Metwalli, Nader S; Hu, Xiaoping P; Carew, John D

    2010-09-01

    Q-ball imaging (QBI) is a high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (HARDI) technique for reconstructing the orientation distribution function (ODF). Some form of smoothing or regularization is typically required in the ODF reconstruction from low signal-to-noise ratio HARDI data. The amount of smoothing or regularization is usually set a priori at the discretion of the investigator. In this article, we apply an adaptive and objective means of smoothing the raw HARDI data using the smoothing splines on the sphere method with generalized cross-validation (GCV) to estimate the diffusivity profile in each voxel. Subsequently, we reconstruct the ODF, from the smoothed data, based on the Funk-Radon transform (FRT) used in QBI. The spline method was applied to both simulated data and in vivo human brain data. Simulated data show that the smoothing splines on the sphere method with GCV smoothing reduces the mean squared error in estimates of the ODF as compared with the standard analytical QBI approach. The human data demonstrate the utility of the method for estimating smooth ODFs.

  11. Monocyte/macrophage cytokine activity regulates vascular smooth muscle cell function within a degradable polyurethane scaffold.

    PubMed

    Battiston, K G; Ouyang, B; Labow, R S; Simmons, C A; Santerre, J P

    2014-03-01

    Tissue engineering strategies rely on the ability to promote cell proliferation and migration into porous biomaterial constructs, as well as to support specific phenotypic states of the cells in vitro. The present study investigated the use of released factors from monocytes and their derived macrophages (MDM) and the mechanism by which they regulate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) response in a VSMC-monocyte co-culture system within a porous degradable polyurethane (D-PHI) scaffold. VSMCs cultured in monocyte/MDM-conditioned medium (MCM), generated from the culture of monocytes/MDM on D-PHI scaffolds for up to 28 days, similarly affected VSMC contractile marker expression, growth and three-dimensional migration when compared to direct VSMC-monocyte co-culture. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were identified as two cytokines present in MCM, at concentrations that have previously been shown to influence VSMC phenotype. VSMCs cultured alone on D-PHI scaffolds and exposed to MCP-1 (5 ng ml(-1)) or IL-6 (1 ng ml(-1)) for 7 days experienced a suppression in contractile marker expression (with MCP-1 or IL-6) and increased growth (with MCP-1) compared to no cytokine medium supplementation. These effects were also observed in VSMC-monocyte co-culture on D-PHI. Neutralization of IL-6, but not MCP-1, was subsequently shown to decrease VSMC growth and enhance calponin expression for VSMC-monocyte co-cultures on D-PHI scaffolds for 7 days, implying that IL-6 mediates VSMC response in monocyte-VSMC co-cultures. This study highlights the use of monocytes and their derived macrophages in conjunction with immunomodulatory biomaterials, such as D-PHI, as agents for regulating VSMC response, and demonstrates the importance of monocyte/MDM-released factors, such as IL-6 in particular, in this process.

  12. Smooth Nonparametric Estimation of the Failure Rate Function and its First Two Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshkin, G. M.

    2016-10-01

    The class of nonparametric estimators of kernel type is considered for the unknown failure rate function and its derivatives. The convergence of the suggested estimations in distribution and in the mean square sense to the unknown failure rate function and its derivatives is proved. The interval estimator of the failure rate function is constructed. Advantages of the nonparametric estimators in comparison with the parametric algorithms are discussed. The suggested estimators of the failure rate function can be used to solve problems of exploitation reliability of complex physical, technical, and software systems under uncertainty conditions.

  13. Alteration of Contractile Function and Calcium Ion Movements in Vascular Smooth Muscle by Gentamicin and Other Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Adams, H. Richard; Goodman, Frank R.; Weiss, George B.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of certain aminoglycoside antibiotics on contractile responses and related calcium ion (Ca2+) movements in isolated vascular smooth muscle. Gentamicin, kanamycin, and streptomycin decreased contractile responses produced by norepinephrine, histamine, and high K+ in rabbit aortic strips. The inhibitory action of these antibiotics on mechanical function was more pronounced when the Ca2+ concentration of the bathing solution was decreased from 1.5 mM (normal Ca2+ solution) to 0.05 mM (low Ca2+ solution). The uptake of radiocalcium (45Ca) into the isolated media-intimal layer of rabbit aortae was decreased in a maintained manner by each antibiotic. With gentamicin, the inhibitory effect on 45Ca uptake was shown to be dependent upon the concentration of gentamicin employed and to be more evident in a 0.1 mM Ca2+ solution than in a normal Ca2+ solution. In addition, the rate of 45Ca efflux from the rabbit aortic media-intimal layer was increased in a sustained manner by gentamicin, streptomycin, and kanamycin. Furthermore, contractile responses induced by high K+ and norepinephrine in canine carotid arterial strips were inhibited by gentamicin. Present findings indicate that aminoglycoside antibiotics interfere with Ca2+-linked events leading to activation of the contractile mechanism of vascular smooth muscle. These in vitro findings may partially explain the occurrence of in vivo cardiovascular depression that has occasionally been observed after the administration of chemically related antimicrobial agents. PMID:15825418

  14. Predictors of immune function in space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, William T.; Zhang, Shaojie; Reuben, James M.; Lee, Bang-Ning; Butel, Janet S.

    2007-02-01

    Of all of the environmental conditions of space flight that might have an adverse effect upon human immunity and the incidence of infection, space radiation stands out as the single-most important threat. As important as this would be on humans engaged in long and deep space flight, it obviously is not possible to plan Earth-bound radiation and infection studies in humans. Therefore, we propose to develop a murine model that could predict the adverse effects of space flight radiation and reactivation of latent virus infection for humans. Recent observations on the effects of gamma and latent virus infection demonstrate latent virus reactivation and loss of T cell mediated immune responses in a murine model. We conclude that using this small animal method of quantitating the amounts of radiation and latent virus infection and resulting alterations in immune responses, it may be possible to predict the degree of immunosuppression in interplanetary space travel for humans. Moreover, this model could be extended to include other space flight conditions, such as microgravity, sleep deprivation, and isolation, to obtain a more complete assessment of space flight risks for humans.

  15. Localized states in an unbounded neural field equation with smooth firing rate function: a multi-parameter analysis.

    PubMed

    Faye, Grégory; Rankin, James; Chossat, Pascal

    2013-05-01

    The existence of spatially localized solutions in neural networks is an important topic in neuroscience as these solutions are considered to characterize working (short-term) memory. We work with an unbounded neural network represented by the neural field equation with smooth firing rate function and a wizard hat spatial connectivity. Noting that stationary solutions of our neural field equation are equivalent to homoclinic orbits in a related fourth order ordinary differential equation, we apply normal form theory for a reversible Hopf bifurcation to prove the existence of localized solutions; further, we present results concerning their stability. Numerical continuation is used to compute branches of localized solution that exhibit snaking-type behaviour. We describe in terms of three parameters the exact regions for which localized solutions persist.

  16. Delayed evacuatory function due to specific smooth muscle reactivity in the gastrointestinal tracts of tacrine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Krustev, A; Sirakov, V; Turiiski, V; Getova, D; Velkova, K; Prissadova, N

    2008-01-01

    Most of the side effects induced by tacrine are associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of the study was to analyze the nature of radiographically registered, tacrine-induced changes in evacuatory function, as well as to find a possible correlation with the immediate in vitro action of the drug on smooth muscles from the GI tracts of rats. The tacrine dose we used reliably delayed GI passage: contrast matter was not fully evacuated, predominantly from the stomach and cecum. The delay resulted from changes in tone and peristaltic activity, specific for the various regions of the tract. These changes were associated with a superposing of the responses due to the anticholinesterase and noncholinergic action of tacrine.

  17. The Redshift and Real-Space Correlation Functions from the ESP Galaxy Redshift Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, Luigi; Bartlett, J. G.; Cappi, A.; Maurogordato, S.; Zucca, E.; Zamorani, G.; Balkowski, C.; Blanchard, A.; Cayatte, V.; Chincarini, G.; Collins, C.; Maccagni, D.; MacGillivray, H.; Merighi, R.; Mignoli, M.; Proust, D.; Ramella, M.; Scaramella, R.; Stirpe, G. M.; Vettolani, G.

    We discuss the behaviour of the redshift- and real-space correlation functions from the ESO Slice Project (ESP) galaxy redshift survey. xis for the whole survey is positive out to ~80hmpc, with a smooth break from a power law. By projecting xip, we recover the real-space correlation function xir, which below 10hmpc is reasonably well described by a power law xi(r) = (r/r_circ)^{-gamma}, with r_circ = 4.15^{+0.20}_{-0.21} h^{-1} Mpc and gamma = 1.67^{+0.07}_{-0.09}. The same analysis, applied to four volume-limited subsamples, evidences a small but significant growth of clustering with luminosity (r_circ varies from 3.4 to 5.2hmpc, when the luminosity threshold is increased from -18.5 to -20).

  18. The tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 controls urokinase-dependent signaling and functions in human vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyan, Julia Haller, Hermann; Dumler, Inna

    2009-04-01

    The urokinase (uPA)/urokinase receptor (uPAR) multifunctional system is an important mediator of functional behaviour of human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). uPAR associates with platelet-derived growth factor receptor {beta} (PDGFR-{beta}), which serves as a transmembrane adaptor for uPAR in VSMC, to transduce intracellular signaling and initiate functional changes. The precise and rapid propagation of these signaling cascades demands both strict and flexible regulatory mechanisms that remain unexplored. We provide evidence that the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 mediates these processes. uPA regulated SHP-2 phosphorylation, catalytic activity, and its co-localization and association with the PDGFR-{beta}. Active PDGFR-{beta} was required for the uPA-induced SHP-2 phosphorylation. uPAR-directed STAT1 pathway was disturbed in cells expressing SHP-2 inactive mutant. Both, cell proliferation and migration were impaired in VSMC with downregulated SHP-2. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms, we found that uPA induced SHP-2 recruitment to lipid rafts. Disruption of rafts abolished uPA-related control of SHP-2 phosphorylation, its association with PDGFR-{beta} and finally the VSMC functional responses. Our results demonstrate that SHP-2 plays an important role in uPA-directed signaling and functional control of human VSMC and suggest that this phosphatase might contribute to the pathogenesis of the uPA-related vascular remodeling.

  19. Signal-transduction pathways that regulate smooth muscle function I. Signal transduction in phasic (esophageal) and tonic (gastroesophageal sphincter) smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Harnett, Karen M; Cao, Weibiao; Biancani, Piero

    2005-03-01

    Contraction of esophageal (Eso) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) circular muscle depends on distinct signal-transduction pathways. ACh-induced contraction of Eso muscle is linked to phosphatidylcholine metabolism, production of diacylglycerol and arachidonic acid (AA), and activation of the Ca(2+)-insensitive PKCepsilon. Although PKCepsilon does not require Ca(2+) for activation, either influx of extracellular Ca(2+) or release of Ca(2+) from stores is needed to activate the phospholipases responsible for hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids and production of second messengers, which activate PKCepsilon. In contrast, the LES uses two distinct intracellular pathways: 1) a PKC-dependent pathway activated by low doses of agonists or during maintenance of spontaneous tone, and 2) a Ca(2+)-calmodulin-myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-dependent pathway activated in response to maximally effective doses of agonists during the initial phase of contraction. The Ca(2+) levels, released by agonist-induced activity of phospholipase C, determine which contractile pathway is activated in the LES. The Ca(2+)-calmodulin-MLCK-dependent contractile pathway has been well characterized in a variety of smooth muscles. The steps linking activation of PKC to myosin light chain (MLC20) phosphorylation and contraction, however, have not been clearly defined for LES, Eso, or other smooth muscles. In addition, in LES circular muscle, a low-molecular weight pancreatic-like phospholipase A2 (group I PLA2) causes production of AA, which is metabolized to prostaglandins and thromboxanes. These AA metabolites act on receptors linked to heterotrimeric G proteins to induce activation of phospholipases and production of second messengers to maintain contraction of LES circular muscle. We have examined the signal-transduction pathways activated by PGF(2alpha) and by thromboxane analogs during the initial contractile phase and found that these pathways are the same as those activated by other

  20. Nonequilibrium Flows with Smooth Particle Applied Mechanics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kum, Oyeon

    Smooth particle methods are relatively new methods for simulating solid and fluid flows though they have a 20-year history of solving complex hydrodynamic problems in astrophysics, such as colliding planets and stars, for which correct answers are unknown. The results presented in this thesis evaluate the adaptability or fitness of the method for typical hydrocode production problems. For finite hydrodynamic systems, boundary conditions are important. A reflective boundary condition with image particles is a good way to prevent a density anomaly at the boundary and to keep the fluxes continuous there. Boundary values of temperature and velocity can be separately controlled. The gradient algorithm, based on differentiating the smooth particle expressions for (urho) and (Trho), does not show numerical instabilities for the stress tensor and heat flux vector quantities which require second derivatives in space when Fourier's heat -flow law and Newton's viscous force law are used. Smooth particle methods show an interesting parallel linking them to molecular dynamics. For the inviscid Euler equation, with an isentropic ideal gas equation of state, the smooth particle algorithm generates trajectories isomorphic to those generated by molecular dynamics. The shear moduli were evaluated based on molecular dynamics calculations for the three weighting functions, B spline, Lucy, and Cusp functions. The accuracy and applicability of the methods were estimated by comparing a set of smooth particle Rayleigh -Benard problems, all in the laminar regime, to corresponding highly-accurate grid-based numerical solutions of continuum equations. Both transient and stationary smooth particle solutions reproduce the grid-based data with velocity errors on the order of 5%. The smooth particle method still provides robust solutions at high Rayleigh number where grid-based methods fails. Considerably fewer smooth particles are required than atoms in a corresponding molecular dynamics

  1. Asplund sets, differentiability and subdifferentiability of functions in Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianfu

    2006-11-01

    We show that Asplund sets are effective tools to study differentiability of Lipschitz functions, and [epsilon]-subdifferentiability of lower semicontinuous functions on general Banach spaces. If a locally Lipschitz function defined on an Asplund generated space has a minimal Clarke subdifferential mapping, then it is -uniformly strictly differentiable on a dense G[delta] subset of X. Examples are given of locally Lipschitz functions that are -uniformly strictly differentiable everywhere, but nowhere Frechet differentiable.

  2. The G Protein-coupled Receptor P2Y14 Influences Insulin Release and Smooth Muscle Function in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Jaroslawna; Le Duc, Diana; Ricken, Albert; Burkhardt, Ralph; Thiery, Joachim; Pfannkuche, Helga; Polte, Tobias; Grosse, Johannes; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schulz, Angela

    2014-01-01

    UDP sugars were identified as extracellular signaling molecules, assigning a new function to these compounds in addition to their well defined role in intracellular substrate metabolism and storage. Previously regarded as an orphan receptor, the G protein-coupled receptor P2Y14 (GPR105) was found to bind extracellular UDP and UDP sugars. Little is known about the physiological functions of this G protein-coupled receptor. To study its physiological role, we used a gene-deficient mouse strain expressing the bacterial LacZ reporter gene to monitor the physiological expression pattern of P2Y14. We found that P2Y14 is mainly expressed in pancreas and salivary glands and in subpopulations of smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels, lung, and uterus. Among other phenotypical differences, knock-out mice showed a significantly impaired glucose tolerance following oral and intraperitoneal glucose application. An unchanged insulin tolerance suggested altered pancreatic islet function. Transcriptome analysis of pancreatic islets showed that P2Y14 deficiency significantly changed expression of components involved in insulin secretion. Insulin secretion tests revealed a reduced insulin release from P2Y14-deficient islets, highlighting P2Y14 as a new modulator of proper insulin secretion. PMID:24993824

  3. Large covariance matrices: smooth models from the two-point correlation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Ross; Eisenstein, Daniel; Vargas, Mariana; Ho, Shirley; Padmanabhan, Nikhil

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a new method for estimating the covariance matrix for the galaxy correlation function in surveys of large-scale structure. Our method combines simple theoretical results with a realistic characterization of the survey to dramatically reduce noise in the covariance matrix. For example, with an investment of only ≈1000 CPU hours we can produce a model covariance matrix with noise levels that would otherwise require ˜35 000 mocks. Non-Gaussian contributions to the model are calibrated against mock catalogues, after which the model covariance is found to be in impressive agreement with the mock covariance matrix. Since calibration of this method requires fewer mocks than brute force approaches, we believe that it could dramatically reduce the number of mocks required to analyse future surveys.

  4. Diamond Smoothing Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronov, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Diamond smoothing tools have been proposed for use in conjunction with diamond cutting tools that are used in many finish-machining operations. Diamond machining (including finishing) is often used, for example, in fabrication of precise metal mirrors. A diamond smoothing tool according to the proposal would have a smooth spherical surface. For a given finish machining operation, the smoothing tool would be mounted next to the cutting tool. The smoothing tool would slide on the machined surface left behind by the cutting tool, plastically deforming the surface material and thereby reducing the roughness of the surface, closing microcracks and otherwise generally reducing or eliminating microscopic surface and subsurface defects, and increasing the microhardness of the surface layer. It has been estimated that if smoothing tools of this type were used in conjunction with cutting tools on sufficiently precise lathes, it would be possible to reduce the roughness of machined surfaces to as little as 3 nm. A tool according to the proposal would consist of a smoothing insert in a metal holder. The smoothing insert would be made from a diamond/metal functionally graded composite rod preform, which, in turn, would be made by sintering together a bulk single-crystal or polycrystalline diamond, a diamond powder, and a metallic alloy at high pressure. To form the spherical smoothing tip, the diamond end of the preform would be subjected to flat grinding, conical grinding, spherical grinding using diamond wheels, and finally spherical polishing and/or buffing using diamond powders. If the diamond were a single crystal, then it would be crystallographically oriented, relative to the machining motion, to minimize its wear and maximize its hardness. Spherically polished diamonds could also be useful for purposes other than smoothing in finish machining: They would likely also be suitable for use as heat-resistant, wear-resistant, unlubricated sliding-fit bearing inserts.

  5. Green's Functions in Space and Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, E. G. Peter

    1979-01-01

    Gives a sketch of some topics in distribution theory that is technically simple, yet provides techniques for handling the partial differential equations satisfied by the most important Green's functions in physics. (Author/GA)

  6. Probing the Nodal Structure of Landau Level Wave Functions in Real Space.

    PubMed

    Bindel, J R; Ulrich, J; Liebmann, M; Morgenstern, M

    2017-01-06

    The inversion layer of p-InSb(110) obtained by Cs adsorption of 1.8% of a monolayer is used to probe the Landau level wave functions within smooth potential valleys by scanning tunneling spectroscopy at 14 T. The nodal structure becomes apparent as a double peak structure of each spin polarized first Landau level, while the zeroth Landau level exhibits a single peak per spin level only. The real space data show single rings of the valley-confined drift states for the zeroth Landau level and double rings for the first Landau level. The result is reproduced by a recursive Green function algorithm using the potential landscape obtained experimentally. We show that the result is generic by comparing the local density of states from the Green function algorithm with results from a well-controlled analytic model based on the guiding center approach.

  7. Probing the Nodal Structure of Landau Level Wave Functions in Real Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindel, J. R.; Ulrich, J.; Liebmann, M.; Morgenstern, M.

    2017-01-01

    The inversion layer of p -InSb (110 ) obtained by Cs adsorption of 1.8% of a monolayer is used to probe the Landau level wave functions within smooth potential valleys by scanning tunneling spectroscopy at 14 T. The nodal structure becomes apparent as a double peak structure of each spin polarized first Landau level, while the zeroth Landau level exhibits a single peak per spin level only. The real space data show single rings of the valley-confined drift states for the zeroth Landau level and double rings for the first Landau level. The result is reproduced by a recursive Green function algorithm using the potential landscape obtained experimentally. We show that the result is generic by comparing the local density of states from the Green function algorithm with results from a well-controlled analytic model based on the guiding center approach.

  8. Critical Function Models for Operation of the International Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, William Roy; Bagian, T. M.

    2000-11-01

    Long duration and exploration class space missions will place new requirements on human performance when compared to current space shuttle missions. Specifically, assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will place significant new demands on the crew. For example, maintenance of systems that provide habitability will become an ongoing activity for the international flight crews. Tasks for maintaining space station habitability will need to be integrated with tasks associated with scientific research. In addition, tasks and resources will need to be prioritized and allocated dynamically in response to changing operational conditions and unplanned system breakdowns. This paper describes an ongoing program to develop a habitability index (HI) for space operations based on the critical function approach. This pilot project focuses on adaptation of the critical function approach to develop a habitability index specifically tailored for space operations. Further work will then be needed to expand and validate the habitability index for application in the ISS operational environment.

  9. Engineering vascular tissue with functional smooth muscle cells derived from human iPS cells and nanofibrous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongyu; Hu, Jiang; Jiao, Jiao; Liu, Zhongning; Zhou, Zhou; Zhao, Chao; Chang, Lung-Ji; Chen, Y Eugene; Ma, Peter X; Yang, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) are promising in the replacement of diseased vascular tissues. However, it remains a great challenge to obtain a sufficient number of functional smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in a clinical setting to construct patient-specific TEBVs. In addition, it is critical to develop a scaffold to accommodate these cells and retain their functional phenotype for the regeneration of TEBVs. In this study, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were established from primary human aortic fibroblasts, and characterized with the pluripotency markers expression and cells' capabilities to differentiate into all three germ layer cells. A highly efficient method was then developed to induce these human iPSCs into proliferative SMCs. After multiple times of expansion, the expanded SMCs retained the potential to be induced into the functional contractile phenotype of mature SMCs, which was characterized by the contractile response to carbachol treatment, up-regulation of specific collagen genes under transforming growth factor β1 treatment, and up-regulation of specific matrix metalloproteinase genes under cytokine stimulation. We also developed an advanced macroporous and nanofibrous (NF) poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffold with suitable pore size and interpore connectivity to seed these human iPSC-derived SMCs and maintain their differentiated phenotype. Subcutaneous implantation of the SMC-scaffold construct in nude mice demonstrated vascular tissue formation, with robust collagenous matrix deposition inside the scaffold and the maintenance of differentiated SMC phenotype. Taken together, this study established an exciting approach towards the construction of patient-specific TEBVs. We established patient-specific human iPSCs, derived proliferative SMCs for expansion, turned on their mature contractile SMC phenotype, and developed an advanced scaffold for these cells to regenerate vascular tissue in vivo.

  10. Control of vascular smooth muscle function by Src-family kinases and reactive oxygen species in health and disease.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Charles E; Knock, Greg A

    2015-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are now recognised as second messenger molecules that regulate cellular function by reversibly oxidising specific amino acid residues of key target proteins. Amongst these are the Src-family kinases (SrcFKs), a multi-functional group of non-receptor tyrosine kinases highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle (VSM). In this review we examine the evidence supporting a role for ROS-induced SrcFK activity in normal VSM contractile function and in vascular remodelling in cardiovascular disease. VSM contractile responses to G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation, as well as hypoxia in pulmonary artery, are shown to be dependent on both ROS and SrcFK activity. Specific phosphorylation targets are identified amongst those that alter intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, including transient receptor potential channels, voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and various types of K(+) channels, as well as amongst those that regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics and myosin phosphatase activity, including focal adhesion kinase, protein tyrosine kinase-2, Janus kinase, other focal adhesion-associated proteins, and Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors. We also examine a growing weight of evidence in favour of a key role for SrcFKs in multiple pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic signalling pathways relating to oxidative stress and vascular remodelling, with a particular focus on pulmonary hypertension, including growth-factor receptor transactivation and downstream signalling, hypoxia-inducible factors, positive feedback between SrcFK and STAT3 signalling and positive feedback between SrcFK and NADPH oxidase dependent ROS production. We also discuss evidence for and against the potential therapeutic targeting of SrcFKs in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  11. New Insights into Mechanisms and Functions of Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Receptor 4 Heteromerization in Vascular Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Ann E.; Tripathi, Abhishek; LaPorte, Heather M.; Brueggemann, Lioubov I.; Singh, Abhay Kumar; Albee, Lauren J.; Byron, Kenneth L.; Tarasova, Nadya I.; Volkman, Brian F.; Cho, Thomas Yoonsang; Gaponenko, Vadim; Majetschak, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) heteromerizes with α1A/B-adrenoceptors (AR) and atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3) and that CXCR4:α1A/B-AR heteromers are important for α1-AR function in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Structural determinants for CXCR4 heteromerization and functional consequences of CXCR4:α1A/B-AR heteromerization in intact arteries, however, remain unknown. Utilizing proximity ligation assays (PLA) to visualize receptor interactions in VSMC, we show that peptide analogs of transmembrane-domain (TM) 2 and TM4 of CXCR4 selectively reduce PLA signals for CXCR4:α1A-AR and CXCR4:ACKR3 interactions, respectively. While both peptides inhibit CXCL12-induced chemotaxis, only the TM2 peptide inhibits phenylephrine-induced Ca2+-fluxes, contraction of VSMC and reduces efficacy of phenylephrine to constrict isolated arteries. In a Cre-loxP mouse model to delete CXCR4 in VSMC, we observed 60% knockdown of CXCR4. PLA signals for CXCR4:α1A/B-AR and CXCR4:ACKR3 interactions in VSMC, however, remained constant. Our observations point towards TM2/4 of CXCR4 as possible contact sites for heteromerization and suggest that TM-derived peptide analogs permit selective targeting of CXCR4 heteromers. A molecular dynamics simulation of a receptor complex in which the CXCR4 homodimer interacts with α1A-AR via TM2 and with ACKR3 via TM4 is presented. Our findings further imply that CXCR4:α1A-AR heteromers are important for intrinsic α1-AR function in intact arteries and provide initial and unexpected insights into the regulation of CXCR4 heteromerization in VSMC. PMID:27331810

  12. Functional changes in nonadrenergic, noncholinergic inhibitory neurons in ileal circular smooth muscle after small bowel transplantation in rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, C; Balsiger, B M; Anding, W J; Duenes, J A; Miller, V M; Sarr, M G

    1998-11-01

    This experiment was designed to determine mechanisms of change in nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) inhibitory neurons in the ileum after small bowel transplantation (SBT) in the rat and whether nitric oxide (NO) serves as an important NANC inhibitory neurotransmitter in the rat ileum. Eight groups of rats (N > or =8 rats/group) were studied: neurally intact unoperated controls; rats one week after anesthesia and sham celiotomy; and separate groups one and eight weeks after either 40 min of cold ischemia of the jejunoileum, combined jejunal and ileal intestinal transection/reanastomosis, or orthotopic SBT of the entire jejunoileum. Contractile activity was evaluated in full-thickness ileal circular muscle strips under isometric conditions. Spontaneous activity did not differ among groups. In all groups, exogenous NO, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, an NO synthase inhibitor), and methylene blue (soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor) had no effect on spontaneous activity, while 8-bromocyclic guanosine monophosphate (8Br-cGMP) inhibited contractile activity in all groups. Low frequency (2-10 Hz) electrical field stimulation (EFS) inhibited contractile activity only in control and SBT groups; L-NMMA and methylene blue did not alter the response to EFS in any group. These results suggest that each aspect of the SBT procedure, ischemia/reperfusion injury, disruption of enteric neural continuity by intestinal transection, and extrinsic denervation, alter function of enteric ileal inhibitory neurons separately early (one week) after operation. NO, a known inhibitory neurotransmitter in other gut regions, does not affect ileal circular muscle in neurally intact tissue nor mediate functional changes in inhibitory nerve function nor smooth muscle contractility after SBT.

  13. Different modes of endothelial-smooth muscle cell interaction elicit differential β-catenin phosphorylations and endothelial functions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shun-Fu; Chen, Li-Jing; Lee, Pei-Ling; Lee, Ding-Yu; Chien, Shu; Chiu, Jeng-Jiann

    2014-02-04

    β-Catenin phosphorylation plays important roles in modulating its functions, but the effects of different phosphorylated forms of β-catenin in response to heterocellular interaction are unclear. Here we investigated whether distinct modes of phosphorylation on β-catenin could be triggered through heterocellular interactions between endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and the consequent modulation of EC functions. ECs were cocultured with SMCs to initiate direct contact and paracrine interaction. EC-SMC coculture induced EC β-catenin phosphorylations simultaneously at tyrosine 142 (Tyr142) and serine 45/threonine 41 (Ser45/Thr41) at the cytoplasm/nuclei and the membrane, respectively. Treating ECs with SMC-conditional medium induced β-catenin phosphorylation only at Ser45/Thr41. These findings indicate that different phosphorylation effects of EC-SMC coculture were induced through heterocellular direct contact and paracrine effects, respectively. Using specific blocking peptides, antagonists, and siRNAs, we found that the β-catenin Tyr142-phosphorylation was mediated by connexin 43/Fer and that the β-catenin Ser45/Thr41-phosphorylation was mediated by SMC-released bone morphogenetic proteins through VE-cadherin and bone morphogenetic protein receptor-II/Smad5. Transfecting ECs with β-catenin-Tyr142 or -Ser45 mutants showed that these two phosphorylated forms of β-catenin modulate differential EC function: The Tyr142-phosphorylated β-catenin stimulates vascular cell-adhesion molecule-1 expression to increase EC-monocytic adhesion, but the Ser45/Thr41-phosphorylated β-catenin attenuates VE-cadherin-dependent junction structures to increase EC permeability. Our findings provide new insights into the understanding of regulatory complexities of distinct modes of β-catenin phosphorylations under EC-SMC interactions and suggest that different phosphorylated forms of β-catenin play important roles in modulating vascular pathophysiology

  14. Kernel-Smoothing Estimation of Item Characteristic Functions for Continuous Personality Items: An Empirical Comparison with the Linear and the Continuous-Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2004-01-01

    This study used kernel-smoothing procedures to estimate the item characteristic functions (ICFs) of a set of continuous personality items. The nonparametric ICFs were compared with the ICFs estimated (a) by the linear model and (b) by Samejima's continuous-response model. The study was based on a conditioned approach and used an error-in-variables…

  15. Smooth Sailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Beverley; Pincott, Maxine; Rebman, Ashley; Northcutt, Jen; Barsanti, Amy; Silkunas, Betty; Brighton, Susan K.; Reitz, David; Winkler, Maureen

    1999-01-01

    Presents discipline tips from several teachers to keep classrooms running smoothly all year. Some of the suggestions include the following: a bear-cave warning system, peer mediation, a motivational mystery, problem students acting as the teacher's assistant, a positive-behavior-reward chain, a hallway scavenger hunt (to ensure quiet passage…

  16. Biscalar and Bivector Green's Functions in de Sitter Space Time

    PubMed Central

    Narlikar, J. V.

    1970-01-01

    Biscalar and bivector Green's functions of wave equations are calculated explicitly in de Sitter space time. The calculation is performed by considering the electromagnetic field generated by the spontaneous creation of an electric charge. PMID:16591816

  17. Lymphocyte Functions in Space - Related Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risin, D.; Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N. R.; Davson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that modeled (MMG) and true (STS-54 and STS-56) microgravity (MG) inhibit human lymphocyte locomotion. MMG also suppresses polyclonal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation. Analysis of the relationship between activation deficits and the loss of locomotion in MG suggested a fundamental defect in signal transduction mechanism localized either at the PKC level or upstream at the cell membrane. FACS analysis of the expression of PKC isoforms in PBMC revealed that MMG selectively inhibits the PKC isoforms expression. The decrease was most prominent in PKC epsilon, less obvious in PKC delta and almost marginal and insignificant in PKC alpha. Western blot analysis confirmed these results (PKC epsilon protein expression was downregulated at 24, 72 and 96 hours in MG). We also found a decrease in PKC epsilon mRNA expression. MMG inhibited programmed cell death (PCD) in lymphocytes. Inhibition was observed in two types of experiments: 1) when PCD was induced by gamma-radiation of PBMC, and 2) when PCD in activated T cells was triggered by PHA-M or PMA + ionomycin restimulation. The established direct effects of MG on signal transduction mechanisms as well as on PCD in lymphocytes could contribute to the impairment of the immunity in space.

  18. Towards a theory of BV functions in abstract Wiener spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosio, Luigi; Miranda, Michele; Maniglia, Stefania; Pallara, Diego

    2010-08-01

    Functions of bounded variation in an abstract Wiener space, i.e., an infinite dimensional Banach space endowed with a Gaussian measure and a related differentiable structure, have been introduced by M. Fukushima and M. Hino using Dirichlet forms, and their properties have been studied with tools from stochastics. In this paper we reformulate, with purely analytical tools, the definition and the main properties of BV functions, and start investigating further properties.

  19. Wigner function and Schroedinger equation in phase-space representation

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Mlodawski, Krzysztof

    2005-05-15

    We discuss a family of quasidistributions (s-ordered Wigner functions of Agarwal and Wolf [Phys. Rev. D 2, 2161 (1970); Phys. Rev. D 2, 2187 (1970); Phys. Rev. D 2, 2206 (1970)]) and its connection to the so-called phase space representation of the Schroedinger equation. It turns out that although Wigner functions satisfy the Schroedinger equation in phase space, they have a completely different interpretation.

  20. Vestibular function in the space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Baumgarten, R. J.; Harth, O.; Thuemler, R.; Baldrighi, G.; Shillinger, G. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The present work presents new results about the interdependence of optical illusory sensations and eye movements in man. To establish to what degree certain illusions previously obtained during centrifugation and parabolic flight can be explained by eye movements and by neuronal integration in the brain, real eye movements were measured as they occurred in the dark without optical fixation, during rectilinear accelerations on the ground, and during weightlessness in parabolic flight. Results provide valuable insight into normal vestibular function as well as resolution of within-the-eye and behind-the-eye contributions to the above illusions.

  1. Identification, characterization and functional analysis of regulatory region of nanos gene from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinqiang; Li, Yongjuan; Shao, Changwei; Wang, Na; Chen, Songlin

    2017-03-25

    The nanos gene encodes an RNA-binding zinc finger protein, which is required in the development and maintenance of germ cells. However, there is very limited information about nanos in flatfish, which impedes its application in fish breeding. In this study, we report the molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis of the 3'-untranslated region of the nanos gene (Csnanos) from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), which is an economically important flatfish in China. The 1233-bp cDNA sequence, 1709-bp genomic sequence and flanking sequences (2.8-kb 5'- and 1.6-kb 3'-flanking regions) of Csnanos were cloned and characterized. Sequence analysis revealed that CsNanos shares low homology with Nanos in other species, but the zinc finger domain of CsNanos is highly similar. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CsNanos belongs to the Nanos2 subfamily. Csnanos expression was widely detected in various tissues, but the expression level was higher in testis and ovary. During early development and sex differentiation, Csnanos expression exhibited a clear sexually dimorphic pattern, suggesting its different roles in the migration and differentiation of primordial germ cells (PGCs). Higher expression levels of Csnanos mRNA in normal females and males than in neomales indicated that the nanos gene may play key roles in maintaining the differentiation of gonad. Moreover, medaka PGCs were successfully labeled by the microinjection of synthesized mRNA consisting of green fluorescence protein and the 3'-untranslated region of Csnanos. These findings provide new insights into nanos gene expression and function, and lay the foundation for further study of PGC development and applications in tongue sole breeding.

  2. Analysis of SM22alpha-deficient mice reveals unanticipated insights into smooth muscle cell differentiation and function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J C; Kim, S; Helmke, B P; Yu, W W; Du, K L; Lu, M M; Strobeck, M; Yu, Q; Parmacek, M S

    2001-02-01

    SM22alpha is a 22-kDa smooth muscle cell (SMC) lineage-restricted protein that physically associates with cytoskeletal actin filament bundles in contractile SMCs. To examine the function of SM22alpha, gene targeting was used to generate SM22alpha-deficient (SM22(-/-LacZ)) mice. The gene targeting strategy employed resulted in insertion of the bacterial lacZ reporter gene at the SM22alpha initiation codon, permitting precise analysis of the temporal and spatial pattern of SM22alpha transcriptional activation in the developing mouse. Northern and Western blot analyses confirmed that the gene targeting strategy resulted in a null mutation. Histological analysis of SM22(+/-LacZ) embryos revealed detectable beta-galactosidase activity in the unturned embryonic day 8.0 embryo in the layer of cells surrounding the paired dorsal aortae concomitant with its expression in the primitive heart tube, cephalic mesenchyme, and yolk sac vasculature. Subsequently, during postnatal development, beta-galactosidase activity was observed exclusively in arterial, venous, and visceral SMCs. SM22alpha-deficient mice are viable and fertile. Their blood pressure and heart rate do not differ significantly from their control SM22alpha(+/-) and SM22alpha(+/+) littermates. The vasculature and SMC-containing tissues of SM22alpha-deficient mice develop normally and appear to be histologically and ultrastructurally similar to those of their control littermates. Taken together, these data demonstrate that SM22alpha is not required for basal homeostatic functions mediated by vascular and visceral SMCs in the developing mouse. These data also suggest that signaling pathways that regulate SMC specification and differentiation from local mesenchyme are activated earlier in the angiogenic program than previously recognized.

  3. Local Function Conservation in Sequence and Structure Space

    PubMed Central

    Weinhold, Nils; Sander, Oliver; Domingues, Francisco S.; Lengauer, Thomas; Sommer, Ingolf

    2008-01-01

    We assess the variability of protein function in protein sequence and structure space. Various regions in this space exhibit considerable difference in the local conservation of molecular function. We analyze and capture local function conservation by means of logistic curves. Based on this analysis, we propose a method for predicting molecular function of a query protein with known structure but unknown function. The prediction method is rigorously assessed and compared with a previously published function predictor. Furthermore, we apply the method to 500 functionally unannotated PDB structures and discuss selected examples. The proposed approach provides a simple yet consistent statistical model for the complex relations between protein sequence, structure, and function. The GOdot method is available online (http://godot.bioinf.mpi-inf.mpg.de). PMID:18604264

  4. Local function conservation in sequence and structure space.

    PubMed

    Weinhold, Nils; Sander, Oliver; Domingues, Francisco S; Lengauer, Thomas; Sommer, Ingolf

    2008-07-04

    We assess the variability of protein function in protein sequence and structure space. Various regions in this space exhibit considerable difference in the local conservation of molecular function. We analyze and capture local function conservation by means of logistic curves. Based on this analysis, we propose a method for predicting molecular function of a query protein with known structure but unknown function. The prediction method is rigorously assessed and compared with a previously published function predictor. Furthermore, we apply the method to 500 functionally unannotated PDB structures and discuss selected examples. The proposed approach provides a simple yet consistent statistical model for the complex relations between protein sequence, structure, and function. The GOdot method is available online (http://godot.bioinf.mpi-inf.mpg.de).

  5. Nonequilibrium flows with smooth particle applied mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Kum, Oyeon

    1995-07-01

    Smooth particle methods are relatively new methods for simulating solid and fluid flows through they have a 20-year history of solving complex hydrodynamic problems in astrophysics, such as colliding planets and stars, for which correct answers are unknown. The results presented in this thesis evaluate the adaptability or fitness of the method for typical hydrocode production problems. For finite hydrodynamic systems, boundary conditions are important. A reflective boundary condition with image particles is a good way to prevent a density anomaly at the boundary and to keep the fluxes continuous there. Boundary values of temperature and velocity can be separately controlled. The gradient algorithm, based on differentiating the smooth particle expression for (uρ) and (Tρ), does not show numerical instabilities for the stress tensor and heat flux vector quantities which require second derivatives in space when Fourier`s heat-flow law and Newton`s viscous force law are used. Smooth particle methods show an interesting parallel linking to them to molecular dynamics. For the inviscid Euler equation, with an isentropic ideal gas equation of state, the smooth particle algorithm generates trajectories isomorphic to those generated by molecular dynamics. The shear moduli were evaluated based on molecular dynamics calculations for the three weighting functions, B spline, Lucy, and Cusp functions. The accuracy and applicability of the methods were estimated by comparing a set of smooth particle Rayleigh-Benard problems, all in the laminar regime, to corresponding highly-accurate grid-based numerical solutions of continuum equations. Both transient and stationary smooth particle solutions reproduce the grid-based data with velocity errors on the order of 5%. The smooth particle method still provides robust solutions at high Rayleigh number where grid-based methods fails.

  6. Restoration of noisy blurred images by a smoothing spline filter.

    PubMed

    Peyrovian, M J; Sawchuk, A A

    1977-12-01

    For the restoration of noisy blurred images, a controllable smoothing criterion based on the locally variable statistics and minimization of the second derivative is defined, and the corresponding filter, applicable to both space-variant and space-invariant degradations, is obtained. The output of this filter is a cubic spline function. The parameters of the filter determine the local smoothing window and over-all extent of smoothing, and thus the tradeoff between resolution and smoothing is controllable in a spatially nonstationary manner. The interesting properties of this filter have made it capable of restoring signal-dependent noisy images, and it has been successfully applied for filtering images degraded by film-grain noise. Since the matrices of this filter are banded circulant or Toeplitz, efficient algorithms are used for matrix manipulations.

  7. Quark mass functions and pion structure in Minkowski space

    SciTech Connect

    Biernat, Elmer P.; Gross, Franz L.; Pena, Maria Teresa; Stadler, Alfred

    2014-03-01

    We present a study of the dressed quark mass function and the pion structure in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST). The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. We use an interaction kernel in momentum space that is a relativistic generalization of the linear confining q-qbar potential and a constant potential shift that defines the energy scale. The confining interaction has a Lorentz scalar part that is not chirally invariant by itself but decouples from the equations in the chiral limit and therefore allows the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism to work. We adjust the parameters of our quark mass function calculated in Minkowski-space to agree with LQCD data obtained in Euclidean space. Results of a calculation of the pion electromagnetic form factor in the relativistic impulse approximation using the same mass function are presented and compared with experimental data.

  8. BP and Vascular Function Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Chapman, Justin; Xue, Hong; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Roullet, Jean-Baptiste; Phanouvong, Thongchanh; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Otsuka, Keiichi; McCarron, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Blood pressure and mesenteric resistance artery function were assessed in 9-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats following an 18 day shuttle flight on STS-80. Blood pressure was measured twice, first in conscious animals using a tail-cuff method and then while the animals were anesthetized with 2% halothane in O2. Isolated mesenteric resistance artery responses to cumulative additions of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and calcium were measured within 17 hours of landing using wire myography. Blood pressure was slightly reduced in conscious animals following flight (p=0.056) but was significantly elevated (p less than.001) above vivarium control group values in anesthetized animals. Maximal contraction of mesenteric arteries to norepinephrine was attenuated in the flight animals (p less than.001)aswasrelaxationtoacetylcholine(p less than .001)andcalcium(p less than .05). There was no difference between flight and control animals in the vessel response to sodium nitroprusside (p greater than .05). The results suggest that there may have been an increase in synthesis and release of nitric oxide in the flight animals.

  9. Cooperation between the two heads of smooth muscle myosin is essential for full activation of the motor function by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rong-Na; Mabuchi, Katsuhide; Li, Jing; Lu, Zekuan; Wang, Chih-Lueh Albert; Li, Xiang-dong

    2013-09-10

    The motor function of smooth muscle myosin (SmM) is regulated by phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) bound to the neck region of the SmM heavy chain. It is generally accepted that unphosphorylated RLC induces interactions between the two heads and between the head and the tail, thus inhibiting the motor activity of SmM, whereas phosphorylation of RLC interrupts those interactions, thus reversing the inhibition and restoring the motor activity to the maximal value. One assumption of this model is that single-headed SmM is fully active regardless of phosphorylation. To re-evaluate this model, we produced a number of SmM constructs with coiled coils of various lengths and examined their structure and regulation. With these constructs we identified the segment in the coiled-coil key for the formation of a stable double-headed structure. In agreement with the current model, we found that the actin-activated ATPase activity of unphosphorylated SmM increased with shortening of the coiled-coil. However, contrary to the current model, we found that the actin-activated ATPase activity of phosphorylated SmM decreased with shortening coiled-coil and only the stable double-headed SmM was fully activated by phosphorylation. These results indicate that single-headed SmM is neither fully active nor fully inhibited. Based on our findings, we propose that cooperation between the two heads is essential, not only for the inhibition of unphosphorylated SmM, but also for the activation of phosphorylated SmM.

  10. Two Figla homologues have disparate functions during sex differentiation in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hailong; Xu, Wenteng; Zhang, Ning; Shao, Changwei; Zhu, Ying; Dong, Zhongdian; Wang, Na; Jia, Xiaodong; Xu, Hao; Chen, Songlin

    2016-01-01

    Figla is a germ-cell-specific transcription factor associated with ovary development and differentiation. In vertebrates, one transcriptional form of Figla is commonly found. However, besides the common form of this gene (named Figla_tv1), a new transcriptional form (named Figla_tv2) was identified in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). The full-length cDNA of Figla_tv1 was 1057 bp long with a 591-bp open reading frame encoding a predicted 196 amino acid protein, while Figla_tv2 encoded a 125 amino acid protein. Figla_tv1 and Figla_tv2 expression in various tissues was detected by qRT-PCR. Figla_tv1 was expressed mainly in ovary, skin and liver, while Figla_tv2 was expressed in all examined tissues. In the gonads, Figla_tv1 was expressed in ovary, while Figla_tv2 was predominately expressed in testis of pseudomales. Further, in situ hybridization located Figla_tv1 only in oocytes and Figla_tv2 mainly in germ cells of pseudomale testis. After knocking down Figla_tv2 in a pseudomale testis cell line, the expression of two steroid hormone-encoding genes, StAR and P450scc, was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that Figla_tv1 has a conserved function in folliculogenesis, as in other vertebrates, and that Figla_tv2 may have a role in the spermatogenesis of pseudomales by regulating the synthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones. PMID:27313147

  11. Communication: Smoothing out excited-state dynamics: Analytical gradients for dynamically weighted complete active space self-consistent field

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, W. J.

    2014-11-07

    State averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) is a workhorse for determining the excited-state electronic structure of molecules, particularly for states with multireference character; however, the method suffers from known issues that have prevented its wider adoption. One issue is the presence of discontinuities in potential energy surfaces when a state that is not included in the state averaging crosses with one that is. In this communication I introduce a new dynamical weight with spline (DWS) scheme that mimics SA-CASSCF while removing energy discontinuities due to unweighted state crossings. In addition, analytical gradients for DWS-CASSCF (and other dynamically weighted schemes) are derived for the first time, enabling energy-conserving excited-state ab initio molecular dynamics in instances where SA-CASSCF fails.

  12. Boundedness of generalized Cesaro averaging operators on certain function spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, M. R.; Howlett, P. G.; Lucas, S. K.; Naik, S.; Ponnusamy, S.

    2005-08-01

    We define a two-parameter family of Cesaro averaging operators , where , is analytic on the unit disc [Delta], and F(a,b;c;z) is the classical hypergeometric function. In the present article the boundedness of , , on various function spaces such as Hardy, BMOA and a-Bloch spaces is proved. In the special case b=1+[alpha] and c=1, becomes the [alpha]-Cesaro operator , . Thus, our results connect the special functions in a natural way and extend and improve several well-known results of Hardy-Littlewood, Miao, Stempak and Xiao.

  13. Physiological principles of vestibular function on earth and in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, L. B.

    1998-01-01

    Physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular function have important implications for our ability to understand, predict, and modify balance processes during and after spaceflight. The microgravity environment of space provides many unique opportunities for studying the effects of changes in gravitoinertial force on structure and function of the vestibular system. Investigations of basic vestibular physiology and of changes in reflexes occurring as a consequence of exposure to microgravity have important implications for diagnosis and treatment of vestibular disorders in human beings. This report reviews physiological principles underlying control of vestibular processes on earth and in space. Information is presented from a functional perspective with emphasis on signals arising from labyrinthine receptors. Changes induced by microgravity in linear acceleration detected by the vestibulo-ocular reflexes. Alterations of the functional requirements for postural control in space are described. Areas of direct correlation between studies of vestibular reflexes in microgravity and vestibular disorders in human beings are discussed.

  14. Functional expression of smooth muscle-specific ion channels in TGF-β1-treated human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Won Sun; Heo, Soon Chul; Jeon, Eun Su; Hong, Da Hye; Son, Youn Kyoung; Ko, Jae-Hong; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Jae Ho

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) have the power to differentiate into various cell types including chondrocytes, osteocytes, adipocytes, neurons, cardiomyocytes, and smooth muscle cells. We characterized the functional expression of ion channels after transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced differentiation of hASCs, providing insights into the differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. The treatment of hASCs with TGF-β1 dramatically increased the contraction of a collagen-gel lattice and the expression levels of specific genes for smooth muscle including α-smooth muscle actin, calponin, smooth mucle-myosin heavy chain, smoothelin-B, myocardin, and h-caldesmon. We observed Ca2+, big-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa), and voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) currents in TGF-β1-induced, differentiated hASCs and not in undifferentiated hASCs. The currents share the characteristics of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed that the L-type (Cav1.2) and T-type (Cav3.1, 3.2, and 3.3), known to be expressed in vascular SMCs, dramatically increased along with the Cavβ1 and Cavβ3 subtypes in TGF-β1-induced, differentiated hASCs. Although the expression-level changes of the β-subtype BKCa channels varied, the major α-subtype BKCa channel (KCa1.1) clearly increased in the TGF-β1-induced, differentiated hASCs. Most of the Kv subtypes, also known to be expressed in vascular SMCs, dramatically increased in the TGF-β1-induced, differentiated hASCs. Our results suggest that TGF-β1 induces the increased expression of vascular SMC-like ion channels and the differentiation of hASCs into contractile vascular SMCs. PMID:23761629

  15. Functional expression of smooth muscle-specific ion channels in TGF-β(1)-treated human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Won Sun; Heo, Soon Chul; Jeon, Eun Su; Hong, Da Hye; Son, Youn Kyoung; Ko, Jae-Hong; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Jae Ho; Han, Jin

    2013-08-15

    Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) have the power to differentiate into various cell types including chondrocytes, osteocytes, adipocytes, neurons, cardiomyocytes, and smooth muscle cells. We characterized the functional expression of ion channels after transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced differentiation of hASCs, providing insights into the differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. The treatment of hASCs with TGF-β1 dramatically increased the contraction of a collagen-gel lattice and the expression levels of specific genes for smooth muscle including α-smooth muscle actin, calponin, smooth mucle-myosin heavy chain, smoothelin-B, myocardin, and h-caldesmon. We observed Ca(2+), big-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BKCa), and voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) currents in TGF-β1-induced, differentiated hASCs and not in undifferentiated hASCs. The currents share the characteristics of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed that the L-type (Cav1.2) and T-type (Cav3.1, 3.2, and 3.3), known to be expressed in vascular SMCs, dramatically increased along with the Cavβ1 and Cavβ3 subtypes in TGF-β1-induced, differentiated hASCs. Although the expression-level changes of the β-subtype BKCa channels varied, the major α-subtype BKCa channel (KCa1.1) clearly increased in the TGF-β1-induced, differentiated hASCs. Most of the Kv subtypes, also known to be expressed in vascular SMCs, dramatically increased in the TGF-β1-induced, differentiated hASCs. Our results suggest that TGF-β1 induces the increased expression of vascular SMC-like ion channels and the differentiation of hASCs into contractile vascular SMCs.

  16. Re-Identification in the Function Space of Feature Warps.

    PubMed

    Martinel, Niki; Das, Abir; Micheloni, Christian; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2015-08-01

    Person re-identification in a non-overlapping multicamera scenario is an open challenge in computer vision because of the large changes in appearances caused by variations in viewing angle, lighting, background clutter, and occlusion over multiple cameras. As a result of these variations, features describing the same person get transformed between cameras. To model the transformation of features, the feature space is nonlinearly warped to get the "warp functions". The warp functions between two instances of the same target form the set of feasible warp functions while those between instances of different targets form the set of infeasible warp functions. In this work, we build upon the observation that feature transformations between cameras lie in a nonlinear function space of all possible feature transformations. The space consisting of all the feasible and infeasible warp functions is the warp function space (WFS). We propose to learn a discriminating surface separating these two sets of warp functions in the WFS and to re-identify persons by classifying a test warp function as feasible or infeasible. Towards this objective, a Random Forest (RF) classifier is employed which effectively chooses the warp function components according to their importance in separating the feasible and the infeasible warp functions in the WFS. Extensive experiments on five datasets are carried out to show the superior performance of the proposed approach over state-of-the-art person re-identification methods. We show that our approach outperforms all other methods when large illumination variations are considered. At the same time it has been shown that our method reaches the best average performance over multiple combinations of the datasets, thus, showing that our method is not designed only to address a specific challenge posed by a particular dataset.

  17. Spaces of Analytic Functions of Prescribed Growth Near the Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napalkov, V. V.

    1988-04-01

    Let D be an arbitrary bounded convex domain in the plane \\mathbf C. For a certain sequence of convex functions \\varphi=\\{\\varphi_j\\}_{j=1}^\\infty, \\varphi_j(z)\\geqslant\\varphi_{j+1}(z), given on D the space H_\\varphi (D) is constructed as the projective limit of the normed spaces \\displaystyle H_j(D)=\\{f(z)\\in H(D):\\Vert f\\Vert _j=\\sup_D\\vert f(z)\\vert\\exp{(-\\varphi_j(z))}<\\infty\\},\\qquad j=1,2,\\dots, where H(D) is the space of analytic functions on D. The space H_\\varphi^*(D) is described in terms of Laplace transforms. A special role in this description is played by a generalization, proved in the article, of the Paley-Wiener theorem to the case of spaces of infinitely differentiable functions with prescribed growth near the boundary. The result is used in questions involving expansions of functions in Dirichlet series. Figures: 1. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  18. Smoothly deformed light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenholm, Stig

    1993-01-01

    A single mode cavity is deformed smoothly to change its electromagnetic eigenfrequency. The system is modeled as a simple harmonic oscillator with a varying period. The Wigner function of the problem is obtained exactly by starting with a squeezed initial state. The result is evaluated for a linear change of the cavity length. The approach to the adiabatic limit is investigated. The maximum squeezing is found to occur for smooth change lasting only a fraction of the oscillational period. However, only a factor of two improvement over the adiabatic result proves to be possible. The sudden limit cannot be investigated meaningfully within the model.

  19. State estimation of a compound non-smooth sandwich system with backlash and dead zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zupeng; Tan, Yonghong; Xie, Yangqiu; Dong, Ruili

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel switching non-smooth observer is proposed to deal with the state estimation of compound non-smooth sandwich system with backlash and dead zone. Based on the characteristic of the system, two separate non-smooth state-space functions are constructed to describe the input-output relationships of backlash. Then, a Luenberger-type non-smooth observer is developed based on the two separate non-smooth state-space functions and the backlash and dead zone input output functions. The observer can switch among the different operating zones automatically in terms of the change of real operation conditions. The observability of the system has been analyzed and the convergence of the switching compound non-smooth observer has been verified. Finally motor servo hydraulic systems which can be represented as a compound non-smooth sandwich system have been studied as an application case. The comparisons between the proposed non-smooth scheme and the conventional method are illustrated. It is demonstrated that the proposed non-smooth approach can achieve much better performance in the aspects of state estimation accuracy and state estimation convergence speed than the conventional one.

  20. Functional differences of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger expression in Ca2+ transport system of smooth muscle of guinea pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yasushi; Kinoshita, Hiroki; Saitou, Keiichirou; Homma, Ikuo; Nobe, Koji; Iwamoto, Takahiro

    2005-01-01

    The plasma membrane ATP-dependent Ca2+ pump and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) are the major means of Ca2+ extrusion in smooth muscle. However, little is known regarding distribution and function of the NCX in guinea pig gastric smooth muscle. The expression pattern and distribution of NCX isoforms suggest a role as a regulator of Ca2+ transport in cells. Na+ pump inhibition and the consequent to removal of K+ caused gradual contraction in fundus. In contrast, the response was significantly less in antrum. Western blotting analysis revealed that NCX1 and NCX2 are the predominant NCX isoforms expressed in stomach, the former was expressed strongly in antrum, whereas the latter displayed greater expression in fundus. Isolated plasma membrane fractions derived from gastric fundus smooth muscle were also investigated to clarify the relationship between NCX protein expression and function. Na+-dependent Ca2+ uptake increased directly with Ca2+ concentration. Ca2+ uptake in Na+-loaded vesicles was markedly elevated in comparison with K+-loaded vesicles. Additionally, Ca2+ uptake by the Na+- or K+-loaded vesicles was substantially higher in the presence of A23187 than in its absence. The result can be explained based on the assumption that Na+ gradients facilitate downhill movement of Ca2+. Na+-dependent Ca2+ uptake was abolished by the monovalent cationic ionophore, monensin. NaCl enhanced Ca2+ efflux from vesicles, and this efflux was significantly inhibited by gramicidin. Results documented evidence that NCX2 isoform functionally contributes to Ca2+ extrusion and maintenance of contraction-relaxation cycle in gastric fundus smooth muscle.

  1. Relaxation of tracheal smooth muscle independent on functional epithelium cells induced by lidocaine, bupivacaine and isomers in rats.

    PubMed

    Lautner, Roberto Q; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Sudo, Roberto T

    2009-05-21

    Lidocaine is a local anesthetic which has been used to protect spasm reaction during tracheal intubation and bronchoscopy. We compared the potency of lidocaine, bupivacaine (RS(+/-)-bupivacaine) and isomers (S(-)-bupivacaine and R(+)-bupivacaine) to promote relaxation of tracheal smooth muscle. Relaxation of airways smooth muscle can be dependent on the release of relaxing factors by epithelium such as prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO). Possible mechanisms involved in the tracheal smooth muscle relaxation induced by these local anesthetics were evaluated in preparation in which the epithelium layer was intact or denuded. Bupivacaine and its isomers were approximately six to eleven-fold more potent than lidocaine to promote relaxation on acetylcholine-induced contraction in tracheal rings. The concentration of lidocaine, RS(+/-)-bupivacaine, S(-)-bupivacaine and R(+)-bupivacaine necessary to produce a 50% reduction of maximal contraction to acetylcholine (IC(50)) in tracheal rings with intact epithelium was 1.25+/-0.01, 0.11+/-0.01, 0.15+/-0.01, 0.19+/-0.01 mM, respectively. Removal of epithelium or exposure to N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, indomethacin did not alter the IC(50). However, calcium influx of depolarized tracheal smooth muscle was inhibited by lidocaine, bupivacaine and isomers. S(-)-bupivacaine reduced by 78.8+/-7.4% the calcium influx followed by RS(+/-)-bupivacaine (41.8+/-6.7%) and R(+)-bupivacaine (25.6+/-9.5%). In conclusion, local anesthetic action was stereoselective and partially dependent on blockade of Ca(2+) influx to muscular cells. The isomer S(-)-bupivacaine is more potent and less toxic which could represent a valuable clinical advantage to use as broncholitic agent.

  2. Constancy in Functional Space across a Species Richness Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D; Mao, Lingfeng; Normand, Signe; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Lin, Luxiang; Cao, Min; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between large-scale gradients in species richness and functional diversity provides important information regarding the mechanisms driving patterns of biodiversity. A classic hypothesis in ecology is that strong interspecific interactions should result in an increase in the functional volume of assemblages as the species richness increases, whereas climatic constraints may result in no change in functional volume. Most research of this kind examines latitudinal gradients in species richness, but the results are likely confounded by underlying gradients in climate and phylogenetic composition. We take an alternative approach that examines functional richness across a tree species richness anomaly where species richness doubles from Europe to eastern North America. The results demonstrate that the functional richness on both continents saturates at a similar point as species richness increases and that the packing of functional space becomes tighter. Further, the species richness anomaly is driven primarily by genera unique to North America, but those genera contribute less than expected functional richness to the region, indicating a high level of redundancy with genera shared between the continents. Taken together, the results indicate that the species richness anomaly is associated with diversification within a climatically constrained trait space. More generally, the work demonstrates the power of utilizing species richness anomalies in biodiversity research, particularly when they are coupled with information regarding organismal function.

  3. Changes of phasic and tonic smooth muscle function of jejunum in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing-Bo; Chen, Peng-Min; Gregersen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To generate phasic and tonic stress-strain curves for evaluation of intestinal smooth muscle function in type 2 diabetic rats during active and passive conditions. METHODS: Seven diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) male rats, 32-wk old (GK group), and 9 age-matched normal Wistar rats (Normal group) were included in the study. Jejunal segments were distended up to a pressure of 10 cm H2O in an organ bath containing 37 °C Krebs solution with addition of carbachol (CA). The pressure and outer diameter changes were synchronously recorded. Passive conditions were obtained using calcium-free Krebs solution containing ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid and papaverine. Total phasic, tonic and passive circumferential stress and strain were computed from the diameter and pressure data with reference to the zero-stress state geometry. The active phasic and tonic stresses were defined as the total phasic and tonic stresses minus the passive stress. RESULTS: Diabetes increased jejunal mucosa and muscle layer thicknesses compared to the Normal group (mucosa, 755.8 ± 63.3 vs 633.1 ± 59.1 μm, P < 0.01; muscle, 106.3 ± 12.9 vs 85.2 ± 11.7 μm, P < 0.05). The pressure and stress thresholds were decreased in the GK group after CA application compared to distensions without CA application (pressure, 1.01 ± 0.07 vs 1.99 ± 0.19 cmH2O, P < 0.01; stress, 0.11 ± 0.01 vs 0.24 ± 0.02 kPa, P < 0.01). CA application did not change the pressure and stress threshold in the Normal group (pressure, 2.13 ± 0.32 vs 2.34 ± 0.32 cm H2O, P > 0.05; stress, 0.25 ± 0.03 vs 0.35 ± 0.06 kPa, P > 0.05). The amplitude of total phasic, total tonic, active phasic and active tonic circumferential stresses did not differ for the distensions without CA application between the GK group and the Normal group. However, the total phasic and total tonic stresses increased after CA application in the GK group compared those in the Normal group. When normalized to muscle layer thickness, the amplitude of active

  4. History of fluid balance and kidney function in space.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Christian; Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G

    2004-01-01

    During the last four decades, about 400 people have been in Space, since Yuri Gagarin was sent in 1961 as the first human into Earth orbit. From the very beginning, the circulatory system of astronauts (meaning heart, vascular system, body fluid distribution and balance, and the kidney) was central to the medical concerns of Space physiologists and physicians because of its gravity-dependence. The present manuscript puts emphasize on some key scientists who worked in the field of body fluid regulation and kidney function in the USA, in Russia and in Europe during recent decades. The manuscript in particular summarizes the outcome of this research and describes the present understanding of how the body fluid regulatory system adapts to the extreme environment of Space.

  5. [BEHAVIOURAL AND FUNCTIONAL VESTIBULAR DISTURBANCES AFTER SPACE FLIGHT. 1. MAMMALS].

    PubMed

    Lychakov, D V

    2015-01-01

    The review contains data on functional changes in mammals caused by changes in the operation of vestibular system after space flight. These data show that the vestibular system of mammals responds to weightlessness challenge differently at various ontogenetic stages. Orbital space flight conditions have a weak effect on the developing vestibular system during embryonic period. The weightlessness conditions have rather beneficial effect on development of the fetuses. During the early postnatal period, when optimal sensory-motor tactics are created, the prolonged stay under conditions of space flight leads to development of novel, "extraterrestrial" sensory-motor programs that can be fixed in CNS, apparently, for the whole life. In adult individuals after landing essential vestibular changes and disturbances may occur that depend on the spaceflight duration. The adult organism must simultaneously solve two contradicting problems--it should adapt to weightlessness conditions, and should not adapt to them to pass the process of readaptation after returning easier. Thus, individuals must protect themselves against weightlessness influence to keep the intact initial state of health. The protection methods against weightlessness ought to be adjusted according to the duration of space flight. It should be mentioned that not all functional changes registered in adult individuals after landing can be adequately explained. Some of these changes may have chronic or even pathological character. The question of necessity to examine the influence of weightlessness on an aging (senile) organism and on its vestibular system is raised for the first time in this review. In our opinion the development of space gerontology, as a special branch of space biology and medicine, is of undoubted interest, and in the future it may be of practical importance especially taking into account the steadily growing age of cosmonauts (astronauts).

  6. Abstracting Attribute Space for Transfer Function Exploration and Design.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Ross; Jang, Yun; Woo, Insoo; Jänicke, Heike; Gaither, Kelly P; Ebert, David S

    2013-01-01

    Currently, user centered transfer function design begins with the user interacting with a one or two-dimensional histogram of the volumetric attribute space. The attribute space is visualized as a function of the number of voxels, allowing the user to explore the data in terms of the attribute size/magnitude. However, such visualizations provide the user with no information on the relationship between various attribute spaces (e.g., density, temperature, pressure, x, y, z) within the multivariate data. In this work, we propose a modification to the attribute space visualization in which the user is no longer presented with the magnitude of the attribute; instead, the user is presented with an information metric detailing the relationship between attributes of the multivariate volumetric data. In this way, the user can guide their exploration based on the relationship between the attribute magnitude and user selected attribute information as opposed to being constrained by only visualizing the magnitude of the attribute. We refer to this modification to the traditional histogram widget as an abstract attribute space representation. Our system utilizes common one and two-dimensional histogram widgets where the bins of the abstract attribute space now correspond to an attribute relationship in terms of the mean, standard deviation, entropy, or skewness. In this manner, we exploit the relationships and correlations present in the underlying data with respect to the dimension(s) under examination. These relationships are often times key to insight and allow us to guide attribute discovery as opposed to automatic extraction schemes which try to calculate and extract distinct attributes a priori. In this way, our system aids in the knowledge discovery of the interaction of properties within volumetric data.

  7. Determinantal Point Processes Associated with Hilbert Spaces of Holomorphic Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufetov, Alexander I.; Qiu, Yanqi

    2017-04-01

    We study determinantal point processes on C induced by the reproducing kernels of generalized Fock spaces as well as those on the unit disc D induced by the reproducing kernels of generalized Bergman spaces. In the first case, we show that all reduced Palm measures of the same order are equivalent. The Radon-Nikodym derivatives are computed explicitly using regularized multiplicative functionals. We also show that these determinantal point processes are rigid in the sense of Ghosh and Peres, hence reduced Palm measures of different orders are singular. In the second case, we show that all reduced Palm measures, of all orders, are equivalent. The Radon-Nikodym derivatives are computed using regularized multiplicative functionals associated with certain Blaschke products. The quasi-invariance of these determinantal point processes under the group of diffeomorphisms with compact supports follows as a corollary.

  8. Green's functions in layered poroelastic half-spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, E.

    1999-11-01

    In this paper, the complete Green's functions in a multilayered, isotropic, and poroelastic half-space are presented. It is the first time that all the common point sources, i.e. the total force, fluid force, fluid dilatation, and dislocation, are considered for a layered system. The Laplace transform is applied first to suppress the time variable. The cylindrical and Cartesian systems of vector functions and the propagator matrix method are then employed to derive the Green's functions. In the treatment of a point dislocation, an equivalent body-source concept is introduced, and the difference of a dislocation in a purely elastic and a poroelastic medium is discussed. While the spatial integrals involved in the Green's functions can be evaluated accurately by an adaptive Gauss quadrature with continued fraction expansions, the inverse Laplace transform can be carried out by applying a common numerical inversion technique. These complete Green's functions can be implemented into a suitable boundary element formulation to study the deformation and fracture problems in a layered poroelastic half-space.

  9. Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

  10. Exploring Heart and Lung Function in Space: ARMS Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Andre; Cork, Michael; LeGouic, Marine

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Respiratory Monitoring System (ARMS) is a suite of monitoring instruments and supplies used to study the heart, lungs, and metabolism. Many experiments sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA) will be conducted using ARMS during STS-107. The near-weightless environment of space causes the body to undergo many physiological adaptations, and the regulation of blood pressure is no exception. Astronauts also experience a decrease in blood volume as an adaptation to microgravity. Reduced blood volume may not provide enough blood pressure to the head during entry or landing. As a result, astronauts often experience light-headedness, and sometimes even fainting, when they stand shortly after returning to Earth. To help regulate blood pressure and heart rate, baroreceptors, sensors located in artery walls in the neck and near the heart, control blood pressure by sending information to the brain and ensuring blood flow to organs. These mechanisms work properly in Earth's gravity but must adapt in the microgravity environment of space. However, upon return to Earth during entry and landing, the cardiovascular system must readjust itself to gravity, which can cause fluctuation in the control of blood pressure and heart rate. Although the system recovers in hours or days, these occurrences are not easily predicted or understood - a puzzle investigators will study with the ARMS equipment. In space, researchers can focus on aspects of the cardiovascular system normally masked by gravity. The STS-107 experiments using ARMS will provide data on how the heart and lungs function in space, as well as how the nervous system controls them. Exercise will also be combined with breath holding and straining (the Valsalva maneuver) to test how heart rate and blood pressure react to different stresses. This understanding will improve astronauts' cardiopulmonary function after return to Earth, and may well help Earthbound patients who experience similar effects after long

  11. Control of functional differential equations to target sets in function space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Kent, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    Optimal control of systems governed by functional differential equations of retarded and neutral type is considered. Problems with function space initial and terminal manifolds are investigated. Existence of optimal controls, regularity, and bang-bang properties are discussed. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived, and several solved examples which illustrate the theory are presented.

  12. Functional Itô versus Banach space stochastic calculus and strict solutions of semilinear path-dependent equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosso, Andrea; Russo, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Functional Itô calculus was introduced in order to expand a functional F(t,Xṡ+t,Xt) depending on time t, past and present values of the process X. Another possibility to expand F(t,Xṡ+t,Xt) consists in considering the path Xṡ+t = {Xx+t,x ∈ [-T, 0]} as an element of the Banach space of continuous functions on C([-T, 0]) and to use Banach space stochastic calculus. The aim of this paper is threefold. (1) To reformulate functional Itô calculus, separating time and past, making use of the regularization procedures which match more naturally the notion of horizontal derivative which is one of the tools of that calculus. (2) To exploit this reformulation in order to discuss the (not obvious) relation between the functional and the Banach space approaches. (3) To study existence and uniqueness of smooth solutions to path-dependent partial differential equations which naturally arise in the study of functional Itô calculus. More precisely, we study a path-dependent equation of Kolmogorov type which is related to the window process of the solution to an Itô stochastic differential equation with path-dependent coefficients. We also study a semilinear version of that equation.

  13. Differential responsiveness to contractile agents of isolated smooth muscle cells from human colons as a function of age and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Boyer, J C; Guitton, C; Pignodel, C; Cuq, P; Moussu, P; Pouderoux, P; Christen, M O; Balmes, J L; Bali, J P

    1997-11-01

    To study the involvement of age and inflammation in motor colonic activity in man, contractile responses to CCK, carbachol, and KCl of isolated colonic smooth muscle cells (SMC) from normal and inflamed human colons were evaluated; the incidence of sex and smoking on contraction was also analyzed. Contractile responses to the three agonists were significantly lower in tissues with a low degree of inflammation than in tissues with high level of inflammation or normal tissues. This reduction in cell responsiveness appears to be nonspecific and nonreceptor mediated. A positive correlation of the contractile responses to the three stimulants with the age of patients was observed. In contrast, no association was found between sex, smoking, and cell contraction. In conclusion, contractions of SMC due to CCK, carbachol, and KCl were significantly modified during life; inflammation of the colon led to a loss of SMC responsiveness.

  14. Space-time ambiguity functions for electronically scanned ISR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swoboda, John; Semeter, Joshua; Erickson, Philip

    2015-05-01

    Electronically steerable array (ESA) technology has recently been applied to incoherent scatter radar (ISR) systems. These arrays allow for pulse-to-pulse steering of the antenna beam to collect data in a three-dimensional region. This is in direct contrast to dish-based antennas, where ISR acquisition is limited at any one time to observations in a two-dimensional slice. This new paradigm allows for more flexibility in the measurement of ionospheric plasma parameters. Multiple ESA-based ISR systems operate currently in the high-latitude region where the ionosphere is highly variable in both space and time. Because of the highly dynamic nature of the ionosphere in this region, it is important to differentiate between measurement-induced artifacts and the true behavior of the plasma. Often, three-dimensional ISR data produced by ESA systems are fitted in a spherical coordinate space and then the parameters are interpolated to a Cartesian grid, potentially introducing error and impacting the reconstructions of the plasma parameters. To take advantage of the new flexibility inherent in ESA systems, we present a new way of analyzing ISR observations through use of the space-time ambiguity function. The use of this new measurement ambiguity function allows us to pose the ISR observational problem in terms of a linear inverse problem whose goal is the estimate of the time domain lags of the intrinsic plasma autocorrelation function used for parameter fitting. The framework allows us to explore the impact of nonuniformity in plasma parameters in both time and space. We discuss examples of possible artifacts in high-latitude situations and discuss possible ways of reducing them and improving the quality of data products from electronically steerable ISRs.

  15. Endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell function on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) with nano-structured surface features.

    PubMed

    Miller, Derick C; Thapa, Anil; Haberstroh, Karen M; Webster, Thomas J

    2004-01-01

    Biomaterials that successfully integrate into surrounding tissue should match not only the tissue's mechanical properties, but also its topography. The cellular response to a biomaterial may be enhanced in synthetic polymer formulations by mimicking the surface roughness created by the associated nano-structured extra-cellular matrix components of natural tissue. As a first step towards this endeavor, the goal of the present in vitro study was to use these design parameters to develop a synthetic, nano-structured, polymeric biomaterial that promotes cell adhesion and growth for vascular applications. In a novel manner, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (50/50wt% mix) was synthesized to possess a range (from micron to nanometer) of surface features. Reduction of surface features was accomplished by treating conventional PLGA with various concentrations of NaOH for select periods of time. Results from cell experiments indicated that, compared to conventional PLGA, NaOH treated PLGA enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion and proliferation. However, PLGA prepared by soaking in NaOH decreased endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation compared to conventional PLGA. After further investigation, this finding was determined to be a result of chemical (and not topographical) changes during polymer synthesis. Surface chemistry effects were removed while retaining nano-structured topography by using polymer/elastomer casting methods. Results demonstrated that endothelial and smooth muscle cell densities increased on nano-structured cast PLGA. For these reasons, the present in vitro study provided the first evidence that nano-structured surface features can significantly improve vascular cell densities; such design criteria can be used in the synthesis of the next-generation of more successful tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

  16. Characterizing the space of interatomic distance distribution functions consistent with solution scattering data.

    PubMed

    Kavathekar, Paritosh A; Craig, Bruce A; Friedman, Alan M; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Balkcom, Devin J

    2010-04-01

    Scattering of neutrons and X-rays from molecules in solution offers alternative approaches to the study of a wide range of macromolecular structures in their solution state without crystallization. We study one part of the problem of elucidating three-dimensional structure from solution scattering data, determining the distribution of interatomic distances, P(r), where r is the distance between two atoms in the protein molecule. This problem is known to be ill-conditioned: for a single observed diffraction pattern, there may be many consistent distance distribution functions, and there is a risk of overfitting the observed scattering data. We propose a new approach to avoiding this problem: accepting the validity of multiple alternative P(r) curves rather than seeking a single "best." We place linear constraints to ensure that a computed P(r) is consistent with the experimental data. The constraints enforce smoothness in the P(r) curve, ensure that the P(r) curve is a probability distribution, and allow for experimental error. We use these constraints to precisely describe the space of all consistent P(r) curves as a polytope of histogram values or Fourier coefficients. We develop a linear programming approach to sampling the space of consistent, realistic P(r) curves. On both experimental and simulated scattering data, our approach efficiently generates ensembles of such curves that display substantial diversity.

  17. Effects of Space Flight on Neutrophil Functions in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur, Indreshpal; Valadez, Victoria A.; Simons, Elizabeth R.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2000-01-01

    Neutrophil phagocytosis, oxidative burst, degranulation, and the expression of selected surface markers were studied in 25 astronauts following 4 space shuttle missions. Space flight duration ranged from 5 to 11 days. Blood specimens were obtained 10 days before launch, immediately after landing, and again at 3 days after landing. The number of neutrophils increased at landing by 85%. Phagocytosis of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and oxidative burst following the medium length (9 to 11 days) missions were lower than the control mean values. Whereas, following the short-duration (5 days) mission, these functions were unchanged from control values. No consistent changes in degranulation were observed following either short or medium length space missions. The expression of CD16, CD32, CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, L-selectin and CD36 were measured and found to be variable. Specifically, CD16 and CD32 did not correlate with the changes in oxidative burst. Mission duration appears to be a factor in phagocytic and oxidative functions.

  18. Improving smoothing efficiency of rigid conformal polishing tool using time-dependent smoothing evaluation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chi; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Haifei; Zeng, Xuefeng

    2017-01-01

    A rigid conformal (RC) lap can smooth mid-spatial-frequency (MSF) errors, which are naturally smaller than the tool size, while still removing large-scale errors in a short time. However, the RC-lap smoothing efficiency performance is poorer than expected, and existing smoothing models cannot explicitly specify the methods to improve this efficiency. We presented an explicit time-dependent smoothing evaluation model that contained specific smoothing parameters directly derived from the parametric smoothing model and the Preston equation. Based on the time-dependent model, we proposed a strategy to improve the RC-lap smoothing efficiency, which incorporated the theoretical model, tool optimization, and efficiency limit determination. Two sets of smoothing experiments were performed to demonstrate the smoothing efficiency achieved using the time-dependent smoothing model. A high, theory-like tool influence function and a limiting tool speed of 300 RPM were o

  19. Gallic acid tailoring surface functionalities of plasma-polymerized allylamine-coated 316L SS to selectively direct vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell fate for enhanced endothelialization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhilu; Xiong, Kaiqin; Qi, Pengkai; Yang, Ying; Tu, Qiufen; Wang, Jin; Huang, Nan

    2014-02-26

    The creation of a platform for enhanced vascular endothelia cell (VEC) growth while suppressing vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation offers possibility for advanced coatings of vascular stents. Gallic acid (GA), a chemically unique phenolic acid with important biological functions, presents benefits to the cardiovascular disease therapy because of its superior antioxidant effect and a selectivity to support the growth of ECs more than SMCs. In this study, GA was explored to tailor such a multifunctional stent surface combined with plasma polymerization technique. On the basis of the chemical coupling reaction, GA was bound to an amine-group-rich plasma-polymerized allylamine (PPAam) coating. The GA-functionalized PPAam (GA-PPAam) surface created a favorable microenvironment to obtain high ECs and SMCs selectivity. The GA-PPAam coating showed remarkable enhancement in the adhesion, viability, proliferation, migration, and release of nitric oxide (NO) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The GA-PPAam coating also resulted in remarkable inhibition effect on human umbilical artery smooth muscle cell (HUASMC) adhesion and proliferation. These striking findings may provide a guide for designing the new generation of multifunctional vascular devices.

  20. ESTIMATION OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE ROLLOUT FORCING FUNCTION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George H., III; Carne, Thomas; Elliott, Kenny; Wilson, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Vehicle is assembled in the Vertical Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Flight Center in Florida. The Vehicle is stacked on a Mobile Launch Platform (MLP) that weighs eight million pounds. A Crawler Transporter (CT) then carries the MLP and the stacked vehicle (12 million pounds total weight) to the launch complex located 5 miles away. This operation is performed at 0.9 mph resulting in a 4.5-hour transport. A recent test was performed to monitor the dynamic environment that was produced during rollout. It was found that the rollout is a harmonic-rich dynamic environment that was previously not understood. This paper will describe work that has been performed to estimate the forcing function that is produced in the transportation process. The rollout analysis team has determined that there are two families of harmonics of the drive train, which excite the system as a function of CT speed. There are also excitation sources, which are random or narrow-band in frequency and are not a function of CT speed. This presentation will discuss the application of the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT) to further refine this understanding by estimating the forces and moments at the center-of-mass.

  1. Differential Regulation of NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 Contribute to Their Unique Functions in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, Jeremy T.; Lilly, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling is a key regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypes, including differentiation, proliferation, and cell survival. However, the exact contribution of the individual Notch receptors has not been thoroughly delineated. In this study, we identify unique roles for NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 in regulating proliferation and cell survival in cultured VSMCs. Our results indicate that NOTCH2 inhibits PDGF-B-dependent proliferation and its expression is decreased by PDGF-B. In contrast, NOTCH3 promotes proliferation and receptor expression is increased by PDGF-B. Additionally, data show that NOTCH3, but not NOTCH2 protects VSMCs from apoptosis and apoptosis mediators degrade NOTCH3 protein. We identified three pro-survival genes specifically regulated by NOTCH3 in cultured VSMCs and in mouse aortas. This regulation is mediated through MAP kinase signaling, which we demonstrate can be activated by NOTCH3, but not NOTCH2. Overall, this study highlights discrete roles for NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 in VSMCs and connects these roles to specific upstream regulators that control their expression. PMID:25957400

  2. Automatic control: the vertebral column of dogfish sharks behaves as a continuously variable transmission with smoothly shifting functions.

    PubMed

    Porter, Marianne E; Ewoldt, Randy H; Long, John H

    2016-09-15

    During swimming in dogfish sharks, Squalus acanthias, both the intervertebral joints and the vertebral centra undergo significant strain. To investigate this system, unique among vertebrates, we cyclically bent isolated segments of 10 vertebrae and nine joints. For the first time in the biomechanics of fish vertebral columns, we simultaneously characterized non-linear elasticity and viscosity throughout the bending oscillation, extending recently proposed techniques for large-amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) characterization to large-amplitude oscillatory bending (LAOB). The vertebral column segments behave as non-linear viscoelastic springs. Elastic properties dominate for all frequencies and curvatures tested, increasing as either variable increases. Non-linearities within a bending cycle are most in evidence at the highest frequency, 2.0 Hz, and curvature, 5 m(-1) Viscous bending properties are greatest at low frequencies and high curvatures, with non-linear effects occurring at all frequencies and curvatures. The range of mechanical behaviors includes that of springs and brakes, with smooth transitions between them that allow for continuously variable power transmission by the vertebral column to assist in the mechanics of undulatory propulsion.

  3. microRNAs Distinctively Regulate Vascular Smooth Muscle and Endothelial Cells: Functional Implications in Angiogenesis, Atherosclerosis, and In-Stent Restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Santulli, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are the main cell types within the vasculature. We describe here how microRNAs (miRs)—noncoding RNAs that can regulate gene expression via translational repression and/or post-transcriptional degradation—distinctively modulate EC and VSMC function in physiology and disease. In particular, the specific roles of miR-126 and miR-143/145, master regulators of EC and VSMC function, respectively, are deeply explored. We also describe the mechanistic role of miRs in the regulation of the pathophysiology of key cardiovascular processes including angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, and in-stent restenosis post-angioplasty. Drawbacks of currently available therapeutic options are discussed, pointing at the challenges and potential clinical opportunities provided by miR-based treatments. PMID:26662986

  4. Super Resolved Harmonic Structure Function for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikeman, R.; Stanko, E.; Reagan, J.

    Lockheed Martin Hawaii presents the application of the combination of two novel signal processing algorithm for non-resolved object characterization. We introduce the Super Resolved Harmonic Structure Function (SR-HSF) and demonstrate its utility in providing "fingerprints" for space based objects. The work presented here is making a major impact in the Missile Defense Agency's Project Hercules group but the results presented here are shown in an unclassified form. First, the SR-HSF algorithm is detailed. The SR-HSF is shown to pull out key space situational awareness fingerprints from a minimal set of observations. Next, the mathematical definition of the SR-HSF is detailed. SR-HSF is shown to be both optimal, and also applicable in the real-time sense. Then, applications to both simulations and unclassified data collected at AMOS of space based bodies are used for analysis. The SR-HSF is then used to analyze these fidelity simulations. It is shown that the SR-HSF is capable of "tagging" an object with a minimal set of observations - a previously impossible result. This analysis yield important considerations for sensor developers, SSA systems, and operators.

  5. Wigner function in Liouville space: A canonical formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Antoine

    1991-01-01

    The Wigner-Weyl (WW) phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics is discussed within the Liouville-space formalism, where quantum operators A^ are viewed as vectors, represented by L kets ||A^>>, on which act ``superoperators'' the scalar product is <>=TrA^°B^. With every operator A^, we associate commutation and anticommutation superoperators A^- and A^+, defined by their actions on any operator B^ as A^-B^=ħ-1[A^,B^], A^+B^=1/2(AB^+BÂ^). The WW representation corresponds to the choice of a special basis in Liouville space, namely, the eigenbasis of the position and momentum anticommutation superoperators q^+ and p^+ (where [q^,p^]=iħ). These, together with the commutation superoperators q^- and p^-, form a canonical set of superoperators, [q^+,p^-]=[q^-,p^+]=i (the other commutators vanishing), as functions of which all other super- operators can be expressed. Weyl ordering is expressed as f(q^,p^)Weyl ordering=f(q^+,p^+)1^. A generalization of Ehrenfest's theorem is obtained.

  6. Null-space function estimation for the interior problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Gengsheng L.; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2012-04-01

    In single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), projection data can be truncated when the camera's field of view is smaller than the object to be imaged. Using truncated projections to reconstruct a region of interest (ROI) is a reality we must face if small detectors are used. The truncated data result in an underdetermined system of imaging equations, which may lead to non-unique solutions. Data sampling and photon attenuation may also affect the solution uniqueness and stability. The uniqueness of the solutions in the ROI can be investigated by studying the null-space functions in the ROI. This paper uses an iterative algorithm to estimate the null-space image, to determine the sampling conditions under which a stable ROI reconstruction is possible with truncated data and to investigate whether attenuation can influence the ROI reconstruction bias. This iterative algorithm is validated by the singular value decomposition method. We show that if the ROI is sufficiently sampled, the null-space image is close to zero inside the ROI, and any almost-zero offset is insignificant in SPECT, because the noise is a much more dominating degradation factor.

  7. Space Station Human Factors Research Review. Volume 3: Space Station Habitability and Function: Architectural Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Editor); Eichold, Alice (Editor); Heers, Susan (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Articles are presented on a space station architectural elements model study, space station group activities habitability module study, full-scale architectural simulation techniques for space stations, and social factors in space station interiors.

  8. The Necessity of Functional Analysis for Space Exploration Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry; Breidenthal, Julian C.

    2011-01-01

    As NASA moves toward expanded commercial spaceflight within its human exploration capability, there is increased emphasis on how to allocate responsibilities between government and commercial organizations to achieve coordinated program objectives. The practice of program-level functional analysis offers an opportunity for improved understanding of collaborative functions among heterogeneous partners. Functional analysis is contrasted with the physical analysis more commonly done at the program level, and is shown to provide theoretical performance, risk, and safety advantages beneficial to a government-commercial partnership. Performance advantages include faster convergence to acceptable system solutions; discovery of superior solutions with higher commonality, greater simplicity and greater parallelism by substituting functional for physical redundancy to achieve robustness and safety goals; and greater organizational cohesion around program objectives. Risk advantages include avoidance of rework by revelation of some kinds of architectural and contractual mismatches before systems are specified, designed, constructed, or integrated; avoidance of cost and schedule growth by more complete and precise specifications of cost and schedule estimates; and higher likelihood of successful integration on the first try. Safety advantages include effective delineation of must-work and must-not-work functions for integrated hazard analysis, the ability to formally demonstrate completeness of safety analyses, and provably correct logic for certification of flight readiness. The key mechanism for realizing these benefits is the development of an inter-functional architecture at the program level, which reveals relationships between top-level system requirements that would otherwise be invisible using only a physical architecture. This paper describes the advantages and pitfalls of functional analysis as a means of coordinating the actions of large heterogeneous organizations

  9. Generalised partition functions: inferences on phase space distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treumann, Rudolf A.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    It is demonstrated that the statistical mechanical partition function can be used to construct various different forms of phase space distributions. This indicates that its structure is not restricted to the Gibbs-Boltzmann factor prescription which is based on counting statistics. With the widely used replacement of the Boltzmann factor by a generalised Lorentzian (also known as the q-deformed exponential function, where κ = 1/|q - 1|, with κ, q ∈ R) both the kappa-Bose and kappa-Fermi partition functions are obtained in quite a straightforward way, from which the conventional Bose and Fermi distributions follow for κ → ∞. For κ ≠ ∞ these are subject to the restrictions that they can be used only at temperatures far from zero. They thus, as shown earlier, have little value for quantum physics. This is reasonable, because physical κ systems imply strong correlations which are absent at zero temperature where apart from stochastics all dynamical interactions are frozen. In the classical large temperature limit one obtains physically reasonable κ distributions which depend on energy respectively momentum as well as on chemical potential. Looking for other functional dependencies, we examine Bessel functions whether they can be used for obtaining valid distributions. Again and for the same reason, no Fermi and Bose distributions exist in the low temperature limit. However, a classical Bessel-Boltzmann distribution can be constructed which is a Bessel-modified Lorentzian distribution. Whether it makes any physical sense remains an open question. This is not investigated here. The choice of Bessel functions is motivated solely by their convergence properties and not by reference to any physical demands. This result suggests that the Gibbs-Boltzmann partition function is fundamental not only to Gibbs-Boltzmann but also to a large class of generalised Lorentzian distributions as well as to the corresponding nonextensive statistical mechanics.

  10. Broadband strong motion simulation in layered half-space using stochastic Green's function technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisada, Y.

    2008-04-01

    The stochastic Green’s function method, which simulates one component of the far-field S-waves from an extended fault plane at high frequencies (Kamae et al., J Struct Constr Eng Trans AIJ, 430:1 9, 1991), is extended to simulate the three components of the full waveform in layered half-spaces for broadband frequency range. The method firstly computes ground motions from small earthquakes, which correspond to the ruptures of sub-faults on a fault plane of a large earthquake, and secondly constructs the strong motions of the large earthquake by superposing the small ground motions using the empirical Green’s function technique (e.g., Irikura, Proc 7th Japan Earthq Eng Symp, 151 156, 1986). The broadband stochastic omega-square model is proposed as the moment rate functions of the small earthquakes, in which random and zero phases are used at higher and lower frequencies, respectively. The zero phases are introduced to simulate a smooth ramp function of the moment function with the duration of 1/fc s (fc: the corner frequency) and to reproduce coherent strong motions at low frequencies (i.e., the directivity pulse). As for the radiation coefficients, the theoretical values of double couple sources for lower frequencies and the theoretical isotropic values for the P-, SV-, and SH-waves (Onishi and Horike, J Struct Constr Eng Trans AIJ, 586:37 44, 2004) for high frequencies are used. The proposed method uses the theoretical Green’s functions of layered half-spaces instead of the far-field S-waves, which reproduce the complete waves including the direct and reflected P- and S-waves and surface waves at broadband frequencies. Finally, the proposed method is applied to the 1994 Northridge earthquake, and results show excellent agreement with the observation records at broadband frequencies. At the same time, the method still needs improvements especially because it underestimates the high-frequency vertical components in the near fault range. Nonetheless, the method

  11. Heat-killed and γ-irradiated Brucella strain RB51 stimulates enhanced dendritic cell activation, but not function compared with the virulent smooth strain 2308.

    PubMed

    Surendran, Naveen; Hiltbold, Elizabeth M; Heid, Bettina; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyle, Stephen M; Zimmerman, Kurt L; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2010-11-01

    Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause abortion in livestock and undulant fever in humans worldwide. Brucella abortus strain 2308 is a pathogenic strain that affects cattle and humans. Currently, there are no efficacious human vaccines available. However, B. abortus strain RB51, which is approved by the USDA, is a live-attenuated rough vaccine against bovine brucellosis. Live strain RB51 induces protection via CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immunity. To generate an optimal T-cell response, strong innate immune responses by dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial. Because of safety concerns, the use of live vaccine strain RB51 in humans is limited. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the differential ability of the same doses of live, heat-killed (HK) and γ-irradiated (IR) strain RB51 in inducing DC activation and function. Smooth strain 2308, live strain RB51 and lipopolysaccharide were used as controls. Studies using mouse bone marrow-derived DCs revealed that, irrespective of viability, strain RB51 induced greater DC activation than smooth strain 2308. Live strain RB51 induced significantly (P≤0.05) higher DC maturation than HK and IR strains, and only live strain RB51-infected DCs (at multiplicity of infection 1:100) induced significant (P≤0.05) tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-12 secretion.

  12. Development of a Refined Space Vehicle Rollout Forcing Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George; Tucker, Jon-Michael; Valle, Gerard; Grady, Robert; Schliesing, John; Fahling, James; Emory, Benjamin; Armand, Sasan

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, American manned spaceflight vehicles and the associated launch platforms have been transported from final assembly to the launch pad via a pre-launch phase called rollout. The rollout environment is rich with forced harmonics and higher order effects can be used for extracting structural dynamics information. To enable this utilization, processing tools are needed to move from measured and analytical data to dynamic metrics such as transfer functions, mode shapes, modal frequencies, and damping. This paper covers the range of systems and tests that are available to estimate rollout forcing functions for the Space Launch System (SLS). The specific information covered in this paper includes: the different definitions of rollout forcing functions; the operational and developmental data sets that are available; the suite of analytical processes that are currently in-place or in-development; and the plans and future work underway to solve two immediate problems related to rollout forcing functions. Problem 1 involves estimating enforced accelerations to drive finite element models for developing design requirements for the SLS class of launch vehicles. Problem 2 involves processing rollout measured data in near real time to understand structural dynamics properties of a specific vehicle and the class to which it belongs.

  13. Trajectory fitting in function space with application to analytic modeling of surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barger, Raymond L.

    1992-01-01

    A theory for representing a parameter-dependent function as a function trajectory is described. Additionally, a theory for determining a piecewise analytic fit to the trajectory is described. An example is given that illustrates the application of the theory to generating a smooth surface through a discrete set of input cross-section shapes. A simple procedure for smoothing in the parameter direction is discussed, and a computed example is given. Application of the theory to aerodynamic surface modeling is demonstrated by applying it to a blended wing-fuselage surface.

  14. Connected Functional Working Spaces: A Framework for the Teaching and Learning of Functions at Upper Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minh, Tran Kiem; Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to remedy the narrow treatment of functions at upper secondary level. Assuming that students make sense of functions by working on functional situations in distinctive settings, we propose to consider functional working spaces inspired by geometrical working spaces. We analyse a classroom situation based on a…

  15. Revisiting noninteracting string partition functions in Rindler space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Thomas G.; Verschelde, Henri; Zakharov, Valentin I.

    2016-05-01

    We revisit noninteracting string partition functions in Rindler space by summing over fields in the spectrum. In field theory, the total partition function splits in a natural way into a piece that does not contain surface terms and a piece consisting of solely the so-called edge states. For open strings, we illustrate that surface contributions to the higher-spin fields correspond to open strings piercing the Rindler origin, unifying the higher-spin surface contributions in string language. For closed strings, we demonstrate that the string partition function is not quite the same as the sum over the partition functions of the fields in the spectrum: an infinite overcounting is present for the latter. Next we study the partition functions obtained by excluding the surface terms. Using recent results of He et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 05 (2015) 106], this construction, first done by Emparan [arXiv:hep-th/9412003], can be put on much firmer ground. We generalize to type II and heterotic superstrings and demonstrate modular invariance. All of these exhibit an IR divergence that can be interpreted as a maximal acceleration close to the black hole horizon. Ultimately, since these partition functions are only part of the full story, divergences here should not be viewed as a failure of string theory: maximal acceleration is a feature of a faulty treatment of the higher-spin fields in the string spectrum. We comment on the relevance of this to Solodukhin's recent proposal [Phys. Rev. D 91, 084028 (2015)]. A possible link with the firewall paradox is apparent.

  16. Effect of prolonged space flight on cardiac function and dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, W. L.; Epstein, S. E.; Griffith, J. M.; Goldstein, R. E.; Redwood, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    Echocardiographic studies were performed preflight 5 days before launch and on recovery day and 1, 2, 4, 11, 31 and 68 days postflight. From these echocardiograms measurements were made. From these primary measurements, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, and mass were derived using the accepted assumptions. Findings in the Scientist Pilot and Pilot resemble those seen in trained distance runners. Wall thickness measurements were normal in all three crewmembers preflight. Postflight basal studies were unchanged in the Commander on recovery day through 68 days postflight in both the Scientist Pilot and Pilot, however, the left ventricular end-diastolic volume, stroke volume, and mass were decreased slightly. Left ventricular function curves were constructed for the Commander and Pilot by plotting stroke volume versus end-diastolic volume. In both astronauts, preflight and postflight data fell on the same straight line demonstrating that no deterioration in cardiac function had occurred. These data indicate that the cardiovascular system adapts well to prolonged weightlessness and suggest that alterations in cardiac dimensions and function are unlikely to limit man's future in space.

  17. Totally semi-continuous and semi totally-continuous functions in double fuzzy topological spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood Mohammed, Fatimah; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi; Salleh, Abdul Razak

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce new classes of functions called totally-continuous functions and its variants totally semi-continuous functions and semi totally-continuous functions in double fuzzy topological spaces. Their characterizations, examples and relationship with other notions of continuous functions in this space are provided.

  18. Aerosol transfer of bladder urothelial and smooth muscle cells onto demucosalized colonic segments for bladder augmentation: in vivo, long term, and functional pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hidas, Guy; Lee, Hak J.; Bahoric, Andrej; Kelly, Maryellen S.; Watts, Blake; Liu, Zhongbo; Saharti, Samah; Lusch, Achim; Alamsahebpour, Alireza; Kerbl, David; Truong, Hung; Zi, Xiaolin; Khoury, Antoine E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Bladder augmentation technique has changed over the years and the current practice has significant adverse health effects and long-term sequelae. Previously, we reported a novel cell transfer technology for covering demucosalized colonic segments with bladder urothelium and smooth muscle cells through an aerosol spraying of these cells and a fibrin glue mixture. Objective To determine the long-term durability and functional characteristics of demucosalized segments of colon repopulated with urothelial cells in the bladder of swine for use in augmentation cystoplasty. Study design Nine swine were divided into three groups. The first group (control) underwent standard colocystoplasty; the second group underwent colocystoplasty with colonic demucosalization and aerosol application of fibrin glue and urothelial cell mixture; in the third group detrusor cells were added to the mixture described in group two. The animals were kept for 6 months. Absorptive and secretory function was assessed. Bladders were harvested for histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Results All animals but one in the experimental groups showed confluent urothelial coverage of the colonic segment in the bladder without any evidence of fibrosis, inflammation, or regrowth of colonic epithelial cells. Ten percent of the instilled water in the bladder was absorbed within an hour in the control group, but none in experimental groups(p=0.02). The total urine sediment and protein contents were higher in the control group compared with experimental groups (p<0.05). Discussion Both study groups developed a uniform urothelial lining. Histologically, the group with smooth muscle had an added layer of submucosal smooth muscle. Six months after bladder augmentation the new lining was durable. We were also able to demonstrate that the reconstituted augmented segments secrete and absorb significantly less than the control colocystoplasty group. We used a non-validated simple method

  19. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance and Kidney Function Research in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norsk, P.; Juel, N.; Kramer, H. J.; de Santo, N. G.; Regnard, J.; Heer, M.

    2005-06-01

    Fluid and electrolyte regulation in humans is modulated by gravitational stress through a complex interaction of cardiovascular reflexes, neuroendocrine variables, physical factors and renal function.Weightlessness is a unique tool to obtain more information on integrated fluid volume control. Results from space, however, have been unexpected and unpredictable from the results of ground- based simulations.The concept of how weightlesness and gravity modulate the regulation of body fluids and associated blood components must therefore be revised and a new simulation model developed. There are several main questions to be asked. Does weightlessness induce diuresis and natriuresis during the initial hours of spaceflight, leading to an extracellular and intravascular fluid volume deficit? Why are fluid- and sodium-retaining systems activated by spaceflight, and why are the renal responses to saline and water stimuli attenuated? Can excess sodium be stored in an hitherto unknown way, in particular during spaceflight? How can the effects of weightlessness on fluid and electrolyte regulation be correctly simulated on the ground? The information obtained from space might help us to understand how gravity degrades the fluid and electrolyte balance in sodium-retaining and oedema- forming states, such as in heart failure.

  20. Locally-Based Kernal PLS Smoothing to Non-Parametric Regression Curve Fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosipal, Roman; Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a novel smoothing approach to non-parametric regression curve fitting. This is based on kernel partial least squares (PLS) regression in reproducing kernel Hilbert space. It is our concern to apply the methodology for smoothing experimental data where some level of knowledge about the approximate shape, local inhomogeneities or points where the desired function changes its curvature is known a priori or can be derived based on the observed noisy data. We propose locally-based kernel PLS regression that extends the previous kernel PLS methodology by incorporating this knowledge. We compare our approach with existing smoothing splines, hybrid adaptive splines and wavelet shrinkage techniques on two generated data sets.

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Immuno-Magnetically Sorted Smooth Muscle Progenitor Cells Derived from Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Restoring Urethral Sphincter Function.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhui; Green, Morgaine; Wen, Yan; Wei, Yi; Wani, Prachi; Wang, Zhe; Reijo Pera, Renee; Chen, Bertha

    2017-04-01

    Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-based cell therapy holds promise for treating stress urinary incontinence (SUI). However, safety concerns, especially tumorgenic potential of residual undifferentiated cells in hiPSC derivatives, are major barriers for its clinical translation. An efficient, fast and clinical-scale strategy for purifying committed cells is also required. Our previous studies demonstrated the regenerative effects of hiPSC-derived smooth muscle progenitor cells (pSMCs) on the injured urethral sphincter in SUI, but the differentiation protocol required fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) which is not practical for autologous clinical applications. In this study, we examined the efficacy and safety of hiPSC-derived pSMC populations sorted by FDA-approved magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) using cell-surface marker CD34 for restoring urethral sphincter function. Although the heterogeneity of MACS-sorted pSMCs was higher than that of FACS-sorted pSMCs, the percentage of undifferentiated cells dramatically decreased after directed differentiation in vitro. In vivo studies demonstrated long-term cell integration and no tumor formation of MACS-sorted pSMCs after transplantation. Furthermore, transplantation of MACS-sorted pSMCs into immunodeficient SUI rats was comparable to transplantation with FACS-sorted pSMCs for restoration of the extracellular matrix metabolism and function of the urethral sphincter. In summary, purification of hiPSC derivatives using MACS sorting for CD34 expression represent an efficient approach for production of clinical-scale pSMCs for autologous stem cell therapy for regeneration of smooth muscle tissues. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1158-1167.

  2. PAF-receptor is preferentially expressed in a distinct synthetic phenotype of smooth muscle cells cloned from human internal thoracic artery: Functional implications in cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Stengel, Dominique; O'Neil, Caroline; Brocheriou, Isabelle; Karabina, Sonia-Athina; Durand, Herve; Caplice, Noel M.; Pickering, J. Geoffrey; Ninio, Ewa . E-mail: ninio@chups.jussieu.fr

    2006-08-04

    Platelet-activating-Factor (PAF) and its structural analogues formed upon low density lipoprotein oxidation are involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation and may signal through PAF-receptor (PAF-R) expressed in human macrophages and in certain smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the media, but rarely in the intima of human plaques. Our aim was to determine which SMC phenotype expresses PAF-R and whether this receptor is functional in cell migration. Circulating SMC progenitors and two phenotypically distinct clones of proliferative, epithelioid phenotype vs contractile, spindle-shaped SMCs from the media of adult internal thoracic artery were studied for the presence of PAF-receptor (PAF-R). The levels of specific mRNA were obtained by reverse transcription/real-time PCR, the protein expression was deduced from immunohistochemistry staining, and the functional transmigration assay was performed by Boyden chamber-type chemotaxis assay. Only SMCs of spindle-shape and synthetic phenotype expressed both mRNA and PAF-R protein and in the functional test migrated at low concentrations of PAF. Two unrelated, specific PAF-R antagonists inhibited PAF-induced migration, but did not modify the migration initiated by PDGF. The presence of functional PAF-R in arterial spindle-shaped SMCs of synthetic phenotype may be important for their migration from the media into the intima and atherosclerotic plaques formation.

  3. Functional and Proteomic Investigations Reveal Major Royal Jelly Protein 1 Associated with Anti-hypertension Activity in Mouse Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Pei; Han, Bin; Feng, Mao; Fang, Yu; Zhang, Lan; Hu, Han; Hao, Yue; Qi, Yuping; Zhang, Xiaozhen; Li, Jianke

    2016-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are a major cell type of the arterial wall and their functionality is associated with blood pressure regulation. Although royal jelly (RJ) has reported effects on anti-hypertension, the mechanism of blood pressure regulation by major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1), the most abundant RJ protein, is still unknown. The mrjp1 gene was inserted into mouse VSMCs to investigate how MRJP1 influences VSMC functionality by functional and proteomic analysis. The expression of MRJP1 in VSMCs significantly reduced cell contraction, migration, and proliferation, suggesting a potential role in decreasing hypertension via action on VSMCs. These anti-hypertension activities were further observed in the changes of the proteome setting of mouse VSMCs. Among 675 different proteins after MRJP1 expression, 646 were down-regulated and significantly enriched in pathways implicated in VSMC contraction and migration, which suggest MRJP1 lowers VSMC contraction and migration by inhibiting muscle filament movement. The down-regulated proteins also enriched pathways in proliferation, indicating that MRJP1 hinders VSMC proliferation by reducing the supply of energy and genetic material. This is the first report integrating MRJP1 into VSMC, revealing the function and mechanism correlated with anti-hypertensive activity. This offers a therapeutic potential to control hypertension by gene-therapy using bee-products. PMID:27444336

  4. A conserved MADS-box phosphorylation motif regulates differentiation and mitochondrial function in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Mughal, W; Nguyen, L; Pustylnik, S; da Silva Rosa, S C; Piotrowski, S; Chapman, D; Du, M; Alli, N S; Grigull, J; Halayko, A J; Aliani, M; Topham, M K; Epand, R M; Hatch, G M; Pereira, T J; Kereliuk, S; McDermott, J C; Rampitsch, C; Dolinsky, V W; Gordon, J W

    2015-10-29

    Exposure to metabolic disease during fetal development alters cellular differentiation and perturbs metabolic homeostasis, but the underlying molecular regulators of this phenomenon in muscle cells are not completely understood. To address this, we undertook a computational approach to identify cooperating partners of the myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) family of transcription factors, known regulators of muscle differentiation and metabolic function. We demonstrate that MEF2 and the serum response factor (SRF) collaboratively regulate the expression of numerous muscle-specific genes, including microRNA-133a (miR-133a). Using tandem mass spectrometry techniques, we identify a conserved phosphorylation motif within the MEF2 and SRF Mcm1 Agamous Deficiens SRF (MADS)-box that regulates miR-133a expression and mitochondrial function in response to a lipotoxic signal. Furthermore, reconstitution of MEF2 function by expression of a neutralizing mutation in this identified phosphorylation motif restores miR-133a expression and mitochondrial membrane potential during lipotoxicity. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that miR-133a regulates mitochondrial function through translational inhibition of a mitophagy and cell death modulating protein, called Nix. Finally, we show that rodents exposed to gestational diabetes during fetal development display muscle diacylglycerol accumulation, concurrent with insulin resistance, reduced miR-133a, and elevated Nix expression, as young adult rats. Given the diverse roles of miR-133a and Nix in regulating mitochondrial function, and proliferation in certain cancers, dysregulation of this genetic pathway may have broad implications involving insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and cancer biology.

  5. Nanojunctions of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Deliver Site- and Function-Specific Calcium Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscles.

    PubMed

    Evans, A M

    2017-01-01

    Vasoactive agents may induce myocyte contraction, dilation, and the switch from a contractile to a migratory-proliferative phenotype(s), which requires changes in gene expression. These processes are directed, in part, by Ca(2+) signals, but how different Ca(2+) signals are generated to select each function is enigmatic. We have previously proposed that the strategic positioning of Ca(2+) pumps and release channels at membrane-membrane junctions of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) demarcates cytoplasmic nanodomains, within which site- and function-specific Ca(2+) signals arise. This chapter will describe how nanojunctions of the SR may: (1) define cytoplasmic nanospaces about the plasma membrane, mitochondria, contractile myofilaments, lysosomes, and the nucleus; (2) provide for functional segregation by restricting passive diffusion and by coordinating active ion transfer within a given nanospace via resident Ca(2+) pumps and release channels; (3) select for contraction, relaxation, and/or changes in gene expression; and (4) facilitate the switch in myocyte phenotype through junctional reorganization. This should serve to highlight the need for further exploration of cellular nanojunctions and the mechanisms by which they operate, that will undoubtedly open up new therapeutic horizons.

  6. Study of space shuttle orbiter system management computer function. Volume 2: Automated performance verification concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The findings are presented of investigations on concepts and techniques in automated performance verification. The investigations were conducted to provide additional insight into the design methodology and to develop a consolidated technology base from which to analyze performance verification design approaches. Other topics discussed include data smoothing, function selection, flow diagrams, data storage, and shuttle hydraulic systems.

  7. Molecular Expression and Pharmacological Evidence for a Functional Role of Kv7 Channel Subtypes in Guinea Pig Urinary Bladder Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Afeli, Serge A. Y.; Malysz, John; Petkov, Georgi V.

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated Kv7 (KCNQ) channels are emerging as essential regulators of smooth muscle excitability and contractility. However, their physiological role in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) remains to be elucidated. Here, we explored the molecular expression and function of Kv7 channel subtypes in guinea pig DSM by RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, and isometric tension recordings. In whole DSM tissue, mRNAs for all Kv7 channel subtypes were detected in a rank order: Kv7.1~Kv7.2Kv7.3~Kv7.5Kv7.4. In contrast, freshly-isolated DSM cells showed mRNA expression of: Kv7.1~Kv7.2Kv7.5Kv7.3~Kv7.4. Immunohistochemical confocal microscopy analyses of DSM, conducted by using co-labeling of Kv7 channel subtype-specific antibodies and α-smooth muscle actin, detected protein expression for all Kv7 channel subtypes, except for the Kv7.4, in DSM cells. L-364373 (R-L3), a Kv7.1 channel activator, and retigabine, a Kv7.2-7.5 channel activator, inhibited spontaneous phasic contractions and the 10-Hz electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions of DSM isolated strips. Linopiridine and XE991, two pan-Kv7 (effective at Kv7.1-Kv7.5 subtypes) channel inhibitors, had opposite effects increasing DSM spontaneous phasic and 10 Hz EFS-induced contractions. EFS-induced DSM contractions generated by a wide range of stimulation frequencies were decreased by L-364373 (10 µM) or retigabine (10 µM), and increased by XE991 (10 µM). Retigabine (10 µM) induced hyperpolarization and inhibited spontaneous action potentials in freshly-isolated DSM cells. In summary, Kv7 channel subtypes are expressed at mRNA and protein levels in guinea pig DSM cells. Their pharmacological modulation can control DSM contractility and excitability; therefore, Kv7 channel subtypes provide potential novel therapeutic targets for urinary bladder dysfunction. PMID:24073284

  8. Divergent effects of 17-{beta}-estradiol on human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell function diminishes TNF-{alpha}-induced neointima formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nintasen, Rungrat; Riches, Kirsten; Mughal, Romana S.; Viriyavejakul, Parnpen; Chaisri, Urai; Maneerat, Yaowapa; Turner, Neil A.; Porter, Karen E.

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} augments neointimal hyperplasia in human saphenous vein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces detrimental effects on endothelial and smooth muscle cell function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol exerts modulatory effects on TNF-induced vascular cell functions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modulatory effects of estradiol are discriminatory and cell-type specific. -- Abstract: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition characterized by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}). TNF-{alpha} can induce vascular endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) dysfunction, central events in development of neointimal lesions. The reduced incidence of CHD in young women is believed to be due to the protective effects of estradiol (E2). We therefore investigated the effects of TNF-{alpha} on human neointima formation and SMC/EC functions and any modulatory effects of E2. Saphenous vein (SV) segments were cultured in the presence of TNF-{alpha} (10 ng/ml), E2 (2.5 nM) or both in combination. Neointimal thickening was augmented by incubation with TNF-{alpha}, an effect that was abolished by co-culture with E2. TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner that was optimal at 10 ng/ml (1.5-fold increase), and abolished by E2 at all concentrations studied (1-50 nM). Surprisingly, E2 itself at low concentrations (1 and 5 nM) stimulated SV-SMC proliferation to a level comparable to that of TNF-{alpha} alone. SV-EC migration was significantly impaired by TNF-{alpha} (42% of control), and co-culture with E2 partially restored the ability of SV-EC to migrate and repair the wound. In contrast, TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC migration by 1.7-fold, an effect that was completely reversed by co-incubation with E2. Finally, TNF-{alpha} potently induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in both SV-EC and SV-SMC. However there

  9. Molecular characterization and functional divergence of two Gadd45g homologs in sex determination in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Jun; Zhang, Li-Yan; Shao, Chang-Wei; Wang, Na; Liu, Kun; Wen, Hai-Shen; Zhang, Ning; Dong, Zhong-Dian; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Chen, Song-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 gamma (Gadd45g) is known to play a major role in embryonic development and sex determination. In this study, two Gadd45g genes were isolated from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Using chromosomal fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Gadd45g1 and Gadd45g2 were located on the W and Z chromosomes, respectively. The full-length cDNA sequences of Gadd45g1 (1270bp) and Gadd45g2 (1181bp) were predicted to contain a 480-bp coding sequence that could encode a protein of 159 amino acids residues. A phylogenetic tree showed that the predicted Gadd45g1 and Gadd45g2 amino acid sequences clustered closely in one branch. It is proposed that Gadd45g1 and Gadd45g2 are paralogous genes derived from the divergence of the sex chromosome. Ka/Ks ratios indicated that Gadd45g1 and Gadd45g2 may have undergone a high number of mutations and have a divergence time of only about 68,000years, although Gadd45g homologs are highly conserved. The qRT-PCR demonstrated that Gadd45g1 and Gadd45g2 were highly expressed in ovary, and negligibly expressed in testis of male and neo-male. During development of the ovary (from 80 to 150days), the expression levels of both genes reached high levels. Gadd45g1 was also highly expressed at 50days, the stage just before gonad differentiation in C. semilaevis. All these findings imply functional divergence of the two Gadd45g homologs; Gadd45g1 may be necessary for sex differentiation in the early stage of gonad development, and then Gadd45g1 and Gadd45g2 maintain ovary development and the female character of half-smooth tongue sole.

  10. Function spaces in the topology of pointwise convergence, and compact sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhangelskii, A. V.

    1984-10-01

    CONTENTSIntroduction § 1. The Ptak approach § 2. Bounded sets in function spaces and Grothendieck's theorem § 3. Theorems on tightness and monolithicity in function spaces over compact sets § 4. Namioka's theorem § 5. Function spaces over pseudocompact spaces § 6. The structure of the space C_p(X) over Eberlein or Corson compacta § 7. Pseudocompact, \\sigma-compact, and countably paracompact subspaces of C_p(X) § 8. Two generalizations of Grothendieck's theorem § 9. When is the space C_p(X) \\sigma-compact? References

  11. Dualities and Curved Space Partition Functions of Supersymmetric Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Prarit

    In this dissertation we discuss some conjectured dualities in supersymmetric field theories and provide non-trivial checks for these conjectures. A quick review of supersymmetry and related topics is provided in chapter 1. In chapter 2, we develop a method to identify the so called BPS states in the Hilbert space of a supersymmetric field theory (that preserves at least two real supercharges) on a generic curved space. As an application we obtain the superconformal index (SCI) of 4d theories. The large N SCI of quiver gauge theories has been previously noticed to factorize over the set of extremal BPS mesonic operators. In chapter 3, we reformulate this factorization in terms of the zigzag paths in the dimer model associated to the quiver and extend the factorization theorem of the index to include theories obtained from D-branes probing orbifold singularities. In chapter 4, we consider the dualities in two classes of 3 dimensional theories. The first class consist of dualities of certain necklace type Chern-Simons (CS) quiver gauge theories. A non trivial check of these dualities is provided by matching their squashed sphere partition functions. The second class consists of theories whose duals are described by a collection of free fields. In such cases, due to mixing between the superconformal R-symmetry and accidental symmetries, the matching of electric and magnetic partition functions is not straightforward. We provide a prescription to rectify this mismatch. In chapter 5, we consider some the N = 1 4d theories with orthogonal and symplectic gauge groups, arising from N = 1 preserving reduction of 6d theories on a Riemann surface. This construction allows us to dual descriptions of 4d theories. Some of the dual frames have no known Lagrangian description. We check the dualities by computing the anomaly coefficients and the superconformal indices. We also give a prescription to write the index of the theory obtained by reduction of 6d theories on a three

  12. Heterogeneity of alpha1 receptors associated with vascular smooth muscle: evidence from functional and ligand binding studies

    SciTech Connect

    Babich, M.; Pedigo, N.W.; Butler, B.T.; Piascik, M.T.

    1987-08-10

    The nature of the alpha1 receptor associated with rabbit aorta has been examined in functional and receptor binding studies. In isolated aortic rings the dose-response curve for (-)metaraminol was not parallel to that of (-)epinephrine, (-)norepinephrine or (-)phenylephrine. Following inactivation of a portion of the alpha receptors with phenoxybenzamine, the occupancy versus response relationship for metaraminol, in contrast to the other test agonists, was biphasic. In microsomes prepared from aorta, metaraminol bound to two classes of sites labelled by the selective alpha1 antagonist (TH) prazosin. Norepinephrine also bound to two sites on the alpha receptor in all three preparations tested. The Scatchard plot of (TH)prazosin binding to microsomes prepared from frozen aorta was curvilinear. Estimates of the affinities and site densities were 49.6 +/- 15.3 pM and 44.8 +/- 11.8 pmol/gm protein and 1.0 +/- 0.2 nM and 43.8 +/- 17.4 pmol/gm for the high and low affinity sites, respectively. These data are consistent with the idea that there are subtypes of the alpha1 receptor. 33 references, 5 figures.

  13. Reconstruction of probability density function of intensity fluctuations relevant to free-space laser communications through atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Arun K.; Luna, Carlos E.; Idell, Paul S.

    2007-09-01

    A new method of reconstructing and predicting an unknown probability density function (PDF) characterizing the statistics of intensity fluctuations of optical beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence is presented in this paper. The method is based on a series expansion of generalized Laguerre polynomials ; the expansion coefficients are expressed in terms of the higher-order intensity moments of intensity statistics. This method generates the PDF from the data moments without any prior knowledge of specific statistics and converges smoothly. The utility of reconstructed PDF relevant to free-space laser communication in terms of calculating the average bit error rate and probability of fading is pointed out. Simulated numerical results are compared with some known non-Gaussian test PDFs: Log-Normal, Rice-Nakagami and Gamma-Gamma distributions and show excellent agreement obtained by the method developed. The accuracy of the reconstructed PDF is also evaluated.

  14. A Meshfree Cell-based Smoothed Point Interpolation Method for Solid Mechanics Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Guiyong; Liu Guirong

    2010-05-21

    In the framework of a weakened weak (W{sup 2}) formulation using a generalized gradient smoothing operation, this paper introduces a novel meshfree cell-based smoothed point interpolation method (CS-PIM) for solid mechanics problems. The W{sup 2} formulation seeks solutions from a normed G space which includes both continuous and discontinuous functions and allows the use of much more types of methods to create shape functions for numerical methods. When PIM shape functions are used, the functions constructed are in general not continuous over the entire problem domain and hence are not compatible. Such an interpolation is not in a traditional H{sup 1} space, but in a G{sup 1} space. By introducing the generalized gradient smoothing operation properly, the requirement on function is now further weakened upon the already weakened requirement for functions in a H{sup 1} space and G{sup 1} space can be viewed as a space of functions with weakened weak (W{sup 2}) requirement on continuity. The cell-based smoothed point interpolation method (CS-PIM) is formulated based on the W{sup 2} formulation, in which displacement field is approximated using the PIM shape functions, which possess the Kronecker delta property facilitating the enforcement of essential boundary conditions [3]. The gradient (strain) field is constructed by the generalized gradient smoothing operation within the cell-based smoothing domains, which are exactly the triangular background cells. A W{sup 2} formulation of generalized smoothed Galerkin (GS-Galerkin) weak form is used to derive the discretized system equations. It was found that the CS-PIM possesses the following attractive properties: (1) It is very easy to implement and works well with the simplest linear triangular mesh without introducing additional degrees of freedom; (2) it is at least linearly conforming; (3) this method is temporally stable and works well for dynamic analysis; (4) it possesses a close-to-exact stiffness, which is much

  15. Characterizing the Pressure Smoothing Scale of the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Oñorbe, Jose; Rorai, Alberto; Springel, Volker

    2015-10-01

    The thermal state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z < 6 constrains the nature and timing of cosmic reionization events, but its inference from the Lyα forest is degenerate with the 3D structure of the IGM on ˜100 kpc scales, where, analogous to the classical Jeans argument, the pressure of the T ≃ 104 K gas supports it against gravity. We simulate the IGM using smoothed particle hydrodynamics, and find that, at z < 6, the gas density power spectrum does not exhibit the expected filtering scale cutoff, because dense gas in collapsed halos dominates the small-scale power masking pressure smoothing effects. We introduce a new statistic, the real-space Lyα flux, Freal, which naturally suppresses dense gas, and is thus robust against the poorly understood physics of galaxy formation, revealing pressure smoothing in the diffuse IGM. The Freal power spectrum is accurately described by a simple fitting function with cutoff at λF, allowing us to rigorously quantify the pressure smoothing scale for the first time: we find λF = 79 kpc (comoving) at z = 3 for our fiducial thermal model. This statistic has the added advantage that it directly relates to observations of correlated Lyα forest absorption in close quasar pairs, recently proposed as a method to measure the pressure smoothing scale. Our results enable one to quantify the pressure smoothing scale in simulations, and ask meaningful questions about its dependence on reionization and thermal history. Accordingly, the standard description of the IGM in terms of the amplitude T0 and slope γ of the temperature-density relation T={T}0{(ρ /\\bar{ρ })}γ -1 should be augmented with a third pressure smoothing scale parameter λF.

  16. The Smooth Muscle of the Artery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    to keep up with inter- national standards. The German Cancer Research Center as well as the Hax-Planck Inntitutes of Heidelberg are well equipped to...SOMLYO: I plan to briefly review some of the aspects of normal function of vascular smooth muscle with particular ---- I SMOOTH MUSCLE STRUCTURE 35...schematic review of the data on catabolism in connective tissue cells smooth muscle cells. The increasing number of electron microscopic studies of

  17. Smooth GERBS, orthogonal systems and energy minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechevsky, Lubomir T.; Zanaty, Peter

    2013-12-01

    New results are obtained in three mutually related directions of the rapidly developing theory of generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) [7, 6]: closed-form computability of C∞-smooth GERBS in terms of elementary and special functions, Hermite interpolation and least-squares best approximation via smooth GERBS, energy minimizing properties of smooth GERBS similar to those of the classical cubic polynomial B-splines.

  18. Smooth GERBS, orthogonal systems and energy minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Dechevsky, Lubomir T. E-mail: pza@hin.no; Zanaty, Peter E-mail: pza@hin.no

    2013-12-18

    New results are obtained in three mutually related directions of the rapidly developing theory of generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) [7, 6]: closed-form computability of C{sup ∞}-smooth GERBS in terms of elementary and special functions, Hermite interpolation and least-squares best approximation via smooth GERBS, energy minimizing properties of smooth GERBS similar to those of the classical cubic polynomial B-splines.

  19. Function and expression of ryanodine receptors and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors in smooth muscle cells of murine feed arteries and arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Westcott, Erika B; Goodwin, Erica L; Segal, Steven S; Jackson, William F

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that vasomotor control is differentially regulated between feed arteries and downstream arterioles from the cremaster muscle of C57BL/6 mice. In isolated pressurized arteries, confocal Ca2+ imaging of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) revealed Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ waves. Ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonists (ryanodine and tetracaine) inhibited both sparks and waves but increased global Ca2+ and myogenic tone. In arterioles, SMCs exhibited only Ca2+ waves that were insensitive to ryanodine or tetracaine. Pharmacological interventions indicated that RyRs are functionally coupled to large-conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BKCa) in SMCs of arteries, whereas BKCa appear functionally coupled to voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in SMCs of arterioles. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) antagonists (xestospongin D or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate) or a phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122) attenuated Ca2+ waves, global Ca2+ and myogenic tone in arteries and arterioles but had no effect on arterial sparks. Real-time PCR of isolated SMCs revealed RyR2 as the most abundant isoform transcript; arteries expressed twice the RyR2 but only 65% the RyR3 of arterioles and neither vessel expressed RyR1. Immunofluorescent localisation of RyR protein indicated bright, clustered staining of arterial SMCs in contrast to diffuse staining in arteriolar SMCs. Expression of IP3R transcripts and protein immunofluorescence were similar in SMCs of both vessels with IP3R1>>IP3R2>IP3R3. Despite similar expression of IP3Rs and dependence of Ca2+ waves on IP3Rs, these data illustrate pronounced regional heterogeneity in function and expression of RyRs between SMCs of the same vascular resistance network. We conclude that vasomotor control is differentially regulated in feed arteries vs. downstream arterioles. PMID:22331418

  20. Criteria for compactness in L{sup p}-spaces, p {>=} 0

    SciTech Connect

    Krotov, Veniamin G

    2012-07-31

    The paper puts forward new compactness criteria for spaces of summable and measurable functions on a metric space with measure satisfying the doubling condition. These criteria are formulated in terms of either local smoothness inequalities or maximal operators that measure local smoothness. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  1. Facilitating the Genesis of Functional Working Spaces in Guided Explorations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Vicente Carrión; Pluvinage, François; Adjiage, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Approximating given real-valued functions by affine functions is among the most basic activities with functions. In this study we examine two contexts in which two such approximations are performed. The first involves a microscopic representation of functions for the study of tangents; the second a macroscopic representation of functions for the…

  2. Function and role of voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 expressed in aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Meguro, Kentaro; Iida, Haruko; Takano, Haruhito; Morita, Toshihiro; Sata, Masataka; Nagai, Ryozo; Nakajima, Toshiaki

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channel currents (I(Na)) are expressed in several types of smooth muscle cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of I(Na), its functional role, pathophysiology in cultured human (hASMCs) and rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells (rASMCs), and its association with vascular intimal hyperplasia. In whole cell voltage clamp, I(Na) was observed at potential positive to -40 mV, was blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX), and replacing extracellular Na(+) with N-methyl-d-glucamine in cultured hASMCs. In contrast to native aorta, cultured hASMCs strongly expressed SCN9A encoding Na(V)1.7, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR. I(Na) was abolished by the treatment with SCN9A small-interfering (si)RNA (P < 0.01). TTX and SCN9A siRNA significantly inhibited cell migration (P < 0.01, respectively) and horseradish peroxidase uptake (P < 0.01, respectively). TTX also significantly reduced the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-2 6 and 12 h after the treatment (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). However, neither TTX nor siRNA had any effect on cell proliferation. L-type Ca(2+) channel current was recorded, and I(Na) was not observed in freshly isolated rASMCs, whereas TTX-sensitive I(Na) was recorded in cultured rASMCs. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunostaining for Na(V)1.7 revealed the prominent expression of SCN9A in cultured rASMCs and aorta 48 h after balloon injury but not in native aorta. In conclusion, these studies show that I(Na) is expressed in cultured and diseased conditions but not in normal aorta. The Na(V)1.7 plays an important role in cell migration, endocytosis, and secretion. Na(V)1.7 is also expressed in aorta after balloon injury, suggesting a potential role for Na(V)1.7 in the progression of intimal hyperplasia.

  3. MicroRNA-146a and microRNA-146b expression and anti-inflammatory function in human airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Comer, Brian S; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Kogut, Paul C; Halayko, Andrew J; Solway, Julian; Gerthoffer, William T

    2014-11-01

    MicroRNA (miR)-146a and miR-146b are negative regulators of inflammatory gene expression in lung fibroblasts, epithelial cells, monocytes, and endothelial cells. The abundance of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and IL-1β is negatively regulated by the miR-146 family, suggesting miR-146a and/or miR-146b might modulate inflammatory mediator expression in airway smooth muscle thereby contributing to pathogenesis of asthma. To test this idea we compared miR-146a and miR-146b expression in human airway smooth muscle cells (hASMCs) from nonasthmatic and asthmatic subjects treated with cytomix (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFNγ) and examined the miRNAs' effects on COX-2 and IL-1β expression. We found that cytomix treatment elevated miR-146a and miR-146b abundance. Induction with cytomix was greater than induction with individual cytokines, and asthmatic cells exhibited higher levels of miR-146a expression following cytomix treatment than nonasthmatic cells. Transfection of miR-146a or miR-146b mimics reduced COX-2 and IL-1β expression. A miR-146a inhibitor increased COX-2 and IL-1β expression, but a miR-146b inhibitor was ineffective. Repression of COX-2 and IL-1β expression by miR-146a correlated with reduced abundance of the RNA-binding protein human antigen R. These results demonstrate that miR-146a and miR-146b expression is inducible in hASMCs by proinflammatory cytokines and that miR-146a expression is greater in asthmatic cells. Both miR-146a and miR-146b can negatively regulate COX-2 and IL-1β expression at pharmacological levels, but loss-of-function studies showed that only miR-146a is an endogenous negative regulator in hASMCs. The results suggest miR-146 mimics may be an attractive candidate for further preclinical studies as an anti-inflammatory treatment of asthma.

  4. Right Ventricular Enlargement and Renal Function Are Associated With Smooth Introduction of Adaptive Servo-Ventilation Therapy in Chronic Heart Failure Patients.

    PubMed

    Iwasaku, Toshihiro; Okuhara, Yoshitaka; Eguchi, Akiyo; Ando, Tomotaka; Naito, Yoshiro; Masuyama, Tohru; Hirotani, Shinichi

    2017-04-06

    Although adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) therapy has beneficial effects on chronic heart failure (CHF), a relatively large number of CHF patients cannot undergo ASV therapy due to general discomfort from the mask and/or positive airway pressure. The present study aimed to clarify baseline patient characteristics which are associated with the smooth introduction of ASV treatment in stable CHF inpatients.Thirty-two consecutive heart failure (HF) inpatients were enrolled (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 45%, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) > 10 mL/minute/1.73m(2), and apnea-hypopnea index < 30/hour). After the patients were clinically stabilized on optimal therapy, they underwent portable polysomnography and echocardiography, and then received ASV therapy. The patients were divided into two groups: a smooth introduction group (n = 18) and non-smooth introduction group (n = 14). Smooth introduction of ASV treatment was defined as ASV usage for 4 hours and more on the first night. Univariate analysis showed that the smooth introduction group differed significantly from the non-smooth introduction group in age, hemoglobin level, eGFR, HF origin, LVEF, right ventricular (RV) diastolic dimension (RVDd), RV dp/dt, and RV fractional shortening. Multivariate analyses revealed that RVDd, eGFR, and LVEF were independently associated with smooth introduction. In addition, RVDd and eGFR seemed to be better diagnostic parameters for longer usage for ASV therapy according to the analysis of receiver operating characteristics curves.RV enlargement, eGFR, and LVEF are associated with the smooth introduction of ASV therapy in CHF inpatients.

  5. A small molecule PAI-1 functional inhibitor attenuates neointimal hyperplasia and vascular smooth muscle cell survival by promoting PAI-1 cleavage.

    PubMed

    Simone, Tessa M; Higgins, Stephen P; Archambeault, Jaclyn; Higgins, Craig E; Ginnan, Roman G; Singer, Harold; Higgins, Paul J

    2015-05-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), the primary inhibitor of urokinase-and tissue-type plasminogen activators (uPA and tPA), is an injury-response gene implicated in the development of tissue fibrosis and cardiovascular disease. PAI-1 mRNA and protein levels were elevated in the balloon catheter-injured carotid and in the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-enriched neointima of ligated arteries. PAI-1/uPA complex formation and PAI-1 antiproteolytic activity can be inhibited, via proteolytic cleavage, by the small molecule antagonist tiplaxtinin which effectively increased the VSMC apoptotic index in vitro and attenuated carotid artery neointimal formation in vivo. In contrast to the active full-length serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN), elastase-cleaved PAI-1 (similar to tiplaxtinin) also promoted VSMC apoptosis in vitro and similarly reduced neointimal formation in vivo. The mechanism through which cleaved PAI-1 (CL-PAI-1) stimulates apoptosis appears to involve the TNF-α family member TWEAK (TNF-α weak inducer of apoptosis) and it's cognate receptor, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-inducible 14 (FN14). CL-PAI-1 sensitizes cells to TWEAK-stimulated apoptosis while full-length PAI-1 did not, presumably due to its ability to down-regulate FN14 in a low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1)-dependent mechanism. It appears that prolonged exposure of VSMCs to CL-PAI-1 induces apoptosis by augmenting TWEAK/FN14 pro-apoptotic signaling. This work identifies a critical, anti-stenotic, role for a functionally-inactive (at least with regard to its protease inhibitory function) cleaved SERPIN. Therapies that promote the conversion of full-length to cleaved PAI-1 may have translational implications.

  6. Effects of space flight and IGF-1 on immune function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) would ameliorate space flight-induced effects on the immune system. Twelve male, Sprague-Dawley rats, surgically implanted with mini osmotic pumps, were subjected to space flight for 10 days on STS-77. Six rats received 10 mg/kg/day of IGF-1 and 6 rats received saline. Flight animals had a lymphocytopenia and granulocytosis which were reversed by IGF-1. Flight animals had significantly higher corticosterone levels than ground controls but IGF-1 did not impact this stress hormone. Therefore, the reversed granulocytosis did not correlate with serum corticosterone. Space flight and IGF-1 also combined to induce a monocytopenia that was not evident in ground control animals treated with IGF-1 or in animals subjected to space flight but given physiological saline. There was a significant increase in spleen weights in vivarium animals treated with IGF-1, however, this change did not occur in flight animals. We observed reduced agonist-induced lymph node cell proliferation by cells from flight animals compared to ground controls. The reduced proliferation was not augmented by IGF-1 treatment. There was enhanced secretion of TNF, IL-6 and NO by flight-animal peritoneal macrophages compared to vivarium controls, however, O2- secretion was not affected. These data suggest that IGF-1 can ameliorate some of the effects of space flight but that space flight can also impact the normal response to IGF-1.

  7. Astrophysical smooth particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosswog, Stephan

    2009-04-01

    The paper presents a detailed review of the smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method with particular focus on its astrophysical applications. We start by introducing the basic ideas and concepts and thereby outline all ingredients that are necessary for a practical implementation of the method in a working SPH code. Much of SPH's success relies on its excellent conservation properties and therefore the numerical conservation of physical invariants receives much attention throughout this review. The self-consistent derivation of the SPH equations from the Lagrangian of an ideal fluid is the common theme of the remainder of the text. We derive a modern, Newtonian SPH formulation from the Lagrangian of an ideal fluid. It accounts for changes of the local resolution lengths which result in corrective, so-called "grad-h-terms". We extend this strategy to special relativity for which we derive the corresponding grad-h equation set. The variational approach is further applied to a general-relativistic fluid evolving in a fixed, curved background space-time. Particular care is taken to explicitly derive all relevant equations in a coherent way.

  8. A low-complexity 2-point step size gradient projection method with selective function evaluations for smoothed total variation based CBCT reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bongyong; Park, Justin C.; Song, William Y.

    2014-11-01

    The Barzilai-Borwein (BB) 2-point step size gradient method is receiving attention for accelerating Total Variation (TV) based CBCT reconstructions. In order to become truly viable for clinical applications, however, its convergence property needs to be properly addressed. We propose a novel fast converging gradient projection BB method that requires ‘at most one function evaluation’ in each iterative step. This Selective Function Evaluation method, referred to as GPBB-SFE in this paper, exhibits the desired convergence property when it is combined with a ‘smoothed TV’ or any other differentiable prior. This way, the proposed GPBB-SFE algorithm offers fast and guaranteed convergence to the desired 3DCBCT image with minimal computational complexity. We first applied this algorithm to a Shepp-Logan numerical phantom. We then applied to a CatPhan 600 physical phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY) and a clinically-treated head-and-neck patient, both acquired from the TrueBeam™ system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Furthermore, we accelerated the reconstruction by implementing the algorithm on NVIDIA GTX 480 GPU card. We first compared GPBB-SFE with three recently proposed BB-based CBCT reconstruction methods available in the literature using Shepp-Logan numerical phantom with 40 projections. It is found that GPBB-SFE shows either faster convergence speed/time or superior convergence property compared to existing BB-based algorithms. With the CatPhan 600 physical phantom, the GPBB-SFE algorithm requires only 3 function evaluations in 30 iterations and reconstructs the standard, 364-projection FDK reconstruction quality image using only 60 projections. We then applied the algorithm to a clinically-treated head-and-neck patient. It was observed that the GPBB-SFE algorithm requires only 18 function evaluations in 30 iterations. Compared with the FDK algorithm with 364 projections, the GPBB-SFE algorithm produces visibly equivalent quality CBCT

  9. A low-complexity 2-point step size gradient projection method with selective function evaluations for smoothed total variation based CBCT reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Song, Bongyong; Park, Justin C; Song, William Y

    2014-11-07

    The Barzilai-Borwein (BB) 2-point step size gradient method is receiving attention for accelerating Total Variation (TV) based CBCT reconstructions. In order to become truly viable for clinical applications, however, its convergence property needs to be properly addressed. We propose a novel fast converging gradient projection BB method that requires 'at most one function evaluation' in each iterative step. This Selective Function Evaluation method, referred to as GPBB-SFE in this paper, exhibits the desired convergence property when it is combined with a 'smoothed TV' or any other differentiable prior. This way, the proposed GPBB-SFE algorithm offers fast and guaranteed convergence to the desired 3DCBCT image with minimal computational complexity. We first applied this algorithm to a Shepp-Logan numerical phantom. We then applied to a CatPhan 600 physical phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY) and a clinically-treated head-and-neck patient, both acquired from the TrueBeam™ system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Furthermore, we accelerated the reconstruction by implementing the algorithm on NVIDIA GTX 480 GPU card. We first compared GPBB-SFE with three recently proposed BB-based CBCT reconstruction methods available in the literature using Shepp-Logan numerical phantom with 40 projections. It is found that GPBB-SFE shows either faster convergence speed/time or superior convergence property compared to existing BB-based algorithms. With the CatPhan 600 physical phantom, the GPBB-SFE algorithm requires only 3 function evaluations in 30 iterations and reconstructs the standard, 364-projection FDK reconstruction quality image using only 60 projections. We then applied the algorithm to a clinically-treated head-and-neck patient. It was observed that the GPBB-SFE algorithm requires only 18 function evaluations in 30 iterations. Compared with the FDK algorithm with 364 projections, the GPBB-SFE algorithm produces visibly equivalent quality CBCT image for

  10. Highest weight generating functions for hyperKähler T ⋆( G/H) spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Amihay; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye; Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego

    2016-10-01

    We develop an efficient procedure for counting holomorphic functions on a hyperKahler cone that has a resolution as a cotangent bundle of a homogeneous space by providing a formula for computing the corresponding Highest Weight Generating function.

  11. A Paley-Wiener theorem for generalized entire functions on infinite-dimensional spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrennikov, A. Yu; Petersson, H.

    2001-04-01

    We study entire functions on infinite-dimensional spaces. The basis is the study of spaces of Gateaux holomorphic functions that are bounded on certain subsets (bounded entire functions). The main goal is to characterize the Fourier image of the corresponding spaces of generalized entire functions (ultra-distributions) by an infinite-dimensional Paley-Wiener theorem. We introduce entire functions of exponential type and prove a generalization of the classical Paley-Wiener theorem. The crucial point of our theory is the dimension-invariant estimate given by Lemma 4.12.

  12. Agonistic Anti-PDGF Receptor Autoantibodies from Patients with Systemic Sclerosis Impact Human Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells Function In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Svegliati, Silvia; Amico, Donatella; Spadoni, Tatiana; Fischetti, Colomba; Finke, Doreen; Moroncini, Gianluca; Paolini, Chiara; Tonnini, Cecilia; Grieco, Antonella; Rovinelli, Marina; Gabrielli, Armando

    2017-01-01

    One of the earliest events in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is microvasculature damage with intimal hyperplasia and accumulation of cells expressing PDGF receptor. Stimulatory autoantibodies targeting PDGF receptor have been detected in SSc patients and demonstrated to induce fibrosis in vivo and convert in vitro normal fibroblasts into SSc-like cells. Since there is no evidence of the role of anti-PDGF receptor autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of SSc vascular lesions, we investigated the biologic effect of agonistic anti-PDGF receptor autoantibodies from SSc patients on human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and the signaling pathways involved. The synthetic (proliferation, migration, and type I collagen gene α1 chain expression) and contractile (smooth muscle-myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle-calponin expression) profiles of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells were assessed in vitro after incubation with SSc anti-PDGF receptors stimulatory autoantibodies. The role of reactive oxygen species, NOX isoforms, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was investigated. Human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells acquired a synthetic phenotype characterized by higher growth rate, migratory activity, gene expression of type I collagen α1 chain, and less expression of markers characteristic of the contractile phenotype such as smooth muscle-myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle-calponin when stimulated with PDGF and autoantibodies against PDGF receptor, but not with normal IgG. This phenotypic profile is mediated by increased generation of reactive oxygen species and expression of NOX4 and mTORC1. Our data indicate that agonistic anti-PDGF receptor autoantibodies may contribute to the pathogenesis of SSc intimal hyperplasia. PMID:28228756

  13. Agonistic Anti-PDGF Receptor Autoantibodies from Patients with Systemic Sclerosis Impact Human Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells Function In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Svegliati, Silvia; Amico, Donatella; Spadoni, Tatiana; Fischetti, Colomba; Finke, Doreen; Moroncini, Gianluca; Paolini, Chiara; Tonnini, Cecilia; Grieco, Antonella; Rovinelli, Marina; Gabrielli, Armando

    2017-01-01

    One of the earliest events in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is microvasculature damage with intimal hyperplasia and accumulation of cells expressing PDGF receptor. Stimulatory autoantibodies targeting PDGF receptor have been detected in SSc patients and demonstrated to induce fibrosis in vivo and convert in vitro normal fibroblasts into SSc-like cells. Since there is no evidence of the role of anti-PDGF receptor autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of SSc vascular lesions, we investigated the biologic effect of agonistic anti-PDGF receptor autoantibodies from SSc patients on human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and the signaling pathways involved. The synthetic (proliferation, migration, and type I collagen gene α1 chain expression) and contractile (smooth muscle-myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle-calponin expression) profiles of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells were assessed in vitro after incubation with SSc anti-PDGF receptors stimulatory autoantibodies. The role of reactive oxygen species, NOX isoforms, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was investigated. Human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells acquired a synthetic phenotype characterized by higher growth rate, migratory activity, gene expression of type I collagen α1 chain, and less expression of markers characteristic of the contractile phenotype such as smooth muscle-myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle-calponin when stimulated with PDGF and autoantibodies against PDGF receptor, but not with normal IgG. This phenotypic profile is mediated by increased generation of reactive oxygen species and expression of NOX4 and mTORC1. Our data indicate that agonistic anti-PDGF receptor autoantibodies may contribute to the pathogenesis of SSc intimal hyperplasia.

  14. Multiwavelet characterization of function spaces adapted to the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakey, Joseph D.; Obeidat, S.; Pereyra, M. Cristina

    2000-12-01

    We use wavelets based ona modification of the Geronimo- Hardin-Massopust construction to define localized extension/restriction operators form half-spaces to their full spaces/boundaries respectively. These operations are continuous in Sobolev and Morrey space norms. We also prove estimates for multiresolution projections of pointwise products of functions in these spaces. These are two of the key steps in extending results of Federbush and of Cannone and Meyer concerning solutions of Navier-Stokes with initial data in Sobolev and Morrey spaces to the case of half spaces and, ultimately, to more general domains with boundary.

  15. Minimum of a functional in a metric space and fixed points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunov, A. V.; Gel'Man, B. D.

    2009-07-01

    The existence of minimizers is examined for a function defined on a metric space. Theorems are proved that assert the existence of minimizers, and examples of the functions for which these theorems are valid are given. Then, these theorems are applied to proving theorems on fixed points of univalent and multivalued mappings of metric spaces. Finally, coincident points of two mappings are examined.

  16. Lattice spacings and domain sizes of room-temperature epitaxial LixNi1-xO (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.48) thin films grown on ultra-smooth sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Anli; Sakata, Osami; Yamauchi, Ryosuke; Katsuya, Yoshio; Kumara, L. S. R.; Shimada, Yoshitomo; Matsuda, Akifumi; Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2014-11-01

    The effects of heavy Li doping on lattice spacings, out-of-plane, and in-plane domain sizes of room-temperature epitaxial LixNi1-xO (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.48) thin films on ultra-smooth sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates were investigated. The pseudocubic-on-hexagonal epitaxial relationship between the LixNi1-xO epitaxial thin films and the sapphire substrates was verified. The (1 1 1) lattice spacing of the film was larger than the (1 1 bar 1) lattice spacing of the film regardless of the Li content. It indicated that all the crystal structures deviated from the ideal cubic structure and elongated along the [1 1 1] out-of-plane growth direction. The crystal domain sizes of LixNi1-xO thin films in the in-plane direction were found to be very similar, while the out-of-plane domain size increased with a Li content up to 48 mol%. It suggested that the out-of-plane growth can be improved by heavy Li doping. Moreover, the crystal quality of the films was compared with that grown by high temperature pulse laser deposition in view of the domain size information.

  17. BK channel-mediated relaxation of urinary bladder smooth muscle: a novel paradigm for phosphodiesterase type 4 regulation of bladder function.

    PubMed

    Xin, Wenkuan; Li, Ning; Cheng, Qiuping; Petkov, Georgi V

    2014-04-01

    Elevation of intracellular cAMP and activation of protein kinase A (PKA) lead to activation of large conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels, thus attenuation of detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) contractility. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which pharmacological inhibition of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) with rolipram or Ro-20-1724 (C(15)H(22)N(2)O(3)) suppresses guinea pig DSM excitability and contractility. We used high-speed line-scanning confocal microscopy, ratiometric fluorescence Ca(2+) imaging, and perforated whole-cell patch-clamp techniques on freshly isolated DSM cells, along with isometric tension recordings of DSM isolated strips. Rolipram caused an increase in the frequency of Ca(2+) sparks and the spontaneous transient BK currents (TBKCs), hyperpolarized the cell membrane potential (MP), and decreased the intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Blocking BK channels with paxilline reversed the hyperpolarizing effect of rolipram and depolarized the MP back to the control levels. In the presence of H-89 [N-[2-[[3-(4-bromophenyl)-2-propenyl]amino]ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride], a PKA inhibitor, rolipram did not cause MP hyperpolarization. Rolipram or Ro-20-1724 reduced DSM spontaneous and carbachol-induced phasic contraction amplitude, muscle force, duration, and frequency, and electrical field stimulation-induced contraction amplitude, muscle force, and tone. Paxilline recovered DSM contractility, which was suppressed by pretreatment with PDE4 inhibitors. Rolipram had reduced inhibitory effects on DSM contractility in DSM strips pretreated with paxilline. This study revealed a novel cellular mechanism whereby pharmacological inhibition of PDE4 leads to suppression of guinea pig DSM contractility by increasing the frequency of Ca(2+) sparks and the functionally coupled TBKCs, consequently hyperpolarizing DSM cell MP. Collectively, this decreases the global intracellular Ca(2+) levels and DSM

  18. Smoothing error pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Clarmann, T.

    2014-04-01

    The difference due to the content of a priori information between a constrained retrieval and the true atmospheric state is usually represented by the so-called smoothing error. In this paper it is shown that the concept of the smoothing error is questionable because it is not compliant with Gaussian error propagation. The reason for this is that the smoothing error does not represent the expected deviation of the retrieval from the true state but the expected deviation of the retrieval from the atmospheric state sampled on an arbitrary grid, which is itself a smoothed representation of the true state. The idea of a sufficiently fine sampling of this reference atmospheric state is untenable because atmospheric variability occurs on all scales, implying that there is no limit beyond which the sampling is fine enough. Even the idealization of infinitesimally fine sampling of the reference state does not help because the smoothing error is applied to quantities which are only defined in a statistical sense, which implies that a finite volume of sufficient spatial extent is needed to meaningfully talk about temperature or concentration. Smoothing differences, however, which play a role when measurements are compared, are still a useful quantity if the involved a priori covariance matrix has been evaluated on the comparison grid rather than resulting from interpolation. This is, because the undefined component of the smoothing error, which is the effect of smoothing implied by the finite grid on which the measurements are compared, cancels out when the difference is calculated.

  19. Quantum State Smoothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, Ivonne; Wiseman, Howard

    2015-10-01

    Smoothing is an estimation method whereby a classical state (probability distribution for classical variables) at a given time is conditioned on all-time (both earlier and later) observations. Here we define a smoothed quantum state for a partially monitored open quantum system, conditioned on an all-time monitoring-derived record. We calculate the smoothed distribution for a hypothetical unobserved record which, when added to the real record, would complete the monitoring, yielding a pure-state "quantum trajectory." Averaging the pure state over this smoothed distribution yields the (mixed) smoothed quantum state. We study how the choice of actual unraveling affects the purity increase over that of the conventional (filtered) state conditioned only on the past record.

  20. Quantum State Smoothing.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Ivonne; Wiseman, Howard

    2015-10-30

    Smoothing is an estimation method whereby a classical state (probability distribution for classical variables) at a given time is conditioned on all-time (both earlier and later) observations. Here we define a smoothed quantum state for a partially monitored open quantum system, conditioned on an all-time monitoring-derived record. We calculate the smoothed distribution for a hypothetical unobserved record which, when added to the real record, would complete the monitoring, yielding a pure-state "quantum trajectory." Averaging the pure state over this smoothed distribution yields the (mixed) smoothed quantum state. We study how the choice of actual unraveling affects the purity increase over that of the conventional (filtered) state conditioned only on the past record.

  1. Myosin filament structure in vertebrate smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The in vivo structure of the myosin filaments in vertebrate smooth muscle is unknown. Evidence from purified smooth muscle myosin and from some studies of intact smooth muscle suggests that they may have a nonhelical, side-polar arrangement of crossbridges. However, the bipolar, helical structure characteristic of myosin filaments in striated muscle has not been disproved for smooth muscle. We have used EM to investigate this question in a functionally diverse group of smooth muscles (from the vascular, gastrointestinal, reproductive, and visual systems) from mammalian, amphibian, and avian species. Intact muscle under physiological conditions, rapidly frozen and then freeze substituted, shows many myosin filaments with a square backbone in transverse profile. Transverse sections of fixed, chemically skinned muscles also show square backbones and, in addition, reveal projections (crossbridges) on only two opposite sides of the square. Filaments gently isolated from skinned smooth muscles and observed by negative staining show crossbridges with a 14.5-nm repeat projecting in opposite directions on opposite sides of the filament. Such filaments subjected to low ionic strength conditions show bare filament ends and an antiparallel arrangement of myosin tails along the length of the filament. All of these observations are consistent with a side-polar structure and argue against a bipolar, helical crossbridge arrangement. We conclude that myosin filaments in all smooth muscles, regardless of function, are likely to be side-polar. Such a structure could be an important factor in the ability of smooth muscles to contract by large amounts. PMID:8698822

  2. On s*g-continuous Functions on Topological Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M.; Hussain, Murad

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce and study the concept of s*g-continuous and s*g-closed functions. We investigate their relation with already existing notions. We also introduce s*g-irresolute function and investigate its relation with s*g-continuous function. When the s*g-closed sets are preserved, is also studied. In the end, we define and study the notions of s*g-compactness and s*g-connectedness.

  3. Pulmonary function evaluation during and following Skylab space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Schachter, A. P.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    Cardiac output measurements were made in the laboratory during preflight and postflight exercise tests. Due to the magnitude of decreases in cardiac output following the first and second manned Skylab missions and because the method used is based upon normal pulmonary function, it was decided to perform more thorough pulmonary function screening in conjunction with the final and longest duration Skylab mission. This paper summarized pulmonary function data obtained during all three Skylab missions.

  4. A k-space Green's function solution for acoustic initial value problems in homogeneous media with power law absorption.

    PubMed

    Treeby, Bradley E; Cox, B T

    2011-06-01

    An efficient Green's function solution for acoustic initial value problems in homogeneous media with power law absorption is derived. The solution is based on the homogeneous wave equation for lossless media with two additional terms. These terms are dependent on the fractional Laplacian and separately account for power law absorption and dispersion. Given initial conditions for the pressure and its temporal derivative, the solution allows the pressure field for any time t>0 to be calculated in a single step using the Fourier transform and an exact k-space time propagator. For regularly spaced Cartesian grids, the former can be computed efficiently using the fast Fourier transform. Because no time stepping is required, the solution facilitates the efficient computation of the pressure field in one, two, or three dimensions without stability constraints. Several computational aspects of the solution are discussed, including the effect of using a truncated Fourier series to represent discrete initial conditions, the use of smoothing, and the properties of the encapsulated absorption and dispersion.

  5. Effect of Space Flight on Adrenal Medullary Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelkes, Peter I.

    1999-01-01

    We hypothesize that microgravity conditions during space flight alter the expression and specific activities of the adrenal medullary CA synthesizing enzymes (CASE). Previously, we examined adrenals from six rats flown for six days aboard STS 54 and reported that microgravity induced a decrease in the expression and specific activity of rat adrenal medullary tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme of CA synthesis, without affecting the expression of other CASE. In the past, we analyzed some of the > 300 adrenals from two previous Space Shuttle missions (PARE 03 and SLS 2). The preliminary results (a) attest to the good state of tissue preservation, thus proving the feasibility of subsequent large-scale evaluation, and (b) confirm and extend our previous findings. With this grant we will be able to expeditiously analyze all our specimens and to complete our studies in a timely fashion.

  6. Green’s functions and energy eigenvalues for delta-perturbed space-fractional quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nayga, M. M. Esguerra, J. P.

    2016-02-15

    Starting from the propagator, we introduced a time-ordered perturbation expansion and employed Wick rotation to obtain a general energy-dependent Green’s function expressions for space-fractional quantum systems with Dirac delta-function perturbation. We then obtained the Green’s functions and equations for the bound state energies for the space-fractional Schrödinger equation with single and double Dirac delta well potentials and the delta-perturbed infinite well.

  7. Effect of prolonged space flight on cardiac function and dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, W. L.; Epstein, S. E.; Griffith, J. M.; Goldstein, R. E.; Redwood, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    By taking advantage of the capabilities of echocardiography to measure noninvasively left ventricular volume, stroke volume, and ejection fraction, and of the fact that the astronauts were routinely subjected to lower body negative pressure (whereby cardiac filling is progressively decreased), it was possible to construct classic ventricular function curves noninvasively, thereby obviating the difficulties encountered in comparing cardiac function at different end-diastolic volumes preflight and postflight. In this manner, the effect of an 84-day period of weightlessness on cardiac structure and function was evaluated in the Skylab 4 astronauts.

  8. Distances in spaces of physical models: partition functions versus spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, Gunther; Kontogeorgis, Aristides

    2017-01-01

    We study the relation between convergence of partition functions (seen as general Dirichlet series) and convergence of spectra and their multiplicities. We describe applications to convergence in physical models, e.g., related to topology change and averaging in cosmology.

  9. Functional Assessment of NK and LAK Cells Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur, Indreshpal; Pierson, Duane L.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Space flight associated stress alters some aspects of the human immune response. In this study, we determined the effects of 10 days aboard the Space Shuttle on the cytotoxic activity of NK and LAK cells. PBMCs were collected from 10-ml blood specimens from 5 astronauts 10 days before launch, immediately after landing, and again at 3 days after landing and stored at -80 C. All PBMCs were thawed simultaneously, and the cytotoxic activities of NK and LAK cells were measured by a 4 hour Cr-51 release assay. K562 cells were used to assess NK cell cytotoxicity. Following 4 days of IL-2 activation, the LAK cell cytotoxic activity was determined using K562 cells and Daudi cells as the target cells. NK cell cytotoxicity decreased at landing (p<.05) in 3/5 astronauts, and recovered to preflight levels by 3 days following landing; NK cell cytotoxicity was increased (p=0.1) in the remaining 2 astronauts at landing. In 4/5 astronauts, LAK cytotoxic activity was decreased at landing against K562 cells (p = 0.13) and Daudi cells (p = 0.08). Phenotyping of PBMC's and LAK cells showed alterations in some surface markers and adhesion molecules (CD11b, CD11c, CD11a, CD16, L-selectin, and CD3).

  10. Functional testing of the space station plasma contactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Hamley, John A.; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Soulas, George C.

    1995-03-01

    A plasma contactor system has been baselined for the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) to control the electrical potentials of surfaces to eliminate/mitigate damaging interactions with the space environment. The system represents a dual-use technology which is a direct outgrowth of the NASA electric propulsion program and, in particular, the technology development effort on ion thruster systems. The plasma contactor subsystems include a hollow cathode assembly, a power electronics unit, and an expellant management unit. Under a pre-flight development program these subsystems are being developed to the level of maturity appropriate for transfer to U.S. industry for final development. Development efforts for the hollow cathode assembly include design selection and refinement, validating its required lifetime, and quantifying the cathode performance and interface specifications. To date, cathode components have demonstrated over 10,000 hours lifetime, and a hollow cathode assembly has demonstrated over 3,000 ignitions. Additionally, preliminary integration testing of a hollow cathode assembly with a breadboard power electronics unit has been completed. This paper discusses test results and the development status of the plasma contactor subsystems for ISSA, and in particular, the hollow cathode assembly.

  11. Accurate estimators of correlation functions in Fourier space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefusatti, E.; Crocce, M.; Scoccimarro, R.; Couchman, H. M. P.

    2016-08-01

    Efficient estimators of Fourier-space statistics for large number of objects rely on fast Fourier transforms (FFTs), which are affected by aliasing from unresolved small-scale modes due to the finite FFT grid. Aliasing takes the form of a sum over images, each of them corresponding to the Fourier content displaced by increasing multiples of the sampling frequency of the grid. These spurious contributions limit the accuracy in the estimation of Fourier-space statistics, and are typically ameliorated by simultaneously increasing grid size and discarding high-frequency modes. This results in inefficient estimates for e.g. the power spectrum when desired systematic biases are well under per cent level. We show that using interlaced grids removes odd images, which include the dominant contribution to aliasing. In addition, we discuss the choice of interpolation kernel used to define density perturbations on the FFT grid and demonstrate that using higher order interpolation kernels than the standard Cloud-In-Cell algorithm results in significant reduction of the remaining images. We show that combining fourth-order interpolation with interlacing gives very accurate Fourier amplitudes and phases of density perturbations. This results in power spectrum and bispectrum estimates that have systematic biases below 0.01 per cent all the way to the Nyquist frequency of the grid, thus maximizing the use of unbiased Fourier coefficients for a given grid size and greatly reducing systematics for applications to large cosmological data sets.

  12. Hydrodynamic function of biomimetic shark skin: effect of denticle pattern and spacing.

    PubMed

    Wen, Li; Weaver, James C; Thornycroft, Patrick J M; Lauder, George V

    2015-11-18

    The structure of shark skin has been the subject of numerous studies and recently biomimetic shark skin has been fabricated with rigid denticles (scales) on a flexible substrate. This artificial skin can bend and generate thrust when attached to a mechanical controller. The ability to control the manufacture of biomimetic shark skin facilitates manipulation of surface parameters and understanding the effects of changing denticle patterns on locomotion. In this paper we investigate the effect of changing the spacing and arrangement of denticles on the surface of biomimetic shark skin on both static and dynamic locomotor performance. We designed 3D-printed flexible membranes with different denticle patterns and spacings: (1) staggered-overlapped, (2) linear-overlapped, and (3) linear-non-overlapped, and compared these to a 3D-printed smooth-surfaced control. These 3D printed shark skin models were then tested in a flow tank with a mechanical flapping device that allowed us to either hold the models in a stationary position or move them dynamically. We swam the membranes at a frequency of 1 Hz with different heave amplitudes (from ±1 cm to ±3 cm) while measuring forces, torques, self-propelled swimming speed, and cost of transport (COT). Static tests revealed drag reduction of denticle patterns compared to a smooth control at low speeds, but increased drag at speeds above 25 cm s(-1). However, during dynamic (swimming) tests, the staggered-overlapped pattern produced the fastest swimming speeds with no significant increase in the COT at lower heave values. For instance, at a heave frequency of 1 Hz and amplitude of ±1 cm, swimming speed of the staggered-overlapped pattern increased by 25.2% over the smooth control. At higher heave amplitudes, significantly faster self-propelled swimming speeds were achieved by the staggered-overlapped pattern, but with higher COT. Only the staggered-overlapped pattern provides a significant swimming performance advantage over the

  13. A global minimization algorithm for Tikhonov functionals with p-convex (p\\,\\geqslant \\,2) penalty terms in Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Min; Wang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    We extend the globally convergent TIGRA method in Ramlau (2003 Inverse Prob. 19 433-65) for the computation of a minimizer of the Tikhonov-type functional with the p-convex (p≥slant 2) penalty terms Θ for nonlinear forward operators in Banach spaces. The Θ are allowed to be non-smooth to include {L}p-{L}1 or {L}p- TV (total variation) functionals, which are significant in reconstructing special features of solutions such as sparsity and discontinuities. The proposed TIGRA-Θ method uses a dual gradient descent method in the inner iteration and linearly decreases the regularization parameter in the outer iteration. We present the global convergence analysis for the algorithm under suitable parameter selections, and the convergence rate results are provided under both a priori and a posteriori stopping rules. Two numerical examples—an auto-convolution problem and a parameter identification problem—are presented to illustrate the theoretic analysis and verify the effectiveness of the method.

  14. Pulmonary function evaluation during and following Skylab space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Schachter, A. P.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    Previous experience during the Apollo postflight exercise testing indicated no major changes in pulmonary function. Although pulmonary function has been studied in detail following exposure to hypoxic and hyperoxic environments, few studies have dealt with normoxic environments at reduced total pressure as encountered during the Skylab missions. Forced vital capacity was measured during the preflight and postflight periods of the Skylab 2 mission. Initial in-flight measurements of vital capacity were obtained during the last two weeks of the second manned mission (Skylab 3). Comprehensive pulmonary function screening was accomplished during the Skylab 4 mission. The primary measurements made during Skylab 4 testing included residual volume determination, closing volume, vital capacity, and forced vital capacity and its derivatives. In addition, comprehensive in-flight vital capacity measurements were made during the Skylab 4 mission. Vital capacity was decreased slightly during flight in all Skylab 4 crewmen. No major preflight to postflight changes were observed in the other parameters.

  15. Quantum Theta Functions and Gabor Frames for Modulation Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luef, Franz; Manin, Yuri I.

    2009-06-01

    Representations of the celebrated Heisenberg commutation relations in quantum mechanics (and their exponentiated versions) form the starting point for a number of basic constructions, both in mathematics and mathematical physics (geometric quantization, quantum tori, classical and quantum theta functions) and signal analysis (Gabor analysis). In this paper we will try to bridge the two communities, represented by the two co-authors: that of noncommutative geometry and that of signal analysis. After providing a brief comparative dictionary of the two languages, we will show, e.g. that the Janssen representation of Gabor frames with generalized Gaussians as Gabor atoms yields in a natural way quantum theta functions, and that the Rieffel scalar product and associativity relations underlie both the functional equations for quantum thetas and the Fundamental Identity of Gabor analysis.

  16. Space Tug avionics definition study. Volume 2: Avionics functional requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Flight and ground operational phases of the tug/shuttle system are analyzed to determine the general avionics support functions that are needed during each of the mission phases and sub-phases. Each of these general support functions is then expanded into specific avionics system requirements, which are then allocated to the appropriate avionics subsystems. This process is then repeated at the next lower level of detail where these subsystem requirements are allocated to each of the major components that comprise a subsystem.

  17. Dialogic Space: Intersections between Dialogic Teaching and Systemic Functional Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to foster dialogue between proponents of Alexander's notion of dialogic teaching and those working with educational linguistics--in particular those working with systemic functional theory. To this end, the article begins by highlighting important points of alignment between dialogic teaching and systemic theory: their…

  18. Utilizing Probability Distribution Functions and Ensembles to Forecast lonospheric and Thermosphere Space Weather

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-26

    Functions and Ensembles to Forecast lonospheric and Thermosphere Space Weather 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0265 5c. PROGRAM...Wind Velocity, Ionosphere, Thermosphere, Space Weather 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 10 19a...and realistic. • The ability of an ensemble-driven ionosphere-thermosphere model to “predict” space weather needs to be proven. This will be done

  19. A generalized smoothness criterion for acoustic-to-articulatory inversion

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Prasanta Kumar; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2010-01-01

    The many-to-one mapping from representations in the speech articulatory space to acoustic space renders the associated acoustic-to-articulatory inverse mapping non-unique. Among various techniques, imposing smoothness constraints on the articulator trajectories is one of the common approaches to handle the non-uniqueness in the acoustic-to-articulatory inversion problem. This is because, articulators typically move smoothly during speech production. A standard smoothness constraint is to minimize the energy of the difference of the articulatory position sequence so that the articulator trajectory is smooth and low-pass in nature. Such a fixed definition of smoothness is not always realistic or adequate for all articulators because different articulators have different degrees of smoothness. In this paper, an optimization formulation is proposed for the inversion problem, which includes a generalized smoothness criterion. Under such generalized smoothness settings, the smoothness parameter can be chosen depending on the specific articulator in a data-driven fashion. In addition, this formulation allows estimation of articulatory positions recursively over time without any loss in performance. Experiments with the MOCHA TIMIT database show that the estimated articulator trajectories obtained using such a generalized smoothness criterion have lower RMS error and higher correlation with the actual measured trajectories compared to those obtained using a fixed smoothness constraint. PMID:20968386

  20. Smoothing error pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Clarmann, T.

    2014-09-01

    The difference due to the content of a priori information between a constrained retrieval and the true atmospheric state is usually represented by a diagnostic quantity called smoothing error. In this paper it is shown that, regardless of the usefulness of the smoothing error as a diagnostic tool in its own right, the concept of the smoothing error as a component of the retrieval error budget is questionable because it is not compliant with Gaussian error propagation. The reason for this is that the smoothing error does not represent the expected deviation of the retrieval from the true state but the expected deviation of the retrieval from the atmospheric state sampled on an arbitrary grid, which is itself a smoothed representation of the true state; in other words, to characterize the full loss of information with respect to the true atmosphere, the effect of the representation of the atmospheric state on a finite grid also needs to be considered. The idea of a sufficiently fine sampling of this reference atmospheric state is problematic because atmospheric variability occurs on all scales, implying that there is no limit beyond which the sampling is fine enough. Even the idealization of infinitesimally fine sampling of the reference state does not help, because the smoothing error is applied to quantities which are only defined in a statistical sense, which implies that a finite volume of sufficient spatial extent is needed to meaningfully discuss temperature or concentration. Smoothing differences, however, which play a role when measurements are compared, are still a useful quantity if the covariance matrix involved has been evaluated on the comparison grid rather than resulting from interpolation and if the averaging kernel matrices have been evaluated on a grid fine enough to capture all atmospheric variations that the instruments are sensitive to. This is, under the assumptions stated, because the undefined component of the smoothing error, which is the

  1. A numerical optimization approach to generate smoothing spherical splines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, L.; Monteiro, M. Teresa T.

    2017-01-01

    Approximating data in curved spaces is a common procedure that is extremely required by modern applications arising, for instance, in aerospace and robotics industries. Here, we are particularly interested in finding smoothing cubic splines that best fit given data in the Euclidean sphere. To achieve this aim, a least squares optimization problem based on the minimization of a certain cost functional is formulated. To solve the problem a numerical algorithm is implemented using several routines from MATLAB toolboxes. The proposed algorithm is shown to be easy to implement, very accurate and precise for spherical data chosen randomly.

  2. Second-Order Perturbation Theory for Generalized Active Space Self-Consistent-Field Wave Functions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongxia; Li Manni, Giovanni; Olsen, Jeppe; Gagliardi, Laura

    2016-07-12

    A multireference second-order perturbation theory approach based on the generalized active space self-consistent-field (GASSCF) wave function is presented. Compared with the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) wave functions, GAS wave functions are more flexible and can employ larger active spaces and/or different truncations of the configuration interaction expansion. With GASSCF, one can explore chemical systems that are not affordable with either CASSCF or RASSCF. Perturbation theory to second order on top of GAS wave functions (GASPT2) has been implemented to recover the remaining electron correlation. The method has been benchmarked by computing the chromium dimer ground-state potential energy curve. These calculations show that GASPT2 gives results similar to CASPT2 even with a configuration interaction expansion much smaller than the corresponding CAS expansion.

  3. Airway smooth muscle growth in asthma: proliferation, hypertrophy, and migration.

    PubMed

    Bentley, J Kelley; Hershenson, Marc B

    2008-01-01

    Increased airway smooth muscle mass is present in fatal and non-fatal asthma. However, little information is available regarding the cellular mechanism (i.e., hyperplasia vs. hypertrophy). Even less information exists regarding the functional consequences of airway smooth muscle remodeling. It would appear that increased airway smooth muscle mass would tend to increase airway narrowing and airflow obstruction. However, the precise effects of increased airway smooth muscle mass on airway narrowing are not known. This review will consider the evidence for airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and hypertrophy in asthma, potential functional effects, and biochemical mechanisms.

  4. Functional requirements for onboard management of space shuttle consumables, volume 2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, P. J.; Herwig, H. A.; Neel, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop the functional requirements for onboard management of space shuttle consumables. A specific consumables management concept for the space shuttle vehicle was developed and the functional requirements for the onboard portion of the concept were generated. Consumables management is the process of controlling or influencing the usage of expendable materials involved in vehicle subsystem operation. The subsystems considered in the study are: (1) propulsion, (2) power generation, and (3) environmental and life support.

  5. Optimal Space Station solar array gimbal angle determination via radial basis function neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, Daniel J.; Oezguener, Uemit; Graham, Ronald E.

    1994-01-01

    The potential for excessive plume impingement loads on Space Station Freedom solar arrays, caused by jet firings from an approaching Space Shuttle, is addressed. An artificial neural network is designed to determine commanded solar array beta gimbal angle for minimum plume loads. The commanded angle would be determined dynamically. The network design proposed involves radial basis functions as activation functions. Design, development, and simulation of this network design are discussed.

  6. EDF: Computing electron number probability distribution functions in real space from molecular wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, E.; Pendás, A. Martín; Blanco, M. A.

    2008-04-01

    Given an N-electron molecule and an exhaustive partition of the real space ( R) into m arbitrary regions Ω,Ω,…,Ω ( ⋃i=1mΩ=R), the edf program computes all the probabilities P(n,n,…,n) of having exactly n electrons in Ω, n electrons in Ω,…, and n electrons ( n+n+⋯+n=N) in Ω. Each Ω may correspond to a single basin (atomic domain) or several such basins (functional group). In the later case, each atomic domain must belong to a single Ω. The program can manage both single- and multi-determinant wave functions which are read in from an aimpac-like wave function description ( .wfn) file (T.A. Keith et al., The AIMPAC95 programs, http://www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca/aimpac, 1995). For multi-determinantal wave functions a generalization of the original .wfn file has been introduced. The new format is completely backwards compatible, adding to the previous structure a description of the configuration interaction (CI) coefficients and the determinants of correlated wave functions. Besides the .wfn file, edf only needs the overlap integrals over all the atomic domains between the molecular orbitals (MO). After the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities are computed, edf obtains from them several magnitudes relevant to chemical bonding theory, such as average electronic populations and localization/delocalization indices. Regarding spin, edf may be used in two ways: with or without a splitting of the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities into α and β spin components. Program summaryProgram title: edf Catalogue identifier: AEAJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5387 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 52 381 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer

  7. Comment on "Discretization Problems for Functional Integrals in Phase Space"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-25

    7 , m- -P-- - - -50- 11 PROFESSIONAL PAPER 281 IMay 1980 o COMMENT ON "DISC RETIZATI ON PROBLEMS OF FUNCTIONAL INTEGRALS IN PHASE SPACE " Mau rice M...on "Discretization problems of functional integrals in phase space " Maurice M. Mizrahi Centerfor Naval Analyses of the University of Rocheste llOONorth...m ’(t)p"(l)dw(p,q) , (2) lina f q(t)p2 (l’)dw(p.q)-ih f p(t)dw(p.q) where a, is phase space and w is the "measure" (the equivalence of these

  8. Radon-Nikodým derivatives for vector measures belonging to Köthe function spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabuig, J. M.; Gregori, P.; Sánchez Pérez, E. A.

    2008-12-01

    Let m, n be a couple of vector measures with values on a Banach space. We develop a separation argument which provides a characterization of when the Radon-Nikodým derivative of n with respect to m--in the sense of the Bartle-Dunford-Schwartz integral--exists and belongs to a particular sublattice Z([mu]) of the space of integrable functions L1(m). We show that this theorem is in fact a particular feature of our separation argument, which can be applied to prove other results in both the vector measure and the function space settings.

  9. Space Station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 1: Functional requirements definition, DR-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The initial task in the Space Station Data System (SSDS) Analysis/Architecture Study is the definition of the functional and key performance requirements for the SSDS. The SSDS is the set of hardware and software, both on the ground and in space, that provides the basic data management services for Space Station customers and systems. The primary purpose of the requirements development activity was to provide a coordinated, documented requirements set as a basis for the system definition of the SSDS and for other subsequent study activities. These requirements should also prove useful to other Space Station activities in that they provide an indication of the scope of the information services and systems that will be needed in the Space Station program. The major results of the requirements development task are as follows: (1) identification of a conceptual topology and architecture for the end-to-end Space Station Information Systems (SSIS); (2) development of a complete set of functional requirements and design drivers for the SSIS; (3) development of functional requirements and key performance requirements for the Space Station Data System (SSDS); and (4) definition of an operating concept for the SSIS. The operating concept was developed both from a Space Station payload customer and operator perspective in order to allow a requirements practicality assessment.

  10. From direct-space discrepancy functions to crystallographic least squares.

    PubMed

    Giacovazzo, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Crystallographic least squares are a fundamental tool for crystal structure analysis. In this paper their properties are derived from functions estimating the degree of similarity between two electron-density maps. The new approach leads also to modifications of the standard least-squares procedures, potentially able to improve their efficiency. The role of the scaling factor between observed and model amplitudes is analysed: the concept of unlocated model is discussed and its scattering contribution is combined with that arising from the located model. Also, the possible use of an ancillary parameter, to be associated with the classical weight related to the variance of the observed amplitudes, is studied. The crystallographic discrepancy factors, basic tools often combined with least-squares procedures in phasing approaches, are analysed. The mathematical approach here described includes, as a special case, the so-called vector refinement, used when accurate estimates of the target phases are available.

  11. Analysis of crew functions as an aid in Space Station interior layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, A. L.; Tullis, Thomas S.; Bied, Barbra

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station must be designed to facilitate all of the functions that its crew will perform, both on-duty and off-duty, as efficiently and comfortably as possible. This paper examines the functions to be performed by the Space Station crew in order to make inferences about the design of an interior layout that optimizes crew productivity. Twenty-seven crew functions were defined, as well as five criteria for assessing relationships among all pairs of those functions. Hierarchical clustering and multidimensional scaling techniques were used to visually summarize the relationships. A key result was the identification of two dimensions for describing the configuration of crew functions: 'Private-Public' and 'Group-Individual'. Seven specific recommendations for Space Station interior layout were derived from the analyses.

  12. The ESO Slice Project (ESP) galaxy redshift survey. VII. The redshift and real-space correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, L.; Bartlett, J. G.; Cappi, A.; Maurogordato, S.; Zucca, E.; Zamorani, G.; Balkowski, C.; Blanchard, A.; Cayatte, V.; Chincarini, G.; Collins, C. A.; Maccagni, D.; MacGillivray, H.; Merighi, R.; Mignoli, M.; Proust, D.; Ramella, M.; Scaramella, R.; Stirpe, G. M.; Vettolani, G.

    2000-03-01

    We present analyses of the two-point correlation properties of the ESO Slice Project (ESP) galaxy redshift survey, both in redshift and real space. From the redshift-space correlation function $xi (r) i(s) we are able to trace positive clustering out to separations as large as 50 h^{-1} Mpc, after which xi (r) i(s) smoothly breaks down, crossing the zero value between 60 and 80 h^{-1} Mpc. This is best seen from the whole magnitude-limited redshift catalogue, using the J_3 miniμm-variance weighting estimator. xi (r) i(s) is reasonably well described by a shallow power law with \\gamma\\sim 1.5 between 3 and 50 h^{-1} Mpc, while on smaller scales (0.2-2 h^{-1} Mpc) it has a shallower slope (\\gamma\\sim 1). This flattening is shown to be mostly due to the redshift-space damping produced by virialized structures, and is less evident when volume-limited samples of the survey are analysed. We examine the full effect of redshift-space distortions by computing the two-dimensional correlation function xi (r) i(r_p,\\pi) , from which we project out the real-space xi (r) i(r) below 10 h^{-1} Mpc. This function is well described by a power-law model (r/r_o)^{-\\gamma}, with r_o=4.15^{+0.20}_{-0.21} h^{-1} Mpc and \\gamma=1.67^{+0.07}_{-0.09} for the whole magnitude-limited catalogue. Comparison to other redshift surveys shows a consistent picture in which galaxy clustering remains positive out to separations of 50 h^{-1} Mpc or larger, in substantial agreement with the results obtained from angular surveys like the APM and EDSGC. Also the shape of the two-point correlation function is remarkably unanimous among these data sets, in all cases requiring more power on scales larger than 5 h^{-1} Mpc (a `shoulder'), with respect to a simple extrapolation of the canonical xi (r) i(r) =(r/5)^{-1.8}. The analysis of xi (r) i(s) for volume-limited subsamples with different luminosity shows evidence of luminosity segregation only for the most luminous sample with Mb_J <= -20.5. For

  13. Spectral functions with the density matrix renormalization group: Krylov-space approach for correction vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocera, A.; Alvarez, G.

    2016-11-01

    Frequency-dependent correlations, such as the spectral function and the dynamical structure factor, help illustrate condensed matter experiments. Within the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) framework, an accurate method for calculating spectral functions directly in frequency is the correction-vector method. The correction vector can be computed by solving a linear equation or by minimizing a functional. This paper proposes an alternative to calculate the correction vector: to use the Krylov-space approach. This paper then studies the accuracy and performance of the Krylov-space approach, when applied to the Heisenberg, the t-J, and the Hubbard models. The cases studied indicate that the Krylov-space approach can be more accurate and efficient than the conjugate gradient, and that the error of the former integrates best when a Krylov-space decomposition is also used for ground state DMRG.

  14. Functional architecture of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling in restricted spaces of myoendothelial projections.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Jonathan; Taylor, Mark S; Bonev, Adrian D; Hannah, Rachael M; Solodushko, Viktoriya; Shui, Bo; Tallini, Yvonne; Kotlikoff, Michael I; Nelson, Mark T

    2008-07-15

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) release through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) regulates the function of virtually every mammalian cell. Unlike ryanodine receptors, which generate local Ca(2+) events ("sparks") that transmit signals to the juxtaposed cell membrane, a similar functional architecture has not been reported for IP(3)Rs. Here, we have identified spatially fixed, local Ca(2+) release events ("pulsars") in vascular endothelial membrane domains that project through the internal elastic lamina to adjacent smooth muscle membranes. Ca(2+) pulsars are mediated by IP(3)Rs in the endothelial endoplasmic reticulum of these membrane projections. Elevation of IP(3) by the endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine, increased the frequency of Ca(2+) pulsars, whereas blunting IP(3) production, blocking IP(3)Rs, or depleting endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) inhibited these events. The elementary properties of Ca(2+) pulsars were distinct from ryanodine-receptor-mediated Ca(2+) sparks in smooth muscle and from IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) puffs in Xenopus oocytes. The intermediate conductance, Ca(2+)-sensitive potassium (K(Ca)3.1) channel also colocalized to the endothelial projections, and blockage of this channel caused an 8-mV depolarization. Inhibition of Ca(2+) pulsars also depolarized to a similar extent, and blocking K(Ca)3.1 channels was without effect in the absence of pulsars. Our results support a mechanism of IP(3) signaling in which Ca(2+) release is spatially restricted to transmit intercellular signals.

  15. Chronic Cigarette Smoking Impairs Erectile Function through Increased Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis, Decreased nNOS, Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Contents in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yun-Ching; Chin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Chih-Shou; Shindel, Alan. W.; Ho, Dong-Ru; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Shi, Chung-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette use is an independent risk factor for the development of erectile dysfunction (ED). While the association between chronic smoking and ED is well established, the fundamental mechanism(s) of cigarette-related ED are incompletely understood, partly due to no reliable animal model of smoking-induced ED. The present study was designed to validate an in vivo rat model of chronic cigarette-induced ED. Forty 12-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Ten rats served as control group and were exposed only to room air. The remaining 30 rats were passively exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 4 weeks (n = 10), 12 weeks (n = 10), and 24 weeks (n = 10). At the 24-week time point all rats were assessed with intracavernous pressure (ICP) during cavernous nerve electrostimulation. Blood and urine were collected to measure serum testosterone and oxidative stress, respectively. Corporal tissue was assessed by Western blot for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Penile tissues were subjected to immunohistochemistry for endothelial, smooth muscle, and apoptotic content. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly higher in 24-week cigarette exposed animals compared to the control animals. Mean ICP/MAP ratio and cavernosal smooth muscle/endothelial contents were significantly lower in the 12- and 24-week rats compared to control animals. Oxidative stress was significantly higher in the 24-week cigarette exposed group compared to control animals. Mean nNOS expression was significantly lower, and apoptotic index significantly higher, in CS-exposed animals compared to control animals. These findings indicate that the rat model exposure to CS increases apoptosis and oxidative stress and decreases nNOS, endothelial and smooth muscle contents, and ICP in a dose dependent fashion. The rat model is a useful tool for further study of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of CS-related ED. PMID:26491965

  16. Chronic Cigarette Smoking Impairs Erectile Function through Increased Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis, Decreased nNOS, Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Contents in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun-Ching; Chin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Chih-Shou; Shindel, Alan W; Ho, Dong-Ru; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Shi, Chung-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette use is an independent risk factor for the development of erectile dysfunction (ED). While the association between chronic smoking and ED is well established, the fundamental mechanism(s) of cigarette-related ED are incompletely understood, partly due to no reliable animal model of smoking-induced ED. The present study was designed to validate an in vivo rat model of chronic cigarette-induced ED. Forty 12-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Ten rats served as control group and were exposed only to room air. The remaining 30 rats were passively exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 4 weeks (n = 10), 12 weeks (n = 10), and 24 weeks (n = 10). At the 24-week time point all rats were assessed with intracavernous pressure (ICP) during cavernous nerve electrostimulation. Blood and urine were collected to measure serum testosterone and oxidative stress, respectively. Corporal tissue was assessed by Western blot for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Penile tissues were subjected to immunohistochemistry for endothelial, smooth muscle, and apoptotic content. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly higher in 24-week cigarette exposed animals compared to the control animals. Mean ICP/MAP ratio and cavernosal smooth muscle/endothelial contents were significantly lower in the 12- and 24-week rats compared to control animals. Oxidative stress was significantly higher in the 24-week cigarette exposed group compared to control animals. Mean nNOS expression was significantly lower, and apoptotic index significantly higher, in CS-exposed animals compared to control animals. These findings indicate that the rat model exposure to CS increases apoptosis and oxidative stress and decreases nNOS, endothelial and smooth muscle contents, and ICP in a dose dependent fashion. The rat model is a useful tool for further study of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of CS-related ED.

  17. The Mental Space Function of BUT as a Lexical Discourse Marker in American Sign Language Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrow, William George

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation centers on the application of the mental space theory to expand our understanding of the role lexical discourse markers (LDMs) play in discourse. LDMs have been recognized by many researchers for their discourse connective function(s) (Levinson, 1983; Schiffrin, 1987; Blakemore, 1989, 2000, 2001, 2002; Fraser, 1996, 1999, 2006).…

  18. Functional requirements for design of the Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer (SUMC) system simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, R. T.; Hornfeck, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    The functional requirements for the design of an interpretive simulator for the space ultrareliable modular computer (SUMC) are presented. A review of applicable existing computer simulations is included along with constraints on the SUMC simulator functional design. Input requirements, output requirements, and language requirements for the simulator are discussed in terms of a SUMC configuration which may vary according to the application.

  19. Functional design specification for Stowage List And Hardware Tracking System (SLAHTS). [space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keltner, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    This functional design specification defines the total systems approach to meeting the requirements stated in the Detailed Requirements Document for Stowage List and Hardware Tracking System for the space shuttle program. The stowage list and hardware tracking system is identified at the system and subsystem level with each subsystem defined as a function of the total system.

  20. Infinite space Green’s function of the time-dependent radiative transfer equation

    PubMed Central

    Liemert, André; Kienle, Alwin

    2012-01-01

    This study contains the derivation of an infinite space Green’s function of the time-dependent radiative transfer equation in an anisotropically scattering medium based on analytical approaches. The final solutions are analytical regarding the time variable and given by a superposition of real and complex exponential functions. The obtained expressions were successfully validated with Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:22435101

  1. Multipole-preserving quadratures for the discretization of functions in real-space electronic structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Luigi; Deutsch, Thierry

    2015-12-21

    Discretizing an analytic function on a uniform real-space grid is often done via a straightforward collocation method. This is ubiquitous in all areas of computational physics and quantum chemistry. An example in density functional theory (DFT) is given by the external potential or the pseudo-potential describing the interaction between ions and electrons. The accuracy of the collocation method used is therefore very important for the reliability of subsequent treatments like self-consistent field solutions of the electronic structure problems. By construction, the collocation method introduces numerical artifacts typical of real-space treatments, like the so-called egg-box error, which may spoil the numerical stability of the description when the real-space grid is too coarse. As the external potential is an input of the problem, even a highly precise computational treatment cannot cope this inconvenience. We present in this paper a new quadrature scheme that is able to exactly preserve the moments of a given analytic function even for large grid spacings, while reconciling with the traditional collocation method when the grid spacing is small enough. In the context of real-space electronic structure calculations, we show that this method improves considerably the stability of the results for large grid spacings, opening up the path towards reliable low-accuracy DFT calculations with a reduced number of degrees of freedom.

  2. Baker-Akhiezer Spinor Kernel and Tau-functions on Moduli Spaces of Meromorphic Differentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalla, C.; Korotkin, D.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we study the Baker-Akhiezer spinor kernel on moduli spaces of meromorphic differentials on Riemann surfaces. We introduce the Baker-Akhiezer tau-function which is related to both the Bergman tau-function (which was studied before in the context of Hurwitz spaces and spaces of holomorphic Abelian and quadratic differentials) and the KP tau-function on such spaces. In particular, we derive variational formulas of Rauch-Ahlfors type on moduli spaces of meromorphic differentials with prescribed singularities: we use the system of homological coordinates, consisting of absolute and relative periods of the meromorphic differential, and show how to vary the fundamental objects associated to a Riemann surface (the matrix of b-periods, normalized Abelian differentials, the Bergman bidifferential, the Szegö kernel and the Baker-Akhiezer spinor kernel) with respect to these coordinates. The variational formulas encode dependence both on the moduli of the Riemann surface and on the choice of meromorphic differential (variation of the meromorphic differential while keeping the Riemann surface fixed corresponds to flows of KP type). Analyzing the global properties of the Bergman and Baker-Akhiezer tau-functions, we establish relationships between various divisor classes on the moduli spaces.

  3. The 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter is functional in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells proliferation and is regulated by Interleukin-1 beta

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing-Jie; Wang, Dong; Tang, Cheng-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCASMCs) proliferation and migration are key factors in coronary artery restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. Platelets release 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), which is a strong mitogen for pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells proliferation and migration. Here, we investigated the effects of 5-HT and role of 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) on hCASMCs proliferation and migration. The 5-HT (10-6-10-5 mol/l) significantly increased hCASMCs proliferation and migration, and these effects were inhibited by fluoxetine (10-5 mol/l) and citalopram (10-6 mol/l), two 5-HTT blocker. Overexpression in hCASMCs enhanced 5-HT induced cells proliferation and migration. The 5-HTT and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) expression were increased in rat balloon injury carotid arteries. Treatment with IL-1β (10 ng/ml, 3d) upregulates 5-HTT expression in hCASMCs and increased 5-HT induced currents in Human Embryonic Kidney 293-5-HTT cells. PMID:26221231

  4. Smooth Pursuit of Flicker-Defined Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Stevenson, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the pursuit response to stimuli defined by space-variant flicker of a dense random dot carrier pattern. On each frame, every element of the pattern could change polarity, with a probability given by a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution. A normal distribution produces a circular region of twinkle, while inverting the distribution results in a spot of static texture in a twinkling surround. In this latter case, the carrier texture could be stationary, or could move with the twinkle modulator, thereby producing first-order motion in the region of the spot. While the twinkle-defined spot produces a strong sensation of motion, the complementary stimulus defined by the absence of twinkle does not, when viewed peripherally, it appears to move in steps even when the generating distribution moves smoothly. We examined pursuit responses to these stimuli using two techniques: 1) the eye movement correlogram, obtained by cross-correlating eye velocity with the velocity of a randomly-moving stimulus; and 2) delayed visual feedback, where transient stabilization of a target can produce spontaneous oscillations of the eye, with a period empirically observed to vary linearly with the applied delay. Both techniques provide an estimate of the internal processing time, which can be as short as 100 milliseconds for a first-order target. Assessed by the correlogram method, the response to flicker-defined motion is delayed by more than 100 milliseconds, and significantly weaker (especially in the vertical dimension). When initially presented in the delayed feedback condition, purely saccadic oscillation is observed. One subject eventually developed smooth oscillations (albeit with significant saccadic intrusions), showing a period-versus-delay slope similar to that observed for first-order targets. This result is somewhat surprising, given that we interpret the slope of the period-versus-delay-function as reflecting the balance between position- and velocity

  5. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-05

    This code is a highly modular framework for developing smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations running on parallel platforms. The compartmentalization of the code allows for rapid development of new SPH applications and modifications of existing algorithms. The compartmentalization also allows changes in one part of the code used by many applications to instantly be made available to all applications.

  6. Functional connectivity among spikes in low dimensional space during working memory task in rat.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Mei; Li, Shuangyan; Tian, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is critically important in cognitive tasks. The functional connectivity has been a powerful tool for understanding the mechanism underlying the information processing during WM tasks. The aim of this study is to investigate how to effectively characterize the dynamic variations of the functional connectivity in low dimensional space among the principal components (PCs) which were extracted from the instantaneous firing rate series. Spikes were obtained from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats with implanted microelectrode array and then transformed into continuous series via instantaneous firing rate method. Granger causality method is proposed to study the functional connectivity. Then three scalar metrics were applied to identify the changes of the reduced dimensionality functional network during working memory tasks: functional connectivity (GC), global efficiency (E) and casual density (CD). As a comparison, GC, E and CD were also calculated to describe the functional connectivity in the original space. The results showed that these network characteristics dynamically changed during the correct WM tasks. The measure values increased to maximum, and then decreased both in the original and in the reduced dimensionality. Besides, the feature values of the reduced dimensionality were significantly higher during the WM tasks than they were in the original space. These findings suggested that functional connectivity among the spikes varied dynamically during the WM tasks and could be described effectively in the low dimensional space.

  7. Functional Connectivity among Spikes in Low Dimensional Space during Working Memory Task in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is critically important in cognitive tasks. The functional connectivity has been a powerful tool for understanding the mechanism underlying the information processing during WM tasks. The aim of this study is to investigate how to effectively characterize the dynamic variations of the functional connectivity in low dimensional space among the principal components (PCs) which were extracted from the instantaneous firing rate series. Spikes were obtained from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats with implanted microelectrode array and then transformed into continuous series via instantaneous firing rate method. Granger causality method is proposed to study the functional connectivity. Then three scalar metrics were applied to identify the changes of the reduced dimensionality functional network during working memory tasks: functional connectivity (GC), global efficiency (E) and casual density (CD). As a comparison, GC, E and CD were also calculated to describe the functional connectivity in the original space. The results showed that these network characteristics dynamically changed during the correct WM tasks. The measure values increased to maximum, and then decreased both in the original and in the reduced dimensionality. Besides, the feature values of the reduced dimensionality were significantly higher during the WM tasks than they were in the original space. These findings suggested that functional connectivity among the spikes varied dynamically during the WM tasks and could be described effectively in the low dimensional space. PMID:24658291

  8. Results of the investigation of the otolith function in manned space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornilova, L. N.; Syrykh, G. D.; Tarasov, I. K.; Yakovleva, I. Y.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of conditions of long term and short term space flights on the otolith function of cosmonauts were investigated via pre and post examinations. The results show that after long term flight, the intensity of the otolith reflex increased and asymmetry occurred in the indicators of the otolith function. Large changes in terms of expression and duration in the indicators of the otolith function after long term flight as compared with short term flight were also noted.

  9. Evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Ajioka, Reiko

    We have been studying the useful life-support system in closed bio-ecosystem for space agriculture. We have already proposed the several species as food material, such as Nostoc sp. HK-01 and Prunnus sp., cyanobacterium and Japanese cherry tree, respectively. The cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp Hk-01, has high tolerances to several space environment. Furthermore, the woody plant materials have useful utilization elements in our habitation environment. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. We have already found that they can produce the important functional substances for human. Here, we will show the evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials under the possible conditions for space agriculture after cooking.

  10. On the spectrum of the Cesàro operator on spaces of analytic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Anna-Maria

    2008-04-01

    This paper concerns the Cesàro operator acting on various spaces of analytic functions on the unit disc. The remarkable fact that this operator is subnormal when acting on the Hardy space H2 has lead to extensive studies of its spectral picture on other spaces of this type. We present some of the methods that have been used to obtain information about the spectrum of the Cesàro operator acting on Hardy and Bergman spaces and give a unified approach to these problems which also yields new results in this direction. In particular, we prove that the Cesàro operator is subdecomposable on H1 and on the standard weighted Bergman spaces , [alpha][greater-or-equal, slanted]0.

  11. Exponential rational function method for space-time fractional differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Esin; Kaplan, Melike; Bekir, Ahmet

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, exponential rational function method is applied to obtain analytical solutions of the space-time fractional Fokas equation, the space-time fractional Zakharov Kuznetsov Benjamin Bona Mahony, and the space-time fractional coupled Burgers' equations. As a result, some exact solutions for them are successfully established. These solutions are constructed in fractional complex transform to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations. The fractional derivatives are described in Jumarie's modified Riemann-Liouville sense. The exact solutions obtained by the proposed method indicate that the approach is easy to implement and effective.

  12. Time domain half-space dyadic Green's functions for eddy-current calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, J. R.

    1999-12-01

    The field due to an impulsive current dipole embedded in a half-space conductor adjoining a nonconducting half space is given by an exact solution of the quasistatic field equations. This solution has been used to construct a half-space dyadic Green's function containing a term for an unbounded conductor plus terms representing the field reflected at the interface between conducting and nonconducting regions. The resulting kernel can be used in the formulation of time-dependent scattering problems to express the electric field in a conductor as an integral over an electric dipole distribution.

  13. Smooth muscle actin and myosin expression in cultured airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, J Z; Woodcock-Mitchell, J; Mitchell, J; Rippetoe, P; White, S; Absher, M; Baldor, L; Evans, J; McHugh, K M; Low, R B

    1998-05-01

    In this study, the expression of smooth muscle actin and myosin was examined in cultures of rat tracheal smooth muscle cells. Protein and mRNA analyses demonstrated that these cells express alpha- and gamma-smooth muscle actin and smooth muscle myosin and nonmuscle myosin-B heavy chains. The expression of the smooth muscle specific actin and myosin isoforms was regulated in the same direction when growth conditions were changed. Thus, at confluency in 1 or 10% serum-containing medium as well as for low-density cells (50-60% confluent) deprived of serum, the expression of the smooth muscle forms of actin and myosin was relatively high. Conversely, in rapidly proliferating cultures at low density in 10% serum, smooth muscle contractile protein expression was low. The expression of nonmuscle myosin-B mRNA and protein was more stable and was upregulated only to a small degree in growing cells. Our results provide new insight into the molecular basis of differentiation and contractile function in airway smooth muscle cells.

  14. The metric on field space, functional renormalization, and metric–torsion quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, Martin Schollmeyer, Gregor M.

    2016-04-15

    Searching for new non-perturbatively renormalizable quantum gravity theories, functional renormalization group (RG) flows are studied on a theory space of action functionals depending on the metric and the torsion tensor, the latter parameterized by three irreducible component fields. A detailed comparison with Quantum Einstein–Cartan Gravity (QECG), Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG), and “tetrad-only” gravity, all based on different theory spaces, is performed. It is demonstrated that, over a generic theory space, the construction of a functional RG equation (FRGE) for the effective average action requires the specification of a metric on the infinite-dimensional field manifold as an additional input. A modified FRGE is obtained if this metric is scale-dependent, as it happens in the metric–torsion system considered.

  15. Lensing smoothing of BAO wiggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Dio, Enea

    2017-03-01

    We study non-perturbatively the effect of the deflection angle on the BAO wiggles of the matter power spectrum in real space. We show that from redshift z~2 this introduces a dispersion of roughly 1 Mpc at BAO scale, which corresponds approximately to a 1% effect. The lensing effect induced by the deflection angle, which is completely geometrical and survey independent, smears out the BAO wiggles. The effect on the power spectrum amplitude at BAO scale is about 0.1 % for z~2 and 0.2 % for z~4. We compare the smoothing effects induced by the lensing potential and non-linear structure formation, showing that the two effects become comparable at z ~ 4, while the lensing effect dominates for sources at higher redshifts. We note that this effect is not accounted through BAO reconstruction techniques.

  16. 41 CFR 102-73.75 - What functions must Federal agencies perform with regard to leasing building space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal agencies perform with regard to leasing building space? 102-73.75 Section 102-73.75 Public... functions must Federal agencies perform with regard to leasing building space? Federal agencies, upon approval from GSA, must perform all functions of leasing building space, and land incidental thereto,...

  17. 41 CFR 102-73.75 - What functions must Federal agencies perform with regard to leasing building space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Federal agencies perform with regard to leasing building space? 102-73.75 Section 102-73.75 Public... functions must Federal agencies perform with regard to leasing building space? Federal agencies, upon approval from GSA, must perform all functions of leasing building space, and land incidental thereto,...

  18. Functional Task Test: 3. Skeletal Muscle Performance Adaptations to Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Wickwire, P. J.; Buxton, R. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    The functional task test is a multi-disciplinary study investigating how space-flight induced changes to physiological systems impacts functional task performance. Impairment of neuromuscular function would be expected to negatively affect functional performance of crewmembers following exposure to microgravity. This presentation reports the results for muscle performance testing in crewmembers. Functional task performance will be presented in the abstract "Functional Task Test 1: sensory motor adaptations associated with postflight alternations in astronaut functional task performance." METHODS: Muscle performance measures were obtained in crewmembers before and after short-duration space flight aboard the Space Shuttle and long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions. The battery of muscle performance tests included leg press and bench press measures of isometric force, isotonic power and total work. Knee extension was used for the measurement of central activation and maximal isometric force. Upper and lower body force steadiness control were measured on the bench press and knee extension machine, respectively. Tests were implemented 60 and 30 days before launch, on landing day (Shuttle crew only), and 6, 10 and 30 days after landing. Seven Space Shuttle crew and four ISS crew have completed the muscle performance testing to date. RESULTS: Preliminary results for Space Shuttle crew reveal significant reductions in the leg press performance metrics of maximal isometric force, power and total work on R+0 (p<0.05). Bench press total work was also significantly impaired, although maximal isometric force and power were not significantly affected. No changes were noted for measurements of central activation or force steadiness. Results for ISS crew were not analyzed due to the current small sample size. DISCUSSION: Significant reductions in lower body muscle performance metrics were observed in returning Shuttle crew and these adaptations are likely

  19. Structuring feature space: a non-parametric method for volumetric transfer function generation.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Ross; Woo, Insoo; Chen, Wei; Ebert, David S

    2009-01-01

    The use of multi-dimensional transfer functions for direct volume rendering has been shown to be an effective means of extracting materials and their boundaries for both scalar and multivariate data. The most common multi-dimensional transfer function consists of a two-dimensional (2D) histogram with axes representing a subset of the feature space (e.g., value vs. value gradient magnitude), with each entry in the 2D histogram being the number of voxels at a given feature space pair. Users then assign color and opacity to the voxel distributions within the given feature space through the use of interactive widgets (e.g., box, circular, triangular selection). Unfortunately, such tools lead users through a trial-and-error approach as they assess which data values within the feature space map to a given area of interest within the volumetric space. In this work, we propose the addition of non-parametric clustering within the transfer function feature space in order to extract patterns and guide transfer function generation. We apply a non-parametric kernel density estimation to group voxels of similar features within the 2D histogram. These groups are then binned and colored based on their estimated density, and the user may interactively grow and shrink the binned regions to explore feature boundaries and extract regions of interest. We also extend this scheme to temporal volumetric data in which time steps of 2D histograms are composited into a histogram volume. A three-dimensional (3D) density estimation is then applied, and users can explore regions within the feature space across time without adjusting the transfer function at each time step. Our work enables users to effectively explore the structures found within a feature space of the volume and provide a context in which the user can understand how these structures relate to their volumetric data. We provide tools for enhanced exploration and manipulation of the transfer function, and we show that the initial

  20. Beam-smoothing investigation on Heaven I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yi-huai; Gao, Zhi-xing; Tong, Xiao-hui; Dai, Hui; Tang, Xiu-zhang; Shan, Yu-sheng

    2007-01-01

    Directly driven targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) require laser beams with extremely smooth irradiance profiles to prevent hydrodynamic instabilities that destroy the spherical symmetry of the target during implosion. Such instabilities can break up and mix together the target's wall and fuel material, preventing it from reaching the density and temperature required for fusion ignition. 1,2 Measurements in the equation of state (EOS) experiments require laser beams with flat-roofed profiles to generate uniform shockwave 3. Some method for beam smooth, is thus needed. A technique called echelon-free induced spatial incoherence (EFISI) is proposed for producing smooth target beam profiles with large KrF lasers. The idea is basically an image projection technique that projects the desired time-averaged spatial profile onto the target via the laser system, using partially coherent broadband lighe. Utilize the technique, we developing beam- smoothing investigation on "Heaven I". At China Institute of Atomic Energy , a new angular multiplexing providing with beam-smoothing function has been developed, the total energy is 158J, the stability of energy is 4%, the pulse duration is 25ns, the effective diameter of focusing spot is 400um, and the ununiformity is about 1.6%, the power density on the target is about 3.7×10 12W/cm2. At present, the system have provided steady and smooth laser irradiation for EOS experiments.

  1. BeeSpace Navigator: exploratory analysis of gene function using semantic indexing of biological literature.

    PubMed

    Sen Sarma, Moushumi; Arcoleo, David; Khetani, Radhika S; Chee, Brant; Ling, Xu; He, Xin; Jiang, Jing; Mei, Qiaozhu; Zhai, ChengXiang; Schatz, Bruce

    2011-07-01

    With the rapid decrease in cost of genome sequencing, the classification of gene function is becoming a primary problem. Such classification has been performed by human curators who read biological literature to extract evidence. BeeSpace Navigator is a prototype software for exploratory analysis of gene function using biological literature. The software supports an automatic analogue of the curator process to extract functions, with a simple interface intended for all biologists. Since extraction is done on selected collections that are semantically indexed into conceptual spaces, the curation can be task specific. Biological literature containing references to gene lists from expression experiments can be analyzed to extract concepts that are computational equivalents of a classification such as Gene Ontology, yielding discriminating concepts that differentiate gene mentions from other mentions. The functions of individual genes can be summarized from sentences in biological literature, to produce results resembling a model organism database entry that is automatically computed. Statistical frequency analysis based on literature phrase extraction generates offline semantic indexes to support these gene function services. The website with BeeSpace Navigator is free and open to all; there is no login requirement at www.beespace.illinois.edu for version 4. Materials from the 2010 BeeSpace Software Training Workshop are available at www.beespace.illinois.edu/bstwmaterials.php.

  2. A real-space stochastic density matrix approach for density functional electronic structure.

    PubMed

    Beck, Thomas L

    2015-12-21

    The recent development of real-space grid methods has led to more efficient, accurate, and adaptable approaches for large-scale electrostatics and density functional electronic structure modeling. With the incorporation of multiscale techniques, linear-scaling real-space solvers are possible for density functional problems if localized orbitals are used to represent the Kohn-Sham energy functional. These methods still suffer from high computational and storage overheads, however, due to extensive matrix operations related to the underlying wave function grid representation. In this paper, an alternative stochastic method is outlined that aims to solve directly for the one-electron density matrix in real space. In order to illustrate aspects of the method, model calculations are performed for simple one-dimensional problems that display some features of the more general problem, such as spatial nodes in the density matrix. This orbital-free approach may prove helpful considering a future involving increasingly parallel computing architectures. Its primary advantage is the near-locality of the random walks, allowing for simultaneous updates of the density matrix in different regions of space partitioned across the processors. In addition, it allows for testing and enforcement of the particle number and idempotency constraints through stabilization of a Feynman-Kac functional integral as opposed to the extensive matrix operations in traditional approaches.

  3. Cell-Mediated Immune Function and Cytokine Regulation During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Pierson, Duane L.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The changes in immune function which occur during space flight potentially expose the crews to an increased risk for development of illness. Decreased cellular immune function has been repeatedly documented after space flight and confirmed during flight by in vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity testing. However, correlation of immune changes with a clinically significant risk factor has not yet been performed. Our hypothesis is that space flight induces a decrease in cell-mediated immune function accompanied by a shift from a type 1 cytokine pattern (favoring cell-mediated immunity) to a type 2 cytokine pattern (favoring humoral immunity). We further hypothesize that reactivation of latent viruses will occur during space flight in association with the decreased cellular immunity. To test these hypotheses, we will determine the effects of space flight on cell-mediated immunity and viral reactivation. We will utilize delayed-type hypersensitivity testing as an in vivo measure of integrated cell-mediated immune function. The production of cytokines and immunoregulatory factors by lymphocytes and monocytes will be measured to determine whether changes in cytokine patterns are associated with the space flight-induced immune dysregulation. Correlation of antigen-specific immune changes with reactivation of latent herpes viruses will be determined by measuring peripheral levels of viral (CMV, VZV, EBV) antigen-specific T cells and comparing to the levels of EBV-infected B-cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. A comparison of cell-mediated immune function, cytokine regulation and viral reactivation will provide new insights into crew member health risks during flight.

  4. Abnormalities in personal space and parietal-frontal function in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Holt, Daphne J; Boeke, Emily A; Coombs, Garth; DeCross, Stephanie N; Cassidy, Brittany S; Stufflebeam, Steven; Rauch, Scott L; Tootell, Roger B H

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with subtle abnormalities in day-to-day social behaviors, including a tendency in some patients to "keep their distance" from others in physical space. The neural basis of this abnormality, and related changes in social functioning, is unknown. Here we examined, in schizophrenic patients and healthy control subjects, the functioning of a parietal-frontal network involved in monitoring the space immediately surrounding the body ("personal space"). Using fMRI, we found that one region of this network, the dorsal intraparietal sulcus (DIPS), was hyper-responsive in schizophrenic patients to face stimuli appearing to move towards the subjects, intruding into personal space. This hyper-responsivity was predicted both by the size of personal space (which was abnormally elevated in the schizophrenia group) and the severity of negative symptoms. In contrast, in a second study, the activity of two lower-level visual areas that send information to DIPS (the fusiform face area and middle temporal area) was normal in schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest that changes in parietal-frontal networks that support the sensory-guided initiation of behavior, including actions occurring in the space surrounding the body, contribute to social dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

  5. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence ...

  6. Shuttle ascent trajectory optimization with function space quasi-Newton techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, E. R.; Powers, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    A Space Shuttle ascent trajectory optimization problem from lift-off to orbital insertion is solved with a function space version of a quasi-Newton parameter optimization method developed by Broyden. The problem includes five parameter and one bounded-function controls, two state-variable constraints, and four terminal conditions. The bounded controls are treated directly, while the remaining constraints are adjoined to the performance index (maximum payload) with penalty functions. The problem is formulated as a four-phase variational problem (liftoff, pitch-over, gravity-turn, linear tangent steering), and the appropriate gradients are developed by first variation theory. A projection operator is introduced to aid in the interpretation of the algorithm with mixed parameter and function controls.

  7. Atmospheric channel transfer function estimation from experimental free-space optical communications data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Colin N.; Kuga, Yasuo; Ritcey, James A.; Ishimaru, Akira; Hammel, Stephen; Tsintikidis, Dimitris

    2011-09-01

    The performance of terrestrial free-space optical communications systems is severely impaired by atmospheric aerosol particle distributions where the particle size is on the order of the operating wavelength. For optical and near-infrared wavelengths, fog droplets cause multiple-scattering and absorption effects which rapidly degrade received symbol detection performance as the optical depth parameter increases (visibility decreases). Using a custom free-space optical communications system we measured field data in fog within the optical multiple-scattering regime. We investigate the behavior of the estimated channel transfer function using both real field-test data and simulated propagation data based on field-test conditions. We then compare the channel transfer function estimates against the predictions computed using a radiative-transfer theory model-based approach which we also developed previously for the free-space optical atmospheric channel.

  8. On the structure of residue currents and functionals orthogonal to ideals in the space of holomorphic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trutnev, V. M.; Tsikh, A. K.

    1995-10-01

    This article investigates residues associated with holomorphic mappings f=(f_1,\\dots,f_p)\\colon X\\to\\mathbb C^p defined on a complex space X. By means of a new definition of principal value of a residue, it sharpens results of Coleff, Herrera, and Dolbeault concerning the structure of residues. It establishes a connection between residues and functionals in \\mathcal O'(X) orthogonal to the ideal \\langle f_1,\\dots,f_p\\rangle\\subset\\mathcal O(X). Using these results on residues and functionals, a formula is derived for the exponential representation for elements of invariant subspaces and for the solution of homogeneous convolution equations.

  9. Functional requirements for onboard management of space shuttle consumables, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, P. J.; Herwig, H. A.; Neel, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the functional requirements for onboard management of space shuttle consumables. A generalized consumable management concept was developed for application to advanced spacecraft. The subsystems and related consumables selected for inclusion in the consumables management system are: (1) propulsion, (2) power generation, and (3) environmental and life support.

  10. Image watermarking based on the space/spatial-frequency analysis and Hermite functions expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanković, Srdjan; Orović, Irena; Chabert, Marie; Mobasseri, Bijan

    2013-01-01

    An image watermarking scheme that combines Hermite functions expansion and space/spatial-frequency analysis is proposed. In the first step, the Hermite functions expansion is employed to select busy regions for watermark embedding. In the second step, the space/spatial-frequency representation and Hermite functions expansion are combined to design the imperceptible watermark, using the host local frequency content. The Hermite expansion has been done by using the fast Hermite projection method. Recursive realization of Hermite functions significantly speeds up the algorithms for regions selection and watermark design. The watermark detection is performed within the space/spatial-frequency domain. The detection performance is increased due to the high information redundancy in that domain in comparison with the space or frequency domains, respectively. The performance of the proposed procedure has been tested experimentally for different watermark strengths, i.e., for different values of the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). The proposed approach provides high detection performance even for high PSNR values. It offers a good compromise between detection performance (including the robustness to a wide variety of common attacks) and imperceptibility.

  11. An approach toward function allocation between humans and machines in space station activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G.

    1982-01-01

    Basic guidelines and data to assist in the allocation of functions between humans and automated systems in a manned permanent space station are provided. Human capabilities and limitations are described. Criteria and guidelines for various levels of automation and human participation are described. A collection of human factors data is included.

  12. Evolution of the real-space correlation function from next generation cluster surveys. Recovering the real-space correlation function from photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, Srivatsan; Maurogordato, Sophie; Benoist, Christophe; Cappi, Alberto; Marulli, Federico

    2017-03-01

    Context. The next generation of galaxy surveys will provide cluster catalogues probing an unprecedented range of scales, redshifts, and masses with large statistics. Their analysis should therefore enable us to probe the spatial distribution of clusters with high accuracy and derive tighter constraints on the cosmological parameters and the dark energy equation of state. However, for the majority of these surveys, redshifts of individual galaxies will be mostly estimated by multiband photometry which implies non-negligible errors in redshift resulting in potential difficulties in recovering the real-space clustering. Aims: We investigate to which accuracy it is possible to recover the real-space two-point correlation function of galaxy clusters from cluster catalogues based on photometric redshifts, and test our ability to detect and measure the redshift and mass evolution of the correlation length r0 and of the bias parameter b(M,z) as a function of the uncertainty on the cluster redshift estimate. Methods: We calculate the correlation function for cluster sub-samples covering various mass and redshift bins selected from a 500 deg2 light-cone limited to H < 24. In order to simulate the distribution of clusters in photometric redshift space, we assign to each cluster a redshift randomly extracted from a Gaussian distribution having a mean equal to the cluster cosmological redshift and a dispersion equal to σz. The dispersion is varied in the range σ(z=0)=\\frac{σz{1+z_c} = 0.005,0.010,0.030} and 0.050, in order to cover the typical values expected in forthcoming surveys. The correlation function in real-space is then computed through estimation and deprojection of wp(rp). Four mass ranges (from Mhalo > 2 × 1013h-1M⊙ to Mhalo > 2 × 1014h-1M⊙) and six redshift slices covering the redshift range [0, 2] are investigated, first using cosmological redshifts and then for the four photometric redshift configurations. Results: From the analysis of the light-cone in

  13. Characterization of the functional and anatomical differences in the atrial and ventricular myocardium from three species of elasmobranch fishes: smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus), and clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria).

    PubMed

    Larsen, Julie; Bushnell, Peter; Steffensen, John; Pedersen, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus; Brill, Richard

    2017-02-01

    We assessed the functional properties in atrial and ventricular myocardium (using isolated cardiac strips) of smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria), and sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) by blocking Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) with ryanodine and thapsigargin and measuring the resultant changes in contraction-relaxation parameters and the force-frequency relationship at 20 °C and 30 °C. We also examined ultrastructural differences with electron microscopy. In tissues from smooth dogfish, net force (per cross-sectional area) and measures of the speeds of contraction and relaxation were all higher in atrial than ventricular myocardium at both temperatures. Atrial-ventricular differences were evident in the other two species primarily in measures of the rates of contraction and relaxation. Ryanodine-thapsigargin treatment reduced net force and its maximum positive first derivative (i.e., contractility), and increased time to 50 % relaxation in atrial tissue from smooth dogfish at 30 °C. It also increased times to peak force and half relaxation in clearnose skate atrial and ventricular tissue at both temperatures, but only in atrial tissue from sandbar shark at 30 °C; indicating that SR involvement in excitation-contraction (EC) coupling is species- and temperature-specific in elasmobranch fishes, as it is in teleost fishes. Atrial and ventricular myocardium from all three species displayed a negative force-frequency relationship, but there was no evidence that SR involvement in EC coupling was influenced by heart rate. SR was evident in electron micrographs, generally located in proximity to mitochondria and intercalated discs, and to a lesser extent between the myofibrils; with mitochondria being more numerous in ventricular than atrial myocardium in all three species.

  14. Body Unloading Associated with Space Flight and Bed-rest Impacts Functional Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Ballard, K. L.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Functional Task Test study is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting studies on both ISS crewmembers and on subjects experiencing 70 days of 6 degrees head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. This allows us to parse out the contribution of the body unloading component on functional performance. In this on-going study both ISS crewmembers and bed-rest subjects were tested using an interdisciplinary protocol that evaluated functional performance and related physiological changes before and after 6 months in space and 70 days of 6? head-down bed-rest, respectively. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall, and object translation tasks. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6 and 30 days after landing. Bed-rest subjects were tested three times before bed-rest and immediately after getting up from bed-rest as well as 1, 6 and 12 days after reambulation. A comparison of bed-rest and space flight data showed a significant concordance in performance changes across all functional tests. Tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with

  15. Abnormalities in personal space and parietal–frontal function in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Daphne J.; Boeke, Emily A.; Coombs, Garth; DeCross, Stephanie N.; Cassidy, Brittany S.; Stufflebeam, Steven; Rauch, Scott L.; Tootell, Roger B.H.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with subtle abnormalities in day-to-day social behaviors, including a tendency in some patients to “keep their distance” from others in physical space. The neural basis of this abnormality, and related changes in social functioning, is unknown. Here we examined, in schizophrenic patients and healthy control subjects, the functioning of a parietal–frontal network involved in monitoring the space immediately surrounding the body (“personal space”). Using fMRI, we found that one region of this network, the dorsal intraparietal sulcus (DIPS), was hyper-responsive in schizophrenic patients to face stimuli appearing to move towards the subjects, intruding into personal space. This hyper-responsivity was predicted both by the size of personal space (which was abnormally elevated in the schizophrenia group) and the severity of negative symptoms. In contrast, in a second study, the activity of two lower-level visual areas that send information to DIPS (the fusiform face area and middle temporal area) was normal in schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest that changes in parietal–frontal networks that support the sensory-guided initiation of behavior, including actions occurring in the space surrounding the body, contribute to social dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:26484048

  16. BK channels in rat and human pulmonary smooth muscle cells are BKα-β1 functional complexes lacking the oxygen-sensitive stress axis regulated exon insert

    PubMed Central

    Detweiler, Neil D.; Song, Li; McClenahan, Samantha J.; Versluis, Rachel J.; Kharade, Sujay V.; Kurten, Richard C.; Rhee, Sung W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A loss of K+ efflux in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) contributes to abnormal vasoconstriction and PASMC proliferation during pulmonary hypertension (PH). Activation of high-conductance Ca2+-activated (BK) channels represents a therapeutic strategy to restore K+ efflux to the affected PASMCs. However, the properties of BK channels in PASMCs—including sensitivity to BK channel openers (BKCOs)—are poorly defined. The goal of this study was to compare the properties of BK channels between PASMCs of normoxic (N) and chronic hypoxic (CH) rats and then explore key findings in human PASMCs. Polymerase chain reaction results revealed that 94.3% of transcripts encoding BKα pore proteins in PASMCs from N rats represent splice variants lacking the stress axis regulated exon insert, which confers oxygen sensitivity. Subsequent patch-clamp recordings from inside-out (I-O) patches confirmed a dense population of BK channels insensitive to hypoxia. The BK channels were highly activated by intracellular Ca2+ and the BKCO lithocholate; these responses require BKα-β1 subunit coupling. PASMCs of CH rats with established PH exhibited a profound overabundance of the dominant oxygen-insensitive BKα variant. Importantly, human BK (hBK) channels in PASMCs from human donor lungs also represented the oxygen-insensitive BKα variant activated by BKCOs. The hBK channels showed significantly enhanced Ca2+ sensitivity compared with rat BK channels. We conclude that rat BK and hBK channels in PASMCs are oxygen-insensitive BKα-β1 complexes highly sensitive to Ca2+ and the BKCO lithocholate. BK channels are overexpressed in PASMCs of a rat model of PH and may provide an abundant target for BKCOs designed to restore K+ efflux. PMID:28090300

  17. Convexity and the Euclidean Metric of Space-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogeropoulos, Nikolaos

    2017-02-01

    We address the question about the reasons why the "Wick-rotated", positive-definite, space-time metric obeys the Pythagorean theorem. An answer is proposed based on the convexity and smoothness properties of the functional spaces purporting to provide the kinematic framework of approaches to quantum gravity. We employ moduli of convexity and smoothness which are eventually extremized by Hilbert spaces. We point out the potential physical significance that functional analytical dualities play in this framework. Following the spirit of the variational principles employed in classical and quantum Physics, such Hilbert spaces dominate in a generalized functional integral approach. The metric of space-time is induced by the inner product of such Hilbert spaces.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Camera calculated point-spread functions.

    PubMed

    Lyon, R G; Dorband, J E; Hollis, J M

    1997-03-10

    A set of observed noisy Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Camera point-spread functions is used to recover the combined Hubble and Faint Object Camera wave-front error. The low-spatial-frequency wave-front error is parameterized in terms of a set of 32 annular Zernike polynomials. The midlevel and higher spatial frequencies are parameterized in terms of set of 891 polar-Fourier polynomials. The parameterized wave-front error is used to generate accurate calculated point-spread functions, both pre- and post-COSTAR (corrective optics space telescope axial replacement), suitable for image restoration at arbitrary wavelengths. We describe the phase-retrieval-based recovery process and the phase parameterization. Resultant calculated precorrection and postcorrection point-spread functions are shown along with an estimate of both pre- and post-COSTAR spherical aberration.

  19. Wrench for smooth or damaged fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrillo, R.

    1981-01-01

    Smooth-surfaced or damaged fasteners that cannot be gripped by conventional wrench can be unscrewed by special wrench. It can be used in tight spaces and will not damage adjacent structures. Wrench consists of central handle and 2 independent jaws with serrated teeth. Teeth are placed on fastener to be removed, and handle is rotated until fastener is gripped with positive locking action. Rotation of wrench handle removes fastener.

  20. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part III: halos and galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Okumura, Teppei; Seljak, Uroš; Desjacques, Vincent E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu

    2012-11-01

    It was recently shown that the power spectrum in redshift space can be written as a sum of cross-power spectra between number weighted velocity moments, of which the lowest are density and momentum density. We investigate numerically the properties of these power spectra for simulated galaxies and dark matter halos and compare them to the dark matter power spectra, generalizing the concept of the bias in density-density power spectra. Because all of the quantities are number weighted this approach is well defined even for sparse systems such as massive halos. This contrasts to the previous approaches to RSD where velocity correlations have been explored, but velocity field is a poorly defined concept for sparse systems. We find that the number density weighting leads to a strong scale dependence of the bias terms for momentum density auto-correlation and cross-correlation with density. This trend becomes more significant for the more biased halos and leads to an enhancement of RSD power relative to the linear theory. Fingers-of-god effects, which in this formalism come from the correlations of the higher order moments beyond the momentum density, lead to smoothing of the power spectrum and can reduce this enhancement of power from the scale dependent bias, but are relatively small for halos with no small scale velocity dispersion. In comparison, for a more realistic galaxy sample with satellites the small scale velocity dispersion generated by satellite motions inside the halos leads to a larger power suppression on small scales, but this depends on the satellite fraction and on the details of how the satellites are distributed inside the halo. We investigate several statistics such as the two-dimensional power spectrum P(k,μ), where μ is the angle between the Fourier mode and line of sight, its multipole moments, its powers of μ{sup 2}, and configuration space statistics. Overall we find that the nonlinear effects in realistic galaxy samples such as luminous

  1. Functional Performance of an Enabling Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem Architecture for Deep Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Greenwood, Zachary W.; Kayatin, Matthew J.; Newton, Robert L.; Parrish, Keith J.; Roman, Monsi C.; Takada, Kevin C.; Miller, Lee A.; Scott, Joseph P.; Stanley, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    A subsystem architecture derived from the International Space Station's (ISS) Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) has been functionally demonstrated. This ISS-derived architecture features re-arranged unit operations for trace contaminant control and carbon dioxide removal functions, a methane purification component as a precursor to enhance resource recovery over ISS capability, operational modifications to a water electrolysis-based oxygen generation assembly, and an alternative major atmospheric constituent monitoring concept. Results from this functional demonstration are summarized and compared to the performance observed during ground-based testing conducted on an ISS-like subsystem architecture. Considerations for further subsystem architecture and process technology development are discussed.

  2. INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS IN SMOOTH MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Dale D.

    2008-01-01

    The intermediate filament (IF) network is one of the three cytoskeletal systems in smooth muscle. The type III IF proteins vimentin and desmin are major constituents of the network in smooth muscle cells and tissues. Lack of vimentin or desmin impairs contractile ability of various smooth muscle preparations, implying their important role for smooth muscle force development. The IF framework has long been viewed as a fixed cytostructure that solely provides mechanical integrity for the cell. However, recent studies suggest that the IF cytoskeleton is dynamic in mammalian cells in response to various external stimulation. In this review, the structure and biological properties of IF proteins in smooth muscle are summarized. The role of IF proteins in the modulation of smooth muscle force development and redistribution/translocation of signaling partners (such as p130 Crk-associated substrate, CAS) is depicted. This review also summarizes our latest understanding on how the IF network may be regulated in smooth muscle. PMID:18256275

  3. Metric-space approach to potentials and its relevance to density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, P. M.; D'Amico, I.

    2016-12-01

    External potentials play a crucial role in modeling quantum systems, since, for a given interparticle interaction, they define the system Hamiltonian. We use the metric-space approach to quantum mechanics to derive, from the energy conservation law, two natural metrics for potentials. We show that these metrics are well defined for physical potentials, regardless of whether the system is in an eigenstate or if the potential is bounded. In addition, we discuss the gauge freedom of potentials and how to ensure that the metrics preserve physical relevance. Our metrics for potentials, together with the metrics for wave functions and densities from I. D'Amico et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 050401 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.050401] paves the way for a comprehensive study of the two fundamental theorems of density-functional theory. We explore these by analyzing two many-body systems for which the related exact Kohn-Sham systems can be derived. First we consider the information provided by each of the metrics, and we find that the density metric performs best in distinguishing two many-body systems. Next we study for the systems at hand the one-to-one relationships among potentials, ground-state wave functions, and ground-state densities defined by the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem as relationships in metric spaces. We find that, in metric space, these relationships are monotonic and incorporate regions of linearity, at least for the systems considered. Finally, we use the metrics for wave functions and potentials in order to assess quantitatively how close the many-body and Kohn-Sham systems are: We show that, at least for the systems analyzed, both metrics provide a consistent picture, and for large regions of the parameter space the error in approximating the many-body wave function with the Kohn-Sham wave function lies under a threshold of 10%.

  4. Improving Performance of the System Safety Function at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiessling, Ed; Tippett, Donald D.; Shivers, Herb

    2004-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) determined that organizational and management issues were significant contributors to the loss of Space Shuttle Columbia. In addition, the CAIB observed similarities between the organizational and management climate that preceded the Challenger accident and the climate that preceded the Columbia accident. To prevent recurrence of adverse organizational and management climates, effective implementation of the system safety function is suggested. Attributes of an effective system safety program are presented. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) system safety program is analyzed using the attributes. Conclusions and recommendations for improving the MSFC system safety program are offered in this case study.

  5. Simulated imaging of intermolecular bonds using high throughput real-space density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Alex; Kim, Minjung; Chelikowsky, James

    2015-03-01

    Recent experimental noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-hq) assemblies have imaged distinct lines between molecules that are thought to represent intermolecular bonding. To aid the interpretation of these images, we calculate simulated AFM images of an 8-hq dimer with a CO functionalized tip using a real-space pseudopotential formalism. We examine the effects of Pauli repulsion and tip probe relaxation as explanations for the enhanced resolution that resolves these intermolecular force lines. Our study aims to compute ab initio real-space images of intermolecular interactions.

  6. Thyroid Function Changes Related to Use of Iodinated Water in United States Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMonigal, Kathleen A.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Dunn, John T.; Stanbury, John B.; Wear, Mary L.; Hamm, Peggy B.; Sauer, Richard L.; Billica, Roger D.; Pool, Sam L.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used iodination as a method of microbial disinfection of potable water systems in United States spacecraft and long-duration habitability modules. A review of the effects on the thyroid following consumption o iodinated water by NASA astronauts was conducted. Pharmacological doses of iodine consumed by astronauts transiently decreased thyroid function, as reflected in serum TSH values. Although the adverse effects of excess iodine consumption in susceptible individuals are well documented, exposure to high doses of iodine during space flight did not result in a statistically significant increase in long-term thyroid disease in the astronaut population.

  7. Locomotor function after long-duration space flight: effects and motor learning during recovery.

    PubMed

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Feiveson, Alan H; Fiedler, James; Cohen, Helen; Peters, Brian T; Miller, Chris; Brady, Rachel; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2010-05-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight and performing Earth-bound activities must rapidly transition from the microgravity-adapted sensorimotor state to that of Earth's gravity. The goal of the current study was to assess locomotor dysfunction and recovery of function after long-duration space flight using a test of functional mobility. Eighteen International Space Station crewmembers experiencing an average flight duration of 185 days performed the functional mobility test (FMT) pre-flight and post-flight. To perform the FMT, subjects walked at a self selected pace through an obstacle course consisting of several pylons and obstacles set up on a base of 10-cm-thick, medium-density foam for a total of six trials per test session. The primary outcome measure was the time to complete the course (TCC, in seconds). To assess the long-term recovery trend of locomotor function after return from space flight, a multilevel exponential recovery model was fitted to the log-transformed TCC data. All crewmembers exhibited altered locomotor function after space flight, with a median 48% increase in the TCC. From the fitted model we calculated that a typical subject would recover to 95% of his/her pre-flight level at approximately 15 days post-flight. In addition, to assess the early motor learning responses after returning from space flight, we modeled performance over the six trials during the first post-flight session by a similar multilevel exponential relation. We found a significant positive correlation between measures of long-term recovery and early motor learning (P < 0.001) obtained from the respective models. We concluded that two types of recovery processes influence an astronaut's ability to re-adapt to Earth's gravity environment. Early motor learning helps astronauts make rapid modifications in their motor control strategies during the first hours after landing. Further, this early motor learning appears to reinforce the adaptive realignment, facilitating re

  8. A model of head-related transfer functions based on a state-space analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Norman Herkamp

    This dissertation develops and validates a novel state-space method for binaural auditory display. Binaural displays seek to immerse a listener in a 3D virtual auditory scene with a pair of headphones. The challenge for any binaural display is to compute the two signals to supply to the headphones. The present work considers a general framework capable of synthesizing a wide variety of auditory scenes. The framework models collections of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) simultaneously. This framework improves the flexibility of contemporary displays, but it also compounds the steep computational cost of the display. The cost is reduced dramatically by formulating the collection of HRTFs in the state-space and employing order-reduction techniques to design efficient approximants. Order-reduction techniques based on the Hankel-operator are found to yield accurate low-cost approximants. However, the inter-aural time difference (ITD) of the HRTFs degrades the time-domain response of the approximants. Fortunately, this problem can be circumvented by employing a state-space architecture that allows the ITD to be modeled outside of the state-space. Accordingly, three state-space architectures are considered. Overall, a multiple-input, single-output (MISO) architecture yields the best compromise between performance and flexibility. The state-space approximants are evaluated both empirically and psychoacoustically. An array of truncated FIR filters is used as a pragmatic reference system for comparison. For a fixed cost bound, the state-space systems yield lower approximation error than FIR arrays for D>10, where D is the number of directions in the HRTF collection. A series of headphone listening tests are also performed to validate the state-space approach, and to estimate the minimum order N of indiscriminable approximants. For D = 50, the state-space systems yield order thresholds less than half those of the FIR arrays. Depending upon the stimulus uncertainty, a

  9. Space Science Education with Mathematica: Interactive Design Modular Space Station Structures with Computer Algebra: Principles, Functional Units, Motions, Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabai, S.; Miyazaki, K.; Bérczi, Sz.

    2002-03-01

    We worked out a course with interactive Mathematica program to design Space Stations with icosahedral/dodecahedral tiling system of subunits, with motions for observing maneuvering space. Constraints/principles from geometry are also discussed.

  10. The Main-Sequence Luminosity Function of Palomar 5 from THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillmair, Carl J.; Smith, Graeme H.

    2001-12-01

    A low mass, large core radius, low central concentration, and strong tidal tails suggest that the globular cluster Palomar 5 has lost a large fraction of its initial mass over time. If the dynamical evolution of Pal 5 has been dominated by the effects of mass loss, then theoretical arguments suggest that the luminosity function should be deficient in low-mass stars. Using deep WFPC2 F555W and F814W photometry, we determine the main-sequence luminosity functions both near the cluster center and in a field near the half-light radius. A comparison of these luminosity functions yields no compelling evidence of mass segregation within the cluster, in accord with expectations for low-concentration clusters. On the other hand, a comparison of the global mass function of Pal 5 with that of ω Cen and M55 indicates an increasing deficiency of stars with progressively lower masses. A fit of the observed luminosity function to theoretical models indicates a mass function for Pal 5 of dN/dm~m-0.5, which is notably more deficient in low-mass stars than other globular clusters that have been studied with the Hubble Space Telescope. The flatness of the mass function is consistent with models of the dynamical evolution of globular clusters that have lost ~90% of their original stellar mass. We suggest that, like NGC 6712, Pal 5 has lost a large percentage of its original stellar content as a result of tidal shocking. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  11. Joint entropy for space and spatial frequency domains estimated from psychometric functions of achromatic discrimination.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Vladímir de Aquino; Souza, Givago da Silva; Gomes, Bruno Duarte; Rodrigues, Anderson Raiol; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2014-01-01

    We used psychometric functions to estimate the joint entropy for space discrimination and spatial frequency discrimination. Space discrimination was taken as discrimination of spatial extent. Seven subjects were tested. Gábor functions comprising unidimensionalsinusoidal gratings (0.4, 2, and 10 cpd) and bidimensionalGaussian envelopes (1°) were used as reference stimuli. The experiment comprised the comparison between reference and test stimulithat differed in grating's spatial frequency or envelope's standard deviation. We tested 21 different envelope's standard deviations around the reference standard deviation to study spatial extent discrimination and 19 different grating's spatial frequencies around the reference spatial frequency to study spatial frequency discrimination. Two series of psychometric functions were obtained for 2%, 5%, 10%, and 100% stimulus contrast. The psychometric function data points for spatial extent discrimination or spatial frequency discrimination were fitted with Gaussian functions using the least square method, and the spatial extent and spatial frequency entropies were estimated from the standard deviation of these Gaussian functions. Then, joint entropy was obtained by multiplying the square root of space extent entropy times the spatial frequency entropy. We compared our results to the theoretical minimum for unidimensional Gábor functions, 1/4π or 0.0796. At low and intermediate spatial frequencies and high contrasts, joint entropy reached levels below the theoretical minimum, suggesting non-linear interactions between two or more visual mechanisms. We concluded that non-linear interactions of visual pathways, such as the M and P pathways, could explain joint entropy values below the theoretical minimum at low and intermediate spatial frequencies and high contrasts. These non-linear interactions might be at work at intermediate and high contrasts at all spatial frequencies once there was a substantial decrease in joint

  12. s-SMOOTH: Sparsity and Smoothness Enhanced EEG Brain Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Qin, Jing; Hsin, Yue-Loong; Osher, Stanley; Liu, Wentai

    2016-01-01

    EEG source imaging enables us to reconstruct current density in the brain from the electrical measurements with excellent temporal resolution (~ ms). The corresponding EEG inverse problem is an ill-posed one that has infinitely many solutions. This is due to the fact that the number of EEG sensors is usually much smaller than that of the potential dipole locations, as well as noise contamination in the recorded signals. To obtain a unique solution, regularizations can be incorporated to impose additional constraints on the solution. An appropriate choice of regularization is critically important for the reconstruction accuracy of a brain image. In this paper, we propose a novel Sparsity and SMOOthness enhanced brain TomograpHy (s-SMOOTH) method to improve the reconstruction accuracy by integrating two recently proposed regularization techniques: Total Generalized Variation (TGV) regularization and ℓ1−2 regularization. TGV is able to preserve the source edge and recover the spatial distribution of the source intensity with high accuracy. Compared to the relevant total variation (TV) regularization, TGV enhances the smoothness of the image and reduces staircasing artifacts. The traditional TGV defined on a 2D image has been widely used in the image processing field. In order to handle 3D EEG source images, we propose a voxel-based Total Generalized Variation (vTGV) regularization that extends the definition of second-order TGV from 2D planar images to 3D irregular surfaces such as cortex surface. In addition, the ℓ1−2 regularization is utilized to promote sparsity on the current density itself. We demonstrate that ℓ1−2 regularization is able to enhance sparsity and accelerate computations than ℓ1 regularization. The proposed model is solved by an efficient and robust algorithm based on the difference of convex functions algorithm (DCA) and the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Numerical experiments using synthetic data demonstrate the

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Space Durable Polymer Nanocomposite Films from Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delozier, D. M.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G.; Watson, K. A.

    2003-01-01

    Low color, flexible, space durable polyimide films with inherent, robust electrical conductivity have been under investigation as part of a continuing materials development activity for future NASA space missions involving Gossamer structures. Electrical conductivity is needed in these films to dissipate electrostatic charge build-up that occurs due to the orbital environment. One method of imparting conductivity is through the use of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). However, the incompatibility and insolubility of the SWNTs severely hampers their dispersion in polymeric matrices. In an attempt to improve their dispersability, SWNTs were functionalized by the reaction with an alkyl hydrazone. After this functionalization, the SWNTs were soluble in select solvents and dispersed more readily in the polymer matrix. The functionalized SWNTs were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The functionalized nanotubes were dispersed in the bulk of the films using a solution technique. The functionalized nanotubes were also applied to the surface of polyimide films using a spray coating technique. The resultant polyimide nanocomposite films were evaluated for nanotube dispersion, electrical conductivity, mechanical, and optical properties and compared with previously prepared polyimide-SWNT samples to assess the effects of SWNT functionalization.

  14. Determination of the Time-Space Magnetic Correlation Functions in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weygand, J. M.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Kivelson, M.; Dasso, S.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic field data from many different intervals and 7 different solar wind spacecraft are employed to estimate the scale-dependent time decorrelation function in the interplanetary magnetic field in both the slow and fast solar wind. This estimation requires correlations varying with both space and time lags. The two point correlation function with no time lag is determined by correlating time series data from multiple spacecraft separated in space and for complete coverage of length scales relies on many intervals with different spacecraft spatial separations. In addition we employ single spacecraft time-lagged correlations, and two spacecraft time lagged correlations to access different spatial and temporal correlation data. Combining these data sets gives estimates of the scale-dependent time decorrelation function, which in principle tells us how rapidly time decorrelation occurs at a given wavelength. For static fields the scale-dependent time decorrelation function is trivially unity, but in turbulence the nonlinear cascade process induces time-decorrelation at a given length scale that occurs more rapidly with decreasing scale. The scale-dependent time decorrelation function is valuable input to theories as well as various applications such as scattering, transport, and study of predictability. It is also a fundamental element of formal turbulence theory. Our results are extension of the Eulerian correlation functions estimated in Matthaeus et al. [2010], Weygand et al [2012; 2013].

  15. Posture, locomotion, spatial orientation, and motion sickness as a function of space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Harm, D. L.; Paloski, W. H.; Layne, C.; McDonald, V.

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes a variety of newly published findings obtained by the Neuroscience Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, and attempts to place this work within a historical framework of previous results on posture, locomotion, motion sickness, and perceptual responses that have been observed in conjunction with space flight. In this context, we have taken the view that correct transduction and integration of signals from all sensory systems is essential to maintaining stable vision, postural and locomotor control, and eye-hand coordination as components of spatial orientation. The plasticity of the human central nervous system allows individuals to adapt to altered stimulus conditions encountered in a microgravity environment. However, until some level of adaptation is achieved, astronauts and cosmonauts often experience space motion sickness, disturbances in motion control and eye-hand coordination, unstable vision, and illusory motion of the self, the visual scene, or both. Many of the same types of disturbances encountered in space flight reappear immediately after crew members return to earth. The magnitude of these neurosensory, sensory-motor and perceptual disturbances, and the time needed to recover from them, tend to vary as a function of mission duration and the space travelers prior experience with the stimulus rearrangement of space flight. To adequately chart the development of neurosensory changes associated with space flight, we recommend development of enhanced eye movement systems and body position measurement. We also advocate the use of a human small radius centrifuge as both a research tool and as a means of providing on-orbit countermeasures that will lessen the impact of living for long periods of time with out exposure to altering gravito-inertial forces. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Functional implications of variation in tooth spacing and crown size in pinnipedimorpha (mammalia: carnivora).

    PubMed

    Churchill, Morgan; Clementz, Mark T

    2015-05-01

    Pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) show variation in tooth morphology that relates to ecology. However, crown size and spacing are two aspects of morphology that have not been quantified in prior studies. We measured these characters for nearly all extant pinnipeds and three fossil taxa and then determined the principal sources of variation in tooth size and spacing using principal components (PCAs) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). PCA and HCA showed that species sorted into three groups: taxa with small crowns and large diastemata, taxa with large crowns and small diastemata, and taxa that fell between these two extremes. We then performed discriminant function analysis (DFA) to determine if tooth morphology correlated with foraging strategy or diet. DFA results indicated weak correlation with diet, and stronger correlation with prey capture strategies. Tooth size and spacing were most strongly correlated with the importance of teeth in prey acquisition, with tooth size decreasing and tooth spacing increasing as teeth become less necessary in capturing food items. Taxa which relied on teeth for filtering prey from the water column or processing larger or tougher food items generally had larger crowns and smaller tooth spacing then taxa which swallowed prey whole. We found the fossil taxa Desmatophoca and Enaliarctos were most similar in tooth morphology to extant otariids, suggesting that both taxa were generalist feeders. This study established the relationship between tooth size and feeding behavior, and provides a new tool to explore the paleoecology of fossil pinnipeds and other aquatic tetrapods.

  17. Countermeasures for Maintenance of Cardiovascular and Muscle Function in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session FA2, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Effects of Repeated Long Duration +2Gz Load on Man's Cardiovascular Function; Certain Approaches to the Development of On-Board Automated Training System; Cardiac, Arterial, and Venous Adaptation to Og during 6 Month MIR-Spaceflights with and without "Thigh Cuffs" (93-95); Space Cycle(TM) Induced Physiologic Responses; Muscular Deconditioning During Long-term Spaceflight Exercise Recommendations to Optimize Crew Performance; Structure And Function of Knee Extensors After Long-Duration Spaceflight in Man, Effects of Countermeasure Exercise Training; Force and power characteristics of an exercise ergometer designed for use in space; and The simulating of overgravity conditions for astronauts' motor apparatus at the conditions of the training for orbital flights.

  18. Evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We have been studying the evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected organic materials for useful life-support systems in closed bio-ecosystems for space agriculture on Mars in the future. We have already proposed several species as food materials; cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 and the Japanese cherry tree. Nostoc sp. HK-01 is a terrestrial cyanobacterium which has high tolerances to several space environments. In addition to its high tolerances to serious environments, HK-01 has a high protein content. Total protein per 100 g of the dried colony of Nostoc sp. HK-01 was approximately 50 g. Woody plant materials also have several properties which can be utilized in our habitation environment and as food. We have already found abilities to produce important functional substances for humans in the selected trees. Here, we show the extended results of our experiments.

  19. Beyond the usual mapping functions in GPS, VLBI and Deep Space tracking.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriot, Jean-Pierre; Serafini, Jonathan; Sichoix, Lydie

    2014-05-01

    We describe here a new algorithm to model the water contents of the atmosphere (including ZWD) from GPS slant wet delays relative to a single receiver. We first make the assumption that the water vapor contents are mainly governed by a scale height (exponential law), and secondly that the departures from this decaying exponential can be mapped as a set of low degree 3D Zernike functions (w.r.t. space) and Tchebyshev polynomials (w.r.t. time.) We compare this new algorithm with previous algorithms known as mapping functions in GPS, VLBI and Deep Space tracking and give an example with data acquired over a one day time span at the Geodesy Observatory of Tahiti.

  20. Mission and spacecraft support functions of the Materials Engineering Branch: A space oriented technology resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, A.; Staugaitis, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities of the Materials Engineering Branch (MEB) of the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, are surveyed. The specific functions of spacecraft materials review, materials processing and information dissemination, and laboratory support, are outlined in the Activity Report. Further detail is provided by case histories of laboratory satellite support and equipment. Project support statistics are shown, and complete listings of MEB publications, patents, and tech briefs are included. MEB staff, and their respective discipline areas and spacecraft liaison associations, are listed.

  1. Understanding the Effects of Long-duration Space Flight on Astronant Functional Task Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Batson, Crystal D.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Feiveson, Al H.; Kofman, Igor S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Peters, Brian T.; Phillips, Tiffany; Platts, Steven H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Reschke, Millard F.; Ryder, Jeff W.; Stenger, Michael B.; Taylor, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These physiological changes cause balance, gait and visual disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning, and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes may affect a crewmember's ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. To understand how changes in physiological function affect functional performance, an interdisciplinary pre- and postflight testing regimen, Functional Task Test (FTT), was developed to systematically evaluate both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting the FTT study on International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers before and after 6-month expeditions. Additionally, in a corresponding study we are using the FTT protocol on subjects before and after 70 days of 6deg head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. Therefore, the bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of body unloading on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrement in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Physiological measures included assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, heart rate, blood pressure

  2. Grafting in confined spaces: Functionalization of nanochannels of track-etched membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsbay, Murat; Güven, Olgun

    2014-12-01

    Developments in the field of membrane science and specialty applications have given rise to track-etched membranes with nanochannels having broad ranges of functionality and versatile opportunities. This review is a compilation of the recent progress in methods and applications of grafting inside confined spaces in nanoscale. The emphasis has been made on functionalization of nanochannels of track-etched membranes. Selected current literature on track-etched membranes having nanochannels grafted with various polymers has been reviewed in terms of potential applications of the resulting membrane in the fields of biotechnology, energy and environment.

  3. A robotic system for automation of logistics functions on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. C.; Purves, R. B.; Hosier, R. N.; Krein, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    Spacecraft inventory management is currently performed by the crew and as systems become more complex, increased crew time will be required to perform routine logistics activities. If future spacecraft are to function effectively as research labs and production facilities, the efficient use of crew time as a limited resource for performing mission functions must be employed. The use of automation and robotics technology, such as automated warehouse and materials handling functions, can free the crew from many logistics tasks and provide more efficient use of crew time. Design criteria for a Space Station Automated Logistics Inventory Management System is focused on through the design and demonstration of a mobile two armed terrestrial robot. The system functionally represents a 0 gravity automated inventory management system and the problems associated with operating in such an environment. Features of the system include automated storage and retrieval, item recognition, two armed robotic manipulation, and software control of all inventory item transitions and queries.

  4. Regulatory networks and connected components of the neutral space. A look at functional islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldhaus, G.; Klemm, K.

    2010-09-01

    The functioning of a living cell is largely determined by the structure of its regulatory network, comprising non-linear interactions between regulatory genes. An important factor for the stability and evolvability of such regulatory systems is neutrality - typically a large number of alternative network structures give rise to the necessary dynamics. Here we study the discretized regulatory dynamics of the yeast cell cycle [Li et al., PNAS, 2004] and the set of networks capable of reproducing it, which we call functional. Among these, the empirical yeast wildtype network is close to optimal with respect to sparse wiring. Under point mutations, which establish or delete single interactions, the neutral space of functional networks is fragmented into ≈ 4.7 × 108 components. One of the smaller ones contains the wildtype network. On average, functional networks reachable from the wildtype by mutations are sparser, have higher noise resilience and fewer fixed point attractors as compared with networks outside of this wildtype component.

  5. Solvability of some partial functional integrodifferential equations with finite delay and optimal controls in Banach spaces.

    PubMed

    Ezzinbi, Khalil; Ndambomve, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider the control system governed by some partial functional integrodifferential equations with finite delay in Banach spaces. We assume that the undelayed part admits a resolvent operator in the sense of Grimmer. Firstly, some suitable conditions are established to guarantee the existence and uniqueness of mild solutions for a broad class of partial functional integrodifferential infinite dimensional control systems. Secondly, it is proved that, under generally mild conditions of cost functional, the associated Lagrange problem has an optimal solution, and that for each optimal solution there is a minimizing sequence of the problem that converges to the optimal solution with respect to the trajectory, the control, and the functional in appropriate topologies. Our results extend and complement many other important results in the literature. Finally, a concrete example of application is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our main results.

  6. Mechanics of Vascular Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Ratz, Paul H

    2015-12-15

    Vascular smooth muscle (VSM; see Table 1 for a list of abbreviations) is a heterogeneous biomaterial comprised of cells and extracellular matrix. By surrounding tubes of endothelial cells, VSM forms a regulated network, the vasculature, through which oxygenated blood supplies specialized organs, permitting the development of large multicellular organisms. VSM cells, the engine of the vasculature, house a set of regulated nanomotors that permit rapid stress-development, sustained stress-maintenance and vessel constriction. Viscoelastic materials within, surrounding and attached to VSM cells, comprised largely of polymeric proteins with complex mechanical characteristics, assist the engine with countering loads imposed by the heart pump, and with control of relengthening after constriction. The complexity of this smart material can be reduced by classical mechanical studies combined with circuit modeling using spring and dashpot elements. Evaluation of the mechanical characteristics of VSM requires a more complete understanding of the mechanics and regulation of its biochemical parts, and ultimately, an understanding of how these parts work together to form the machinery of the vascular tree. Current molecular studies provide detailed mechanical data about single polymeric molecules, revealing viscoelasticity and plasticity at the protein domain level, the unique biological slip-catch bond, and a regulated two-step actomyosin power stroke. At the tissue level, new insight into acutely dynamic stress-strain behavior reveals smooth muscle to exhibit adaptive plasticity. At its core, physiology aims to describe the complex interactions of molecular systems, clarifying structure-function relationships and regulation of biological machines. The intent of this review is to provide a comprehensive presentation of one biomachine, VSM.

  7. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part IV: perturbation theory applied to dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš; Baldauf, Tobias; McDonald, Patrick; Okumura, Teppei E-mail: seljak@physik.uzh.ch E-mail: teppei@ewha.ac.kr

    2012-11-01

    We develop a perturbative approach to redshift space distortions (RSD) using the phase space distribution function approach and apply it to the dark matter redshift space power spectrum and its moments. RSD can be written as a sum over density weighted velocity moments correlators, with the lowest order being density, momentum density and stress energy density. We use standard and extended perturbation theory (PT) to determine their auto and cross correlators, comparing them to N-body simulations. We show which of the terms can be modeled well with the standard PT and which need additional terms that include higher order corrections which cannot be modeled in PT. Most of these additional terms are related to the small scale velocity dispersion effects, the so called finger of god (FoG) effects, which affect some, but not all, of the terms in this expansion, and which can be approximately modeled using a simple physically motivated ansatz such as the halo model. We point out that there are several velocity dispersions that enter into the detailed RSD analysis with very different amplitudes, which can be approximately predicted by the halo model. In contrast to previous models our approach systematically includes all of the terms at a given order in PT and provides a physical interpretation for the small scale dispersion values. We investigate RSD power spectrum as a function of μ, the cosine of the angle between the Fourier mode and line of sight, focusing on the lowest order powers of μ and multipole moments which dominate the observable RSD power spectrum. Overall we find considerable success in modeling many, but not all, of the terms in this expansion. This is similar to the situation in real space, but predicting power spectrum in redshift space is more difficult because of the explicit influence of small scale dispersion type effects in RSD, which extend to very large scales.

  8. Absorption and scattering 2-D volcano images from numerically calculated space-weighting functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Ibañez, Jesus; Prudencio, Janire; Bianco, Francesca; De Siena, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Short-period small magnitude seismograms mainly comprise scattered waves in the form of coda waves (the tail part of the seismogram, starting after S waves and ending when the noise prevails), spanning more than 70 per cent of the whole seismogram duration. Corresponding coda envelopes provide important information about the earth inhomogeneity, which can be stochastically modeled in terms of distribution of scatterers in a random medium. In suitable experimental conditions (i.e. high earth heterogeneity), either the two parameters describing heterogeneity (scattering coefficient), intrinsic energy dissipation (coefficient of intrinsic attenuation) or a combination of them (extinction length and seismic albedo) can be used to image Earth structures. Once a set of such parameter couples has been measured in a given area and for a number of sources and receivers, imaging their space distribution with standard methods is straightforward. However, as for finite-frequency and full-waveform tomography, the essential problem for a correct imaging is the determination of the weighting function describing the spatial sensitivity of observable data to scattering and absorption anomalies. Due to the nature of coda waves, the measured parameter couple can be seen as a weighted space average of the real parameters characterizing the rock volumes illuminated by the scattered waves. This paper uses the Monte Carlo numerical solution of the Energy Transport Equation to find approximate but realistic 2-D space-weighting functions for coda waves. Separate images for scattering and absorption based on these sensitivity functions are then compared with those obtained with commonly used sensitivity functions in an application to data from an active seismic experiment carried out at Deception Island (Antarctica). Results show that these novel functions are based on a reliable and physically grounded method to image magnitude and shape of scattering and absorption anomalies. Their

  9. Mechanisms of Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction and the Basis for Pharmacologic Treatment of Smooth Muscle Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brozovich, F.V.; Nicholson, C.J.; Degen, C.V.; Gao, Yuan Z.; Aggarwal, M.

    2016-01-01

    The smooth muscle cell directly drives the contraction of the vascular wall and hence regulates the size of the blood vessel lumen. We review here the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which agonists, therapeutics, and diseases regulate contractility of the vascular smooth muscle cell and we place this within the context of whole body function. We also discuss the implications for personalized medicine and highlight specific potential target molecules that may provide opportunities for the future development of new therapeutics to regulate vascular function. PMID:27037223

  10. Space-based multifunctional end effector systems functional requirements and proposed designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, A. H.; Jau, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    The end effector is an essential element of teleoperator and telerobot systems to be employed in space in the next decade. The report defines functional requirements for end effector systems to perform operations that are currently only feasible through Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Specific tasks and functions that the end effectors must be capable of performing are delineated. Required capabilities for forces and torques, clearances, compliance, and sensing are described, using current EVA requirements as guidelines where feasible. The implications of these functional requirements on the elements of potential end effector systems are discussed. The systems issues that must be considered in the design of space-based manipulator systems are identified; including impacts on subsystems tightly coupled to the end effector, i.e., control station, information processing, manipulator arm, tool and equipment stowage. Possible end effector designs are divided into three categories: single degree-of-freedom end effectors, multiple degree of freedom end effectors, and anthropomorphic hands. Specific design alternatives are suggested and analyzed within the individual categories. Two evaluations are performed: the first considers how well the individual end effectors could substitute for EVA; the second compares how manipulator systems composed of the top performers from the first evaluation would improve the space shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) capabilities. The analysis concludes that the anthropomorphic hand is best-suited for EVA tasks. A left- and right-handed anthropomorphic manipulator arm configuration is suggested as appropriate to be affixed to the RMS, but could also be used as part of the Smart Front End for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). The technical feasibility of the anthropomorphic hand and its control are demonstrated. An evolutionary development approach is proposed and approximate scheduling provided for implementing the suggested

  11. ibr: Iterative bias reduction multivariate smoothing

    SciTech Connect

    Hengartner, Nicholas W; Cornillon, Pierre-andre; Matzner - Lober, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Regression is a fundamental data analysis tool for relating a univariate response variable Y to a multivariate predictor X {element_of} E R{sup d} from the observations (X{sub i}, Y{sub i}), i = 1,...,n. Traditional nonparametric regression use the assumption that the regression function varies smoothly in the independent variable x to locally estimate the conditional expectation m(x) = E[Y|X = x]. The resulting vector of predicted values {cflx Y}{sub i} at the observed covariates X{sub i} is called a regression smoother, or simply a smoother, because the predicted values {cflx Y}{sub i} are less variable than the original observations Y{sub i}. Linear smoothers are linear in the response variable Y and are operationally written as {cflx m} = X{sub {lambda}}Y, where S{sub {lambda}} is a n x n smoothing matrix. The smoothing matrix S{sub {lambda}} typically depends on a tuning parameter which we denote by {lambda}, and that governs the tradeoff between the smoothness of the estimate and the goodness-of-fit of the smoother to the data by controlling the effective size of the local neighborhood over which the responses are averaged. We parameterize the smoothing matrix such that large values of {lambda} are associated to smoothers that averages over larger neighborhood and produce very smooth curves, while small {lambda} are associated to smoothers that average over smaller neighborhood to produce a more wiggly curve that wants to interpolate the data. The parameter {lambda} is the bandwidth for kernel smoother, the span size for running-mean smoother, bin smoother, and the penalty factor {lambda} for spline smoother.

  12. Statistical characteristics of topographic surfaces and dynamic smoothing of landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, M. S.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.; Vico, G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    We analyze the local statistics of topographic surfaces, including slope and aspect, as a function of scale, and explore their relations with landscape features, such as age, vegetation, and geology. These results build upon the previous work of Vico and Porporato (JGR 114, F01011, 2009), which characterized slope using generalized t-Student distributions. We find that the number of degrees of freedom of such distributions, which determines the heaviness of their tails, is linked to the age of the topographic relief of the considered regions, tending to normal distributions for very old mountain ranges. Based on these findings, and inspired by models of critical phenomena, we develop physically-based, space-time stochastic differential equations that reproduce this dynamic smoothing of rough landscapes.

  13. Effects of Short- and Long-Duration Space Flight on Neuromuscular Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buxton, Roxanne E.; Spiering, Barry A.; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    The Functional Task Tests (FTT) is an interdisciplinary study designed to correlate the changes in functional tasks (such as emergency egress, ladder climbing, and hatch opening) with changes in neuromuscular, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor function. One aspect of the FTT, the neuromuscular function test, is used to investigate the neuromuscular component underlying changes in the ability of astronauts to perform functional tasks (representative of critical mission tasks) safely and quickly after flight. PURPOSE: To describe neuromuscular function after short- and long-duration space flight. METHODS: To date, 5 crewmembers on short-duration (10- to 15-day) missions and 3 on long-duration missions have participated. Crewmembers were assessed 30 days before flight, on landing day (short-duration subjects only) and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. The interpolated twitch technique, which utilizes a combination of maximal voluntary contractions and electrically evoked contractions, was used to assess the maximal voluntary isometric force (MIF) and central activation capacity of the knee extensors. Leg-press and bench-press devices were used to assess MIF and maximal dynamic power of the lower and upper body respectively. Specifically, power was measured during concentric-only ballistic throws of the leg-press sled and bench-press bar loaded to 40% and 30% of MIF respectively. RESULTS: Data are currently being collected from both Shuttle and ISS crewmembers. Emerging data indicate that measures of knee extensor muscle function are decreased with long-duration flight. DISCUSSION: The relationships between flight duration, neural drive, and muscle performance are of particular interest. Ongoing research will add to the current sample size and will focus on defining changes in muscle performance measures after long-duration space flight.

  14. Phase-space path-integral calculation of the Wigner function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, J. H.

    2003-10-01

    The Wigner function W(q, p) is formulated as a phase-space path integral, whereby its sign oscillations can be seen to follow from interference between the geometrical phases of the paths. The approach has similarities to the path-centroid method in the configuration-space path integral. Paths can be classified by the midpoint of their ends; short paths where the midpoint is close to (q, p) and which lie in regions of low energy (low P function of the Hamiltonian) will dominate, and the enclosed area will determine the sign of the Wigner function. As a demonstration, the method is applied to a sequence of density matrices interpolating between a Poissonian number distribution and a number state, each member of which can be represented exactly by a discretized path integral with a finite number of vertices. Saddle-point evaluation of these integrals recovers (up to a constant factor) the WKB approximation to the Wigner function of a number state.

  15. Space Flight and Manual Control: Implications for Sensorimotor Function on Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Kornilova, Ludmila; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Parker, Donald E.; Leigh, R. John; Kozlovskaya, Inessa

    2009-01-01

    Control of vehicles, and other complex mechanical motion systems, is a high-level integrative function of the central nervous system (CNS) that requires good visual acuity, eye-hand coordination, spatial (and, in some cases, geographic) orientation perception, and cognitive function. Existing evidence from space flight research (Paloski et.al., 2008, Clement and Reschke 2008, Reschke et al., 2007) demonstrates that the function of each of these systems is altered by removing (and subsequently by reintroducing) a gravitational field that can be sensed by vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic receptors and used by the CNS for spatial orientation, navigation, and coordination of movements. Furthermore, much of the operational performance data collected as a function of space flight has not been available for independent analysis, and those data that have been reviewed are equivocal owing to uncontrolled environmental and/or engineering factors. Thus, our current understanding, when it comes to manual control, is limited primarily to a review of those situations where manual control has been a factor. One of the simplest approaches to the manual control problem is to review shuttle landing data. See the Figure below for those landing for which we have Shuttle velocities over the runway threshold.

  16. Smooth eigenvalue correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrikse, Anne; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2013-12-01

    Second-order statistics play an important role in data modeling. Nowadays, there is a tendency toward measuring more signals with higher resolution (e.g., high-resolution video), causing a rapid increase of dimensionality of the measured samples, while the number of samples remains more or less the same. As a result the eigenvalue estimates are significantly biased as described by the Marčenko Pastur equation for the limit of both the number of samples and their dimensionality going to infinity. By introducing a smoothness factor, we show that the Marčenko Pastur equation can be used in practical situations where both the number of samples and their dimensionality remain finite. Based on this result we derive methods, one already known and one new to our knowledge, to estimate the sample eigenvalues when the population eigenvalues are known. However, usually the sample eigenvalues are known and the population eigenvalues are required. We therefore applied one of the these methods in a feedback loop, resulting in an eigenvalue bias correction method. We compare this eigenvalue correction method with the state-of-the-art methods and show that our method outperforms other methods particularly in real-life situations often encountered in biometrics: underdetermined configurations, high-dimensional configurations, and configurations where the eigenvalues are exponentially distributed.

  17. New smooth hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarides, George; Vamvasakis, Achilleas

    2007-10-15

    We consider the extension of the supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which solves the b-quark mass problem of supersymmetric grand unified models with exact Yukawa unification and universal boundary conditions and leads to the so-called new shifted hybrid inflationary scenario. We show that this model can also lead to a new version of smooth hybrid inflation based only on renormalizable interactions provided that a particular parameter of its superpotential is somewhat small. The potential possesses valleys of minima with classical inclination, which can be used as inflationary paths. The model is consistent with the fitting of the three-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe data by the standard power-law cosmological model with cold dark matter and a cosmological constant. In particular, the spectral index turns out to be adequately small so that it is compatible with the data. Moreover, the Pati-Salam gauge group is broken to the standard model gauge group during inflation and, thus, no monopoles are formed at the end of inflation. Supergravity corrections based on a nonminimal Kaehler potential with a convenient choice of a sign keep the spectral index comfortably within the allowed range without generating maxima and minima of the potential on the inflationary path. So, unnatural restrictions on the initial conditions for inflation can be avoided.

  18. Decomposing changes in phylogenetic and functional diversity over space and time.

    PubMed

    Chalmandrier, Loïc; Münkemüller, Tamara; Devictor, Vincent; Lavergne, Sébastien; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    The α, β, γ diversity decomposition methodology is commonly used to investigate changes in diversity over space or time but rarely conjointly. However, with the ever-increasing availability of large-scale biodiversity monitoring data, there is a need for a sound methodology capable of simultaneously accounting for spatial and temporal changes in diversity.Using the properties of Chao's index, we adapted Rao's framework of diversity decomposition between orthogonal dimensions to a multiplicative α, β, γ decomposition of functional or phylogenetic diversity over space and time, thereby combining their respective properties. We also developed guidelines for interpreting both temporal and spatial β-diversities and their interaction.We characterised the range of β-diversity estimates and their relationship to the nested decomposition of diversity. Using simulations, we empirically demonstrated that temporal and spatial β-diversities are independent from each other and from α and γ-diversities when the study design is balanced, but not otherwise. Furthermore, we showed that the interaction term between the temporal and the spatial β-diversities lacked such properties.We illustrated our methodology with a case study of the spatio-temporal dynamics of functional diversity in bird assemblages in four regions of France. Based on these data, our method makes it possible to discriminate between regions experiencing different diversity changes in time. Our methodology may therefore be valuable for comparing diversity changes over space and time using large-scale datasets of repeated surveys.

  19. A grid spacing control technique for algebraic grid generation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.; Kudlinski, R. A.; Everton, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    A technique which controls the spacing of grid points in algebraically defined coordinate transformations is described. The technique is based on the generation of control functions which map a uniformly distributed computational grid onto parametric variables defining the physical grid. The control functions are smoothed cubic splines. Sets of control points are input for each coordinate directions to outline the control functions. Smoothed cubic spline functions are then generated to approximate the input data. The technique works best in an interactive graphics environment where control inputs and grid displays are nearly instantaneous. The technique is illustrated with the two-boundary grid generation algorithm.

  20. Ceramic coatings on smooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A. (Inventor); Brindley, W. J. (Inventor); Rouge, C. J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A metallic coating is plasma sprayed onto a smooth surface of a metal alloy substitute or on a bond coating. An initial thin ceramic layer is low pressure sprayed onto the smooth surface of the substrate or bond coating. Another ceramic layer is atmospheric plasma sprayed onto the initial ceramic layer.

  1. Ryanodine receptors in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Hernández, Agustín; Gómez-Viquez, Leticia; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Rueda, Angélica

    2002-07-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of smooth muscle is endowed with two different types of Ca2+ release channels, i.e. inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In general, both release channels mobilize Ca2+ from the same internal store in smooth muscle. While the importance of IP3Rs in agonist-induced contraction is well established, the role of RyRs in excitation-contraction coupling of smooth muscle is not clear. The participation of smooth muscle RyRs in the amplification of Ca2+ transients induced by either opening of Ca2+-permeable channels or IP3-triggered Ca2+ release has been studied. The efficacy of both processes to activate RyRs by calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is highly variable and not widely present in smooth muscle. Although RyRs in smooth muscle generate Ca2+ sparks that are similar to those observed in striated muscles, the contribution of these local Ca2+ events to depolarization-induced global rise in [Ca2+]i is rather limited. Recent data suggest that RyRs are involved in regulating the luminal [Ca2+] of SR and also in smooth muscle relaxation. This review summarizes studies that were carried out mainly in muscle strips or in freshly isolated myocytes, and that were aimed to determine the physiological role of RyRs in smooth muscle.

  2. Numerical optimization in Hilbert space using inexact function and gradient evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Richard G.

    1989-01-01

    Trust region algorithms provide a robust iterative technique for solving non-convex unstrained optimization problems, but in many instances it is prohibitively expensive to compute high accuracy function and gradient values for the method. Of particular interest are inverse and parameter estimation problems, since function and gradient evaluations involve numerically solving large systems of differential equations. A global convergence theory is presented for trust region algorithms in which neither function nor gradient values are known exactly. The theory is formulated in a Hilbert space setting so that it can be applied to variational problems as well as the finite dimensional problems normally seen in trust region literature. The conditions concerning allowable error are remarkably relaxed: relative errors in the gradient error condition is automatically satisfied if the error is orthogonal to the gradient approximation. A technique for estimating gradient error and improving the approximation is also presented.

  3. ZD0947, a sulphonylurea receptor modulator, detects functional sulphonylurea receptor subunits in murine vascular smooth muscle ATP-sensitive K(+) channels.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tadashi; Takahara, Kohei; Uchida, Keiichiro; Teramoto, Noriyoshi

    2017-02-16

    In order to identify functional sulphonylurea receptor (SUR.x) subunits of native ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (KATP channels) in mouse portal vein, the effects of ZD0947, a SUR.x modulator, were investigated on spontaneous portal vein contractions, macroscopic membrane currents and unitary currents recorded (using patch-clamp techniques) in freshly dispersed mouse portal vein myocytes. Spontaneous contractions in mouse portal vein were reversibly reduced by ZD0947 in a concentration-dependent manner (Ki =293nM). The relaxation elicited by 3µM ZD0947 was antagonized by the additional application of glibenclamide (300nM), but not gliclazide (100-300nM). In the conventional whole-cell configuration, 100µM ZD0947 elicited inward glibenclamide-sensitive currents at a holding potential of -60mV that demonstrated selectivity for K(+)(i.e. KATP currents). The peak amplitude of the membrane current elicited by 30µM or 100µM ZD0947 was smaller than that elicited by 100µM pinacidil at -60mV. In the cell-attached mode, 100µM ZD0947 activated glibenclamide-sensitive K(+) channels with a conductance (35 pS) similar to that of recombinant Kir6.1/SUR2B channels that were expressed in HEK293 cells and activated by 100µM ZD0947. These results demonstrate that ZD0947 caused a significant vascular relaxation through the activation of KATP channels and that SUR2B may be the major functional subunit of SUR.x in mouse portal vein KATP channels, based on its pharmacological selectivity.

  4. Space applications of automation, robotics and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS). Volume 4. Application of ARAMIS capabilities to space project functional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.H.; Minsky, M.L.; Smith, D.B.S.

    1982-08-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities and their related ground support functions are studied, so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The specific tasks which will be required by future space project tasks are identified and the relative merits of these options are evaluated. The ARAMIS options defined and researched span the range from fully human to fully machine, including a number of intermediate options (e.g., humans assisted by computers, and various levels of teleoperation). By including this spectrum, the study searches for the optimum mix of humans and machines for space project tasks.

  5. Space applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 4: Application of ARAMIS capabilities to space project functional elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities and their related ground support functions are studied, so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The specific tasks which will be required by future space project tasks are identified and the relative merits of these options are evaluated. The ARAMIS options defined and researched span the range from fully human to fully machine, including a number of intermediate options (e.g., humans assisted by computers, and various levels of teleoperation). By including this spectrum, the study searches for the optimum mix of humans and machines for space project tasks.

  6. Calcium Sensitization Mechanisms in Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscles.

    PubMed

    Perrino, Brian A

    2016-04-30

    An increase in intracellular Ca(2+) is the primary trigger of contraction of gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscles. However, increasing the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the myofilaments by elevating myosin light chain phosphorylation also plays an essential role. Inhibiting myosin light chain phosphatase activity with protein kinase C-potentiated phosphatase inhibitor protein-17 kDa (CPI-17) and myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation is considered to be the primary mechanism underlying myofilament Ca(2+) sensitization. The relative importance of Ca(2+) sensitization mechanisms to the diverse patterns of GI motility is likely related to the varied functional roles of GI smooth muscles. Increases in CPI-17 and MYPT1 phosphorylation in response to agonist stimulation regulate myosin light chain phosphatase activity in phasic, tonic, and sphincteric GI smooth muscles. Recent evidence suggests that MYPT1 phosphorylation may also contribute to force generation by reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. The mechanisms responsible for maintaining constitutive CPI-17 and MYPT1 phosphorylation in GI smooth muscles are still largely unknown. The characteristics of the cell-types comprising the neuroeffector junction lead to fundamental differences between the effects of exogenous agonists and endogenous neurotransmitters on Ca(2+) sensitization mechanisms. The contribution of various cell-types within the tunica muscularis to the motor responses of GI organs to neurotransmission must be considered when determining the mechanisms by which Ca(2+) sensitization pathways are activated. The signaling pathways regulating Ca(2+) sensitization may provide novel therapeutic strategies for controlling GI motility. This article will provide an overview of the current understanding of the biochemical basis for the regulation of Ca(2+) sensitization, while also discussing the functional importance to different smooth muscles of the GI tract.

  7. Frame functions in finite-dimensional quantum mechanics and its Hamiltonian formulation on complex projective spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Valter; Pastorello, Davide

    2016-12-01

    This work concerns some issues about the interplay of standard and geometric (Hamiltonian) approaches to finite-dimensional quantum mechanics, formulated in the projective space. Our analysis relies upon the notion and the properties of so-called frame functions, introduced by Gleason to prove his celebrated theorem. In particular, the problem of associating quantum states with positive Liouville densities is tackled from an axiomatic point of view, proving a theorem classifying all possible correspondences. A similar result is established for classical-like observables (i.e. real scalar functions on the projective space) representing quantum ones. These correspondences turn out to be encoded in a one-parameter class and, in both cases, the classical-like objects representing quantum ones result to be frame functions. The requirements of U(n) covariance and (convex) linearity play a central role in the proof of those theorems. A new characterization of classical-like observables describing quantum observables is presented, together with a geometric description of the C∗-algebra structure of the set of quantum observables in terms of classical-like ones.

  8. Smooth solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhozhaev, S I

    2014-02-28

    We consider smooth solutions of the Cauchy problem for the Navier-Stokes equations on the scale of smooth functions which are periodic with respect to x∈R{sup 3}. We obtain existence theorems for global (with respect to t>0) and local solutions of the Cauchy problem. The statements of these depend on the smoothness and the norm of the initial vector function. Upper bounds for the behaviour of solutions in both classes, which depend on t, are also obtained. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  9. Function Spaces Associated with Schrodinger Operators: the PoEschl-Teller Potential

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-30

    30 JAN 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Function spaces associated with Schrodinger operators...sech2x, n ∈ N, which is called the Pöschl-Teller potential [B99, G89]. The study of H with this potential is related to linearization of nonlinear wave...and Schrödinger equations . In this paper, Date: January 30, 2006. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary: 42B25; Secondary: 35P25, 35J10. Key

  10. Density functional theory study of the conformational space of an infinitely long polypeptide chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireta, Joel; Scheffler, Matthias

    2009-08-01

    The backbone conformational space of infinitely long polyalanine is investigated with density-functional theory and mapping the potential energy surface in terms of (L, θ) cylindrical coordinates. A comparison of the obtained (L, θ) Ramachandran-like plot with results from an extended set of protein structures shows excellent conformity, with the exception of the polyproline II region. It is demonstrated the usefulness of infinitely long polypeptide models for investigating the influence of hydrogen bonding and its cooperative effect on the backbone conformations. The results imply that hydrogen bonding together with long-range electrostatics is the main actuator for most of the structures assumed by protein residues.

  11. Using an iterative eigensolver to compute vibrational energies with phase-spaced localized basis functions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, James Carrington, Tucker

    2015-07-28

    Although phase-space localized Gaussians are themselves poor basis functions, they can be used to effectively contract a discrete variable representation basis [A. Shimshovitz and D. J. Tannor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 070402 (2012)]. This works despite the fact that elements of the Hamiltonian and overlap matrices labelled by discarded Gaussians are not small. By formulating the matrix problem as a regular (i.e., not a generalized) matrix eigenvalue problem, we show that it is possible to use an iterative eigensolver to compute vibrational energy levels in the Gaussian basis.

  12. Evaluation of Current Tropospheric Mapping Functions by Deep Space Network Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovers, O. J.; Lanyi, G. E.

    1994-07-01

    To compare the validity of current algorithms that map zenith tropospheric delay to arbitrary elevation angles, 10 different tropospheric mapping functions are used to analyze the current data base of Deep Space Network Mark III intercontinental very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) data. This analysis serves as a stringent test because of the high proportion of low-elevation observations necessitated by the extremely long baselines. Postfit delay and delay-rate residuals are examined, as well as the scatter of baseline lengths about the time-linear model that characterizes tectonic motion. Among the functions that utilize surface meteorological data as input parameters, the Lanyi 1984 mapping shows the best performance both for residuals and baselines, though the 1985 Davis function is statistically nearly identical. The next best performance is shown by the recent function of Niell, which is based on an examination of global atmospheric characteristics as a function of season and uses no weather data at the time of the measurements. The Niell function shows a slight improvement in residuals relative to Lanyi, but also an increase in baseline scatter that is significant for the California-Spain baseline. Two variants of the Chao mapping function, as well as the Chao tables used with the interpolation algorithm employed in the Orbit Determination Program software, show substandard behavior for both VLBI residuals and baseline scatter. The length of the California-Australia baseline (10,600 km) in the VLBI solution can vary by as much as 5 to 10 cm for the 10 mapping functions.

  13. Atmospheric channel transfer function estimation from experimental free-space optical communications data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Colin N.; Tsintikidis, Dimitris; Hammel, Stephen; Kuga, Yasuo; Ritcey, James A.; Ishimaru, Akira

    2012-03-01

    Using an 850-nanometer-wavelength free-space optical (FSO)communications system of our own design, we acquired field data for the transmitted and received signals in fog at Point Loma, CA for a range of optical depths within the multiple-scattering regime. Statistical estimators for the atmospheric channel transfer function and the related coherency function were computed directly from the experimental data. We interpret the resulting channel transfer function estimates in terms of the physics of the atmospheric propagation channel and fog aerosol particle distributions. We investigate the behavior of the estimators using both real field-test data and simulated propagation data. We compare the field-data channel transfer function estimates against the outputs from a computationally-intensive radiative-transfer theory model-based approach, which we also developed previously for the FSO multiple-scattering atmospheric channel. Our results show that the data-driven channel transfer function estimates are in close agreement with the radiative transfer modeling, and provide comparable receiver signal detection performance improvements while being significantly less time and computationally-intensive.

  14. State-space models of head-related transfer functions for virtual auditory scene synthesis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Norman H; Wakefield, Gregory H

    2009-06-01

    This study investigates the use of reduced-order state-space models of collections of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). Recent head-phone applications have motivated interest in binaural displays that can render multiple simultaneous virtual sound sources, acoustic reflections, and source and listener motion. In the present study, a multi-direction framework is considered that can render such phenomena by filtering source signals with a collection of HRTFs rather than individual HRTFs. The collection of HRTFs is implemented in the state-space, and approximation techniques are applied to construct low-order approximants that are indiscriminable from full-order HRTFs. Two experiments are described in which five observers are asked to discriminate between state-space and full-order renderings. Depending on the stimulus conditions and discrimination task, order thresholds of 7

  15. Functional decor in the International Space Station: Body orientation cues and picture perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coss, Richard G.; Clearwater, Yvonne A.; Barbour, Christopher G.; Towers, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    Subjective reports of American astronauts and their Soviet counterparts suggest that homogeneous, often symmetrical, spacecraft interiors can contribute to motion sickness during the earliest phase of a mission and can also engender boredom. Two studies investigated the functional aspects of Space Station interior aesthetics. One experiment examined differential color brightnesses as body orientation cues; the other involved a large survey of photographs and paintings that might enhance the interior aesthetics of the proposed International Space Station. Ninety male and female college students reclining on their backs in the dark were disoriented by a rotating platform and inserted under a slowly rotating disk that filled their entire visual field. The entire disk was painted the same color but one half had a brightness value that was about 69 percent higher than the other. The effects of red, blue, and yellow were examined. Subjects wearing frosted goggles opened their eyes to view the rotating, illuminated disk, which was stopped when they felt that they were right-side up. For all three colors, significant numbers of subjects said they felt right-side up when the brighter side of the disk filled their upper visual field. These results suggest that color brightness could provide Space Station crew members with body orientation cues as they move about. It was found that subjects preferred photographs and paintings with the greatest depths of field, irrespective of picture topic.

  16. A quality function deployment method applied to highly reusable space transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Edgar

    1997-01-01

    This paper will describe a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) currently in work the goal of which is to add definition and insight to the development of long term Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST). The objective here is twofold. First, to describe the process, the actual QFD experience as applies to the HRST study. Second, to describe the preliminary results of this process, in particular the assessment of possible directions for future pursuit such as promising candidate technologies or approaches that may finally open the space frontier. The iterative and synergistic nature of QFD provides opportunities in the process for the discovery of what is key in so far as it is useful, what is not, and what is merely true. Key observations on the QFD process will be presented. The importance of a customer definition as well as the similarity of the process of developing a technology portfolio to product development will be shown. Also, the relation of identified cost and operating drivers to future space vehicle designs that are robust to an uncertain future will be discussed. The results in particular of this HRST evaluation will be preliminary given the somewhat long term (or perhaps not?) nature of the task being considered.

  17. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: A few remarks on integral representation for zonal spherical functions on the symmetric space ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariñena, J. F.; Perelomov, A. M.

    1997-08-01

    The integral representation of the orthogonal groups for zonal spherical functions of the symmetric space 0305-4470/30/15/003/img2 is used to obtain a generating function for such functions. For the case N = 3 the three-dimensional integral representation reduces to a one-dimensional one.

  18. Space-Time Modelling of Groundwater Level Using Spartan Covariance Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varouchakis, Emmanouil; Hristopulos, Dionissios

    2014-05-01

    Geostatistical models often need to handle variables that change in space and in time, such as the groundwater level of aquifers. A major advantage of space-time observations is that a higher number of data supports parameter estimation and prediction. In a statistical context, space-time data can be considered as realizations of random fields that are spatially extended and evolve in time. The combination of spatial and temporal measurements in sparsely monitored watersheds can provide very useful information by incorporating spatiotemporal correlations. Spatiotemporal interpolation is usually performed by applying the standard Kriging algorithms extended in a space-time framework. Spatiotemoral covariance functions for groundwater level modelling, however, have not been widely developed. We present a new non-separable theoretical spatiotemporal variogram function which is based on the Spartan covariance family and evaluate its performance in spatiotemporal Kriging (STRK) interpolation. The original spatial expression (Hristopulos and Elogne 2007) that has been successfully used for the spatial interpolation of groundwater level (Varouchakis and Hristopulos 2013) is modified by defining the following space-time normalized distance h = °h2r-+-α h2τ, hr=r- ξr, hτ=τ- ξτ; where r is the spatial lag vector, τ the temporal lag vector, ξr is the correlation length in position space (r) and ξτ in time (τ), h the normalized space-time lag vector, h = |h| is its Euclidean norm of the normalized space-time lag and α the coefficient that determines the relative weight of the time lag. The space-time experimental semivariogram is determined from the biannual (wet and dry period) time series of groundwater level residuals (obtained from the original series after trend removal) between the years 1981 and 2003 at ten sampling stations located in the Mires hydrological basin in the island of Crete (Greece). After the hydrological year 2002-2003 there is a significant

  19. Simple Robust Fixed Lag Smoothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-02

    SIMPLE ROBUST FIXED LAG SMOOTHING by ~N. D. Le R.D. Martin 4 TECHNICAL RlEPORT No. 149 December 1988 Department of Statistics, GN-22 Accesion For...frLsD1ist Special A- Z Simple Robust Fixed Lag Smoothing With Application To Radar Glint Noise * N. D. Le R. D. Martin Department of Statistics, GN...smoothers. The emphasis here is on fixed-lag smoothing , as opposed to the use of existing robust fixed interval smoothers (e.g., as in Martin, 1979

  20. Bells Galore: Oscillations and circle-map dynamics from space-filling fractal functions

    SciTech Connect

    Puente, C.E.; Cortis, A.; Sivakumar, B.

    2008-10-15

    The construction of a host of interesting patterns over one and two dimensions, as transformations of multifractal measures via fractal interpolating functions related to simple affine mappings, is reviewed. It is illustrated that, while space-filling fractal functions most commonly yield limiting Gaussian distribution measures (bells), there are also situations (depending on the affine mappings parameters) in which there is no limit. Specifically, the one-dimensional case may result in oscillations between two bells, whereas the two-dimensional case may give rise to unexpected circle map dynamics of an arbitrary number of two-dimensional circular bells. It is also shown that, despite the multitude of bells over two dimensions, whose means dance making regular polygons or stars inscribed on a circle, the iteration of affine maps yields exotic kaleidoscopes that decompose such an oscillatory pattern in a way that is similar to the many cases that converge to a single bell.

  1. Old Basin Filled by Smooth Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Old basin, 190 km in diameter, filled by smooth plains at 43 degrees S, 55 degrees W. The basin's hummocky rim is partly degraded and cratered by later events. Mariner 10 frame 166607.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  2. Smooth Passage For The Jetfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Flying Princess is a Boeing Jetfoil, one of a family of commercial waterjets built by Boeing Marine Systems, a division of The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington. The new Jetfoil offers a number of advantages over earlier hydrofoils, a major one being a smooth ride in rough waters. NASA technology contributed to jolt-free passenger comfort. Hydrofoils skim the surface at speeds considerably greater than those of conventional ships because there is little friction between hull and water. Hulls are raised above the water by the lift of the foils, which resemble and function like an airplane wing. The foils are attached to the hull by rigid struts, which ordinarily cause a vessel operating in coastal seas to follow the contour of the waves. In wind-whipped waters, this makes for a rough ride. Seeking to increase passenger acceptance, Boeing Marine System engineers looked for ways to improve rough-water ride quality. Langley Research Center conducts continuing ride quality research. Initially, it was aimed at improving aircraft ride; it was later expanded to include all modes of transportation. Research includes studies of vibration, acceleration, temperature, humidity, passenger seats and posture, and the psychological aspects of passenger reaction to vehicle ride. As part of the program, Langley developed instrumentation, ride quality models and methods of data analysis.

  3. Solar Electric Propulsion System Integration Technology (SEPSIT). Volume 2: Encke rendezvous mission and space vehicle functional description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A solar electric propulsion system integration technology study is discussed. Detailed analyses in support of the solar electric propulsion module were performed. The thrust subsystem functional description is presented. The space vehicle and the space mission to which the propulsion system is applied are analyzed.

  4. Measurement of modulation transfer function for space remote sensing TDDICCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Shiliang; Wang, Xiaoqian; Liu, Jinguo

    2016-11-01

    Modulation Transfer Function(MTF) is an important imaging quality indicator of optical system, in order to evaluate the imaging quality for a space remote sensing TDICCD camera, the MTF testing system including hardware components and software components, was established based on refocusing system. Firstly, the design of Three Mirror Anastigmatic (TMA) optical system and the long interlace assemble TDICCD focal plane were introduced. Secondly, the construction and the schematic diagram of the refocusing system was presented in detail, as well as the relationship between refocusing range and position encoder for interlace assemble TDICCD focal plane. Thirdly, the schematic diagram of the MTF testing system was given, and the relationship between MTF and contrast transfer function(CTF) was discussed. Finally, on the basis of the schematic diagram of CTF, the transfer process of a square wave target was investigated. The testing results indicate that the MTF testing system can measure the CTF of every TDICCD on the focal plane in the focusing range, which meet the requirement of evaluation of imaging quality for a space TDICCD camera.

  5. Modeling solvation effects in real-space and real-time within density functional approaches.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Alain; Corni, Stefano; Pittalis, Stefano; Rozzi, Carlo Andrea

    2015-10-14

    The Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) can be used in conjunction with Density Functional Theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TDDFT) to simulate the electronic and optical properties of molecules and nanoparticles immersed in a dielectric environment, typically liquid solvents. In this contribution, we develop a methodology to account for solvation effects in real-space (and real-time) (TD)DFT calculations. The boundary elements method is used to calculate the solvent reaction potential in terms of the apparent charges that spread over the van der Waals solute surface. In a real-space representation, this potential may exhibit a Coulomb singularity at grid points that are close to the cavity surface. We propose a simple approach to regularize such singularity by using a set of spherical Gaussian functions to distribute the apparent charges. We have implemented the proposed method in the Octopus code and present results for the solvation free energies and solvatochromic shifts for a representative set of organic molecules in water.

  6. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight needs to be better understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a crew member s urine can evaluate the effectiveness of bone loss countermeasures. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross-contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross-contamination (<0.7 mL urine) and has volume accuracy of 2% between 100 to 1000 mL urine voids. Designed to provide a non-invasive means to collect urine samples from crew members, the ISS UMS operates in-line with the Node 3 Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). The ISS UMS has undergone modifications required to interface with the WHC, including material changes, science algorithm improvements, and software platform revisions. Integrated functional testing was performed to determine the pressure drop, air flow rate, and the maximum amount of fluid capable of being discharged from the UMS to the WHC. This paper will detail the results of the science and the functional integration tests.

  7. Modeling solvation effects in real-space and real-time within density functional approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado, Alain; Corni, Stefano; Pittalis, Stefano; Rozzi, Carlo Andrea

    2015-10-14

    The Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) can be used in conjunction with Density Functional Theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TDDFT) to simulate the electronic and optical properties of molecules and nanoparticles immersed in a dielectric environment, typically liquid solvents. In this contribution, we develop a methodology to account for solvation effects in real-space (and real-time) (TD)DFT calculations. The boundary elements method is used to calculate the solvent reaction potential in terms of the apparent charges that spread over the van der Waals solute surface. In a real-space representation, this potential may exhibit a Coulomb singularity at grid points that are close to the cavity surface. We propose a simple approach to regularize such singularity by using a set of spherical Gaussian functions to distribute the apparent charges. We have implemented the proposed method in the OCTOPUS code and present results for the solvation free energies and solvatochromic shifts for a representative set of organic molecules in water.

  8. Modeling solvation effects in real-space and real-time within density functional approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Alain; Corni, Stefano; Pittalis, Stefano; Rozzi, Carlo Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) can be used in conjunction with Density Functional Theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TDDFT) to simulate the electronic and optical properties of molecules and nanoparticles immersed in a dielectric environment, typically liquid solvents. In this contribution, we develop a methodology to account for solvation effects in real-space (and real-time) (TD)DFT calculations. The boundary elements method is used to calculate the solvent reaction potential in terms of the apparent charges that spread over the van der Waals solute surface. In a real-space representation, this potential may exhibit a Coulomb singularity at grid points that are close to the cavity surface. We propose a simple approach to regularize such singularity by using a set of spherical Gaussian functions to distribute the apparent charges. We have implemented the proposed method in the Octopus code and present results for the solvation free energies and solvatochromic shifts for a representative set of organic molecules in water.

  9. A Multi-Function Guidance, Navigation and Control System for Future Earth and Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambino, Joel; Dennehy, Neil; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past several years the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center (GNCC) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has actively engaged in the development of advanced GN&C technology to enable future Earth and Space science missions. The Multi-Function GN&C System (MFGS) design presented in this paper represents the successful coalescence of several discrete GNCC hardware and software technology innovations into one single highly integrated, compact, low power and low cost unit that simultaneously provides autonomous real time on-board attitude determination solutions and navigation solutions with accuracies that satisfy many future GSFC mission requirements. The MFGS is intended to operate as a single self-contained multifunction unit combining the functions now typically performed by a number of hardware units on a spacecraft. However, recognizing the need to satisfy a variety of future mission requirements, design provisions have been included to permit the unit to interface with a number of external remotely mounted sensors and actuators such as magnetometers, sun sensors, star cameras, reaction wheels and thrusters. The result is a highly versatile MFGS that can be configured in multiple ways to suit a realm of mission-specific GN&C requirements. It is envisioned that the MFGS will perform a mission enabling role by filling the microsat GN&C technology gap. In addition, GSFC believes that the MFGS could be employed to significantly reduce volume, power and mass requirements on conventional satellites.

  10. Esophageal mucosal mast cell infiltration and changes in segmental smooth muscle contraction in noncardiac chest pain.

    PubMed

    Park, S W; Lee, H; Lee, H J; Chung, H; Park, J C; Shin, S K; Lee, S K; Lee, Y C

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells release potent mediators that alter enteric nerve and smooth muscle functions and may contribute to the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal disorders. The goal of this study was to determine if mucosal mast cell infiltration was associated with smooth muscle segmental changes in esophageal contraction. All patients with noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) were divided into two groups consisting of patients with non-erosive reflux disease or functional chest pain (FCP) according to the results of ambulatory 24 hours esophageal pH monitoring and high-resolution manometry. Pressure-volume (PV) was calculated by multiplying the length of the esophageal segment, duration of the contraction, and mean pressure over the entire space-time box (P mean). Quantification of mast cells was performed in five consecutive nonoverlapping immunostained sections. Spearman correlation analysis showed that the distal segment PV correlated with the mast cell count in all of the patients combined and in patients with FCP with correlation coefficients of 0.509 and 0.436, respectively (P = 0.004 and P = 0.042). Similar findings were observed for the segmental ratio of distal to proximal smooth muscle PV in all patients and in patients with FCP (correlation coefficients 0.566; P = 0.001 and correlation coefficients 0.525; P = 0.012, respectively). Mucosal mast cell infiltration was associated with distal esophageal contraction as a key pathophysiologic factor of NCCP.

  11. [Analysis of possible causes activation a stomach and pancreas excretory and incretory function after completion of space flight on the international space station].

    PubMed

    Afonin, B V

    2013-01-01

    The research excretory and incretory of activity of a stomach and pancreas is carried out at astronauts in the early period after completion of space flights of various duration. It is shown, that the increase of the contents of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and hormones (insulin and C-peptide) in blood reflects increased excretory and incretory activity of organs of gastroduodenal area which arises in weightlessness. The complex of countermeasures, which prevent ingress of subjects, infected by Helicobacter pylori in space flight crew, excluded participation of this microorganism in the mechanism of increase of secretory activity of a stomach. The absence of interrelation between increase of secretory activity of gastroduodenal area organs and space flights' duration has allowed to exclude the hypokinetic mechanism which determined by duration of stay in weightlessness. It was shown that after the end of space flights the increase ofbasal excretory activity of organs of gastroduodenal area occurs simultaneously with increase of a fasting insulin secretion. The changes in gastroduodenal area organs revealed after space flights were are compared to similar changes received in ground-based experiments, simulating hemodynamic reorganization in venous system of abdominal cavity, arising in weightlessness. The conclusion is made, that the basic mechanism of changes of a functional condition of digestive system in space flights, is determined by reorganization venous hemodynamic in abdominal cavity organs reproduced in ground experiments. Increase insulin and C-peptide after space flights are considered as hormonal component of this hemodynamic mechanism.

  12. Radar data smoothing filter study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of the current Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) data smoothing techniques for a variety of radars and payloads is examined. Alternative data reduction techniques are given and recommendations are made for improving radar data processing at WFF. A data adaptive algorithm, based on Kalman filtering and smoothing techniques, is also developed for estimating payload trajectories above the atmosphere from noisy time varying radar data. This algorithm is tested and verified using radar tracking data from WFF.

  13. Active controls for ride smoothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.; Thompson, G. O.

    1976-01-01

    Active controls technology offers great promise for significantly smoothing the ride, and thus improving public and air carrier acceptance, of certain types of transport aircraft. Recent findings which support this promise are presented in the following three pertinent areas: (1) Ride quality versus degree of traveler satisfaction; (2) significant findings from a feasibility study of a ride smoothing system; and (3) potential ride problems identified for several advanced transport concepts.

  14. Functional preservation of vascular smooth muscle tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, W. C.; Hutchins, P. M.; Kimzey, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The ionic and cellular feedback relationships operating to effect the vascular decompensatory modifications were examined to reveal procedures for implementing protective measures guarding against vascular collapse when returning from a weightless environment to that of the earth's gravity. The surgical procedures for preparing the rat cremaster, and the fixation methods are described. Abstracts of publications resulting from this research are included.

  15. Identification, Structural, and Functional Characterization of a New Early Gene (6A3-5, 7 kb): Implication in the Proliferation and Differentiation of Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) play a major role in atherosclerosis and restenosis. Differential display was used to compare transcription profiles of synthetic SMCs to proliferating rat cultured SMC line. An isolated cDNA band (6A3-5) was shown by northern (7 kb) to be upregulated in the proliferating cell line. A rat tissue northern showed differential expression of this gene in different tissues. Using 5′ RACE and screening of a rat brain library, part of the cDNA was cloned and sequenced (5.4 kb). Sequence searches showed important similarities with a new family of transcription factors, bearing ARID motifs. A polyclonal antibody was raised and showed a protein band of 175 kd, which is localized intracellularly. We also showed that 6A3-5 is upregulated in dedifferentiated SMC (P9) in comparison to contractile SMC ex vivo (P0). This work describes cloning, structural, and functional characterization of a new early gene involved in SMC phenotype modulation. PMID:16192684

  16. The Smooth Operator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crystal formation in foods can be beneficial or detrimental to the quality of the product. Sugar, lactose, tartaric acid and salt are common food crystals. Eggs and egg products are found in a wide variety of foods. Their role in individual food matrices is highly diverse. One such function is c...

  17. [BEHAVIORAL AND FUNCTIONAL VESTIBULAR DISTURBANCES AFTER SPACE FLIGHT. 2. FISHES, AMPHIBIANS AND BIRDS].

    PubMed

    Lychakov, D V

    2016-01-01

    The review contains data on functional shifts in fishes, amphibians and birds caused by changes in the otolith system operation after stay under weightlessness conditions. These data are of theoretical and practical significance and are important to resolve some fundamental problems of vestibulogy. The analysis of the results of space experiments has shown that weightlessness conditions do not exert a substantial impact on formation and functional state of the otolith system in embryonic fishes, amphibians and birds developed during space flight. Weightlessness conditions do pot inhibit embryonic development of lower vertebrates but even have rather beneficial effect on it. This is consistent with conclusions concerning development of mammalian fetuses. The experimental results show that weightlessness can cause similar functional and behavioral vestibular shifts both in lower vertebrates and in mammals. For example, immediately after an orbital flight the vestibuloocular reflex in fish larvae and tadpoles (without lordosis) was stronger than in control individuals. A similar shift of the otolith reflex was observed in the majority of cosmonauts after short-term orbital flights. Immediately after landing adult terrestrial vertebrates, as well as human beings, exhibit lower activity levels, worse equilibrium and coordination of movements. Another interesting finding observed after landing of the cosmic apparatus was an unusual looping character of tadpole swimming. It is supposed that the unusual motor activity of animals as well as appearance of illusions in cosmonauts and astronauts after switching from 1 to 0 g have the same nature and are related to the change in character of otolith organs stimulation. Considering this similarity of vestibular reactions, using animals seems rather perspective. Besides it allows applying in experiments various invasive techniques.

  18. A Child's Space: Personal Space Preferences of Preschool Children as a Function of Material and Tactile Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angoli, Marilyn; Hensley, Wayne E.

    In the context of reciprocity theory (in which disclosure by one person elicits self-disclosure by another person), personal space preferences of three-, four-, and five-year-old children were examined. Equal numbers of each age group and sex (N=120) were either given or not given material rewards and were either touched or not touched by the…

  19. Organization, Management and Function of International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, James M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    Long duration crews have inhabited the ISS since November of 2000. The favorable medical outcomes of its missions can be largely attributed to sustained collective efforts of all ISS Partners medical organizations. In-flight medical monitoring and support, although crucial, is just a component of the ISS system of Joint Medical Operations. The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the multilateral medical support of the ISS Program. The governing documents, which describe the relationships among all ISS partner medical organizations, were evaluated, followed by analysis of the roles, responsibilities, and decision-making processes of the ISS medical boards, panels, and working groups. The degree of integration of the medical support system was evaluated by reviewing the multiple levels of the status reviews and mission assurance activities carried out throughout the last six years. The Integrated Medical Group, consisting of physicians and other essential personnel in the mission control centers represents the front-line medical support of the ISS. Data from their day-to-day activities are presented weekly at the Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT), where known or potential concerns are addressed by an international group of physicians. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month, and to determine measures to return to nominal state. Finally, a comprehensive readiness review is conducted during preparations for each ISS mission. The Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB) issues medical policy decisions and oversees all health and medical matters. The Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB) certifies crewmembers and visitors for training and space flight to the Station, and physicians to practice space medicine for the ISS. The Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP) develops medical requirements, defines and supervises implementation of

  20. Thyroid function appears to be significantly reduced in Space-borne MDS mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco; Curcio, Francesco; Fontanini, Elisabetta; Perrella, Giuseppina; Spelat, Renza; Zambito, Anna Maria; Damaskopoulou, Eleni; Peverini, Manola; Albi, Elisabetta

    It is known that prolonged space flights induced changes in human cardiovascular, muscu-loskeletal and nervous systems whose function is regulated by the thyroid gland but, until now, no data were reported about thyroid damage during space missions. We have demonstrated in vitro that, during space missions (Italian Soyuz Mission "ENEIDE" in 2005, Shuttle STS-120 "ESPERIA" in 2007), thyroid in vitro cultured cells did not respond to thyroid stimulating hor-mone (TSH) treatment; they appeared healthy and alive, despite their being in a pro-apopotic state characterised by a variation of sphingomyelin metabolism and consequent increase in ce-ramide content. The insensitivity to TSH was largely due to a rearrangement of specific cell membrane microdomains, acting as platforms for TSH-receptor (TEXUS-44 mission in 2008). To study if these effects were present also in vivo, as part of the Mouse Drawer System (MDS) Tissue Sharing Program, we performed experiments in mice maintained onboard the Interna-tional Space Station during the long-duration (90 days) exploration mission STS-129. After return to earth, the thyroids isolated from the 3 animals were in part immediately frozen to study the morphological modification in space and in part immediately used to study the effect of TSH treatment. For this purpose small fragments of tissue were treated with 10-7 or 10-8 M TSH for 1 hour by using untreated fragments as controls. Then the fragments were fixed with absolute ethanol for 10 min at room temperature and centrifuged for 20 min. at 3000 x g. The supernatants were used for cAMP analysis whereas the pellet were used for protein amount determination and for immunoblotting analysis of TSH-receptor, sphingomyelinase and sphingomyelin-synthase. The results showed a modification of the thyroid structure and also the values of cAMP production after treatment with 10-7 M TSH for 1 hour were significantly lower than those obtained in Earth's gravity. The treatment with TSH

  1. Notch Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Baeten, J T; Lilly, B

    2017-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved pathway involved in cell fate determination in embryonic development and also functions in the regulation of physiological processes in several systems. It plays an especially important role in vascular development and physiology by influencing angiogenesis, vessel patterning, arterial/venous specification, and vascular smooth muscle biology. Aberrant or dysregulated Notch signaling is the cause of or a contributing factor to many vascular disorders, including inherited vascular diseases, such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, associated with degeneration of the smooth muscle layer in cerebral arteries. Like most signaling pathways, the Notch signaling axis is influenced by complex interactions with mediators of other signaling pathways. This complexity is also compounded by different members of the Notch family having both overlapping and unique functions. Thus, it is vital to fully understand the roles and interactions of each Notch family member in order to effectively and specifically target their exact contributions to vascular disease. In this chapter, we will review the Notch signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells as it relates to vascular development and human disease.

  2. AnL1 smoothing spline algorithm with cross validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, Ken W.; Lall, Upmanu

    1993-08-01

    We propose an algorithm for the computation ofL1 (LAD) smoothing splines in the spacesWM(D), with . We assume one is given data of the formyiD(f(ti) +ɛi, iD1,...,N with {itti}iD1N ⊂D, theɛi are errors withE(ɛi)D0, andf is assumed to be inWM. The LAD smoothing spline, for fixed smoothing parameterλ?;0, is defined as the solution,sλ, of the optimization problem (1/N)∑iD1N yi-g(ti +λJM(g), whereJM(g) is the seminorm consisting of the sum of the squaredL2 norms of theMth partial derivatives ofg. Such an LAD smoothing spline,sλ, would be expected to give robust smoothed estimates off in situations where theɛi are from a distribution with heavy tails. The solution to such a problem is a "thin plate spline" of known form. An algorithm for computingsλ is given which is based on considering a sequence of quadratic programming problems whose structure is guided by the optimality conditions for the above convex minimization problem, and which are solved readily, if a good initial point is available. The "data driven" selection of the smoothing parameter is achieved by minimizing aCV(λ) score of the form .The combined LAD-CV smoothing spline algorithm is a continuation scheme in λ↘0 taken on the above SQPs parametrized inλ, with the optimal smoothing parameter taken to be that value ofλ at which theCV(λ) score first begins to increase. The feasibility of constructing the LAD-CV smoothing spline is illustrated by an application to a problem in environment data interpretation.

  3. Conformational space annealing scheme in the inverse design of functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, In-Ho; Lee, Jooyoung; Oh, Young Jun; Chang, Kee Joo

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the so-called inverse method has drawn much attention, in which specific electronic properties are initially assigned and target materials are subsequently searched. In this work, we develop a new scheme for the inverse design of functional materials, in which the conformational space annealing (CSA) algorithm for global optimization is combined with first-principles density functional calculations. To implement the CSA, we need a series of ingredients, (i) an objective function to minimize, (ii) a 'distance' measure between two conformations, (iii) a local enthalpy minimizer of a given conformation, (iv) ways to combine two parent conformations to generate a daughter one, (v) a special conformation update scheme, and (vi) an annealing method in the 'distance' parameter axis. We show the results of applications for searching for Si crystals with direct band gaps and the lowest-enthalpy phase of boron at a finite pressure and discuss the efficiency of the present scheme. This work is supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under Grant No. NRF-2005-0093845 and by Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Grant No. SSTFBA1401-08.

  4. Smooth muscle phenotypic modulation--a personal experience.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julie H; Campbell, Gordon R

    2012-08-01

    The idea that smooth muscle cells can exist in multiple phenotypic states depending on the functional demands placed upon them has been around for >5 decades. However, much of the literature today refers to only recent articles, giving the impression that it is a new idea. At the same time, the current trend is to delve deeper and deeper into transcriptional regulation of smooth muscle genes, and much of the work describing the change in biology of the cells in the different phenotypic states does not appear to be known. This loss of historical perspective regarding the biology of smooth muscle phenotypic modulation is what the current article has tried to mitigate.

  5. Development of an Objective Space Suit Mobility Performance Metric Using Metabolic Cost and Functional Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.; Norcross, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for evaluating EVA suit performance and mobility have historically concentrated on isolated joint range of motion and torque. However, these techniques do little to evaluate how well a suited crewmember can actually perform during an EVA. An alternative method of characterizing suited mobility through measurement of metabolic cost to the wearer has been evaluated at Johnson Space Center over the past several years. The most recent study involved six test subjects completing multiple trials of various functional tasks in each of three different space suits; the results indicated it was often possible to discern between different suit designs on the basis of metabolic cost alone. However, other variables may have an effect on real-world suited performance; namely, completion time of the task, the gravity field in which the task is completed, etc. While previous results have analyzed completion time, metabolic cost, and metabolic cost normalized to system mass individually, it is desirable to develop a single metric comprising these (and potentially other) performance metrics. This paper outlines the background upon which this single-score metric is determined to be feasible, and initial efforts to develop such a metric. Forward work includes variable coefficient determination and verification of the metric through repeated testing.

  6. Forecasts on neutrino mass constraints from the redshift-space two-point correlation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petracca, F.; Marulli, F.; Moscardini, L.; Cimatti, A.; Carbone, C.; Angulo, R. E.

    2016-11-01

    We provide constraints on the accuracy with which the neutrino mass fraction, fν, can be estimated when exploiting measurements of redshift-space distortions, describing in particular how the error on neutrino mass depends on three fundamental parameters of a characteristic galaxy redshift survey: density, halo bias and volume. In doing this, we make use of a series of dark matter halo catalogues extracted from the BASICC simulation. The mock data are analysed via a Markov Chain Monte Carlo likelihood analysis. We find a fitting function that well describes the dependence of the error on bias, density and volume, showing a decrease in the error as the bias and volume increase, and a decrease with density down to an almost constant value for high-density values. This fitting formula allows us to produce forecasts on the precision achievable with future surveys on measurements of the neutrino mass fraction. For example, a Euclid-like spectroscopic survey should be able to measure the neutrino mass fraction with an accuracy of δfν ≈ 3.1 × 10-3 (which is equivalent to δ∑mν ≈ 0.039eV), using redshift-space clustering once all the other cosmological parameters are kept fixed to the ΛCDM case.

  7. The axisymmetric torsional contact problem of a functionally graded piezoelectric coated half-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jie; Ke, Liao-Liang; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Xiang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we study the axisymmetric torsional contact problem of a half-space coated with functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) and subjected to a rigid circular punch. It is found that, along the thickness direction, the electromechanical properties of FGPMs change exponentially. We apply the Hankel integral transform technique and reduce the problem to a singular integral equation, and then numerically determine the unknown contact stress and electric displacement at the contact surface. The results show that the surface contact stress, surface azimuthal displacement, surface electric displacement, and inner electromechanical field are obviously dependent on the gradient index of the FGPM coating. It is found that we can adjust the gradient index of the FGPM coating to modify the distributions of the electric displacement and contact stress.

  8. Scalable real space pseudopotential-density functional codes for materials applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelikowsky, James R.; Lena, Charles; Schofield, Grady; Saad, Yousef; Deslippe, Jack; Yang, Chao

    2015-03-01

    Real-space pseudopotential density functional theory has proven to be an efficient method for computing the properties of matter in many different states and geometries, including liquids, wires, slabs and clusters with and without spin polarization. Fully self-consistent solutions have been routinely obtained for systems with thousands of atoms. However, there are still systems where quantum mechanical accuracy is desired, but scalability proves to be a hindrance, such as large biological molecules or complex interfaces. We will present an overview of our work on new algorithms, which offer improved scalability by implementing another layer of parallelism, and by optimizing communication and memory management. Support provided by the SciDAC program, Department of Energy, Office of Science, Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences. Grant Numbers DE-SC0008877 (Austin) and DE-FG02-12ER4 (Berkeley).

  9. Application of a barometer for assessment of oral functions: Donders space.

    PubMed

    Hiraki, K; Yamada, Y; Kurose, M; Ofusa, W; Sugiyama, T; Ishida, R

    2017-01-01

    We developed a barometer applicable to a small space, to assess oral and pharyngeal functions. Negative oral pressure during rest and pressure changes during swallowing were measured in a space between the palate and tongue (STP). Twenty volunteers were asked to sit in a chair in a relaxed upright position. A sensor was placed on the posterior midline of hard palate. Recording commenced just before subjects closed their lips and continued. Subjects were asked to swallow saliva and keep the apposition. Finally, subjects were asked to open their mouth. Recordings were performed five times, and 5 s of continuous data in each phase was averaged. To verify the reliability of the system, the same procedure was accomplished with twin sensors. When the jaw and lips were closed, the pressure slightly decreased from atmospheric pressure (-0·17 ± 0·24-kPa). After swallowing, the pressure in STP showed more negative value (-0·50 ± 0·59-kPa). There is a significant difference between the values in open condition and after swallowing (P < 0·001) and between values after swallowing and final open condition (P < 0·05). Twin sensor showed almost the same trajectories of pressure changes for all the recordings. Obtained negative pressure might generate about 0·71-N of force and would be enough to keep the tongue in the palatal fossa at rest. The system detected large negative/positive pressure changes during swallowing. We conclude this system may be a tool to evaluate oral functions.

  10. Use It or Lose It: Skeletal Muscle Function and Performance Results from Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided a wealth of valuable information regarding the adaptations of skeletal muscle to weightlessness. Studies conducted during the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) represented ground breaking work on the effects of spaceflight on muscle form and function from applied human research to cellular adaptations. Results from detailed supplementary objective (DSO) 477 demonstrated that muscle strength losses could occur rapidly in response to short-duration spaceflight. The effects of spaceflight-induced unloading were primarily restricted to postural muscles such as those of the back as well as the knee extensors. DSO 606 provided evidence from MRI that the observed strength losses were partially accounted for by a reduction in the size of the individual muscles. Muscle biopsy studies conducted during DSO 475 were able to show muscle atrophy in individual muscle fibers from the quadriceps muscles. Reduced quadriceps muscle size and strength was also observed during the 17-d Life and Microgravity Spacelab mission aboard STS-78. Multiple maximal strength tests were conducted in flight on the calf muscles and it has been hypothesized that these high force contractions may have acted as a countermeasure. Muscle fiber mechanics were studied on calf muscle samples pre- and postflight. While some responses were crewmember specific, the general trend was that muscle fiber force production dropped and shortening velocity increased. The increased shortening velocity helped to maintain muscle fiber power. Numerous rodent studies performed during Shuttle missions suggest that many of the effects reported in Shuttle crewmembers could be due to lesions in the cellular signaling pathways that stimulate protein synthesis as well as an increase in the mechanisms that up-regulate protein breakdown. The results have important implications regarding the overall health and performance capabilities of future crewmembers that will venture beyond

  11. Comparison of cardiovascular function during the early hours of bed rest and space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathers, C. M.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the cardiovascular responses of six healthy male subjects to 6 hours in a 5 degrees head-down bed rest model of weightlessness, and compares these responses to those obtained when subjects were positioned in head-up tilts of 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 42 degrees, simulating 1/6, 1/3, and 2/3 G, respectively. Thoracic fluid index, cardiac output, stroke volume, and peak flow were measured using impedance cardiography. Cardiac dimensions and volumes were determined from two-dimensional guided M-mode echocardiograms in the left lateral decubitus position at 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours. Cardiovascular response to a stand test were compared before and after bed rest. The impedance values were related to tilt angle for the first 2 hours of tilt; however, after 3 hours, at all four angles, values began to converge, indicating that cardiovascular homeostatic mechanisms seek a common adapted state, regardless of effective gravity level (tilt angle) up to 2/3 G. Echocardiography revealed that left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volume, stroke volume, ejection fraction, heart rate, and cardiac output had returned to control values by hour 6 for all tilt angles. The lack of a significant immediate change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume, despite decrements in stroke volume (P < .05) and heart rate (not significant), indicates that multiple factors may play a role in the adaptation to simulated hypogravity. The echocardiography data indicated that no angle of tilt, whether head-down or head-up for 4 to 6 hours, mimicked exactly the changes in cardiovascular function recorded after 4 to 6 hours of space flight. Changes in left ventricular end-diastolic volume during space flight and tilt may be similar, but follow a different time course. Nevertheless, head-down tilt at 5 degrees for 6 hours mimics some (stroke volume, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, and total resistance), but not all, of the changes occurring

  12. Boundary values of functions in a Sobolev space with Muckenhoupt weight on some non-Lipschitz domains

    SciTech Connect

    Tyulenev, A I

    2014-08-01

    This paper gives an explicit description of the traces of functions in a weighted Sobolev space (with local Muckenhoupt weight) on the domain lying between two graphs of Lipschitz functions and on the complement of the closure of this domain. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  13. Sensitivity of Space Launch System Buffet Forcing Functions to Buffet Mitigation Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piatak, David J.; Sekula, Martin K.; Rausch, Russ D.

    2016-01-01

    Time-varying buffet forcing functions arise from unsteady aerodynamic pressures and are one of many load environments, which contribute to the overall loading condition of a launch vehicle during ascent through the atmosphere. The buffet environment is typically highest at transonic conditions and can excite the vehicle dynamic modes of vibration. The vehicle response to these buffet forcing functions may cause high structural bending moments and vibratory environments, which can exceed the capabilities of the structure, or of vehicle components such as payloads and avionics. Vehicle configurations, protuberances, payload fairings, and large changes in stage diameter can trigger undesirable buffet environments. The Space Launch System (SLS) multi-body configuration and its structural dynamic characteristics presented challenges to the load cycle design process with respect to buffet-induced loads and responses. An initial wind-tunnel test of a 3-percent scale SLS rigid buffet model was conducted in 2012 and revealed high buffet environments behind the booster forward attachment protuberance, which contributed to reduced vehicle structural margins. Six buffet mitigation options were explored to alleviate the high buffet environments including modified booster nose cones and fences/strakes on the booster and core. These studies led to a second buffet test program that was conducted in 2014 to assess the ability of the buffet mitigation options to reduce buffet environments on the vehicle. This paper will present comparisons of buffet forcing functions from each of the buffet mitigation options tested, with a focus on sectional forcing function rms levels within regions of the vehicle prone to high buffet environments.

  14. Progress in smooth particle hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wingate, C.A.; Dilts, G.A.; Mandell, D.A.; Crotzer, L.A.; Knapp, C.E.

    1998-07-01

    Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshless, Lagrangian numerical method for hydrodynamics calculations where calculational elements are fuzzy particles which move according to the hydrodynamic equations of motion. Each particle carries local values of density, temperature, pressure and other hydrodynamic parameters. A major advantage of SPH is that it is meshless, thus large deformation calculations can be easily done with no connectivity complications. Interface positions are known and there are no problems with advecting quantities through a mesh that typical Eulerian codes have. These underlying SPH features make fracture physics easy and natural and in fact, much of the applications work revolves around simulating fracture. Debris particles from impacts can be easily transported across large voids with SPH. While SPH has considerable promise, there are some problems inherent in the technique that have so far limited its usefulness. The most serious problem is the well known instability in tension leading to particle clumping and numerical fracture. Another problem is that the SPH interpolation is only correct when particles are uniformly spaced a half particle apart leading to incorrect strain rates, accelerations and other quantities for general particle distributions. SPH calculations are also sensitive to particle locations. The standard artificial viscosity treatment in SPH leads to spurious viscosity in shear flows. This paper will demonstrate solutions for these problems that they and others have been developing. The most promising is to replace the SPH interpolant with the moving least squares (MLS) interpolant invented by Lancaster and Salkauskas in 1981. SPH and MLS are closely related with MLS being essentially SPH with corrected particle volumes. When formulated correctly, JLS is conservative, stable in both compression and tension, does not have the SPH boundary problems and is not sensitive to particle placement. The other approach to

  15. The clustering of galaxies in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Effect of smoothing of density field on reconstruction and anisotropic BAO analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Ho, Shirley; Fromenteau, Sebastien.; Cuesta, Antonio. J.

    2017-01-01

    The reconstruction algorithm introduced by Eisenstein et al. (2007), which is widely used in clustering analysis, is based on the inference of the first order Lagrangian displacement field from the Gaussian smoothed galaxy density field in redshift space. The 2smoothing scale applied to the density field affects the inferred displacement field that is used to move the galaxies, and partially 2erases the nonlinear evolution of the density field. In this article, we explore this crucial step 2in the reconstruction algorithm. We study the performance of the reconstruction technique using two metrics: first, we study the performance using the anisotropic clustering, extending previous studies focused on isotropic clustering; second, we study its effect on the displacement field. We find that smoothing has a strong effect in the quadrupole of the correlation function and affects the accuracy and precision 2with which we can measure DA(z) and H(z). We find that the optimal smoothing scale to use in the reconstruction algorithm applied to BOSS-CMASS is between 5-10 h-1Mpc. Varying from the "usual" 15h-1Mpc to 5h-1Mpc 2shows ˜ 0.3% variations in DA(z) and ˜ 0.4% H(z) and uncertainties are also reduced by 40% and 30% respectively. We also find that the accuracy of velocity field reconstruction depends strongly on the smoothing scale used for the density field. We measure the bias and uncertainties associated with different choices of smoothing length.

  16. Development and Provision of Functional Foods to Promote Health on Long-Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bermudez-Aguirre, D.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    During long-duration NASA space missions, such as proposed missions to Mars, astronauts may experience negative physiological effects such as bone loss. Functional foods such as high-lycopene, high-flavonoids and high-omega-3 products and fruits and vegetables may mitigate the negative effects of spaceflight on physiological factors including the bone health of crewmembers. Previous studies showed that current ISS provisions provide high-lycopene and high-omega-3 food items but the variety is limited, which could promote menu fatigue. Bioactive compounds can degrade like other chemical compounds and lose functionality. The native concentrations and stability of bioactive compounds have never been determined in spaceflight foods, and adequate information is not available for commercial products for the storage durations required for space exploration (5 years). The purpose of this task is to develop new spaceflight foods that are high in omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, or flavonoids, identify commercial products with these bioactive compounds that meet spaceflight requirements, and define the stability of these nutrients in storage to enable purposeful functional food incorporation into the space food system. The impact of storage temperature on the stability of lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene, omega-3 fatty acids, phenolics, anthocyanins and sterols is being studied in 12 ISS menu items stored at three different temperatures (4, 21, 35 degree C) over 2 years. Additionally, nutrient and quality stability are being assessed on a larger food set stored at 21 degree C over 2 years that contains twelve newly developed foods, 10 commercial products repackaged to spaceflight requirements, and another 5 current ISS menu items expected to be good sources of omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, or flavonoids. All items were shipped overnight to the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University (Corvalis, OR) after processing and 1-year of storage and analyzed for bioactive

  17. On the thermodynamics of smooth muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålhand, Jonas; McMeeking, Robert M.; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2016-09-01

    Cell function is based on many dynamically complex networks of interacting biochemical reactions. Enzymes may increase the rate of only those reactions that are thermodynamically consistent. In this paper we specifically treat the contraction of smooth muscle cells from the continuum thermodynamics point of view by considering them as an open system where matter passes through the cell membrane. We systematically set up a well-known four-state kinetic model for the cross-bridge interaction of actin and myosin in smooth muscle, where the transition between each state is driven by forward and reverse reactions. Chemical, mechanical and energy balance laws are provided in local forms, while energy balance is also formulated in the more convenient temperature form. We derive the local (non-negative) production of entropy from which we deduce the reduced entropy inequality and the constitutive equations for the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, the heat flux, the ion and molecular flux and the entropy. One example for smooth muscle contraction is analyzed in more detail in order to provide orientation within the established general thermodynamic framework. In particular the stress evolution, heat generation, muscle shorting rate and a condition for muscle cooling are derived.

  18. Scattering and the Point Spread Function of the New Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreur, Julian J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary design work on the New Generation Space Telescope (NGST) is currently under way. This telescope is envisioned as a lightweight, deployable Cassegrain reflector with an aperture of 8 meters, and an effective focal length of 80 meters. It is to be folded into a small-diameter package for launch by an Atlas booster, and unfolded in orbit. The primary is to consist of an octagon with a hole at the center, and with eight segments arranged in a flower petal configuration about the octagon. The comers of the petal-shaped segments are to be trimmed so that the package will fit atop the Atlas booster. This mirror, along with its secondary will focus the light from a point source into an image which is spread from a point by diffraction effects, figure errors, and scattering of light from the surface. The distribution of light in the image of a point source is called a point spread function (PSF). The obstruction of the incident light by the secondary mirror and its support structure, the trimmed corners of the petals, and the grooves between the segments all cause the diffraction pattern characterizing an ideal point spread function to be changed, with the trimmed comers causing the rings of the Airy pattern to become broken up, and the linear grooves causing diffraction spikes running radially away from the central spot, or Airy disk. Any figure errors the mirror segments may have, or any errors in aligning the petals with the central octagon will also spread the light out from the ideal point spread function. A point spread function for a mirror the size of the NGST and having an incident wavelength of 900 nm is considered. Most of the light is confined in a circle with a diameter of 0.05 arc seconds. The ring pattern ranges in intensity from 10(exp -2) near the center to 10(exp -6) near the edge of the plotted field, and can be clearly discerned in a log plot of the intensity. The total fraction of the light scattered from this point spread function is called

  19. James Webb Space Telescope segment phasing using differential optical transfer functions

    PubMed Central

    Codona, Johanan L.; Doble, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Differential optical transfer function (dOTF) is an image-based, noniterative wavefront sensing method that uses two star images with a single small change in the pupil. We describe two possible methods for introducing the required pupil modification to the James Webb Space Telescope, one using a small (<λ/4) displacement of a single segment's actuator and another that uses small misalignments of the NIRCam's filter wheel. While both methods should work with NIRCam, the actuator method will allow both MIRI and NIRISS to be used for segment phasing, which is a new functionality. Since the actuator method requires only small displacements, it should provide a fast and safe phasing alternative that reduces the mission risk and can be performed frequently for alignment monitoring and maintenance. Since a single actuator modification can be seen by all three cameras, it should be possible to calibrate the non-common-path aberrations between them. Large segment discontinuities can be measured using dOTFs in two filter bands. Using two images of a star field, aberrations along multiple lines of sight through the telescope can be measured simultaneously. Also, since dOTF gives the pupil field amplitude as well as the phase, it could provide a first approximation or constraint to the planned iterative phase retrieval algorithms. PMID:27042684

  20. James Webb Space Telescope segment phasing using differential optical transfer functions.

    PubMed

    Codona, Johanan L; Doble, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    Differential optical transfer function (dOTF) is an image-based, noniterative wavefront sensing method that uses two star images with a single small change in the pupil. We describe two possible methods for introducing the required pupil modification to the James Webb Space Telescope, one using a small (<λ/4) displacement of a single segment's actuator and another that uses small misalignments of the NIRCam's filter wheel. While both methods should work with NIRCam, the actuator method will allow both MIRI and NIRISS to be used for segment phasing, which is a new functionality. Since the actuator method requires only small displacements, it should provide a fast and safe phasing alternative that reduces the mission risk and can be performed frequently for alignment monitoring and maintenance. Since a single actuator modification can be seen by all three cameras, it should be possible to calibrate the non-common-path aberrations between them. Large segment discontinuities can be measured using dOTFs in two filter bands. Using two images of a star field, aberrations along multiple lines of sight through the telescope can be measured simultaneously. Also, since dOTF gives the pupil field amplitude as well as the phase, it could provide a first approximation or constraint to the planned iterative phase retrieval algorithms.

  1. Changes in functional activity of bone tissue cells under space flight conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Natalia; Nesterenko, Olga; Kabitskaya, Olga

    The space flight conditions affect considerably the state of bone tissue, leading to the development of osteoporosis and osteopenia. Many aspects of reactions of bone tissue cells still remain unclear until now. With the use of electron microscopy we studied the samples gathered from the femoral bonеs metaphyses of rats flown on board the space laboratory (Spacelab - 2) during 2 weeks and samples from tibial bones of mice C57 Black ( Bion М-1). It was established, that under microgravity conditions there occur remodelling processes in a spongy bone related with a deficit of support load. In this work the main attention is focused on studying the ultrastructure of osteogenetic cells and osteoclasts. The degree of differentiation and functional state are evaluated according to the degree of development of organelles for specific biosynthesis: rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), Golgy complex (GC), as well as the state of mitochondria and cell nucleus. As compared with a synchronous control, the population of osteogenetic cells from zones of bone reconstruction shows a decrease in the number of functionally active forms. We can judge of this from the reduction of a specific volume of RER, GC, mitochondria in osteoblasts. RER loses architectonics typical for osteoblasts and, as against the control, is represented by short narrow canaliculi distributed throughout the cytoplasm; some canals disintegrate. GC is slightly pronounced, mitochondria become smaller in size and acquire an optically dark matrix. These phenomena are supposed to be associated with the desorganization of microtubules and microfilaments in the cells under microgravity conditions. The population of osteogenetic cells shows a decrease in the number of differentiating osteoblasts and an increase in the number of little-differentiated stromal cells. In the population of osteoblasts, degrading and apoptotic cells are sometimes encountered. Such zones show a numerical increase of monocytic cells and

  2. Decay of passive scalars under the action of single scale smooth velocity fields in bounded two-dimensional domains: from non-self-similar probability distribution functions to self-similar eigenmodes.

    PubMed

    Sukhatme, Jai; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T

    2002-11-01

    We examine the decay of passive scalars with small, but nonzero, diffusivity in bounded two-dimensional (2D) domains. The velocity fields responsible for advection are smooth (i.e., they have bounded gradients) and of a single large scale. Moreover, the scale of the velocity field is taken to be similar to the size of the entire domain. The importance of the initial scale of variation of the scalar field with respect to that of the velocity field is strongly emphasized. If these scales are comparable and the velocity field is time periodic, we see the formation of a periodic scalar eigenmode. The eigenmode is numerically realized by means of a deterministic 2D map on a lattice. Analytical justification for the eigenmode is available from theorems in the dynamo literature. Weakening the notion of an eigenmode to mean statistical stationarity, we provide numerical evidence that the eigenmode solution also holds for aperiodic flows (represented by random maps). Turning to the evolution of an initially small scale scalar field, we demonstrate the transition from an evolving (i.e., non-self-similar) probability distribution function (pdf) to a stationary (self-similar) pdf as the scale of variation of the scalar field progresses from being small to being comparable to that of the velocity field (and of the domain). Furthermore, the non-self-similar regime itself consists of two stages. Both stages are examined and the coupling between diffusion and the distribution of the finite time Lyapunov exponents is shown to be responsible for the pdf evolution.

  3. Income Smoothing: Methodology and Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    that managers desire a pattern % of income that has low variability relative to a linear time trend. 2. Industry Trend. Target 2 assumes that firms...R167 55? INCOME SMOOTHING: METHODOLOGY ND NODELS(U) UMVL in1POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA 0 D HOSES "AY S6 UNCLASSIFIED NP5-604FO53 E * I* vu...California oCiD ELEC fl MAY 12 986 INCOME SMOOTHING - METHODOLOGY AND MODELS by 0. Douglas Moses May 1986 *Approved frpublic release; ditibto uniie

  4. Functional gene groups are concentrated within chromosomes, among chromosomes and in the nuclear space of the human genome.

    PubMed

    Thévenin, Annelyse; Ein-Dor, Liat; Ozery-Flato, Michal; Shamir, Ron

    2014-09-01

    Genomes undergo changes in organization as a result of gene duplications, chromosomal rearrangements and local mutations, among other mechanisms. In contrast to prokaryotes, in which genes of a common function are often organized in operons and reside contiguously along the genome, most eukaryotes show much weaker clustering of genes by function, except for few concrete functional groups. We set out to check systematically if there is a relation between gene function and gene organization in the human genome. We test this question for three types of functional groups: pairs of interacting proteins, complexes and pathways. We find a significant concentration of functional groups both in terms of their distance within the same chromosome and in terms of their dispersal over several chromosomes. Moreover, using Hi-C contact map of the tendency of chromosomal segments to appear close in the 3D space of the nucleus, we show that members of the same functional group that reside on distinct chromosomes tend to co-localize in space. The result holds for all three types of functional groups that we tested. Hence, the human genome shows substantial concentration of functional groups within chromosomes and across chromosomes in space.

  5. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality vs Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmembers food and drinking packages with one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. The USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) was delivered to ISS on ULF2, Shuttle Mission STS-126, and was subsequently activated in November 2008. The PWD activation on ISS is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six but nominally supplies only half the crew. The PWD is designed to provide incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US style food packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Laboratory Fuel Cell Water Bus, which is fed from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 liters of hot water (65 to 93oC) every thirty minutes. This quantity supports three to four crewmembers to rehydrate their food and beverages from this location during a single meal. The unit is designed to remain functional for up to ten years with replacement of limited life items such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance has been acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there have been several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is outlined for the following key areas: microbiology, PWD to food package water leakage, no-dispense scenarios, under-dispense scenarios, and crewmember feedback on actual on-orbit use.

  6. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality Versus Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmember food and drinking packages. There is one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. Shuttle mission STS-126 delivered the USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) to ISS on ULF2; subsequent activation occurred on November 2008. The PWD is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six, but nominally supplies only half this crew size. The PWD design provides incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US food and beverage packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Water Recovery System (WRS) Fuel Cell Water Bus, which feeds from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 L of hot water (65 to 93 ?C) every 30 min. During a single meal, this quantity of water supports three to four crewmembers? food rehydration and beverages. The unit design has a functional life expectancy of 10 years, with replacement of limited life items, such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance is acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there were several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is discussed for the following key areas: 1) microbial contamination, 2) no-dispense and water leakage scenarios, and 3) under-dispense scenarios.

  7. The Transfer Function Model as a Tool to Study and Describe Space Weather Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, Hayden S.; Mayr, Hans G.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Transfer Function Model (TFM) is a semi-analytical, linear model that is designed especially to describe thermospheric perturbations associated with magnetic storms and substorm. activity. It is a multi-constituent model (N2, O, He H, Ar) that accounts for wind induced diffusion, which significantly affects not only the composition and mass density but also the temperature and wind fields. Because the TFM adopts a semianalytic approach in which the geometry and temporal dependencies of the driving sources are removed through the use of height-integrated Green's functions, it provides physical insight into the essential properties of processes being considered, which are uncluttered by the accidental complexities that arise from particular source geometrie and time dependences. Extending from the ground to 700 km, the TFM eliminates spurious effects due to arbitrarily chosen boundary conditions. A database of transfer functions, computed only once, can be used to synthesize a wide range of spatial and temporal sources dependencies. The response synthesis can be performed quickly in real-time using only limited computing capabilities. These features make the TFM unique among global dynamical models. Given these desirable properties, a version of the TFM has been developed for personal computers (PC) using advanced platform-independent 3D visualization capabilities. We demonstrate the model capabilities with simulations for different auroral sources, including the response of ducted gravity waves modes that propagate around the globe. The thermospheric response is found to depend strongly on the spatial and temporal frequency spectra of the storm. Such varied behavior is difficult to describe in statistical empirical models. To improve the capability of space weather prediction, the TFM thus could be grafted naturally onto existing statistical models using data assimilation.

  8. Prolonged space flight-induced alterations in the structure and function of human skeletal muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Fitts, R H; Trappe, S W; Costill, D L; Gallagher, P M; Creer, A C; Colloton, P A; Peters, J R; Romatowski, J G; Bain, J L; Riley, D A

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine the effects of prolonged space flight (∼180 days) on the structure and function of slow and fast fibres in human skeletal muscle. Biopsies were obtained from the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of nine International Space Station crew members ∼45 days pre- and on landing day (R+0) post-flight. The main findings were that prolonged weightlessness produced substantial loss of fibre mass, force and power with the hierarchy of the effects being soleus type I > soleus type II > gastrocnemius type I > gastrocnemius type II. Structurally, the quantitatively most important adaptation was fibre atrophy, which averaged 20% in the soleus type I fibres (98 to 79 μm diameter). Atrophy was the main contributor to the loss of peak force (P0), which for the soleus type I fibre declined 35% from 0.86 to 0.56 mN. The percentage decrease in fibre diameter was correlated with the initial pre-flight fibre size (r = 0.87), inversely with the amount of treadmill running (r = 0.68), and was associated with an increase in thin filament density (r = 0.92). The latter correlated with reduced maximal velocity (V0) (r = −0.51), and is likely to have contributed to the 21 and 18% decline in V0 in the soleus and gastrocnemius type I fibres. Peak power was depressed in all fibre types with the greatest loss (∼55%) in the soleus. An obvious conclusion is that the exercise countermeasures employed were incapable of providing the high intensity needed to adequately protect fibre and muscle mass, and that the crew's ability to perform strenuous exercise might be seriously compromised. Our results highlight the need to study new exercise programmes on the ISS that employ high resistance and contractions over a wide range of motion to mimic the range occurring in Earth's 1 g environment. PMID:20660569

  9. [A new approach to shielding function calculation: radiation dose estimation for a phantome inside space station compartment].

    PubMed

    Kartashov, D A; Shurshakov, V A

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a new procedure of calculating the shielding functions for irregular objects formed from a set of nonintersecting (adjacent) triangles covering completely the surface of each object. Calculated and experimentally derived distributions of space ionizing radiation doses in the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom (experiment MATRYOSHKA-R) inside the International space station were in good agreement in the mass of phantom depths with allowance for measurement error (-10%). The procedure can be applied in modeling radiation loads on cosmonauts, calculating effectiveness of secondary protection in spacecraft, and design review of radiation protection for future space exploration missions.

  10. Approximation of functions in variable-exponent Lebesgue and Sobolev spaces by finite Fourier-Haar series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapudinov, I. I.

    2014-02-01

    The paper deals with the space L^{p(x)} consisting of classes of real measurable functions f(x) on \\lbrack 0,1 \\rbrack with finite integral \\displaystyle\\int_0^1\\vert f(x)\\vert^{p(x)}\\,dx. If 1\\le p(x)\\le \\overline p\\lt\\infty, then the space L^{p(x)} can be made into a Banach space with the norm \\displaystyle\\Vert f\\Vert _{p(\\cdot)}=\\inf\\biggl\\{\\alpha\\,{\\gt}\\,0: \\int_0^1 \\vert{f(x)/\\alpha}\\vert^{p(x)}\\,dx\\le\

  11. Spline smoothing of histograms by linear programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, J. O.

    1972-01-01

    An algorithm for an approximating function to the frequency distribution is obtained from a sample of size n. To obtain the approximating function a histogram is made from the data. Next, Euclidean space approximations to the graph of the histogram using central B-splines as basis elements are obtained by linear programming. The approximating function has area one and is nonnegative.

  12. Stochastic optimization with randomized smoothing for image registration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Poot, Dirk H J; Smal, Ihor; Yang, Xuan; Niessen, Wiro J; Klein, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Image registration is typically formulated as an optimization process, which aims to find the optimal transformation parameters of a given transformation model by minimizing a cost function. Local minima may exist in the optimization landscape, which could hamper the optimization process. To eliminate local minima, smoothing the cost function would be desirable. In this paper, we investigate the use of a randomized smoothing (RS) technique for stochastic gradient descent (SGD) optimization, to effectively smooth the cost function. In this approach, Gaussian noise is added to the transformation parameters prior to computing the cost function gradient in each iteration of the SGD optimizer. The approach is suitable for both rigid and nonrigid registrations. Experiments on synthetic images, cell images, public CT lung data, and public MR brain data demonstrate the effectiveness of the novel RS technique in terms of registration accuracy and robustness.

  13. Registration of 'Newell' Smooth Bromegrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Newell’ (Reg. No. CV-xxxx, PI 671851) smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) is a steppe or southern type cultivar that is primarily adapted in the USA to areas north of 40o N lat. and east of 100o W long. that have 500 mm or more annual precipitation or in areas that have similar climate cond...

  14. Effects of Space Flight on Ovarian-Hypophyseal Function in Postpartum Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burden, H. W.; Zary, J.; Lawrence, I. E.; Jonnalagadda, P.; Davis, M.; Hodson, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of space flight in a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) shuttle was studied in pregnant rats. Rats were launched on day 9 of gestation and recovered on day 20 of gestation. On day 20 of gestation, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized and subsequently allowed to go to term and deliver vaginally. There was no effect of space flight on pituitary and ovary mass postpartum. In addition, space flight did not alter healthy and atretic ovarian antral follicle populations, fetal wastage in utero, plasma concentrations of progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) or pituitary content of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Space flight significantly increased plasma concentrations of FSH and decreased pituitary content of LH at the postpartum sampling time. Collectively, these data show that space flight, initiated during the postimplantation period of pregnancy, and concluded before parturition, is compatible with maintenance of pregnancy and has minimal effects on postpartum hypophyseal parameters; however, none of the ovarian parameters examined was altered by space flight.

  15. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer -Timo

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lack fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).

  16. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    DOE PAGES

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; ...

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lackmore » fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).« less

  17. Radiation Monitoring System in Service Module of International Space Station. Eight Years of Functioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benghin, Victor; Petrov, Vladislav; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Volkov, Aleksey; Nikolaev, Igor; Nechaev, Oleg; Lishnevskii, Andrey; Tel, Mikhail

    Radiation monitoring system (RMS) installed on board the Russian module (RM) of the In-ternational Space Station (ISS) is an important part of radiation safety system of a spacecraft. RMS function practically continuously beginning from 1 August 2001 year. Integration the RMS with other systems of RM permits to transmit measured values to the Earth by the telemetry and to reflect the radiation environment data directly to crew by the personal com-puter. There is a possibility to correct the RMS software directly on board the ISS. It permits improve greatly a confidence, reliability and validity of an information obtaining. The report presents the data about the equipment functioning and results of dose rate measurements during the period from the August of 2001 up to the August of 2009 both for normal radiation environ-ment and during solar particle events (SPE). Comparison of an absorbed dose rate measured by the detectors located in various points of the RM showed that difference of doses measured in low and high shielded areas of the RM at undisturbed radiation conditions is notably stable and not exceeds a factor of 2. At the same time during the disturbances caused by SPE it can reach of 30. This fact confirms the efficiency of a crew passage in the high-shielded area for decreasing SCR dose. Comparison data obtained with the RMS silicon detectors with the R-16 ionizing chamber data showed that for equal shielding conditions the measured values coincide with accuracy rather then 20On the whole the dose rate dynamics for various solar cycle periods and during the SPE demonstrates reasonably high regularity of crewmembers dose. But it is clear that onboard and personal dosimetric control is necessary for implementation of ALARA principle and minimization of the crewmembers personal doses.

  18. Smooth blasting with the electronic delay detonator

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Ichijo, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Yoshiharu

    1995-12-31

    The authors utilized electronic detonators (EDs) to investigate the effect of high detonator delay accuracy on overbreak, remaining rock damage, and surface smoothness, in comparison with that of long-period delay detonators (0.25 sec interval) PDs. The experiments were conducted in a deep mine, in a test site region composed of very hard granodiorite with a seismic wave velocity of about 6.0 km/sec and a uniaxial compressive strength, uniaxial tensile strength, and Young`s modulus of 300 MPa, 12 MPa, and 73 GPa, respectively. The blasting design was for a test tunnel excavation of 8 m{sup 2} in cross section, with an advance per round of 2.5 m. Five rounds were performed, each with a large-hole cut and perimeter holes in a 0.4-m spacing charged with 20-mm-diameter water gel explosive to obtain low charge concentration. EDs were used in the holes on the perimeter of the right half, and PDs were used in all other holes. Following each shot, the cross section was measured by laser to determine amount of overbreak and surface smoothness. In situ seismic prospecting was used to estimate the depth of damage in the remaining rock, and the damage was further investigated by boring into both side walls.

  19. The validation of made-to-measure method for reconstruction of phase-space distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, H.; Gouda, N.; Yano, T.; Hara, T.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate how accurately phase-space distribution functions (DFs) in galactic models can be reconstructed by a made-to-measure (M2M) method, which constructs N-particle models of stellar systems from photometric and various kinematic data. The advantage of the M2M method is that this method can be applied to various galactic models without assumption of the spatial symmetries of gravitational potentials adopted in galactic models, and furthermore, numerical calculations of the orbits of the stars cannot be severely constrained by the capacities of computer memories. The M2M method has been applied to various galactic models. However, the degree of accuracy for the recovery of DFs derived by the M2M method in galactic models has never been investigated carefully. Therefore, we show the degree of accuracy for the recovery of the DFs for the anisotropic Plummer model and the axisymmetric Stäckel model, which have analytic solutions of the DFs. Furthermore, this study provides the dependence of the degree of accuracy for the recovery of the DFs on various parameters and a procedure adopted in this paper. As a result, we find that the degree of accuracy for the recovery of the DFs derived by the M2M method for the spherical target model is a few per cent, and more than 10 per cent for the axisymmetric target model.

  20. Three order state space modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cell with energy function definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becherif, M.; Hissel, D.; Gaagat, S.; Wack, M.

    The fuel cell is a complex system which is the centre of a lot of multidisciplinary research activities since it involves intricate application of various fields of study. The operation of a fuel cell depends on a wide range of parameters. The effect of one cannot be studied in isolation without disturbing the system which makes it very difficult to comprehend, analyze and predict various phenomena occurring in the fuel cell. In the current work, we present an equivalent electrical circuit of the pneumatics and fluidics in a fuel cell stack. The proposed model is based on the physical phenomena occurring inside fuel cell stack where we define the fluidic-electrical and pneumatic-electrical analogy. The effect of variation in temperature and relative humidity on the cell are considered in this model. The proposed model, according to the considered hypothesis, is a simple three order state space model which is suitable for the control purpose where a desired control structure can be formulated for high-end applications of the fuel cell as a subpart of a larger system, for instance, in hybrid propulsion of vehicles coupled with batteries and supercapacitors. Another key point of our work is the definition of the natural fuel cell stack energy function. The circuit analysis equations are presented and the simulated model is validated using the experimental data obtained using the fuel cell test bench available in Fuel Cell Laboratory, France.

  1. Anharmonic state counts and partition functions for molecules via classical phase space integrals in curvilinear coordinates.

    PubMed

    Kamarchik, Eugene; Jasper, Ahren W

    2013-05-21

    An algorithm is presented for calculating fully anharmonic vibrational state counts, state densities, and partition functions for molecules using Monte Carlo integration of classical phase space. The algorithm includes numerical evaluations of the elements of the Jacobian and is general enough to allow for sampling in arbitrary curvilinear or rectilinear coordinate systems. Invariance to the choice of coordinate system is demonstrated for vibrational state densities of methane, where we find comparable sampling efficiency when using curvilinear z-matrix and rectilinear Cartesian normal mode coordinates. In agreement with past work, we find that anharmonicity increases the vibrational state density of methane by a factor of ∼2 at its dissociation threshold. For the vinyl radical, we find a significant (∼10×) improvement in sampling efficiency when using curvilinear z-matrix coordinates relative to Cartesian normal mode coordinates. We attribute this improved efficiency, in part, to a more natural curvilinear coordinate description of the double well associated with the H2C-C-H wagging motion. The anharmonicity correction for the vinyl radical state density is ∼1.4 at its dissociation threshold. Finally, we demonstrate that with trivial parallelizations of the Monte Carlo step, tractable calculations can be made for the vinyl radical using direct ab initio potential energy surface evaluations and a composite QCISD(T)/MP2 method.

  2. Scalable real space pseudopotential density functional codes for materials in the exascale regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lena, Charles; Chelikowsky, James; Schofield, Grady; Biller, Ariel; Kronik, Leeor; Saad, Yousef; Deslippe, Jack

    Real-space pseudopotential density functional theory has proven to be an efficient method for computing the properties of matter in many different states and geometries, including liquids, wires, slabs, and clusters with and without spin polarization. Fully self-consistent solutions using this approach have been routinely obtained for systems with thousands of atoms. Yet, there are many systems of notable larger sizes where quantum mechanical accuracy is desired, but scalability proves to be a hindrance. Such systems include large biological molecules, complex nanostructures, or mismatched interfaces. We will present an overview of our new massively parallel algorithms, which offer improved scalability in preparation for exascale supercomputing. We will illustrate these algorithms by considering the electronic structure of a Si nanocrystal exceeding 104 atoms. Support provided by the SciDAC program, Department of Energy, Office of Science, Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences. Grant Numbers DE-SC0008877 (Austin) and DE-FG02-12ER4 (Berkeley).

  3. Peribacteroid space acidification: a marker of mature bacteroid functioning in Medicago truncatula nodules.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Olivier; Engler, Gilbert; Hopkins, Julie; Brau, Frédéric; Boncompagni, Eric; Hérouart, Didier

    2013-11-01

    Legumes form a symbiotic interaction with Rhizobiaceae bacteria, which differentiate into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids within nodules. Here, we investigated in vivo the pH of the peribacteroid space (PBS) surrounding the bacteroid and pH variation throughout symbiosis. In vivo confocal microscopy investigations, using acidotropic probes, demonstrated the acidic state of the PBS. In planta analysis of nodule senescence induced by distinct biological processes drastically increased PBS pH in the N2 -fixing zone (zone III). Therefore, the PBS acidification observed in mature bacteroids can be considered as a marker of bacteroid N2 fixation. Using a pH-sensitive ratiometric probe, PBS pH was measured in vivo during the whole symbiotic process. We showed a progressive acidification of the PBS from the bacteroid release up to the onset of N2 fixation. Genetic and pharmacological approaches were conducted and led to disruption of the PBS acidification. Altogether, our findings shed light on the role of PBS pH of mature bacteroids in nodule functioning, providing new tools to monitor in vivo bacteroid physiology.

  4. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part V: perturbation theory applied to dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš; Okumura, Teppei; Desjacques, Vincent E-mail: seljak@physik.uzh.ch E-mail: Vincent.Desjacques@unige.ch

    2013-10-01

    Numerical simulations show that redshift space distortions (RSD) introduce strong scale dependence in the power spectra of halos, with ten percent deviations relative to linear theory predictions even on relatively large scales (k < 0.1h/Mpc) and even in the absence of satellites (which induce Fingers-of-God, FoG, effects). If unmodeled these effects prevent one from extracting cosmological information from RSD surveys. In this paper we use Eulerian perturbation theory (PT) and Eulerian halo biasing model and apply it to the distribution function approach to RSD, in which RSD is decomposed into several correlators of density weighted velocity moments. We model each of these correlators using PT and compare the results to simulations over a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. We find that with an introduction of a physically motivated halo biasing, and using dark matter power spectra from simulations, we can reproduce the simulation results at a percent level on scales up to k ∼ 0.15h/Mpc at z = 0, without the need to have free FoG parameters in the model.

  5. Scale-space point spread function based framework to boost infrared target detection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Saed; Moallem, Payman; Sabahi, Mohamad Farzan

    2016-07-01

    Small target detection is one of the major concern in the development of infrared surveillance systems. Detection algorithms based on Gaussian target modeling have attracted most attention from researchers in this field. However, the lack of accurate target modeling limits the performance of this type of infrared small target detection algorithms. In this paper, signal to clutter ratio (SCR) improvement mechanism based on the matched filter is described in detail and effect of Point Spread Function (PSF) on the intensity and spatial distribution of the target pixels is clarified comprehensively. In the following, a new parametric model for small infrared targets is developed based on the PSF of imaging system which can be considered as a matched filter. Based on this model, a new framework to boost model-based infrared target detection algorithms is presented. In order to show the performance of this new framework, the proposed model is adopted in Laplacian scale-space algorithms which is a well-known algorithm in the small infrared target detection field. Simulation results show that the proposed framework has better detection performance in comparison with the Gaussian one and improves the overall performance of IRST system. By analyzing the performance of the proposed algorithm based on this new framework in a quantitative manner, this new framework shows at least 20% improvement in the output SCR values in comparison with Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) algorithm.

  6. Mapping plant functional types over broad mountainous regions: A phenological hierarchical time-space classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Danlu; Guan, Yanning; Guo, Shan; Zhang, Chunyan; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Research on global climate change requires plant functional type (PFT) products. Although several PFT mapping procedures for remote sensing imagery are being used (MODIS PFT), none of them appears to be specifically designed to map and evaluate PFTs over broad mountainous areas which are highly relevant regions to identify and analyse the response of natural ecosystems. The limitations of existing methods to generate PFT (uncertainty of accuracy and limited expandability to broad geographic areas) suggest the development of a new method to determine PFT distributions, which is based on a hierarchical strategy by integrating time varying biomass and phenological information with topography: (i) Temporal variability: Fourier transformation of MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series (2006 to 2010) to the frequency domain (five year of five half month scenes). (ii) Spatial partitioning: The harmonics are used to partition the study area into four mapping zones using phenological information based on the harmonics and digital elevation data. (iii) Classification: A similarity measure (Euclidean distance) is employed to obtain the phenological hierarchical time-space plant type classification. Applicability and effectiveness is tested for the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Comparing with the MODIS PFT product and evaluation with the Vegetation Map of the People's Republic of China (1:1000000) reveal a gain on overall accuracy (13081 random samples) by about 7% from 64.5% compared to 57.7% by the MODIS PFT product.

  7. Neighbourhood green space, physical function and participation in physical activities among elderly men: the Caerphilly Prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The built environment in which older people live plays an important role in promoting or inhibiting physical activity. Most work on this complex relationship between physical activity and the environment has excluded people with reduced physical function or ignored the difference between groups with different levels of physical function. This study aims to explore the role of neighbourhood green space in determining levels of participation in physical activity among elderly men with different levels of lower extremity physical function. Method Using data collected from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS) and green space data collected from high resolution Landmap true colour aerial photography, we first investigated the effect of the quantity of neighbourhood green space and the variation in neighbourhood vegetation on participation in physical activity for 1,010 men aged 66 and over in Caerphilly county borough, Wales, UK. Second, we explored whether neighbourhood green space affects groups with different levels of lower extremity physical function in different ways. Results Increasing percentage of green space within a 400 meters radius buffer around the home was significantly associated with more participation in physical activity after adjusting for lower extremity physical function, psychological distress, general health, car ownership, age group, marital status, social class, education level and other environmental factors (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.05, 1.41). A statistically significant interaction between the variation in neighbourhood vegetation and lower extremity physical function was observed (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.12, 3.28). Conclusion Elderly men living in neighbourhoods with more green space have higher levels of participation in regular physical activity. The association between variation in neighbourhood vegetation and regular physical activity varied according to lower extremity physical function. Subjects reporting poor lower extremity

  8. The Use of Dynamic Visual Acuity as a Functional Test of Gaze Stabilization Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R.; Miller, C. A.; Richards, J. T.; Warren, L. E.; Cohen, H. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    After prolonged exposure to a given gravitational environment the transition to another is accompanied by adaptations in the sensorimotor subsystems, including the vestibular system. Variation in the adaptation time course of these subsystems, and the functional redundancies that exist between them make it difficult to accurately assess the functional capacity and physical limitations of astro/cosmonauts using tests on individual subsystems. While isolated tests of subsystem performance may be the only means to address where interventions are required, direct measures of performance may be more suitable for assessing the operational consequences of incomplete adaptation to changes in the gravitational environment. A test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is currently being used in the JSC Neurosciences Laboratory as part of a series of measures to assess the efficacy of a countermeasure to mitigate postflight locomotor dysfunction. In the current protocol, subjects visual acuity is determined using Landolt ring optotypes presented sequentially on a computer display. Visual acuity assessments are made both while standing and while walking at 1.8 m/s on a motorized treadmill. The use of a psychophysical threshold detection algorithm reduces the required number of optotype presentations and the results can be presented immediately after the test. The difference between the walking and standing acuity measures provides a metric of the change in the subject s ability to maintain gaze fixation on the visual target while walking. This functional consequence is observable regardless of the underlying subsystem most responsible for the change. Data from 15 cosmo/astronauts have been collected following long-duration (approx. 6 months) stays in space using a visual target viewing distance of 4.0 meters. An investigation of the group mean shows a change in DVA soon after the flight that asymptotes back to baseline approximately one week following their return to earth. The

  9. Manual control in space research on perceptual-motor functions under zero gravity conditions (L-10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tada, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Are human abilities to control vehicles and other machines the same in space as those on Earth? The L-10 Manual Control Experiment of the First Materials Processing Tests (FMPT) started from this question. Suppose a pilot has the task to align the head of a space vehicle toward a target. His actions are to look at the target, to determine the vehicle movement, and to operate the manipulator. If the activity of the nervous system were the same as on Earth, the movements, of the eye and hand would become excessive because the muscles do not have to oppose gravity. The timing and amount of movement must be arranged for appropriate actions. The sensation of motion would also be affected by the loss of gravity because the mechanism of the otolith, the major acceleration sensor, depends on gravity. The possible instability of the sensation of direction may cause mistakes in the direction of control of manipulator movement. Thus, the experimental data can be used for designing man-machine systems in space, as well as for investigation of physiological mechanisms. In this experiment, the direction of vehicle heading is expressed by a light spot on an array of light emitting diodes and the manipulator is of a finger stick type. As the light spot moves up and down, the Japanese Payload Specialist, and the subject, must move the manipulator forward and backward to keep the movement of the light spot within the neighborhood of the central point of the display. The position of the light spot is computed in such a manner that when the stick is kept at the neutral position, a motion whose acceleration is proportional to the angle of deflection is added to the movement of the light spot. The Operator Describing Function, which is an expression of human control characteristics, can be calculated from 2 minutes of raw data of the light spot position and stick deflection. The 2 minutes of operation is called a run, and 8 runs with resting periods composes a session. The on

  10. Institutional Separation in Schools of Education: Understanding the Functions of Space in General and Special Education Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Kathryn S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this spatial study is to understand the function space play in a combined credential program in the US in helping or hindering the program's inclusive mission. The study examines how physical and social manifestations of general and special education are (re)organized in the new program. The data provides evidence for the pervasive…

  11. Functions and Statistics: International Space Station: Up to Us. NASA Connect: Program 5 in the 2000-2001 Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    This teaching unit is designed to help students in grades 5 to 8 explore the concepts of functions and statistics in the context of the International Space Station (ISS). The units in the series have been developed to enhance and enrich mathematics, science, and technology education and to accommodate different teaching and learning styles. Each…

  12. How Body Orientation Affects Concepts of Space, Time and Valence: Functional Relevance of Integrating Sensorimotor Experiences during Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz Fernandez, Susana; Bury, Nils-Alexander; Gerjets, Peter; Fischer, Martin H.; Bock, Otmar L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the functional relevance of the spatial concepts UP or DOWN for words that use these concepts either literally (space) or metaphorically (time, valence). A functional relevance would imply a symmetrical relationship between the spatial concepts and words related to these concepts, showing that processing words activate the related spatial concepts on one hand, but also that an activation of the concepts will ease the retrieval of a related word on the other. For the latter, the rotation angle of participant’s body position was manipulated either to an upright or a head-down tilted body position to activate the related spatial concept. Afterwards participants produced in a within-subject design previously memorized words of the concepts space, time and valence according to the pace of a metronome. All words were related either to the spatial concept UP or DOWN. The results including Bayesian analyses show (1) a significant interaction between body position and words using the concepts UP and DOWN literally, (2) a marginal significant interaction between body position and temporal words and (3) no effect between body position and valence words. However, post-hoc analyses suggest no difference between experiments. Thus, the authors concluded that integrating sensorimotor experiences is indeed of functional relevance for all three concepts of space, time and valence. However, the strength of this functional relevance depends on how close words are linked to mental concepts representing vertical space. PMID:27812155

  13. Analytic elements of smooth shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strack, Otto D. L.; Nevison, Patrick R.

    2015-10-01

    We present a method for producing analytic elements of a smooth shape, obtained using conformal mapping. Applications are presented for a case of impermeable analytic elements as well as for head-specified ones. The mathematical operations necessary to use the elements in practical problems can be carried out before modeling of flow problems begins. A catalog of shapes, along with pre-determined coefficients could be established on the basis of the approach presented here, making applications in the field straight forward.

  14. Acute effects of exposure to space radiation on CNS function and cognitive performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On exploratory class missions, such as a mission to Mars, astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation (cosmic rays) that are not experienced in low earth orbit where the Space Shuttle and International Space Station operate. Exposure to cosmic rays produces changes in neuronal functi...

  15. Potential applications of expert systems and operations research to space station logistics functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippiatt, Thomas F.; Waterman, Donald

    1985-01-01

    The applicability of operations research, artificial intelligence, and expert systems to logistics problems for the space station were assessed. Promising application areas were identified for space station logistics. A needs assessment is presented and a specific course of action in each area is suggested.

  16. Novel treatment strategies for smooth muscle disorders: Targeting Kv7 potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Haick, Jennifer M; Byron, Kenneth L

    2016-09-01

    Smooth muscle cells provide crucial contractile functions in visceral, vascular, and lung tissues. The contractile state of smooth muscle is largely determined by their electrical excitability, which is in turn influenced by the activity of potassium channels. The activity of potassium channels sustains smooth muscle cell membrane hyperpolarization, reducing cellular excitability and thereby promoting smooth muscle relaxation. Research over the past decade has indicated an important role for Kv7 (KCNQ) voltage-gated potassium channels in the regulation of the excitability of smooth muscle cells. Expression of multiple Kv7 channel subtypes has been demonstrated in smooth muscle cells from viscera (gastrointestinal, bladder, myometrial), from the systemic and pulmonary vasculature, and from the airways of the lung, from multiple species, including humans. A number of clinically used drugs, some of which were developed to target Kv7 channels in other tissues, have been found to exert robust effects on smooth muscle Kv7 channels. Functional studies have indicated that Kv7 channel activators and inhibitors have the ability to relax and contact smooth muscle preparations, respectively, suggesting a wide range of novel applications for the pharmacological tool set. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the physiological functions of Kv7 channels in smooth muscle, and highlights potential therapeutic applications based on pharmacological targeting of smooth muscle Kv7 channels throughout the body.

  17. Fading probability density function of free-space optical communication channels with pointing error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhijun; Liao, Rui

    2011-06-01

    The turbulent atmosphere causes wavefront distortion, beam wander, and beam broadening of a laser beam. These effects result in average power loss and instantaneous power fading at the receiver aperture and thus degrade performance of a free-space optical (FSO) communication system. In addition to the atmospheric turbulence, a FSO communication system may also suffer from laser beam pointing error. The pointing error causes excessive power loss and power fading. This paper proposes and studies an analytical method for calculating the FSO channel fading probability density function (pdf) induced by both atmospheric turbulence and pointing error. This method is based on the fast-tracked laser beam fading profile and the joint effects of beam wander and pointing error. In order to evaluate the proposed analytical method, large-scale numerical wave-optics simulations are conducted. Three types of pointing errors are studied , namely, the Gaussian random pointing error, the residual tracking error, and the sinusoidal sway pointing error. The FSO system employs a collimated Gaussian laser beam propagating along a horizontal path. The propagation distances range from 0.25 miles to 2.5 miles. The refractive index structure parameter is chosen to be Cn2 = 5×10-15m-2/3 and Cn2 = 5×10-13m-2/3. The studied cases cover from weak to strong fluctuations. The fading pdf curves of channels with pointing error calculated using the analytical method match accurately the corresponding pdf curves obtained directly from large-scale wave-optics simulations. They also give accurate average bit-error-rate (BER) curves and outage probabilities. Both the lognormal and the best-fit gamma-gamma fading pdf curves deviate from those of corresponding simulation curves, and they produce overoptimistic average BER curves and outage probabilities.

  18. The development of the miniaturized waveform receiver with the function measuring Antenna Impedance in space plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, H.; Kojima, H.; Fukuhara, H.; Okada, S.; Yamakawa, H.

    2012-04-01

    Plasma wave is one of the most essential physical quantities in the solar terrestrial physics. The role of plasma wave receiver onboard satellites is to detect plasma waves in space with a good signal to noise ratio. There are two types of plasma wave receivers, the sweep frequency analyzer and the waveform capture. While the sweep frequency analyzer provides plasma wave spectra, the waveform capture obtains waveforms with phase information that is significant in studying nonlinear phenomena. Antenna sensors to observe electric fields of the plasma waves show different features in plasmas from in vacuum. The antenna impedances have specific characteristics in the frequency domain because of the dispersion of plasmas. These antenna impedances are expressed with complex number. We need to know not only the antenna impedances but also the transfer functions of plasma wave receiver's circuits in order to calibrate observed waveforms precisely. The impedances of the electric field antennas are affected by a state of surrounding plasmas. Since satellites run through various regions with different plasma parameters, we precisely should measure the antenna impedances onboard spacecraft. On the contrary, we can obtain the plasma density and by measuring the antenna impedances. Several formulas of the antenna impedance measurement system were proposed. A synchronous detection method is used on the BepiColombo Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), which will be launched in 2014. The digital data are stored in the onboard memory. They are read out and converted to the analog waveforms by D/A converter. They are fed into the input of the preamplifiers of antenna sensors through a resistor. We can calculate a transfer function of the circuit by applying the synchronous detection method to the output waveform from waveform receivers and digital data as a signal source. The size of this system is same as an A5 board. In recent years, Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC

  19. Tape-Smoothing Tool For Adhesion Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1992-01-01

    Small tool smoothes adhesive tape uniformly to ensure consistency and repeatability of tape-peel tests of adhesion of paint to substrate. Includes resilient pad covered with tough, smooth fabric. Internal spring regulates force applied to tape.

  20. Spaceborne computer executive routine functional design specification. Volume 2: Computer executive design for space station/base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, J. R.; Fitzpatrick, W. S.

    1971-01-01

    The computer executive functional system design concepts derived from study of the Space Station/Base are presented. Information Management System hardware configuration as directly influencing the executive design is reviewed. The hardware configuration and generic executive design requirements are considered in detail in a previous report (System Configuration and Executive Requirements Specifications for Reusable Shuttle and Space Station/Base, 9/25/70). This report defines basic system primitives and delineates processes and process control. Supervisor states are considered for describing basic multiprogramming and multiprocessing systems. A high-level computer executive including control of scheduling, allocation of resources, system interactions, and real-time supervisory functions is defined. The description is oriented to provide a baseline for a functional simulation of the computer executive system.

  1. The computation of generalized cross-validation functions through householder tridiagonalization with applications to the fitting of interaction spline models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, Chong; Bates, Douglas M.; Chen, Zehua; Wahba, Grace

    1989-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for computing the generalized cross-validation function for the general cross-validated regularization/smoothing problem is provided. This algorithm is appropriate for problems where no natural structure is available, and the regularization/smoothing problem is solved (exactly) in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. It is particularly appropriate for certain multivariate smoothing problems with irregularly spaced data, and certain remote sensing problems, such as those that occur in meteorology, where the sensors are arranged irregularly. The algorithm is applied to the fitting of interaction spline models with irregularly spaced data and two smoothing parameters; favorable timing results are presented. The algorithm may be extended to the computation of certain generalized maximum likelihood (GML) functions. Application of the GML algorithm to a problem in numerical weather forecasting, and to a broad class of hypothesis testing problems, is noted.

  2. Soft Mappings Space

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Taha Yasin; Bayramov, Sadi

    2014-01-01

    Various soft topologies are being introduced on a given function space soft topological spaces. In this paper, soft compact-open topology is defined in functional spaces of soft topological spaces. Further, these functional spaces are studied and interrelations between various functional spaces with soft compact-open topology are established. PMID:25374936

  3. Functional traits reveal the expansion and packing of ecological niche space underlying an elevational diversity gradient in passerine birds

    PubMed Central

    Pigot, Alex L.; Trisos, Christopher H.; Tobias, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in species richness across environmental gradients may be associated with an expanded volume or increased packing of ecological niche space. However, the relative importance of these alternative scenarios remains unknown, largely because standardized information on functional traits and their ecological relevance is lacking for major diversity gradients. Here, we combine data on morphological and ecological traits for 523 species of passerine birds distributed across an Andes-to-Amazon elevation gradient. We show that morphological traits capture substantial variation in species dietary (75%) and foraging niches (60%) when multiple independent trait dimensions are considered. Having established these relationships, we show that the 14-fold increase in species richness towards the lowlands is associated with both an increased volume and density of functional trait space. However, we find that increases in volume contribute little to changes in richness, with most (78%) lowland species occurring within the range of trait space occupied at high elevations. Taken together, our results suggest that high species richness is mainly associated with a denser occupation of functional trait space, implying an increased specialization or overlap of ecological niches, and supporting the view that niche packing is the dominant trend underlying gradients of increasing biodiversity towards the lowland tropics. PMID:26740616

  4. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part II: N-body simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Okumura, Teppei; Seljak, Uroš; McDonald, Patrick; Desjacques, Vincent E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu E-mail: dvince@physik.uzh.ch

    2012-02-01

    Measurement of redshift-space distortions (RSD) offers an attractive method to directly probe the cosmic growth history of density perturbations. A distribution function approach where RSD can be written as a sum over density weighted velocity moment correlators has recently been developed. In this paper we use results of N-body simulations to investigate the individual contributions and convergence of this expansion for dark matter. If the series is expanded as a function of powers of μ, cosine of the angle between the Fourier mode and line of sight, then there are a finite number of terms contributing at each order. We present these terms and investigate their contribution to the total as a function of wavevector k. For μ{sup 2} the correlation between density and momentum dominates on large scales. Higher order corrections, which act as a Finger-of-God (FoG) term, contribute 1% at k ∼ 0.015hMpc{sup −1}, 10% at k ∼ 0.05hMpc{sup −1} at z = 0, while for k > 0.15hMpc{sup −1} they dominate and make the total negative. These higher order terms are dominated by density-energy density correlations which contributes negatively to the power, while the contribution from vorticity part of momentum density auto-correlation adds to the total power, but is an order of magnitude lower. For μ{sup 4} term the dominant term on large scales is the scalar part of momentum density auto-correlation, while higher order terms dominate for k > 0.15hMpc{sup −1}. For μ{sup 6} and μ{sup 8} we find it has very little power for k < 0.15hMpc{sup −1}, shooting up by 2–3 orders of magnitude between k < 0.15hMpc{sup −1} and k < 0.4hMpc{sup −1}. We also compare the expansion to the full 2-d P{sup ss}(k,μ), as well as to the monopole, quadrupole, and hexadecapole integrals of P{sup ss}(k,μ). For these statistics an infinite number of terms contribute and we find that the expansion achieves percent level accuracy for kμ < 0.15hMpc{sup −1} at 6-th order, but breaks down

  5. Effectiveness of Analytic Smoothing in Equipercentile Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    An analytic procedure for smoothing in equipercentile equating using cubic smoothing splines is described and illustrated. The effectiveness of the procedure is judged by comparing the results from smoothed equipercentile equating with those from other equating methods using multiple cross-validations for a variety of sample sizes. (Author/JKS)

  6. 7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. “Thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm), on a...

  7. 7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. “Thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm), on a...

  8. Beamline smoothing of the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Friedsam, H.; Penicka, M.; Zhao, S.

    1995-06-01

    This paper outlines a general beamline smoothing concept based on the use of First Principle Component analysis. Bean-dine smoothing is commonly used for the detection of blunders in the positioning of beam elements and to provide a smooth particle beam path with the fewest adjustments to individual beam components. It also provides the data for assessment of the achieved positioning quality.

  9. A SAS IML Macro for Loglinear Smoothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; von Davier, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Polynomial loglinear models for one-, two-, and higher-way contingency tables have important applications to measurement and assessment. They are essentially regarded as a smoothing technique, which is commonly referred to as loglinear smoothing. A SAS IML (SAS Institute, 2002a) macro was created to implement loglinear smoothing according to…

  10. Linear and fractional response for the SRB measure of smooth hyperbolic attractors and discontinuous observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baladi, Viviane; Kuna, Tobias; Lucarini, Valerio

    2017-03-01

    We consider a smooth one-parameter family t\\mapsto ≤ft( {{f}t}:M\\to M\\right) of diffeomorphisms with compact transitive Axiom A attractors {{ Λ }t} , denoting by \\text{d}{ρt} the SRB measure of {{f}t}{{|}{{ Λ t}}} . Our first result is that for any function θ in the Sobolev space Hpr(M) , with 1 and 0  <  r  <  1/p, the map t\\mapsto {\\int}θ \\text{d}{ρt} is α-Hölder continuous for all α . This applies to θ (x)=h(x) \\Theta ≤ft(g(x)-a\\right) (for all α <1 ) for h and g smooth and \\Theta the Heaviside function, if a is not a critical value of g. Our second result says that for any such function θ (x)=h(x) \\Theta ≤ft(g(x)-a\\right) so that in addition the intersection of ≤ft\\{x|g(x)=a\\right\\} with the support of h is foliated by ‘admissible stable leaves’ of f t , the map t\\mapsto {\\int}θ \\text{d}{ρt} is differentiable. (We provide distributional linear response and fluctuation-dissipation formulas for the derivative.) Obtaining linear response or fractional response for such observables θ is motivated by extreme-value theory.

  11. First-principles transport calculation method based on real-space finite-difference nonequilibrium Green's function scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Tomoya; Egami, Yoshiyuki; Hirose, Kikuji

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate an efficient nonequilibrium Green's function transport calculation procedure based on the real-space finite-difference method. The direct inversion of matrices for obtaining the self-energy terms of electrodes is computationally demanding in the real-space method because the matrix dimension corresponds to the number of grid points in the unit cell of electrodes, which is much larger than that of sites in the tight-binding approach. The procedure using the ratio matrices of the overbridging boundary-matching technique [Y. Fujimoto and K. Hirose, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.67.195315 67, 195315 (2003)], which is related to the wave functions of a couple of grid planes in the matching regions, greatly reduces the computational effort to calculate self-energy terms without losing mathematical strictness. In addition, the present procedure saves computational time to obtain the Green's function of the semi-infinite system required in the Landauer-Büttiker formula. Moreover, the compact expression to relate Green's functions and scattering wave functions, which provide a real-space picture of the scattering process, is introduced. An example of the calculated results is given for the transport property of the BN ring connected to (9,0) carbon nanotubes. The wave-function matching at the interface reveals that the rotational symmetry of wave functions with respect to the tube axis plays an important role in electron transport. Since the states coming from and going to electrodes show threefold rotational symmetry, the states in the vicinity of the Fermi level, the wave function of which exhibits fivefold symmetry, do not contribute to the electron transport through the BN ring.

  12. Multi-functional Extreme Environment Surfaces: Nanotribology for Air and Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-14

    Space Applications Satellite bearings, InfraRed sensor mechanisms Jet engine bearings 2 mm NCD MCD 300 mm Thrust II: Cryotribology and...Nanocrystalline Diamond for Space Applications Satellite bearings, InfraRed sensor mechanisms Jet engine bearings 2 mm NCD MCD 300 mm Five Years ago: Three...friction •Heat flow •Tomlinson hopping models •Simulations show same trends as AFM measurements of diamond and NCD as well as Sang Theory. Broader

  13. State-space model with deep learning for functional dynamics estimation in resting-state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Suk, Heung-Il; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-04-01

    Studies on resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) have shown that different brain regions still actively interact with each other while a subject is at rest, and such functional interaction is not stationary but changes over time. In terms of a large-scale brain network, in this paper, we focus on time-varying patterns of functional networks, i.e., functional dynamics, inherent in rs-fMRI, which is one of the emerging issues along with the network modelling. Specifically, we propose a novel methodological architecture that combines deep learning and state-space modelling, and apply it to rs-fMRI based Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) diagnosis. We first devise a Deep Auto-Encoder (DAE) to discover hierarchical non-linear functional relations among regions, by which we transform the regional features into an embedding space, whose bases are complex functional networks. Given the embedded functional features, we then use a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to estimate dynamic characteristics of functional networks inherent in rs-fMRI via internal states, which are unobservable but can be inferred from observations statistically. By building a generative model with an HMM, we estimate the likelihood of the input features of rs-fMRI as belonging to the corresponding status, i.e., MCI or normal healthy control, based on which we identify the clinical label of a testing subject. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we performed experiments on two different datasets and compared with state-of-the-art methods in the literature. We also analyzed the functional networks learned by DAE, estimated the functional connectivities by decoding hidden states in HMM, and investigated the estimated functional connectivities by means of a graph-theoretic approach.

  14. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator in Sarcoplasmic Reticulum of Airway Smooth Muscle. Implications for Airway Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Daniel P.; Rector, Michael V.; Bouzek, Drake C.; Michalski, Andrew S.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Reznikov, Leah R.; Li, Xiaopeng; Stroik, Mallory R.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H.; Thompson, Michael A.; Prakash, Y. S.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Meyerholz, David K.; Seow, Chun Y.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: An asthma-like airway phenotype has been described in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Whether these findings are directly caused by loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function or secondary to chronic airway infection and/or inflammation has been difficult to determine. Objectives: Airway contractility is primarily determined by airway smooth muscle. We tested the hypothesis that CFTR is expressed in airway smooth muscle and directly affects airway smooth muscle contractility. Methods: Newborn pigs, both wild type and with CF (before the onset of airway infection and inflammation), were used in this study. High-resolution immunofluorescence was used to identify the subcellular localization of CFTR in airway smooth muscle. Airway smooth muscle function was determined with tissue myography, intracellular calcium measurements, and regulatory myosin light chain phosphorylation status. Precision-cut lung slices were used to investigate the therapeutic potential of CFTR modulation on airway reactivity. Measurements and Main Results: We found that CFTR localizes to the sarcoplasmic reticulum compartment of airway smooth muscle and regulates airway smooth muscle tone. Loss of CFTR function led to delayed calcium reuptake following cholinergic stimulation and increased myosin light chain phosphorylation. CFTR potentiation with ivacaftor decreased airway reactivity in precision-cut lung slices following cholinergic stimulation. Conclusions: Loss of CFTR alters porcine airway smooth muscle function and may contribute to the airflow obstruction phenotype observed in human CF. Airway smooth muscle CFTR may represent a therapeutic target in CF and other diseases of airway narrowing. PMID:26488271

  15. Biases in the experimental annotations of protein function and their effect on our understanding of protein function space.

    PubMed

    Schnoes, Alexandra M; Ream, David C; Thorman, Alexander W; Babbitt, Patricia C; Friedberg, Iddo

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing functional annotation of proteins relies upon the work of curators to capture experimental findings from scientific literature and apply them to protein sequence and structure data. However, with the increasing use of high-throughput experimental assays, a small number of experimental studies dominate the functional protein annotations collected in databases. Here, we investigate just how prevalent is the "few articles - many proteins" phenomenon. We examine the experimentally validated annotation of proteins provided by several groups in the GO Consortium, and show that the distribution of proteins per published study is exponential, with 0.14% of articles providing the source of annotations for 25% of the proteins in the UniProt-GOA compilation. Since each of the dominant articles describes the use of an assay that can find only one function or a small group of functions, this leads to substantial biases in what we know about the function of many proteins. Mass-spectrometry, microscopy and RNAi experiments dominate high throughput experiments. Consequently, the functional information derived from these experiments is mostly of the subcellular location of proteins, and of the participation of proteins in embryonic developmental pathways. For some organisms, the information provided by different studies overlap by a large amount. We also show that the information provided by high throughput experiments is less specific than those provided by low throughput experiments. Given the experimental techniques available, certain biases in protein function annotation due to high-throughput experiments are unavoidable. Knowing that these biases exist and understanding their characteristics and extent is important for database curators, developers of function annotation programs, and anyone who uses protein function annotation data to plan experiments.

  16. Sympathetic innervation promotes vascular smooth muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Damon, Deborah H

    2005-06-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is an important modulator of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) growth and function. Several lines of evidence suggest that the SNS also promotes VSM differentiation. The present study tests this hypothesis. Expression of smooth muscle myosin (SM2) and alpha-actin were assessed by Western analysis as indexes of VSM differentiation. SM2 expression (normalized to alpha-actin) in adult innervated rat femoral and tail arteries was 479 +/- 115% of that in noninnervated carotid arteries. Expression of alpha-actin (normalized to GAPDH or total protein) in 30-day-innervated rat femoral arteries was greater than in corresponding noninnervated femoral arteries from guanethidine-sympathectomized rats. SM2 expression (normalized to alpha-actin) in neonatal femoral arteries grown in vitro for 7 days in the presence of sympathetic ganglia was greater than SM2 expression in corresponding arteries grown in the absence of sympathetic ganglia. In VSM-endothelial cell cultures grown in the presence of dissociated sympathetic neurons, alpha-actin (normalized to GAPDH) was 300 +/- 66% of that in corresponding cultures grown in the absence of neurons. This effect was inhibited by an antibody that neutralized the activity of transforming growth factor-beta2. All of these data indicate that sympathetic innervation increased VSM contractile protein expression and thereby suggest that the SNS promotes and/or maintains VSM differentiation.

  17. Characteristics of the eyes pursuit function during readaptation to terrestrial gravity after prolonged flights aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilova, L.; Alekhina, M.; Temnikova, V.; Naumov, I.

    2005-08-01

    Studies of characteristics of the eyes pursuit function were performed after prolonged space flights by electrooculography and videooculography techniques. Objectives of the work were: to determine the effect of the prolonged microgravity exposure on characteristics of the eyes pursuit function, and to reveal the correlation between characteristics of the that and the vestibular function. It has been shown that after microgravity exposure, were registered alterations of the accuracy, velocity and time characteristics of the eyes pursuit function. These alterations differed in a depth, pattern and readaptation dynamics, were correlated with changes in vestibular function