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Sample records for sobre um mal

  1. Discussions about the Nature of Science in a Course on the History of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Discusiones sobre la Naturaleza de la Ciencia en un Curso sobre Historia de la Astronomía.) Discussões sobre a Natureza da Ciência em um Curso sobre a História da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires de Andrade, Victória Flório; L'Astorina, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    There are an increasing number of researches in science education that affirm the importance of discussions on the "nature of science" in basic education level as well as in teacher training. The history of science applied to education is a way to contextualize epistemological discussions, allowing both the understanding of scientific content and learning about science concepts. We present some reasonably consensual definitions on the nature of science that have been widely discussed by the academic community. We show also some episodes in the history of astronomy which can lead to discussions involving some aspects of the nature of science, and how they can do it. Hay un número creciente de investigaciones en la enseñanza de las ciencias que afirman la importancia de debates sobre la "naturaleza de la ciencia" en la educación básica y formación del profesorado. La historia de la ciencia aplicada a la educación es una manera de contextualizar los debates de la epistemología, lo que permite tanto la comprensión de los contenidos científicos como el aprendizaje de conceptos científicos. En esto trabajo, presentamos algunas definiciones bastante consensuales sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia que han sido ampliamente discutidas por la comunidad académica y mostramos cómo algunos episodios en la historia de la astronomía pueden llevar a discusiones sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la ciencia. Há um número crescente de pesquisas na área de ensino de ciências que afirmam a importância de discussões sobre a "natureza da ciência" na educação básica e na formação de professores. A história da ciência aplicada ao ensino é uma maneira de contextualizar discussões epistemológicas, permitindo tanto a compreensão de conteúdos científicos quanto o aprendizado de noções sobre as ciências. Neste trabalho apresentamos algumas definições razoavelmente consensuais sobre a natureza da ciência que foram amplamente discutidas pela

  2. The MAL: A Malware Analysis Lexicon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    we feel that further exploration of the open source literature is a promising avenue for enlarging the corpus. 2.3 Publishing the MAL Early in the...MAL. We feel that the advantages of this format are well worth the small incremental cost. The distribution of the MAL in this format is under...dictionary. We feel that moving to a richer format such as WordNet or WordVis would greatly improve the usability of the lexicon. 3.5 Improved Hosting The

  3. Virus Characterization by FFF-MALS Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razinkov, Vladimer

    2009-03-01

    Adequate biophysical characterization of influenza virions is important for vaccine development. The influenza virus vaccines are produced from the allantoic fluid of developing chicken embryos. The process of viral replication produces a heterogeneous mixture of infectious and non-infectious viral particles with varying states of aggregation. The study of the relative distribution and behavior of different subpopulations and their inter-correlation can assist in the development of a robust process for a live virus vaccine. This report describes a field flow fractionation and multiangle light scattering (FFF-MALS) method optimized for the analysis of size distribution and total particle counts. A method using a combination of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AFFFF) and multiangle light scattering (MALS) techniques has been shown to improve the estimation of virus particle counts and the amount of aggregated virus in laboratory samples. The FFF-MALS method was compared with several other methods such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), size exclusion chromatography followed by MALS (SEC-MALS), quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT Q-PCR), median tissue culture dose (TCID(50)), and the fluorescent focus assay (FFA). The correlation between the various methods for determining total particle counts, infectivity and size distribution is reported. The pros and cons of each of the analytical methods are discussed.

  4. The mean age of petit mal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Syeda, Afsarunnesa; Karim, Md Rezaul

    2016-01-01

    Petit mal epilepsy or absence seizures involve brief, sudden lapses of consciousness and most often occurs in people under age of 20 years. This study was done to find out the most likely significant age affected by petit mal epilepsy and whether they had higher rate of behavioral, educational, and social problems. We run tests on total 32 patients (male 16 and female 16) from newborns to 20 years of age. The most affected ages were from 4 to 9 years and both genders were equally affected. They have higher rate of behavioral, educational, and social problems, and most likely recovering ages from the disease were from 15 to 20 years. These findings could contribute in diagnosis and treatment of Petit Mal Epilepsy, as it often misinterpreted as daydreaming or inattention.

  5. Análise sobre o Conhecimento de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo sobre Termos e Fenômenos Astronômicos do Cotidiano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    Embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as orientações complementares a esses Parâmetros (PCN+) apontem a importância de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar os conhecimentos básicos em astronomia dos alunos de EM da escola estadual Batista Renzi, bem como investigar os meios através dos quais estes conhecimentos foram adquiridos. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado a 310 alunos distribuídos entre as três séries do EM dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influência gravitacional da Lua e do Sol como responsáveis pelo fenômeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distância e 34,2% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. Em contrapartida, 67,1% compreendiam a sucessão entre dia e noite, 73,9% identificaram o Sol como estrela e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alunos de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre outras coisas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no EM não tem contribuído para uma maior compreensão dos fenômenos e conceitos.

  6. Mal de Meleda with Congenital Cataract: A Novel Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Anisha; Janda, Jaspreet Kaur; Sharma, Nidhi; Malhotra, S K

    2015-01-01

    Mal de meleda (MdM), a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis is characterized by erythema and hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles with a sharp demarcation and that progress with age (progrediens) and extend to the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet (transgrediens). It has been associated with various conditions albeit rarely with congenial cataract. Ocular lens and the skin have the same embryological origins. We hereby present this novel case report of Mal de meleda in association with congenital posterior subcapsular cataract which to the best of our knowledge has not been reported from India before.

  7. Evidence for tension-based regulation of Drosophila MAL and SRF during invasive cell migration.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Kálmán; Rørth, Pernille

    2004-07-01

    Cells migrating through a tissue exert force via their cytoskeleton and are themselves subject to tension, but the effects of physical forces on cell behavior in vivo are poorly understood. Border cell migration during Drosophila oogenesis is a useful model for invasive cell movement. We report that this migration requires the activity of the transcriptional factor serum response factor (SRF) and its cofactor MAL-D and present evidence that nuclear accumulation of MAL-D is induced by cell stretching. Border cells that cannot migrate lack nuclear MAL-D but can accumulate it if they are pulled by other migrating cells. Like mammalian MAL, MAL-D also responds to activated Diaphanous, which affects actin dynamics. MAL-D/SRF activity is required to build a robust actin cytoskeleton in the migrating cells; mutant cells break apart when initiating migration. Thus, tension-induced MAL-D activity may provide a feedback mechanism for enhancing cytoskeletal strength during invasive migration.

  8. Hyponatraemia and Moduretic-grand mal seizures: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, C; Webb, L; Daley, J; Spathis, G S

    1989-01-01

    Three cases are presented which emphasize the importance of hyponatraemia as a cause of grand mal seizures. The combination of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride appears to increase the risk of hyponatraemia. We discuss the aetiology and treatment of hyponatraemia and review the necessity for such combination therapy. We recommend caution in prescribing diuretics and preparations such as Moduretic should be used only in those few patients shown to need potassium supplementation. PMID:2506346

  9. Portable device for detection of petit mal epilepsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. G.; Houge, J. C.; Webster, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    A portable device that analyzes the electroencephalogram to determine if petit mal epilepsy waveforms are present is developed and tested. Clinicians should find it useful in diagnosing seizure activity of their patients. The micropower, battery-operated, portable device indicates a seizure has occurred if three criteria are satisfied: (1) frequencies of 2.5-7 Hz, (2) large-amplitude waves, and (3) minimum number of waves per second. Levels and counts are adjustable, thus insuring high reliability against noise artifacts and permitting each subject to be individually fitted. The device has shown promise in giving the patient a possible mechanism of seizure control or suppression.

  10. Camphor: an herbal medicine causing grand mal seizures

    PubMed Central

    MacKinney, Theodore G; Soti, Kamal Raj; Shrestha, Poojan; Basnyat, Buddha

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is usually used in the USA to repel insects, but it is widely used in other countries as an herb. We report the case of a 52-year-old previously healthy Nepali man who ingested approximately 10 g of pure camphor with therapeutic intention. He developed grand mal seizures, and was evaluated in an emergency room. He failed to recall the camphor ingestion initially, and was treated with phenytoin for new-onset idiopathic seizures. Examining physicians only later found out about his camphor ingestion. Finding the cause of new-onset seizures is often challenging for emergency room physicians, internists and neurologists. In addition to other well-reported causes of secondary seizures, herbal medications and supplements must also be explored. PMID:26065546

  11. Identification of endogenous inducers of the mal regulon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ehrmann, M; Boos, W

    1987-01-01

    The expression of the maltose regulon in Escherichia coli is induced when maltose or maltodextrins are present in the growth medium. Mutations in malK, which codes for a component of the transport system, result in the elevated expression of the remaining mal genes. Uninduced expression in the wild type, as well as elevated expression in malK mutants, is strongly repressed at high osmolarity. In the absence of malQ-encoded amylomaltase, expression remains high at high osmolarity. We found that uninduced expression in the wild type and elevated expression in malK mutants were paralleled by the appearance of two types of endogenous carbohydrates. One, produced primarily at high osmolarity, was identified as comprising maltodextrins that are derived from glycogen or glycogen-synthesizing enzymes. The other, produced primarily at low osmolarity, consisted of an oligosaccharide that was not derived from glycogen. We isolated a mutant that no longer synthesized this oligosaccharide. The gene carrying this mutation, termed malI, was mapped at min 36 on the E. coli linkage map. A Tn10 insertion in malI also resulted in the loss of constitutivity at low osmolarity and delayed the induction of the maltose regulon by exogenous inducers. Images PMID:3038842

  12. Identification and Characterization of MalA in the Maltose/Maltodextrin Operon of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Hwang, Sungmin

    2013-01-01

    A putative maltose/maltodextrin operon was found in the Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639 genome. The gene cluster consisted of 7 genes (malA, trmB, amyA, malG, malF, malE, and malK). Here, we report the identification of MalA, which is responsible for the hydrolysis of maltose or maltodextrin to glucose in S. acidocaldarius. The transcription level of malA was increased 3-fold upon the addition of maltose or starch to the medium. Moreover, the α-glucosidase activity for maltose as a substrate in cell extracts of S. acidocaldarius DSM639 was also 11- and 10-fold higher during growth in YT medium (Brock's mineral salts, 0.1% [wt/vol] tryptone, and 0.005% [wt/vol] yeast extract) containing maltose or starch, respectively, than during growth on other sugars. The gene encoding MalA was cloned and expressed in S. acidocaldarius. The enzyme purified from the organism was a dodecamer in its active state and showed strong maltose-hydrolyzing activity at 100°C and pH 5.0. MalA was remarkably thermostable, with half-lives of 33.8 h, 10.6 h, and 1.8 h at 95°C, 100°C, and 105°C, respectively. Substrate specificity and kinetic studies of MalA with maltooligosaccharides indicated that MalA efficiently hydrolyzed maltose to maltopentaose, which is a typical characteristic of GH31-type α-glucosidases. However, glycogen or starch was not hydrolyzed. Reverse transcription-PCR, sugar uptake, and growth studies of the wild-type DSM639 and ΔmalEFG mutant on different sugars demonstrated that MalA located in the mal operon gene cluster is involved in maltose and starch metabolism in S. acidocaldarius. PMID:23396915

  13. Assessment of allelic diversity in intron-containing Mal d 1 genes and their association to apple allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhongshan; Weg, Eric W van de; Matos, Catarina I; Arens, Paul; Bolhaar, Suzanne THP; Knulst, Andre C; Li, Yinghui; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Gilissen, Luud JWJ

    2008-01-01

    Background Mal d 1 is a major apple allergen causing food allergic symptoms of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) in birch-pollen sensitised patients. The Mal d 1 gene family is known to have at least 7 intron-containing and 11 intronless members that have been mapped in clusters on three linkage groups. In this study, the allelic diversity of the seven intron-containing Mal d 1 genes was assessed among a set of apple cultivars by sequencing or indirectly through pedigree genotyping. Protein variant constitutions were subsequently compared with Skin Prick Test (SPT) responses to study the association of deduced protein variants with allergenicity in a set of 14 cultivars. Results From the seven intron-containing Mal d 1 genes investigated, Mal d 1.01 and Mal d 1.02 were highly conserved, as nine out of ten cultivars coded for the same protein variant, while only one cultivar coded for a second variant. Mal d 1.04, Mal d 1.05 and Mal d 1.06 A, B and C were more variable, coding for three to six different protein variants. Comparison of Mal d 1 allelic composition between the high-allergenic cultivar Golden Delicious and the low-allergenic cultivars Santana and Priscilla, which are linked in pedigree, showed an association between the protein variants coded by the Mal d 1.04 and -1.06A genes (both located on linkage group 16) with allergenicity. This association was confirmed in 10 other cultivars. In addition, Mal d 1.06A allele dosage effects associated with the degree of allergenicity based on prick to prick testing. Conversely, no associations were observed for the protein variants coded by the Mal d 1.01 (on linkage group 13), -1.02, -1.06B, -1.06C genes (all on linkage group 16), nor by the Mal d 1.05 gene (on linkage group 6). Conclusion Protein variant compositions of Mal d 1.04 and -1.06A and, in case of Mal d 1.06A, allele doses are associated with the differences in allergenicity among fourteen apple cultivars. This information indicates the involvement of

  14. Management of mal de debarquement syndrome as vestibular migraines.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Yaser; Haidar, Yarah M; Ziai, Kasra N; Moshtaghi, Omid; Bhatt, Jay; Lin, Harrison W; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2017-07-01

    Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS) is a balance disorder that typically starts after an extended exposure to passive motion, such as a boat or plane ride. Management is typically supportive (e.g. physical therapy), and symptoms that persist beyond 6 months have been described as unlikely to remit. This study was conducted to evaluate the response of patients with MdDS to management with migraine prophylaxis, including lifestyle changes and medical therapy. Prospective review. Ambulatory setting at a tertiary care medical center. Clinical history, detailed questionnaires, and audiograms were used to diagnose patients with MdDS. Those patients with the diagnosis of the MdDS were placed on our institutional vestibular migraine management protocol. Treatment response was assessed with a quality-of-life (QOL) survey and visual analog scale. Fifteen patients were diagnosed with MdDS, with a predominance of females (73%) and a mean age of 50 ± 13 years. Eleven patients (73%) responded well to management with a vestibular migraine protocol, which included lifestyle changes, as well as pharmacotherapy with verapamil, nortriptyline, topiramate, or a combination thereof. In comparison, a retrospective control group of 17 patients demonstrated a lower rate of improvement when treated with vestibular rehabilitation and physical therapy. Management of MdDS as vestibular migraine can improve patients' symptoms and increase the QOL. Nearly all the patients suffering from MdDS had a personal or family history of migraine headaches or had signs or symptoms suggestive of atypical migraine. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:1670-1675, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. A brief history of typical absence seizures - Petit mal revisited.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Lattanzi, Simona; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nardone, Raffaele; Martini, Mariano

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have traced back the history of typical absence seizures, from their initial clinical description to the more recent nosological position. The first description of absence seizures was made by Poupart in 1705 and Tissot in 1770. In 1824, Calmeil introduced the term "absences", and in 1838, Esquirol for the first time used the term petit mal. Reynolds instead used the term "epilepsia mitior" (milder epilepsy) and provided a comprehensive description of absence seizures (1861). In 1854, Delasiauve ranked absences as the seizure type with lower severity and introduced the concept of idiopathic epilepsy. Otto Binswanger (1899) discussed the role of cortex in the pathophysiology of "abortive seizures", whereas William Gowers (1901) emphasized the importance of a detailed clinical history to identify nonmotor seizures or very mild motor phenomena which otherwise may go unnoticed or considered not epileptic. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the term pyknolepsy was introduced, but initially was not universally considered as a type of epilepsy; it was definitely recognized as an epileptic entity only in 1945, based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Hans Berger, the inventor of the EEG, made also the first EEG recording of an atypical absence (his results were published only in 1933), whereas the characteristic EEG pattern was reported by neurophysiologists of the Harvard Medical School in 1935. The discovery of EEG made it also possible to differentiate absence seizures from so called "psychomotor" seizures occurring in temporal lobe epilepsy. Penfield and Jasper (1938) considered absences as expression of "centrencephalic epilepsy". Typical absences seizures are now classified by the International League Against Epilepsy among generalized nonmotor (absence) seizures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A qRT-PCR assay for the expression of all Mal d 1 isoallergen genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A considerable number of individuals suffer from oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to apple, resulting in the avoidance of apple consumption. Apple cultivars differ greatly in their allergenic properties, but knowledge of the causes for such differences is incomplete. Mal d 1 is considered the major apple allergen. For Mal d 1, a wide range of isoallergens and variants exist, and they are encoded by a large gene family. To identify the specific proteins/genes that are potentially involved in the allergy, we developed a PCR assay to monitor the expression of each individual Mal d 1 gene. Gene-specific primer pairs were designed for the exploitation of sequence differences among Mal d 1 genes. The specificity of these primers was validated using both in silico and in vitro techniques. Subsequently, this assay was applied to the peel and flesh of fruits from the two cultivars ‘Florina’ and ‘Gala’. Results We successfully developed gene-specific primer pairs for each of the 31 Mal d 1 genes and incorporated them into a qRT-PCR assay. The results from the application of the assay showed that 11 genes were not expressed in fruit. In addition, differential expression was observed among the Mal d 1 genes that were expressed in the fruit. Moreover, the expression levels were tissue and cultivar dependent. Conclusion The assay developed in this study facilitated the first characterisation of the expression levels of all known Mal d 1 genes in a gene-specific manner. Using this assay on different fruit tissues and cultivars, we obtained knowledge concerning gene relevance in allergenicity. This study provides new perspectives for research on both plant breeding and immunotherapy. PMID:23522122

  17. MalE of Group A Streptococcus Participates in the Rapid Transport of Maltotriose and Longer Maltodextrins▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Shelburne, Samuel A.; Fang, Han; Okorafor, Nnaja; Sumby, Paul; Sitkiewicz, Izabela; Keith, David; Patel, Payal; Austin, Celest; Graviss, Edward A.; Musser, James M.; Chow, Dar-Chone

    2007-01-01

    Study of the maltose/maltodextrin binding protein MalE in Escherichia coli has resulted in fundamental insights into the molecular mechanisms of microbial transport. Whether gram-positive bacteria employ a similar pathway for maltodextrin transport is unclear. The maltodextrin binding protein MalE has previously been shown to be key to the ability of group A Streptococcus (GAS) to colonize the oropharynx, the major site of GAS infection in humans. Here we used a multifaceted approach to elucidate the function and binding characteristics of GAS MalE. We found that GAS MalE is a central part of a highly efficient maltodextrin transport system capable of transporting linear maltodextrins that are up to at least seven glucose molecules long. Of the carbohydrates tested, GAS MalE had the highest affinity for maltotriose, a major breakdown product of starch in the human oropharynx. The thermodynamics and fluorescence changes induced by GAS MalE-maltodextrin binding were essentially opposite those reported for E. coli MalE. Moreover, unlike E. coli MalE, GAS MalE exhibited no specific binding of maltose or cyclic maltodextrins. Our data show that GAS developed a transport system optimized for linear maltodextrins longer than two glucose molecules that has several key differences from its well-studied E. coli counterpart. PMID:17259319

  18. Structure of the Major Apple Allergen Mal d 1

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    More than 70% of birch pollen-allergic patients develop allergic cross-reactions to the major allergen found in apple fruits (Malus domestica), the 17.5 kDa protein Mal d 1. Allergic reactions against this protein result from initial sensitization to the major allergen from birch pollen, Bet v 1. Immunologic cross-reactivity of Bet v 1-specific IgE antibodies with Mal d 1 after apple consumption can subsequently provoke severe oral allergic syndromes. This study presents the three-dimensional NMR solution structure of Mal d 1 (isoform Mal d 1.0101, initially cloned from ‘Granny Smith’ apples). This protein is composed of a seven-stranded antiparallel β-sheet and three α-helices that form a large internal cavity, similar to Bet v 1 and other cross-reactive food allergens. The Mal d 1 structure provides the basis for elucidating the details of allergic cross-reactivity between birch pollen and apple allergens on a molecular level. PMID:28161953

  19. Social, societal, and economic burden of mal de debarquement syndrome.

    PubMed

    Macke, Allison; LePorte, Andrew; Clark, Brian C

    2012-07-01

    Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS) is a disorder of phantom perception of self-motion of unknown cause. The purpose of this work was to describe the quality of life (QOL) of patients with MdDS and to estimate the economic costs associated with this disorder. A modified version of a QOL survey used for another neurological disease (multiple sclerosis; MSQOL-54) was used to assess the impact of MdDS on QOL in 101 patients. The estimated economic costs were based on self-reported direct and indirect costs of individuals living in the United States using Medicare reimbursement payment rates for 2011 in 79 patients. Patients with MdDS reported a poor overall QOL as indicated by a mean composite QOL score of 59.26 ± 1.89 (out of 100). The subcategories having the lowest QOL rating were role limitations due to physical problems (18.32 ± 3.20), energy (34.24 ± 1.47), and emotional problems (36.30 ± 4.00). The overall physical health composite score including balance was 49.40 ± 1.69, and the overall mental health composite score was 52.40 ± 1.83. The cost to obtain a diagnosis was $2,997 ± 337, which included requiring an average of 19 physician visits per patient. The direct cost of MdDS medical care was $826 ± 140 per patient per year, which mainly included diagnostic imaging and physician visits. The indirect costs (i.e., lost wages) were $9,781 ± 2,347 per patient per year. Among 65 patients who were gainfully employed when they acquired MdDS, the indirect costs were $11,888 ± 2,786 per patient per year. Thus, the total annual cost of the disorder ranged from $11,493 ± 2,341 to $13,561 ± 2,778 per patient per year depending on employment status prior to developing MdDS. MdDS negatively and dramatically impacts QOL, and also imposes a substantial economic burden on MdDS patients. These findings underscore the need for further basic and clinical research on MdDS.

  20. MAL73, a novel regulator of maltose fermentation, is functionally impaired by single nucleotide polymorphism in sake brewing yeast.

    PubMed

    Ohdate, Takumi; Omura, Fumihiko; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Zhou, Yan; Takagi, Masami; Goshima, Tetsuya; Akao, Takeshi; Ono, Eiichiro

    2018-01-01

    For maltose fermentation, budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae operates a mechanism that involves transporters (MALT), maltases (MALS) and regulators (MALR) collectively known as MAL genes. However, functional relevance of MAL genes during sake brewing process remains largely elusive, since sake yeast is cultured under glucose-rich condition achieved by the co-culture partner Aspergillus spp.. Here we isolated an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized sake yeast strain exhibiting enhanced maltose fermentation compared to the parental strain. The mutant carried a single nucleotide insertion that leads to the extension of the C-terminal region of a previously uncharacterized MALR gene YPR196W-2, which was renamed as MAL73. Introduction of the mutant allele MAL73L with extended C-terminal region into the parental or other sake yeast strains enhanced the growth rate when fed with maltose as the sole carbon source. In contrast, disruption of endogenous MAL73 in the sake yeasts decreased the maltose fermentation ability of sake yeast, confirming that the original MAL73 functions as a MALR. Importantly, the MAL73L-expressing strain fermented more maltose in practical condition compared to the parental strain during sake brewing process. Our data show that MAL73(L) is a novel MALR gene that regulates maltose fermentation, and has been functionally attenuated in sake yeast by single nucleotide deletion during breeding history. Since the MAL73L-expressing strain showed enhanced ability of maltose fermentation, MAL73L might also be a valuable tool for enhancing maltose fermentation in yeast in general.

  1. Structural Basis for the Interconversion of Maltodextrins by MalQ, the Amylomaltase of Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Simon C.; Skerra, Arne; Schiefner, André

    2015-01-01

    Amylomaltase MalQ is essential for the metabolism of maltose and maltodextrins in Escherichia coli. It catalyzes transglycosylation/disproportionation reactions in which glycosyl or dextrinyl units are transferred among linear maltodextrins of various lengths. To elucidate the molecular basis of transglycosylation by MalQ, we have determined three crystal structures of this enzyme, i.e. the apo-form, its complex with maltose, and an inhibitor complex with the transition state analog acarviosine-glucose-acarbose, at resolutions down to 2.1 Å. MalQ represents the first example of a mesophilic bacterial amylomaltase with known structure and exhibits an N-terminal extension of about 140 residues, in contrast with previously described thermophilic enzymes. This moiety seems unique to amylomaltases from Enterobacteriaceae and folds into two distinct subdomains that associate with different parts of the catalytic core. Intriguingly, the three MalQ crystal structures appear to correspond to distinct states of this enzyme, revealing considerable conformational changes during the catalytic cycle. In particular, the inhibitor complex highlights the requirement of both a 3-OH group and a 4-OH group (or α1–4-glycosidic bond) at the acceptor subsite +1 for the catalytically competent orientation of the acid/base catalyst Glu-496. Using an HPLC-based MalQ enzyme assay, we could demonstrate that the equilibrium concentration of maltodextrin products depends on the length of the initial substrate; with increasing numbers of glycosidic bonds, less glucose is formed. Thus, both structural and enzymatic data are consistent with the extremely low hydrolysis rates observed for amylomaltases and underline the importance of MalQ for the metabolism of maltodextrins in E. coli. PMID:26139606

  2. Rising Mal-Employment and the Great Recession: The Growing Disconnection between Recent College Graduates and the College Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the phenomenon of mal-employment among college graduates in the United States, beginning with an overview of labor-market trends and the effects of the Great Recession on the job-market experiences of young people, including recent college graduates. It then defines "mal-employment" and examines its incidence over…

  3. Change in Myself-as-a-Learner Scale (MALS) Scores as Pupils Transfer to and Progress through Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norgate, Roger; Osborne, Cara; Warhurst, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal changes in pupils' academic self-perception (as measured by Myself-As-a-Learner Scale [MALS]) were investigated between Year 6 and Year 10. The possibility of there being gender and attainment differences was also explored. There was a significant drop in mean MALS scores between Years 6 and 7. There was a further drop between Years 7…

  4. Characterization of recombinant Mal d 4 and its application for component-resolved diagnosis of apple allergy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Zuidmeer, L; Bohle, B; Bolhaar, S T H; Gadermaier, G; Gonzalez-Mancebo, E; Fernandez-Rivas, M; Knulst, A C; Himly, M; Asero, R; Ebner, C; van Ree, R; Ferreira, F; Breiteneder, H; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K

    2006-08-01

    Profilins are ubiquitous panallergens that have been extensively characterized; yet, their clinical relevance is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to produce recombinant apple profilin (rMal d 4) and to evaluate its allergenic activity and its potency for component-resolved allergy diagnosis. Complementary DNA-derived Mal d 4 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified via poly (l-proline) sepharose. A total of 28 sera from apple-allergic patients were used for IgE-ELISA, immunoblot, RAST and basophil histamine release (BHR) test. In addition, skin prick tests (SPTs) were performed in five patients. Four different complementary DNA coding for apple profilin, Mal d 4, each with an open reading frame of 393 nucleotides, were identified. One isoform Mal d 4.0101 was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. Mass spectroscopy revealed the expected mass of 13.826 for rMal d 4.0101, and circular dichroism analysis data were typical for a folded protein and small-angle X-ray scattering measurement identified the protein as a monomer. All the serum samples displayed IgE binding to rMal d 4.0101 in IgE ELISA, immunoblot and RAST. In immunoblotting, IgE binding to natural Mal d 4 was partially/completely inhibited by preincubation with rMal d 4.0101, and RAST values to apple extract were significantly reduced upon serum pretreatment with rMal d 4.0101. SPTs and BHR assays using purified rMal d 4.0101 were positive. Purified rMal d 4.0101 was destroyed within seconds when subjected to pepsin digestion. Apple profilin complementary DNAs were identified. The physicochemical and allergenic properties of purified recombinant Mal d 4.0101 were evaluated showing that the recombinant protein was equal to the natural protein as shown by inhibition assays. Thus, Mal d 4 represents another example suitable for component-resolved diagnosis of food allergy.

  5. High temperature increases the masculinization rate of the all-female (XX) rainbow trout "Mal" population.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, Karina; Jouanno, Elodie; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Galiana-Arnoux, Delphine; Guyomard, René; Helary, Louise; Mourot, Brigitte; Fostier, Alexis; Quillet, Edwige; Guiguen, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Salmonids are generally considered to have a robust genetic sex determination system with a simple male heterogamety (XX/XY). However, spontaneous masculinization of XX females has been found in a rainbow trout population of gynogenetic doubled haploid individuals. The analysis of this masculinization phenotype transmission supported the hypothesis of the involvement of a recessive mutation (termed mal). As temperature effect on sex differentiation has been reported in some salmonid species, in this study we investigated in detail the potential implication of temperature on masculinization in this XX mal-carrying population. Seven families issued from XX mal-carrying parents were exposed from the time of hatching to different rearing water temperatures ((8, 12 and 18°C), and the resulting sex-ratios were confirmed by histological analysis of both gonads. Our results demonstrate that masculinization rates are strongly increased (up to nearly two fold) at the highest temperature treatment (18°C). Interestingly, we also found clear differences between temperatures on the masculinization of the left versus the right gonads with the right gonad consistently more often masculinized than the left one at lower temperatures (8 and 12°C). However, the masculinization rate is also strongly dependent on the genetic background of the XX mal-carrying families. Thus, masculinization in XX mal-carrying rainbow trout is potentially triggered by an interaction between the temperature treatment and a complex genetic background potentially involving some part of the genetic sex differentiation regulatory cascade along with some minor sex-influencing loci. These results indicate that despite its rather strict genetic sex determinism system, rainbow trout sex differentiation can be modulated by temperature, as described in many other fish species.

  6. Structural and mutational analyses of Aes, an inhibitor of MalT in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Schiefner, André; Gerber, Kinga; Brosig, Alexander; Boos, Winfried

    2014-02-01

    The acyl esterase Aes effectively inhibits the transcriptional activity of MalT-the central activator of maltose and maltodextrin utilizing genes in Escherichia coli. To provide better insight into the nature of the interaction between Aes and MalT, we determined two different crystal structures of Aes-in its native form and covalently modified by a phenylmethylsulfonyl moiety at its active site serine. Both structures show distinct space groups and were refined to a resolution of 1.8 Å and 2.3 Å, respectively. The overall structure of Aes resembles a canonical α/β-hydrolase fold, which is extended by a funnel-like cap structure that forms the substrate-binding site. The catalytic triad of Aes, comprising residues Ser165, His292, and Asp262, is located at the bottom of this funnel. Analysis of the crystal-packing contacts of the two different space groups as well as analytical size-exclusion chromatography revealed a homodimeric arrangement of Aes. The Aes dimer adopts an antiparallel contact involving both the hydrolase core and the cap, with its twofold axis perpendicular to the largest dimension of Aes. To identify the surface area of Aes that is responsible for the interaction with MalT, we performed a structure-based alanine-scanning mutagenesis to pinpoint Aes residues that are significantly impaired in MalT inhibition, but still exhibit wild-type expression and enzymatic activity. These residues map to a shallow slightly concave surface patch of Aes at the opposite site of the dimerization interface and indicate the surface area that interacts with MalT. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Impact of sulfur and vitamin C on the allergenicity of Mal d 2 from apple (Malus domestica).

    PubMed

    Marzban, Gorji; Kinaciyan, Tamar; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Brunner, Richard; Gruber, Clemens; Hahn, Rainer; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Laimer, Margit

    2014-07-30

    Mal d 2 is a minor allergen from apple which shows a high conformational stability due to its eight conserved disulfide bridges. Chemical reduction of disulfide bridges and linearization of Mal d 2 lead to enhanced IgE reactivity in vitro and indicate a higher potential for allergenicity. Since food preservatives such as sulfur and vitamin C are reducing and denaturing agents, their influence on Mal d 2 allergenicity was verified by simulated food processing conditions. The immunoreactivity of purified Mal d 2 was investigated after different treatments in vitro and in vivo using IgG/IgE Western blotting, mediator-releasing cell assay, and skin prick and oral smear tests. The conformational changes of Mal d 2 upon addition of 1% and 5% vitamin C were also monitored by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show no positive skin and oral smear test reactivity to native, heated, or vitamin C-treated purified Mal d 2. Furthermore, the results confirm that sulfur in combination with heat treatment can influence the structural integrity and thus the allergenicity of Mal d 2, while vitamin C is too weak as a reducing agent to change allergenicity.

  8. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    percepción limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandió debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relación con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemáticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, así como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para después trabajarlas en Astronomía. Por último, llegamos a la conclusión de que el proceso desarrollado consistió en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los años posteriores de la formación de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública estadual de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contínuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observação do entorno, dentre ele, o céu, analisando as mudanças ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variações de temperaturas, chuvas, duração do dia, variações do tamanho das sombras e mudanças nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de análise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no início e ao término da implementação da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepção limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em função das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere à Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemáticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensíveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras são formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, concluímos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formação desses alunos.

  9. The Myelin and Lymphocyte Protein MAL Is Required for Binding and Activity of Clostridium perfringens ε-Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Oo, Myat Lin; Anrather, Josef; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Alonso, Miguel A.; Fischetti, Vincent A.; McClain, Mark S.; Vartanian, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens ε-toxin (ETX) is a potent pore-forming toxin responsible for a central nervous system (CNS) disease in ruminant animals with characteristics of blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and white matter injury. ETX has been proposed as a potential causative agent for Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a human disease that begins with BBB breakdown and injury to myelin forming cells of the CNS. The receptor for ETX is unknown. Here we show that both binding of ETX to mammalian cells and cytotoxicity requires the tetraspan proteolipid Myelin and Lymphocyte protein (MAL). While native Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are resistant to ETX, exogenous expression of MAL in CHO cells confers both ETX binding and susceptibility to ETX-mediated cell death. Cells expressing rat MAL are ~100 times more sensitive to ETX than cells expressing similar levels of human MAL. Insertion of the FLAG sequence into the second extracellular loop of MAL abolishes ETX binding and cytotoxicity. ETX is known to bind specifically and with high affinity to intestinal epithelium, renal tubules, brain endothelial cells and myelin. We identify specific binding of ETX to these structures and additionally show binding to retinal microvasculature and the squamous epithelial cells of the sclera in wild-type mice. In contrast, there is a complete absence of ETX binding to tissues from MAL knockout (MAL-/-) mice. Furthermore, MAL-/- mice exhibit complete resistance to ETX at doses in excess of 1000 times the symptomatic dose for wild-type mice. We conclude that MAL is required for both ETX binding and cytotoxicity. PMID:25993478

  10. The Myelin and Lymphocyte Protein MAL Is Required for Binding and Activity of Clostridium perfringens ε-Toxin.

    PubMed

    Rumah, Kareem Rashid; Ma, Yinghua; Linden, Jennifer R; Oo, Myat Lin; Anrather, Josef; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Alonso, Miguel A; Fischetti, Vincent A; McClain, Mark S; Vartanian, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens ε-toxin (ETX) is a potent pore-forming toxin responsible for a central nervous system (CNS) disease in ruminant animals with characteristics of blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and white matter injury. ETX has been proposed as a potential causative agent for Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a human disease that begins with BBB breakdown and injury to myelin forming cells of the CNS. The receptor for ETX is unknown. Here we show that both binding of ETX to mammalian cells and cytotoxicity requires the tetraspan proteolipid Myelin and Lymphocyte protein (MAL). While native Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are resistant to ETX, exogenous expression of MAL in CHO cells confers both ETX binding and susceptibility to ETX-mediated cell death. Cells expressing rat MAL are ~100 times more sensitive to ETX than cells expressing similar levels of human MAL. Insertion of the FLAG sequence into the second extracellular loop of MAL abolishes ETX binding and cytotoxicity. ETX is known to bind specifically and with high affinity to intestinal epithelium, renal tubules, brain endothelial cells and myelin. We identify specific binding of ETX to these structures and additionally show binding to retinal microvasculature and the squamous epithelial cells of the sclera in wild-type mice. In contrast, there is a complete absence of ETX binding to tissues from MAL knockout (MAL-/-) mice. Furthermore, MAL-/- mice exhibit complete resistance to ETX at doses in excess of 1000 times the symptomatic dose for wild-type mice. We conclude that MAL is required for both ETX binding and cytotoxicity.

  11. MAL facilitates the incorporation of exocytic uroplakin-delivering vesicles into the apical membrane of urothelial umbrella cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ge; Liang, Feng-Xia; Romih, Rok; Wang, Zefang; Liao, Yi; Ghiso, Jorge; Luque-Garcia, Jose L.; Neubert, Thomas A.; Kreibich, Gert; Alonso, Miguel A.; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Sun, Tung-Tien

    2012-01-01

    The apical surface of mammalian bladder urothelium is covered by large (500–1000 nm) two-dimensional (2D) crystals of hexagonally packed 16-nm uroplakin particles (urothelial plaques), which play a role in permeability barrier function and uropathogenic bacterial binding. How the uroplakin proteins are delivered to the luminal surface is unknown. We show here that myelin-and-lymphocyte protein (MAL), a 17-kDa tetraspan protein suggested to be important for the apical sorting of membrane proteins, is coexpressed with uroplakins in differentiated urothelial cell layers. MAL depletion in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells did not affect, however, the apical sorting of uroplakins, but it decreased the rate by which uroplakins were inserted into the apical surface. Moreover, MAL knockout in vivo led to the accumulation of fusiform vesicles in mouse urothelial superficial umbrella cells, whereas MAL transgenic overexpression in vivo led to enhanced exocytosis and compensatory endocytosis, resulting in the accumulation of the uroplakin-degrading multivesicular bodies. Finally, although MAL and uroplakins cofloat in detergent-resistant raft fractions, they are associated with distinct plaque and hinge membrane subdomains, respectively. These data suggest a model in which 1) MAL does not play a role in the apical sorting of uroplakins; 2) the propensity of uroplakins to polymerize forming 16-nm particles and later large 2D crystals that behave as detergent-resistant (giant) rafts may drive their apical targeting; 3) the exclusion of MAL from the expanding 2D crystals of uroplakins explains the selective association of MAL with the hinge areas in the uroplakin-delivering fusiform vesicles, as well as at the apical surface; and 4) the hinge-associated MAL may play a role in facilitating the incorporation of the exocytic uroplakin vesicles into the corresponding hinge areas of the urothelial apical surface. PMID:22323295

  12. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  13. From badge of pride to cause of stigma: combatting mal del pinto in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Ana María

    2013-03-01

    Mal del pinto is a dermatological disease characterized by discoloured patches of skin on the face and body. It has been present in what is now the territory of Mexico from before the Spanish conquest up to recent times. Though early concerns for mal del pinto as a public health problem can be traced back to the late 19th century, no campaign to combat the disease was undertaken until the second half of the 20th. Thanks to the effectiveness of treatment with penicillin, the fight against this illness--which was once assumed as a symbol of pride--enjoyed a broader acceptance among the population that other health campaigns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Delayed surgical treatment for neglected or mal-reduced talar fractures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng-Ju; Cheng, Yuh-Min

    2005-10-01

    From 1993 to 2002, we treated nine patients for neglected or mal-reduced talar fractures. Average patient age was 39 (20-64) years and average follow-up 53 months. The time interval between injury and index operation ranged from 4 weeks to 4 years. Surgical procedures included open reduction with or without bone grafting in six cases, open reduction combined with ankle fusion in one case, talar neck osteotomy in one case, and talar neck osteotomy combined with subtalar fusion in one case. All cases had solid bone union. One patient developed avascular necrosis of the talus needing subsequent ankle arthrodesis. In six patients, adjacent hindfoot arthrosis occurred. The overall AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score was in average 77.4. We conclude that in neglected and mal-reduced talar fractures, surgical treatment can lead to a favourable outcome if the hindfoot joints are not arthritic.

  15. SmartMal: a service-oriented behavioral malware detection framework for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wu, Zhizhong; Li, Xi; Zhou, Xuehai; Wang, Aili; Hung, Patrick C K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents SmartMal--a novel service-oriented behavioral malware detection framework for vehicular and mobile devices. The highlight of SmartMal is to introduce service-oriented architecture (SOA) concepts and behavior analysis into the malware detection paradigms. The proposed framework relies on client-server architecture, the client continuously extracts various features and transfers them to the server, and the server's main task is to detect anomalies using state-of-art detection algorithms. Multiple distributed servers simultaneously analyze the feature vector using various detectors and information fusion is used to concatenate the results of detectors. We also propose a cycle-based statistical approach for mobile device anomaly detection. We accomplish this by analyzing the users' regular usage patterns. Empirical results suggest that the proposed framework and novel anomaly detection algorithm are highly effective in detecting malware on Android devices.

  16. Une localisation exceptionnelle de la tuberculose vertébrale Mal de Pott sous-occipital

    PubMed Central

    Yahyaoui, Sana; Majdoub, Senda; Zaghouani, Houneida; Fradj, Hosni Ben; Bakir, Dejla; Bouajina, Elyes; Kraiem, Chakib

    2013-01-01

    Le mal de Pott est la forme la plus commune de la tuberculose osseuse touchant essentiellement le rachis dorso-lombaire. La localisation sous-occipitale reste exceptionnelle. Le diagnostic de cette entité est le plus souvent tardif ce qui expose à des complications graves. Les radiographies standard ne sont parlantes qu’à un stade tardif de la maladie, d'où l'intérêt de l'imagerie moderne notamment la tomodensitométrie (TDM) et l'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) qui permettent un diagnostic précoce. Nous rapportons un nouveau cas de tuberculose sous-occipitale. Le diagnostic était posé sur l'imagerie en coupe et confirmé histologiquement à la biopsie transorale. Sont rappelés les aspects en imagerie de cette localisation particulière du mal de Pott. PMID:23819005

  17. Ferromagnetic coupling in the three-dimensional malonato-bridged gadoliniumIII complex [Gd2(mal)3(H2O)6] (H2mal = malonic acid).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Molina, María; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; López, Trinidad; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2003-09-08

    The novel gadolinium(III) complex of formula [Gd(2)(mal)(3)(H(2)O)(6)] (1) (H(2)mal = 1,3-propanedioic acid) has been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystal data for 1: monoclinic, space group I2/a, a = 11.1064(10) A, b = 12.2524(10) A, c =13.6098(2) A, beta = 92.925(10) degrees, U = 1849.5(3) A(3), Z = 4. Compound 1 is a three-dimensional network made up of malonate-bridged gadolinium(III) ions where the malonate exhibits two bridging modes, eta(5)-bidentate + unidentate and eta(3):eta(3) + bis(unidentate). The gadolinium atom is nine-coordinate with three water molecules and six malonate oxygen atoms from three malonate ligands forming a distorted monocapped square antiprism. The shortest metal-metal separations are 4.2763(3) A [through the oxo-carboxylate bridge] and 6.541(3) A [through the carboxylate in the anti-syn coordination mode]. The value of the angle at the oxo-carboxylate atom is 116.8(2) degrees. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal the occurrence of a significant ferromagnetic interaction through the oxo-carboxylate pathway (J = +0.048(1) cm(-1), H = -JS(Gd(1)) x S(Gd(1a))).

  18. The importance of correct patient positioning in theatres and implications of mal-positioning.

    PubMed

    Adedeji, Rimi; Oragui, Emeka; Khan, Wasim; Maruthainar, Nimalan

    2010-04-01

    Patient positioning in theatre pertains to how a patient is transferred and positioned for a specific procedure. Patient safety is a central focus of care within the NHS and every healthcare practitioner must ensure that patients are protected from harm where possible. Mal-positioning of the patient has important implications in terms of associated problems of pressure sores, nerve compressions, deep vein thrombosis and compartment syndrome, and should be avoided.

  19. Hybrid (laparoscopy + stent) treatment of celiac trunk compression syndrome (Dunbar syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS)).

    PubMed

    Michalik, Maciej; Dowgiałło-Wnukiewicz, Natalia; Lech, Paweł; Majda, Kaja; Gutowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Celiac trunk (CT) compression syndrome caused by the median arcuate ligament (MAL) is a rarely diagnosed disease because of its nonspecific symptoms, which cause a delay in the correct diagnosis. Intestinal ischemia occurs, which causes symptoms of abdominal angina. One method of treatment for this disease is surgical release of the CT - the intersection of the MAL. Laparoscopy is the first step of the hybrid technique combined with percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of the CT. To demonstrate the usefulness and advantages of the laparoscopic approach in the treatment of Dunbar syndrome. Between 2013 and 2016 in the General and Minimally Invasive Surgery Department of the Medical Sciences Faculty of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 6 laparoscopic procedures were performed because of median arcuate ligament syndrome. During the laparoscopy the MAL was cut with a harmonic scalpel. One month after laparoscopy 5 patients had Doppler percutaneous angioplasty of the CT with stent implantation in the Vascular Surgery Department in Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. In one case, there was a conversion of laparoscopic surgery to open due to unmanageable intraoperative bleeding. In one case, postoperative ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity demonstrated the presence of a large hematoma in the retroperitoneal space. All patients reported relief of symptoms in the first days after the operation. The hybrid method, combining laparoscopy and angioplasty, seems to be a long-term solution, which increases the comfort of the patient, brings the opportunity for normal functioning and minimizes the risk of restenosis.

  20. Repair of a mal-repaired biliary injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aldumour, Awad; Aseni, Paolo; Alkofahi, Mohmmad; Lamperti, Luca; Aldumour, Elias; Girotti, Paolo; De Carlis, Luciano-Gregorio

    2009-05-14

    Iatrogenic bile-duct injury post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains a major serious complication with unpredictable long-term results. We present a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstones, in which the biliary injury was recognized intraoperatively. The surgical procedure was converted to an open one. The first surgeon repaired the injury over a T-tube without recognizing the anatomy and type of the biliary lesion, which led to an unusual biliary mal-repair. Immediately postoperatively, the abdominal drain brought a large amount of bile. A T-tube cholangiogram was performed. Despite the contrast medium leaking through the abdominal drain, the mal-repair was unrecognized. The patient was referred to our hospital for biliary leak. Ultrasound and cholangiography was repeated, which showed an unanatomical repair (right to left hepatic duct anastomosis over the T-tube), with evidence of contrast medium coming out through the abdominal drain. Eventually the patient was subjected to a definitive surgical treatment. The biliary continuity was re-established by a Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy, over transanastomotic external biliary stents. The patient is now doing well 4 years after the second surgical procedure. In reviewing the literature, we found a similar type of injury but we did not find a similar surgical mal-repair. We propose an algorithm for the treatment of early and late biliary injuries.

  1. Repair of a mal-repaired biliary injury: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Aldumour, Awad; Aseni, Paolo; Alkofahi, Mohmmad; Lamperti, Luca; Aldumour, Elias; Girotti, Paolo; Carlis, Luciano Gregorio De

    2009-01-01

    Iatrogenic bile-duct injury post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains a major serious complication with unpredictable long-term results. We present a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstones, in which the biliary injury was recognized intraoperatively. The surgical procedure was converted to an open one. The first surgeon repaired the injury over a T-tube without recognizing the anatomy and type of the biliary lesion, which led to an unusual biliary mal-repair. Immediately postoperatively, the abdominal drain brought a large amount of bile. A T-tube cholangiogram was performed. Despite the contrast medium leaking through the abdominal drain, the mal-repair was unrecognized. The patient was referred to our hospital for biliary leak. Ultrasound and cholangiography was repeated, which showed an unanatomical repair (right to left hepatic duct anastomosis over the T-tube), with evidence of contrast medium coming out through the abdominal drain. Eventually the patient was subjected to a definitive surgical treatment. The biliary continuity was re-established by a Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy, over transanastomotic external biliary stents. The patient is now doing well 4 years after the second surgical procedure. In reviewing the literature, we found a similar type of injury but we did not find a similar surgical mal-repair. We propose an algorithm for the treatment of early and late biliary injuries. PMID:19437572

  2. Maltase protein of Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha is a counterpart to the resurrected ancestor protein ancMALS of yeast maltases and isomaltases.

    PubMed

    Viigand, Katrin; Visnapuu, Triinu; Mardo, Karin; Aasamets, Anneli; Alamäe, Tiina

    2016-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae maltases use maltose, maltulose, turanose and maltotriose as substrates, isomaltases use isomaltose, α-methylglucoside and palatinose and both use sucrose. These enzymes are hypothesized to have evolved from a promiscuous α-glucosidase ancMALS through duplication and mutation of the genes. We studied substrate specificity of the maltase protein MAL1 from an earlier diverged yeast, Ogataea polymorpha (Op), in the light of this hypothesis. MAL1 has extended substrate specificity and its properties are strikingly similar to those of resurrected ancMALS. Moreover, amino acids considered to determine selective substrate binding are highly conserved between Op MAL1 and ancMALS. Op MAL1 represents an α-glucosidase in which both maltase and isomaltase activities are well optimized in a single enzyme. Substitution of Thr200 (corresponds to Val216 in S. cerevisiae isomaltase IMA1) with Val in MAL1 drastically reduced the hydrolysis of maltose-like substrates (α-1,4-glucosides), confirming the requirement of Thr at the respective position for this function. Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) of the catalytically inactive mutant Asp199Ala of MAL1 in the presence of its substrates and selected monosaccharides suggested that the substrate-binding pocket of MAL1 has three subsites (-1, +1 and +2) and that binding is strongest at the -1 subsite. The DSF assay results were in good accordance with affinity (Km ) and inhibition (Ki ) data of the enzyme for tested substrates, indicating the power of the method to predict substrate binding. Deletion of either the maltase (MAL1) or α-glucoside permease (MAL2) gene in Op abolished the growth of yeast on MAL1 substrates, confirming the requirement of both proteins for usage of these sugars. © 2016 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Maltase protein of Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha is a counterpart to the resurrected ancestor protein ancMALS of yeast maltases and isomaltases

    PubMed Central

    Viigand, Katrin; Visnapuu, Triinu; Mardo, Karin; Aasamets, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Saccharomyces cerevisiae maltases use maltose, maltulose, turanose and maltotriose as substrates, isomaltases use isomaltose, α‐methylglucoside and palatinose and both use sucrose. These enzymes are hypothesized to have evolved from a promiscuous α‐glucosidase ancMALS through duplication and mutation of the genes. We studied substrate specificity of the maltase protein MAL1 from an earlier diverged yeast, Ogataea polymorpha (Op), in the light of this hypothesis. MAL1 has extended substrate specificity and its properties are strikingly similar to those of resurrected ancMALS. Moreover, amino acids considered to determine selective substrate binding are highly conserved between Op MAL1 and ancMALS. Op MAL1 represents an α‐glucosidase in which both maltase and isomaltase activities are well optimized in a single enzyme. Substitution of Thr200 (corresponds to Val216 in S. cerevisiae isomaltase IMA1) with Val in MAL1 drastically reduced the hydrolysis of maltose‐like substrates (α‐1,4‐glucosides), confirming the requirement of Thr at the respective position for this function. Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) of the catalytically inactive mutant Asp199Ala of MAL1 in the presence of its substrates and selected monosaccharides suggested that the substrate‐binding pocket of MAL1 has three subsites (–1, +1 and +2) and that binding is strongest at the –1 subsite. The DSF assay results were in good accordance with affinity (K m) and inhibition (K i) data of the enzyme for tested substrates, indicating the power of the method to predict substrate binding. Deletion of either the maltase (MAL1) or α‐glucoside permease (MAL2) gene in Op abolished the growth of yeast on MAL1 substrates, confirming the requirement of both proteins for usage of these sugars. © 2016 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26919272

  4. Hybrid (laparoscopy + stent) treatment of celiac trunk compression syndrome (Dunbar syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS))

    PubMed Central

    Michalik, Maciej; Lech, Paweł; Majda, Kaja; Gutowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Celiac trunk (CT) compression syndrome caused by the median arcuate ligament (MAL) is a rarely diagnosed disease because of its nonspecific symptoms, which cause a delay in the correct diagnosis. Intestinal ischemia occurs, which causes symptoms of abdominal angina. One method of treatment for this disease is surgical release of the CT – the intersection of the MAL. Laparoscopy is the first step of the hybrid technique combined with percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of the CT. Aim To demonstrate the usefulness and advantages of the laparoscopic approach in the treatment of Dunbar syndrome. Material and methods Between 2013 and 2016 in the General and Minimally Invasive Surgery Department of the Medical Sciences Faculty of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 6 laparoscopic procedures were performed because of median arcuate ligament syndrome. During the laparoscopy the MAL was cut with a harmonic scalpel. One month after laparoscopy 5 patients had Doppler percutaneous angioplasty of the CT with stent implantation in the Vascular Surgery Department in Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. Results In one case, there was a conversion of laparoscopic surgery to open due to unmanageable intraoperative bleeding. In one case, postoperative ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity demonstrated the presence of a large hematoma in the retroperitoneal space. All patients reported relief of symptoms in the first days after the operation. Conclusions The hybrid method, combining laparoscopy and angioplasty, seems to be a long-term solution, which increases the comfort of the patient, brings the opportunity for normal functioning and minimizes the risk of restenosis. PMID:28194242

  5. Linfoma Nasal de Células T/Natural Killer Extranodal Refractario Mal Diagnosticado, Tratado de Manera Exitosa: Informe de Caso

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra Ramírez, José Domingo

    2017-01-01

    El linfoma de células T/natural killer extranodal (“extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma”, ENKL) nasal es un linfoma no Hodgkin (LNH) agresivo y poco común para el cual no se ha establecido un tratamiento de referencia claro, especialmente en el escenario de la enfermedad recidivante/refractaria. Debido a su rareza, no se han llevado a cabo ensayos aleatorizados específicamente en ENKL nasal; sin embargo, los informes de caso y las series de caso pequeñas ofrecen un conocimiento importante sobre nuevos tratamientos potenciales. Presentamos el informe de caso de un paciente con ENKL nasal (previamente mal diagnosticado como una sinusitis crónica recidivante) en quien la enfermedad progresó durante la quimioterapia con múltiples agentes pero respondió al tratamiento de segunda línea con pralatrexato como agente único. Analizamos opciones de tratamiento para el ENKL nasal recidivante/refractario y sugerimos que el pralatrexato se evalúe más a fondo en este escenario clínico. PMID:29430232

  6. Linfoma Nasal de Células T/Natural Killer Extranodal Refractario Mal Diagnosticado, Tratado de Manera Exitosa: Informe de Caso.

    PubMed

    Saavedra Ramírez, José Domingo

    2017-01-01

    El linfoma de células T/natural killer extranodal ("extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma", ENKL) nasal es un linfoma no Hodgkin (LNH) agresivo y poco común para el cual no se ha establecido un tratamiento de referencia claro, especialmente en el escenario de la enfermedad recidivante/refractaria. Debido a su rareza, no se han llevado a cabo ensayos aleatorizados específicamente en ENKL nasal; sin embargo, los informes de caso y las series de caso pequeñas ofrecen un conocimiento importante sobre nuevos tratamientos potenciales. Presentamos el informe de caso de un paciente con ENKL nasal (previamente mal diagnosticado como una sinusitis crónica recidivante) en quien la enfermedad progresó durante la quimioterapia con múltiples agentes pero respondió al tratamiento de segunda línea con pralatrexato como agente único. Analizamos opciones de tratamiento para el ENKL nasal recidivante/refractario y sugerimos que el pralatrexato se evalúe más a fondo en este escenario clínico.

  7. Distinct mechanism of activation of two transcription factors, AmyR and MalR, involved in amylolytic enzyme production in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kuta; Tanaka, Mizuki; Konno, Yui; Ichikawa, Takanori; Ichinose, Sakurako; Hasegawa-Shiro, Sachiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2015-02-01

    The production of amylolytic enzymes in Aspergillus oryzae is induced in the presence of starch or maltose, and two Zn2Cys6-type transcription factors, AmyR and MalR, are involved in this regulation. AmyR directly regulates the expression of amylase genes, and MalR controls the expression of maltose-utilizing (MAL) cluster genes. Deletion of malR gene resulted in poor growth on starch medium and reduction in α-amylase production level. To elucidate the activation mechanisms of these two transcription factors in amylase production, the expression profiles of amylases and MAL cluster genes under carbon catabolite derepression condition and subcellular localization of these transcription factors fused with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) were examined. Glucose, maltose, and isomaltose induced the expression of amylase genes, and GFP-AmyR was translocated from the cytoplasm to nucleus after the addition of these sugars. Rapid induction of amylase gene expression and nuclear localization of GFP-AmyR by isomaltose suggested that this sugar was the strongest inducer for AmyR activation. In contrast, GFP-MalR was constitutively localized in the nucleus and the expression of MAL cluster genes was induced by maltose, but not by glucose or isomaltose. In the presence of maltose, the expression of amylase genes was preceded by MAL cluster gene expression. Furthermore, deletion of the malR gene resulted in a significant decrease in the α-amylase activity induced by maltose, but had apparently no effect on the expression of α-amylase genes in the presence of isomaltose. These results suggested that activation of AmyR and MalR is regulated in a different manner, and the preceding activation of MalR is essential for the utilization of maltose as an inducer for AmyR activation.

  8. Exposure to Glycolytic Carbon Sources Reveals a Novel Layer of Regulation for the MalT Regulon

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Sylvia A.; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria adapt to changing environments by means of tightly coordinated regulatory circuits. The use of synthetic lethality, a genetic phenomenon in which the combination of two nonlethal mutations causes cell death, facilitates identification and study of such circuitry. In this study, we show that the E. coli ompR malT con double mutant exhibits a synthetic lethal phenotype that is environmentally conditional. MalTcon, the constitutively active form of the maltose system regulator MalT, causes elevated expression of the outer membrane porin LamB, which leads to death in the absence of the osmoregulator OmpR. However, the presence and metabolism of glycolytic carbon sources, such as sorbitol, promotes viability and unveils a novel layer of regulation within the complex circuitry that controls maltose transport and metabolism. PMID:21912549

  9. Exposure to Glycolytic Carbon Sources Reveals a Novel Layer of Regulation for the MalT Regulon.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Sylvia A; Wolfe, Alan J

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria adapt to changing environments by means of tightly coordinated regulatory circuits. The use of synthetic lethality, a genetic phenomenon in which the combination of two nonlethal mutations causes cell death, facilitates identification and study of such circuitry. In this study, we show that the E. coli ompR malT(con) double mutant exhibits a synthetic lethal phenotype that is environmentally conditional. MalT(con), the constitutively active form of the maltose system regulator MalT, causes elevated expression of the outer membrane porin LamB, which leads to death in the absence of the osmoregulator OmpR. However, the presence and metabolism of glycolytic carbon sources, such as sorbitol, promotes viability and unveils a novel layer of regulation within the complex circuitry that controls maltose transport and metabolism.

  10. Characterization and functional analysis of the MAL and MPH Loci for maltose utilization in some ale and lager yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Vidgren, Virve; Ruohonen, Laura; Londesborough, John

    2005-12-01

    Maltose and maltotriose are the major sugars in brewer's wort. Brewer's yeasts contain multiple genes for maltose transporters. It is not known which of these express functional transporters. We correlated maltose transport kinetics with the genotypes of some ale and lager yeasts. Maltose transport by two ale strains was strongly inhibited by other alpha-glucosides, suggesting the use of broad substrate specificity transporters, such as Agt1p. Maltose transport by three lager strains was weakly inhibited by other alpha-glucosides, suggesting the use of narrow substrate specificity transporters. Hybridization studies showed that all five strains contained complete MAL1, MAL2, MAL3, and MAL4 loci, except for one ale strain, which lacked a MAL2 locus. All five strains also contained both AGT1 (coding a broad specificity alpha-glucoside transporter) and MAL11 alleles. MPH genes (maltose permease homologues) were present in the lager but not in the ale strains. During growth on maltose, the lager strains expressed AGT1 at low levels and MALx1 genes at high levels, whereas the ale strains expressed AGT1 at high levels and MALx1 genes at low levels. MPHx expression was negligible in all strains. The AGT1 sequences from the ale strains encoded full-length (616 amino acid) polypeptides, but those from both sequenced lager strains encoded truncated (394 amino acid) polypeptides that are unlikely to be functional transporters. Thus, despite the apparently similar genotypes of these ale and lager strains revealed by hybridization, maltose is predominantly carried by AGT1-encoded transporters in the ale strains and by MALx1-encoded transporters in the lager strains.

  11. Assessment of environmental enteropathy in the MAL-ED cohort study: theoretical and analytic framework.

    PubMed

    Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L; Kang, Gagandeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gratz, Jean; Gottlieb, Michael; Lang, Dennis; Lee, Gwenyth; Haque, Rashidul; Mason, Carl J; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo; Petri, William A; Houpt, Eric; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Seidman, Jessica C; Mduma, Estomih; Samie, Amidou; Babji, Sudhir

    2014-11-01

    Individuals in the developing world live in conditions of intense exposure to enteric pathogens due to suboptimal water and sanitation. These environmental conditions lead to alterations in intestinal structure, function, and local and systemic immune activation that are collectively referred to as environmental enteropathy (EE). This condition, although poorly defined, is likely to be exacerbated by undernutrition as well as being responsible for permanent growth deficits acquired in early childhood, vaccine failure, and loss of human potential. This article addresses the underlying theoretical and analytical frameworks informing the methodology proposed by the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study to define and quantify the burden of disease caused by EE within a multisite cohort. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to improve, standardize, and harmonize laboratory practices within the MAL-ED Network. These efforts will address current limitations in the understanding of EE and its burden on children in the developing world. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Modeling environmental influences on child growth in the MAL-ED cohort study: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Richard, Stephanie A; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Miller, Mark A; Caulfield, Laura E; Checkley, William

    2014-11-01

    Although genetics, maternal undernutrition and low birth weight status certainly play a role in child growth, dietary insufficiency and infectious diseases are key risk factors for linear growth faltering during early childhood. A primary goal of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study is to identify specific risk factors associated with growth faltering during the first 2 years of life; however, growth in early childhood is challenging to characterize because growth may be inherently nonlinear with age. In this manuscript, we describe some methods for analyzing longitudinal growth to evaluate both short- and long-term associations between risk factors and growth trajectories over the first 2 years of life across 8 resource-limited settings using harmonized protocols. We expect there will be enough variability within and between sites in the prevalence of risk factors and burden of linear growth faltering to allow us to distinguish some of the key pathways to linear growth faltering in the MAL-ED study. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Methods of analysis of enteropathogen infection in the MAL-ED Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, James A; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Kosek, Margaret; Pan, William K; Checkley, William; Houpt, Eric R

    2014-11-01

    Studies of diarrheal etiology in low- and middle-income countries have typically focused on children presenting with severe symptoms to health centers and thus are best equipped to describe the pathogens capable of leading to severe diarrheal disease. The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study was designed to evaluate, via intensive community surveillance, the hypothesis that repeated exposure to enteropathogens has a detrimental effect on growth, vaccine response, and cognitive development, which are the primary outcome measures for this study. In the setting of multiple outcomes of interest, a longitudinal cohort design was chosen. Because many or even the majority of enteric infections are asymptomatic, the collection of asymptomatic surveillance stools was a critical element. However, capturing diarrheal stools additionally allowed for the determination of the principle causes of diarrhea at the community level as well as for a comparison between those enteropathogens associated with diarrhea and those that are associated with poor growth, diminished vaccine response, and impaired cognitive development. Here, we discuss the analytical methods proposed for the MAL-ED study to determine the principal causes of diarrhea at the community level and describe the complex interplay between recurrent exposure to enteropathogens and these critical long-term outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Assessment of Environmental Enteropathy in the MAL-ED Cohort Study: Theoretical and Analytic Framework

    PubMed Central

    Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L.; Kang, Gagandeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gratz, Jean; Gottlieb, Michael; Lang, Dennis; Lee, Gwenyth; Haque, Rashidul; Mason, Carl J.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo; Petri, William A.; Houpt, Eric; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Seidman, Jessica C.; Mduma, Estomih; Samie, Amidou; Babji, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in the developing world live in conditions of intense exposure to enteric pathogens due to suboptimal water and sanitation. These environmental conditions lead to alterations in intestinal structure, function, and local and systemic immune activation that are collectively referred to as environmental enteropathy (EE). This condition, although poorly defined, is likely to be exacerbated by undernutrition as well as being responsible for permanent growth deficits acquired in early childhood, vaccine failure, and loss of human potential. This article addresses the underlying theoretical and analytical frameworks informing the methodology proposed by the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study to define and quantify the burden of disease caused by EE within a multisite cohort. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to improve, standardize, and harmonize laboratory practices within the MAL-ED Network. These efforts will address current limitations in the understanding of EE and its burden on children in the developing world. PMID:25305293

  15. A Green Protocol for Synthesis of MAl2O4, [M=Cu and Co] Spinels Under Microwave Irradiation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvasravana, R.; George, P. P.

    Nanosized metal aluminates MAl2O4, [M=Cu and Co] are synthesized from their nitrates solution by using pomegranate peel extract as fuel in microwave combustion. MAl2O4 [M=Cu and Co] nanoparticles are grown in microwave assisted synthesis followed by annealing at 700∘C. The nanoparticles have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-VIS spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PXRD analysis has confirmed their spinel composition. The green protocol and microwave combustion route for spinel synthesis are rapid, simple, without any hazardous chemicals as reducing or stabilizing agents and economical.

  16. The use of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) in the treatment of a severe mal perforant ulcer in the foot of a person with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Orcajo, Beatriz; Muruzabal, Francisco; Isasmendi, María Concepción; Gutierrez, Nerea; Sánchez, Mikel; Orive, Gorka; Anitua, Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    A 71 year old person with diabetes with a severe mal perforant ulcer in the right foot was treated twice with autologous plasma-rich in growth factors (PRGF) obtained from her own blood. After PRGF treatment the severe mal perforant ulcer completely healed in 10 weeks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MAL2 and tumor protein D52 (TPD52) are frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, but differentially associated with histological subtype and patient outcome.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Jennifer A; Maleki, Sanaz; Hardy, Jayne R; Gloss, Brian S; Murali, Rajmohan; Scurry, James P; Fanayan, Susan; Emmanuel, Catherine; Hacker, Neville F; Sutherland, Robert L; Defazio, Anna; O'Brien, Philippa M

    2010-09-17

    The four-transmembrane MAL2 protein is frequently overexpressed in breast carcinoma, and MAL2 overexpression is associated with gain of the corresponding locus at chromosome 8q24.12. Independent expression microarray studies predict MAL2 overexpression in ovarian carcinoma, but these had remained unconfirmed. MAL2 binds tumor protein D52 (TPD52), which is frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, but the clinical significance of MAL2 and TPD52 overexpression was unknown. Immunohistochemical analyses of MAL2 and TPD52 expression were performed using tissue microarray sections including benign, borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours. Inmmunohistochemical staining intensity and distribution was assessed both visually and digitally. MAL2 and TPD52 were significantly overexpressed in high-grade serous carcinomas compared with serous borderline tumours. MAL2 expression was highest in serous carcinomas relative to other histological subtypes, whereas TPD52 expression was highest in clear cell carcinomas. MAL2 expression was not related to patient survival, however high-level TPD52 staining was significantly associated with improved overall survival in patients with stage III serous ovarian carcinoma (log-rank test, p < 0.001; n = 124) and was an independent predictor of survival in the overall carcinoma cohort (hazard ratio (HR), 0.498; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.728; p < 0.001; n = 221), and in serous carcinomas (HR, 0.440; 95% CI, 0.294-0.658; p < 0.001; n = 182). MAL2 is frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, and TPD52 overexpression is a favourable independent prognostic marker of potential value in the management of ovarian carcinoma patients.

  18. Pathogenicity of Phytophthora austrocedrae on Austrocedrus chilensis and its relation with mal del ciprés in Patagonia

    Treesearch

    A. G. Greslebin; E. M. Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Field observations, isolations and pathogenicity tests were performed on Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae) trees to determine the pathogenicity of Phytophthora austrocedrae and its role in the aetiology of the cypress disease mal del ciprés (MDC) in Argentina. It was found that P. austrocedrae...

  19. The Decline of Austrocedrus Forests in Patagonia (Mal del Ciprés): Another Phytophthora-Caused Forest Disease

    Treesearch

    Alina Greslebin; Everett Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Austrocedrus chilensis, an indigenous Cupressaceae of the Patagonian Andes forests, is suffering a disease that has been called "Mal del Ciprés" (MDC). This disease was first reported more than 50 years ago but, in spite of many studies, its causes remained unclear until recently. The disease begins in the root system, the distribution...

  20. The α-Glucan Phosphorylase MalP of Corynebacterium glutamicum Is Subject to Transcriptional Regulation and Competitive Inhibition by ADP-Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Clermont, Lina; Macha, Arthur; Müller, Laura M.; Derya, Sami M.; von Zaluskowski, Philipp; Eck, Alexander; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT α-Glucan phosphorylases contribute to degradation of glycogen and maltodextrins formed in the course of maltose metabolism in bacteria. Accordingly, bacterial α-glucan phosphorylases are classified as either glycogen or maltodextrin phosphorylase, GlgP or MalP, respectively. GlgP and MalP enzymes follow the same catalytic mechanism, and thus their substrate spectra overlap; however, they differ in their regulation: GlgP genes are constitutively expressed and the enzymes are controlled on the activity level, whereas expression of MalP genes are transcriptionally controlled in response to the carbon source used for cultivation. We characterize here the modes of control of the α-glucan phosphorylase MalP of the Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum. In accordance to the proposed function of the malP gene product as MalP, we found transcription of malP to be regulated in response to the carbon source. Moreover, malP transcription is shown to depend on the growth phase and to occur independently of the cell glycogen content. Surprisingly, we also found MalP activity to be tightly regulated competitively by the presence of ADP-glucose, an intermediate of glycogen synthesis. Since the latter is considered a typical feature of GlgPs, we propose that C. glutamicum MalP acts as both maltodextrin and glycogen phosphorylase and, based on these findings, we question the current system for classification of bacterial α-glucan phosphorylases. IMPORTANCE Bacterial α-glucan phosphorylases have been classified conferring to their purpose as either glycogen or maltodextrin phosphorylases. We found transcription of malP in C. glutamicum to be regulated in response to the carbon source, which is recognized as typical for maltodextrin phosphorylases. Surprisingly, we also found MalP activity to be tightly regulated competitively by the presence of ADP-glucose, an intermediate of glycogen synthesis. The latter is considered a typical feature of GlgPs. These findings

  1. Data extraction for complex meta-analysis (DECiMAL) guide.

    PubMed

    Pedder, Hugo; Sarri, Grammati; Keeney, Edna; Nunes, Vanessa; Dias, Sofia

    2016-12-13

    As more complex meta-analytical techniques such as network and multivariate meta-analyses become increasingly common, further pressures are placed on reviewers to extract data in a systematic and consistent manner. Failing to do this appropriately wastes time, resources and jeopardises accuracy. This guide (data extraction for complex meta-analysis (DECiMAL)) suggests a number of points to consider when collecting data, primarily aimed at systematic reviewers preparing data for meta-analysis. Network meta-analysis (NMA), multiple outcomes analysis and analysis combining different types of data are considered in a manner that can be useful across a range of data collection programmes. The guide has been shown to be both easy to learn and useful in a small pilot study.

  2. Une tachycardie à QRS large mal tolérée chez un nourrisson

    PubMed Central

    Affangla, Désiré Alain; Leye, Mohamed; Simo, Angèle Wabo; D’Almeida, Franck; Sarr, Thérèse Yandé; Phiri, Adamson; Kane, Adama

    2017-01-01

    Les tachycardies à QRS large mal tolérées du nourrisson posent le problème de leur diagnostic et de la prise en charge en urgence. Nous rapportons un cas de tachycardie à QRS large chez un nourrisson de 35 jours reçu pour détresse cardio-circulatoire. Le cœur était morphologiquement normal à l’échographie cardiaque Doppler. Un traitement par une dose charge d’Amiodarone n’a pas permis de réduire cette tachycardie. Un retour en rythme sinusal a été obtenu après cardioversion par un défibrillateur externe semi-automatique type Lifeline. Un traitement d’entretien par Amiodarone per os est institué et le patient est en rythme sinusal à 03 mois. PMID:28904685

  3. malERA: An updated research agenda for malaria elimination and eradication

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Regina N.; Drakeley, Chris; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.; Hall, B. Fenton; Hay, Simon I.; Hemingway, Janet; Noor, Abdisalan; Okumu, Fredros; Steketee, Richard; Tanner, Marcel; Wells, Timothy N. C.; Whittaker, Maxine A.; Alonso, Pedro L.

    2017-01-01

    Achieving a malaria-free world presents exciting scientific challenges as well as overwhelming health, equity, and economic benefits. WHO and countries are setting ambitious goals for reducing the burden and eliminating malaria through the “Global Technical Strategy” and 21 countries are aiming to eliminate malaria by 2020. The commitment to achieve these targets should be celebrated. However, the need for innovation to achieve these goals, sustain elimination, and free the world of malaria is greater than ever. Over 180 experts across multiple disciplines are engaged in the Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) Refresh process to address problems that need to be solved. The result is a research and development agenda to accelerate malaria elimination and, in the longer term, transform the malaria community’s ability to eradicate it globally. PMID:29190300

  4. SmartMal: A Service-Oriented Behavioral Malware Detection Framework for Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhizhong; Li, Xi; Zhou, Xuehai; Wang, Aili; Hung, Patrick C. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents SmartMal—a novel service-oriented behavioral malware detection framework for vehicular and mobile devices. The highlight of SmartMal is to introduce service-oriented architecture (SOA) concepts and behavior analysis into the malware detection paradigms. The proposed framework relies on client-server architecture, the client continuously extracts various features and transfers them to the server, and the server's main task is to detect anomalies using state-of-art detection algorithms. Multiple distributed servers simultaneously analyze the feature vector using various detectors and information fusion is used to concatenate the results of detectors. We also propose a cycle-based statistical approach for mobile device anomaly detection. We accomplish this by analyzing the users' regular usage patterns. Empirical results suggest that the proposed framework and novel anomaly detection algorithm are highly effective in detecting malware on Android devices. PMID:25165729

  5. malERA: An updated research agenda for malaria elimination and eradication.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Regina N; Drakeley, Chris; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Hall, B Fenton; Hay, Simon I; Hemingway, Janet; Kaslow, David C; Noor, Abdisalan; Okumu, Fredros; Steketee, Richard; Tanner, Marcel; Wells, Timothy N C; Whittaker, Maxine A; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Wirth, Dyann F; Whitfield, Kate; Alonso, Pedro L

    2017-11-01

    Achieving a malaria-free world presents exciting scientific challenges as well as overwhelming health, equity, and economic benefits. WHO and countries are setting ambitious goals for reducing the burden and eliminating malaria through the "Global Technical Strategy" and 21 countries are aiming to eliminate malaria by 2020. The commitment to achieve these targets should be celebrated. However, the need for innovation to achieve these goals, sustain elimination, and free the world of malaria is greater than ever. Over 180 experts across multiple disciplines are engaged in the Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) Refresh process to address problems that need to be solved. The result is a research and development agenda to accelerate malaria elimination and, in the longer term, transform the malaria community's ability to eradicate it globally.

  6. Epidemiology of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli infections and associated outcomes in the MAL-ED birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Guerrant, Richard L.; Havt, Alexandre; Lima, Ila F. N.; Medeiros, Pedro H. Q. S.; Seidman, Jessica C.; McCormick, Benjamin J. J.; Babji, Sudhir; Hariraju, Dinesh; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Shrestha, Jasmin; Anania, Japhat; Maro, Athanasia; Samie, Amidou; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Qureshi, Shahida; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Bessong, Pascal O.; Kosek, Margaret N.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Lang, Dennis R.; Gottlieb, Michael; Houpt, Eric R.; Lima, Aldo A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) have been associated with mildly inflammatory diarrhea in outbreaks and in travelers and have been increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens in young children with and without overt diarrhea. We examined the risk factors for EAEC infections and their associations with environmental enteropathy biomarkers and growth outcomes over the first two years of life in eight low-resource settings of the MAL-ED study. Methods EAEC infections were detected by PCR gene probes for aatA and aaiC virulence traits in 27,094 non-diarrheal surveillance stools and 7,692 diarrheal stools from 2,092 children in the MAL-ED birth cohort. We identified risk factors for EAEC and estimated the associations of EAEC with diarrhea, enteropathy biomarker concentrations, and both short-term (one to three months) and long-term (to two years of age) growth. Results Overall, 9,581 samples (27.5%) were positive for EAEC, and almost all children had at least one detection (94.8%) by two years of age. Exclusive breastfeeding, higher enrollment weight, and macrolide use within the preceding 15 days were protective. Although not associated with diarrhea, EAEC infections were weakly associated with biomarkers of intestinal inflammation and more strongly with reduced length at two years of age (LAZ difference associated with high frequency of EAEC detections: -0.30, 95% CI: -0.44, -0.16). Conclusions Asymptomatic EAEC infections were common early in life and were associated with linear growth shortfalls. Associations with intestinal inflammation were small in magnitude, but suggest a pathway for the growth impact. Increasing the duration of exclusive breastfeeding may help prevent these potentially inflammatory infections and reduce the long-term impact of early exposure to EAEC. PMID:28742106

  7. Folding pathway of the pyridoxal 5′-phosphate C-S lyase MalY from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    MalY from Escherichia coli is a bifunctional dimeric PLP (pyridoxal 5′-phosphate) enzyme acting as a β-cystathionase and as a repressor of the maltose system. The spectroscopic and molecular properties of the holoenzyme, in the untreated and NaBH4-treated forms, and of the apoenzyme have been elucidated. A systematic study of the urea-induced unfolding of MalY has been monitored by gel filtration, cross-linking, ANS (8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulphonic acid) binding and by visible, near- and far-UV CD, fluorescence and NMR spectroscopies under equilibrium conditions. Unfolding proceeds in at least three stages. The first transition, occurring between 0 and 1 M urea, gives rise to a partially active dimeric species that binds PLP. The second equilibrium transition involving dimer dissociation, release of PLP and loss of lyase activity leads to the formation of a monomeric equilibrium intermediate. It is a partially unfolded molecule that retains most of the native-state secondary structure, binds significant amounts of ANS (a probe for exposed hydrophobic surfaces) and tends to self-associate. The self-associated aggregates predominate at urea concentrations of 2–4 M for holoMalY. The third step represents the complete unfolding of the enzyme. These results when compared with the urea-induced unfolding profiles of apoMalY and NaBH4-reduced holoenzyme suggest that the coenzyme group attached to the active-site lysine residue increases the stability of the dimeric enzyme. Both holo- and apo-MalY could be successfully refolded into the active enzyme with an 85% yield. Further refolding studies suggest that large misfolded soluble aggregates that cannot be refolded could be responsible for the incomplete re-activation. PMID:15823094

  8. Minichaperone (GroEL191-345) mediated folding of MalZ proceeds by binding and release of native and functional intermediates.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neha; Knowles, Timothy J; Lund, Peter A; Chaudhuri, Tapan K

    2018-06-02

    The isolated apical domain of GroEL consisting of residues 191-345 (known as "minichaperone") binds and assists the folding of a wide variety of client proteins without GroES and ATP, but the mechanism of its action is still unknown. In order to probe into the matter, we have examined minichaperone-mediated folding of a large aggregation prone protein Maltodextrin-glucosidase (MalZ). The key objective was to identify whether MalZ exists free in solution, or remains bound to, or cycling on and off the minichaperone during the refolding process. When GroES was introduced during refolding process, production of the native MalZ was inhibited. We also observed the same findings with a trap mutant of GroEL, which stably captures a predominantly non-native MalZ released from minichaperone during refolding process, but does not release it. Tryptophan and ANS fluorescence measurements indicated that refolded MalZ has the same structure as the native MalZ, but that its structure when bound to minichaperone is different. Surface plasmon resonance measurements provide an estimate for the equilibrium dissociation constant KD for the MalZ-minichaperone complex of 0.21 ± 0.04 μM, which are significantly higher than for most GroEL clients. This showed that minichaperone interacts loosely with MalZ to allow the protein to change its conformation and fold while bound during the refolding process. These observations suggest that the minichaperone works by carrying out repeated cycles of binding aggregation-prone protein MalZ in a relatively compact conformation and in a partially folded but active state, and releasing them to attempt to fold in solution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional expression and molecular characterization of Culex quinquefasciatus salivary α-glucosidase (MalI).

    PubMed

    Suthangkornkul, Rungarun; Sirichaiyakul, Phanthila; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Thepouyporn, Apanchanid; Svasti, Jisnuson; Arthan, Dumrongkiet

    2015-06-01

    Salivary α-glucosidases (MalI) have been much less characterized when compared with midgut α-glucosidases, which have been studied in depth. Few studies have been reported on the partial characterization of MalI, but no clear function has been ascribed. The aim of this study is to purify and characterize the recombinant Culex quinquefasciatus (CQ) α-glucosidase expressed in Pichia pastoris. The cDNA encoding mature Cx. quinquefasciatus α-glucosidase gene with polyhistidine tag (rCQMalIHis) was successfully cloned into the expression vector, pPICZαB, designated as pPICZαB/CQMalIHis. The activity of recombinant rCQMalIHis expressed in P. pastoris could be detected at 3.75U/ml, under optimal culture conditions. The purified rCQMalIHis showed a single band of molecular weight of approximately 92kDa on SDS-PAGE. After Endoglycosidase H digestion, a single band at 69kDa was found on SDS-PAGE analysis, suggesting that rCQMalIHis is a glycoprotein. Additionally, tryptic digestion and LC-MALDI MS/MS analysis suggested that the 69kDa band corresponds to the Cx. quinquefasciatus α-glucosidase. Thus, rCQMalIHis is a glycoprotein. The rCQMalIHis exhibited optimum pH and temperature at 5.5 and 35°C, respectively. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of the purified rCQMalIHis for maltotriose is higher than those for sucrose, maltotetraose, maltose and p-nitrophenyl-α-glucoside, indicating that the enzyme prefers maltotriose. Additionally, the rCQMalIHis is significantly inhibited by d-gluconic acid δ-lactone, but not by Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and EDTA. The rCQMalIHis is strongly inhibited by acarbose with IC50 67.8±5.6nM, but weakly inhibited by glucose with IC50 115.9±7.3mM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenges and Developments in the Assessment of (Mal)adaptive Personality and Pathological States in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gina; Videler, Arjan; van Alphen, S P J

    2018-04-01

    Since older adults often show an atypical presentation of (mal)adaptive personality traits and pathological states, the articles in this special issue will concisely discuss some perennial issues in clinical assessment in older adults and thus outline the main challenges this domain faces. By bringing empirical work and meta-analytic studies from leading scholars in the field of geropsychology, the articles will also address these challenges by reporting the latest developments in the field. This way, we hope to reshape the way clinicians and researchers assess (mal)adaptive personality and pathological states in older adults into a more reliable and valid assessment method that integrates the specific biopsychosocial context of older age.

  11. Ablative fractional laser enhances MAL-induced PpIX accumulation: Impact of laser channel density, incubation time and drug concentration.

    PubMed

    Haak, C S; Christiansen, K; Erlendsson, A M; Taudorf, E H; Thaysen-Petersen, D; Wulf, H C; Haedersdal, M

    2016-06-01

    Pretreatment of skin with ablative fractional laser enhances accumulation of topical provided photosensitizer, but essential information is lacking on the interaction between laser channel densities and pharmacokinetics. Hence our objectives were to investigate how protoporphyrin accumulation was affected by laser densities, incubation time and drug concentration. We conducted the study on the back of healthy male volunteers (n=11). Test areas were pretreated with 2940nm ablative fractional Er:YAG laser, 11.2mJ per laser channel using densities of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15% (AFL 1-15%). Control areas received pretreatment with curettage or no pretreatment. Methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) was applied under occlusion in concentrations of 0, 80 and 160mg/g. MAL-induced protoporphyrin fluorescence was quantified with a handheld photometer after 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180min incubation. The individual fluorescence intensity reached from the highest density (15%) and longest MAL 160mg/g incubation time (180min) was selected as reference (100%) for other interventional measurements. A low laser density of 1% markedly enhanced fluorescence intensities from 34% to 75% (no pretreatment vs. AFL 1%, MAL 160mg/g, 180min; p<0.001). Furthermore, fluorescence intensities increased substantially by enhancing densities up to 5% (p≤0.0195). Accumulation of protoporphyrins was accelerated by laser exposure. Thus, laser exposure of 5% density and a median incubation time of 80min MAL (range 46-133min) induced fluorescence levels similar to curettage and 180min incubation. Furthermore, MAL 80 and 160mg/g induced similar fluorescence intensities in skin exposed to laser densities of 1, 2 and 5% (p>0.0537, 30-180min). MAL-induced protoporphyrin accumulation is augmented by enhancing AFL densities up to 5%. Further, this model indicates that incubation time as well as drug concentration of MAL may be reduced with laser pretreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  13. Recombinant Mal d 1 facilitates sublingual challenge tests of birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy.

    PubMed

    Kinaciyan, T; Nagl, B; Faustmann, S; Kopp, S; Wolkersdorfer, M; Bohle, B

    2016-02-01

    It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy. The dose of 1.6 μg induced oral allergy syndromes in 26.4%, 3.2 μg in 15.3%, 6.3 μg in 27.8%, 12.5 μg in 8.3%, 25 μg in 11.1%, and 50 μg in 4.2% of the patients. No severe reactions occurred. None of the patients reacted to 0.9% NaCl alone. Sublingual administration of 50 μg of rMal d 1 induced no reactions in three nonallergic individuals. Our approach allows straight forward, dose-defined sublingual challenge tests in a high number of birch pollen-allergic patients that inter alia can be applied to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of birch pollen AIT on birch pollen-related food allergy. © 2015 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Analytical Characterization of the Hydrolysis of Barley Malt Macromolecules During Enzymatic Degradation Over Time Using AF4/MALS/RI.

    PubMed

    Rübsam, Heinrich; Becker, Thomas; Gastl, Martina

    2017-06-01

    The changes on the molecular weight distribution (MWD) and particle size distribution (PSD) during hydrolysis of barley malt in isothermal mashing procedures were determined using asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation coupled to multiangle laser light scattering and refractive index (AF4/MALS/RI). Mash/trials were focused on amylolytic starch degradation. Therefore, temperatures (65, 70, and 75 °C) were selected according to α- and β-amylases range of activity. Samples were produced by triplicate, tracking amylolytic processes over time periods from 10 to 90 min in each mash/trial. AF4/MALS/RI analysis demonstrated significant differences on the values of the MWD and PSD according to the temperature/time profile used. At mashing times over 30 min at a temperature of 65 °C, when α- and β-amylase are both active, the decrease over time of the MWD and PSD was significantly higher (P < 0.005) than at 70 °C when mainly α-amylase is active. At 75 °C, also the activity of α-amylase decreased and the MWD and PSD were significantly lower (P < 0.005) than at 70 or 65 °C at any time of the procedure. The MWD and PSD of beer components influence beer palate fullness, thus AF4/ MALS/RI would be a powerful tool for breweries to adapt their technological processes to obtain beers with particular sensorial attributes. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Modern analytics for synthetically derived complex drug substances: NMR, AFFF-MALS, and MS tests for glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    Rogstad, Sarah; Pang, Eric; Sommers, Cynthia; Hu, Meng; Jiang, Xiaohui; Keire, David A; Boyne, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a mixture of synthetic copolymers consisting of four amino acids (glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine) with a labeled molecular weight range of 5000 to 9000 Da. GA is marketed as Copaxone™ by Teva for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Here, the agency has evaluated the structure and composition of GA and a commercially available comparator, Copolymer-1. Modern analytical technologies which can characterize these complex mixtures are desirable for analysis of their comparability and structural "sameness." In the studies herein, a molecular fingerprinting approach is taken using mass-accurate mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1D-(1)H-NMR, 1D-(13)C-NMR, and 2D NMR), and asymmetric field flow fractionation (AFFF) coupled with multi-angle light scattering (MALS) for an in-depth characterization of three lots of the marketplace drug and a formulated sample of the comparator. Statistical analyses were applied to the MS and AFFF-MALS data to assess these methods' ability to detect analytical differences in the mixtures. The combination of multiple orthogonal measurements by liquid chromatography coupled with MS (LC-MS), AFFF-MALS, and NMR on the same sample set was found to be fit for the intended purpose of distinguishing analytical differences between these complex mixtures of peptide chains.

  16. Crystal structure of Toll-like receptor adaptor MAL/TIRAP reveals the molecular basis for signal transduction and disease protection

    PubMed Central

    Valkov, Eugene; Stamp, Anna; DiMaio, Frank; Baker, David; Verstak, Brett; Roversi, Pietro; Kellie, Stuart; Sweet, Matthew J.; Mansell, Ashley; Gay, Nicholas J.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2011-01-01

    Initiation of the innate immune response requires agonist recognition by pathogen-recognition receptors such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptors are critical in orchestrating the signal transduction pathways after TLR and interleukin-1 receptor activation. Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) adaptor-like (MAL)/TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) is involved in bridging MyD88 to TLR2 and TLR4 in response to bacterial infection. Genetic studies have associated a number of unique single-nucleotide polymorphisms in MAL with protection against invasive microbial infection, but a molecular understanding has been hampered by a lack of structural information. The present study describes the crystal structure of MAL TIR domain. Significant structural differences exist in the overall fold of MAL compared with other TIR domain structures: A sequence motif comprising a β-strand in other TIR domains instead corresponds to a long loop, placing the functionally important “BB loop” proline motif in a unique surface position in MAL. The structure suggests possible dimerization and MyD88-interacting interfaces, and we confirm the key interface residues by coimmunoprecipitation using site-directed mutants. Jointly, our results provide a molecular and structural basis for the role of MAL in TLR signaling and disease protection. PMID:21873236

  17. Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  18. Early childhood growth and cognitive outcomes: Findings from the MAL-ED study.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Rebecca J; Rogawski, Elizabeth T; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Maphula, Angelina; Svensen, Erling; Tofail, Fahmida; Rasheed, Muneera; Abreu, Claudia; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; Shrestha, Rita; Pendergast, Laura; Mduma, Estomih; Koshy, Beena; Conaway, Mark R; Platts-Mills, James A; Guerrant, Richard L; DeBoer, Mark D

    2018-02-02

    Although many studies around the world hope to measure or improve developmental progress in children to promote community flourishing and productivity, growth is sometimes used as a surrogate because cognitive skills are more difficult to measure. Our objective was to assess how childhood measures of anthropometry correlate with measures of child development in low-income settings with high prevalence of poor nutrition and enteric disease, to inform studies considering growth outcomes in the absence of direct child developmental skill assessment. Children from the MAL-ED study were followed from birth to 24 months of age in field sites in 8 low- and middle-income countries across 3 continents. Monthly weight, length, and head circumference measurements were performed. At 24 months, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development was administered. We correlated cognitive measures at 24 months with anthropometric measurements from birth to 2 years comparing 3 constructs: absolute attained monthly measures, summative difference in measures from the mean growth curve, and rate of change in measures. Growth faltering at multiple time periods is related to Bayley cognitive outcomes at 24 months. Birthweight, overall growth by 18-24 months, and rate of growth in the 6- to 18-month period were most associated with 24-month developmental scores. In this study, head circumference measurements, compared with length, was more closely linked to cognitive scores at 24 months. Notably, all studies between growth and cognitive outcomes exhibited low r 2 values (0.001-0.049). Anthropometric measures, particularly head circumference, were related to cognitive development, although explaining a low percent of variance. When feasible, direct measures of child development may be more useful. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Idiopathic generalized epilepsies with pure grand mal: clinical data and genetics.

    PubMed

    Unterberger, I; Trinka, E; Luef, G; Bauer, G

    2001-04-01

    To analyze the clinical features and family history of patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), with pure grand mal (GM), divided into epilepsies with GM occurring exclusively on awakening (GMA) and random GM (RGM). We studied retrospectively 98 patients from a large epilepsy outpatient clinic. All patients had a full clinical examination and computed cerebral tomography scans (CCT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) when feasible. We analyzed seizure type, seizure frequency, provocative factors, prognosis, electroencephalography (EEG) findings and family history. Sixty-eight patients had GMA and 30 had RGM. The mean age at seizure onset was 16.6 years (+/-6.3 S.D., range: 5-41) and 16.7 years in those with RGM (+/-7.5 S.D., range: 4-42, NSD). Patients with GMA had a longer course of active epilepsy (median 8.5 years) compared to RGM (median 2 years). Seizure-provoking factors, especially sleep deprivation, were significantly (P=0.001) more common in patients with GMA (52/68, 77%) than in the group with RGM (13/30, 43%). Of all patients, 23% (23/98) reported first degree relatives with seizures or epilepsy. Pure GM was found in 41% (12/29) of affected first degree relatives, other idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes were less frequently observed (4/29, 14%). The concordance rate was high within the syndrome - none of the patients with RGM had an affected relative with GMA and vice versa only two of affected relatives of GMA patients had RGM. GMA seems to be associated with a longer duration of active epilepsy, a higher relapse rate and a stronger tendency to be precipitated by seizure provoking factors. The different concordance rates between the syndromes suggest a genetically different background.

  20. A mutant of the major apple allergen, Mal d 1, demonstrating hypo-allergenicity in the target organ by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge.

    PubMed

    Bolhaar, S T H P; Zuidmeer, L; Ma, Y; Ferreira, F; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; van Ree, R; Knulst, A C

    2005-12-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy for food allergy has been hindered by severe side-effects in the past. Well-characterized hypo-allergenic recombinant food allergens potentially offer a safe solution. To demonstrate hypo-allergenicity of a mutated major food allergen from apple, Mal d 1, in vitro and in vivo. A mutant of the major apple allergen, Mal d 1, was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis exchanging five amino acid residues. Fourteen patients with combined birch pollen-related apple allergy were included in the study. Hypo-allergenicity of the mutant rMal d 1 (rMal d 1mut) compared with rMal d 1 was assessed by in vitro methods, i.e. RAST (inhibition), immunoblotting and basophil histamine release (BHR) and in vivo by skin prick test and double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). RAST analysis (n = 14) revealed that IgE reactivity to rMal d 1mut was twofold lower than that of the wild-type molecule (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-2.4). RAST inhibition (n = 6) showed a 7.8-fold decrease in IgE-binding potency (95% CI: 3.0-12.6). In contrast to this moderate decrease in IgE-binding potency, the biological activity of rMal d 1mut assessed by SPT and BHR decreased 10-200-fold. Hypo-allergenicity was confirmed by DBPCFC (n = 2) with both recombinant molecules. A moderate decrease in IgE-binding potency translates into a potent inhibition of biological activity. This is the first study that confirms by DBPCFC that a mutated recombinant major food allergen is clinically hypo-allergenic. This paves the way towards safer immunotherapy for the treatment of food-allergic patients.

  1. Isolation of Mal d 1 and Api g 1 - specific recombinant antibodies from mouse IgG Fab fragment libraries - Mal d 1-specific antibody exhibits cross-reactivity against Bet v 1.

    PubMed

    Haka, Jaana; Niemi, Merja H; Iljin, Kristiina; Reddy, Vanga Siva; Takkinen, Kristiina; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena

    2015-05-27

    Around 3-5% of the population suffer from IgE-mediated food allergies in Western countries and the number of food-allergenic people is increasing. Individuals with certain pollen allergies may also suffer from a sensitisation to proteins in the food products. As an example a person sensitised to the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, is often sensitised to its homologues, such as the major allergens of apple, Mal d 1, and celery, Api g 1, as well. Development of tools for the reliable, sensitive and quick detection of allergens present in various food products is essential for allergic persons to prevent the consumption of substances causing mild and even life-threatening immune responses. The use of monoclonal antibodies would ensure the specific detection of the harmful food content for a sensitised person. Mouse IgG antibody libraries were constructed from immunised mice and specific recombinant antibodies for Mal d 1 and Api g 1 were isolated from the libraries by phage display. More detailed characterisation of the resulting antibodies was carried out using ELISA, SPR experiments and immunoprecipitation assays. The allergen-specific Fab fragments exhibited high affinity towards the target recombinant allergens. Furthermore, the Fab fragments also recognised native allergens from natural sources. Interestingly, isolated Mal d 1-specific antibody bound also to Bet v 1, the main allergen eliciting the cross-reactivity syndrome between the birch pollen and apple. Despite the similarities in Api g 1 and Bet v 1 tertiary structures, the isolated Api g 1-specific antibodies showed no cross-reactivity to Bet v 1. Here, high-affinity allergen-specific recombinant antibodies were isolated with interesting binding properties. With further development, these antibodies can be utilised as tools for the specific and reliable detection of allergens from different consumable products. This study gives new preliminary insights to elucidate the mechanism behind the pollen

  2. Brucella TIR-like protein TcpB/Btp1 specifically targets the host adaptor protein MAL/TIRAP to promote infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenna; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Yang, Mingjuan; Gao, Junguang; Zhan, Shaoxia; Xinying, Du; Huang, Liuyu; Li, Wenfeng; Chen, Zeliang; Li, Juan

    2016-08-26

    Brucella spp. are known to avoid host immune recognition and weaken the immune response to infection. Brucella like accomplish this by employing two clever strategies, called the stealth strategy and hijacking strategy. The TIR domain-containing protein (TcpB/Btp1) of Brucella melitensis is thought to be involved in inhibiting host NF-κB activation by binding to adaptors downstream of Toll-like receptors. However, of the five TIR domain-containing adaptors conserved in mammals, whether MyD88 or MAL, even other three adaptors, are specifically targeted by TcpB has not been identified. Here, we confirmed the effect of TcpB on B.melitensis virulence in mice and found that TcpB selectively targets MAL. By using siRNA against MAL, we found that TcpB from B.melitensis is involved in intracellular survival and that MAL affects intracellular replication of B.melitensis. Our results confirm that TcpB specifically targets MAL/TIRAP to disrupt downstream signaling pathways and promote intra-host survival of Brucella spp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An unconventional interaction between Dis1/TOG and Mal3/EB1 in fission yeast promotes the fidelity of chromosome segregation.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yuzy; Maurer, Sebastian P; Yukawa, Masashi; Zakian, Silva; Singleton, Martin R; Surrey, Thomas; Toda, Takashi

    2016-12-15

    Dynamic microtubule plus-ends interact with various intracellular target regions such as the cell cortex and the kinetochore. Two conserved families of microtubule plus-end-tracking proteins, the XMAP215, ch-TOG or CKAP5 family and the end-binding 1 (EB1, also known as MAPRE1) family, play pivotal roles in regulating microtubule dynamics. Here, we study the functional interplay between fission yeast Dis1, a member of the XMAP215/TOG family, and Mal3, an EB1 protein. Using an in vitro microscopy assay, we find that purified Dis1 autonomously tracks growing microtubule ends and is a bona fide microtubule polymerase. Mal3 recruits additional Dis1 to microtubule ends, explaining the synergistic enhancement of microtubule dynamicity by these proteins. A non-canonical binding motif in Dis1 mediates the interaction with Mal3. X-ray crystallography shows that this new motif interacts in an unconventional configuration with the conserved hydrophobic cavity formed within the Mal3 C-terminal region that typically interacts with the canonical SXIP motif. Selectively perturbing the Mal3-Dis1 interaction in living cells demonstrates that it is important for accurate chromosome segregation. Whereas, in some metazoans, the interaction between EB1 and the XMAP215/TOG family members requires an additional binding partner, fission yeast relies on a direct interaction, indicating evolutionary plasticity of this critical interaction module. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. EJERCICIO Y LA DETECCION DEL MAL AGUDO DE MONTAÑA GRAVE

    PubMed Central

    Garófoli, Adrián; Montoya, Paola; Elías, Carlos; Benzo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    El Mal Agudo de Montaña (MAM) es un conjunto de síntomas inespecíficos padecidos por sujetos que ascienden rápidamente desde baja a alta altura sin adecuada aclimatación. Usualmente es autolimitado, pero las formas graves (edema pulmonar y cerebral) pueden causar la muerte. La hipoxemia exagerada en reposo está relacionada con el desarrollo de MAM pero su valor predictivo es limitado. Dado que el ejercicio en altura se acompaña de mayor hipoxemia y síntomas, postulamos el valor predictivo de un simple test de ejercicio para pronosticar MAM grave. Se estudió el valor predictivo de la saturación de oxígeno en reposo y ejercicio submáximo a 2 700m y 4 300m en 63 sujetos que ascendían al cerro Aconcagua (6 962m). Se consideró desaturación de oxígeno con ejercicio a una disminución >=5% respecto al reposo. Se utilizó la escala de Lake-Louise para establecer la presencia de MAM grave. 6 sujetos presentaron MAM grave (9.5%) y requirieron evacuación. La saturación de oxígeno en reposo a 2 700m no fue significativa para clasificar sujetos que luego desarrollaron MAM grave. Por el contrario, la asociación de desaturación durante el ejercicio a 2 700m más la saturación inapropiada en reposo a 4 300m fue significativa para clasificar a los sujetos que desarrollaron MAM grave con un valor predictivo positivo de 80% y un valor predictivo negativo del 97%. Nuestros resultados son relevantes para el montañismo y sugieren la adición de un simple test de ejercicio en la predicción del MAM grave. PMID:20228017

  5. Tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (mal de Pott exclu): à propos de 120 cas à Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Gbané-Koné, Mariam; Koné, Samba; Ouali, Boubacar; Djaha, Kouassi Jean -Mermoz; Akoli, Ekoya Ondzala; Nseng, Ingrid Nseng; Eti, Edmond; Daboiko, Jean Claude; Touré, Stanislas André; Kouakou, N'zué Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (TOA) représente 2 à 5% de l'ensemble des tuberculoses. Elle demeure d'actualité surtout dans les pays à forte endémicité tuberculeuse. L'objectif était de déterminer la prévalence, les aspects topographiques, radiologiques de la TOA en milieu hospitalier ivoirien. Méthodes Les auteurs rapportent une expérience de 11 ans, à travers une étude rétrospective de 120 dossiers de patients atteints de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (le mal de Pott est exclu de cette étude). N'ont pas été inclus dans l’étude les dossiers ne comportant pas d'imagerie. Résultats L'atteinte extra vertébrale représentait 09,2% de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire. Il s'agissait de 54 hommes et 66 femmes, l’âge moyen était de 43,13 ans. On notait 123 cas d'ostéoarthrites, et 8 cas d'ostéites des os plats. L'atteinte des membres inférieurs prédominait dans 91,87% des cas. La hanche était la première localisation (45,04%), suivie du genou (25,19%). Les atteintes étaient multifocales dans 20% des cas. L'atteinte osseuse était associée à une tuberculose pulmonaire dans 05,83% des cas. Des localisations inhabituelles ont été rapportées: poignet (n = 2), branches ischiopubiennes (n = 4), atteinte sternoclaviculaire (n = 4), médiopieds (n = 2). Les lésions radiologiques étaient avancées (stades III et IV) dans 55,73% des cas. A la TDM, la prévalence des abcès était de 77%. Un geste chirurgical a été réalisé sur 16 articulations (2 épaules, 13 genoux, une cheville). Conclusion La TOA des membres est peu fréquente contrairement à l'atteinte vertébrale. La hanche est la principale localisation. Le retard au diagnostic explique l’étendue des lésions anatomoradiologiques. PMID:26587129

  6. Effects of persistent Mal de debarquement syndrome on balance, psychological traits, and motor cortex exctiability.

    PubMed

    Clark, Brian C; LePorte, Andrew; Clark, Shawn; Hoffman, Richard L; Quick, Adam; Wilson, Thad E; Thomas, James S

    2013-03-01

    Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS) is a poorly characterized and understood disorder of perceived motion. We sought to characterize postural control and the psychological impact of MdDS. Additionally, we explored whether patients with MdDS exhibit altered corticospinal and intracortical excitability. In a case-control study we compared patients with MdDS to age- and sex-matched controls (n=8/group). Postural stability (σr) was quantified from plane phase plots based on center or pressure, and psychological indices of depression, fatigue and kinesiophobia were obtained. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess corticospinal excitability by quantifying the motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude of the flexor carpi radialis, and intracortical excitability was assessed by quantifying indices of intracortical facilitation (ICF), and short-interval and long-interval intracortical inhibition using a paired-pulse TMS paradigm. The patients with MdDS exhibited greater mean (±standard error of the mean) σr during semi-tandem stance (10.9 ± 1.5 compared to 7.1 ± 0.7, p=0.04), higher levels of kinesiophobia (41.6 ± 2.8 compared to 27.3 ± 2.2), and higher levels of fatigue (27.0 ± 4.1 compared to 48.4 ± 1.0). Patients with MdDS exhibited a higher mean motor threshold (MT) (58.1 ± 2.5 compared to 47.4 ± 2.7% of stimulator output), and larger MEP (13.1 ± 3.1 compared to 5.1 ± 1.2% of maximal compound muscle action potential) but there was no difference in measures of intracortical excitability. These findings suggest that patients with MdDS exhibit impaired postural stability, and high levels of kinesiophobia and fatigue. Additionally, we observed that patients with MdDS exhibit higher MT and large MEP amplitudes, but do not exhibit differences in measures of intracortical excitability, compared to controls. These findings help characterize MdDS, and provide insight into the physiology of MdDS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. malERA: An updated research agenda for basic science and enabling technologies in malaria elimination and eradication

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Basic science holds enormous power for revealing the biological mechanisms of disease and, in turn, paving the way toward new, effective interventions. Recognizing this power, the 2011 Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication included key priorities in fundamental research that, if attained, could help accelerate progress toward disease elimination and eradication. The Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) Consultative Panel on Basic Science and Enabling Technologies reviewed the progress, continuing challenges, and major opportunities for future research. The recommendations come from a literature of published and unpublished materials and the deliberations of the malERA Refresh Consultative Panel. These areas span multiple aspects of the Plasmodium life cycle in both the human host and the Anopheles vector and include critical, unanswered questions about parasite transmission, human infection in the liver, asexual-stage biology, and malaria persistence. We believe an integrated approach encompassing human immunology, parasitology, and entomology, and harnessing new and emerging biomedical technologies offers the best path toward addressing these questions and, ultimately, lowering the worldwide burden of malaria. PMID:29190277

  8. Structural complementarity of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains in Toll-like receptors and the adaptors Mal and MyD88.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Aisling; Ejdeback, Mikael; Ludidi, Phumzile L; O'Neill, Luke A J; Gay, Nicholas J

    2003-10-17

    The Toll/interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain is a region found in the cytoplasmic tails of members of the Toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 receptor superfamily. The domain is essential for signaling and is also found in the adaptor proteins Mal (MyD88 adaptor-like) and MyD88, which function to couple activation of the receptor to downstream signaling components. Experimental structures of two Toll/interleukin 1 receptor domains reveal a alpha-beta-fold similar to that of the bacterial chemotaxis protein CheY, and other evidence suggests that the adaptors can make heterotypic interactions with both the receptors and themselves. Here we show that the purified TIR domains of Mal and MyD88 can form stable heterodimers and also that Mal homodimers and oligomers are dissociated in the presence of ATP. To identify structural features that may contribute to the formation of signaling complexes, we produced models of the TIR domains from human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Mal, and MyD88. We found that although the overall fold is conserved the electrostatic surface potentials are quite distinct. Docking studies of the models suggest that Mal and MyD88 bind to different regions in TLRs 2 and 4, a finding consistent with a cooperative role of the two adaptors in signaling. Mal and MyD88 are predicted to interact at a third non-overlapping site, suggesting that the receptor and adaptors may form heterotetrameric complexes. The theoretical model of the interactions is supported by experimental data from glutathione S-transferase pull-downs and co-immunoprecipitations. Neither theoretical nor experimental data suggest a direct role for the conserved proline in the BB-loop in the association of TLR4, Mal, and MyD88. Finally we show a sequence relationship between the Drosophila protein Tube and Mal that may indicate a functional equivalence of these two adaptors in the Drosophila and vertebrate Toll pathways.

  9. ExbBD-Dependent Transport of Maltodextrins through the Novel MalA Protein across the Outer Membrane of Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Heidi; Herrmann, Christina; Kammer, Winfried; Schwarz, Gerold; Nordheim, Alfred; Braun, Volkmar

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the genome sequence of Caulobacter crescentus predicts 67 TonB-dependent outer membrane proteins. To demonstrate that among them are proteins that transport nutrients other than chelated Fe3+ and vitamin B12—the substrates hitherto known to be transported by TonB-dependent transporters—the outer membrane protein profile of cells grown on different substrates was determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Maltose induced the synthesis of a hitherto unknown 99.5-kDa protein, designated here as MalA, encoded by the cc2287 genomic locus. MalA mediated growth on maltodextrins and transported [14C]maltodextrins from [14C]maltose to [14C]maltopentaose. [14C]maltose transport showed biphasic kinetics, with a fast initial rate and a slower second rate. The initial transport had a Kd of 0.2 μM, while the second transport had a Kd of 5 μM. It is proposed that the fast rate reflects binding to MalA and the second rate reflects transport into the cells. Energy depletion of cells by 100 μM carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone abolished maltose binding and transport. Deletion of the malA gene diminished maltose transport to 1% of the wild-type malA strain and impaired transport of the larger maltodextrins. The malA mutant was unable to grow on maltodextrins larger than maltotetraose. Deletion of two C. crescentus genes homologous to the exbB exbD genes of Escherichia coli abolished [14C]maltodextrin binding and transport and growth on maltodextrins larger than maltotetraose. These mutants also showed impaired growth on Fe3+-rhodotorulate as the sole iron source, which provided evidence of energy-coupled transport. Unexpectedly, a deletion mutant of a tonB homolog transported maltose at the wild-type rate and grew on all maltodextrins tested. Since Fe3+-rhodotorulate served as an iron source for the tonB mutant, an additional gene encoding a protein with a TonB function is postulated. Permeation of maltose and maltotriose through the outer membrane of

  10. Sobre os sistemas de referência celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, P. C. R.; Martin, V. A. F.

    2003-02-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho, algumas discussões sobre os sistemas de referência utilizados em Astronomia. Claramente, não é possível esgotar todo este assunto num único texto, mas esperamos, contudo, que o presente material possa ser apreciado nos cursos de Introdução à Astronomia, que estão cada vez mais presentes nas atuais propostas curriculares das graduações de Física. As discussões pertinentes às "Bases de Referência Celeste", serão apresentadas em um outro trabalho.

  11. Step-by-step thermal transformations of a new porous coordination polymer [(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n} (Me{sub 2}mal{sup 2-}=dimethylmalonate): Thermal degradation to barium cuprate

    SciTech Connect

    Zauzolkova, Natalya, E-mail: zauzolkova@igic.ras.ru; Dobrokhotova, Zhanna; Lermontov, Anatoly

    The reactions of CuSO{sub 4}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O, dimethylmalonic acid and Ba(OH){sub 2}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (Cu: H{sub 2}Me{sub 2}mal: Ba=1: 2: 2) in aqueous and aqueous-ethanol solutions (H{sub 2}O: EtOH=1: 1) resulted in formation of 3D-porous coordination polymers [(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}({mu}-H{sub 2}O){sub 2}CuBa({mu}{sub 3}-Me{sub 2}mal)(Me{sub 2}mal)]{sub n} (1) and [({mu}-H{sub 2}O)CuBa({mu}{sub 3}-Me{sub 2}mal)({mu}{sub 4}-Me{sub 2}mal)]{sub n} (2), respectively. It has been shown that compound 2 was an intermediate in the thermal degradation of compound 1. Thorough studies of solid-state thermolysis of 1 and 2 allowed to detect formation of coordination polymer [CuBa({mu}{sub 4}-Me{sub 2}mal)({mu}{sub 5}-Me{sub 2}mal)]{sub n} (3), structure of which was determinedmore » by X-ray powder diffraction. It has been found that the channels in polymer 3 were accessible for guest molecules (MeOH). Theoretical estimation of methanol diffusion barrier was carried out. Complete solid-phase thermolysis of 1 and 2 leads to a mixture of BaCuO{sub 2}, BaCO{sub 3}, and CuO. Special conditions for obtaining of a crystalline phase of pure cubic BaCuO{sub 2} were determined. - Graphical abstract: Step-by-step transformation of new coordination polymer [(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n} to [(H{sub 2}O)CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n} and [CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n} were performed. Dehydration of initial compound leads to structural changes of 12-membered ring fragment. All compounds have porous structure. The final product of thermal decomposition is crystalline phase of individual cubic BaCuO{sub 2}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New 3D-polymers [(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n} and [(H{sub 2}O)CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n} were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis showed step-by-step transformations of [(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n}. Black

  12. Lower expression of CADM1 and higher expression of MAL in Merkel cell carcinomas are associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus infection and better prognosis.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Takeshi; Matsushita, Michiko; Nonaka, Daisuke; Nagata, Keiko; Kato, Masako; Kuwamoto, Satoshi; Murakami, Ichiro; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-02-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a clinically aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer; 80% of the cases are associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). We previously reported that MCPyV-negative MCCs have more irregular nuclei with abundant cytoplasm and significantly unfavorable outcomes than do MCPyV-positive MCCs. These results suggest that some cell adhesion or structural stabilization molecules are differently expressed depending on MCPyV infection status. Thus, we investigated the association of prognosis or MCPyV infection status in MCCs with cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1)/differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung protein 1 (DAL-1)/membrane protein, palmitoylated 3 (MPP3) tripartite complex and mal T-cell differentiation protein (MAL) expression, which play important roles in cell adhesion and oncogenesis and are related to cancer outcomes in various malignancies, to elucidate the role of these molecules. We analyzed the pathological and molecular characteristics of 26 MCPyV-positive and 15 MCPyV-negative MCCs. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that advanced age (hazard ratio [HR], 8.249; P = .007) and high CADM1 expression (HR, 5.214; P = .012) were significantly unfavorable overall survival parameters, whereas MCPyV infection (HR, 0.043, P < .001) and lower MAL expression (HR, 0.273; P = .018) were significantly favorable. On multivariate analysis, only MCPyV infection was significantly favorable for overall survival (HR, 0.04; P = .005). Hypermethylation of CADM1, DAL-1, and MAL promoters was detected in 1 of 18, 15 of 27, and 1 of 13 cases, respectively. Double immunostaining for cytokeratin 20 and CADM1, DAL-1, or MAL showed that nonneoplastic Merkel cells expressed DAL-1 and MAL but not CADM1. This study revealed that MCPyV-negative MCCs significantly expressed higher CADM1 and lower MAL than MCPyV-positive MCCs; these expression levels were markedly related to unfavorable outcomes. These data will give us important

  13. Molecular characterization of multivalent bioconjugates by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALS)

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Jacob F.; Ashton, Randolph S.; Rode, Nikhil A.; Schaffer, David V.; Healy, Kevin E.

    2013-01-01

    The degree of substitution and valency of bioconjugate reaction products are often poorly judged or require multiple time- and product- consuming chemical characterization methods. These aspects become critical when analyzing and optimizing the potency of costly polyvalent bioactive conjugates. In this study, size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering was paired with refractive index detection and ultraviolet spectroscopy (SEC-MALS-RI-UV) to characterize the reaction efficiency, degree of substitution, and valency of the products of conjugation of either peptides or proteins to a biopolymer scaffold, i.e., hyaluronic acid (HyA). Molecular characterization was more complete compared to estimates from a protein quantification assay, and exploitation of this method led to more accurate deduction of the molecular structures of polymer bioconjugates. Information obtained using this technique can improve macromolecular engineering design principles and better understand multivalent macromolecular interactions in biological systems. PMID:22794081

  14. A Comparison of Diarrheal Severity Scores in the MAL-ED Multisite Community-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gwenyth O.; Richard, Stephanie A.; Kang, Gagandeep; Houpt, Eric R.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Pendergast, Laura L.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Mduma, Estomih R.; Lima, Aldo A.; Bessong, Pascal; Jennifer, Mats Steffi; Hossain, Md. Iqbal; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Nyathi, Emanuel; Lima, Ila F.; Pascal, John; Soofi, Sajid; Ladaporn, Bodhidatta; Guerrant, Richard L.; Caulfield, Laura E.; Black, Robert E.; Kosek, Margaret N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: There is a lack of consensus on how to measure diarrheal severity. Within the context of a multisite, prospective cohort study, we evaluated the performance of a modified Vesikari score (MAL-ED), 2 previously published scores (Clark and CODA [a diarrheal severity score (Community DiarrheA) published by Lee et al]), and a modified definition of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) based on dysentery and health care worker diagnosed dehydration. Methods: Scores were built using maternally reported symptoms or fieldworker-reported clinical signs obtained during the first 7 days of a diarrheal episode. The association between these and the risk of hospitalization were tested using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Severity scores were also related to illness etiology, and the likelihood of the episode subsequently becoming prolonged or persistent. Results: Of 10,159 episodes from 1681 children, 143 (4.0%) resulted in hospitalization. The area under the curve of each score as a predictor of hospitalization was 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.81, 0.87) (Clark), 0.85 (0.82, 0.88) (MAL-ED), and 0.87 (0.84, 0.89) (CODA). Severity was also associated with etiology and episode duration. Although families were more likely to seek care for severe diarrhea, approximately half of severe cases never reached the health system. Conclusions: Community-based diarrheal severity scores are predictive of relevant child health outcomes. Because they require no assumptions about health care access or utilization, they are useful in refining estimates of the burden of diarrheal disease, in estimating the effect of disease control interventions, and in triaging children for referral in low- and middle-income countries in which the rates of morbidity and mortality after diarrhea remain high. PMID:27347723

  15. Non-Essential Role for TLR2 and Its Signaling Adaptor Mal/TIRAP in Preserving Normal Lung Architecture in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruwanpura, Saleela M.; McLeod, Louise; Lilja, Andrew R.; Brooks, Gavin; Dousha, Lovisa F.; Seow, Huei J.; Bozinovski, Steven; Vlahos, Ross; Hertzog, Paul J.; Anderson, Gary P.; Jenkins, Brendan J.

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and MyD88-adaptor like (Mal)/Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) play a critical role in transducing signals downstream of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family. While genetic ablation of the TLR4/MyD88 signaling axis in mice leads to pulmonary cell death and oxidative stress culminating in emphysema, the involvement of Mal, as well as TLR2 which like TLR4 also signals via MyD88 and Mal, in the pathogenesis of emphysema has not been studied. By employing an in vivo genetic approach, we reveal here that unlike the spontaneous pulmonary emphysema which developed in Tlr4−/− mice by 6 months of age, the lungs of Tlr2−/− mice showed no physiological or morphological signs of emphysema. A more detailed comparative analysis of the lungs from these mice confirmed that elevated oxidative protein carbonylation levels and increased numbers of alveolar cell apoptosis were only detected in Tlr4−/− mice, along with up-regulation of NADPH oxidase 3 (Nox3) mRNA expression. With respect to Mal, the architecture of the lungs of Mal−/− mice was normal. However, despite normal oxidative protein carbonylation levels in the lungs of emphysema-free Mal−/− mice, these mice displayed increased levels of apoptosis comparable to those observed in emphysematous Tlr4−/− mice. In conclusion, our data provide in vivo evidence for the non-essential role for TLR2, unlike the related TLR4, in maintaining the normal architecture of the lung. In addition, we reveal that Mal differentially facilitates the anti-apoptotic, but not oxidant suppressive, activities of TLR4 in the lung, both of which appear to be essential for TLR4 to prevent the onset of emphysema. PMID:24205107

  16. Malonate-containing manganese(III) complexes: synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of AsPh4[Mn(mal)2(H2O)2].

    PubMed

    Delgado, Fernando S; Kerbellec, Nicolas; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2006-02-06

    The novel manganese(III) complexes PPh4[Mn(mal)2(H2O)2] (1) and AsPh4[Mn(mal)2(H2O)2] (2) (PPh4+ = tetraphenylphosphonium cation, AsPh4+ = tetraphenylarsonium cation, and H2mal = malonic acid) have been prepared, and the structure of 2 was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. 2 is a mononuclear complex whose structure is made up of trans-diaquabis(malonato)manganate(III) units and tetraphenylarsonium cations. Two crystallographically independent manganese(III) ions (Mn(1) and Mn(2)) occur in 2 that exhibit elongated octahedral surroundings with four oxygen atoms from two bidentate malonate groups in equatorial positions (Mn(1)-O = 1.923(6) and 1.9328(6) A and Mn(2)-O = 1.894(6) and 1.925(6) A) and two trans-coordinated water molecules in the axial sites (Mn(1)-Ow = 2.245(6) A and Mn(2)-Ow = 2.268(6) A). The [Mn(mal)2(H2O)2]- units are linked through hydrogen bonds involving the free malonate-oxygen atoms and the coordinated water molecules to yield a quasi-square-type anionic layer growing in the ab plane. The shortest intralayer metal-metal separations are 7.1557(7) and 7.1526(7) A (through the edges of the square). The anionic sheets are separated from each other by layers of AsPh4+ where sextuple- and double-phenyl embraces occur. The magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 in the temperature range 1.9-290 K reveals the occurrence of weak intralayer ferromagnetic interactions (J = +0.081(1) (1) and +0.072(2) cm(-1) (2)). These values are compared to those of the weak antiferromagnetic coupling [J = -0.19(1) cm(-1)], which is observed in the chain compound K2[Mn(mal)2(MeOH)2][Mn(mal)2] (3), where the exchange pathway involves the carboxyate-malonate bridge in the anti-syn conformation. The structure of 3 was reported elsewhere. Theoretical calculations on fragment models of 2 and 3 were performed to analyze and substantiate both the nature and magnitude of the magnetic couplings observed.

  17. First successful reduction of clinical allergenicity of food by genetic modification: Mal d 1-silenced apples cause fewer allergy symptoms than the wild-type cultivar.

    PubMed

    Dubois, A E J; Pagliarani, G; Brouwer, R M; Kollen, B J; Dragsted, L O; Eriksen, F D; Callesen, O; Gilissen, L J W J; Krens, F A; Visser, R G F; Smulders, M J M; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Flokstra-de Blok, B J; van de Weg, W E

    2015-11-01

    Genetic modification of allergenic foods such as apple has the potential to reduce their clinical allergenicity, but this has never been studied by oral challenges in allergic individuals. We performed oral food challenges in 21 apple-allergic individuals with Elstar apples which had undergone gene silencing of the major allergen of apple, Mal d 1, by RNA interference. Downregulation of Mal d 1 gene expression in the apples was verified by qRT-PCR. Clinical responses to the genetically modified apples were compared to those seen with the wild-type Elstar using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Gene silencing produced two genetically modified apple lines expressing Mal d 1.02 and other Mal d 1 gene mRNA levels which were extensively downregulated, that is only 0.1-16.4% (e-DR1) and 0.2-9.9% (e-DR2) of those of the wild-type Elstar, respectively. Challenges with these downregulated apple lines produced significantly less intense maximal symptoms to the first dose (Vmax1) than with Elstar (Vmax1 Elstar 3.0 mm vs 0.0 mm for e-DR1, P = 0.017 and 0.0 mm for e-DR2, P = 0.043), as well as significantly less intense mean symptoms per dose (meanV/d) than with Elstar (meanV/d Elstar 2.2 mm vs 0.2 mm for e-DR1, P = 0.017 and 0.0 mm for e-DR2, P = 0.043). Only one subject (5%) remained symptom-free when challenged with the Elstar apple, whereas 43% did so with e-DR1 and 63% with e-DR2. These data show that mRNA silencing of Mal d 1 results in a marked reduction of Mal d 1 gene expression in the fruit and reduction of symptoms when these apples are ingested by allergic subjects. Approximately half of the subjects developed no symptoms whatsoever, and virtually all subjects wished to consume the apple again in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. MAL62 overexpression and NTH1 deletion enhance the freezing tolerance and fermentation capacity of the baker's yeast in lean dough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xi; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Wu, Ming-Yue; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Shan-Na; Zhu, Wen-Bi; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2016-04-04

    Trehalose is related to several types of stress responses, especially freezing response in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). It is desirable to manipulate trehalose-related genes to create yeast strains that better tolerate freezing-thaw stress with improved fermentation capacity, which are in high demand in the baking industry. The strain overexpressing MAL62 gene showed increased trehalose content and cell viability after prefermention-freezing and long-term frozen. Deletion of NTH1 in combination of MAL62 overexpression further strengthens freezing tolerance and improves the leavening ability after freezing-thaw stress. The mutants of the industrial baker's yeast with enhanced freezing tolerance and leavening ability in lean dough were developed by genetic engineering. These strains had excellent potential industrial applications.

  19. Evaluation of the ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and the OptiMal Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Malaria in Febrile Returned Travellers

    PubMed Central

    Playford, E. Geoffrey; Walker, John

    2002-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are less reliant on expert microscopy and have the potential to reduce errors in malaria diagnosis but have not been extensively evaluated in nonimmune persons or in countries where infection is not endemic. We evaluated the ICT P.f/P.v (ICT-Amrad, Sydney, Australia) and OptiMal (Flow Inc., Portland, Oreg.) assays prospectively for the diagnosis of malaria in 158 specimens from 144 febrile returned travellers in Australia by using expert microscopy and PCR as reference standards. Malaria was diagnosed in 93 specimens from 87 patients by expert microscopy, with 3 additional specimens from recently treated patients testing positive for Plasmodium falciparum by PCR. For the diagnosis of asexual-stage P. falciparum malaria, the sensitivity and specificity of the ICT P.f/P.v assay were 97 and 90%, respectively, and those of the OptiMal assay were 85 and 96%, respectively. The ICT P.f/P.v assay missed one infection with a density of 45 parasites/μl, whereas the OptiMal assay missed infections up to 2,500/μl; below 1,000/μl, its sensitivity was only 43%. For the diagnosis of P. vivax malaria, the sensitivity and specificity of the ICT P.f/P.v assay were 44 and 100%, respectively, and those of the OptiMal assay were 80 and 97%, respectively. Both assays missed infections with parasite densities over 5,000/μl: up to 10,000/μl with the former and 5,300/μl with the latter. Despite the high sensitivity of the ICT P.f/P.v assay for P. falciparum malaria, caution is warranted before RDTs are widely adopted for the diagnosis of malaria in nonimmune patients or in countries where malaria is not endemic. PMID:12409392

  20. The OTT-MAL fusion oncogene activates RBPJ-mediated transcription and induces acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in a knockin mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Mercher, Thomas; Raffel, Glen D.; Moore, Sandra A.; Cornejo, Melanie G.; Baudry-Bluteau, Dominique; Cagnard, Nicolas; Jesneck, Jonathan L.; Pikman, Yana; Cullen, Dana; Williams, Ifor R.; Akashi, Koichi; Shigematsu, Hirokazu; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre; Giovannini, Marco; Vainchenker, William; Levine, Ross L.; Lee, Benjamin H.; Bernard, Olivier A.; Gilliland, D. Gary

    2009-01-01

    Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a form of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) associated with a poor prognosis. The genetics and pathophysiology of AMKL are not well understood. We generated a knockin mouse model of the one twenty-two–megakaryocytic acute leukemia (OTT-MAL) fusion oncogene that results from the t(1;22)(p13;q13) translocation specifically associated with a subtype of pediatric AMKL. We report here that OTT-MAL expression deregulated transcriptional activity of the canonical Notch signaling pathway transcription factor recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin κ J region (RBPJ) and caused abnormal fetal megakaryopoiesis. Furthermore, cooperation between OTT-MAL and an activating mutation of the thrombopoietin receptor myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (MPL) efficiently induced a short-latency AMKL that recapitulated all the features of human AMKL, including megakaryoblast hyperproliferation and maturation block, thrombocytopenia, organomegaly, and extensive fibrosis. Our results establish that concomitant activation of RBPJ (Notch signaling) and MPL (cytokine signaling) transforms cells of the megakaryocytic lineage and suggest that specific targeting of these pathways could be of therapeutic value for human AMKL. PMID:19287095

  1. Transglycosylation properties of maltodextrin glucosidase (MalZ) from Escherichia coli and its application for synthesis of a nigerose-containing oligosaccharide

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Kyung-Mo; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Tae

    2010-06-18

    The transglycosylation reaction of maltodextrin glucosidase (MalZ) cloned and purified from Escherichia coli K12 was characterized and applied to the synthesis of branched oligosaccharides. Purified MalZ preferentially catalyzed the hydrolysis of maltodextrin, {gamma}-cyclodextrin (CD), and cycloamylose (CA). In addition, when the enzyme was incubated with 5% maltotriose (G3), a series of transfer products were produced. The resulting major transfer products, annotated as T1, T2, and T3, were purified and their structures were determined by TLC, MALDI-TOF/MS, {sup 13}C NMR, and enzymatic analysis. T1 was identified as a novel compound, maltosyl {alpha}-1,3-maltose, whereas T2 and T3 were determined to be isopanosemore » and maltosyl-{alpha}-1,6-maltose, respectively. These results indicated that MalZ transferred sugar moiety mainly to C-3 or C-6-OH of glucose of the acceptor molecule. To obtain highly concentrated transfer products, the enzyme was reacted with 10% liquefied cornstarch, and then glucose and maltose were removed by immobilized yeast. The T1 content of the resulting reaction mixture reached 9.0%. The mixture of T1 containing a nigerose moiety can have an immunopotentiating effect on the human body and may be a potential functional sugar stuff.« less

  2. Geography, population, demography, socioeconomic, anthropometry, and environmental status in the MAL-ED cohort and case-control study Sites in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Aldo A M; Oriá, Reinaldo B; Soares, Alberto M; Filho, José Q; de Sousa, Francisco; Abreu, Cláudia B; Bindá, Alexandre; Lima, Ila; Quetz, Josiane; Moraes, Milena; Maciel, Bruna; Costa, Hilda; Leite, Alvaro M; Lima, Noélia L; Mota, Francisco S; Di Moura, Alessandra; Scharf, Rebecca; Barrett, Leah; Guerrant, Richard L

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort in the study's Fortaleza, Brazil, catchment area has a population of approximately 82 300 inhabitants. Most of the households (87%) have access to clean water, 98% have electricity, and 69% have access to improved toilet/sanitation. Most childbirths occur at the hospital, and the under-5 mortality rate is 20 per 1000 live births. The MAL-ED case-control study population, identified through the Institute for the Promotion of Nutrition and Human Development (IPREDE), serves 600 000 inhabitants from areas totaling about 42% of the city of Fortaleza. IPREDE receives referrals from throughout the state of Ceará for infant nutrition, and provides services including teaching activities and the training of graduate students and health professionals, while supporting research projects on child nutrition and health. In this article, we describe the geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and environmental status of the MAL-ED cohort and case-control study populations in Fortaleza, Brazil. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Genetic threshold hypothesis of neocortical spike-and-wave discharges in the rat: An animal model of petit mal epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Vadasz, C.; Fleischer, A.; Carpi, D.

    1995-02-27

    Neocortical high-voltage spike-and-wave discharges (HVS) in the rat are an animal model of petit mal epilepsy. Genetic analysis of total duration of HVS (s/12 hr) in reciprocal F1 and F2 hybrids of F344 and BN rats indicated that the phenotypic variability of HVS cannot be explained by simple, monogenic Mendelian model. Biometrical analysis suggested the presence of additive, dominance, and sex-linked-epistatic effects, buffering maternal influence, and heterosis. High correlation was observed between average duration (s/episode) and frequency of occurrence of spike-and-wave episodes (n/12 hr) in parental and segregating generations, indicating that common genes affect both duration and frequency of themore » spike-and-wave pattern. We propose that both genetic and developmental - environmental factors control an underlying quantitative variable, which, above a certain threshold level, precipitates HVS discharges. These findings, together with the recent availability of rat DNA markers for total genome mapping, pave the way to the identification of genes that control the susceptibility of the brain to spike-and-wave discharges. 67 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.« less

  4. malERA: An updated research agenda for combination interventions and modelling in malaria elimination and eradication

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarises key advances and priorities since the 2011 presentation of the Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA), with a focus on the combinations of intervention tools and strategies for elimination and their evaluation using modelling approaches. With an increasing number of countries embarking on malaria elimination programmes, national and local decisions to select combinations of tools and deployment strategies directed at malaria elimination must address rapidly changing transmission patterns across diverse geographic areas. However, not all of these approaches can be systematically evaluated in the field. Thus, there is potential for modelling to investigate appropriate ‘packages’ of combined interventions that include various forms of vector control, case management, surveillance, and population-based approaches for different settings, particularly at lower transmission levels. Modelling can help prioritise which intervention packages should be tested in field studies, suggest which intervention package should be used at a particular level or stratum of transmission intensity, estimate the risk of resurgence when scaling down specific interventions after local transmission is interrupted, and evaluate the risk and impact of parasite drug resistance and vector insecticide resistance. However, modelling intervention package deployment against a heterogeneous transmission background is a challenge. Further validation of malaria models should be pursued through an iterative process, whereby field data collected with the deployment of intervention packages is used to refine models and make them progressively more relevant for assessing and predicting elimination outcomes. PMID:29190295

  5. The utilization of a non-invasive fluorescence imaging system to follow clinical dermatological MAL-PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Campbell, Sandra; Curnow, Alison

    2009-06-01

    This study employed a commercially available, non-invasive, fluorescence imaging system (Dyaderm, Biocam, Germany), to measure protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) concentration at several different stages during clinical dermatological methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT). We validated the system prior to use to ensure that the PpIX changes witnessed were accurate and not due to environmental or user induced artifacts. The system was then employed to acquire color (morphological) and fluorescent (physiological) images simultaneously during dermatological PDT. Clinical data was collected from a range of licensed dermatological conditions (actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and superficial basal cell carcinoma) during initial and subsequent PDT treatment cycles. The initial clinical data indicated that each type of licensed lesion considered responded in a similar manner following the application of Metvix (Galderma, U.K.) and the subsequent light irradiation (Aktilite, Galderma, U.K.). Images acquired three hours after Metvix application showed a significant increase in PpIX concentration within the lesion (P < 0.05), whilst PpIX levels in the surrounding normal tissue remained unaltered. After irradiation, the PpIX concentration was significantly decreased and returned to a level similar to the initial concentration originally observed. Lesions that received subsequent treatment cycles accumulated significantly less PpIX (P < 0.05) prior to irradiation.

  6. malERA: An updated research agenda for insecticide and drug resistance in malaria elimination and eradication

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Resistance to first-line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum malaria and the insecticides used for Anopheles vector control are threatening malaria elimination efforts. Suboptimal responses to drugs and insecticides are both spreading geographically and emerging independently and are being seen at increasing intensities. Whilst resistance is unavoidable, its effects can be mitigated through resistance management practices, such as exposing the parasite or vector to more than one selective agent. Resistance contributed to the failure of the 20th century Global Malaria Eradication Programme, and yet the global response to this issue continues to be slow and poorly coordinated—too often, too little, too late. The Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) Refresh process convened a panel on resistance of both insecticides and antimalarial drugs. This paper outlines developments in the field over the past 5 years, highlights gaps in knowledge, and proposes a research agenda focused on managing resistance. A deeper understanding of the complex biological processes involved and how resistance is selected is needed, together with evidence of its public health impact. Resistance management will require improved use of entomological and parasitological data in decision making, and optimisation of the useful life of new and existing products through careful implementation, combination, and evaluation. A proactive, collaborative approach is needed from basic science and the development of new tools to programme and policy interventions that will ensure that the armamentarium of drugs and insecticides is sufficient to deal with the challenges of malaria control and its elimination. PMID:29190671

  7. Quality and disinfection trials of consumption water in storage reservoirs for rural area in the Marrakech region (Assif El Mal).

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faissal; Mandi, Laila; Boussaid, Abdellatif; Boraam, Fatima; Ouazzani, Naaila

    2013-03-01

    Traditional reservoirs for water storage are important systems of water supply in rural areas of Morocco. These reservoirs are fed by rainwater and/or directly from rivers through open channels; the stored water is used without any treatment as drinking water by the surrounding population. The present study aimed to assess the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of stored water and the corresponding sediment in six traditional reservoirs (R1 to R6) located in the rural municipality of Assif El Mal. We tested two inexpensive methods of disinfecting the stored water: chlorination and solar disinfection in bottles. The results show a rise of organic and mineral concentrations. Regarding bacteriological quality, a critical contamination level was detected (8 × 10(5) CFU/100 ml in water and 9 × 10(7) CFU/g in sediment) according to the 2002 Moroccan Standards for drinking water (0 CFU/100 ml). In the disinfection tests, chlorine disinfection removed all studied germs after just 1 hour, and the solar exposure process removed the majority of bacteria (after 3 hours) except those with a resistant form (Clostridia).

  8. Vaccine coverage and adherence to EPI schedules in eight resource poor settings in the MAL-ED cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hoest, Christel; Seidman, Jessica C; Lee, Gwenyth; Platts-Mills, James A; Ali, Asad; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Bessong, Pascal; Chandyo, Ram; Babji, Sudhir; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Mondal, Dinesh; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Mduma, Estomih R; Nyathi, Emanuel; Abreu, Claudia; Miller, Mark A; Pan, William; Mason, Carl J; Knobler, Stacey L

    2017-01-11

    Launched in 1974, the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) is estimated to prevent two-three million deaths annually from polio, diphtheria, tuberculosis, pertussis, measles, and tetanus. Additional lives could be saved through better understanding what influences adherence to the EPI schedule in specific settings. The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study followed cohorts in eight sites in South Asia, Africa, and South America and monitored vaccine receipt over the first two years of life for the children enrolled in the study. Vaccination histories were obtained monthly from vaccination cards, local clinic records and/or caregiver reports. Vaccination histories were compared against the prescribed EPI schedules for each country, and coverage rates were examined in relation to the timing of vaccination. The influence of socioeconomic factors on vaccine timing and coverage was also considered. Coverage rates for EPI vaccines varied between sites and by type of vaccine; overall, coverage was highest in the Nepal and Bangladesh sites and lowest in the Tanzania and Brazil sites. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin coverage was high across all sites, 87-100%, whereas measles vaccination rates ranged widely, 73-100%. Significant delays between the scheduled administration age and actual vaccination date were present in all sites, especially for measles vaccine where less than 40% were administered on schedule. A range of socioeconomic factors were significantly associated with vaccination status in study children but these results were largely site-specific. Our findings highlight the need to improve measles vaccination rates and reduce delayed vaccination to achieve EPI targets related to the establishment of herd immunity and reduction in disease transmission. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. malERA: An updated research agenda for characterising the reservoir and measuring transmission in malaria elimination and eradication

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarises key advances in defining the infectious reservoir for malaria and the measurement of transmission for research and programmatic use since the Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) publication in 2011. Rapid and effective progress towards elimination requires an improved understanding of the sources of transmission as well as those at risk of infection. Characterising the transmission reservoir in different settings will enable the most appropriate choice, delivery, and evaluation of interventions. Since 2011, progress has been made in a number of areas. The extent of submicroscopic and asymptomatic infections is better understood, as are the biological parameters governing transmission of sexual stage parasites. Limitations of existing transmission measures have been documented, and proof-of-concept has been established for new innovative serological and molecular methods to better characterise transmission. Finally, there now exists a concerted effort towards the use of ensemble datasets across the spectrum of metrics, from passive and active sources, to develop more accurate risk maps of transmission. These can be used to better target interventions and effectively monitor progress toward elimination. The success of interventions depends not only on the level of endemicity but also on how rapidly or recently an area has undergone changes in transmission. Improved understanding of the biology of mosquito–human and human–mosquito transmission is needed particularly in low-endemic settings, where heterogeneity of infection is pronounced and local vector ecology is variable. New and improved measures of transmission need to be operationally feasible for the malaria programmes. Outputs from these research priorities should allow the development of a set of approaches (applicable to both research and control programmes) that address the unique challenges of measuring and monitoring transmission in near-elimination settings and defining

  10. Cloning and Molecular Characterization of an Alpha-Glucosidase (MalH) from the Halophilic Archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi.

    PubMed

    Cuebas-Irizarry, Mara F; Irizarry-Caro, Ricardo A; López-Morales, Carol; Badillo-Rivera, Keyla M; Rodríguez-Minguela, Carlos M; Montalvo-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2017-11-21

    We report the heterologous expression and molecular characterization of the first extremely halophilic alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) from the archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi . A 2349 bp region ( Hqrw_2071 ) from the Hqr. walsbyi C23 annotated genome was PCR-amplified and the resulting amplicon ligated into plasmid pET28b(+), expressed in E. coli Rosetta cells, and the resulting protein purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein showed an estimated molecular mass of 87 kDa, consistent with the expected value of the annotated protein, and an optimal activity for the hydrolysis of α-PNPG was detected at 40 °C, and at pH 6.0. Enzyme activity values were the highest in the presence of 3 M NaCl or 3-4 M KCl. However, specific activity values were two-fold higher in the presence of 3-4 M KCl when compared to NaCl suggesting a cytoplasmic localization. Phylogenetic analyses, with respect to other alpha-glucosidases from members of the class Halobacteria, showed that the Hqr. walsbyi MalH was most similar (up to 41%) to alpha-glucosidases and alpha-xylosidases of Halorubrum . Moreover, computational analyses for the detection of functional domains, active and catalytic sites, as well as 3D structural predictions revealed a close relationship with an E. coli YicI-like alpha-xylosidase of the GH31 family. However, the purified enzyme did not show alpha-xylosidase activity. This narrower substrate range indicates a discrepancy with annotations from different databases and the possibility of specific substrate adaptations of halophilic glucosidases due to high salinity. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the characterization of an alpha-glucosidase from the halophilic Archaea, which could serve as a new model to gain insights into carbon metabolism in this understudied microbial group.

  11. Cost effectiveness of OptiMal® rapid diagnostic test for malaria in remote areas of the Amazon Region, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In areas with limited structure in place for microscopy diagnosis, rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) have been demonstrated to be effective. Method The cost-effectiveness of the Optimal® and thick smear microscopy was estimated and compared. Data were collected on remote areas of 12 municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon. Data sources included the National Malaria Control Programme of the Ministry of Health, the National Healthcare System reimbursement table, hospitalization records, primary data collected from the municipalities, and scientific literature. The perspective was that of the Brazilian public health system, the analytical horizon was from the start of fever until the diagnostic results provided to patient and the temporal reference was that of year 2006. The results were expressed in costs per adequately diagnosed cases in 2006 U.S. dollars. Sensitivity analysis was performed considering key model parameters. Results In the case base scenario, considering 92% and 95% sensitivity for thick smear microscopy to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, respectively, and 100% specificity for both species, thick smear microscopy is more costly and more effective, with an incremental cost estimated at US$549.9 per adequately diagnosed case. In sensitivity analysis, when sensitivity and specificity of microscopy for P. vivax were 0.90 and 0.98, respectively, and when its sensitivity for P. falciparum was 0.83, the RDT was more cost-effective than microscopy. Conclusion Microscopy is more cost-effective than OptiMal® in these remote areas if high accuracy of microscopy is maintained in the field. Decision regarding use of rapid tests for diagnosis of malaria in these areas depends on current microscopy accuracy in the field. PMID:20937094

  12. Efficacy and safety of 4 months of sublingual immunotherapy with recombinant Mal d 1 and Bet v 1 in patients with birch pollen-related apple allergy.

    PubMed

    Kinaciyan, Tamar; Nagl, Birgit; Faustmann, Sandra; Frommlet, Florian; Kopp, Stephan; Wolkersdorfer, Martin; Wöhrl, Stefan; Bastl, Katharina; Huber, Hans; Berger, Uwe; Bohle, Barbara

    2018-03-01

    Birch pollen-related apple allergy is among the most prevalent food allergies in adolescent/adult subjects and mainly results from sensitization to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and subsequent cross-reaction with the apple protein Mal d 1. However, specific immunotherapy with birch pollen has inconsistent effects on apple allergy. We sought to compare the safety and efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with 2 formulations containing either rMal d 1 or rBet v 1 on birch pollen-related apple allergy. Sixty participants with birch pollen-related apple allergy were randomized to daily sublingual application of placebo (n = 20) or 25 μg of rMal d 1 (n = 20) or rBet v 1 (n = 20) for 16 weeks. Adverse events were regularly recorded. Sublingual challenges with standardized doses of rMal d 1, skin prick tests with recombinant allergens, and measurements of allergen-specific IgE and IgG 4 antibodies were performed before and after treatment. Both formulations caused comparable, mainly local adverse events. No systemic reactions occurred. Compared with the placebo and rBet v 1-treated groups, SLIT with rMal d 1 reduced rMal d 1-induced oral symptoms (P = .001 and P = .038) accompanied by longitudinally reduced rMal d 1-specific cutaneous reactions (P = .022) and enhanced IgG 4 /IgE ratios (P = .012). SLIT with rBet v 1 neither improved the clinical reactivity to rMal d 1 nor enhanced rMal d 1-specific IgG 4 /IgE ratios. Participants receiving placebo showed no allergen-specific changes. Sublingual treatment with a recombinant food allergen was safe and clinically effective, as determined by using standardized challenges. We present a promising approach for the effective treatment of birch pollen-related apple allergy. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. Results A web application called MosquitoMap was constructed comprising mosquito collection point data stored in an ArcGIS 9.3 Server/SQL geodatabase that includes administrative area and vector species x country lookup tables. In addition to the layer containing mosquito collection points, other map layers were made available including environmental, and vector and pathogen/disease distribution layers. An application within MosquitoMap called the Mal-area calculator (MAC) was constructed to quantify the area of overlap, for any area of interest, of vector, human, and disease distribution models. Data standards for mosquito records were developed for MosquitoMap. Conclusion MosquitoMap is a public domain web resource that maps and compares georeferenced mosquito collection points to other spatial information, in a geographical information system setting. The MAC quantifies the Mal-area, i.e. the area where it is theoretically possible for vector-borne disease transmission to occur, thus providing a useful decision tool where other disease information is limited. The Mal-area approach emphasizes the independent but cumulative contribution to disease risk of the vector species predicted present. MosquitoMap adds value to, and makes accessible, the results of past collecting efforts, as well as providing a template for other arthropod spatial databases. PMID:20167090

  14. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease.

    PubMed

    Foley, Desmond H; Wilkerson, Richard C; Birney, Ian; Harrison, Stanley; Christensen, Jamie; Rueda, Leopoldo M

    2010-02-18

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. A web application called MosquitoMap was constructed comprising mosquito collection point data stored in an ArcGIS 9.3 Server/SQL geodatabase that includes administrative area and vector species x country lookup tables. In addition to the layer containing mosquito collection points, other map layers were made available including environmental, and vector and pathogen/disease distribution layers. An application within MosquitoMap called the Mal-area calculator (MAC) was constructed to quantify the area of overlap, for any area of interest, of vector, human, and disease distribution models. Data standards for mosquito records were developed for MosquitoMap. MosquitoMap is a public domain web resource that maps and compares georeferenced mosquito collection points to other spatial information, in a geographical information system setting. The MAC quantifies the Mal-area, i.e. the area where it is theoretically possible for vector-borne disease transmission to occur, thus providing a useful decision tool where other disease information is limited. The Mal-area approach emphasizes the independent but cumulative contribution to disease risk of the vector species predicted present. MosquitoMap adds value to, and makes accessible, the results of past collecting efforts, as well as providing a template for other arthropod spatial databases.

  15. Effects of long-term storage on Mal d 1 content of four apple cultivars with initial low Mal d 1 content.

    PubMed

    Kiewning, Daniela; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela

    2014-03-15

    Up to 6.6% of adults and 11.5% of children aged between 0 and 6 years are reporting a perceived fruit allergy. In the last group 8.5% perceived reactions against apple. To keep allergic reactions as low as possible and to make apple consumption more tolerable for patients allergic to apple, the Mal d 1 content of four apple cultivars ('Boskoop', 'Elise', 'Pinova', 'Santana' and 'Topaz') were analyzed, to identify apple cultivars with only a low Mal d 1 content. Further, the development of Mal d 1 content of low-allergenic cultivars should be investigated during long-term storage. The lowest Mal d 1 content was measured for fruits of the cultivar 'Santana' at harvest, followed by 'Pinova' and 'Elise' after storage without 1-MCP. Nearly all fruits treated with 1-MCP had a significantly lower Mal d 1 content than fruits without 1-MCP, except for 'Boskoop' fruits after 44 weeks of storage. Apple cultivars with a low Mal d 1 content are not a cross of 'Golden Delicious' with another cultivar, with the exception of 'Pinova' which is a cultivar from the so-called 'Pi-series', which have a moderate resistance to scab and mildew. First experiments on tomatoes and peanuts have shown a reduction of allergic proteins in older and child generations after transfer of RNA. This reduction is probably based on an alteration of gene expression regulating the synthesis of allergic proteins, leading to changes in protein composition in the fruit. Individuals allergic to apple should choose the described cultivars with relative low Mal d 1 content. If breeders want to breed cultivars with low allergy, they should avoid crossings with 'Golden Delicious'. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Determinants and Impact of Giardia Infection in the First 2 Years of Life in the MAL-ED Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bartelt, Luther A.; Platts-Mills, James A.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Samie, Amidou; Havt, Alexandre; Babji, Sudhir; Trigoso, Dixner Rengifo; Qureshi, Shahida; Shakoor, Sadia; Haque, Rashidul; Mduma, Estomih; Bajracharya, Samita; Gaffar, S. M. Abdul; Lima, Aldo A. M.; Kang, Gagandeep; Kosek, Margaret N.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Svensen, Erling; Mason, Carl; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Lang, Dennis R.; Gottlieb, Michael; Guerrant, Richard L.; Houpt, Eric R.; Bessong, Pascal O.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Giardia are among the most common enteropathogens detected in children in low-resource settings. We describe here the epidemiology of infection with Giardia in the first 2 years of life in the Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development Project (MAL-ED), a multisite birth-cohort study. Methods. From 2089 children, 34916 stool samples collected during monthly surveillance and episodes of diarrhea were tested for Giardia using an enzyme immunoassay. We quantified the risk of Giardia detection, identified risk factors, and assessed the associations with micronutrients, markers of gut inflammation and permeability, diarrhea, and growth using multivariable linear regression. Results. The incidence of at least 1 Giardia detection varied according to site (range, 37.7%–96.4%) and was higher in the second year of life. Exclusive breastfeeding (HR for first Giardia detection in a monthly surveillance stool sample, 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.28–0.75]), higher socioeconomic status (HR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.56–0.97]), and recent metronidazole treatment (risk ratio for any surveillance stool detection, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.56–0.84]) were protective. Persistence of Giardia (consecutive detections) in the first 6 months of life was associated with reduced subsequent diarrheal rates in Naushahro Feroze, Pakistan but not at any other site. Giardia detection was also associated with an increased lactulose/mannitol ratio. Persistence of Giardia before 6 months of age was associated with a −0.29 (95% CI, −0.53 to −0.05) deficit in weight-for-age z score and −0.29 (95% CI, −0.64 to 0.07) deficit in length-for-age z score at 2 years. Conclusions. Infection with Giardia occurred across epidemiological contexts, and repeated detections in 40% of the children suggest that persistent infections were common. Early persistent infection with Giardia, independent of

  17. Grand Mal Seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... trauma, a stroke, previous infection and other causes Sleep deprivation Medical problems that affect electrolyte balance Illicit drug ... drowning. Car accidents. A seizure that causes either loss of awareness or control can be dangerous if ...

  18. Microstructure, thermal shock resistance and thermal emissivity of plasma sprayed LaMAl11O19 (M = Mg, Fe) coatings for metallic thermal protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong-Zhi; Ouyang, Jia-Hu; Liu, Zhan-Guo; Wang, Ya-Ming

    2013-04-01

    LaMAl11O19 (M = Mg, Fe) ceramic coatings were plasma-sprayed on nickel-based superalloy with NiCoCrAlYTa as the bond coat. The microstructure, thermal shock resistance and thermal emissivity of these two ceramic coatings were investigated. LaMAl11O19 coatings exhibit a characteristic of stacked lamellae, and consist mainly of a magnetoplumbite-type hexaaluminate phase and an amorphous phase. During thermal cycling, the amorphous phase disappears and a LaAlO3 phase is formed at temperatures of both 1000 and 1200 °C. The thermal cycling numbers of LaMgAl11O19 coating are 102 at 1000 °C and 42 at 1200 °C; LaFeAl11O19 has a thermal cycling lifetime of 87 at 1000 °C and 30 at 1200 °C, respectively. Normal spectral emissivity of nickel-based superalloy is about 0.2 over the whole wavelength range of 3-14 μm. However, the emissivity of LaFeAl11O19 coating is about 0.7 at short wavelengths and above 0.9 in the wavelength range of 7-14 μm.

  19. Parylene supported 20um*20um uncooled thermoelectric infrared detector with high fill factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres-Zadeh, Mohammad J.; Carpenter, Zachary S.; Rockley, Mark G.; Abdolvand, Reza

    2012-06-01

    Presented is a novel design for an uncooled surface-micromachined thermoelectric (TE) infrared (IR) detector. The detector features a P-doped polysilicon/Nichrome (Cr20-Ni80) thermocouple, which is embedded into a thin layer of Parylene-N to provide structural support. The low thermal conductivity (~0.1W/m.K), chemical resistance, and ease of deposition/patterning of Parylene-N make it an excellent choice of material for use in MEMS thermal detectors. This detector also features an umbrella-like IR absorber composed of a three layer stack of NiCr/SiN/NiCr to optimize IR absorption. The total device area is 20 um * 20 um per pixel with an absorber area of ~19 um * 19 um resulting in a fill factor of 90%. At room temperature, a DC responsivity of ~170V/W with a rise time of less than 8 ms is measured from the fabricated devices in vacuum when viewing a 500K blackbody without any concentrating optics. The dominant source of noise in thermoelectric IR detectors is typically Johnson noise when the detectors are operating in an open circuit condition. The fabricated detectors have resistances about 85KOhm which results in Johnson noise of about 38nV/Hz^0.5. The D* is calculated to be 9 * 106 cm*Hz0.5/ W. Preliminary finite element analysis indicates that the thermal conduction from the hot junction to the substrate through the TE wires is dominant ( GTE >> Gparylene) considering the fabricated dimensions of the parylene film and the TE wires. Thus, by further reducing the size of the TE wires, GTE can be decreased and hence, responsivity can be improved while the parylene film sustains the structural integrity of the cell.

  20. Correction of vitamin D deficiency using sublingually administered vitamin D2 in a Crohn's disease patient with mal-absorption and a new ileostomy.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Patrick; Heaney, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to be associated with many adverse health problems. Studies have shown that patients with Crohn's disease who have low vitamin D levels have a poorer quality of life than those with more adequate levels. It has also been shown that patients with mal-absorption problems have a difficult time achieving normal vitamin D levels in spite of aggressive supplementation, and that exposure to UVB radiation may be the most effective treatment option for these patients. We present a case in which 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were normalized within 2 weeks in a severely vitamin D deficient patient with Crohn's disease with mal-absorption and a new ileostomy, utilizing sublingually administered vitamin D2. A 58 year-old white female was admitted with a new ileostomy following partial bowel resection due to complications from Crohn's disease. She was found to be severely vitamin D deficient at the time of admission, with a level of 6.1ng/ml on hospital day 3. Her treatment with vitamin D was delayed for a few days. She was initially treated with 5000 units of vitamin D3 orally twice a day for 3days (days 7-10). After discussion with the patient and obtaining her consent, vitamin D3 was stopped, and she was then treated with a total of 8 doses of 50,000 units of vitamin D2 administered sublingually. She was given the first 3 doses on alternating days (days 11, 13, 15), and then 5 more doses on consecutive days (days 17-21). The rise in her 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in response to treatment with sublingual vitamin D2 was significant. On day 10, after receiving 3days of orally administered vitamin D3, her level was 9.8ng/ml. One week later, after receiving 3 sublingual doses of vitamin D2, it rose to 20.3ng/ml. It was then measured on alternating days twice over the next 4days, and it rose to 45.5ng/ml, and then to 47.4ng/ml on the day of discharge to home. The major finding of this study is that sublingual administration of vitamin D2 appears to

  1. The MalR type regulator AcrC is a transcriptional repressor of acarbose biosynthetic genes in Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Timo; Droste, Julian; Gren, Tetiana; Ortseifen, Vera; Schneiker-Bekel, Susanne; Zemke, Till; Pühler, Alfred; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2017-07-25

    Acarbose is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type II and is produced by Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110. Although the biosynthesis of acarbose has been intensively studied, profound knowledge about transcription factors involved in acarbose biosynthesis and their binding sites has been missing until now. In contrast to acarbose biosynthetic gene clusters in Streptomyces spp., the corresponding gene cluster of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 lacks genes for transcriptional regulators. The acarbose regulator C (AcrC) was identified through an in silico approach by aligning the LacI family regulators of acarbose biosynthetic gene clusters in Streptomyces spp. with the Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 genome. The gene for acrC, located in a head-to-head arrangement with the maltose/maltodextrin ABC transporter malEFG operon, was deleted by introducing PCR targeting for Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110. Characterization was carried out through cultivation experiments, genome-wide microarray hybridizations, and RT-qPCR as well as electrophoretic mobility shift assays for the elucidation of binding motifs. The results show that AcrC binds to the intergenic region between acbE and acbD in Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 and acts as a transcriptional repressor on these genes. The transcriptomic profile of the wild type was reconstituted through a complementation of the deleted acrC gene. Additionally, regulatory sequence motifs for the binding of AcrC were identified in the intergenic region of acbE and acbD. It was shown that AcrC expression influences acarbose formation in the early growth phase. Interestingly, AcrC does not regulate the malEFG operon. This study characterizes the first known transcription factor of the acarbose biosynthetic gene cluster in Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110. It therefore represents an important step for understanding the regulatory network of this organism. Based on this work, rational strain design for improving the biotechnological production of acarbose can now be

  2. "Uh" and "Um" Revisited: Are They Interjections for Signaling Delay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers "uh" and "um" are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of "uh" and "um" and of silent…

  3. Co-expression of the Thermotoga neapolitana aglB gene with an upstream 3'-coding fragment of the malG gene improves enzymatic characteristics of recombinant AglB cyclomaltodextrinase.

    PubMed

    Lunina, Natalia A; Agafonova, Elena V; Chekanovskaya, Lyudmila A; Dvortsov, Igor A; Berezina, Oksana V; Shedova, Ekaterina N; Kostrov, Sergey V; Velikodvorskaya, Galina A

    2007-07-01

    A cluster of Thermotoga neapolitana genes participating in starch degradation includes the malG gene of sugar transport protein and the aglB gene of cyclomaltodextrinase. The start and stop codons of these genes share a common overlapping sequence, aTGAtg. Here, we compared properties of expression products of three different constructs with aglB from T. neapolitana. The first expression vector contained the aglB gene linked to an upstream 90-bp 3'-terminal region of the malG gene with the stop codon overlapping with the start codon of aglB. The second construct included the isolated coding sequence of aglB with two tandem potential start codons. The expression product of this construct in Escherichia coli had two tandem Met residues at its N terminus and was characterized by low thermostability and high tendency to aggregate. In contrast, co-expression of aglB and the 3'-terminal region of malG (the first construct) resulted in AglB with only one N-terminal Met residue and a much higher specific activity of cyclomaltodextrinase. Moreover, the enzyme expressed by such a construct was more thermostable and less prone to aggregation. The third construct was the same as the second one except that it contained only one ATG start codon. The product of its expression had kinetic and other properties similar to those of the enzyme with only one N-terminal Met residue.

  4. Aflatoxin exposure during the first 36 months of life was not associated with impaired growth in Nepalese children: An extension of the MAL-ED study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hui-Husan; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Shrestha, Binob; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Tu, Yu-Kang; Gong, Yun-Yun; Egner, Patricia A.; Ulak, Manjeswori; Groopman, John D.; Wu, Felicia

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin common in many foods, has been associated with child growth impairment in sub-Saharan Africa. To improve our understanding of growth impairment in relation to aflatoxin and other risk factors, we assessed biospecimens collected in Nepalese children at 15, 24, and 36 months of age for aflatoxin exposure. Children (N = 85) enrolled in the Bhaktapur, Nepal MAL-ED study encompassed the cohort analysed in this study. Exposure was assessed through a plasma biomarker of aflatoxin exposure: the AFB1-lysine adduct. The aflatoxin exposures in the study participants were compared to anthropometrics at each time period (length-for-age [LAZ], weight-for-age [WAZ], and weight-for-length [WLZ] z-scores), growth trajectories over time, age, and breastfeeding status. Results demonstrated chronic aflatoxin exposure in this cohort of children, with a geometric mean of 3.62 pg AFB1-lysine/mg albumin. However, the chronic aflatoxin exposure in this cohort was not significantly associated with anthropometric z-scores, growth trajectories, age, or feeding status, based on the available time points to assess aflatoxin exposure. Low mean levels of aflatoxin exposure and infrequent occurrence of stunting, wasting, or underweight z-score values in this cohort are possible contributing factors to a lack of evidence for an association. Further research is needed to examine whether a threshold dose of aflatoxin exists that could induce child growth impairment. PMID:28212415

  5. In vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV) non-structural proteins in insect cells reveals their putative functions

    SciTech Connect

    Maroniche, Guillermo A.; Mongelli, Vanesa C.; Llauger, Gabriela

    2012-09-01

    The in vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV, Fijivirus, Reoviridae) non-structural proteins fused to GFP was analyzed by confocal microscopy. P5-1 showed a cytoplasmic vesicular-like distribution that was lost upon deleting its PDZ binding TKF motif, suggesting that P5-1 interacts with cellular PDZ proteins. P5-2 located at the nucleus and its nuclear import was affected by the deletion of its basic C-termini. P7-1 and P7-2 also entered the nucleus and therefore, along with P5-2, could function as regulators of host gene expression. P6 located in the cytoplasm and in perinuclear cloud-like inclusions, was driven to P9-1more » viroplasm-like structures and co-localized with P7-2, P10 and {alpha}-tubulin, suggesting its involvement in viroplasm formation and viral intracellular movement. Finally, P9-2 was N-glycosylated and located at the plasma membrane in association with filopodia-like protrusions containing actin, suggesting a possible role in virus cell-to-cell movement and spread.« less

  6. [Molecular aspects of allergy to plant products. Part II. Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), apple allergenicity governed by Mal d 1 gene].

    PubMed

    Bokszczanin, Kamila Ł; Przybyła, Andrzej A

    2012-03-01

    Of the plant allergens listed in the Official Allergen Database of the International Union of Immunological Societies, approximately 25% belong to the group of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). They have been classified into 17 PR families based on similarities in their amino acid sequence, enzymatic activities, or other functional properties. Plant-derived allergens have been identified with sequence similarities to PR families 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, and 14. The main birch allergen in northern Europe is a class 10 (PR-10) protein from the European white birch (Betula pendula) termed Bet v 1. Pollen of other Fagales species contains PR-10 homologues that share epitopes with Bet v 1, as do several fruits, nuts and vegetables. Among the plant food fruits of the Rosaceae family are the most frequently responsible for allergenic reactions. It is documented, that approximately 2% of European population is allergic to apples. The article presents molecular characterization of PR-10 proteins with regard to their structure and function as well as apple Mal d 1 gene-determined allergenicity.

  7. Functional and biochemical properties of Mal de Río Cuarto virus (Fijivirus, Reoviridae) P9-1 viroplasm protein show further similarities to animal reovirus counterparts.

    PubMed

    Maroniche, Guillermo A; Mongelli, Vanesa C; Peralta, Andrea V; Distéfano, Ana J; Llauger, Gabriela; Taboga, Oscar A; Hopp, Esteban H; del Vas, Mariana

    2010-09-01

    Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV) is a plant virus of the genus Fijivirus within the family Reoviridae that infects several monocotyledonous species and is transmitted by planthoppers in a persistent and propagative manner. Other members of the family replicate in viral inclusion bodies (VIBs) termed viroplasms that are formed in the cytoplasm of infected plant and insect cells. In this study, the protein coded by the first ORF of MRCV segment S9 (P9-1) was shown to establish cytoplasmic inclusion bodies resembling viroplasms after transfection of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. In accordance, MRCV P9-1 self-associates giving rise to high molecular weight complexes when expressed in bacteria. Strong self-interaction was also evidenced by yeast two-hybrid assays. Furthermore, biochemical characterization showed that MRCV P9-1 bound single stranded RNA and had ATPase activity. Finally, the MRCV P9-1 region required for the formation of VIB-like structures was mapped to the protein carboxy-terminal half. This extensive functional and biochemical characterization of MRCV P9-1 revealed further similarities between plant and animal reovirus viroplasm proteins. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The etiology, risk factors, and interactions of enteric infections and malnutrition and the consequences for child health and development study (MAL-ED): description of the Tanzanian site.

    PubMed

    Mduma, Estomih R; Gratz, Jean; Patil, Crystal; Matson, Kristine; Dakay, Mary; Liu, Sarah; Pascal, John; McQuillin, Lauren; Mighay, Emmanuel; Hinken, Elizabeth; Ernst, Alexandra; Amour, Caroline; Mvungi, Regisiana; Bayyo, Eliwaza; Zakaria, Yeconia; Kivuyo, Sokoine; Houpt, Eric R; Svensen, Erling

    2014-11-01

    The Haydom, Tanzania, site (TZH) of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) Study is in north-central Tanzania, 300 km from the nearest urban center. TZH is in a remote rural district where most of the population are agropastoralists and grow maize as the staple food. The average household size is 7. The average woman achieves a parity of 6 and has 1 child death. Socioeconomic indicators are poor, with essentially no household having access to electricity, piped water, or improved sanitary facilities (compared with 14%, 7%, and 12%, respectively, reported nationally). The Demographic Health Survey Tanzania 2004 indicated that the region had high rates of stunting and underweight (40% and 31% of children aged <5 years had a height-for-age z score and weight-for-age z score, respectively, of <-2 ) and an under-5 child mortality rate of 5.8%. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence among 18-month-old children is <0.5%. TZH represents a remote rural African population with profound poverty and malnutrition, but a strong community-based research infrastructure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Interpenetration of a 3D Icosahedral M@Ni12 (M=Al, Ga) Framework with Porphyrin-Reminiscent Boron Layers in MNi9 B8.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiang; Wagner, Frank R; Ormeci, Alim; Prots, Yurii; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Schmidt, Marcus; Schnelle, Walter; Grin, Yuri; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas

    2015-11-09

    Two ternary borides MNi9 B8 (M=Al, Ga) were synthesized by thermal treatment of mixtures of the elements. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data reveal AlNi9 B8 and GaNi9 B8 crystallizing in a new type of structure within the space group Cmcm and the lattice parameters a=7.0896(3) Å, b=8.1181(3) Å, c=10.6497(4) Å and a=7.0897(5) Å, b=8.1579(4) Å, c=10.6648(7) Å, respectively. The boron atoms build up two-dimensional layers, which consist of puckered [B16 ] rings with two tailing B atoms, whereas the M atoms reside in distorted vertices-condensed [Ni12 ] icosahedra, which form a three-dimensional framework interpenetrated by boron porphyrin-reminiscent layers. An unusual local arrangement resembling a giant metallo-porphyrin entity is formed by the [B16 ] rings, which, due to their large annular size of approximately 8 Å, chelate four of the twelve icosahedral Ni atoms. An analysis of the chemical bonding by means of the electron localizability approach reveals strong covalent B-B interactions and weak Ni-Ni interactions. Multi-center dative B-Ni interaction occurs between the Al-Ni framework and the boron layers. In agreement with the chemical bonding analysis and band structure calculations, AlNi9 B8 is a Pauli-paramagnetic metal. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Relationships among Common Illness Symptoms and the Protective Effect of Breastfeeding in Early Childhood in MAL-ED: An Eight-Country Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Stephanie A.; McCormick, Benjamin J. J.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Rasmussen, Zeba; Kosek, Margaret N.; Rogawski, Elizabeth T.; Petri, William; Bose, Anuradha; Mduma, Estomih; Maciel, Bruna L. L.; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Turab, Ali; Bessong, Pascal; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Caulfield, Laura E.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract. Children in low-income countries experience multiple illness symptoms in early childhood. Breastfeeding is protective against diarrhea and respiratory infections, and these illnesses are thought to be risk factors of one another, but these relationships have not been explored simultaneously. In the eight-site MAL-ED study, 1,731 infants were enrolled near birth and followed for 2 years. We collected symptoms and diet information through twice-weekly household visits. Poisson regression was used to determine if recent illness history was associated with incidence of diarrhea or acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI), accounting for exclusive breastfeeding. Recent diarrhea was associated with higher risk of incident diarrhea after the first 6 months of life (relative risk [RR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04, 1.16) and with higher risk of incident ALRI in the 3- to 5-month period (RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03, 1.47). Fever was a consistent risk factor for both diarrhea and ALRI. Exclusive breastfeeding 0–6 months was protective against diarrhea (0–2 months: RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.32, 0.49; 3–5 months: RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.75, 0.93) and ALRI (3–5 months: RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68, 0.98). Children with recent illness who were exclusively breastfed were half as likely as those not exclusively breastfed to experience diarrhea in the first 3 months of life. Recent illness was associated with greater risk of new illness, causing illnesses to cluster within children, indicating that specific illness-prevention programs may have benefits for preventing other childhood illnesses. The results also underscore the importance of exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life for disease prevention. PMID:29380724

  11. Theoretical studies on all-metal binuclear sandwich-like complexes M2(η 4-E 4) 2 (M=Al, Ga, In; E=Sb, Bi).

    PubMed

    Wang, Congzhi; Zhang, Xiuhui; Lu, Jian; Li, Qianshu

    2012-08-01

    A series of all-metal binuclear sandwich-like complexes with the formula M(2)(η(4)-E(4))(2) (M=Al, Ga, In; E=Sb, Bi) was studied by density functional theory (DFT). The most stable conformer for each of the M(2)(η(4)-E(4))(2) species is the staggered one with D (4d) symmetry. The centred metal-metal bond in each M(2)(η(4)-E(4))(2) species is a covalent single bond, with the main contributors to these covalent bonds being the a(1) and e orbitals. For all these species, the interactions between the centred metal atoms and the all-metal ligands are covalent; η(4)-Sb (4) (2-) has a stronger ability to stabilize metal-metal bonds than η(4)-Bi (4) (2-). Nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS) values and molecular orbital (MO) analysis reveal that the all-metal η(4)-Sb (4) (2-) and η(4)-Bi (4) (2-) ligands in M(2)(η(4)-E(4))(2) possess conflicting aromaticity (σ antiaromaticity and π aromaticity), which differs from the all-metal multiple aromatic unit Al (4) (2-). In addition, all of these M(2)(η(4)-E(4))(2) species are stable according to the dissociation energies of M(2)(η(4)-E(4))(2) → 2 M(η(4)-E(4)) and M(2)(η(4)-E(4))(2) → 2 M + 2E(4), and these stable species can be synthesized by two-step substitution reactions: CpZnZnCp + 2E (4) (2-)  → [E(4)ZnZnE(4)](2-) + 2Cp(-) and [E(4)ZnZnE(4)](2-) + 2 M (2) (+)  → E(4)MME(4) + 2Zn(+).

  12. Epidemiology and Impact of Campylobacter Infection in Children in 8 Low-Resource Settings: Results From the MAL-ED Study.

    PubMed

    Amour, Caroline; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Rogawski, Elizabeth T; McGrath, Monica; Seidman, Jessica C; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Samie, Amidou; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Qureshi, Shahida; Hotwani, Aneeta; Babji, Sudhir; Trigoso, Dixner Rengifo; Lima, Aldo A M; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Shakoor, Sadia; Kang, Gagandeep; Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L; Lang, Dennis; Gottlieb, Michael; Houpt, Eric R; Platts-Mills, James A

    2016-11-01

     Enteropathogen infections have been associated with enteric dysfunction and impaired growth in children in low-resource settings. In a multisite birth cohort study (MAL-ED), we describe the epidemiology and impact of Campylobacter infection in the first 2 years of life.  Children were actively followed up until 24 months of age. Diarrheal and nondiarrheal stool samples were collected and tested by enzyme immunoassay for Campylobacter Stool and blood samples were assayed for markers of intestinal permeability and inflammation.  A total of 1892 children had 7601 diarrheal and 26 267 nondiarrheal stool samples tested for Campylobacter We describe a high prevalence of infection, with most children (n = 1606; 84.9%) having a Campylobacter-positive stool sample by 1 year of age. Factors associated with a reduced risk of Campylobacter detection included exclusive breastfeeding (risk ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, .47-.67), treatment of drinking water (0.76; 0.70-0.83), access to an improved latrine (0.89; 0.82-0.97), and recent macrolide antibiotic use (0.68; 0.63-0.74). A high Campylobacter burden was associated with a lower length-for-age Z score at 24 months (-1.82; 95% confidence interval, -1.94 to -1.70) compared with a low burden (-1.49; -1.60 to -1.38). This association was robust to confounders and consistent across sites. Campylobacter infection was also associated with increased intestinal permeability and intestinal and systemic inflammation.  Campylobacter was prevalent across diverse settings and associated with growth shortfalls. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding, drinking water treatment, improved latrines, and targeted antibiotic treatment may reduce the burden of Campylobacter infection and improve growth in children in these settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  13. Dynamics and Trends in Fecal Biomarkers of Gut Function in Children from 1-24 Months in the MAL-ED Study.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Benjamin J J; Lee, Gwenyth O; Seidman, Jessica C; Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Quetz, Josiane; Lima, Aldo A M; Babji, Sudhir; Kang, Gagandeep; Shrestha, Sanjaya K; Mason, Carl J; Qureshi, Shahida; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Samie, Amidou; Bessong, Pascal; Amour, Caroline; Mduma, Estomih; Patil, Crystal L; Guerrant, Richard L; Lang, Dennis R; Gottlieb, Michael; Caulfield, Laura E; Kosek, Margaret N

    2017-02-08

    Growth and development shortfalls that are disproportionately prevalent in children living in poor environmental conditions are postulated to result, at least in part, from abnormal gut function. Using data from The Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) longitudinal cohort study, we examine biomarkers of gut inflammation and permeability in relation to environmental exposures and feeding practices. Trends in the concentrations of three biomarkers, myeloperoxidase (MPO), neopterin (NEO), and α-1-antitrypsin (AAT), are described from fecal samples collected during the first 2 years of each child's life. A total of 22,846 stool samples were processed during the longitudinal sampling of 2,076 children 0-24 months of age. Linear mixed models were constructed to examine the relationship between biomarker concentrations and recent food intake, symptoms of illness, concurrent enteropathogen infection, and socioeconomic status. Average concentrations of MPO, NEO, and AAT were considerably higher than published references for healthy adults. The concentration of each biomarker tended to decrease over the first 2 years of life and was highly variable between samples from each individual child. Both MPO and AAT were significantly elevated by recent breast milk intake. All three biomarkers were associated with pathogen presence, although the strength and direction varied by pathogen. The interpretation of biomarker concentrations is subject to the context of their collection. Herein, we identify that common factors (age, breast milk, and enteric infection) influence the concentration of these biomarkers. Within the context of low- and middle-income communities, we observe concentrations that indicate gut abnormalities, but more appropriate reference standards are needed. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Magnetotransport and Heat Capacity in Ternary Compounds U3M2M‧3‧, M=Al, Ga; M=Si, Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troć, R.; Rogl, P.; Tran, V. H.; Czopnik, A.

    2001-05-01

    We report detailed studies of magnetization, electrical resistivity, magnetoresistivity, and heat capacity performed on the novel family of intermetallic compounds U3M2M‧3, (M=Al, Ga, and M‧=Si, Ge). The present measurements support the earlier conclusions about the ferrimagnetic properties of silicides and ferromagnetic properties of germanides. The resistivity for both compounds U3{Al,Ga}2Si3 exhibits below TC a pronounced maximum observed for the first time in an actinoid-ferrimagnet, probably caused by (a) the reduction of the number of effective conduction carriers or (b) a SDW-type of spin-disorder scattering of electrons. Both low-temperature resistivity (except for U3Ga2Si3) and heat capacity may be described by a T-dependence involving a small gap Δ on the order of 30-50 K in the magnon dispersion. The Cp/T values at 2 K are enhanced and point to a medium-heavy fermion character of all these ternaries. Magnetoresistance for ferrimagnetic U3{Al,Ga}2Si3 is rather small but positive in correspondence of antiferromagnetic interactions. In correspondence to the ferromagnetic materials, negative magnetoresistance is encountered for U3{Al,Ga}2Ge3. Specific features in the temperature dependence of magnetoresistivity Δρ/ρ at various fields confirm the sinusoidal modulation of the magnetic structure for U3Al2Ge3 between 40 and 60 K. Also, such data for U3Ga2Ge3 present strong indications for a similar magnetic modulation between 63 and 93 K, yet to be discovered by neutron diffraction experiments. In addition, the transition at 63 K is furthermore well resolved in the specific heat data of U3Ga2Ge3.

  15. Dynamics and Trends in Fecal Biomarkers of Gut Function in Children from 1–24 Months in the MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Benjamin J. J.; Lee, Gwenyth O.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Quetz, Josiane; Lima, Aldo A. M.; Babji, Sudhir; Kang, Gagandeep; Shrestha, Sanjaya K.; Mason, Carl J.; Qureshi, Shahida; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Samie, Amidou; Bessong, Pascal; Amour, Caroline; Mduma, Estomih; Patil, Crystal L.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Lang, Dennis R.; Gottlieb, Michael; Caulfield, Laura E.; Kosek, Margaret N.

    2017-01-01

    Growth and development shortfalls that are disproportionately prevalent in children living in poor environmental conditions are postulated to result, at least in part, from abnormal gut function. Using data from The Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) longitudinal cohort study, we examine biomarkers of gut inflammation and permeability in relation to environmental exposures and feeding practices. Trends in the concentrations of three biomarkers, myeloperoxidase (MPO), neopterin (NEO), and α-1-antitrypsin (AAT), are described from fecal samples collected during the first 2 years of each child's life. A total of 22,846 stool samples were processed during the longitudinal sampling of 2,076 children 0–24 months of age. Linear mixed models were constructed to examine the relationship between biomarker concentrations and recent food intake, symptoms of illness, concurrent enteropathogen infection, and socioeconomic status. Average concentrations of MPO, NEO, and AAT were considerably higher than published references for healthy adults. The concentration of each biomarker tended to decrease over the first 2 years of life and was highly variable between samples from each individual child. Both MPO and AAT were significantly elevated by recent breast milk intake. All three biomarkers were associated with pathogen presence, although the strength and direction varied by pathogen. The interpretation of biomarker concentrations is subject to the context of their collection. Herein, we identify that common factors (age, breast milk, and enteric infection) influence the concentration of these biomarkers. Within the context of low- and middle-income communities, we observe concentrations that indicate gut abnormalities, but more appropriate reference standards are needed. PMID:27994110

  16. Epidemiology and Impact of Campylobacter Infection in Children in 8 Low-Resource Settings: Results From the MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Amour, Caroline; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Rogawski, Elizabeth T.; McGrath, Monica; Seidman, Jessica C.; McCormick, Benjamin J. J.; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Samie, Amidou; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Qureshi, Shahida; Hotwani, Aneeta; Babji, Sudhir; Trigoso, Dixner Rengifo; Lima, Aldo A. M.; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Shakoor, Sadia; Kang, Gagandeep; Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L.; Lang, Dennis; Gottlieb, Michael; Houpt, Eric R.; Platts-Mills, James A.; Acosta, Angel Mendez; de Burga, Rosa Rios; Chavez, Cesar Banda; Flores, Julian Torres; Olotegui, Maribel Paredes; Pinedo, Silvia Rengifo; Salas, Mery Siguas; Trigoso, Dixner Rengifo; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; Ahmed, Imran; Alam, Didar; Ali, Asad; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Qureshi, Shahida; Rasheed, Muneera; Soofi, Sajid; Turab, Ali; Zaidi, Anita K.M.; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Mason, Carl J.; Babji, Sudhir; Bose, Anuradha; George, Ajila T.; Hariraju, Dinesh; Jennifer, M. Steffi; John, Sushil; Kaki, Shiny; Kang, Gagandeep; Karunakaran, Priyadarshani; Koshy, Beena; Lazarus, Robin P.; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Raghava, Mohan Venkata; Raju, Sophy; Ramachandran, Anup; Ramadas, Rakhi; Ramanujam, Karthikeyan; Rose, Anuradha; Roshan, Reeba; Sharma, Srujan L.; Sundaram, Shanmuga; Thomas, Rahul J.; Pan, William K.; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Carreon, J. Daniel; Charu, Vivek; Doan, Viyada; Graham, Jhanelle; Hoest, Christel; Knobler, Stacey; Lang, Dennis R.; McCormick, Benjamin J.J.; McGrath, Monica; Miller, Mark A.; Mohale, Archana; Nayyar, Gaurvika; Psaki, Stephanie; Rasmussen, Zeba; Richard, Stephanie A.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Wang, Vivian; Blank, Rebecca; Gottlieb, Michael; Tountas, Karen H.; Amour, Caroline; Bayyo, Eliwaza; Mduma, Estomih R.; Mvungi, Regisiana; Nshama, Rosemary; Pascal, John; Swema, Buliga Mujaga; Yarrot, Ladislaus; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A.M. Shamsir; Haque, Rashidul; Hossain, Iqbal; Islam, Munirul; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Mondal, Dinesh; Tofail, Fahmida; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Shrestha, Rita; Ulak, Manjeswori; Bauck, Aubrey; Black, Robert; Caulfield, Laura; Checkley, William; Kosek, Margaret N.; Lee, Gwenyth; Schulze, Kerry; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Ross, A. Catharine; Schaefer, Barbara; Simons, Suzanne; Pendergast, Laura; Abreu, Cláudia B.; Costa, Hilda; Di Moura, Alessandra; Filho, José Quirino; Havt, Alexandre; Leite, Álvaro M.; Lima, Aldo A.M.; Lima, Noélia L.; Lima, Ila F.; Maciel, Bruna L.L.; Medeiros, Pedro H.Q.S.; Moraes, Milena; Mota, Francisco S.; Oriá, Reinaldo B.; Quetz, Josiane; Soares, Alberto M.; Mota, Rosa M.S.; Patil, Crystal L.; Bessong, Pascal; Mahopo, Cloupas; Maphula, Angelina; Nyathi, Emanuel; Samie, Amidou; Barrett, Leah; Dillingham, Rebecca; Gratz, Jean; Guerrant, Richard L.; Houpt, Eric; Petri, William A.; Platts-Mills, James; Scharf, Rebecca; Shrestha, Binob; Shrestha, Sanjaya Kumar; Strand, Tor; Svensen, Erling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background. Enteropathogen infections have been associated with enteric dysfunction and impaired growth in children in low-resource settings. In a multisite birth cohort study (MAL-ED), we describe the epidemiology and impact of Campylobacter infection in the first 2 years of life. Methods. Children were actively followed up until 24 months of age. Diarrheal and nondiarrheal stool samples were collected and tested by enzyme immunoassay for Campylobacter. Stool and blood samples were assayed for markers of intestinal permeability and inflammation. Results. A total of 1892 children had 7601 diarrheal and 26 267 nondiarrheal stool samples tested for Campylobacter. We describe a high prevalence of infection, with most children (n = 1606; 84.9%) having a Campylobacter-positive stool sample by 1 year of age. Factors associated with a reduced risk of Campylobacter detection included exclusive breastfeeding (risk ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, .47–.67), treatment of drinking water (0.76; 0.70–0.83), access to an improved latrine (0.89; 0.82–0.97), and recent macrolide antibiotic use (0.68; 0.63–0.74). A high Campylobacter burden was associated with a lower length-for-age Z score at 24 months (−1.82; 95% confidence interval, −1.94 to −1.70) compared with a low burden (−1.49; −1.60 to −1.38). This association was robust to confounders and consistent across sites. Campylobacter infection was also associated with increased intestinal permeability and intestinal and systemic inflammation. Conclusions. Campylobacter was prevalent across diverse settings and associated with growth shortfalls. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding, drinking water treatment, improved latrines, and targeted antibiotic treatment may reduce the burden of Campylobacter infection and improve growth in children in these settings. PMID:27501842

  17. Uh and um revisited: are they interjections for signaling delay?

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-11-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers uh and um are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of uh and um and of silent pauses (delays) immediately following them in six media interviews of Hillary Clinton. Our evidence indicates that uh and um cannot serve as signals of upcoming delay, let alone signal it differentially: In most cases, both uh and um were not followed by a silent pause, that is, there was no delay at all; the silent pauses that did occur after um were too short to be counted as major delays; finally, the distributions of durations of silent pauses after uh and um were almost entirely overlapping and could therefore not have served as reliable predictors for a listener. The discrepancies between Clark and Fox Tree's findings and ours are largely a consequence of the fact that their LL analyses reflect the perceptions of professional coders, whereas our data were analyzed by means of acoustic measurements with the PRAAT software (www.praat.org). A comparison of our findings with those of O'Connell, Kowal, and Ageneau (2005) did not corroborate the hypothesis of Clark and Fox Tree that uh and um are interjections: Fillers occurred typically in initial, interjections in medial positions; fillers did not constitute an integral turn by themselves, whereas interjections did; fillers never initiated cited speech, whereas interjections did; and fillers did not signal emotion, whereas interjections did. Clark and Fox Tree's analyses were embedded within a theory of ideal delivery that we find inappropriate for the explication of these phenomena.

  18. Malaria diagnosis and treatment under the strategy of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI): relevance of laboratory support from the rapid immunochromatographic tests of ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal.

    PubMed

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2001-07-01

    The algorithm developed for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) provides guidelines for the treatment of paediatric malaria. In areas where malaria is endemic, for example, the IMCI strategy may indicate that children who present with fever, a recent history of fever and/or pallor should receive antimalarial chemotherapy. In many holo-endemic areas, it is unclear whether laboratory tests to confirm that such signs are the result of malaria would be very relevant or useful. Children from a holo-endemic region of Tanzania were therefore checked for malarial parasites by microscopy and by using two rapid immunochromatographic tests (RIT) for the diagnosis of malaria (ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal. At the time they were tested, each of these children had been targeted for antimalarial treatment (following the IMCI strategy) because of fever and/or pallor. Only 70% of the 395 children classified to receive antimalarial drugs by the IMCI algorithm had malarial parasitaemias (68.4% had Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites, 1.3% only P. falciparum gametocytes, 0.3% P. ovale and 0.3% P. malariae). As indicators of P. falciparum trophozoites in the peripheral blood, fever had a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 15.5% whereas pallor had a sensitivity of 72.2% and a specificity of 50.8%. The RIT both had very high corresponding sensitivities (of 100.0% for the ICT and 94.0% for OptiMal) but the specificity of the ICT (74.0%) was significantly lower than that for OptiMal (100.0%). Fever and pallor were significantly associated with the P. falciparum asexual parasitaemias that equalled or exceeded the threshold intensity (2000/microl) that has the optimum sensitivity and specificity for the definition of a malarial episode. Diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLR) showed that a positive result in the OptiMal test (DLR = infinity) was a better indication of malaria than a positive result in the ICT (DLR = 3.85). In fact, OptiMal had diagnostic reliability (0

  19. Co-infection with a wheat rhabdovirus causes a reduction in Mal de Río Cuarto virus titer in its planthopper vector.

    PubMed

    Dumón, A D; Argüello Caro, E B; Mattio, M F; Alemandri, V; Del Vas, M; Truol, G

    2018-04-01

    Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV, Fijivirus, Reoviridae) causes one of the most important diseases in maize (Zea mays L.) in Argentina and has been detected in mixed infections with a rhabdovirus closely related to Maize yellow striate virus. In nature both viruses are able to infect maize and several grasses including wheat, and are transmitted in a persistent propagative manner by Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). This work describes the interactions between MRCV and rhabdovirus within their natural vector and the consequences of such co-infection regarding virus transmission and symptom expression. First- and third-instar D. kuscheli nymphs were fed on MRCV-infected wheat plants or MRCV-rhabdovirus-infected oat plants, and two latency periods were considered. Transmission efficiency and viral load of MRCV-transmitting and non-transmitting planthoppers were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis (RTqPCR). Vector transmission efficiency was related to treatments (life stages at acquisition and latency periods). Nevertheless, no correlation between transmission efficiency and type of inoculum used to infect insects with MRCV was found. Treatment by third-instar nymphs 17 days after Acquisition Access Period was the most efficient for MRCV transmission, regardless of the type of inoculum. Plants co-infected with MRCV and rhabdovirus showed the typical MRCV symptoms earlier than plants singly infected with MRCV. The transmitting planthoppers showed significantly higher MRCV titers than non-transmitting insects fed on single or mixed inocula, confirming that successful MRCV transmission is positively associated with viral accumulation in the insect. Furthermore, MRCV viral titers were higher in transmitting planthoppers that acquired this virus from a single inoculum than in those that acquired the virus from a mixed inoculum, indicating that the presence of the rhabdovirus somehow impaired MRCV replication and

  20. Absence Seizure (Petit Mal Seizure)

    MedlinePlus

    ... people have many episodes daily, which interfere with school or daily activities. A child may have absence seizures for some time before an adult notices the seizures, because they're so brief. A decline in a child's learning ability may be the first sign of this ...

  1. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  2. Luminescent properties of MAl(SO4)2 Br:Eu(3+) (M = Sr or Mg) red phosphors for near-UV light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Priti B; Puppalwar, S P; Dhoble, N S; Dhoble, S J

    2015-02-01

    Eu(3+) -activated MAl(SO4 )2 Br phosphors (where M = Mg or Sr) are successfully prepared using a wet chemical reaction technique. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. The XRD pattern revealed that both the samples are microcrystalline in nature. PL of Eu(3+) -doped SrAl(SO4 )2 Br and MgAl(SO4 )2 Br phosphors exhibited characteristic red emission coming from the (5) D0  → (7) F2 (616 nm) electron transition, when excited by 396 nm wavelength of light. The maximum intensity of luminescence was observed at a concentration of 1 mol% Eu(3+) . The intensity of the electric dipole transition at 616 nm is greater than that of the magnetic dipole transition at 594 nm. The results showed that MAl(SO4 )2 Br:Eu(3+) , (M = Mg, Sr) phosphors have potential application in near-UV light-emitting diodes as efficient red-emitting phosphor. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Application of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and multiangle light scattering (MALS) for the evaluation of changes in the product molar mass during PVP-b-PAMPS synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Catalina; Castillo, Joel; Vila, Jose; Nilsson, Lars

    2018-06-01

    The use of polymers for the delivery of drugs has increased dramatically in the last decade. To ensure the desired properties and functionality of such substances, adequate characterization in terms of the molar mass (M) and size is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the M and size of PVP-b-PAMPS when the amounts of the synthesis reactants in the two-step radical reaction were varied. The determination of the M and size distributions was performed by an asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) system connected to multiangle light scattering (MALS) and differential refractive index (dRI) detectors. The results show that the M of the polymers varies depending on the relative amounts of the reactants and that AF4-MALS-dRI is a powerful characterization technique for analyzing polymers. Using AF4, it was possible to separate the product of the first radical reaction (PVP-CTA) into two populations. The first population had an elongated, rod-like or random coil conformation, and the second had a conformation corresponding to homogeneous spheres or a microgel structure. PVP-b-PAMPS had only one population, which had a rod-like conformation. The molar masses of PVP-CTA and PVP-b-PAMPS found in this study were higher than those reported in previous studies.

  4. Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of the 12um Seyferts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanling; Charmandaris, V.; Huang, J.; Houck, J.

    2009-01-01

    The extended 12um galaxy sample is a flux-limited sample of 893 galaxies selected from the IRAS Faint Source Catalog 2. A total of 118 objects from this sample have been classified optically as Seyfert galaxies, providing one of the largest infrared selected unbiased sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We present our prelimary results from our analysis of mid-infrared Spitzer/IRS spectra of 102 12um Seyferts (that is 86 % of the 12um Seyfert sample) which have been observed by various Spitzer programs and are available in the Spitzer archive. A number of mid-infared diagnostics have been developed to study the nature of nuclear dust enshrouded emission from AGNs, in order to disentangle the starburst-AGN connection. Since PAH emission is a tracer of star formation activity we have measured the 11.3um PAH feature for our Seyfert sample. We find that as the strength of the radiation field in AGNs increases the PAH molecules are destroyed, while the PAH EWs increase with the IRAS f60/f25 ratios of the host galaxies. We further probe this warm/cold color diagnostic, by contrasting our findings with those of we starbust galaxies, ULIRGs, as well as blue compact dwarf galaxies.

  5. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  6. Um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Há uma enorme carência de materiais didático-pedagógicos em astronomia para professores do ensino médio, sobretudo materiais que explorem também aspectos humanísticos. A origem do Universo é um bom exemplo desta constatação central. Embora tal origem teve explicações culturais diversas, os professores não têm informações sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes visões de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abordá-las devidamente. Conseqüentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas visões de Universo: espontâneas, autóctones e científicas. Desenvolvemos práticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoção de um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio, no qual as culturas humanística e científica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pública de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores à abordagem proposta e os resultados alcançados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produção de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de práticas didático-pedagógicas específicas (e.g., encenação de mitos; dança primordial guarani; "criação" de constelações e interpretações pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestões concretas para a efetiva realização de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questões cosmogônicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e históricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  7. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates,more » including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.« less

  8. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    DOE PAGES

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; ...

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates,more » including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.« less

  9. Genesis of the Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu, Ag) vein deposit. An extension-related Mesozoic vein system in the High Atlas of Morocco. Structural, mineralogical, and geochemical evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouabdellah, M.; Beaudoin, G.; Leach, D.L.; Grandia, F.; Cardellach, E.

    2009-01-01

    The Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) vein system, located in the northern flank of the High Atlas of Marrakech (Morocco), is hosted in a Cambro-Ordovician volcaniclastic and metasedimentary sequence composed of graywacke, siltstone, pelite, and shale interlayered with minor tuff and mudstone. Intrusion of synorogenic to postorogenic Late Hercynian peraluminous granitoids has contact metamorphosed the host rocks giving rise to a metamorphic assemblage of quartz, plagioclase, biotite, muscovite, chlorite, amphibole, chloritoid, and garnet. The Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) mineralization forms subvertical veins with ribbon, fault breccia, cockade, comb, and crack and seal textures. Two-phase liquid-vapor fluid inclusions that were trapped during several stages occur in quartz and sphalerite. Primary inclusion fluids exhibit Th mean values ranging from 104??C to 198??C. Final ice-melting temperatures range from -8.1??C to -12.8??C, corresponding to salinities of ???15 wt.% NaCl equiv. Halogen data suggest that the salinity of the ore fluids was largely due to evaporation of seawater. Late secondary fluid inclusions have either Ca-rich, saline (26 wt.% NaCl equiv.), or very dilute (3.5 wt.% NaCl equiv.) compositions and homogenization temperatures ranging from 75??C to 150??C. The ??18O and ??D fluid values suggest an isotopically heterogeneous fluid source involving mixing between connate seawater and black-shale-derived organic waters. Low ??13CVPDB values ranging from -7.5??? to -7.7??? indicate a homogeneous carbon source, possibly organic matter disseminated in black shale hosting the Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) veins. The calculated ??34SH2S values for reduced sulfur (22.5??? to 24.3???) are most likely from reduction of SO42- in trapped seawater sulfate or evaporite in the host rocks. Reduction of sulfate probably occurred through thermochemical sulfate reduction in which organic matter was oxidized to produce CO2 which ultimately led to precipitation of saddle dolomite with

  10. STS-40 Exp. No. 192 urine monitoring system (UMS) on OV-102's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Experiment No. 192, Fluid-Electrolyte Regulation During Space Flight, urine monitoring system (UMS) is set up on the middeck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, at the side hatch. The UMS is attached to OV-102's waste collection system (WCS). The urine specimen tray with sample tubes appears to the right of the UMS equipment.

  11. University Students' Conceptions about the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones de Estudiantes Universitários sobre Las Fases de la Luna.) Concepções de Estudantes Universitários sobre as Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Oliveira Saraiva, Maria; da Silveira, Fernando Lang; Steffani, Maria Helena

    2011-07-01

    In this article we describe the development of a multiple choice test about lunar phases and analyze the results of its application to ten groups of Physics students at the UFRGS. During the improvement of the test, we noticed that the percentage of right answers about some concepts increased significantly when associated with the reformulation of the question, emphasizing the importance of being careful to avoid incorrect answers generated by unclear questions, and not by ignorance on the matter. We confirm the results of other studies that show that students have great difficulty to relate the Moon's phase with its position in the sky at given time. On the other hand, our results suggest that, in general, students of Physics understand the phenomenon of lunar phases better than the average of university students. En estese artículo se describe la elaboración de una prueba de opción múltiple sobre las fases de la Luna y se analizan los resultados de su aplicación en diez grupos de estudiantes de Física de UFRGS. Durante el mejoramiento de la prueba observamos que el porcentaje de aciertos creció considerablemente cuando considerada una nueva redacción de la pregunta, destacando el cuidado que se debe tomar a fin de evitar respuestas incorrectas generadas por preguntas poco claras y no a causa de la ignorancia de los estudiantes sobre el tema. Confirmamos los resultados de otros estudios que las mayores dificultades de los alumnos sobre el tema fases de la Luna están en relacionar la fase de la Luna con su posición en el cielo en determinado momento. Por otra parte, nuestros resultados sugieren que, en general, los estudiantes de la Física comprenden mejor el fenómeno de las fases lunares que el promedio de los estudiantes universitarios. Neste artigo descrevemos a elaboração de um teste de múltipla escolha sobre as fases da Lua e analisamos os resultados de sua aplicação em dez grupos de estudantes de Física da UFRGS. Durante o aprimoramento do

  12. Hiperplasia angiolinfoide com eosinofilia: um caso raro em cavidade oral

    PubMed Central

    Tenório, Jefferson da Rocha; Gonzaga, Amanda Katarinny Goes; Gonçalves, Patrícia Guerra Peixe; de Oliveira, Denise Hélen Imaculada Pereira; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Resumo A hiperplasia angiolinfoide com eosinofilia (HALE) é considerada uma lesão vascular benigna rara que acomete, principalmente, o tecido cutâneo e subcutâneo da região de cabeça e pescoço, mas incomum na cavidade oral. Sua etiopatogenia permanece indefinida, sendo descrita como proliferação vascular reacional, malformação vascular ou neoplasia. Tem como principal diagnóstico diferencial a doença de Kimura. Este trabalho relata um caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, de 50 anos, que exibia aumento de volume nodular na mucosa do lábio superior, com 3 cm de dimensão e 7 anos de evolução. Após a biópsia excisional, o exame histopatológico mostrou lesão bem encapsulada multilobulada com proliferação de capilares sanguíneos com células endoteliais de aspecto epitelioide, infiltrado inflamatório difuso com linfócitos, plasmócitos, inúmeros eosinófilos e presença de folículos linfoides. A análise imuno-histoquímica revelou positividade para CD34 e Ki-67, o que, juntamente com o exame morfológico, direcionou o diagnóstico para HALE. PMID:29930611

  13. Sobre el estado evolutivo de β Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en β Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. β Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a βPic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en β Pic indica edades avanzadas para β Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para β Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

  14. Resultados do desenvolvimento de um propulsor à plasma no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, I. S.; Ferreira, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    Uma das partes mais importantes de um satélite é o controle de atitude do mesmo. E se tratando de um satélite científico, a atenção para este sistema deve ser redobrada. Uma possibilidade atraente para executar esta tarefa é a propulsão elétrica. Aqui, mostraremos resultados obtidos pelo propulsor à plasma PHALL-01, desenvolvido na Universidade de Brasília entre 2000 e 2003. Este é derivado do propulsor russo SPT-100 (Stationary Plasma Thruster), mas com o emprego inovador de um arranjo de imãs permanentes como fonte do campo magnético, este último o agente da aceleração do plasma. Esta alteração foi motivada pelo objetivo de que o mesmo operasse com o mínimo de potência elétrica. A partir da formulação teórica do mecanismo de aceleração, tendo como base as equações da magnetohidrodinâmica, pode-se obter vínculos sob os quais o propulsor pudesse ser construído. O mais forte destes é o que dita a topologia do campo magnético. Sendo assim, foram realizadas simulações computacionais, que definiram a geometria do propulsor. Após construído, este foi diagnosticado usando-se sondas de Langmuir e analisadores de energia. Como resultados, obtivemos a distribuição espacial da temperatura, densidade e potencial do plasma, bem como a distribuição angular do feixe produzido pelo mesmo em vários regimes de operação. O espectro de energia do feixe de plasma também foi medido, indicando íons de até 560eV. Combinando estes resultados, calculou-se o empuxo do propulsor: 84mN; e o impulso específico: 1083s. Estes demonstram que o mesmo estará qualificado, num futuro próximo, para o emprego no controle de atitude de satélites científicos, ou até mesmo como parte do conjunto propulsor primário, responsáveis pela transferência de órbitas.

  15. Uma Visão do Universo Segundo um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Araújo, M.; Amaral, L. H.; Voelzke, M. R.; Araújo, M.

    2005-08-01

    A astronomia, embora seja uma ciência popular, com inúmeras descobertas de interesse público, ainda é apresentada desconsiderando-se os aspectos históricos e científicos relacionados ao seu desenvolvimento, sendo geralmente veiculada nos meios de comunicação de maneira pouco esclarecedora e não raro com imprecisões. Neste trabalho analisou-se a concepção de um grupo de estudantes de Ensino Médio sobre conceitos de astronomia, visando identificar sua visão de mundo a respeito do Universo, envolvendo idéias sobre espaço e tempo. Para issso, foi aplicado um questionário em três escolas da grande São Paulo em um espaço amostral de 270 alunos. Constatou-se que, embora o ensino de astronomia esteja previsto nos PCNEM, os resultados obtidos na pesquisa mostram que há grande deficiência no conhecimento dos temas investigados. Nesse sentido, verificou-se que apenas 20% dos alunos eram capazes de relacionar a sucessão das semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra. Por outro lado, somente 23% dos alunos tinham noções das distâncias entre os objetos celestes próximos da Terra e 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo. Finalmente, constatou-se que 37% reconheciam o ano-luz como uma unidade de distância e 60% reconheciam o Sol como sendo uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem que a escola é a principal fonte para aquisição dos conhecimentos de astronomia, conclui-se que seus conceitos nessa área ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de ampliação e aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos nos ambientes escolares.

  16. Recovery Act: Novel Kerf-Free PV Wafering that provides a low-cost approach to generate wafers from 150um to 50um in thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, Theodore E.

    2013-05-06

    The technical paper summarizes the project work conducted in the development of Kerf-Free silicon wafering equipment for silicon solar wafering. This new PolyMax technology uses a two step process of implantation and cleaving to exfoliate 50um to 120um wafers with thicknesses ranging from 50um to 120um from a 125mm or 156mm pseudo-squared silicon ingot. No kerf is generated using this method of wafering. This method of wafering contrasts with the current method of making silicon solar wafers using the industry standard wire saw equipment. The report summarizes the activity conducted by Silicon Genesis Corporation in working to develop this technologymore » further and to define the roadmap specifications for the first commercial proto-type equipment for high volume solar wafer manufacturing using the PolyMax technology.« less

  17. The MAL-ED Cohort Study: Methods and Lessons Learned When Assessing Early Child Development and Caregiving Mediators in Infants and Young Children in 8 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Rasheed, Muneera A.; Svensen, Erling; Seidman, Jessica C.; Tofail, Fahmida; Koshy, Beena; Shrestha, Rita; Maphula, Angelina; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; da Costa, Hilda P.; Yousafzai, Aisha K.; Oria, Reinaldo B.; Roshan, Reeba; Bayyo, Eliwasa B.; Kosek, Margaret; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lang, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    More epidemiological data are needed on risk and protective factors for child development. In The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study, we assessed child development in a harmonious manner across 8 sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. From birth to 24 months, development and language acquisition were assessed via the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and a modified MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. Other measures were infant temperament, the child's environment, maternal psychological adjustment, and maternal reasoning abilities. We developed standard operating procedures and used multiple techniques to ensure appropriate adaptation and quality assurance across the sites. Test adaptation required significant time and human resources but is essential for data quality; funders should support this step in future studies. At the end of this study, we will have a portfolio of culturally adapted instruments for child development studies with examination of psychometric properties of each tool used. PMID:25305296

  18. Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, Orner Building, First U.M. Church Rectory, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, Orner Building, First U.M. Church Rectory, & First U.M. Church-context - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  19. BAnd offset and magnetic property engineering for epitaxial interfaces: a Monolayer of M2O3 (M=Al, Ga, Sc, Ti, Ni) at the alpha-Fe203/alpha-Cr203 (0001) Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, John E; Bachorz, Rafal A; Gutowski, Maciej S

    2007-05-01

    We have used density functional theory with the gradient corrected exchange-correlation functional PW91 to study the effect of an interfactant layer, where Fe and Cr are replaced by a different metal, on electronic and magnetic properties of an epitaxial interface between -Fe2O3 and -Cr2O3 in the hexagonal (0001) basal plane. We studied a monolayer of M2O3 (M=Al, Ga, Sc, Ti, Ni) sandwiched with 5 layers of chromia and five layers of hematite through epitaxial interfaces of two types, termed “oxygen divided” or “split metal.” We found that both the magnetic and electronic properties of the superlattice are modified by themore » interfactant monolayer. For the split metal interface, which is favored through the growth pattern of chromia and hematite, the band offset can be changed from 0.62 eV (no interfactant) up to 0.90 eV with the Sc2O3 interfactant, and down to –0.51 eV (i.e. the a-Fe2O3/a-Cr2O3 heterojunction changes from Type II to Type I) with the Ti2O3 interfactant, due to a massive interfacial charge transfer. The band gap of the system as a whole remains open for the interfactant monolayers based on Al, Ga, and Sc, but it closes for Ti. For Ni, the split-metal interface has a negative band offset and a small band gap. Thus, nanoscale engineering through layer-by-layer growth will strongly affect the macroscopic properties of this system.« less

  20. Mal-Development of the Penis and Loss of Fertility in Male Rats Treated Neonatally with Female Contraceptive 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol: A Dose-Response Study and a Comparative Study with a Known Estrogenic Teratogen Diethylstilbestrol

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Ensa; Braden, Tim D.; Williams, Carol S.; Williams, John W.; Bolden-Tiller, Olga; Goyal, Hari O.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find a minimal dose of 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE) that is detrimental to the developing penis and fertility and to compare estrogenic effects between EE and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Neonatal rats received EE at 10 ng (1 μg/kg), 100 ng, 1 μg, or 10 μg per pup on alternate days from postnatal days 1 to 11 (dose-response study) or received EE or DES at 100 ng per pup daily from postnatal days 1 to 6 (comparative study). Effects of EE were dose dependent, with ≥ 100-ng dose inducing significant (p < 0.05) reductions in penile length, weight, and diameter. Additionally, the penis was malformed, characterized by underdeveloped os penis and accumulation of fat cells. Fertility was 0% in the ≥ 1-μg groups, in contrast to 60% in the 100-ng group and 100% in the 10-ng and control groups. Animals treated with ≥ 10 ng had significant reductions in the weight of bulbospongious muscle, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymal fat pad, and in epididymal sperm numbers. A comparison of EE and DES effects showed similar reductions in penile weight and length and the weight of bulbospongiosus muscle, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymis, and epididymal fat pad in both adolescent and adult rats. While 5/6 control males sired, only 1/6 in the EE group and 0/6 in the DES group sired. Hence, neonatal exposure to EE at 10 ng (environmentally relevant dose) adversely affects male reproductive organs. A dose ten times higher than this leads to permanently mal-developed penis and infertility. Furthermore, EE and DES exposures show similar level of toxicity to male reproductive organs. PMID:19729556

  1. Targeting Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling by Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adapter protein/MyD88 adapter-like (TIRAP/Mal)-derived decoy peptides.

    PubMed

    Couture, Leah A; Piao, Wenji; Ru, Lisa W; Vogel, Stefanie N; Toshchakov, Vladimir Y

    2012-07-13

    Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adapter protein/MyD88 adapter-like (TIRAP/Mal) is an adapter protein that facilitates recruitment of MyD88 to TLR4 and TLR2 signaling complexes. We previously generated a library of cell-permeating TLR4 TIR-derived decoy peptides fused to the translocating segment of the Drosophila Antennapedia homeodomain and examined each peptide for the ability to inhibit TLR4 signaling (Toshchakov, V. Y., Szmacinski, H., Couture, L. A., Lakowicz, J. R., and Vogel, S. N. (2011) J. Immunol. 186, 4819-4827). We have now expanded this study to test TIRAP decoy peptides. Five TIRAP peptides, TR3 (for TIRAP region 3), TR5, TR6, TR9, and TR11, inhibited LPS-induced cytokine mRNA expression and MAPK activation. Inhibition was confirmed at the protein level; select peptides abolished the LPS-induced cytokine production measured in cell culture 24 h after a single treatment. Two of the TLR4 inhibitory peptides, TR3 and TR6, also inhibited cytokine production induced by a TLR2/TLR1 agonist, S-(2,3-bis(palmitoyloxy)-(2R,2S)-propyl)-N-palmitoyl-(R)-Cys-Ser-Lys(4)-OH; however, a higher peptide concentration was required to achieve comparable inhibition of TLR2 versus TLR4 signaling. Two TLR4 inhibitory peptides, TR5 and TR6, were examined for the ability to inhibit TLR4-driven cytokine induction in mice. Pretreatment with either peptide significantly reduced circulating TNF-α and IL-6 in mice following LPS injection. This study has identified novel TLR inhibitory peptides that block cellular signaling at low micromolar concentrations in vitro and in vivo. Comparison of TLR4 inhibition by TLR4 and TIRAP TIR-derived peptides supports the view that structurally diverse regions mediate functional interactions of TIR domains.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Draco nebula Herschel 250um map (Miville-Deschenes+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miville-Deschenes, M.-A.; Salome, Q.; Martin, P. G.; Joncas, G.; Blagrave, K.; Dassas, K.; Abergel, A.; Beelen, A.; Boulanger, F.; Lagache, G.; Lockman, F. J.; Marshall, D. J.

    2017-03-01

    Draco was observed with Herschel PACS (110 and 170um) and SPIRE (250, 350 and 500um) as part of the open-time program "First steps toward star formation: unveiling the atomic to molecular transition in the diffuse interstellar medium" (P.I. M-A Miville-Deschenes). A field of 3.85x3.85 was observed in parallel mode. Unfortunately, an error occurred during the acquisition of the PACS data making them unusable. Therefore, the results presented here are solely based on SPIRE data, especially the 250um map that has the highest angular resolution. (2 data files).

  3. Quantification of Internal Stress-Strain Fields in Human Tendon: Unraveling the Mechanisms that Underlie Regional Tendon Adaptations and Mal-Adaptations to Mechanical Loading and the Effectiveness of Therapeutic Eccentric Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Maganaris, Constantinos N.; Chatzistergos, Panagiotis; Reeves, Neil D.; Narici, Marco V.

    2017-01-01

    of the stress created by the exercise and is not only reliant upon the type of muscle contraction performed. To better understand the micromechanical behavior and regional adaptability/mal-adaptability of tendon tissue it is important to estimate its internal stress-strain fields. Recent relevant advancements in numerical techniques related to tendon loading are discussed. PMID:28293194

  4. Imagens do céu ontem e hoje - um multimídia interativo de astronomia e uma nova exposição no MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, C. A.; Lima, F. P.; Requeijo, F.; Vieira, G. G.; Alves, F.; Valente, M. E. A.; de Almeida, R.; de Garcia, G. C.; Quixadá, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    "Imagens do Céu Ontem e Hoje" é o título de uma nova exposição que está sendo inaugurada no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MCT), que inclui experimentos interativos, maquetes, réplicas e 8 terminais de computador com um multimídia interativo sobre Astronomia para consulta dos visitantes. O multimídia apresenta um conteúdo bastante extenso, que engloba quase todos os temas em Astronomia, consistindo numa fonte de divulgação e pesquisa para um público que vai das crianças até estudantes universitários. O conteúdo está distribuído em mais de 500 páginas de texto divididas em 4 módulos: "O Universo", "Espectroscopia", "Telescópios" e "Observando o Céu". Cada módulo é subdividido em 5 seções, em média, cada uma iniciada por uma animação que ilustra os temas a serem abordados na seção. Ao final da animação, uma lista de temas é apresentada sob o título "Saiba Mais". Para exemplificar, o módulo "O Universo" contém as seguintes seções: "O Universo visto pelo homem", "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", "Indo além do Sistema Solar", "Nossa Galáxia, a Via-Láctea" e "Indo mais além, a imensidão do Universo". A seção "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", por sua vez, tem os seguintes temas: "A origem do Sistema Solar", "O Sol", "Os planetas", "Satélites, asteróides, cometas e outros bichos..." e "O Sistema Solar em números". Cada texto é repleto de imagens, quadros, desenhos, esquemas, etc, além de passatempos ao final de cada seção, incluindo jogos interativos, quadrinhos e curiosidades, que auxiliam o aprendizado de forma divertida. Apresentamos neste trabalho as idéias gerais que permearam a produção da exposição, e uma viagem pelo multimídia para exemplificar sua estrutura e conteúdo. O multimídia será posteriormente disponibilizado para o público externo pela página eletrônica do MAst e/ou por intermédio de uma publicação comercial.

  5. Um Breve Balanço dos Estudos em Astronomia e Educação no Brasil no Período de 2010 a 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Erica de Oliveira; Kern, C.

    2014-10-01

    No Brasil, as pesquisas em ensino de astronomia para a Educação Básica vem ganhando destaque. Posto como importante área do conhecimento para estudantes e professores, os estudos em astronomia conquistam espaços nos documentos oficiais da educação e nos currículos escolares. Diante desse cenário, fez-se, neste trabalho, um mapeamento no banco de dados da Biblioteca Digital Brasileira de Teses e Dissertações , com base nas palavras-chave "astronomia" e "educação" no período de 2010 a 2013. Para compor o que aqui denominamos de balanço da área de estudo, foram selecionados trabalhos e analisados os títulos, os resumos, as considerações finais e as referências, bem como identificamos as fontes epistemológicas correntes nas pesquisas de pós-graduação no período supracitado. Identificou-se, na maior parte dos trabalhos pesquisados, referenciais teóricos relacionados & agrave; área de física, ciências e astronomia que envolvem discussões sobre currículo e práticas pedagógicas vinculados ao ensino de astronomia no ensino fundamental e médio da Educação Bãsica e nos cursos de formação de professores.

  6. UM-PRS: An implementation of the procedural reasoning system for multirobot applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jaeho; Huber, Marcus J.; Durfee, Edmund H.; Kenny, Patrick G.

    1994-01-01

    The Procedural Reasoning System (PRS) is used in applications where predetermined situations might arise. The UM-PRS provides a reasoning system that represents robotic applications even in unpredictable domains, such as the robotic reconnaissance task domain outlined here. UM-PRS incorporates a changing context, rather than relying solely on a prearranged plan. The UM-PRS here provides representation important in the reasoning and interface between a mission plan and the executable map of an outdoor vehicle that changes its behavior based on what it comes in contact with in its environment. PRS is thus used in the dynamic control of such a vehicle, providing the basis for coordinating the joint task of multiple robotic vehicles by the their individual observations and representation.

  7. Sobre a largura da última superfície de espalhamento

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, M. A. S.; Pires, N.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2003-08-01

    De acordo com o modelo do "Big-Bang", no universo primordial a matéria estava em equilíbrio térmico com a radiação. Com a expansão a temperatura da radiação cai. Quando a temperatura chega em torno dos 4.000K, os espalhamentos diminuem, começando a recombinação dos prótons e elétrons em Hidrogênio neutro (era conhecida como da recombinação). Ao final da recombinação, os fótons se propagam livremente sofrendo, em princípio, somente os efeitos do "redshift" cosmológico. Esses fótons nos alcançam hoje como a radiação cósmica de fundo (RCF), e parecem vir de uma superfície esférica ao nosso redor, tal que o raio dela é a distância que ele viajou desde seu último espalhamento na época da recombinação. Naturalmente, esse processo não ocorreu abruptamente, implicando na existência de uma largura no espaço dos "redshifts" que deve depender do modelo cosmológico específico e dos processos físicos considerados. Neste trabalho analisamos os efeitos de diferentes modelos - a saber, aqueles com decaimento do vácuo L(t), criação de matéria, quintessência e gás de Chaplygin - sobre a última superfície de espalhamento da RCF, em particular sua largura e a função visibilidade, que determina a probabilidade de um fóton ter tido seu último espalhamento num "redshift" z. No caso particular dos modelos com decaimento do vácuo, existe uma forte dependência da função visibilidade com L(t). Tais efeitos poderão ser testados através da análise dos resultados de experimentos mais precisos que estão atualmente em andamento, como por exemplo, o WMAP.

  8. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  9. Protective Effects of Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) in Myocardial Ischaemia and Reperfusion Injury in VIVO.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Cordaro, Marika; Crupi, Rosalia; Siracusa, Rosalba; Campolo, Michela; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Fusco, Roberta; Pugliatti, Pietro; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death, occurs after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries. Restore blood flow is the first intervention help against heart attack. However, reperfusion of the arteries leads to ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). The fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous compound widely present in living organisms, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study evaluated the effect of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) treatment on the inflammatory process associated with myocardial I/R. Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. PEA-um, was administered (10 mg/kg) 15 min after ischemia and 1 h after reperfusion. In this study, we demonstrated that PEA-um treatment reduces myocardial tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, P-selectin) expression, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) production, nitrotyrosine and PAR formation, nuclear factor kB expression, and apoptosis (Fas-L, Bcl-2) activation. In addition to study whether the protective effect of PEA-um on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury is also related to the activation of PPAR-α, in a separate set of experiments it has been performed myocardial I/R in PPARα mice. Genetic ablation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α in PPAR-αKO mice exacerbated Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury when compared with PPAR-αWT mice. PEA-um induced cardioprotection in PPAR-α wild-type mice, but the same effect cannot be observed in PPAR-αKO mice. Our results have clearly shown a modulation of the inflammatory process, associated with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, following administration of PEA-um.

  10. Celulas solares e sensores de filme fino de silicio depositados sobre substratos flexiveis =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Emilio Sergio Marins Vieira

    Celulas solares flexiveis de filmes finos de silicio sao geralmente fabricadas a baixa temperatura sobre substratos de plastico ou a mais elevadas temperaturas sobre folhas de aco. Esta tese reporta o estudo da deposicao de filmes finos sobre diferentes substratos de plastico, transparentes e coloridos, para celulas solares do tipo sobrestrato e substrato, respectivamente. Como objetivo co-lateral, os filmes dopados depositados sobre plastico foram usados como sensores de deformacao, utilizando as suas propriedades piezo-resistivas. Elevadas taxas de deposicao dos filmes de silicio depositados sobre plastico foram obtidas a baixa temperatura do substrato (150ºC) por rf-PECVD. A influencia de diferentes parametros de deposicao sobre as propriedades e taxa de deposicao dos filmes resultantes foram estudados e correlacionados. Celulas solares de filmes finos de silicio amorfo e microcristalino foram desenvolvidas a baixas temperaturas sobre plasticos. Eficiencias de 5 - 6.5% foram alcancadas para as celulas amorfas e 7.5% para as celulas microcristalinas. Efeitos de aprisionamento da luz foram estudados atraves da texturizacao por ablacao laser de substratos de plastico e corrosao umida de TCO sobre plastico. Filmes finos de silicio microcristalino, depositados por HW-CVD, com fator piezoresistivo de -32.2, foram usados para fabricar sensores de deformacao em uma membrana plastica muito fina (15 μm). Estruturas de teste em textil e a miniaturizacao dos sensores piezoresistivos depositados sobre substratos flexiveis de poliimida foram abordados.

  11. The MAL-ED study: a multinational and multidisciplinary approach to understand the relationship between enteric pathogens, malnutrition, gut physiology, physical growth, cognitive development, and immune responses in infants and children up to 2 years of age in resource-poor environments.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Highly prevalent conditions with multiple and complex underlying etiologies are a challenge to public health. Undernutrition, for example, affects 20% of children in the developing world. The cause and consequence of poor nutrition are multifaceted. Undernutrition has been associated with half of all deaths worldwide in children aged <5 years; in addition, its pernicious long-term effects in early childhood have been associated with cognitive and physical growth deficits across multiple generations and have been thought to suppress immunity to further infections and to reduce the efficacy of childhood vaccines. The Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health (MAL-ED) Study, led by the Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, has been established at sites in 8 countries with historically high incidence of diarrheal disease and undernutrition. Central to the study is the hypothesis that enteropathogen infection contributes to undernutrition by causing intestinal inflammation and/or by altering intestinal barrier and absorptive function. It is further postulated that this leads to growth faltering and deficits in cognitive development. The effects of repeated enteric infection and undernutrition on the immune response to childhood vaccines is also being examined in the study. MAL-ED uses a prospective longitudinal design that offers a unique opportunity to directly address a complex system of exposures and health outcomes in the community-rather than the relatively rarer circumstances that lead to hospitalization-during the critical period of development of the first 2 years of life. Among the factors being evaluated are enteric infections (with or without diarrhea) and other illness indicators, micronutrient levels, diet, socioeconomic status, gut function, and the environment. MAL-ED aims to describe these

  12. Evolution and Persistence of 5-um Hot Spots at the Galileo Probe entry Latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. M.

    1997-01-01

    We present a study on the longtudinal locations, morphology and evolution of the 5-um hot spots at 6.5 deg. N latitude (planetocentric), from an extensive IRTF-NSFCAM data set spanning more that 3 years, which includes the date of the Galileo Probe entry.

  13. Use of "um" in the Deceptive Speech of a Convicted Murderer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Gina; Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a link between language behaviors and deception; however, questions remain about the role of specific linguistic cues, especially in real-life high-stakes lies. This study investigated use of the so-called filler, "um," in externally verifiable truthful versus deceptive speech of a convicted murderer. The data…

  14. Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, retaining wall at First U.M. Churchdetail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, retaining wall at First U.M. Church-detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 24um excesses in clusters & membership of NGC2244 (Meng+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, H. Y. A.; Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L.; Gaspar, A.

    2017-09-01

    We re-measured the Spitzer/MIPS 24um photometry for all the clusters except for a few noted in Appendix A. We obtained the 24um data from the Spitzer Heritage Archive between 2004 Jan 28 and 2008 Oct 23. (3 data files).

  16. Ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um(®)) in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Fusco, Roberta; Cordaro, Marika; Siracusa, Rosalba; Crupi, Rosalia; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic condition characterized by progressive scarring of lung parenchyma. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an ultramicronized preparation of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um(®)), an endogenous fatty acid amide, in mice subjected to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was induced in male mice by a single intratracheal administration of saline with bleomycin sulphate (1mg/kg body weight) in a volume of 100μL. PEA-um(®) was injected intraperitoneally at 1, 3 or 10mg/kg 1h after bleomycin instillation and daily thereafter. Animals were sacrificed after 7 and 21days by pentobarbitone overdose. One cohort of mice was sacrificed after seven days of bleomycin administration, followed by bronchoalveloar lavage and determination of myeloperoxidase activity, lung edema and histopathology features. In the 21-day cohort, mortality was assessed daily, and surviving mice were sacrificed followed by the above analyses together with immunohistochemical localization of CD8, tumor necrosis factor-α, CD4, interleukin-1β, transforming growth factor-β, inducible nitric oxide synthase and basic fibroblast growth factor. Compared to bleomycin-treated mice, animals that received also PEA-um(®) (3 or 10mg/kg) had significantly decreased weight loss, mortality, inflammation, lung damage at the histological level, and lung fibrosis at 7 and 21days. PEA-um(®) (1mg/kg) did not significantly inhibit the inflammation response and lung fibrosis. This study demonstrates that PEA-um(®) (3 and 10mg/kg) reduces the extent of lung inflammation in a mouse model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Avisos de salud sobre el PFOA y PFOS en el agua potable

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA estableció avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estatales, tribales y locales sobre los riesgos de

  18. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    en que vive es el planeta Tierra y que, probablemente por ese motivo, distingue con precisión, dentro de los limites de comprensión de la edad y madurez asociada, la tierra y la Tierra. O presente artigo analisa uma entrevista livre enquanto uma menina de quatro anos e quatro meses, matriculada na educação infantil, desenhava a Terra. A entrevista se realizou fora do ambiente escolar e sem qualquer outra pessoa por perto que pudesse interferir. De acordo com Ferreira & Silva (2004), para que o pesquisador conheça realmente o que uma criança põe no papel através de grafismos e/ou desenhos, é necessário ouvi-la durante o processo de criação do desenho. A menina apresenta, em relação à Terra, o tradicional desenho plano com o 'céu' paralelo ao solo, conforme já apresentaram Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Mas quando solicitada a desenhar o Mundo - palavra empregada em um trabalho por Butterworth et al. (2002), com intenção de não provocar 'confusões' desnecessárias para seus pesquisados - o representa de forma circular, colocando-se sobre sua superfície. Seus desenhos levaram à conclusão que esta criança ainda não tem conhecimento de que o Mundo em que vive é o Planeta Terra e que, provavelmente por este motivo, diferencia com precisão, dentro dos limites impostos por sua idade e consequente maturidade, a terra e a Terra.

  19. Otimização de procedimento de manobra para indução de reentrada de um satélite retornável

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, W.; Suarez, M.

    2003-08-01

    Veículos espaciais que retornam à Terra passam por regimes de velocidade e condições de vôo distintos. Estas diferenças dificultam sua concepção aerodinâmica e o planejamento de seu retorno. A partir de uma proposta de um veículo orbital retornável (satélite SARA, em desenvolvimento no IAE/CTA) para realização de experimentos científicos e tecnológicos em ambiente de baixa gravidade, surge a necessidade de realizarem-se estudos considerando-se os aspectos relativos à sua aerodinâmica. Após o lançamento, o veículo deve permanecer em órbita pelo tempo necessário para a condução de experimentos, sendo depois direcionado à Terra e recuperado em solo. A concepção aerodinâmica é de importância para o vôo em suas diversas fases e deve considerar aspectos relativos à estabilização Aerodinâmica e ao arrasto atmosférico, sendo este último de importância crucial na análise do aquecimento a ser enfrentado. A manobra de retorno inclui considerações sobre as condições atmosféricas e dinâmica de reentrada, devendo ser calculada de forma mais precisa possível. O trabalho proposto avalia estudos da dinâmica de vôo de um satélite recuperável considerando aspectos relativos à determinação orbital com GPS, técnica utilizada com sucesso na CONAE, e seu comportamento aerodinâmico em vôo balístico de retorno, com ênfase em sua fase de reentrada atmosférica. Busca-se otimizar a manobra de reentrada de tal forma que a utilização do sistema GPS garanta minimizar a área de impacto com o solo.

  20. The merging dwarf galaxy UM 448: chemodynamics of the ionized gas from VLT integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Barlow, M. J.; Walsh, J. R.; Westmoquette, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Using Very Large Telescope/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph optical integral field unit observations, we present a detailed study of UM 448, a nearby blue compact galaxy (BCG) previously reported to have an anomalously high N/O abundance ratio. New Technology Telescope/Superb-Seeing Imager images reveal a morphology suggestive of a merger of two systems of contrasting colour, whilst our Hα emission maps resolve UM 448 into three separate regions that do not coincide with the stellar continuum peaks. UM 448 exhibits complex emission line profiles, with most lines consisting of a narrow [full width at half-maximum (FWHM) ≲ 100 km s-1], central component, an underlying broad component (FWHM ˜ 150-300 km s-1) and a third, narrow blueshifted component. Radial velocity maps of all three components show signs of solid body rotation across UM 448, with a projected rotation axis that correlates with the continuum morphology of the galaxy. A spatially resolved, chemodynamical analysis, based on the [O iii] λλ4363, 4959, [N ii] λ6584, [S ii] λλ6716, 6731 and [Ne iii] λ3868 line maps, is presented. Whilst the eastern tail of UM 448 has electron temperatures (Te) that are typical of BCGs, we find a region within the main body of the galaxy where the narrow and broad [O iii] λ4363 line components trace temperatures differing by 5000 K and oxygen abundances differing by 0.4 dex. We measure spatially resolved and integrated ionic and elemental abundances for O, N, S and Ne throughout UM 448, and find that they do not agree, possibly due the flux weighting of Te from the integrated spectrum. This has significant implications for abundances derived from long-slit and integrated spectra of star-forming galaxies in the nearby and distant universe. A region of enhanced N/O ratio is indeed found, extended over a ˜0.6 kpc2 region within the main body of the galaxy. Contrary to previous studies, however, we do not find evidence for a large Wolf-Rayet (WR

  1. Uh and um in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders or Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Kyle; Olson, Lindsay; Presmanes Hill, Alison; Lunsford, Rebecca; Heeman, Peter A.; van Santen, Jan P. H.

    2016-01-01

    Atypical pragmatic language is often present in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with delays or deficits in structural language. This study investigated the use of the “fillers” uh and um by children ages 4–8 during the autism diagnostic observation schedule. Fillers reflect speakers’ difficulties with planning and delivering speech, but they also serve communicative purposes, such as negotiating control of the floor or conveying uncertainty. We hypothesized that children with ASD would use different patterns of fillers compared to peers with typical development or with specific language impairment (SLI), reflecting differences in social ability and communicative intent. Regression analyses revealed that children in the ASD group were much less likely to use um than children in the other two groups. Filler use is an easy-to-quantify feature of behavior that, in concert with other observations, may help to distinguish ASD from SLI. PMID:26800246

  2. Observations of the new gravitational lens system UM 673 = Q 0142-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdej, J.; Magain, P.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Kayer, R.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kuhr, H.; Refsdal, S.

    1988-06-01

    The authors have recently initiated a high resolution direct imaging survey of a selected sample of highly luminous quasars (HLQs). The observations are carried out with the 2.2 m telescope at ESO, and with the VLA at the NRAO, New Mexico. Following the first observing run at ESO, the authors have reported the discovery of a new gravitational lens system for the HLQ UM 673 = Q 0142-100. Additional observations supporting this interpretation are discussed here. Application of gravitational optometry to this system is given: a value of M0 = 2.4×1011M_sun; is derived for the mass of the lensing galaxy located between UM 673 A and B and a most likely estimate of Δt = 7 weeks is found for the expected delay between the arrival times of a similar variability event in the two lensed images of the quasar (H0 = 75 km s-1Mpc-1, q0 = 0).

  3. Variability of the broad absorption lines in the QSO UM 232

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Thomas A.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret

    1989-01-01

    Low-resolution spectra of UM 232 taken in 1978, 1979, and 1988 at Lick Observatory are presented. Large changes in the Si IV lambda 1397, CIV lambda 1549, and Al III lambda 1857 broad absorption lines are apparent. The decrease in column density in all three ions and an observed brightening of the QSO suggests that these changes are due to an increase in the ionization level driven by an increase in the central source luminosity. This mechanism has been proposed by Smith and Penston to explain small changes in the absorption spectrum of the QSO 1246-057. The spectra of UM 232 show that the fractional decrease in optical depth is smaller at higher outflow velocies. The structure of the broad absorption-line region (BALR) is investigted by estimating an ionization parameter for each ion species as a function of velocity.

  4. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2003-08-01

    A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

  5. En cumplimiento con la orden ejecutiva del presidente Trump sobre la Independencia Energética

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Acciones reglamentarias tomadas por la EPA, incluyendo audiencias públicas, para implementar la Orden Ejecutiva sobre la Independencia Energética y la propuesta derogación del Plan de Energía Limpia.

  6. Avaliação do conhecimento de pacientes diabéticos sobre medidas preventivas do pé diabético em Maringá (PR)

    PubMed Central

    Carlesso, Guilherme Pereira; Gonçalves, Mariana Helena Barboza; Moreschi, Dorival

    2017-01-01

    Resumo Contexto O atual envelhecimento da população tem gerado maior predominância de doenças crônicas, como o diabetes, a qual está associada a um risco elevado de complicações crônicas e agudas. Entre essas, o pé diabético (PD) destaca-se por possuir alta incidência e grande poder mutilador. Objetivo Avaliar o conhecimento da população diabética das Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS) de Maringá (PR) sobre a prevenção do PD. Métodos Estudo descritivo, quantitativo, tipo inquérito por entrevista. A população estudada foi composta por 80 portadores de diabetes, cadastrados em UBS de Maringá (PR). A coleta de dados buscou levantar dados sociodemográficos e epidemiológicos, bem como as atitudes de controle do diabetes e do autocuidado para prevenção do PD. Resultados Do total de entrevistados, nove não realizavam qualquer tipo de exame para controle do diabetes e a renda mensal predominante foi de até um salário mínimo. O grau de escolaridade e a renda mensal não se mostraram relevantes em relação ao conhecimento de cuidados preventivos do PD e nem uma maior adesão a hábitos de vida saudáveis. O cuidado com o PD tende a melhorar à medida que exista uma compreensão mais clara dos fatores que conduzem à perda do membro e um crescente consenso sobre a gestão de vários aspectos clínicos do cuidado com o pé. Conclusão Existe uma falta de aprendizado das medidas preventivas, mesmo nos pacientes com algum nível de instrução, o que induz a uma prática deficiente de cuidados.

  7. Fermentation optimization for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions and medium for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01 were investigated by using orthogonal design and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angel laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID). Results showed that the optimal temperature, initial pH, rotation speed, medium capacity (ratio of medium volume to the volume of flask bottle) and inoculums volume for the mycelium growth were 15 °C, pH 6.0, 150 rpm, 2/5 (v/v), and 3% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of C. sinensis fungus UM01 were determined as polysaccharide fractions with the molecular weight above 10 kDa. The optimal fermentation medium was determined as a composition of glucose 30.0 g/L, sucrose 30.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, CaCl2 0.5 g/L, yeast extract 3.0 g/L, and MgCl2 0.1g/L according to the maximum amount of the bioactive polysaccharides (486.16±19.60 mg/L) measured by HPSEC-MALLS/RID. Results are helpful to establish an efficient and controllable fermentation process for the industrial production of bioactive polysaccharides from C. sinensis UM01, and beneficial to develop a unique health and functional product in future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MIPS 24um nebulae (Gvaramadze+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Fabrika, S.

    2011-03-01

    Massive evolved stars lose a large fraction of their mass via copious stellar wind or instant outbursts. During certain evolutionary phases, they can be identified by the presence of their circumstellar nebulae. In this paper, we present the results of a search for compact nebulae (reminiscent of circumstellar nebulae around evolved massive stars) using archival 24um data obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. We have discovered 115 nebulae, most of which bear a striking resemblance to the circumstellar nebulae associated with luminous blue variables (LBVs) and late WN-type (WNL) Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). (1 data file).

  9. Low-Power Differential SRAM design for SOC Based on the 25-um Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godugunuri, Sivaprasad; Dara, Naveen; Sambasiva Nayak, R.; Nayeemuddin, Md; Singh, Yadu, Dr.; Veda, R. N. S. Sunil

    2017-08-01

    In recent, the SOC styles area unit the vast complicated styles in VLSI these SOC styles having important low-power operations problems, to comprehend this we tend to enforced low-power SRAM. However these SRAM Architectures critically affects the entire power of SOC and competitive space. To beat the higher than disadvantages, during this paper, a low-power differential SRAM design is planned. The differential SRAM design stores multiple bits within the same cell, operates at minimum in operation low-tension and space per bit. The differential SRAM design designed supported the 25-um technology using Tanner-EDA Tool.

  10. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  11. A Visão do Universo Segundo a Concepção de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. A. A.; Elias, D. C. N.; Amaral, L. H.; Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-12-01

    Nesse trabalho foi identificada por meio de um questionário a visão de mundo sobre o Universo espaço e tempo entre 270 estudantes de Ensino Médio de três escolas de São Paulo. Constatou-se pouco conhecimento dos temas investigados sendo que apenas 20% dos alunos relacionaram as semanas com as fases da lua enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra e 23% tinham noções das distâncias entre objetos celestes próximos da Terra. Enquanto 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo verificou-se que 37% reconheciam ano-luz como unidade de distância e 60% reconheciam o Sol como uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem a escola como principal fonte dos conhecimentos de astronomia seus conceitos ainda são inadequados havendo necessidade de aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos pois apesar de popular a astronomia é veiculada de maneira pouco esclarecedora e com imprecissões.

  12. High Frequency GaAs Bulk Acousto-Optic Devices For Modulators And Frequency Shifters At 1.3um And 1.5um In Fiber-Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soos, J. I.; Rosemeier, R. G.

    1989-02-01

    The edge of a transmission window for a GaAs Bragg cell starts about lum, which allows this material to be used for infrared fiber-optic applications, especially at 1.3um and 1.5um. The single crystal of GaAs is acoustically anisotropic and has the highest figure of merit, M2, along <111> direction for a longitudinal mode sound wave. Recently, Brimrose has designed and fabricated an acousto-optic modulator from GaAs operating at a carrier frequency of 2.3 GHz with a diffraction efficiency of 4%/RF watt.

  13. Activation pathways of synovial T lymphocytes. Expression and function of the UM4D4/CDw60 antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, D A; Millard, J A; Kan, L; Zeldes, W S; Davis, W; Higgs, J; Emmrich, F; Kinne, R W

    1990-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates a central role for synovial T cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, but the activation pathways that drive proliferation and effector function of these cells are not known. We have recently generated a novel monoclonal antibody against a rheumatoid synovial T cell line that recognizes an antigen termed UM4D4 (CDw60). This antigen is expressed on a minority of peripheral blood T cells, and represents the surface component of a distinct pathway of human T cell activation. The current studies were performed to examine the expression and function of UM4D4 on T cells obtained from synovial fluid and synovial membranes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory joint disease. The UM4D4 antigen is expressed at high surface density on about three-fourths of synovial fluid T cells and on a small subset of synovial fluid natural killer cells; in synovial tissue it is present on more than 90% of T cells in lymphoid aggregates, and on approximately 50% of T cells in stromal infiltrates In addition, UM4D4 is expressed in synovial tissue on a previously undescribed population of HLA-DR/DP-negative non-T cells with a dendritic morphology. Anti-UM4D4 was co-mitogenic for both RA and non-RA synovial fluid mononuclear cells, and induced IL-2 receptor expression. The UM4D4/CDw60 antigen may represent a functional activation pathway for synovial compartment T cells, which could play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis. Images PMID:2212003

  14. "Uh," "Um," and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Christina A.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Filler disfluencies--"uh" and "um"--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an "optimal outcome" (OO), as well as in peers with typical…

  15. "Um, I Can Tell You're Lying": Linguistic Markers of Deception versus Truth-Telling in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David; Villar, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Lying is a deliberate attempt to transmit messages that mislead others. Analysis of language behaviors holds great promise as an objective method of detecting deception. The current study reports on the frequency of use and acoustic nature of "um" and "like" during laboratory-elicited lying versus truth-telling. Results obtained using a…

  16. Los Protectores del Planeta: actividades para niños y recursos educativos sobre reciclaje

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Información sobre el Club Protectores del Planeta que enseña cómo reducir la basura desde el punto de origen, cómo reciclar y conservar los recursos naturales. La información incluye recursos educativos para el salón de clases.

  17. Obtenga más información sobre la etiqueta Safer Choice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Entérese más acerca del programa EPA Diseño para el medio ambiente, incluyendo información sobre su historia, proyectos anteriores y otros programas de la EPA que están relacionados con este programa.

  18. Hoja informativa sobre la Agenda de Acción EJ 2020

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Página principal de la hoja informativa sobre la Agenda de Acción EJ 2020 de la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU. que delinea el plan estratégico de justicia ambiental de la agencia para los próximos cuatro años.

  19. Some Research-Based Issues and Recommendations Expressed at the Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Ernesto M.

    The first Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue (International Seminar on Bilingual Education), under the aegis of the National Association for Bilingual Education and the Mexican secretary for public education, brought together professionals from Canada, the United States, and Mexico in Oaxtepec, Mexico in November 1986 to share…

  20. Microwave-Assisted Extraction, Chemical Structures, and Chain Conformation of Polysaccharides from a Novel Cordyceps Sinensis Fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wang, Lan-Ying; Wu, Ding-Tao; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a well-known tonic food with broad medicinal properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and characterize chemical structures and chain conformation of polysaccharides from a novel C. sinensis fungus UM01. Ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify the polysaccharides. The chemical structure of purified polysaccharide was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with refractive index detector and multiangle laser light scattering were conducted to analyze the molecular weight (Mw ) and chain conformation of purified polysaccharide. Based on the orthogonal design L9 , optimal MAE conditions could be obtained through 1300 W of microwave power, with a 5-min irradiation time at a solid to water ratio of 1:60, generating the highest extraction yield of 6.20%. Subsequently, the polysaccharide UM01-S1 was purified. The UM01-S1 is a glucan-type polysaccharide with a (1→4)-β-d-glucosyl backbone and branching points located at O-3 of Glcp with a terminal-d-Glcp. The Mw , radius of gyration (Rg ) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) of UM01-S1 were determined as 5.442 × 10(6)  Da, 21.8 and 20.2 nm, respectively. Using the polymer solution theory, the exponent (ν) value of the power law function was calculated as 0.38, and the shape factor (ρ = Rg /Rh ) was 1.079, indicating that UM01-S1 has a sphere-like conformation with a branched structure in an aqueous solution. These results provide fundamental information for the future application of polysaccharides from cultured C. sinensis in health and functional food area. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Ford/BASF/UM Activities in Support of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Veenstra, Mike; Purewal, Justin; Xu, Chunchuan

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically on the development of low-cost, on-board hydrogen storage technologies capable of achieving high energy densities and fast kinetics for hydrogen uptake and release. As present-day technologies -- which rely on physical storage methods such as compressed hydrogen -- are incapable of attaining established Department of Energy (DOE) targets, development of materials-based approaches for storing hydrogen have garnered increasing attention. Material-based storage technologies have potential to store hydrogen beyond twice the density of liquid hydrogen. To hasten development of these ‘hydride’ materials, the DOE previously established three centers of excellence formore » materials storage R&D associated with the key classes of materials: metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen, and adsorbents. While these centers made progress in identifying new storage materials, the challenges associated with the engineering of the system around a candidate storage material are in need of further advancement. In 2009 the DOE established the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence with the objective of developing innovative engineering concepts for materials-based hydrogen storage systems. As a partner in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence, the Ford-UM-BASF team conducted a multi-faceted research program that addresses key engineering challenges associated with the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems. First, we developed a novel framework that allowed for a material-based hydrogen storage system to be modeled and operated within a virtual fuel cell vehicle. This effort resulted in the ability to assess dynamic operating parameters and interactions between the storage system and fuel cell power plant, including the evaluation of performance throughout various drive cycles. Second, we engaged in cost modeling of various incarnations of the storage systems. This analysis

  2. The French Muséum national d'histoire naturelle vascular plant herbarium collection dataset.

    PubMed

    Le Bras, Gwenaël; Pignal, Marc; Jeanson, Marc L; Muller, Serge; Aupic, Cécile; Carré, Benoît; Flament, Grégoire; Gaudeul, Myriam; Gonçalves, Claudia; Invernón, Vanessa R; Jabbour, Florian; Lerat, Elodie; Lowry, Porter P; Offroy, Bérangère; Pimparé, Eva Pérez; Poncy, Odile; Rouhan, Germinal; Haevermans, Thomas

    2017-02-14

    We provide a quantitative description of the French national herbarium vascular plants collection dataset. Held at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, it currently comprises records for 5,400,000 specimens, representing 90% of the estimated total of specimens. Ninety nine percent of the specimen entries are linked to one or more images and 16% have field-collecting information available. This major botanical collection represents the results of over three centuries of exploration and study. The sources of the collection are global, with a strong representation for France, including overseas territories, and former French colonies. The compilation of this dataset was made possible through numerous national and international projects, the most important of which was linked to the renovation of the herbarium building. The vascular plant collection is actively expanding today, hence the continuous growth exhibited by the dataset, which can be fully accessed through the GBIF portal or the MNHN database portal (available at: https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/search/form). This dataset is a major source of data for systematics, global plants macroecological studies or conservation assessments.

  3. The French Muséum national d'histoire naturelle vascular plant herbarium collection dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bras, Gwenaël; Pignal, Marc; Jeanson, Marc L.; Muller, Serge; Aupic, Cécile; Carré, Benoît; Flament, Grégoire; Gaudeul, Myriam; Gonçalves, Claudia; Invernón, Vanessa R.; Jabbour, Florian; Lerat, Elodie; Lowry, Porter P.; Offroy, Bérangère; Pimparé, Eva Pérez; Poncy, Odile; Rouhan, Germinal; Haevermans, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    We provide a quantitative description of the French national herbarium vascular plants collection dataset. Held at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, it currently comprises records for 5,400,000 specimens, representing 90% of the estimated total of specimens. Ninety nine percent of the specimen entries are linked to one or more images and 16% have field-collecting information available. This major botanical collection represents the results of over three centuries of exploration and study. The sources of the collection are global, with a strong representation for France, including overseas territories, and former French colonies. The compilation of this dataset was made possible through numerous national and international projects, the most important of which was linked to the renovation of the herbarium building. The vascular plant collection is actively expanding today, hence the continuous growth exhibited by the dataset, which can be fully accessed through the GBIF portal or the MNHN database portal (available at: https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/search/form). This dataset is a major source of data for systematics, global plants macroecological studies or conservation assessments.

  4. Direct Generation and Detection of Quantum Correlated Photons with 3.2 um Wavelength Spacing.

    PubMed

    Sua, Yong Meng; Fan, Heng; Shahverdi, Amin; Chen, Jia-Yang; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2017-12-13

    Quantum correlated, highly non-degenerate photons can be used to synthesize disparate quantum nodes and link quantum processing over incompatible wavelengths, thereby constructing heterogeneous quantum systems for otherwise unattainable superior performance. Existing techniques for correlated photons have been concentrated in the visible and near-IR domains, with the photon pairs residing within one micron. Here, we demonstrate direct generation and detection of high-purity photon pairs at room temperature with 3.2 um wavelength spacing, one at 780 nm to match the rubidium D2 line, and the other at 3950 nm that falls in a transparent, low-scattering optical window for free space applications. The pairs are created via spontaneous parametric downconversion in a lithium niobate waveguide with specially designed geometry and periodic poling. The 780 nm photons are measured with a silicon avalanche photodiode, and the 3950 nm photons are measured with an upconversion photon detector using a similar waveguide, which attains 34% internal conversion efficiency. Quantum correlation measurement yields a high coincidence-to-accidental ratio of 54, which indicates the strong correlation with the extremely non-degenerate photon pairs. Our system bridges existing quantum technology to the challenging mid-IR regime, where unprecedented applications are expected in quantum metrology and sensing, quantum communications, medical diagnostics, and so on.

  5. Mineral chemistry and geochemistry of ophiolitic metaultramafics from Um Halham and Fawakhir, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Karim, Abdel-Aal M.; Ali, Shehata; El-Shafei, Shaimaa A.

    2018-03-01

    This study is focused on ophiolitic metaultramafics from Um Halham and Fawakhir, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. The rocks include serpentinized peridotites, serpentinites together with talc- and quartz-carbonates. The primary spinel relict is Al-chromite [Cr# > 60], which is replaced by Cr-magnetite during metamorphism. The high Cr# of Al-chromites resembles supra-subduction zone (SSZ) peridotites and suggests derivation from the deeper portion of the mantle section with boninitic affinity. These mantle rocks equilibrated with boninitic melt have been generated by high melting degrees. The estimated melting degrees ( 19-24%) lie within the range of SSZ peridotites. The high Cr# of spinel and Fo content of olivine together with the narrow compositional range suggest a mantle residual origin. Serpentinized peridotite and serpentinites have low Al2O3/SiO2 ratios (mostly < 0.03) like fore-arc mantle wedge serpentinites and further indicate that their mantle protolith had experienced partial melting before serpentinization process. Moreover, they have very low Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf concentrations along with sub-chondritic Nb/Ta (0.3-16) and Zr/Hf (mostly 1-20) ratios further confirming that their mantle source was depleted by earlier melting extraction event. The high chondrite normalized (La/Sm)N ratios (average 10) reflect input of subduction-related slab melts/fluids into their mantle source.

  6. The French Muséum national d’histoire naturelle vascular plant herbarium collection dataset

    PubMed Central

    Le Bras, Gwenaël; Pignal, Marc; Jeanson, Marc L.; Muller, Serge; Aupic, Cécile; Carré, Benoît; Flament, Grégoire; Gaudeul, Myriam; Gonçalves, Claudia; Invernón, Vanessa R.; Jabbour, Florian; Lerat, Elodie; Lowry, Porter P.; Offroy, Bérangère; Pimparé, Eva Pérez; Poncy, Odile; Rouhan, Germinal; Haevermans, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We provide a quantitative description of the French national herbarium vascular plants collection dataset. Held at the Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, Paris, it currently comprises records for 5,400,000 specimens, representing 90% of the estimated total of specimens. Ninety nine percent of the specimen entries are linked to one or more images and 16% have field-collecting information available. This major botanical collection represents the results of over three centuries of exploration and study. The sources of the collection are global, with a strong representation for France, including overseas territories, and former French colonies. The compilation of this dataset was made possible through numerous national and international projects, the most important of which was linked to the renovation of the herbarium building. The vascular plant collection is actively expanding today, hence the continuous growth exhibited by the dataset, which can be fully accessed through the GBIF portal or the MNHN database portal (available at: https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/search/form). This dataset is a major source of data for systematics, global plants macroecological studies or conservation assessments. PMID:28195585

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A dust model for bet Pic from 0.58 to 870um (Ballering+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballering, N. P.; Su, K. Y. L.; Rieke, G. H.; Gaspar, A.

    2016-08-01

    β Pic was imaged with the HST/STIS CCD in coronagraphic (50CORON) mode under program GO-12551 (PI: Apai), and the results of these observations were published in Apai et al. (2015ApJ...800..136A). The instrument bandpass is set by the response of the CCD and centered at 0.58um. We searched the HST archive and found previously unpublished observations of β Pic with the WFC3 instrument in the IR channel (filter F110W at ~1.16um) from program GO-11150 (PI: Graham). The Spitzer/MIPS observations of β Pic were taken under the Spitzer Guaranteed Time Observing Program 90 (PI: M. Werner). The data at all three bands (24, 70, and 160um) are published here for the first time. Two sets of 24um observations were obtained. The first set was obtained on 2004 March 20, the second set of data was obtained on 2004 April 11. Two sets of 70um observations were obtained. The first set was obtained on 2004 April 12. The second set was obtained on 2005 April 4. Herschel/PACS 70um scan map observations of β Pic (PI G. Olofsson, observation IDs 1342186612 and 1342186613) were published by Vandenbussche et al. (2010A&A...518L.133V). We used the ALMA 870um continuum image previously published by Dent et al. (2014Sci...343.1490D). (1 data file).

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SG1120-1202 members HST imaging & 24um fluxes (Monroe+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroe, J. T.; Tran, K.-V. H.; Gonzalez, A. H.

    2017-09-01

    We employ HST imaging of an ~8'x12' mosaic across three filters: F390W (WFC3/UVIS), F606W (ACS/WFC), and F814W (ACS/WFC) for a total of 44 pointings (combined primary and parallels) during cycles 14 (GO 10499) and 19 (GO 12470). We use the Spitzer MIPS 24um fluxes from Saintonge+ (2008ApJ...685L.113S) and Tran+ (2009ApJ...705..809T). The 24um observations were retrieved from the Spitzer archive. For details on spectroscopy from multi-band ground-based observations using Magellan (in 2006), MMT, and VLT/VIMOS (in 2003), we refer the reader to Tran+ (2009ApJ...705..809T). (1 data file).

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Herschel SPIRE/FTS 194-671um survey of GOALS LIRGs (Lu+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, N.; Zhao, Y.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Armus, L.; Isaak, K. G.; Mazzarella, J. M.; van der Werf, P. P.; Appleton, P. N.; Charmandaris, V.; Evans, A. S.; Howell, J.; Iwasawa, K.; Leech, J.; Lord, S.; Petric, A. O.; Privon, G. C.; Sanders, D. B.; Schulz, B.; Surace, J. A.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we presented a Herschel SPIRE/FTS 194-671um spectroscopic survey of 121 galaxies belonging to a complete, flux-limited sample of 123 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) down to a total IR flux of 6.5x10-13W/m2, selected from the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS; Armus+ 2009PASP..121..559A). All 123 observed targets are listed in Table 1. (3 data files).

  10. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 12um ISOCAM survey of the ESO-Sculptor field (Seymour+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, N.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; de Lapparent, V.

    2007-11-01

    We present a detailed reduction of a mid-infrared 12um (LW10 filter) ISOCAM open time observation performed on the ESO-Sculptor Survey field (Arnouts et al., 1997A&AS..124..163A). A complete catalogue of 142 sources (120 galaxies and 22 stars), detected with high significance (equivalent to 5{sigma}), is presented above an integrated flux density of 0.31mJy. Star/galaxy separation is performed by a detailed study of colour-colour diagrams. The catalogue is complete to 1mJy and, below this flux density, the incompleteness is corrected using two independent methods. The first method uses stars and the second uses optical counterparts of the ISOCAM galaxies; these methods yield consistent results. We also apply an empirical flux density calibration using stars in the field. For each star, the 12um flux density is derived by fitting optical colours from a multi-band {chi}2 to stellar templates (BaSel-2.0) and using empirical optical-IR colour-colour relations. This article is a companion analysis to our 2007 paper (Rocca-Volmerange et al. 2007A&A...475..801R) where the 12um faint galaxy counts are presented and analysed per galaxy type with the evolutionary code PEGASE.3. (1 data file).

  12. CrpP Is a Novel Ciprofloxacin-Modifying Enzyme Encoded by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa pUM505 Plasmid.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Jacobo, Víctor M; Hernández-Ramírez, Karen C; Romo-Rodríguez, Pamela; Pérez-Gallardo, Rocío Viridiana; Campos-García, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Corona, J Félix; García-Merinos, Juan Pablo; Meza-Carmen, Víctor; Silva-Sánchez, Jesús; Ramírez-Díaz, Martha I

    2018-06-01

    The pUM505 plasmid, isolated from a clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate, confers resistance to ciprofloxacin (CIP) when transferred into the standard P. aeruginosa strain PAO1. CIP is an antibiotic of the quinolone family that is used to treat P. aeruginosa infections. In silico analysis, performed to identify CIP resistance genes, revealed that the 65-amino-acid product encoded by the orf131 gene in pUM505 displays 40% amino acid identity to the Mycobacterium smegmatis aminoglycoside phosphotransferase (an enzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates aminoglycoside antibiotics). We cloned orf131 (renamed crpP , for c iprofloxacin r esistance p rotein, p lasmid encoded) into the pUCP20 shuttle vector. The resulting recombinant plasmid, pUC- crpP , conferred resistance to CIP on Escherichia coli strain J53-3, suggesting that this gene encodes a protein involved in CIP resistance. Using coupled enzymatic analysis, we determined that the activity of CrpP on CIP is ATP dependent, while little activity against norfloxacin was detected, suggesting that CIP may undergo phosphorylation. Using a recombinant His-tagged CrpP protein and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we also showed that CIP was phosphorylated prior to its degradation. Thus, our findings demonstrate that CrpP, encoded on the pUM505 plasmid, represents a new mechanism of CIP resistance in P. aeruginosa , which involves phosphorylation of the antibiotic. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Project UM-HAUL: A self-unloading reusable lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The establishment of a lunar base is technologically and financially challenging. Given the necessary resources and political support, it can be done. In addition to the geopolitical obstacles, however, there are logistical problems involved in establishing such bases that can only be overcome with the acquisition of a significant transportation and communications network in the Earth-Moon spatial region. Considering the significant number of payloads that will be required in this process, the mass-specific cost of launching these payloads, and the added risk and cost of human presence in space, it is clearly desirable to automate major parts of such an operation. One very costly and time-consuming factor in this picture is the delivery of payloads to the Moon. Foreseeable payloads would include atmospheric modules, inflatable habitat kits, energy and oxygen plant elements, ground vehicles, laboratory modules, crew supplies, etc. The duration of high-risk human presence on the Moon could be greatly reduced if all such payloads were delivered to the prospective base site in advance of crew arrival. In this view, the idea of a 'Self-Unloading Reusable Lunar Lander' (SURLL) arises naturally. The general scenario depicts the lander being brought to low lunar orbit (LLO) from Earth atop a generic Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). From LLO, the lander shuttles payloads down to the lunar surface, where, by means of some resident, detachable unloading device, it deploys the payloads and returns to orbit. The general goal is for the system to perform with maximum payload capability, automation, and reliability, while also minimizing environmental hazards, servicing needs, and mission costs. Our response to this demand is UM-HAUL, or the UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander. The complete study includes a system description, along with a preliminary cost analysis and a design status assessment.

  14. Project UM-HAUL: A self-unloading reusable lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The establishment of a lunar base is technologically and financially challenging. Given the necessary resources and political support, it can be done. In addition to the geopolitical obstacles, however, there are logistical problems involved in establishing such bases that can only be overcome with the acquisition of a significant transportation and communications network in the Earth-Moon spatial region. Considering the significant number of payloads that will be required in this process, the mass-specific cost of launching these payloads, and the added risk and cost of human presence in space, it is clearly desirable to automate major parts of such an operation. One very costly and time-consuming factor in this picture is the delivery of payloads to the Moon. Foreseeable payloads would include atmospheric modules, inflatable habitat kits, energy and oxygen plant elements, ground vehicles, laboratory modules, crew supplies, etc. The duration of high-risk human presence on the Moon could be greatly reduced if all such payloads were delivered to the prospective base site in advance of crew arrival. In this view, the idea of a 'Self-Unloading Reusable Lunar Lander' (SURLL) arises naturally. The general scenario depicts the lander being brought to low lunar orbit (LLO) from Earth atop a generic Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). From LLO, the lander shuttles payloads down to the lunar surface, where, by means of some resident, detachable unloading device, it deploys the payloads and returns to orbit. The general goal is for the system to perform with maximum payload capability, automation, and reliability, while also minimizing environmental hazards, servicing needs, and mission costs. Our response to this demand is UM-HAUL, or the UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander. The complete study includes a system description, along with a preliminary cost analysis and a design status assessment.

  15. Scratching beneath the Surface of Communities of (Mal)practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pemberton, Jon; Mavin, Sharon; Stalker, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to surface less positive aspects of communities of practice (CoPs), regardless of emergent or organisationally managed, grounded in political-power interactions. Examples are provided from the authors' experiences of a research-based CoP within UK higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is primarily…

  16. Daytime encopresis associated with gland mal epileptic seizures: case report.

    PubMed

    Oyatsi, D P

    2005-08-01

    Sphincteric incontinence of stool and urine are not unusual features of generalised epileptic seizures. Isolated secondary encopresis as a manifestation of an epileptic seizure is unusual. This report is of, a four year old boy, with daytime secondary non-retentive encopresis. The onset of encopresis was preceded by several episodes of nocturnal generalised tonic clonic epileptic seizures. An electroencephalogram showed features consistent with complex partial seizures. He was commenced on anti-epileptic treatment with phenytoin sodium, and by the third day of treatment, the patient had achieved stool control.

  17. Mal-Xtract: Hidden Code Extraction using Memory Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Charles; Syailendra Kotualubun, Yohanes; Suryadi; Ramli, Kalamullah

    2017-01-01

    Software packer has been used effectively to hide the original code inside a binary executable, making it more difficult for existing signature based anti malware software to detect malicious code inside the executable. A new method of written and rewritten memory section is introduced to to detect the exact end time of unpacking routine and extract original code from packed binary executable using Memory Analysis running in an software emulated environment. Our experiment results show that at least 97% of the original code from the various binary executable packed with different software packers could be extracted. The proposed method has also been successfully extracted hidden code from recent malware family samples.

  18. NE VIII lambda 774 and time variable associated absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa; Lyons, R.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption system of the z(sub e) = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at z(sub a) = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from z(sub e) strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 10(exp 18)/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 10(exp 20)/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link z(sub a) approximately equal to z(sub e) systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the

  19. Microwave window breakdown experiments and simulations on the UM/L-3 relativistic magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, B. W.; Mardahl, P. J.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Haworth, M. D.; French, D. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Franzi, M.

    2009-09-01

    Experiments have been performed on the UM/L-3 (6-vane, L-band) relativistic magnetron to test a new microwave window configuration designed to limit vacuum side breakdown. In the baseline case, acrylic microwave windows were mounted between three of the waveguide coupling cavities in the anode block vacuum housing and the output waveguides. Each of the six 3 cm deep coupling cavities is separated from its corresponding anode cavity by a 1.75 cm wide aperture. In the baseline case, vacuum side window breakdown was observed to initiate at single waveguide output powers close to 20 MW. In the new window configuration, three Air Force Research Laboratory-designed, vacuum-rated directional coupler waveguide segments were mounted between the coupling cavities and the microwave windows. The inclusion of the vacuum side power couplers moved the microwave windows an additional 30 cm away from the anode apertures. Additionally, the Lucite microwave windows were replaced with polycarbonate windows and the microwave window mounts were redesigned to better maintain waveguide continuity in the region around the microwave windows. No vacuum side window breakdown was observed in the new window configuration at single waveguide output powers of 120+MW (a factor of 3 increase in measured microwave pulse duration and factor of 3 increase in measured peak power over the baseline case). Simulations were performed to investigate likely causes for the window breakdown in the original configuration. Results from these simulations have shown that in the original configuration, at typical operating voltage and magnetic field ranges, electrons emitted from the anode block microwave apertures strike the windows with a mean kinetic energy of 33 keV with a standard deviation of 14 keV. Calculations performed using electron impact angle and energy data predict a first generation secondary electron yield of 65% of the primary electron population. The effects of the primary aperture electron

  20. NE VIII lambda 774 and time variable associated absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa; Lyons, R.

    1995-04-01

    We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the za approximately equal ze absorption system of the ze = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at za = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from ze strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other za approximately equal ze absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 1018/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 1020/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link za approximately equal to ze systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the Ne VIII absorbing gas would itself produce measurable warm

  1. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  2. Trace elements and isotope data of the Um Garayat gold deposit, Wadi Allaqi district, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoheir, Basem; Emam, Ashraf; Pitcairn, Iain K.; Boskabadi, Arman; Lehaye, Yann; Cooper, Matthew J.

    2018-04-01

    Trace element composition of sulfides and O, C, Sr and S isotopic data are assessed to constrain the evolution and potential fluid and metal sources of the Um Garayat gold deposit. Ore microscopy and BSE investigations of quartz veins show blocky arsenopyrite and pyrite replaced in part by pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, and gersdorffite. Free-milling gold occurs commonly in close association with the late sulfides, and along fractures in pyrite. On the other hand, recrystallized pyrite is disseminated in host metavolcaniclastic/metasedimentary rocks that commonly contain carbonaceous material. In situ LA-ICP-MS analysis of sulfides shows the recrystallized pyrite enriched in most trace elements, while blocky pyrite contains only some traces of arsenic. Detected concentrations of gold (up to 17 ppm) were only reported in arsenopyrite disseminated in quartz veins. The δ34S values of blocky pyrite and pyrrhotite in quartz veins define a narrow range (1.6 to 3.7‰), suggesting a homogenous sulfur source which is consistent with the dominantly mafic host rocks. The recrystallized pyrite has a distinctive sulfur isotope composition (δ34S - 9.3 to - 10.6‰), which is rather comparable to diagenetic sulfides. Hydrothermal carbonate in quartz veins and wallrock have nearly constant values of δ18O (10.5 to 11.9‰) and δ13C (- 4.2 to - 5.5‰). Based on constraints from mineral assemblages and chlorite thermometry, data of six samples indicate that carbonate precipitation occurred at 280 °C from a homogenous hydrothermal fluid with δ18OH2O 4.4 ± 0.7‰ and δ13C = 3.7 ± 0.8‰. Strontium isotope values of two samples (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7024 and 0.7025) are similar to the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of island arc metabasalts ( 710 Ma) in the South Eastern Desert. The generally homogenous sulfur, C, O, Sr isotope data are suggestive of metamorphogenic fluids, likely produced from dominantly mafic volcanic rocks at the greenschist-amphibolite facies transition.

  3. The U. S. Geological Survey, Digital Spectral Library: Version 1 (0.2 to 3.0um)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Gallagher, Andrea J.; King, Trude V.V.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a digital reflectance spectral library, with management and spectral analysis software. The library includes 498 spectra of 444 samples (some samples include a series of grain sizes) measured from approximately 0.2 to 3.0 um . The spectral resolution (Full Width Half Maximum) of the reflectance data is <= 4 nm in the visible (0.2-0.8 um) and <= 10 nm in the NIR (0.8-2.35 um). All spectra were corrected to absolute reflectance using an NIST Halon standard. Library management software lets users search on parameters (e.g. chemical formulae, chemical analyses, purity of samples, mineral groups, etc.) as well as spectral features. Minerals from borate, carbonate, chloride, element, halide, hydroxide, nitrate, oxide, phosphate, sulfate, sulfide, sulfosalt, and the silicate (cyclosilicate, inosilicate, nesosilicate, phyllosilicate, sorosilicate, and tectosilicate) classes are represented. X-Ray and chemical analyses are tabulated for many of the entries, and all samples have been evaluated for spectral purity. The library also contains end and intermediate members for the olivine, garnet, scapolite, montmorillonite, muscovite, jarosite, and alunite solid-solution series. We have included representative spectra of H2O ice, kerogen, ammonium-bearing minerals, rare-earth oxides, desert varnish coatings, kaolinite crystallinity series, kaolinite-smectite series, zeolite series, and an extensive evaporite series. Because of the importance of vegetation to climate-change studies we have include 17 spectra of tree leaves, bushes, and grasses. The library and software are available as a series of U.S.G.S. Open File reports. PC user software is available to convert the binary data to ascii files (a separate U.S.G.S. open file report). Additionally, a binary data files are on line at the U.S.G.S. in Denver for anonymous ftp to users on the Internet. The library search software enables a user to search on documentation parameters as well as spectral features. The

  4. ON THE COMPACT H II GALAXY UM 408 AS SEEN BY GMOS-IFU: PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, Patricio; Telles, Eduardo; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana

    2009-06-15

    We present Integral Field Unit GMOS-IFU data of the compact H II galaxy UM 408, obtained at the Gemini South telescope, in order to derive the spatial distribution of emission lines and line ratios, kinematics, plasma parameters, and oxygen abundances as well the integrated properties over an area of 3''x4.''4 equivalent with {approx}750 pc x 1100 pc located in the central part of the galaxy. The starburst in this area is resolved into two giant regions of about 1.''5 and 1'' ({approx}375 and {approx}250 pc) diameter, respectively and separated 1.5-2'' ({approx}500 pc). The extinction distribution concentrate its highest values closemore » but not coincident with the maxima of H{alpha} emission around each one of the detected regions. This indicates that the dust has been displaced from the exciting clusters by the action of their stellar winds. The ages of these two regions, estimated using H{beta} equivalent widths, suggest that they are coeval events of {approx}5 Myr with stellar masses of {approx}10{sup 4} M {sub sun}. We have also used [O III]/H{beta} and [S II]/H{alpha} ratio maps to explore the excitation mechanisms in this galaxy. Comparing the data points with theoretical diagnostic models, we found that all of them are consistent with excitation by photoionization by massive stars. The H{alpha} emission line was used to measure the radial velocity and velocity dispersion. The heliocentric radial velocity shows an apparent systemic motion where the east part of the galaxy is blueshifted, while the west part is redshifted, with a relative motion of {approx}10 km s{sup -1}. The velocity dispersion map shows supersonic values typical for extragalactic H II regions. We derived an integrated oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.87 summing over all spaxels in our field of view. An average value of 12+log(O/H) = 7.77 and a difference of {delta}(O/H) = 0.47 between the minimum and maximum values (7.58 {+-} 0.06-8.05 {+-} 0.04) were found, considering all data

  5. The short form of the recombinant CAL-A-type lipase UM03410 from the smut fungus Ustilago maydis exhibits an inherent trans-fatty acid selectivity.

    PubMed

    Brundiek, Henrike; Saß, Stefan; Evitt, Andrew; Kourist, Robert; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2012-04-01

    The Ustilago maydis lipase UM03410 belongs to the mostly unexplored Candida antarctica lipase (CAL-A) subfamily. The two lipases with [corrected] the highest identity are a lipase from Sporisorium reilianum and the prototypic CAL-A. In contrast to the other CAL-A-type lipases, this hypothetical U. maydis lipase is annotated to possess a prolonged N-terminus of unknown function. Here, we show for the first time the recombinant expression of two versions of lipase UM03410: the full-length form (lipUMf) and an Nterminally truncated form (lipUMs). For comparison to the prototype, the expression of recombinant CAL-A in E. coli was investigated. Although both forms of lipase UM03410 could be expressed functionally in E. coli, the N-terminally truncated form (lipUMs) demonstrated significantly higher activities towards p-nitrophenyl esters. The functional expression of the N-terminally truncated lipase was further optimized by the appropriate choice of the E. coli strain, lowering the cultivation temperature to 20 °C and enrichment of the cultivation medium with glucose. Primary characteristics of the recombinant lipase are its pH optimum in the range of 6.5-7.0 and its temperature optimum at 55 °C. As is typical for lipases, lipUM03410 shows preference for long chain fatty acid esters with myristic acid ester (C14:0 ester) being the most preferred one.More importantly, lipUMs exhibits an inherent preference for C18:1Δ9 trans and C18:1Δ11 trans-fatty acid esters similar to CAL-A. Therefore, the short form of this U. maydis lipase is the only other currently known lipase with a distinct trans-fatty acid selectivity.

  6. Um satélite brasileiro para observação do diâmetro solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Benevides Soares, P.; Teixeira, R.; Kuhn, J.

    2003-08-01

    Propomos uma missão espacial para medir a forma e o diâmetro solar com o objetivo de ajudar a determinar o potencial gravitacional do Sol e a sua rotação com precisão, testar modelos teóricos de variação de energia e pela primeira vez medir os modos g de oscilação. As observações serão obtidas através do instrumento denominado APT (Astrometric and Photometric Telescope) descrito por Kuhn(1983). A sensibilidade do instrumento é de 0,2 mas em 27 dias para as observações do diâmetro solar feitas a cada minuto. Esta é uma missão de três anos de duração e pode complementar as medidas que serão feitas pelo satélite PICARD (a ser lançado em 2007). Outros parâmetros físicos podem ser obtidos com as mesmas imagens o que certamente interessará à comunidade de física solar. Um primeiro contato foi realizado com a agência espacial brasileira que pretende lançar um satélite científico a cada dois anos.

  7. Geochemistry of hot springs in the Ie Seu’um hydrothermal areas at Aceh Besar district, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idroes, R.; Yusuf, M.; Alatas, M.; Subhan; Lala, A.; Saiful; Suhendra, R.; Idroes, G. M.; Marwan

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia geothermal resources are the largest in the world, about 40 percent of the total geothermal resources worldwide with a potential energy of 28,617 MW. Geothermal energy is one of the renewable energy in the world that can be developed sustainably. This kind of energy is not only environmentally friendly but also highly prospective compared to fossil energy. One of the potential geothermal energy in Indonesia is Seulawah Agam geothermal field with some manifestation areas. The fluid type of Ie Seu’um manifestation was chloride (Cl-) obtained from the ternary diagram Cl--SO4 2--HCO3 -, using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, argentometry and acidimetry method. The reservoir range temperature was 188,7 ± 9,3°C calculated using geothermometer Na-K-Ca, Na-K Fournier and Na-K Giggenbach by applying Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy method. This data processing was carried out using liquid chemistry plotting spreadsheet version 3 powell geoscience Ltd.3 September 2012 by Powell & Cumming. The potential in the geothermal manifestation of Ie Seu’um was estimated about 50-100 MW (medium enthalpy).

  8. Generation of narrow energy spread ion beams via collisionless shock waves using ultra-intense 1 um wavelength laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Felicie; Pak, A.; Kerr, S.; Lemos, N.; Link, A.; Patel, P.; Pollock, B. B.; Haberberger, D.; Froula, D.; Gauthier, M.; Glenzer, S. H.; Longman, A.; Manzoor, L.; Fedosejevs, R.; Tochitsky, S.; Joshi, C.; Fiuza, F.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we report on electrostatic collisionless shock wave acceleration experiments that produced proton beams with peak energies between 10-17.5 MeV, with narrow energy spreads between Δ E / E of 10-20%, and with a total number of protons in these peaks of 1e7-1e8. These beams of ions were created by driving an electrostatic collisionless shock wave in a tailored near critical density plasma target using the ultra-intense ps duration Titan laser that operates at a wavelength of 1 um. The near critical density target was produced through the ablation of an initially 0.5 um thick Mylar foil with a separate low intensity laser. A narrow energy spread distribution of carbon / oxygen ions with a similar velocity to the accelerated proton distribution, consistent with the reflection and acceleration of ions from an electrostatic field, was also observed. This work was supported by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Laboratory Directed Research and Development program under project 15-LW-095, and the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734.

  9. Solar Physics Topics in High School: Analysis of a Course with Practical Activities at Dietrich Schiel Observatory. (Spanish Title: Temas de Física Solar Para Estudiantes de Escuelas Secundarias: un Análisis de un Curso con Enfoque Práctico en el Observatorio Dietrich Schiel.) Tópicos de Física Solar no Ensino Médio: Análise de um Curso com Atividades Práticas no Observatório Dietrich Schiel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbo Aroca, Silvia; Donizete Colombo, Pedro, Jr.; Celestino Silva, Cibelle

    2012-12-01

    algunos estudiantes sabían que un espectro puede estar formado por un prisma o red de difracción, la mayor parte de ellos desconocía la naturaleza de las líneas espectrales. A lo largo del curso, esta cuestión fue trabajada con un enfoque práctico mediante la observación del espectro solar y de las lámparas durante clases expositivas/dialogadas. Los resultados obtenidos en el curso mustran la importancia de los centros de ciencia como un apoyo en la educación formal. En este caso en particular, la Sala Solar del Observatorio Dietrich Schiel se destaca como un entorno favorable para la enseñanza de la física moderna en la escuela secundaria. Este trabalho analisa resultados obtidos em um curso sobre física solar para alunos do ensino médio promovido pelo Observatório Dietrich Schiel da USP. O curso foi elaborado pelos autores com a intenção de investigar concepções sobre o Sol, ensinar tópicos de física moderna relacionados ao Sol e conhecimentos gerais sobre o astro rei. A metodologia de coleta de dados consistiu em gravação em áudio e vídeo das aulas e das entrevistas semi-estruturadas, e respostas a questionários escritos. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos participantes concebeu o Sol como constituído por fogo e as manchas solares como buracos na superfície solar. Embora alguns alunos soubessem que um espectro pode ser formado por um prisma ou rede de difração, a maior parte deles desconhecia a natureza das linhas espectrais. Ao longo do curso, este tema foi trabalhado com uma abordagem prática com observação do espectro solar e de lâmpadas e em aulas expositivo-dialogadas. Os resultados obtidos no curso apontam para a importância dos centros de ciências como parceiros da educação formal. Neste caso específico, a Sala Solar do Observatório Dietrich Schiel é um ambiente propício para o ensino de física moderna no ensino médio.

  10. Um estudo espectrofotométrico da variável cataclísmica V3885 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. M. A.; Diaz, M. P.

    2003-08-01

    Variáveis Cataclísmicas são sistemas binários cerrados compostos de uma anã vermelha que transfere matéria para uma anã branca, em sistemas não magnéticos ocorre a formação de um disco de acresção em torno da anã branca. V3885 Sgr é uma variável cataclísmica classificada como sendo do tipo nova-like. É apresentado um estudo espectrofotométrico de V3885 Sgr de alta resolução temporal feito na região do visível. A região observada é centrada em Ha e abrange também a linha de HeI 6678. O primeiro resultado obtido neste estudo é a determinação do período orbital a partir de medidas da velocidade radial da linha de Ha como sendo 0,20716071(22) dias, resolvendo inconsistências quanto a esse valor na literatura e definindo uma efeméride a longo prazo para o sistema. Com este período e as medidas de velocidade radial do perfil de linha de Ha foi construído um diagrama de massas, através do qual restringimos as massas das componentes estelares do sistema e limitamos a inclinação orbital do sistema. Foram construídos diagramas de Greenstein para as linhas de Ha e HeI, onde os espectros médios em cada intervalo de fase são representados lado a lado em escala de cinza, indicando a existência de uma emissão intensa proveniente da parte posterior do disco. A partir da tomografia Doppler obtivemos perfis de emissividade radial para o disco tanto para a linha de Ha como para HeI. Os resultados obtidos são comparados com os de outros sistemas estudados com a mesma técnica. Serão apresentados também resultados da tomografia de flickering para o sistema.

  11. Mental health problems of undocumented migrants (UMs) in the Netherlands: a qualitative exploration of help-seeking behaviour and experiences with primary care

    PubMed Central

    Teunissen, Erik; Sherally, Jamilah; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; Dowrick, Chris; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; van Weel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore health-seeking behaviour and experiences of undocumented migrants (UMs) in general practice in relation to mental health problems. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Participants 15 UMs in the Netherlands, varying in age, gender, country of origin and education; inclusion until theoretical saturation was reached. Setting 4 cities in the Netherlands. Results UMs consider mental health problems to be directly related to their precarious living conditions. For support, they refer to friends and religion first, the general practitioner (GP) is their last resort. Barriers for seeking help include taboo on mental health problems, lack of knowledge of and trust in GPs competencies regarding mental health and general barriers in accessing healthcare as an UM (lack of knowledge of the right to access healthcare, fear of prosecution, financial constraints and practical difficulties). Once access has been gained, satisfaction with care is high. This is primarily due to the attitude of the GPs and the effectiveness of the treatment. Reasons for dissatisfaction with GP care are an experienced lack of time, lack of personal attention and absence of physical examination. Expectations of the GP vary, medication for mental health problems is not necessarily seen as a good practice. Conclusions UMs often see their precarious living conditions as an important determinant of their mental health; they do not easily seek help for mental health problems and various barriers hamper access to healthcare for them. Rather than for medication, UMs are looking for encouragement and support from their GP. We recommend that barriers experienced in seeking professional care are tackled at an institutional level as well as at the level of GP. PMID:25416057

  12. Sobre la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M Dominik

    2017-07-11

    Las mutaciones en un gran número de genes provocan degeneración de la retina y ceguera sin que exista actualmente cura alguna. En las últimas décadas, la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina ha evolucionado y se ha convertido en un nuevo y prometedor paradigma terapéutico para estas enfermedades poco comunes. Este artículo refleja las ideas y los conceptos que parten de la ciencia básica hacia la aplicabilidad de la terapia génica en el ámbito clínico. Se describen los avances y las reflexiones actuales sobre la eficacia de los ensayos clínicos en la actualidad y se discuten los posibles obstáculos y soluciones de cara al futuro de la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Información general sobre la preparación y la respuesta frente a desastres naturales

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Esta página brinda información general sobre la manera en que se puede preparar para enfrentar desastres naturales potenciales y las acciones a tomar después de dichos desastres naturales y otras emergencias ambientales.

  14. Detecting metal-poor gas accretion in the star-forming dwarf galaxies UM 461 and Mrk 600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, P.; Scott, T. C.; Nigoche-Netro, A.; Demarco, R.; Humphrey, A.; Papaderos, P.

    2018-06-01

    Using VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph (VIMOS)-integral field unit (IFU) observations, we study the interstellar medium (ISM) of two star-forming dwarf galaxies, UM 461 and Mrk 600. Our aim was to search for the existence of metallicity inhomogeneities that might arise from infall of nearly pristine gas feeding ongoing localized star formation. The IFU data allowed us to study the impact of external gas accretion on the chemical evolution as well as the ionized gas kinematics and morphologies of these galaxies. Both systems show signs of morphological distortions, including cometary-like morphologies. We analysed the spatial variation of 12 + log(O/H) abundances within both galaxies using the direct method (Te), the widely applied HII-CHI-mistry code, as well as by employing different standard calibrations. For UM 461, our results show that the ISM is fairly well mixed, at large scales; however, we find an off-centre and low-metallicity region with 12 + log(O/H) < 7.6 in the SW part of the brightest H II region, using the direct method. This result is consistent with the recent infall of a metal-poor H I cloud into the region now exhibiting the lowest metallicity, which also displays localized perturbed neutral and ionized gas kinematics. Mrk 600 in contrast, appears to be chemically homogeneous on both large and small scales. The intrinsic differences in the spatially resolved properties of the ISM in our analysed galaxies are consistent with these systems being at different evolutionary stages.

  15. Attitudes of Psychiatric Nurses about the Request for Euthanasia on the Basis of Unbearable Mental Suffering(UMS).

    PubMed

    De Hert, Marc; Van Bos, Liesbet; Sweers, Kim; Wampers, Martien; De Lepeleire, Jan; Correll, Christophe U

    2015-01-01

    When psychiatric patients express a wish for euthanasia, this should first and foremost be interpreted as a cry for help. Due to their close day-to-day relationship, psychiatric nurses may play an important and central role in responding to such requests. However, little is known about nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia motivated by unbearable mental suffering. The aim of this study was to provide insight into the attitudes and actions taken by psychiatric nurses when confronted with a patient's euthanasia request based on unbearable mental suffering (UMS). A questionnaire was sent to 11 psychiatric hospitals in the Flemish part of Belgium. The overall response rate was 70% (N = 627). Psychiatric nurses were frequently confronted with a request for euthanasia, either directly (N = 329, 53%) or through a colleague (N = 427, 69%). A majority (N = 536, 84%) did not object to euthanasia in a psychiatrically ill population with UMS. Confounding factors were the psychiatric diagnosis and the type of ward where the nurses were working. Most participants acknowledged a lack of knowledge and skills to adequately address the euthanasia request (N = 434, 71%). Nearly unanimously (N = 618, 99%), study participants indicated that dealing with euthanasia requests and other end-of-life issues should be part of the formal training of nurses. The results highlight the need for ethically sound and comprehensive provision of care. Psychiatric nurses play an important role in dealing with the complex issue of requests for euthanasia. There is also a need for education, training and clear guidelines on the level of health care organizations.

  16. Attitudes of Psychiatric Nurses about the Request for Euthanasia on the Basis of Unbearable Mental Suffering(UMS)

    PubMed Central

    Wampers, Martien; De Lepeleire, Jan; Correll, Christophe U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When psychiatric patients express a wish for euthanasia, this should first and foremost be interpreted as a cry for help. Due to their close day-to-day relationship, psychiatric nurses may play an important and central role in responding to such requests. However, little is known about nurses’ attitudes towards euthanasia motivated by unbearable mental suffering. Objectives The aim of this study was to provide insight into the attitudes and actions taken by psychiatric nurses when confronted with a patient’s euthanasia request based on unbearable mental suffering (UMS). Method A questionnaire was sent to 11 psychiatric hospitals in the Flemish part of Belgium. Results The overall response rate was 70% (N = 627). Psychiatric nurses were frequently confronted with a request for euthanasia, either directly (N = 329, 53%) or through a colleague (N = 427, 69%). A majority (N = 536, 84%) did not object to euthanasia in a psychiatrically ill population with UMS. Confounding factors were the psychiatric diagnosis and the type of ward where the nurses were working. Most participants acknowledged a lack of knowledge and skills to adequately address the euthanasia request (N = 434, 71%). Nearly unanimously (N = 618, 99%), study participants indicated that dealing with euthanasia requests and other end-of-life issues should be part of the formal training of nurses. Conclusion The results highlight the need for ethically sound and comprehensive provision of care. Psychiatric nurses play an important role in dealing with the complex issue of requests for euthanasia. There is also a need for education, training and clear guidelines on the level of health care organizations. PMID:26700007

  17. Spattering activity at Halemáumáu in 2015 and the transition between Hawaiian and Strombolian eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintz, B. G.; Houghton, B. F.; Orr, T. R.; Taddeucci, J.; Gaudin, D.; Kueppers, U.; Carey, R.; Scarlato, P.; Del Bello, E.

    2016-12-01

    Explosive activity in 2015 at the free surface of the Halemáumáu lava lake at Kīlauea showed features of both Hawaiian fountaining and Strombolian explosivity. Like low Hawaiian fountains, spattering events often persisted for tens of minutes or hours. However, like Strombolian explosions, the activity consisted of a series of bursting of discrete, meter-sized gas bubbles. Each bubble burst threw fluidal bombs, with meter to decimeter diameters, to elevations of meters to a few tens of meters above the collapsing bubble remnant. Initial velocities of the pyroclasts were lower than either Strombolian explosions or high Hawaiian fountains, typically only 7 to 14 meters/second on average.Although some events were triggered by short-lived rock falls that penetrated the crust of the lava lake, the resulting outgassing activity would become self-sustaining and persistent. Activity was at times, confined to a single point source, to several point sources, or along arcs extending tens of meters parallel to the lake margin.This activity represents another type of behavior exhibited by basaltic volcanoes and provides greater insight into the spectrum between Hawaiian fountaining and Strombolian explosivity. Consequently, this activity is highly instructive in terms of: (a) the diversity of degassing/outgassing possible at basaltic volcanoes and (b) the controls on mechanically coupled versus decoupled behavior of the exsolved bubbles. The 2015 Halemáumáu activity was often continuous over similar timescales to Hawaiian fountaining but was markedly less steady than high fountains. A significant portion of the gas phase was released as discrete bubble bursts, but with frequencies two or three orders of magnitude higher than at Stromboli, which permitted sustained but not steady events.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 70um-1.2mm and N2H+ maps of IRDC18454 (W43) (Beuther+,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuther, H.; Tackenberg, J.; Linz, H.; Henning, T.; Krause, O.; Ragan, S.; Nielbock, M.; Launhardt, R.; Schmiedeke, A.; Schuller, F.; Carlhoff, P.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Sakai, T.

    2011-11-01

    The cloud complex with a size of ~6'x6' was observed with PACS on Herschel on 2010 March 9. Maps at 250, 350, and 500um were obtained with SPIRE 2010) on 2010 March 11. We observed IRDC18454-1 with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer during five nights in October and November 2009 at 93GHz in the C and D configurations. The N2H+ data has been observed using the BEARS receiver at the NRO 45m telescope in Nobeyama, Japan. The different velocity components have been observed one in April 2010 with an average system temperature of Tsys=206K, the second in June, at slightly lower Tsys. The MIPS 24um data (from MIPSGAL) as well as the IRAC 8um observations (from GLIMPSE) are taken from the Spitzer archive. The 1.2mm continuum data were first presented in Beuther et al. (2002, Cat. J/ApJ/566/945) and the APEX 870um data are part of the ATLASGAL survey of the Galactic plane (Schuller et al., 2009A&A...504..415S). (2 data files).

  19. The Athenæum Club, the Royal Society and the reform of dentistry in nineteenth-century Britain: A research report

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Malcolm G. H.

    2017-01-01

    In 1978 M. J. Peterson examined the role played by the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) in nineteenth-century dental reform, noting the establishment of its Licence in Dental Surgery (LDS) in 1859. In a paper published in Notes and Records in 2010, the present author described the influential role played by Fellows of the Royal Society during the nineteenth-century campaign for dental reform led by Sir John Tomes. Key players in this campaign, including the dentists Samuel Cartwright, Thomas Bell and James Salter, were, as well as being Fellows of the Royal Society, members of the Athenæum Club. The present research report indicates the roles played by those members of the Athenæum Club who were also Fellows of the Royal Society in the scientific and professional reform of nineteenth-century dentistry. Although it does not attempt to document meetings at the Club, it suggests the potential for a symbiotic effect between the Royal Society and the Athenæum. Where the previous paper proposed an active scientific role for the Royal Society in reforming dentistry, this paper presents the Athenæum as a significant extension of the sphere of influence into the cultural realm for those who did enjoy membership of both organizations.

  20. Geochemical and K Ar age constraints on the Late Neoproterozoic (?) gneisses at Um Tenassib area, north Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliwa, Hassan A.

    2007-05-01

    Wadi Um Tenassib metamorphic rocks consist mainly of biotite gneiss and biotite-hornblende gneiss with subordinate intercalations of amphibolite, migmatitic gneiss, and aplitic granite. Biotite-hornblende gneiss, biotite gneiss, and aplitic granite are geochemically characterized and their cooling ages are determined by using the K-Ar method on biotite. The Um Tenassib gneisses (UTG) range in composition from quartz diorite/monzodiorite to granodiorite. They were derived from igneous rocks that pertain to calc alkaline and metaluminous to weakly peraluminous affinities and were generated in continental volcanic arc setting. REE patterns of the UTG are moderately fractionated (La N/Lu N = 5.9-7.5) relative to those of the aplitic granite (La N/Lu N = 33). The similarity in the geochemical characteristics and REE patterns of both gneiss types indicate their magmatic consanguinity. Amphiboles of the UTG biotite-hornblende gneisses are mainly hornblende, together with few paragasitic hornblende and edenite. Plagioclase composition is oligoclase to andesine (An 21-46) in the biotite-hornblende gneiss, and oligoclase (An 11-26) in the biotite gneiss. Mineral chemistry of amphibole and plagioclase indicate that the gneisses were metamorphosed under low- to medium-pressure of 2.6-6.4 kbar and at medium to high temperatures of 660-755 °C. The K-Ar biotite cooling ages (seven samples) range from 585 ± 12 Ma to 598 ± 12 Ma for the UTG, except one biotite-hornblende gneiss sample gives age of 577 ± 11 Ma. These ages suggest a latest metamorphic cooling event at ca. 585-600 Ma time span, which is consistent with the proposed cooling ages of ˜600 Ma for the Elat metamorphic rocks [Cosca, M.A., Shimron, A., Caby, R., 1999. Late Precambrian metamorphism and cooling in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: petrology and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology of metamorphic rocks of the Elat area (southern Israel). Precamb. Res. 98, 107-127]. It may indicate that the metamorphism of the UTG might have

  1. THE TYPES OF PALAEARCTIC HIPPORHININI (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cyclominae) CONSERVED AT THE MUSÉUM NATIONAL D'HISTOIRE NATURELLE, PARIS.

    PubMed

    Meregalli, Massimo; Perrin, Hélène

    2015-11-30

    The Palaearctic species of Curculionidae: Cyclominae: Hipporhinini conserved at the Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris were critically revised in order to recognise the type specimens, select lectotypes or, where necessary, designate neotypes. Out of 135 species whose types were presumably preserved in the MNHN, original type specimens of 116 could be found. The holotypes of 21 species were available, either because originally designated as such, or because the species was unequivocally based on a single specimen; a paratype of another taxon, whose holotype is preserved in another collection, was also examined. The lectotypes of 93 species were designated, and a syntype of another species was also seen. Neotypes of 10 more species were designated, thus leading to a total number of species whose type is conserved at the MNHN to 126. Type specimens of five more species described by French authors, not present in the MNHN but conserved in other museums, were found as well and were included in the paper, with the further designation of three lectotypes. All types treated herein were labelled and photographed.

  2. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris)

    PubMed Central

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  3. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

  4. Properties of metallic glasses containing actinide metals. I. Thermal properties of U--M glasses (M = V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni)

    SciTech Connect

    Giessen, B.C.; Elliott, R.O.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a preparative and calorimetric study forming part of a continuing investigation of the new actinide glasses are reported. Specifically, lower bounds for the composition limits of glass formation (G.F.) at moderate cooling rates have been obtained for the U-M (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) systems and the thermal stabilities of glasses in these four systems as well as for a U-V glass and a U-Cr glass have been surveyed.

  5. The resolution sensitivity of the Asian summer monsoon and its inter-model comparison between MRI-AGCM and MetUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Tomomichi; Johnson, Stephanie J.; Schiemann, Reinhard; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Mizuta, Ryo; Yoshida, Kohei; Osamu Arakawa

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we compare the resolution sensitivity of the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) in two Atmospheric General Circulation Models (AGCMs): the MRI-AGCM and the MetUM. We analyze the MetUM at three different resolutions, N96 (approximately 200-km mesh on the equator), N216 (90-km mesh) and N512 (40-km mesh), and the MRI-AGCM at TL95 (approximately 180-km mesh on the equator), TL319 (60-km mesh), and TL959 (20-km mesh). The MRI-AGCM and the MetUM both show decreasing precipitation over the western Pacific with increasing resolution, but their precipitation responses differ over the Indian Ocean. In MRI-AGCM, a large precipitation increase appears off the equator (5-20°N). In MetUM, this off-equatorial precipitation increase is less significant and precipitation decreases over the equator. Moisture budget analysis demonstrates that a changing in moisture flux convergence at higher resolution is related to the precipitation response. Orographic effects, intra-seasonal variability and the representation of the meridional thermal gradient are explored as possible causes of the resolution sensitivity. Both high-resolution AGCMs (TL959 and N512) can represent steep topography, which anchors the rainfall pattern over south Asia and the Maritime Continent. In MRI-AGCM, representation of low pressure systems in TL959 also contributes to the rainfall pattern. Furthermore, the seasonal evolution of the meridional thermal gradient appears to be more accurate at higher resolution, particularly in the MRI-AGCM. These findings emphasize that the impact of resolution is only robust across the two AGCMs for some features of the ASM, and highlights the importance of multi-model studies of GCM resolution sensitivity.

  6. Um supressor de fundo térmico para a câmara infravermelha CamIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, F.; Laporte, R.

    2003-08-01

    O ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels na câmara infravermelha do NexGal (CamIV) que operamos no OPD/LNA contém contribuições provenientes do sistema de coleta de fluxo propriamente dito - sendo esta a parte que interessa para as medidas astronômicas - e contribuições da obstrução central, sistema de suporte do espelho secundário e região exterior à pupila de entrada do telescópio. Estas últimas contribuições são devi-das à emissão de corpo negro à temperatura ambiente e aumentam exponencialmente para comprimentos de onda maiores que 2 micra (banda K, no infravermelho próximo). Embora a resultante pode ser quantificada e subtraída dos sinais relevantes, sua variância se adiciona à variância do sinal, e pode ser facilmente a contribuição domi-nante para a incerteza final das medidas, tornando ineficiente o processo de extração de informação e degradando a sensibilidade da câmara. A maneira clássica de resolver esse problema em sistemas ópticos que operam no infravermelho, onde os efeitos da emissão térmica do ambiente são importantes, é restringir o ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels individuais exclusivamente aos raios provenientes do sistema óptico. Para tanto, projeta-se uma imagem real, bastante reduzida, da pupila de entrada do sistema óptico num anteparo que transmita para o sistema de imageamento só o que interessa, bloqueando as contribuições das bordas externas à pupila de entrada, obstrução central do telescópio e sistema de suporte. Como a projeção é realizada em ambiente criogênico, a contribuição térmica espúria é efetivamente eliminada. Nós optamos por um sistema do tipo Offner para implementar na prática esta função. Trata-se de um sistema baseado em espelhos esféricos, bastante compacto e ajustado por construção. A opção por espelhos do mesmo material que o sistema de suporte (Alumínio) minimiza a dilatação diferencial, crítica nesse tipo de aplicação. Apresentamos as solu

  7. Validation of the A&D UM-201 device for office blood pressure measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol Revision 2010.

    PubMed

    Fania, Claudio; Albertini, Federica; Palatini, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of the A&D UM-201 device coupled to several cuffs for different arm sizes for office blood pressure (BP) measurement according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension. Evaluation was carried out in 33 individuals. The mean age of the individuals was 59.3±13.2 years, systolic BP was 145.4±20.6 mmHg (range: 109-186 mmHg), diastolic BP was 87.3±18.0 mmHg (range: 50-124 mmHg), and arm circumference was 30.4±4.2 cm (range: 23-39 cm). The protocol requirements were followed precisely. The UM-201 monitor passed all requirements, fulfilling the standards of the protocol. On average, the device overestimated systolic BP by 3.0±2.1 mmHg and diastolic BP by 2.6±2.0 mmHg. These data show that the A&D UM-201 device coupled to several cuffs for different ranges of arm circumference fulfilled the requirements for validation by the International Protocol and can be recommended for clinical use in the adult population.

  8. An orangutan in Paris: pondering Proximity at the Muséum d'histoire naturelle in 1836.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Richard W

    2018-01-22

    When the Muséum d'histoire naturelle in Paris learned in 1836 that it had the chance to buy a live, young orangutan, it was excited by the prospect. Specimens were the focus of the Museum's activities, and this particular specimen seemed especially promising, not only because the Museum had very few orangutan specimens in its collection, but also because of what was perceived to be the orangutan's unique place in the natural order of things, namely, at the very boundary between the animal kingdom and humans. Frédéric Cuvier, the superintendent of the Museum's menagerie, urged that studying the orangutan's mental faculties would help resolve fundamental questions regarding the similarities and differences between animals and humans. Archival and printed sources allow one to reconstruct the orangutan's capture, acquisition, and subsequent career at the menagerie in greater detail than has generally been possible for animals of nineteenth-century zoos. Scientists, artists, the public, the press, and even musicians (Franz Liszt included) sought to engage with the orangutan, seeing in it not just another ape or monkey but a special creature unto itself at the animal/human boundary. Key to their fascination with the orangutan was the question of proximity-just how close was the orangutan to humans? The orangutan's story illuminates not only how the animal-human boundary was conceived at the time but also the problematic status of the zoo as a site for scientific research and the roles of scientific and non-scientific actors alike in constructing how the orangutan was understood.

  9. The NEUF-DIX space project - Non-EquilibriUm Fluctuations during DIffusion in compleX liquids.

    PubMed

    Baaske, Philipp; Bataller, Henri; Braibanti, Marco; Carpineti, Marina; Cerbino, Roberto; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Donev, Aleksandar; Köhler, Werner; Ortiz de Zárate, José M; Vailati, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Diffusion and thermal diffusion processes in a liquid mixture are accompanied by long-range non-equilibrium fluctuations, whose amplitude is orders of magnitude larger than that of equilibrium fluctuations. The mean-square amplitude of the non-equilibrium fluctuations presents a scale-free power law behavior q -4 as a function of the wave vector q, but the divergence of the amplitude of the fluctuations at small wave vectors is prevented by the presence of gravity. In microgravity conditions the non-equilibrium fluctuations are fully developed and span all the available length scales up to the macroscopic size of the systems in the direction parallel to the applied gradient. Available theoretical models are based on linearized hydrodynamics and provide an adequate description of the statics and dynamics of the fluctuations in the presence of small temperature/concentration gradients and under stationary or quasi-stationary conditions. We describe a project aimed at the investigation of Non-EquilibriUm Fluctuations during DIffusion in compleX liquids (NEUF-DIX). The focus of the project is on the investigation in micro-gravity conditions of the non-equilibrium fluctuations in complex liquids, trying to tackle several challenging problems that emerged during the latest years, such as the theoretical predictions of Casimir-like forces induced by non-equilibrium fluctuations; the understanding of the non-equilibrium fluctuations in multi-component mixtures including a polymer, both in relation to the transport coefficients and to their behavior close to a glass transition; the understanding of the non-equilibrium fluctuations in concentrated colloidal suspensions, a problem closely related with the detection of Casimir forces; and the investigation of the development of fluctuations during transient diffusion. We envision to parallel these experiments with state-of-the-art multi-scale simulations.

  10. Remote sensing detection of gold related alteration zones in Um Rus area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, Reda; Kusky, Timothy; El Mezayen, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images covering the Um Rus area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt were evaluated for mapping geologic structure, lithology, and gold-related alteration zones. The study area is covered by Pan-African basement rocks including gabbro and granodiorite intruded into a variable mixture of metavolcanics and metasediments. The first three principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, PCA3) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) of the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) ASTER bands enabled the discrimination between lithological units. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB identifies the lithological units and discriminates the granodiorite very well from the adjacent rock units.The granodiorites are dissected by gold-bearing quartz veins surrounded by alteration zones. The microscopic examination of samples collected from the alteration zones shows sericitic and argillic alteration zones. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification methods were applied using the reference spectra of the USGS spectral library. The results show that these classification methods are capable of mapping the alteration zones as indicated by field verification work. The PALSAR image was enhanced for fracture mapping using the second moment co-occurrence filter. Overlying extracted faults and alteration zone classification images show that the N30E and N-S fractures represent potential zones for gold exploration. It is concluded that the proposed methods can be used as a powerful tool for ore deposit exploration.

  11. Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

  12. Connecting spatial and temporal scales of tropical precipitation in observations and the MetUM-GA6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Gill M.; Klingaman, Nicholas P.; Moise, Aurel F.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses tropical rainfall variability (on a range of temporal and spatial scales) in a set of parallel Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) simulations at a range of horizontal resolutions, which are compared with two satellite-derived rainfall datasets. We focus on the shorter scales, i.e. from the native grid and time step of the model through sub-daily to seasonal, since previous studies have paid relatively little attention to sub-daily rainfall variability and how this feeds through to longer scales. We find that the behaviour of the deep convection parametrization in this model on the native grid and time step is largely independent of the grid-box size and time step length over which it operates. There is also little difference in the rainfall variability on larger/longer spatial/temporal scales. Tropical convection in the model on the native grid/time step is spatially and temporally intermittent, producing very large rainfall amounts interspersed with grid boxes/time steps of little or no rain. In contrast, switching off the deep convection parametrization, albeit at an unrealistic resolution for resolving tropical convection, results in very persistent (for limited periods), but very sporadic, rainfall. In both cases, spatial and temporal averaging smoothes out this intermittency. On the ˜ 100 km scale, for oceanic regions, the spectra of 3-hourly and daily mean rainfall in the configurations with parametrized convection agree fairly well with those from satellite-derived rainfall estimates, while at ˜ 10-day timescales the averages are overestimated, indicating a lack of intra-seasonal variability. Over tropical land the results are more varied, but the model often underestimates the daily mean rainfall (partly as a result of a poor diurnal cycle) but still lacks variability on intra-seasonal timescales. Ultimately, such work will shed light on how uncertainties in modelling small-/short-scale processes relate to uncertainty in climate change

  13. Essays on Eclipses, Transits and Occultations as Teaching Tools in the Introductory Astronomy College Course. (Spanish Title: Ensayos sobre Eclipses, Tránsitos y Ocultaciones Como Herramientas de Enseñanza en el Curso Universitario Introductorio a la Astronomía.) Ensaios sobre Eclipses, Trânsitos e Ocultações Como Ferramentas de Ensino em um Curso Universitário Introdutório de Astromomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dcruz, Noella L.

    2014-07-01

    We occasionally include projects in our learner-centered introductory astronomy college course to enable non-science major students explore some astronomical concepts in more detail than otherwise. Such projects also highlight ongoing or upcoming astronomical events. We hope that students will feel more interested in astronomy through projects tied to astronomical events. In Spring 2012, we offered short essays focused on eclipses, transits and occultations to promote the rare transit of Venus that occurred on June 5th, 2012. We asked students to write two short essays from three that were offered. The essays contained descriptive and conceptual parts. They were meant to serve as teaching tools. 62% of 106 essays from 55 students earned A, B or C grades. 21% of 47 feedback survey respondents felt the essays increased their interest in astronomy. 49% of respondents felt that the essays were not educationally beneficial and should not be offered again. The most common written response to our survey indicated that students need more guidance and better preparation in writing successful essays. Since students found the conceptual parts of the essays difficult, in the future we will provide relevant activities prior to essay deadlines to help students create successful essays. Ocasionalmente, incluimos proyectos en nuestro curso de introducción a la astronomía universitario centrado en el alumno para permitir que los estudiantes de carreras no científicas exploren algunos conceptos astronómicos en más detalle que lo habitual. Estos proyectos también ponen en relevancia eventos astronómicos en curso o futuros. Esperamos que los estudiantes se sientan más interesados en la astronomía a través de proyectos vinculados a eventos astronómicos. En el período de primavera de 2012 (EUA), propusimos breves ensayos centrados en los eclipses, tránsitos y ocultaciones para promover el raro tránsito de Venus que se produjo el 5 de junio de 2012. Le pedimos a los estudiantes que escribieran dos ensayos cortos de tres que se proponían. Los ensayos contenían partes descriptivas y conceptuales. Los mismos estaban destinados a servir como herramientas de enseñanza. 62% de los 106 ensayos de 55 estudiantes obtuvo grados A, B o C. 21% de los 47 encuestados que respondieron al cuestionario posterior consideró que los ensayos aumentaron su interés por la astronomía. 49% de los encuestados consideró que los ensayos no eran educacionalmente útiles y que no deben ser propuestos de nuevo. Las respuestas escritas más comunes a nuestra encuesta indicaran que los estudiantes necesitan más orientación y una mejor preparación en la redacción de ensayos exitosos. Dado que los estudiantes encontraron las piezas conceptuales de los ensayos difíciles, en el futuro vamos a ofrecer actividades pertinentes antes de los plazos de redacción para ayudar a los estudiantes a crear ensayos de mayor calidad. Nós ocasionalmente incluímos projetos em nosso curso universitário introdutório centrado no aluno para permitir aos estudantes que pertencem às carreiras não científicas explorar alguns conceitos astronômicos em mais detalhes do que o normal. Tais projetos também enfatizam eventos astronômicos em curso ou futuros. Esperamos que os alunos se sintam mais interessados na astronomia através de projetos ligados a eventos astronômicos. No termo de Primavera de 2012 (EUA), propomos ensaios curtos focados em eclipses, trânsitos e ocultações para promover o raro trânsito de Vênus que ocorreu no dia 5 de junho de 2012. Pedimos aos alunos que escrevessem dois ensaios curtos dentre três que foram propostos. Os ensaios continham partes descritivas e conceituais. Eles foram feitos para servir como ferramentas de ensino. 62% de 106 ensaios de 55 alunos ganhou graus A, B ou C. 21% dos 47 entrevistados que responderam ao levantamento posterior sentiu que os ensaios aumentaram seu interesse na astronomia. 49% dos inquiridos consideraram que os ensaios não eram benéficos para a educação e que não devem ser propostos novamente. As respostas escritas mais comuns da nossa pesquisa indicaram que os alunos precisam de mais orientação e melhor preparação para escrever ensaios bem sucedidos. Como os alunos consideraram difíceis os aspectos conceituais dos ensaios, no futuro iremos fornecer atividades relevantes antes dos ensaios para ajudar os alunos a escrevê-los com sucesso.

  14. UmUTracker: A versatile MATLAB program for automated particle tracking of 2D light microscopy or 3D digital holography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hanqing; Stangner, Tim; Wiklund, Krister; Rodriguez, Alvaro; Andersson, Magnus

    2017-10-01

    We present a versatile and fast MATLAB program (UmUTracker) that automatically detects and tracks particles by analyzing video sequences acquired by either light microscopy or digital in-line holographic microscopy. Our program detects the 2D lateral positions of particles with an algorithm based on the isosceles triangle transform, and reconstructs their 3D axial positions by a fast implementation of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld model using a radial intensity profile. To validate the accuracy and performance of our program, we first track the 2D position of polystyrene particles using bright field and digital holographic microscopy. Second, we determine the 3D particle position by analyzing synthetic and experimentally acquired holograms. Finally, to highlight the full program features, we profile the microfluidic flow in a 100 μm high flow chamber. This result agrees with computational fluid dynamic simulations. On a regular desktop computer UmUTracker can detect, analyze, and track multiple particles at 5 frames per second for a template size of 201 ×201 in a 1024 × 1024 image. To enhance usability and to make it easy to implement new functions we used object-oriented programming. UmUTracker is suitable for studies related to: particle dynamics, cell localization, colloids and microfluidic flow measurement. Program Files doi : http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/fkprs4s6xp.1 Licensing provisions : Creative Commons by 4.0 (CC by 4.0) Programming language : MATLAB Nature of problem: 3D multi-particle tracking is a common technique in physics, chemistry and biology. However, in terms of accuracy, reliable particle tracking is a challenging task since results depend on sample illumination, particle overlap, motion blur and noise from recording sensors. Additionally, the computational performance is also an issue if, for example, a computationally expensive process is executed, such as axial particle position reconstruction from digital holographic microscopy data. Versatile

  15. Desarrollo de fotonovelas para concienciar sobre trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en latinos en los Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; García, Marissa; Silva, Yormeri; Sala, Margarita; Quaranta, Michela; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar fotonovelas, un tipo de novela gráfica popular en la población latina, para crear conciencia y educar sobre los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA). Cuatro caricaturas ilustradas y guiones adaptados para adultos y adolescentes de ambos sexos fueron presentados en discusiones focales y en una entrevista de profundidad. Diecisiete latinos adultos (14 mujeres; 3 hombres) y 10 adolescentes (9 féminas; 1 varón) participaron en el estudio. Los participantes encontraron las fotonovelas interesantes y que captaban más la atención que los folletos tradicionales. El uso del espanglish y la clarificación de las diferencias entre los TCA fueron sugeridos por las adolescentes femeninas. Los adultos varones sugirieron cambiar el título, que se enfocara en las consecuencias en la salud de los TCA para que llame la atención en los hombres a leer la historia. Basado en la aceptación encontrada en este estudio, la fotonovela pudiera ser una avenida prometedora para crear conciencia y educar a la comunidad latina sobre los TCA en los Estados Unidos. PMID:27313838

  16. High-speed 1.3 -1.55 um InGaAs/InP PIN photodetector for microwave photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyreva, O. A.; Solov'ev, Y. V.; Polukhin, I. S.; Mikhailov, A. K.; Mikhailovskiy, G. A.; Odnoblyudov, M. A.; Gareev, E. Z.; Kolodeznyi, E. S.; Novikov, I. I.; Karachinsky, L. Ya; Egorov, A. Yu; Bougrov, V. E.

    2017-11-01

    We have fabricated the 1.3-1.55 um PIN photodetector based on InGaAs/InP heterostructure. Measurement results of optical and electrical characteristics of PIN photodetector chip were the following: photoconductivity at 1550 nm was 0.65 A/W and internal capacitance was 0.025 pF. Microwave model of photodetector was developed and verified by measurements of scattering matrix. The implementation of broadband (up to 20 GHz) hybrid integrated matching and biasing circuit for high-speed photodetector is presented.

  17. [Integration of sex/gender into environmental health research. Results of the interdisciplinary research network Sex/Gender-Environment-Health (GeUmGe-NET)].

    PubMed

    Bolte, Gabriele; David, Madlen; Dębiak, Małgorzata; Fiedel, Lotta; Hornberg, Claudia; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Kraus, Ute; Lätzsch, Rebecca; Paeck, Tatjana; Palm, Kerstin; Schneider, Alexandra

    2018-06-01

    The comprehensive consideration of sex/gender in health research is essential to increase relevance and validity of research results. Contrary to other areas of health research, there is no systematic summary of the current state of research on the significance of sex/gender in environmental health. Within the interdisciplinary research network Sex/Gender-Environment-Health (GeUmGe-NET) the current state of integration of sex/gender aspects or, respectively, gender theoretical concepts into research was systematically assessed within selected topics of the research areas environmental toxicology, environmental medicine, environmental epidemiology and public health research on environment and health. Knowledge gaps and research needs were identified in all research areas. Furthermore, the potential for methodological advancements by using gender theoretical concepts was depicted. A dialogue between biomedical research, public health research, and gender studies was started with the research network GeUmGe-NET. This dialogue has to be continued particularly regarding a common testing of methodological innovations in data collection and data analysis. Insights of this interdisciplinary research are relevant for practice areas such as environmental health protection, health promotion, environmental justice, and environmental health monitoring.

  18. Reflexión bioética sobre el uso de organismos genéticamente modificados

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  19. ENVEJECIMIENTO, SALUD Y ECONOMÍA: La Encuesta Nacional sobre Salud y Envejecimiento en México*

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN México vive una transición demográfica en la cual el porcentaje de la población mayor de 50 años de edad crece aceleradamente como resultado de un aumento considerable en la esperanza de vida. Dicha población tiene necesidades particulares que deben ser tomadas en cuenta en la formulación de políticas, sobre todo en materia de acceso a servicios de salud y seguridad social. En este artículo presentamos una descripción general de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento (Enasem), un estudio de panel que comenzó en 2001 y que ofrece una oportunidad única para abordar temas demográficos y económicos complejos por medio de la exploración de las características personales, transferencias socioeconómicas e indicadores de salud para una muestra de 15 186 adultos de edad media y avanzada. También presentamos los resultados más relevantes de diferentes estudios que han utilizado la Enasem hasta la fecha. Nuestra revisión indica que México enfrenta desafíos considerables para satisfacer la demanda de servicios médicos para una población que es amenazada por una creciente presencia de enfermedades crónicas, sobre todo para la población de edad avanzada que no cuenta con cobertura de seguro médico. PMID:29375164

  20. High School Students' Previous Knowledge about the Stars. (Spanish Title: Conocimientos Previos de Estudiantes de Secundaria Acerca de Las Estrellas.) O Conhecimento Prévio de Alunos do Ensino Médio sobre as Estrelas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    reconocen que una estrella es formada por una masa de gas; varios conocimientos previos parten de aspectos puramente visuales; por otro lado, los estudiantes no tienen el hábito de observar la naturaleza detalladamente, entre otros problemas. Vemos esta investigación como una probable fuente de referencia en la que los profesores de ciencias pueden reconocer la importancia del conocimiento previo, y la forma como interfieren con su práctica de enseñanza, además de la adquisición de recursos para la planificación de sus clases. Com base em leituras de artigos relacionados ao ensino de Astronomia publicados no Brasil, verificou-se a inexistência de investigações sobre o conhecimento prévio de estudantes acerca das características físicas das estrelas, fato que nos motivou a desenvolver a pesquisa apresentada. Os conhecimentos prévios de 125 estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino médio constituíram os dados do estudo, os quais foram inferidos através da análise das respostas cedidas em questionários impressos (Apêndice A). A partir da análise de conteúdo dessas respostas tornou-se possível realizar algumas inferências como, por exemplo: vários estudantes possuem dificuldade em elaborar um modelo explicativo sobre o funcionamento de uma estrela; são poucos os que dizem que as estrelas possuem certo tempo de existência; alguns alunos as imaginam com pontas; poucos reconhecem que uma estrela é formada por uma massa de gás; vários conhecimentos prévios partem de aspectos meramente visuais; ainda assim, os estudantes não possuem o hábito de observar a natureza mais detalhadamente, entre outras. Vemos essa pesquisa como uma provável fonte de consulta na qual os professores de ciências poderão, além de reconhecer a importância dos conhecimentos prévios para o ensino e como eles interferem em sua prática, adquirir subsídios para o planejamento de suas aulas.

  1. Fluid evolution of Au-Cu zones in Um Balad area, North Eastern Desert of Egypt: Implications from mineral chemistry and fluid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El Monsef, Mohamed; Salem, Ibrahim; Slobodník, Marek; Ragab, Ahmed

    2018-07-01

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Electron microprobe (EMPA) and fluid inclusion studies of the ore body, as well as geochemical analyses of country rocks were performed to determine the nature and characteristics of the mineralizing fluid responsible for Au-Cu deposits in Um Balad area, Northern Eastern Desert of Egypt. The Um Balad Au-Cu deposits are confined to well developed-quartz veins and veinlets cutting through the hosting country rocks. Petrographic and geochemical investigations of the hosting rocks distinguished between two main rock units; 1) metagabbro-diorite rocks with tholeiitic nature derived in island arc/continental margin tectonic regime, and 2) granodiorite rocks formed from calc-alkaline magma in continental margin regime. Wallrock alterations are represented by propylitic and argillic types. The mineralized quartz veins are striking in NE-SW direction and dipping between (35°-45°) in SE direction, other mineralized mafic dykes enriched with auriferous quartz veinlets are trending NE-SW and dipping 70°/SE. The main ore minerals are represented by gold, chalcopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite, malachite, covellite and goethite. While, geffroyite, cuprite, chrysocolla, pseudomalachite, britholite, wolframite, scheelite, hematite and rutile are detected as minor constituents. Fluid inclusions microthermometry and isochore calculations combined with chlorite geothermometry revealed that the Um Balad deposits were formed at temperature ranging from 305 °C to 325 °C and pressure between (100-500 bar). The mineralization had been developed in the shallow levels, beneath the water table at depth of 350-1760 m, rather than common mesothermal vein-type deposits in Egypt. Magmatic water have been suggested as the main source for the mineralized fluid. The transportation of the gold metal seems to be happen as bisulfide complexes in moderately acidic environment. The deposition was resulted from combination of changes in physico-chemical parameters

  2. Um Projeto de Intervenção nos Espaços de Exposições do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Amaral, L. H.; de Araújo, C. F., Jr.; Matsuura, O. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-08-01

    Cada vez mais a humanidade, em sua imensa maioria, está alheia às próprias conquistas. A insatisfação com esta realidade tem levado muitos pesquisadores, instituições, empresas e governos a procurar formas alternativas de acompanhar e transmitir todo este acervo científico cultural à sociedade, buscando a melhoria da qualidade da divulgação científica e contribuindo para o processo de cultura e alfabetização científica. Não há tempo nem espaço nos limitados planos curriculares do ensino médio e mesmo nos programas de ensino que propiciem a cultura científica e o acompanhamento do vertiginoso progresso científico e tecnológico atual. Neste sentido, a educação formal escolar precisa ser complementada ou acrescida de uma educação informal, extra-escolar, que possa oferecer à sociedade o que a escola não pode oferecer. A interação do público com museus, feiras de ciências, planetários, exposições científicas e/ou culturais é de grande importância para a aquisição e difusão de conhecimentos relacionados ao mundo científico. Reconhecidamente como um modelo de alfabetização científica esses ambientes promovem uma interação social capaz de propiciar de forma efetiva uma melhor relação ensino-aprendizagem com o público. Partindo desta realidade a Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul e a Escola Municipal de Astronomia (EMA) vêm desenvolvendo um projeto de intervenção no espaço em torno do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera com o objetivo de se implantar um ambiente de aprendizagem motivador e desafiador que promova a popularização de conteúdos relacionados à astronomia, astrofísica e cosmologia. Busca-se, também, a aproximação e interação do público com exposições que estão sendo implementadas no planetário. Considerando que se trata de um projeto de mestrado em fase inicial o objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar a concepção básica e os critérios que estão sendo utilizados do ponto de vista pedag

  3. Validation of the A&D UM-211 device for office blood pressure measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    PubMed

    Fania, Claudio; Albertini, Federica; Palatini, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to define the accuracy of UM-211, an automated oscillometric device for office use coupled to several cuffs for different arm sizes, according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension. The validation was performed in 33 individuals. Their mean age was 59.6±12.9 years, systolic blood pressure (BP) was 144.3±21.5 mmHg (range: 96-184 mmHg), diastolic BP was 86.8±18.5 mmHg (range: 48-124 mmHg), and arm circumference was 30.2±4.3 cm (range: 23-39 cm). Four sequential readings were taken by observers 1 and 2 using a double-headed stethoscope and a mercury sphygmomanometer, whereas three BP readings were taken by the supervisor using the test instrument. The differences between the readings provided by the device and the mean observer measurements were calculated. Therefore, each device measurement was compared with the previous and the next mean observer measurement. The validation results fulfilled all the 2010 European Society of Hypertension revision Protocol criteria for the general population and passed all validation grades. On average, the device overestimated systolic BP by 1.7±2.4 mmHg and diastolic BP by 1.7±2.5 mmHg. These data show that the UM-211 device coupled to several cuffs for different ranges of arm circumference met the requirements for validation according to the International Protocol and can be recommended for clinical use in the adult population. However, these results mainly apply to the use of the 22-32 and the 31-45 cm cuffs.

  4. Astronomical Perception of the Secondary School's Students in São Paulo's State School in Suzano City. (Spanish Title: Percepción Astronómica de Alumnos de la Enseñanza Media de la Red Estatal de San Pablo en la Ciudad de Suzano.) Percepção Astronômica de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo da Cidade de Suzano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França de Oliveira, Edilene; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Amaral, Luis Henrique

    2007-12-01

    año y 20,6% tenían la idea de cuales son los objetos celestes más cercanos de la Tierra. En contraposición, 67,6% clasificaron correctamente el Sol como una estrella; 55,9% relacionaron el Big Bang al origen del Universo; solamente 20,6% identificaron un año-luz como unidad de distancia y 32,4% reconocieron una estrella fugaz como meteoro. El presente análisis fue expandido para otros grupos de la Enseñanza Media, no solamente del período nocturno, sino también diurno de la misma escuela. En esta primera fase se nota el pequeño conocimiento de los alumnos sobre eventos astronómicos y principalmente la gran confusión sobre el significado correcto de los términos astronómicos populares. Embora a Astronomia seja uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e muitos dos conceitos astronômicos serem populares, observa-se que uma parcela significativa dos estudantes encontra-se à margem dessas informações. O presente trabalho visa analisar o nível de conhecimento básico dos alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual da cidade de Suzano quanto aos fenômenos astronômicos que os rodeiam. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulário constando de questões de múltipla escolha, aplicado no primeiro ano noturno da Escola Estadual Batista Renzi. Num espaço amostral de 34 alunos constatou-se que apenas 29,4% compreendiam a sucessão dos dias; 20,6% explicaram corretamente as estações do ano e 20,6% tinham idéia de quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra. Em contraposição, 67,6% classificaram corretamente o Sol como estrela; 55,9% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo; apenas 20,6% identificaram um ano-luz como unidade de distância e 32,4% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. A presente análise foi expandida para mais 310 alunos de outras classes de Ensino Médio, não somente do período noturno, mas também diurno da mesma escola. Nesta primeira fase nota-se o pequeno discernimento dos alunos sobre eventos astronômicos e

  5. Educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH: un diagnóstico para América Latina y el Caribe

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Lisa M.; Galárraga, Omar; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo Mostrar, a través de un diagnóstico en América Latina y el Caribe, el panorama legislativo y curricular sobre sexualidad y prevención contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el ámbito escolar, contrastándolo con los comportamientos sexuales reportados en encuestas demográficas y de salud. Métodos En mayo de 2008 se realizó, con el apoyo del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas (UNFPA), una encuesta a informantes clave en 34 países de la Región. El cuestionario autoaplicado solicitó información sustantiva de agentes de las diferentes partes interesadas, como ministerios de educación y de salud, sobre los programas de prevención contra el VIH/Sida que se están aplicando en las escuelas. Resultados Respondieron a la encuesta 27 países que representan 95,5% de la población objetivo (6 a 18 años de edad). La mayoría de los países informó tener al menos un libro de texto o un capítulo específico para enseñar los temas de educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH. En la escuela secundaria se cubren la mayor parte de los temas pertinentes relevantes para la educación sobre sexualidad, pero no todos. Por ejemplo, el problema de la discriminación por orientación o preferencia sexual no se incluye en los programas escolares. Conclusiones El material educativo sobre sexualidad debe ser revisado y actualizado periódicamente de modo que refleje los avances en los temas y en la forma de tratar los contenidos. En cada país el currículo debe abordar el tema del respeto a la diversidad sobre orientación, preferencia e identidad sexuales, y en particular el manejo apropiado de la educación para prevenir infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Los esfuerzos de evaluación de la efectividad de los programas deben contemplar desenlaces tales como marcadores biológicos (incidencia y prevalencia de ITS y embarazo) y no únicamente indicadores de conocimiento y

  6. Mixed-Methods Study that Examines Nine Science Teachers' Perceptions of Slooh Robotic Telescope for Teaching Astronomy. (Breton Title: Métodos Mistos de Estudo que Examinam a Percepção de Nove Professores de Ciências sobre o Telescópio Robótico Slooh Para Ensino de Astronomia.) Métodos Mixtos de Estudio que Examinan la Percepcion de Nueve Profesores de Ciencias sobre EL Telescopio Robótico Slooh Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershun, Daniel C.; Slater, Timothy F.; Berryhill, Katie J.

    2014-07-01

    Although previous studies show that robotic telescopes have the potential to enhance student learning, there is comparatively little research that focuses on teacher perceptions of this technology. This study investigates: "what is the academic merit of using SLOOH robotic telescopes to teach astronomy as perceived by science teachers?" Our sample consists of nine science teachers of students aged 13-18 years. Pre- and post-tests, interviews, and surveys were collected during two weeks of a summer online course about robotic telescopes. While pre and post-tests do not reveal a statistically significant gain in astronomy content knowledge, analysis of qualitative data reveals five themes which describe the most important aspects of using SLOOH according to participants: "Images," "Interface," "Classroom Application," "Instructor Impact," and "Logistical Issues." Analysis of these themes suggests that SLOOH can provide an interactive and social learning environment with capabilities to incorporate crossdisciplinary themes. Embora estudos anteriores mostram que os telescópios robóticos têm o potencial de melhorar a aprendizagem dos alunos, há relativamente pouca investigação focada nas percepções de professores a respeito desta tecnologia. Este estudo investiga: "qual é o mérito acadêmico da utilização de telescópios robóticos Slooh para ensinar astronomia, tal como percebido pelos professores de ciências?" Nossa amostra é composta por nove professores de ciências de estudantes com idades entre 13-18 anos pré e pós-testes, entrevistas, e levantamentos foram coletados durante duas semanas de um curso on-line de verão sobre telescópios robóticos. Enquanto os testes pré e pós não revelaram um ganho estatisticamente significativo no conhecimento do conteúdo astronomia, a análise de dados qualitativos revela cinco temas que descrevem os aspectos mais importantes da utilização Slooh de acordo aos participantes: "Imagens", "Interface", "Aplica

  7. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  8. Diagnosing the radiative and chemical contributions to future changes in tropical column ozone with the UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeble, James; Bednarz, Ewa M.; Banerjee, Antara; Abraham, N. Luke; Harris, Neil R. P.; Maycock, Amanda C.; Pyle, John A.

    2017-11-01

    Chemical and dynamical drivers of trends in tropical total-column ozone (TCO3) for the recent past and future periods are explored using the UM-UKCA (Unified Model HadGEM3-A (Hewitt et al., 2011) coupled with the United Kingdom Chemistry and Aerosol scheme) chemistry-climate model. A transient 1960-2100 simulation is analysed which follows the representative concentration pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) emissions scenario for the future. Tropical averaged (10° S-10° N) TCO3 values decrease from the 1970s, reach a minimum around 2000 and return to their 1980 values around 2040, consistent with the use and emission of halogenated ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), and their later controls under the Montreal Protocol. However, when the ozone column is subdivided into three partial columns (PCO3) that cover the upper stratosphere (PCO3US), lower stratosphere (PCO3LS) and troposphere (PCO3T), significant differences in the temporal behaviour of the partial columns are seen. Modelled PCO3T values under the RCP6.0 emissions scenario increase from 1960 to 2000 before remaining approximately constant throughout the 21st century. PCO3LS values decrease rapidly from 1960 to 2000 and remain constant from 2000 to 2050, before gradually decreasing further from 2050 to 2100 and never returning to their 1980s values. In contrast, PCO3US values decrease from 1960 to 2000, before increasing rapidly throughout the 21st century and returning to 1980s values by ˜ 2020, and reach significantly higher values by 2100. Using a series of idealised UM-UKCA time-slice simulations with concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) and halogenated ODS species set to either year 2000 or 2100 levels, we examine the main processes that drive the PCO3 responses in the three regions and assess how these processes change under different emission scenarios. Finally, we present a simple, linearised model to describe the future evolution of tropical stratospheric column ozone values based on terms

  9. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents one of the concepts of Astronomy and its consequent failure in teaching this topic in high school, even when the official documents point out the necessity of Astronomy teaching at this school level. Among the spontaneous conceptions in Astronomy that high school students carry with them, even after the end of the school, we emphasized in this research the Moon phases. The development of different strategies in relation to traditional methods, aimed to teaching-learning process on this topic was considered in this study. These strategies were devised based on the reference frame of the Meaningful Learning, as elaborated by Ausubel. The proposals presented here include the active participation of students in experimental activities and other didactic activities, for their continuous evaluation during the process. These activities finished with a Comics elaboration about the Moon phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a proposal for differentiated teaching activity about Moon phases supported by the theoretical principles of Meaningful Learning at Physics classes. Este texto foca um dos conteúdos de Astronomia e a consequente falha no ensino deste tema no ensino médio, apesar de os documentos oficiais apresentarem a necessidade de se trabalhar a Astronomia neste nível de ensino. Dentre as concepções alternativas em Astronomia que os alunos do ensino médio carregam consigo, mesmo após o término dos estudos, destacamos, nesta pesquisa, o fenômeno das fases da Lua. O desenvolvimento de estratégias diferenciadas em relação ao ensino tradicional, visando o processo de ensino-aprendizagem sobre este tema, foi contemplado neste trabalho como um dos resultados obtidos sob a luz dos referenciais da aprendizagem significativa, fundamentados em Ausubel. Segundo a proposta aqui apresentada, a participação ativa dos alunos na execução de uma atividade experimental e outras atividades didáticas, que visam sua cont

  10. Project UM-HAUL (UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander): The design of a reusable lunar lander with an independent cargo unloader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Project UM-Haul is the preliminary design of a reusable lunar transportation vehicle that travels between a lunar parking orbit and the lunar surface. This vehicle is an indispensible link in the overall task of establishing a lunar base as defined by the NASA Space Exploration Initiative. The response to this need consists of two independent vehicles: a lander and an unloader. The system can navigate and unload itself with a minimum amount of human intervention. The design addresses structural analysis, propulsion, power, controls, communications, payload handling and orbital operations. The Lander has the capacity to decend from low lunar orbit (LLO) to the lunar surface carrying a 7000 kg payload, plus the unloader, plus propellant for ascent to LLO. The Lander employs the Unloader by way of a motorized ramp. The Unloader is a terrain vehicle capable of carrying cargoes of 8,500 kg mass and employs a lift system to lower payloads to the ground. The system can perform ten missions before requiring major servicing.

  11. Lactose (mal)digestion evaluated by the 13C-lactose digestion test.

    PubMed

    Vonk, R J; Lin, Y; Koetse, H A; Huang, C; Zeng, G; Elzinga, H; Antoine, J; Stellaard, F

    2000-02-01

    The prevalence of genetically determined lactase nonpersistence is based on the results of the lactose H2 breath test. This test, however, is an indirect test, which might lead to misinterpretation. We determined lactase activity in healthy Chinese and Dutch students using a novel 13C-lactose digestion test. The cut-off value of this test was established in a Chinese population with a homogenous genetic background of lactase nonpersistence and was compared with the results obtained in a Caucasian population. Twenty-five grams of a 13C-lactose solution was consumed by 12 known H2-positive and 5 H2-negative Chinese students and 48 Dutch students and, subsequently, 13C-glucose concentration in plasma and H2 excretion in breath were measured. A similar 13C-glucose response curve was found in all Chinese students. The mean response curve in the Dutch students was more pronounced (P < 0.01). The 1 h (peak) plasma 13C-glucose concentration was the best discriminator between lactose digesting and maldigesting subjects. The cut-off level of 2 mmol L-1 13C-glucose in plasma was defined in the H2-positive Chinese students group. Based on the 13C-glucose response the prevalence of lactose maldigestion in the Dutch subjects was 25%; based on the lactose H2 breath test 17%. Using the 13C-lactose digestion test the results demonstrate a higher prevalence of lactose maldigestion in a Caucasian population than indicated by the results of the H2 breath test. A moderate increase in the plasma 13C-glucose concentration after consumption of 13C-lactose in the young adult Chinese subjects indicates a residual lactase activity in that age group, even when a positive H2 breath test result is obtained. These results indicate that the 13C-glucose concentration in plasma more accurately reflects the small intestinal lactose digestion capacity than the lactose H2 breath test.

  12. Chronic aflatoxin exposure in children living in Bhaktapur, Nepal: Extension of the MAL-ED study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are toxic chemicals produced by molds. The molds that produce these two toxic chemicals are commonly found in corn and their co-occurence in corn has been demonstrated in many surveys. This study was conducted because it is suspected that exposure to eith...

  13. Lost in Search: (Mal-)Adaptation to Probabilistic Decision Environments in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betsch, Tilmann; Lehmann, Anne; Lindow, Stefanie; Lang, Anna; Schoemann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive decision making in probabilistic environments requires individuals to use probabilities as weights in predecisional information searches and/or when making subsequent choices. Within a child-friendly computerized environment (Mousekids), we tracked 205 children's (105 children 5-6 years of age and 100 children 9-10 years of age) and 103…

  14. Context effects and the (mal)adaptive nature of guilt and shame in children.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, T J; Stegge, H; Eyre, H L; Vollmer, R; Ashbaker, M

    2000-08-01

    Symptoms of internalization were examined in relation to children's self-reports of three emotions in situations that were either ambiguous or unambiguous as to the child's responsibility for various standard violations. Children ranging in age from 6 to 13 years were drawn from elementary schools (61 boys, 79 girls, mean age = 8.7) and from a community mental health center (23 boys, 18 girls, mean age = 8.5) to which they had been referred for problems related to internalization or externalization. Shame proneness was consistently linked to internalizing symptoms across contexts. Guilt proneness, in response to ambiguous scenarios, was also associated with internalization, whereas pride responses were unrelated to symptoms. Few age- or gender-related differences were found. The results cast doubt on notions that self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, are necessarily adaptive or maladaptive. Systematic research is needed to understand which features of any emotion contribute to children's psychological adjustment.

  15. Measuring socioeconomic status in multicountry studies: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is no standardized approach to comparing socioeconomic status (SES) across multiple sites in epidemiological studies. This is particularly problematic when cross-country comparisons are of interest. We sought to develop a simple measure of SES that would perform well across diverse, resource-limited settings. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 800 children aged 24 to 60 months across eight resource-limited settings. Parents were asked to respond to a household SES questionnaire, and the height of each child was measured. A statistical analysis was done in two phases. First, the best approach for selecting and weighting household assets as a proxy for wealth was identified. We compared four approaches to measuring wealth: maternal education, principal components analysis, Multidimensional Poverty Index, and a novel variable selection approach based on the use of random forests. Second, the selected wealth measure was combined with other relevant variables to form a more complete measure of household SES. We used child height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) as the outcome of interest. Results Mean age of study children was 41 months, 52% were boys, and 42% were stunted. Using cross-validation, we found that random forests yielded the lowest prediction error when selecting assets as a measure of household wealth. The final SES index included access to improved water and sanitation, eight selected assets, maternal education, and household income (the WAMI index). A 25% difference in the WAMI index was positively associated with a difference of 0.38 standard deviations in HAZ (95% CI 0.22 to 0.55). Conclusions Statistical learning methods such as random forests provide an alternative to principal components analysis in the development of SES scores. Results from this multicountry study demonstrate the validity of a simplified SES index. With further validation, this simplified index may provide a standard approach for SES adjustment across resource-limited settings. PMID:24656134

  16. The (mal) adaptive value of mid-adolescent dating relationship labels.

    PubMed

    Howard, Donna E; Debnam, Katrina J; Cham, H J; Czinn, Anna; Aiken, Nancy; Jordan, Jessica; Goldman, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore adolescent dating relationships through the prism of high school girls' narratives. We probed the contexts and meanings associated with different forms of dating to better understand the developmental significance of romantic relationships during adolescence. Cross-sectional, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 high school females. The analytic approach was phenomenological and grounded in the narratives rather than based on an a priori theoretical framework. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim by research staff and entered into ATLAS.ti 6, a qualitative data-management software package, prior to analysis. Teen relationships were found to vary along a Dis-Continuum from casual hookups to "official" boyfriend/girlfriend. There was a lack of consensus, and much ambiguity, as to the substantive meaning of different relationships. Labeling dating relationships seem to facilitate acquisition of important developmental needs such as identity, affiliation, and status, while attempting to manage cognitive dissonance and emotional disappointments. Findings underscore the confusion and complexity surrounding contemporary adolescent dating. Adolescent girls are using language and social media to assist them in meeting developmental goals. Sometimes their dating labels are adaptive, other times they are a cause of stress, or concealment of unmet needs and thwarted desires. Programs focused on positive youth development need to resonate with the realities of teens' lives and more fully acknowledge the complicated dynamics of teen dating relationships and how they are formalized, publicized and negotiated.

  17. Lost in search: (Mal-)adaptation to probabilistic decision environments in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Betsch, Tilmann; Lehmann, Anne; Lindow, Stefanie; Lang, Anna; Schoemann, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Adaptive decision making in probabilistic environments requires individuals to use probabilities as weights in predecisional information searches and/or when making subsequent choices. Within a child-friendly computerized environment (Mousekids), we tracked 205 children's (105 children 5-6 years of age and 100 children 9-10 years of age) and 103 adults' (age range: 21-22 years) search behaviors and decisions under different probability dispersions (.17; .33, .83 vs. .50, .67, .83) and constraint conditions (instructions to limit search: yes vs. no). All age groups limited their depth of search when instructed to do so and when probability dispersion was high (range: .17-.83). Unlike adults, children failed to use probabilities as weights for their searches, which were largely not systematic. When examining choices, however, elementary school children (unlike preschoolers) systematically used probabilities as weights in their decisions. This suggests that an intuitive understanding of probabilities and the capacity to use them as weights during integration is not a sufficient condition for applying simple selective search strategies that place one's focus on weight distributions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Household food access and child malnutrition: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study.

    PubMed

    Psaki, Stephanie; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, Shamsir; Bessong, Pascal; Islam, Munirul; John, Sushil; Kosek, Margaret; Lima, Aldo; Nesamvuni, Cebisa; Shrestha, Prakash; Svensen, Erling; McGrath, Monica; Richard, Stephanie; Seidman, Jessica; Caulfield, Laura; Miller, Mark; Checkley, William

    2012-12-13

    Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0-27) was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42%) was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%). In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p = 0.008). A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p = 0.17). Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and death related to malnutrition.

  19. MalWebID-Autodetection and Identification of Malicious Web Hosts Through Live Traffic Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    blogs, video services, and popular social media sites. In December 2000, there were near 361 million Internet users and by the end of December 2012...site (i.e., Porn , Rx/Pharmaceutical, illegal activity, etc.) – propagate or contain viruses, spyware, or other harmful programs, participate in spamming

  20. Hydrodynamic Versus Size-Exclusion Chromatography Characterization of Alternan and Comparison to Off-Line MALS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternan is an ultra-high molar mass polysaccharide composed of two different types of glycosidic linkages and which also possesses long-chain branching. It has great potential in a number of areas, including as a possible domestic replacement for gum Arabic. The high molar mass and large size of ...

  1. Cognitions as determinants of (mal)adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behavior in an organizational context.

    PubMed

    Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Försterling, Friedrich

    2006-01-01

    This study applies the theoretical concepts of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962, 1994) to the analysis of functional and dysfunctional behaviour and emotions in the workplace and tests central assumptions of REBT in an organizational setting. We argue that Ellis' appraisal theory of emotion sheds light on some of the cognitive and emotional antecedents of emotional intelligence and emotionally intelligent behaviour. In an extension of REBT, we posit that adaptive emotions resulting from rational cognitions reflect more emotional intelligence than maladaptive emotions which result from irrational cognitions, because the former lead to functional behaviour. We hypothesize that semantically similar emotions (e.g. annoyance and rage) lead to different behavioural reactions and have a different functionality in an organizational context. The results of scenario experiments using organizational vignettes confirm the central assumptions of Ellis' appraisal theory and support our hypotheses of a correspondence between adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behaviour. Additionally, we find evidence that irrational job-related attitudes result in reduced work (but not life) satisfaction.

  2. MAL Daylight Photodynamic Therapy for Actinic Keratosis: Clinical and Imaging Evaluation by 3D Camera.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Carmen; Paolino, Giovanni; Pellacani, Giovanni; Didona, Dario; Scarno, Marco; Faina, Valentina; Gobello, Tommaso; Calvieri, Stefano

    2016-07-11

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common skin cancer with an incidence that varies widely worldwide. Among them, actinic keratosis (AK), considered by some authors as in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are the most common and reflect an abnormal multistep skin cell development due to the chronic ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. No ideal treatment exists, but the potential risk of their development in a more invasive form requires prompt treatment. As patients usually present with multiple AK on fields of actinic damage, there is a need for effective, safe, simple and short treatments which allow the treatment of large areas. To achieve this, daylight photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) is an innovative treatment for multiple mild actinic keratosis, well tolerated by patients. Patients allocated to the PDT unit, affected by multiple mild-moderate and severe actinic keratosis on sun-exposed areas treated with DL-PDT, were clinically evaluated at baseline and every three months with an Antera 3D, Miravex(©) camera. Clinical and 3D images were performed at each clinical check almost every three months. In this retrospective study, 331 patients (56.7% male, 43.3% female) were treated with DL-PDT. We observed a full clearance in more than two-thirds of patients with one or two treatments. Different responses depend on the number of lesions and on their severity; for patients with 1-3 lesions and with grade I or II AK, a full clearance was reached in 85% of cases with a maximum of two treatments. DL-PDT in general improved skin tone and erased sun damage. Evaluating each Antera 3D images, hemoglobin concentration and pigmentation, a skin color and tone improvement in 310 patients was observed. DL-PDT appears as a promising, effective, simple, tolerable and practical treatment for actinic damage associated with AK, and even treatment of large areas can be with little or no pain. The 3D imaging allowed for quantifying in real time the aesthetic benefits of DL-PDT's increasing compliance.

  3. MAL Daylight Photodynamic Therapy for Actinic Keratosis: Clinical and Imaging Evaluation by 3D Camera

    PubMed Central

    Cantisani, Carmen; Paolino, Giovanni; Pellacani, Giovanni; Didona, Dario; Scarno, Marco; Faina, Valentina; Gobello, Tommaso; Calvieri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common skin cancer with an incidence that varies widely worldwide. Among them, actinic keratosis (AK), considered by some authors as in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are the most common and reflect an abnormal multistep skin cell development due to the chronic ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. No ideal treatment exists, but the potential risk of their development in a more invasive form requires prompt treatment. As patients usually present with multiple AK on fields of actinic damage, there is a need for effective, safe, simple and short treatments which allow the treatment of large areas. To achieve this, daylight photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) is an innovative treatment for multiple mild actinic keratosis, well tolerated by patients. Patients allocated to the PDT unit, affected by multiple mild−moderate and severe actinic keratosis on sun-exposed areas treated with DL-PDT, were clinically evaluated at baseline and every three months with an Antera 3D, Miravex© camera. Clinical and 3D images were performed at each clinical check almost every three months. In this retrospective study, 331 patients (56.7% male, 43.3% female) were treated with DL-PDT. We observed a full clearance in more than two-thirds of patients with one or two treatments. Different responses depend on the number of lesions and on their severity; for patients with 1–3 lesions and with grade I or II AK, a full clearance was reached in 85% of cases with a maximum of two treatments. DL-PDT in general improved skin tone and erased sun damage. Evaluating each Antera 3D images, hemoglobin concentration and pigmentation, a skin color and tone improvement in 310 patients was observed. DL-PDT appears as a promising, effective, simple, tolerable and practical treatment for actinic damage associated with AK, and even treatment of large areas can be with little or no pain. The 3D imaging allowed for quantifying in real time the aesthetic benefits of DL-PDT’s increasing compliance. PMID:27409613

  4. Household food access and child malnutrition: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. Methods We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Results Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0–27) was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42%) was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%). In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p = 0.008). A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p = 0.17). Conclusions Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and death related to malnutrition. PMID:23237098

  5. Norovirus Infection and Acquired Immunity in 8 Countries: Results From the MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Saba; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Siguas Salas, Mery; Rengifo Trigoso, Dixner; Mondal, Dinesh; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Platts-Mills, James; Samie, Amidou; Kabir, Furqan; Lima, Aldo; Babji, Sudhir; Mason, Carl J.; Kalam, Adil; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Mduma, Estomih; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Lima, Ila; Ramdass, Rakhi; Lang, Dennis; George, Ajila; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Kang, Gagandeep; Houpt, Eric; Kosek, Margaret N.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Norovirus is an important cause of childhood diarrhea. We present data from a longitudinal, multicountry study describing norovirus epidemiology during the first 2 years of life. Methods. A birth cohort of 1457 children across 8 countries contributed 7077 diarrheal stools for norovirus testing. A subset of 199 children contributed additional asymptomatic samples (2307) and diarrheal stools (770), which were used to derive incidence rates and evaluate evidence for acquired immunity. Results. Across sites, 89% of children experienced at least 1 norovirus infection before 24 months, and 22.7% of all diarrheal stools were norovirus positive. Severity of norovirus-positive diarrhea was comparable to other enteropathogens, with the exception of rotavirus. Incidence of genogroup II (GII) infection was higher than genogroup I and peaked at 6–11 months across sites. Undernutrition was a risk factor for symptomatic norovirus infection, with an increase in 1 standard deviation of length-for-age z score associated with a 17% reduction (odds ratio, 0.83 [95% confidence interval, .72–.97]; P = .011) in the odds of experiencing diarrhea when norovirus was present, after accounting for genogroup, rotavirus vaccine, and age. Evidence of acquired immunity was observed among GII infections only: Children with prior GII infection were found to have a 27% reduction in the hazard of subsequent infection (hazard ratio, 0.727; P = .010). Conclusions. The high prevalence of norovirus across 8 sites in highly variable epidemiologic settings and demonstration of protective immunity for GII infections provide support for investment in vaccine development. PMID:27013692

  6. 7 CFR 1421.418 - Submitting MAL and LDP documentation to FSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disbursement date, peanut type, warehouse code, and State where peanuts were inspected; and (2) LDPs with the... this section shall be submitted to FSA with the following documents: (1) Individual paper warehouse... itemize receipts, and other data, as required, or a pre-processed electronic file containing data required...

  7. 7 CFR 1421.418 - Submitting MAL and LDP documentation to FSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disbursement date, peanut type, warehouse code, and State where peanuts were inspected; and (2) LDPs with the... this section shall be submitted to FSA with the following documents: (1) Individual paper warehouse... itemize receipts, and other data, as required, or a pre-processed electronic file containing data required...

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF HUMIC ACID SIZE FRACTIONS BY SEC AND MALS (R822832)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Latahco silt-loam humic acid was separated on a preparatory scale by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) on a gravity-fed Sepharose column. Four fractions from this separation were collected and further analyzed, along with whole humic acid, by high-performance SEC coupled with a...

  9. The Shadow of a Gnomon Along a Year: Routine Observations and Teaching of Apparent Motion of the Sun and the Four Seasons. (Spanish Title: La Sombra de un Gnomon lo Largo de un Año: Observaciones de Rutina y la Enseñanza del Movimiento Aparente del Sol y Las Cuatro Estaciones.) A Sombra de um Gnômon ao Longo de um Ano: Observações Rotineiras e o Ensino do Movimento Aparente do Sol E das Quatro Estações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogello, Anderson Giovani; Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; de Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2013-12-01

    Many misconceptions are recognized among the various groups of students, especially in the elementary school. Among them, the apparent motion of the Sun, in spite of its daily occurrence, is subject to varied interpretations. Thus, the observation and recording of the motion of the stars in the celestial vault is a necessary task for astronomy education. The work presented here proposes the presentation of the results of observations of the apparent movement of the sun by marking the shadow of a vertical gnomon by the students in a class of sixth graders of elementary rural school of Paraná. The project itself was conducted in four stages, on dates near the March equinox, the June solstice, the September equinox and the December solstice. In addition, lectures were developed in the classroom. Such methods sought to build concepts around the apparent movement of the Sun and the alternation of the seasons. Given the results of the activities, an evaluation was applied and the data demonstrated a desired student learning such as: the recognition of the cardinal points, the description of the apparent solar motion and the occurrence of the seasons and their alternation from astronomical observations at naked eye. Muchos conceptos aternativos son conocidos entre los distintos grupos de alumnos, sobre todo en la educación básica. Entre ellos, el movimiento aparente del Sol, por más cotidiano que sea, se presta a interpretaciones variadas. Por lo tanto, observar y registrar el movimiento de las estrellas en la bóveda celeste se torna una tarea necesaria para la educación en astronomía. El trabajo que aquí se presenta propone la presentación de los resultados de la observación del movimiento aparente del sol a través de la marcación de la sombra del gnomon vertical a cargo de los estudiantes en una división de sexto grado de de la escuela primaria rural de Paraná. El proyecto en sí se llevó a cabo en cuatro etapas, en fechas cercanas al equinoccio de marzo

  10. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodré, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  11. Age-related changes in auditory nerve-inner hair cell connections, hair cell numbers, auditory brain stem response and gap detection in UM-HET4 mice.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, R A; Dolan, D F; Halsey, K; Kanicki, A; Deng, N; Martin, C; Eberle, J; Kohrman, D C; Miller, R A; Schacht, J

    2015-04-30

    This study compared the timing of appearance of three components of age-related hearing loss that determine the pattern and severity of presbycusis: the functional and structural pathologies of sensory cells and neurons and changes in gap detection (GD), the latter as an indicator of auditory temporal processing. Using UM-HET4 mice, genetically heterogeneous mice derived from four inbred strains, we studied the integrity of inner and outer hair cells by position along the cochlear spiral, inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections, spiral ganglion neurons (SGN), and determined auditory thresholds, as well as pre-pulse and gap inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR). Comparisons were made between mice of 5-7, 22-24 and 27-29 months of age. There was individual variability among mice in the onset and extent of age-related auditory pathology. At 22-24 months of age a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was restricted to the apical third of the cochlea and threshold shifts in the auditory brain stem response were minimal. There was also a large and significant loss of inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections and a significant reduction in GD. The expression of Ntf3 in the cochlea was significantly reduced. At 27-29 months of age there was no further change in the mean number of synaptic connections per inner hair cell or in GD, but a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was found across all cochlear turns as well as significantly increased ABR threshold shifts at 4, 12, 24 and 48 kHz. A statistical analysis of correlations on an individual animal basis revealed that neither the hair cell loss nor the ABR threshold shifts correlated with loss of GD or with the loss of connections, consistent with independent pathological mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Very Low-Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs) from 1.25-850um (Kim+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.-R.; Lee, C. W.; Dunham, M. M.; Evans, N. J., II; Kim, G.; Allen, L. E.

    2016-10-01

    The Spitzer Gould Belt Survey (GBS) is a project to survey about 21 square degrees of 11 nearby molecular clouds at 3.6-160um to provide a census of star formation in nearby large clouds (P.I. L. Allen). Spitzer has mapped a total of 11 molecular clouds, CMC, Chamaeleon I, Chamaeleon III, Musca, Lupus V, Lupus VI, Ophiuchus North, Aquila, CrA, Cepheus, and IC 5146 with the IRAC and MIPS between 2004 March and 2008 October. We utilized the data provided by the c2d/GBS projects (Evans et al. 2009, J/ApJS/181/321; Dunham et al. 2015, J/ApJS/220/11). There are two cloud complexes which were not listed in the c2d/GBS projects, but observed by other projects, the Taurus molecular clouds and the Orion molecular clouds. The Taurus molecular clouds have been observed over an area of ~44 square degrees by one of the GTO programs (P.I. D. Padgett) with the IRAC and the MIPS instruments. The Orion molecular clouds have been surveyed in ~9°2 area by Spitzer (P.I. T. Megeath). See section 2.1 for further details. Complementary archive infrared data were retrieved from 2MASS and Herschel PACS and SPIRE and JCMT SCUBA-2; see section 2.2. We observed our sources with the N2H+(1-0) line with the Korean Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (KVN) 21m radio telescopes from 2011 October to 2016 May for the northern hemisphere sources, and the Mopra 22m telescope in 2012 April for the southern hemisphere sources. See section 2.3 for further explanations. (8 data files).

  13. Ho-Nee-Um Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harriet; And Others

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the elementary grades. It employes the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. Major…

  14. OT1_kcoppin_1: A Herschel Survey of [OI]63um in 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppin, K.

    2010-07-01

    Luminous obscured galaxies likely dominate the total bolometric emission from star-formation at the early epochs of z~2-3, and are most efficiently identified through their (sub)millimetre emission and are so-called submillimetre galaxies (SMGs). The intense starbursts in SMGs are fuelled by their large observed H2 gas reservoirs, as traced by CO interferometric surveys, although the details of how their immense luminosities (L_fir>5x10^12 Lsun) and star-formation rates (~100-1000 Msun/yr) are powered are not well understood: Are SMGs just scaled up ULIRGs with star-formation occurring in a highly-obscured nuclear region (with perhaps some contribution from an AGN)? Or does the star-formation occur in a more extended, cooler component, such as in "normal" star-forming galaxies. One route to tackling this question is to construct a data set of the brightest fine-structure ISM emission lines ([CII] and [OI]) in a well-defined sample of SMGs, which with ancillary CO data, will allow us to study the physics of the ISM and its interplay with the heating source. Similar benchmark data sets are being compiled by several Herschel programs for local LIRGs and ULIRGs, which will act as a link to help interpret the high-redshift SMG observations. Here we propose a timely and systematic study with the PACS spectrometer of [OI]63um in a flux-limited sample of SMGs with secure spectroscopic redshifts between 0.7

  15. A description and evaluation of an air quality model nested within global and regional composition-climate models using MetUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Lucy S.; Dalvi, Mohit; Folberth, Gerd; McInnes, Rachel N.; Agnew, Paul; O'Connor, Fiona M.; Savage, Nicholas H.; Tilbee, Marie

    2017-11-01

    There is a clear need for the development of modelling frameworks for both climate change and air quality to help inform policies for addressing these issues simultaneously. This paper presents an initial attempt to develop a single modelling framework, by introducing a greater degree of consistency in the meteorological modelling framework by using a two-step, one-way nested configuration of models, from a global composition-climate model (GCCM) (140 km resolution) to a regional composition-climate model covering Europe (RCCM) (50 km resolution) and finally to a high (12 km) resolution model over the UK (AQUM). The latter model is used to produce routine air quality forecasts for the UK. All three models are based on the Met Office's Unified Model (MetUM). In order to better understand the impact of resolution on the downscaling of projections of future climate and air quality, we have used this nest of models to simulate a 5-year period using present-day emissions and under present-day climate conditions. We also consider the impact of running the higher-resolution model with higher spatial resolution emissions, rather than simply regridding emissions from the RCCM. We present an evaluation of the models compared to in situ air quality observations over the UK, plus a comparison against an independent 1 km resolution gridded dataset, derived from a combination of modelling and observations, effectively producing an analysis of annual mean surface pollutant concentrations. We show that using a high-resolution model over the UK has some benefits in improving air quality modelling, but that the use of higher spatial resolution emissions is important to capture local variations in concentrations, particularly for primary pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. For secondary pollutants such as ozone and the secondary component of PM10, the benefits of a higher-resolution nested model are more limited and reasons for this are discussed. This study

  16. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  17. Representaciones sociales sobre la problemática de Chagas en un servicio de salud comunitaria del Gran La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sanmartino, Mariana; Amieva, Carolina; Medone, Y Paula

    2017-03-01

    Hablar de Chagas es hablar de una problemática compleja, definida por elementos de carácter biomédico, epidemiológico, sociocultural y político, que se conjugan dinámicamente. En este trabajo buscamos identificar y analizar las representaciones sobre Chagas de los integrantes del equipo de salud de un centro de atención periurbano de la ciudad de La Plata, Argentina. Mediante un abordaje cualitativo, se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas y se analizaron las respuestas con la técnica del análisis de contenido. Los resultados mostraron que la mayor parte de las personas entrevistadas no contempla al Chagas como una problemática en su contexto laboral cotidiano y manifiestan un fuerte sesgo biologicista en su formación profesional. Con este trabajo señalamos la urgente necesidad de reflexionar críticamente en torno a la formación de los profesionales de la salud en relación a problemáticas socioambientales complejas de importancia regional, como lo es el Chagas.

  18. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Analía; Tudurí, Adriana; Pérez, Laura; Cuña, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo; Lopes Figueira, Rubens; Michaelovitch de Mahiques, Michel; Alves de Lima Ferreira, Paulo; Pittauerová, Daniela; Hanebuth, Till; García Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-12-01

    B 13813-4. También se determinó una mayor acumulación de sedimentos a través del tiempo en el cinturón de barro del Río de la Plata (plataforma continental adyacente), comparado con aquel registrado en la Barra del Indio (límite entre zona intermedia y externa del estuario). Estas diferencias podrían estar relacionadas con la influencia del Río de la Plata, el cual genera un ambiente altamente dinámico sobre la Barra del Indio y un ambiente más estable sobre el cinturón de barro en la plataforma continental.

  19. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  20. Recommendations for Infant Feeding Policy and Programs in Dzimauli Region, South Africa: Results From the MAL-ED Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Mushaphi, Lindelani Fhumudzani; Mahopo, Tjale Cloupas; Nesamvuni, Cebisa Noxolo; Baloyi, Brenda; Mashau, Ellen; Richardson, Jeniata; Dillingham, Rebecca; Guerrant, Richard; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Bessong, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    There is strong evidence that exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in the first 6 months of life reduces the risk of diseases in infancy and in later life. To understand the maternal reasoning that influences optimum infant feeding practices of caregivers in semirural communities of Limpopo province. Nested qualitative study among mothers in an ongoing birth cohort study was conducted; structured and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data from 234 infants after 6 months of follow-up was included for quantitative analysis. Four focus discussion groups comprising 7 to 10 caregivers were used to obtain perception of mothers on breastfeeding. A semi-structured interview guide was used to stimulate discussions. Thematic content analyses were conducted to identify the main themes that influence breastfeeding practices of caregivers. Over 90% of the caregivers initiated breastfeeding after delivery. However, less than 1% of mothers practiced EBF by 3 months, and none of the children were exclusively breastfed for up to 6 months. All caregivers introduced non-breast milk liquids and solids by the second month of child's life. Common reasons for introducing non-breast milk foods included insufficiency of breast milk production, going back to work or school, and influence by elderly women (mothers/mothers-in-law) and church members. Exclusive breastfeeding was not practiced in this community due to cultural and religious beliefs and misinformation. The involvement of elderly women and church members in infant feeding education and promotion programs and the dissemination of breastfeeding information through mobile phones to younger mothers are recommended.

  1. [Overweight, obesity and chronic mal nutrition in 6 to 9 year-old children in Peru, 2009-2010].

    PubMed

    Pajuelo-Ramírez, Jaime; Sánchez-Abanto, José; Alvarez-Dongo, Doris; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina; Agüero-Zamora, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of overweight, obesity and chronic malnutrition in 6- to 9-year-old children in Peru. A cross-cutting study based on the 2009-2010 National Household Survey. The size/age ratio was analyzed with references of the National Center for Health Statistic (NCSH) and the World Health Organization (WHO), considering less than two standard deviations for chronic malnutrition (CM); and the Must and WHO reference tables to measure the body mass index with 85 to 95 percentile values for overweight and above 95 for obesity. With Must as reference, overweight was 12.1% and obesity 9.4%, and according to WHO overweight and obesity were 10.2 and 11.3% respectively. The prevalence of CM according to NCSH and WHO is 15.4 and 17.8% respectively. The highest prevalence of CM is in the north (25.2%), center (22.9%) and south of (19%) the Highland, while obesity is more present in the south coast (28%), Metropolitan Lima (22.8%) and the central Coast (22.5%). Of all the children with CM, 6.5% has overweight and 1.2% obesity. CM is decreasing because size averages have improved, however obesity has doubled. The presence of CM and obesity in children aged 6 to 9 years old in different regions of Peru poses a challenge in the planning of food and nutrition policies.

  2. Motion Sickness: Significance in Aerospace Operations and Prophylaxis (Le Mal des Transports: Son Importance pour les Operations Aerospatiales et Prophylaxies)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    description of motion sickness will be based on the assumption that only one peculiar thing happens: a poison response is provoked by motion. Common sense...available for study , because it can be produced for study without the complicating presence of a poison. It is produced by a motion stimulus that...34nausea occurred only during gastric relaxation and hypomotility" (26). The electrical activity of the gut has also been studied during motion

  3. Effects of cognitive control training on the dynamics of (mal)adaptive emotion regulation in daily life.

    PubMed

    Hoorelbeke, Kristof; Koster, Ernst H W; Demeyer, Ineke; Loeys, Tom; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive control plays a key role in both adaptive emotion regulation, such as positive reappraisal, and maladaptive emotion regulation, such as rumination, with both strategies playing a major role in resilience and well-being. As a result, cognitive control training (CCT) targeting working memory functioning may have the potential to reduce maladaptive emotion regulation and increase adaptive emotion regulation. The current study explored the effects of CCT on positive reappraisal ability in a lab context, and deployment and efficacy of positive appraisal and rumination in daily life. A sample of undergraduates (n = 83) was allocated to CCT or an active control condition, performing 10 online training sessions over a period of 14 days. Effects on regulation of affective states in daily life were assessed using experience sampling over a 7-day posttraining period. Results revealed a positive association between baseline cognitive control and self-reported use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies, whereas maladaptive emotion regulation strategies showed a negative association. CCT showed transfer to working memory functioning on the dual n-back task. Overall, effects of CCT on emotion regulation were limited to reducing deployment of rumination in low positive affective states. However, we did not find beneficial effects on indicators of adaptive emotion regulation. These findings are in line with previous studies targeting maladaptive emotion regulation but suggest limited use in enhancing adaptive emotion regulation in a healthy sample. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Adult scurvy in New France: Samuel de Champlain's "Mal de la terre" at Saint Croix Island, 1604-1605.

    PubMed

    Crist, Thomas A; Sorg, Marcella H

    2014-06-01

    Diagnosing scurvy (vitamin C deficiency) in adult skeletal remains is difficult despite documentary evidence of its past prevalence. Analysis of 20 European colonists buried at Saint Croix Island in New France during the winter of 1604-1605, accompanied by their leader Samuel de Champlain's eyewitness account of their symptoms, provided the opportunity to document lesions of adult scurvy within a tightly dated historical context. Previous diagnoses of adult scurvy have relied predominantly on the presence of periosteal lesions of the lower limbs and excessive antemortem tooth loss. Our analysis suggests that, when observed together, reactive lesions of the oral cavity associated with palatal inflammation and bilateral lesions at the mastication muscle attachment sites support the differential diagnosis of adult scurvy. Antemortem loss of the anterior teeth, however, is not a reliable diagnostic indicator. Employing a biocultural interpretive approach, analysis of these early colonists' skeletal remains enhances current understanding of the methods that medical practitioners used to treat the disorder during the Age of Discovery, performing rudimentary oral surgery and autopsies. Although limited by a small sample and taphonomic effects, this analysis strongly supports the use of weighted paleopathological criteria to diagnose adult scurvy based on the co-occurrence of specific porotic lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Childhood: Endocrine-Metabolic “Mal-Programming”

    PubMed Central

    Manti, Sara; Romano, Claudio; Chirico, Valeria; Filippelli, Martina; Cuppari, Caterina; Loddo, Italia; Salpietro, Carmelo; Arrigo, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Context: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the major chronic liver disease in the pediatric population. NAFLD includes a broad spectrum of abnormalities (inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis), ranging from accumulation of fat (also known as steatosis) towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The development of NAFLD in children is significantly increased. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search of electronic databases was undertaken for the major studies published from 1998 to today. The databases searched were: PubMed, EMBASE, Orphanet, Midline and Cochrane Library. We used the key words: "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, children, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fatty liver". Results: NAFLD/NASH is probably promoted by “multiple parallel hits”: environmental and genetic factors, systemic immunological disorders (oxidative stress, persistent-low grade of inflammation) as well as obesity and metabolic alterations (insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome). However its exact cause still underdiagnosed and unknown. Conclusions: Pediatric NAFLD/NASH is emerging problem. Longitudinal follow-up studies, unfortunately still insufficient, are needed to better understand the natural history and outcome of NAFLD in children. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, environmental, genetic and metabolic factors of disease. The review also highlights the importance of studying the underlying mechanisms of pediatric NAFLD and the need for complete and personalized approach in the management of NAFLD/NASH. PMID:24829591

  6. Recommendations for Infant Feeding Policy and Programs in Dzimauli Region, South Africa: Results From the MAL-ED Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mushaphi, Lindelani Fhumudzani; Mahopo, Tjale Cloupas; Nesamvuni, Cebisa Noxolo; Baloyi, Brenda; Mashau, Ellen; Richardson, Jeniata; Dillingham, Rebecca; Guerrant, Richard; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Bessong, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence that exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in the first 6 months of life reduces the risk of diseases in infancy and in later life. Objective To understand the maternal reasoning that influences optimum infant feeding practices of caregivers in semirural communities of Limpopo province. Methods Nested qualitative study among mothers in an ongoing birth cohort study was conducted; structured and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data from 234 infants after 6 months of follow-up was included for quantitative analysis. Four focus discussion groups comprising 7 to 10 caregivers were used to obtain perception of mothers on breastfeeding. A semi-structured interview guide was used to stimulate discussions. Thematic content analyses were conducted to identify the main themes that influence breastfeeding practices of caregivers. Results Over 90% of the caregivers initiated breastfeeding after delivery. However, less than 1% of mothers practiced EBF by 3 months, and none of the children were exclusively breastfed for up to 6 months. All caregivers introduced non–breast milk liquids and solids by the second month of child’s life. Common reasons for introducing non–breast milk foods included insufficiency of breast milk production, going back to work or school, and influence by elderly women (mothers/mothers-in-law) and church members. Conclusion Exclusive breastfeeding was not practiced in this community due to cultural and religious beliefs and misinformation. The involvement of elderly women and church members in infant feeding education and promotion programs and the dissemination of breastfeeding information through mobile phones to younger mothers are recommended. PMID:28958169

  7. malERA: An updated research agenda for diagnostics, drugs, vaccines, and vector control in malaria elimination and eradication

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Since the turn of the century, a remarkable expansion has been achieved in the range and effectiveness of products and strategies available to prevent, treat, and control malaria, including advances in diagnostics, drugs, vaccines, and vector control. These advances have once again put malaria elimination on the agenda. However, it is clear that even with the means available today, malaria control and elimination pose a formidable challenge in many settings. Thus, currently available resources must be used more effectively, and new products and approaches likely to achieve these goals must be developed. This paper considers tools (both those available and others that may be required) to achieve and maintain malaria elimination. New diagnostics are needed to direct treatment and detect transmission potential; new drugs and vaccines to overcome existing resistance and protect against clinical and severe disease, as well as block transmission and prevent relapses; and new vector control measures to overcome insecticide resistance and more powerfully interrupt transmission. It is also essential that strategies for combining new and existing approaches are developed for different settings to maximise their longevity and effectiveness in areas with continuing transmission and receptivity. For areas where local elimination has been recently achieved, understanding which measures are needed to maintain elimination is necessary to prevent rebound and the reestablishment of transmission. This becomes increasingly important as more countries move towards elimination. PMID:29190291

  8. malERA: An updated research agenda for diagnostics, drugs, vaccines, and vector control in malaria elimination and eradication.

    PubMed

    2017-11-01

    Since the turn of the century, a remarkable expansion has been achieved in the range and effectiveness of products and strategies available to prevent, treat, and control malaria, including advances in diagnostics, drugs, vaccines, and vector control. These advances have once again put malaria elimination on the agenda. However, it is clear that even with the means available today, malaria control and elimination pose a formidable challenge in many settings. Thus, currently available resources must be used more effectively, and new products and approaches likely to achieve these goals must be developed. This paper considers tools (both those available and others that may be required) to achieve and maintain malaria elimination. New diagnostics are needed to direct treatment and detect transmission potential; new drugs and vaccines to overcome existing resistance and protect against clinical and severe disease, as well as block transmission and prevent relapses; and new vector control measures to overcome insecticide resistance and more powerfully interrupt transmission. It is also essential that strategies for combining new and existing approaches are developed for different settings to maximise their longevity and effectiveness in areas with continuing transmission and receptivity. For areas where local elimination has been recently achieved, understanding which measures are needed to maintain elimination is necessary to prevent rebound and the reestablishment of transmission. This becomes increasingly important as more countries move towards elimination.

  9. When the Border Educates: Malín Alegria's "Sofi Mendoza's Guide to Getting Lost in Mexico" (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibarraran-Bigalondo, Amaia

    2016-01-01

    The border between the United States and Mexico, since it was first conceived in 1848, has marked the lives of those who live on both of its sides, as well as of those who want to cross it. It has also become the source of a vast array of theoretical and artistic work. Chicano writers have written about it, and so have theorists dealt with its…

  10. Stress-induced neuroplasticity: (mal)adaptation to adverse life events in patients with PTSD--a critical overview.

    PubMed

    Deppermann, S; Storchak, H; Fallgatter, A J; Ehlis, A-C

    2014-12-26

    Stress is an adaptive response to demands of the environment and thus essential for survival. Exposure to stress triggers hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activation and associated neurochemical reactions, following glucocorticoid release from the adrenal glands, accompanied by rapid physiological responses. Stimulation of this pathway results in the activation of specific brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex which are enriched with glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Recent findings indicate that the activation of GRs mediates the regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF is crucial for neural plasticity, as it promotes cellular growth and synaptic changes. Hence stress-induced activation of these pathways leads to neuroplastic changes, including the formation of long-lasting memories of the experiences. As a consequence, organisms can learn from stressful events and respond in an adaptive manner to similar demands in the future. Whereas an optimal stress level leads to enhancement of memory performance, the exposure to extreme, traumatic or chronic stressors is a risk factor for psychopathologies which are associated with memory impairment and cognitive deficits such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this review article, we will outline the implications of stress exposure on memory formation involving the role of glucocorticoids and BDNF. Within this context, potential adverse effects of neuroplastic alterations will be discussed using the example of PTSD. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. La utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales en la ensenanza de biologia y su efecto sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en los estudiantes universitarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rivera, Maria M.

    Se investigo el efecto de los mapas conceptuales sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en estudiantes universitarios. La investigacion utilizo dos estrategias: mapas conceptuales individuales y mapas conceptuales colaborativos, con el fin de investigar si existen diferencias significativas en el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis. El analisis de los datos incluyo aspectos cualitativos y cuantitativos. Se desprende del estudio que el 80% de los estudiantes describen la utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales como una experiencia beneficiosa. El 70% de los estudiantes expreso que los mapas conceptuales son utiles en el aprendizaje del proceso de fotosintesis y el 61% indico que facilitan la comprension de los conceptos. Los hallazgos mas importantes del analisis cuantitativo indican que los estudiantes que utilizaron los mapas conceptuales mejoraron significativamente su desempeno en la posprueba global. Se utilizo la prueba Mann-Whitney para investigar si existian diferencias significativas en la posprueba y preprueba global, el valor de W = 1945.0, para un valor p de 0.00, lo cual establece diferencias significativas. Para determinar si existian diferencias significativas entre la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual, se realizo la prueba nuevamente. El valor de W correspondio a 490.5, que es significativo, con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluye que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual. Los datos proveen suficiente evidencia para sostener que los estudiantes que utilizaron la estrategia de mapas conceptuales individuales mejoraron el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis significativamente. Se realizo nuevamente la prueba para los resultados de posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. El valor de W correspondio a 446 con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluyo que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. Finalmente, se efectuo una

  12. Investigaccion-accion en la sala de clases sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y su relacion reciproca con el aprendizaje de las ciencias biologicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova-Santiago, Lizzette Astrid

    La investigacion---accion que se llevo a cabo en la sala de clases tenia como punto de partida las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios para luego examinar sus implicaciones en el proceso de aprendizaje de las Ciencias Biologicas. ¿Que se supone que hagan las creencias en relacion con el aprendizaje? ¿En que consiste incorporar este aspecto a la practica educativa universitaria? Utilizando el modelo de Kemmis y McTaggart (1987) la investigacion-accion se planteo como un proceso dinamico en cuatro momentos en espiral constituidos por la planificacion, la accion, la observacion y la reflexion. Cada una de las fases tuvo una intencion retrospectiva y prospectiva formando una espiral de autorreflexion del conocimiento y la accion. Se llevaron a cabo audio grabaciones en clases y analisis de documentos. Ademas, la profesora-investigadora hizo un portafolio para reflexionar sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tienen los estudiantes y las creencias del aprendizaje que tiene la profesora y sobre como la comprension de estos elementos ayudo a mejorar su practica educativa a traves del tiempo. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tiene el grupo de estudiantes son diversas. Ellos si creen que la ciencia tiene una cultura la cual describieron como: complicada y desconocida que evoluciona constantemente, que es un conjunto de metodos, que es altamente tecnologica, que resuelve problemas de salud, ayuda a interpretar la realidad del mundo que los rodea y su origen y que existen unas intersecciones entre la ciencia y el poder. Sobre las creencias del proceso de aprendizaje de la profesora-investigadora, estas senalan que el modelaje de actores, la vision de la academia que tiene ella asi como la participacion y negociacion entre todos los involucrados en el proceso educativo, son factores que inciden en el proceso de aprendizaje.

  13. Percepção astronómica de um grupo de alunos do ensino médio de uma escola da rede estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveria, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    Sendo a Astronomia uma das cièncias mais antigas da humanidade, e considerando sua importáncia histórica e cultural, é de extrema releváncia que tópicos relacionados a ela sejam tratados nas escolas. Embora os Parámetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as Orientaçiacute;es Complementares aos Parámetros (PCN+) apontem a importáncia de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à Astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano e sejam alvos da curiosidade natural dos jovens. Da observação dessa curiosidade em alunos de uma escola pública paulista, na cidade de Suzano, surgiu o interesse em investigar os conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia dos alunos do Ensino Médio desta escola, constituindo-se este como principal objetivo desta pesquisa. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado inicialmente a 34 alunos do primeiro ano e, posteriormente, a mais 310, distribuídos entre as très séries do Ensino Médio dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que 73,9% dos estudantes identificaram o Sol como sendo uma estrela, 67,1% mostraram compreender a sucessão entre dia e noite e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Em contrapartida, apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estaçíes do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influència gravitacional simultánea da Lua e do Sol como responsável pelo fenòmeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distáncia e 34,2% reconheceram as estrelas cadentes como meteoros, evidenciando-se assim o pequeno discernimento dos estudantes quanto aos fenòmenos e termos astronòmicos do cotidiano. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alun! os de diferentes s

  14. Detection of maltose fermentation genes in the baking yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Oda, Y; Tonomura, K

    1996-10-01

    The presence of any one of the five unlinked MAL loci (MAL1, MAL2, MAL3, MAL4 and MAL6) confers the ability to ferment maltose on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each locus is composed of three genes encoding maltose permease, alpha-glucosidase and MAL activator. Chromosomal DNA of seven representative baking strains has been separated by pulse-field gel electrophoresis and probed with three genes in MAL6 locus. The DNA bands to which all of the three MAL-derived probes simultaneously hybridized were chromosome VII carrying MAL1 in all of the strains tested, chromosome XI carrying MAL4 in six strains, chromosome III carrying MAL2 in three strains and chromosomes II and VIII carrying MAL3 and MAL6, respectively, in the one strain. The number of MAL loci in baking strains was comparable to those of brewing strains.

  15. Determinação da massa de júpiter a partir das órbitas de seus satélites: um experimento didático

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlickmann, M. S.; Saito, R. K.; Becker, D. A.; Rezende, M. F., Jr.; Cid Fernandes, R.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o roteiro piloto de uma prática observacional em astronomia, junto com os primeiros resultados obtidos nesta fase de implementacão. O projeto, que será executado em duas etapas, visa introduzir noções de Astronomia a alunos do Ensino Médio e iniciantes nos cursos de Física. O experimento consiste em medir as órbitas dos satélites Galileanos e, a partir da análise dos dados coletados, verificar a validade da Lei das órbitas de Kepler, determinando a massa do planeta Júpiter. Em uma primeira etapa, as observações serão feitas utilizando um telescópio Meade LX200 10" e câmera CCD para obter uma seqüência de imagens do planeta, que possibilitará medir o movimento de seus satélites. A segunda etapa terá início a partir do funcionamento do telescópio em modo robótico, com a possibilidade de observações via internet por instituições de ensino. Para o desenvolvimento deste experimento foram inicialmente coletadas várias imagens de Júpiter obtidas com os instrumentos citados acima. Estas imagens serviram como base para confecção dos roteiros para a experiência no nível médio e superior. Os roteiros serão inicialmente apresentados em uma home-page. Nela também se buscará uma contextualização histórica da experiência bem como o estabelecimento de relações com professores e alunos, propostas metodológicas e a disponibilização dos programas computacionais necessários para a utilização "on-line" pelos usuários. O projeto conta com apoio da Fundação VITAE.

  16. Distinción Empírica Entre Engagement y Trabajolismo en Enfermeras Hospitalarias de Japón: Efecto Sobre la Calidad del Sueño y el Desempeño Laboral

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kazumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio es demostrar la distinción entre engagement y trabajolismo, estudiando su relación con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Método Un total de 447 enfermeras de 3 hospitales de Japón fueron entrevistadas mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado que incluía la escala Utrecht (UWES, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale), la Escala de Adicción al Trabajo Holandesa (DUWAS, Dutch Workaholism Scale), preguntas sobre la calidad del sueño (7 ítems) con respecto a (1) dificultad para conciliar el sueño, (2) dificultad para mantener el sueño, (3) despertar temprano por la mañana, (4) dormirse o tomar siestas durante el día, (5) somnolencia diurna excesiva en el trabajo, (6) dificultad para despertarse por la mañana, y (7) despertar cansado en la mañana, y el Cuestionario sobre Salud y Desempeño (CSD) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados Los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales demostraron que el engagement se relaciona positivamente con la calidad del sueño y el rendimiento laboral, mientras que el trabajolismo tiene una relación negativa con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Conclusión Los resultados indican que el engagement y el trabajolismo son conceptualmente diferentes. El primero tiene una connotación positiva, mientras que el segundo se asocia de manera negativa al bienestar (buena calidad del sueño y buen rendimiento en el trabajo). PMID:26752805

  17. Actualización de la EPA sobre el Huracán Maria correspondiente al 12 de enero de 2018: La EPA asegura que se desechen correctamente 65,000 contenedores de desechos peligrosos domésticos en Puerto Rico

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Comunicado de prensa de la EPA: Actualización de la EPA sobre el Huracán Maria correspondiente al 12 de enero de 2018: La EPA asegura que se desechen correctamente 65,000 contenedores de desechos peligrosos domésticos en Puerto Rico

  18. Infrared fibers in the 1.5um to 18um range: availability and measured properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felkel, Robert; Leeb, Walter

    2017-11-01

    With a view towards the application in space-borne optical instruments, we first performed a world-wide market survey of infrared fibers designed for the wavelength range of 1.5 μm to 18 μm. Fiber samples purchased and tested comprise fluoride fibers, chalcogenide fibers, a germanate fiber and a silver-halide fiber, as well as hollow fibers. While the majority of infrared fibers offered are of the multi-mode type, three of the fluoride fibers are single-mode. We report on the polarization degrading effect of a single-mode fiber and present a possible solution to achieve polarization maintainance by twisting the fiber. Secondly we report on measurements of numerical aperture, output beam profile, and attenuation of a hollow fiber. The measurements were performed at the wavelengths of λ= 3.39 μm and λ= 10.6 μm.

  19. Estudio de la estructura logica utilizada en la ensenanza y el aprendizaje de los conceptos sobre el comportamiento de gases en el curso introductorio de quimica a nivel universitario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Diaz, Agnes

    El estudio que se presenta es de caracter cualitativo, un estudio multicasos donde se estudia la estructura logica utilizada por cuatro (4) profesores universitarios que ensenan el curso introductorio de quimica, en la planificacion, presentacion y evaluacion del tema sobre el comportamiento de los gases. Se utilizaron varias fuentes de informacion como: cuestionarios de profesores y estudiantes, entrevistas, grabaciones videomagnetofonicas, materiales didacticos y una prueba conceptual, entre otros. La informacion recopilada fue analizada de acuerdo al orden logico del contenido presentado, el estilo de ensenanza del profesor, las tecnicas y estrategias utilizadas para el desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, el ambiente fisico en el salon de clase y los instrumentos de evaluacion y avaluo. El estudio demuestra que lo que los profesores piensan y planifican para hacer sus presentaciones no necesariamente es lo que ocurre en el salon de clases. El desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, que constituye una prioridad de los profesores, no se elaboran efectivamente. El uso de las estrategias de resolucion de problemas numericos predomino. La participacion del estudiante en el salon de clases fue limitada y no se logro demostrar el desarrollo de las destrezas de pensamiento deseadas. Aunque los profesores tienen su propio estilo de ensenanza, el orden logico del contenido presentado en clase fue el mismo o siguio muy de cerca el orden establecido por el libro de texto. Los profesores utilizaron preferentemente la tiza y la pizarra para sus presentaciones y la dinamica en el salon de clases fue esencialmente tradicional. Los profesores hicieron su presentacion y los estudiantes copiaron pasivamente la informacion. Las evaluaciones de los estudiantes fueron esencialmente, pruebas escritas de seleccion multiple de acuerdo con el estilo en que se les enseno. El avaluo fue casi inexistente. La prueba conceptual administrada revela un aprendizaje pobre en los conceptos mas

  20. High School Student's Alternative Conceptions About the Phenomenon of the Formation of the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones Alternativas de Alumnos de Educación Media Sobre el Fenómeno de Formación de las Fases de La Luna.) Concepções Alternativas de Alunos do Ensino Médio Sobre o Fenômeno de Formação das Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Langhi, Rodolfo; Fernandes Scalvi, Rosa Maria

    2008-07-01

    Forty students, at ages between 14 and 18 years old, from three schools in Bauru city, were questioned about their alternative conceptions concerning the phenomenon of formation of the Moon Phases. It was observed that some of the pupils confound the phenomenon of the formation of the Moon Phases with the phenomenon of the formation of the lunar eclipses, others are unaware of the reason of the phenomenon, they present incoherent alternative conceptions of the reality or incomplete conceptions. The results found here are aimed at the teachers of Elementary Education and can be used as a subsidy for future development of new pedagogical methods. Cuarenta estudiantes, con edad entre 14 y 18 años, pertenecientes a tres escuelas de la ciudad de Bauru, fueron cuestionados sobre sus concepciones alternativas acerca del fenómeno de la formación de las fases de la Luna. Fue observado que algunos alumnos confunden el fenómeno de formación de las fases de la Luna con el fenómeno de formación de los eclipses lunares, otros desconocen el motivo delfenómeno, presentan concepciones alternativas incoherentes con la realidad o bien presentan concepciones incompletas. Los resultados aquí encontrados son destinados a los profesores de la Enseñanza Básica y podrán ser usados como ayuda para el futuro desarrollo de nuevos métodos pedagógicos. Quarenta estudantes, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos, pertencentes a três escolas da cidade de Bauru, foram questionados sobre suas concepções alternativas acerca do fenômeno de formação das fases da Lua. Foi observado que alguns dos alunos confundem o fenômeno da formação das fases da Lua com o fenômeno da formação dos eclipses lunares, outros desconhecem o motivo do fenômeno, apresentam concepções alternativas incoerentes com a realidade ou então concepções incompletas. Os resultados aqui encontrados são destinados aos professores do Ensino Básico e poderão ser usados como subsídio parafuturo desenvolvimento de

  1. [The Spanish AIDS Study Group and Spanish National AIDS Plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)].

    PubMed

    Rivero, Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Caylá, Joan; Iribarren, José A; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez-Camacho, Inés

    2013-12-01

    This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Efectos combinados de la ampliación de la atención primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examiné los efectos combinados del acceso a la atención primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. Métodos. Empleé un análisis ecológico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4 583 municipios brasileños de 1998 al 2010, con 54 253 observaciones en total. Estimé modelos de regresión de efectos fijos por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de interés. Resultados. La asociación de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvió más fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las demás variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliación del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinación de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podría ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  3. Extraction of hyaluronic acid (HA) from rooster comb and characterization using flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) coupled with multiangle light scattering (MALS).

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Young; Kim, Won-Suk; Heo, In Sook; Park, Young Hun; Lee, Seungho

    2010-11-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) was extracted in a relatively large scale from rooster comb using a method similar to that reported previously. The extraction method was modified to simplify and to reduce time and cost in order to accommodate a large-scale extraction. Five hundred grams of frozen rooster combs yielded about 500 mg of dried HA. Extracted HA was characterized using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) coupled online to a multiangle light scattering detector and a refractive index detector to determine the molecular size, molecular weight (MW) distribution, and molecular conformation of HA. For characterization of HA, AsFlFFF was operated by a simplified two-step procedure, instead of the conventional three-step procedure, where the first two steps (sample loading and focusing) were combined into one to avoid the adsorption of viscous HA onto the channel membrane. The simplified two-step AsFlFFF yielded reasonably good separations of HA molecules based on their MWs. The weight average MW (M(w) ) and the average root-mean-square (RMS) radius of HA extracted from rooster comb were 1.20×10(6) and 94.7 nm, respectively. When the sample solution was filtered through a 0.45 μm disposable syringe filter, they were reduced down to 3.8×10(5) and 50.1 nm, respectively. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A review of exosome separation techniques and characterization of B16-F10 mouse melanoma exosomes with AF4-UV-MALS-DLS-TEM.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kevin E; Manangon, Eliana; Hood, Joshua L; Wickline, Samuel A; Fernandez, Diego P; Johnson, William P; Gale, Bruce K

    2014-12-01

    Exosomes participate in cancer metastasis, but studying them presents unique challenges as a result of their small size and purification difficulties. Asymmetrical field flow fractionation with in-line ultraviolet absorbance, dynamic light scattering, and multi-angle light scattering was applied to the size separation and characterization of non-labeled B16-F10 exosomes from an aggressive mouse melanoma cell culture line. Fractions were collected and further analyzed using batch mode dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and compared with known size standards. Fractogram peak positions and computed radii show good agreement between samples and across fractions. Ultraviolet absorbance fractograms in combination with transmission electron micrographs were able to resolve subtle heterogeneity of vesicle retention times between separate batches of B16-F10 exosomes collected several weeks apart. Further, asymmetrical field flow fractionation also effectively separated B16-F10 exosomes into vesicle subpopulations by size. Overall, the flow field flow fractionation instrument combined with multiple detectors was able to rapidly characterize and separate exosomes to a degree not previously demonstrated. These approaches have the potential to facilitate a greater understanding of exosome function by subtype, as well as ultimately allow for "label-free" isolation of large scale clinical exosomes for the purpose of developing future exosome-based diagnostics and therapeutics.

  5. One-Step Condensation and Hydrogenation of Furfural-Acetone Using Mixed and Single Catalyst Based on Ni/M-Oxide [M=Al; Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulfa, S. M.; Pramesti, I. N.; Mustafidah, H.

    2018-01-01

    Modification of furfural by condensation and hydrogenation reaction is a promising approach to produce higher alkane derivatives (C8-C13) as diesel fraction. This research investigated the catalytic activity of Ni/MgO as bifunctional catalyst compared with MgO-Ni/Al2O3 mixed catalyst for condensation-hydrogenation reaction. The Ni/MgO and Ni/Al2O3 with 20% Ni loading were prepared by wet impregnation methods using Ni(NO3)2.6H2O salt, calcined and reduced at 500°C. The catalyst performance was tested for one-step condensation-hydrogenation reaction using autoclave oil batch reactor. The reaction was conducted by reacting furfural and acetone in 1:1 ratio using water as solvent. Condensation reaction was performed at 100°C for 8 hours, followed by hydrogenation at 120°C during 7 hours. Analysis by gas chromatography showed that C=C double bond of furfurylidene acetone were successfully hydrogenated. Using Ni/MgO catalyst at 120°C, the products were identified as 1,5-bis-(2-furanyl)-1,4-penta-1-ene-3-one (2.68%) and 1,5-bis-(2-furanyl)-1,4-pentan-3-one (trace amount). On the other hand, reaction using mixed catalyst, MgO-Ni/Al2O3 showed better activity over bifunctional Ni/MgO at the same reaction temperature. The products were identified as 4-(2-furanyl)-3-butan-2-one (27.30%); 1,5-bis-(2-furanyl)-1,4-penta-1-ene-3-one (3.82%) and 1,5-bis-(2-furanyl)-1,4-pentan-3-one (1.11%). The impregnation of Ni on MgO decrease the physical properties of catalyst, confirmed by surface area analysis (SAA).

  6. Childhood stunting in relation to the pre- and postnatal environment during the first 2 years of life: The MAL-ED longitudinal birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Stunting is the most prevalent manifestation of childhood malnutrition. To characterize factors that contribute to stunting in resource-poor settings, we studied a priori selected biological and social factors collected longitudinally in a cohort of newborns. Methods and findings We enrolled 1,868 children across 7 resource-poor settings in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania shortly after birth and followed them for 24 months between 2 November 2009 and 28 February 2014. We collected longitudinal anthropometry, sociodemographic factors, maternal-reported illnesses, and antibiotic use; child feeding practices; dietary intake starting at 9 months; and longitudinal blood, urine, and stool samples to investigate non-diarrheal enteropathogens, micronutrients, gut inflammation and permeability, and systemic inflammation. We categorized length-for-age Z-scores into 3 groups (not stunted, ≥−1; at risk, <−1 to −2; and stunted, <−2), and used multivariable ordinal logistic regression to model the cumulative odds of being in a lower length-for-age category (at risk or stunted). A total of 1,197 children with complete longitudinal data were available for analysis. The prevalence of having a length-for-age Z-score below −1 increased from 43% (range 37%–47% across sites) shortly after birth (mean 7.7 days post-delivery, range 0 to 17 days) to 74% (16%–96%) at 24 months. The prevalence of stunting increased 3-fold during this same time period. Factors that contributed to the odds of being in a lower length-for-age category at 24 months were lower enrollment weight-for-age (interquartile cumulative odds ratio = 1.82, 95% CI 1.49–2.23), shorter maternal height (2.38, 1.89–3.01), higher number of enteropathogens in non-diarrheal stools (1.36, 1.07–1.73), lower socioeconomic status (1.75, 1.20–2.55), and lower percent of energy from protein (1.39, 1.13–1.72). Site-specific analyses suggest that reported associations were similar across settings. While loss to follow-up and missing data are inevitable, some study sites had greater loss to follow-up and more missing data than others, which may limit the generalizability of the findings. Conclusions Neonatal and maternal factors were early determinants of lower length-for-age, and their contribution remained important throughout the first 24 months of life, whereas the average number of enteropathogens in non-diarrheal stools, socioeconomic status, and dietary intake became increasingly important contributors by 24 months relative to neonatal and maternal factors. PMID:29069076

  7. A review of exosome separation techniques and characterization of B16-F10 mouse melanoma exosomes with AF4-UV-MALS-DLS-TEM

    PubMed Central

    Manangon, Eliana; Hood, Joshua L.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Johnson, William P.; Gale, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes participate in cancer metastasis, but studying them presents unique challenges as a result of their small size and purification difficulties. Asymmetrical field flow fractionation with in-line ultraviolet absorbance, dynamic light scattering, and multi-angle light scattering was applied to the size separation and characterization of non-labeled B16-F10 exosomes from an aggressive mouse melanoma cell culture line. Fractions were collected and further analyzed using batch mode dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and compared with known size standards. Fractogram peak positions and computed radii show good agreement between samples and across fractions. Ultraviolet absorbance fractograms in combination with transmission electron micrographs were able to resolve subtle heterogeneity of vesicle retention times between separate batches of B16-F10 exosomes collected several weeks apart. Further, asymmetrical field flow fractionation also effectively separated B16-F10 exosomes into vesicle subpopulations by size. Overall, the flow field flow fractionation instrument combined with multiple detectors was able to rapidly characterize and separate exosomes to a degree not previously demonstrated. These approaches have the potential to facilitate a greater understanding of exosome function by subtype, as well as ultimately allow for “label-free” isolation of large scale clinical exosomes for the purpose of developing future exosome-based diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:25084738

  8. Reflecting on Culture. (Reflexionando Sobre la Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irizarry, Estelle

    1980-01-01

    The article comments on two articles, previously published in the same journal, which address the relationship between the "little" cultural tradition of Chicanos, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans and the "great" tradition of Hispanic arts and letters. Notes similarities among these groups and calls for the banding together of…

  9. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Propano (in Spanish)

    SciTech Connect

    El propano provee energia a mas de 143.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y 23 millones en todo el mundo. Flotas de todos los Estados Unidos han implementado con exito el uso de vehiculos que funcionan con gas propano, y en la actualidad varios funcionan gracias a este gas, incluyendo autobuses escolares, lanzaderas y autobuses publicos, asi como tambien furgonetas, taxis, vehiculos utilizados por las fuerzas del orden, barredoras de calles y camiones para uso profesional. El propano tambien se utiliza con frecuencia en aplicaciones fuera de la carretera, tales como montacargas, podadoras y equipos de uso profesional y otrosmore » equipos agricolas. Las ventajas del propano incluyen la disponibilidad interna, su rendimiento y el hecho de que genera menos emisiones de gases contaminantes que otras alternativas energeticas.« less

  10. Reflecting on Language. (Reflexionando Sobre el Idioma.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazas, Jose Garcia

    1980-01-01

    Covering a 500-year span, this article traces the changes in and evolution of the Spanish language from its earliest written accounts in the eleventh century to the Spanish that was brought by the Conquistadores to the New World. (DS)

  11. Reflecting on Character (Reflexionando Sobre el Caracter).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Cordelia

    1980-01-01

    Responding to the "Proyecto Resolana" article in the July/August 1980 issue of this journal, the article notes the heterogeneity of Hispanic Americans, the three main effects of the European conquest on people of the Western Hemisphere, and attempts to further define the character of Hispanic Americans. (SB)

  12. Significado de psicólogas/os de atención primaria de salud sobre la intervención psicosocial de grupo en el tratamiento de la depresión en Chile.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Gonzalo; Espinoza, Adriana

    2017-11-01

    En Chile, el tratamiento de la depresión en salud pública promueve la realización de Intervenciones Psicosociales en Grupo (IPG) para todos los casos diagnosticados, no obstante, se observa una baja implementación de estas prestaciones. El presente artículo describe y caracteriza, desde el punto de vista de la disciplina psicológica, el significado de psicólogas/os que trabajan en consultorios de atención primaria de salud (APS) sobre las IPG en el tratamiento de la depresión. Se entrevistaron a ocho psicólogas/os de los distintos Servicios de Salud de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago. Este estudio se basó en las premisas de la Teoría Fundamentada, utilizando sus estrategias de análisis. La categoría "los grupos no nos resultan" expone las principales barreras que impiden la realización de estas intervenciones. La carga laboral centrada en atenciones individuales, el escaso presupuesto destinado a su implementación, y la falta de instalaciones adecuadas para realizar las IPG emergen como barreras institucionales. Asi mismo, la "poca fe" en la efectividad del trabajo en grupo, la figura de las/os psicólogas/os como únicas/os profesionales capacitadas/os para trabajar con las emociones, la idea de que la baja adherencia al tratamiento no depende de su ejercicio laboral, y el hecho de que la implementación de las IPG dependa del interés individual de algunas/os profesionales, emergen como las principales resistencias profesionales a su realización. Se discuten los alcances de estas barreras, y se proponen soluciones que favorezcan el cambio cultural necesario para que las/los profesionales e instituciones de salud puedan alinearse en plenitud con el modelo comunitario de salud propuesto por el Plan Nacional de Salud Mental y Psiquiatría (PNSMP).

  13. Comparative research on medicine application with 0.53-um, 1.06-um, and 1.32-um Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yahua; Li, Zhenjia; Zhu, Changhong; Huang, Yizhong

    1996-09-01

    Because of its high power and excellent optical features, laser has almost been applied to everywhere of medical research and clinic. Over the past several years, laser medical has achieved a rapid progress, and laser medical instruments has developed promptly, each new wavelength can be successfully applied in diagnostic and treatment of diseases. Among the medical lasers, Nd:YAG solid-state laser systems have proven useful in surgical use operate, such as neurosurgery, gastroenterology, cardioangiology, urology, gynecology, dermatology and ENT. As with other solid-state lasers, the Nd:YAG laser can be made to emit various wavelengths by means of suitable resonator configurations and some newest solid-state laser technology, pumped by the Krypton lamp, the Nd:YAG laser at room temperature exhibits transition at 1.06 micrometer Nd:YAG, using nonlinear crystal and Q-switch to double its frequency can attain 0.53 micrometer green beam. In our laser systems, the efficiency at 1.06 micrometer is more than 3 percent, an efficiency of 0.5 percent at 1.32 micrometer and 0.53 micrometer can be attained. For a power of 100w at 1.06 micrometer, 15w at 1.32 micrometer and 0.53 micrometer can therefore be produced. All of three kinds Nd:YAG laser hold these characteristics: high output power; optical fiber transition that can be cooperated with endoscope. The paper mainly discusses laser operating characteristics and clinic applications of three kinds wavelengths at 0.53 micrometer 1.06 micrometer and 1.32 micrometer Nd:YAG laser systems.

  14. Using Rasch Analysis to Validate the Motor Activity Log and the Lower Functioning Motor Activity Log in Patients With Stroke.

    PubMed

    Chuang, I-Ching; Lin, Keh-Chung; Wu, Ching-Yi; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Liu, Chien-Ting; Chen, Chia-Ling

    2017-10-01

    The Motor Activity Log (MAL) and Lower-Functioning MAL (LF-MAL) are used to assess the amount of use of the more impaired arm and the quality of movement during activities in real-life situations for patients with stroke. This study used Rasch analysis to examine the psychometric properties of the MAL and LF-MAL in patients with stroke. This is a methodological study. The MAL and LF-MAL include 2 scales: the amount of use (AOU) and the quality of movement (QOM). Rasch analysis was used to examine the unidimensionality, item difficulty hierarchy, targeting, reliability, and differential item functioning (DIF) of the MAL and LF-MAL. A total of 403 patients with mild or moderate stroke completed the MAL, and 134 patients with moderate/severe stroke finished the LF-MAL. Evidence of disordered thresholds and poor model fit were found both in the MAL and LF-MAL. After the rating categories were collapsed and misfit items were deleted, all items of the revised MAL and LF-MAL exhibited ordering and constituted unidimensional constructs. The person-item map showed that these assessments were difficult for our participants. The person reliability coefficients of these assessments ranged from .79 to .87. No items in the revised MAL and LF-MAL exhibited bias related to patients' characteristics. One limitation is the recruited patients, who have relatively high-functioning ability in the LF-MAL. The revised MAL and LF-MAL are unidimensional scales and have good reliability. The categories function well, and responses to all items in these assessments are not biased by patients' characteristics. However, the revised MAL and LF-MAL both showed floor effect. Further study might add easy items for assessing the performance of activity in real-life situations for patients with stroke. © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association

  15. Astronomy in High School: Using a Mini-Planetarium to Understand Details of the Apparent Movement of Stars. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Escuela Secundaria: Comprendiendo los Detalles del Movimiento Aparente de Las Estrellas con un Miniplanetario.) Astronomia no Ensino Médio: Compreendendo Detalhes do Movimento Aparente das Estrelas com um Miniplanetário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Leão, Demetrius

    2013-07-01

    en la comprensión de estas cuestiones y demostraron un gran interés por esta metodología. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar parte dos resultados obtidos com a intervenção feita como projeto da dissertação de mestrado do autor, que consistiu no desenvolvimento de um conjunto de aulas de Astronomia, com alunos do 1º Ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola da rede privada do Distrito Federal (Brasília, Brasil), empregando como recurso principal um material didático chamado miniplanetário (MP). Utilizando como pressuposto teórico norteador dessas aulas as ideias de contextualização e dialogicidade de Paulo Freire, foi proposta aos estudantes a montagem e utilização desse recurso em uma sessão de planetário. Durante o projeto, enfatizaram-se assuntos como a trajetória aparente das estrelas para o céu de Brasília, a localização dos pontos cardeais a partir da constelação do Cruzeiro do Sul, as cores das estrelas e as estrelas vistas de uma determinada localidade. Apurou-se que os alunos apresentaram melhoria na compreensão desses assuntos, bem como demonstraram expressiva empolgação com essa metodologia desenvolvida.

  16. A Winter Walk at Ho-Nee-Um.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harriet; And Others

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the lower primary grades. It employs the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. The…

  17. Exploring Ho-Nee-Um in the Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in grades three and four. It employs the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness--by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. The…

  18. Grant UM1CA182883 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Astronomy Teaching and Teachers Continuing Education: the Interdisciplinarity during a Total Lunar Eclipse. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza de la Astronomía y la Formación Continua de Profesores: la Interdisciplinariedad Durante un Eclipse Total de Luna.) Educação EM Astronomia E Formação Continuada de Professores: a Interdisciplinaridade Durante um Eclipse Lunar TOTAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes how 67 teachers from 23 cities, could awaken, in students, the scientific interest, using a natural astronomical phenomenon: a total lunar eclipse. Before and after of eclipse, meetings for continuing education were characterized by interdisciplinarity of astronomy and the importance of these observations. Working groups were formed by teachers and students, who organized the survey data, mobilizing the people in their cities. The results point ways about how to provide the scientific culture and the motivation to learn science in students, using approaches between the following communities: scientific, amateur and school. En este artículo se describe cómo 67 profesores de 23 ciudades, despertó el interés científico en los estudiantes mediante un fenómeno astronómico: un eclipse total de Luna. Antes y después del eclipse, reuniones para la formación continua se centraron en la interdisciplinariedad de la astronomía, y la importancia de las observaciones de este tipo de fenómeno. Profesores y estudiantes formaron grupos de trabajo para investigar datos durante el eclipse, con el participación de la comunidad en sus ciudades. Los resultados apuntan a las opciones que conducen a la cultura científica y la motivación para aprender la ciencia, utilizando las relaciones de los siguientes grupos: científicos, aficionados y la escuela. Este texto relata como 67 professores, provenientes de 23 cidades, puderam despertar, nos alunos, o interesse científico utilizando um fenômeno natural astronômico: um eclipse lunar total. O evento foi precedido e procedido por encontros de formação continuada, onde se caracterizou a interdisciplinaridade da astronomia e a importância das observações de fenômenos como estes. Grupos de trabalho foram formados por professores e alunos, que se organizaram para o levantamento conjunto de dados durante o fenômeno, além do envolvimento da comunidade em suas respectivas cidades. Os resultados apontam

  20. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar.

  1. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar. PMID:22754085

  2. The Meanings of Astronomical Observation: An Analysis on the Basis of Relationship with Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Los Sentidos de la Observación Astronómica: un Análisis sobre la Base de la Relación con el Saber.) Os Sentidos da Observação Astronômica: Uma Análise com Base na Relação com o Saber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Alberto Eduardo; de Mello Arruda, Sergio; Meneghello Passos, Marinez; Vinicius Domenes Zapparoli, Ferdinando

    2010-12-01

    This article presents results of a research which aimed to understand the meanings that people construct for astronomical observation. The subjects, students and school teachers, initially received some instruction on how to view astronomical objects through the telescope. After the observation was realized, they were interviewed. The data analysis allowed the creation of 12 categories, later interpreted on the basis of relationship with knowledge (relation to the world, with himself and with others), as presented by Bernard Charlot. Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación que tuvo como objetivo comprender los sentidos que las personas construyen para la observación astronómica. Los sujetos, los estudiantes y maestros de escuela, recibieron inicialmente algunas instrucciones sobre cómo ver los objetos astronómicos a través del telescopio. Al término de la observación, fueron entrevistados. El análisis de datos permitió la creación de 12 categorías que más tarde fueron interpretadas sobre la base de la relación con el conocimiento (relación con el mundo, consigo mismo y con los demás), tal como presentado por Bernard Charlot. Este artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa que objetivou entender quais os sentidos que as pessoas constroem para a observação astronômica. Os sujeitos da pesquisa, estudantes e professores do ensino médio, receberam inicialmente alguma instrução sobre como visualizar os objetos astronômicos através do telescópio. Após a realização da observação, eles foram entrevistados. A análise dos dados permitiu a elaboração de 12 categorias que foram posteriormente interpretadas com base nas relações com o saber (relação com o mundo, consigo mesmo e com o outro), conforme apresentadas por Bernard Charlot.

  3. A multi-center, open-label trial to compare the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of Artemether-Lumefantrine in children with severe acute malnutrition versus children without severe acute malnutrition: study protocol for the MAL-NUT study.

    PubMed

    Denoeud-Ndam, Lise; Dicko, Alassane; Baudin, Elisabeth; Guindo, Ousmane; Grandesso, Francesco; Sagara, Issaka; Lasry, Estrella; Palma, Pedro Pablo; Parra, Angeles M Lima; Stepniewska, Kasia; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Barnes, Karen I; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Etard, Jean-François

    2015-06-12

    Malnutrition and malaria frequently coexist in sub-Saharan African countries. Studies on efficacy of antimalarial treatments usually follow the WHO standardized protocol in which severely malnourished children are systematically excluded. Few studies have assessed the efficacy of chloroquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and quinine in severe acute malnourished children. Overall, efficacy of these treatments appeared to be reduced, attributed to lower immunity and for some antimalarials altered pharmacokinetic profiles and lower drug concentrations. However, similar research on the efficacy and pharmacokinetic profiles of artemisinin-combination therapies (ACTs) and especially artemether-lumefantrine in malnourished children is currently lacking. The main objective of this study is to assess whether artemether-lumefantrine is less efficacious in children suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) compared to non-SAM children, and if so, to what extent this can be attributed to a sub-optimal pharmacokinetic profile. In two sites, Ouelessebougou, Mali and Maradi, Niger, children with uncomplicated microscopically-confirmed P. falciparum malaria aged between 6 and 59 months will be enrolled. Two non-SAM children will be enrolled after the enrolment of each SAM case. Children with severe manifestations of malaria or complications of acute malnutrition needing intensive treatment will be excluded. Treatment intakes will be supervised and children will be followed-up for 42 days, according to WHO guidance for surveillance of antimalarial drug efficacy. Polymerase Chain Reaction genotyping will be used to distinguish recrudescence from re-infection. SAM children will also benefit from the national nutritional rehabilitation program. Outcomes will be compared between the SAM and non-SAM populations. The primary outcome will be adequate clinical and parasitological response at day 28 after PCR correction, estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. To assess the pharmacokinetic profile of lumefantrine, a sparse sampling approach will be used with randomized allocation of sampling times (5 per child). A total of 180 SAM children and 360 non-SAM children will be recruited during the 2013 and 2014 malaria seasons. This study will provide important information that is currently lacking on the effect of SAM on therapeutic efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile of artemether-lumefantrine. If it shows lower therapeutic efficacy and decreased lumefantrine concentrations, it would inform dose optimization studies in SAM children. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01958905.

  4. Infant Nutritional Status, Feeding Practices, Enteropathogen Exposure, Socioeconomic Status, and Illness Are Associated with Gut Barrier Function As Assessed by the Lactulose Mannitol Test in the MAL-ED Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gwenyth O; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Seidman, Jessica C; Kosek, Margaret N; Haque, Rashidul; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Lima, Aldo A M; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Kang, Gagandeep; Samie, Amidou; Amour, Caroline; Mason, Carl J; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Oliveira, Domingos B; Alam, Didar; Babji, Sudhir; Bessong, Pascal; Mduma, Estomih; Shrestha, Sanjaya K; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Lang, Dennis R; Gottlieb, Michael; Guerrant, Richard L; Caulfield, Laura E; For The Mal-Ed Network Investigators

    2017-07-01

    The lactulose mannitol (LM) dual sugar permeability test is the most commonly used test of environmental enteropathy in developing countries. However, there is a large but conflicting literature on its association with enteric infection and host nutritional status. We conducted a longitudinal cohort using a single field protocol and comparable laboratory procedures to examine intestinal permeability in multiple, geographically diverse pediatric populations. Using a previously published systematic review to guide the selection of factors potentially associated with LM test results, we examined the relationships between these factors and mucosal breach, represented by percent lactulose excretion; absorptive area, represented by percent mannitol excretion; and gut barrier function, represented by the L/M ratio. A total of 6,602 LM tests were conducted in 1,980 children at 3, 6, 9, and 15 months old; percent lactulose excretion, percent mannitol excretion, and the L/M ratio were expressed as age- and sex-specific normalized values using the Brazil cohort as the reference population. Among the factors considered, recent severe diarrhea, lower socioeconomic status, and recent asymptomatic enteropathogen infections were associated with decreased percent mannitol excretion and higher L/M ratios. Poorer concurrent weight-for-age, infection, and recent breastfeeding were associated with increased percent lactulose excretion and increased L/M ratios. Our results support previously reported associations between the L/M ratio and factors related to child nutritional status and enteropathogen exposure. These results were remarkably consistent across sites and support the hypothesis that the frequency of these exposures in communities living in poverty leads to alterations in gut barrier function.

  5. Environmental Assessment Facility Renovation / New Construction and Operation of Marine Corps Units (MAG-42, HMLA-773 and MALS-42) Relocated from Naval Air Station Atlanta to Robins Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-16

    activities within the area do not significantly adversely or significantly positively impact storm water quality . The Proposed Construction Area does...adversely impact storm water quality . Existing buildings receive limited runoff from the adjacent area to the west; however, no indications of adverse... water quality . Existing buildings receive limited runoff from the adjacent area to the north and west; however, no indications of adverse environmental

  6. Infant Nutritional Status, Feeding Practices, Enteropathogen Exposure, Socioeconomic Status, and Illness Are Associated with Gut Barrier Function As Assessed by the Lactulose Mannitol Test in the MAL-ED Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gwenyth O.; McCormick, Benjamin J. J.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Kosek, Margaret N.; Haque, Rashidul; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Lima, Aldo A. M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Kang, Gagandeep; Samie, Amidou; Amour, Caroline; Mason, Carl J.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Oliveira, Domingos B.; Alam, Didar; Babji, Sudhir; Bessong, Pascal; Mduma, Estomih; Shrestha, Sanjaya K.; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Lang, Dennis R.; Gottlieb, Michael; Guerrant, Richard L.; Caulfield, Laura E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. The lactulose mannitol (LM) dual sugar permeability test is the most commonly used test of environmental enteropathy in developing countries. However, there is a large but conflicting literature on its association with enteric infection and host nutritional status. We conducted a longitudinal cohort using a single field protocol and comparable laboratory procedures to examine intestinal permeability in multiple, geographically diverse pediatric populations. Using a previously published systematic review to guide the selection of factors potentially associated with LM test results, we examined the relationships between these factors and mucosal breach, represented by percent lactulose excretion; absorptive area, represented by percent mannitol excretion; and gut barrier function, represented by the L/M ratio. A total of 6,602 LM tests were conducted in 1,980 children at 3, 6, 9, and 15 months old; percent lactulose excretion, percent mannitol excretion, and the L/M ratio were expressed as age- and sex-specific normalized values using the Brazil cohort as the reference population. Among the factors considered, recent severe diarrhea, lower socioeconomic status, and recent asymptomatic enteropathogen infections were associated with decreased percent mannitol excretion and higher L/M ratios. Poorer concurrent weight-for-age, infection, and recent breastfeeding were associated with increased percent lactulose excretion and increased L/M ratios. Our results support previously reported associations between the L/M ratio and factors related to child nutritional status and enteropathogen exposure. These results were remarkably consistent across sites and support the hypothesis that the frequency of these exposures in communities living in poverty leads to alterations in gut barrier function. PMID:28719336

  7. Pensamientos Sobre (Thoughts on) Teaching English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulibarri, Mari-Luci

    This document presents ideas on various topics in teaching English as a second language. Some of the problems of English orthography and semantics are illustrated. The role of contrastive analysis is mentioned with Spanish-English illustrations. A list of second-language-acquisition principles and techniques is provided, and suggestions for…

  8. Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manage…

  9. Questions about Brain Development = Preguntas sobre el desarrollo del cerebro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    Noting that new research shows that a baby's earliest years shape how he or she grows later in life, this brochure, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides brief answers to some important questions parents may have about their baby's brain. The questions answered are: (1) "Why is brain development a popular subject lately?; (2)…

  10. Emotional Disturbance. Fact Sheet = Problemas Emocionales. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of emotional disturbance. The definition is from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and incidence in 1999-2000 is reported as about 470,000 children and youth. Educational…

  11. Epilepsy. Fact Sheet = Epilepsia. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of epilepsy. It notes that epilepsy is classified as "other health impaired" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and that children with epilepsy or seizure disorders…

  12. Iniciativa sobre Efectividad: Primeros frutos (Initiative about Effectiveness: First Fruits).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno Garcia, Teresa, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This Spanish- and Portuguese-language bulletin is a follow-up to No. 15 (PS 030 558), which examined some Effectiveness Initiative (EI) projects. This issue presents some beginning efforts to reflect on what has been learned through EI and to draw conclusions. The articles cover the results of EI projects from such angles as their relations with…

  13. Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002 (Studies on Education, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This journal, which provides abstracts of its articles mostly in Spanish and a few in English, contains studies (estudios) and notes (notas) about educational issues, as well as relevant book reviews (recensiones). Studies in this issue (No. 3, 2002) are: "Unprotected Time of Early Adolescence and Intergenerational Relations: A New…

  14. Reflexiones Sobre Investigacion Educacional (Reflections on Educational Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Educational research can serve to improve education in both developed and developing countries. It can be oriented toward increasing knowledge about the educational reality, generating theories, or confirming immediate educational political decisions. Educational research should be an interdisciplinary undertaking; this variety helps to unify…

  15. Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002 (Studies on Education, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This scholarly journal deals with the study of education. Articles in this second issue are: "La Vertebracion Academica de la Formacion Inicial del Profesorado" (The Academic Backbone of the Initial Formation of Teachers) (Jose M. Esteve); "Deficiencia Visual en el Nino" (Visual Deficiency in the Young Child) (Feli Peralta;…

  16. Infórmese sobre el programa de WIFIA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La Ley de finanzas e innovación de la infraestructura del agua de 2014 estableció el programa de WIFIA, un programa federal crediticio administrado por la EPA para proyectos elegibles de infraestructura de agua y aguas sanitarias.

  17. Apuntes sobre Latinismos en Espanol (Notes on Latinisms in Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez B., L. A.

    1977-01-01

    Several Latinisms appear in Latin American Spanish, which would logically be farther from its Latin roots than Spanish in Spain. The existence of these elements and their importance as linguistic facts is analyzed here. Four words are treated: "Cliente,""cuadrar,""cuarto" and "rabula." (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  18. Leamos Sobre Veinte Ocupaciones! Twenty Trades to Read About.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamatino, Robyn; Mintz, Adin

    Twenty trades are explored in this bilingual supplementary workbook, designed specifically for native Spanish speakers who are in the process of learning English. The purpose of this book is to ease the Spanish-speaking student from his/her native language into English with as little discomfort as possible. There are twenty chapters in the book…

  19. [Parenting Information: Teenagers. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre los Jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These four booklets are devoted specifically to the concerns of parents and their teenage children and are part of a series of 22 booklets designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Parents--Learn about Your Teenager" (booklet #6) explains the changes which occur during the teen years and the…

  20. [Parenting Information: Drugs. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre las Drojas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These two booklets provide basic information about drugs and drug abuse and are part of a series of 22 booklets, designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Let's Talk about Drug Abuse," (booklet #18), reviews foreign substances or drugs young people are often exposed to (i.e., tobacco,…

  1. [Parenting Information. Informacion Sobre Como Ser Padres Mejores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These five booklets, containing information on how parenting can effect children's school achievement, are part of a series of 22 innovative booklets designed specifically to help parents understand and help their children learn. Booklet #1, "Parents--Teach Your Children to Learn [Before They Go to School]," defines intelligence and…

  2. Información general sobre los mosquitos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Una consecuencia más importante de algunas picaduras de mosquitos es la trasmisión de ciertas enfermedades graves como el paludismo, la fiebre del dengue y varias formas de encefalitis, que incluyen el virus del Nilo occidental.

  3. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Gas Natural (in Spanish)

    SciTech Connect

    El gas natural abastece cerca de 150.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y aproximadamente 22 millones de vehiculos en todo el mundo. Los vehiculos de gas natural (NGV, por sus siglas en ingles) son una buena opcion para las flotas de vehiculos de alto kilometraje, tales como autobuses, taxis, vehiculos de recoleccion de basura, los cuales son alimentados centralmente u operan dentro de un area limitada o a lo largo de una ruta con estaciones de servicio de gas natural. Las ventajas del gas natural como combustible alternativo incluyen su disponibilidad interna, la red de distribucion establecida, un costo relativamentemore » bajo, y los beneficios de las emisiones.« less

  4. Sobre prestamos y clasificaciones linguisticas (Regarding Borrowing and Linguistic Classification).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Mary Ritchie

    1988-01-01

    This article explores the traditionally accepted etymologies of several lexical borrowings in the indigenous languages of the Americas within the framework of comparative linguistics and linguistic classification. The first section presents a general discussion of the problem of tracing lexical borrowings in this context. The section features a…

  5. Absence seizure

    MedlinePlus

    Seizure - petit mal; Seizure - absence; Petit mal seizure; Epilepsy - absence seizure ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  6. 7 CFR 1421.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... bundled peanut MALs and LDPs to a DMA. In the absence of a centralized MAL and LDP processing system for... seed, canola, rapeseed, safflower, flaxseed, mustard seed, crambe, sesame seed, and other oilseeds as...

  7. 7 CFR 1421.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... bundled peanut MALs and LDPs to a DMA. In the absence of a centralized MAL and LDP processing system for... seed, canola, rapeseed, safflower, flaxseed, mustard seed, crambe, sesame seed, and other oilseeds as...

  8. 7 CFR 1421.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... bundled peanut MALs and LDPs to a DMA. In the absence of a centralized MAL and LDP processing system for... seed, canola, rapeseed, safflower, flaxseed, mustard seed, crambe, sesame seed, and other oilseeds as...

  9. 7 CFR 1421.401 - DMA responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... peanut MAL, and LDP program training offered by CCC. (4) Provide sufficient personnel, computer hardware, computer communications systems, and software, as determined necessary by CCC, to administer the peanut MAL...

  10. 7 CFR 1421.401 - DMA responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... peanut MAL, and LDP program training offered by CCC. (4) Provide sufficient personnel, computer hardware, computer communications systems, and software, as determined necessary by CCC, to administer the peanut MAL...

  11. 7 CFR 1421.401 - DMA responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... peanut MAL, and LDP program training offered by CCC. (4) Provide sufficient personnel, computer hardware, computer communications systems, and software, as determined necessary by CCC, to administer the peanut MAL...

  12. P-type surface effects for thickness variation of 2um and 4um of n-type layer in GaN LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, N. S. A. Abdul; Wahid, M. H. A.; Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Rashid, S.; Ramli, M. M.; Shahimin, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    The internal quantum efficiency of III-Nitrides group, GaN light-emitting diode (LED) has been considerably limited due to the insufficient hole injection and this is caused by the lack of performance p-type doping and low hole mobility. The low hole mobility makes the hole less energetic, thus reduced the performance operation of GaN LED itself. The internal quantum efficiency of GaN-based LED with surface roughness (texture) can be changed by texture size, density, and thickness of GaN film or by the combined effects of surface shape and thickness of GaN film. Besides, due to lack of p-type GaN, attempts to look forward the potential of GaN LED relied on the thickness of n-type layer and surface shape of p-type GaN layer. This work investigates the characteristics of GaN LED with undoped n-GaN layer of different thickness and the surface shape of p-type layer. The LEDs performance is significantly altered by modifying the thickness and shape. Enhancement of n-GaN layer has led to the annihilation of electrical conductivity of the chip. Different surface geometry governs the emission rate extensively. Internal quantum efficiency is also predominantly affected by the geometry of n-GaN layer which subjected to the current spreading. It is recorded that the IQE droop can be minimized by varying the thickness of the active layer without amplifying the forward voltage. Optimum forward voltage (I-V), total emission rate relationship with the injected current and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) for 2,4 µm on four different surfaces of p-type layer are also reported in this paper.

  13. Practical Astronomical Activities during Daytime. (Spanish Title: Actividades Astronómicas Prácticas Diurnas.) Atividades Astronômicas Práticas Diurnas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Eric

    2009-12-01

    relacionadas al mal tiempo. El problema de no tener suficientes actividades prácticas, la sensación de poseer conocimientos inadecuados, la necesidad de disponer de equipamiento astronómico y experiencia suelen ser demasiado intimidantes para que los profesores introduzcan la materia en sus clases. Si la Astronomía iba a ser introducida, entonces era preciso encontrar una forma de resolver estas dificultades. Nuestro grupo, trabajando con maestros y alumnos dentro de un marco constructivista, encontró que los principios de la Astronomía pueden ser descubiertos durante el día, en cuanto los alumnos están en la escuela. Trabajando de forma cooperativa los alumnos midieron y registraron observaciones de sus propias sombras causadas por los movimientos de la estrella más próxima, el Sol, y nuestro planeta Tierra. Debido a que los alumnos se involucraran tan personalmente en las actividades, estuvieron mucho más interesados en los resultados del estudio. La Astronomía pasó a ser un desafío para el maestro y sus alumnos cuando aplicaron sus experiencias diurnas a la observación nocturna desde sus casas, reportada después en clase. Estas atividades astronômicas diurnas surgiram de uma investigação feita na Nova Zelândia por um grupo de professores e astrônomos a respeito dos problemas do ensino da Astronomia. Este trabalho mostrou que a Astronomia é geralmente considerada uma disciplina difícil de ensinar, tradicionalmente baseada em livros, filmes e modelos. Os mais afortunados podem ter feito alguma visita a um observatório ou planetário, e os mais avançados podem talvez ter tentado uma sessão de observação noturna, as quais sofrem às vezes de dificuldades relacionadas ao tempo. O problema de não dispor de suficientes atividades práticas, a sensação de possuir conhecimentos inadequados, a necessidade de dispor de equipamento astronômico e experiência tem sido, em geral, demasiado intimidante para que os professores introduzam a matéria nas suas

  14. Utility of Gram staining for diagnosis of Malassezia folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wei-Ting; Chin, Szu-Ying; Chou, Chia-Lun; Hsu, Che-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Tsung; Liu, Donald; Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shih, Yi-Hsien

    2018-02-01

    Malassezia folliculitis (MalF) mimics acne vulgaris and bacterial folliculitis in clinical presentations. The role of Gram staining in rapid diagnosis of MalF has not been well studied. In our study, 32 patients were included to investigate the utility of Gram staining for MalF diagnosis. The final diagnoses of MalF were determined according to clinical presentation, pathological result and treatment response to antifungal agents. Our results show that the sensitivity and specificity of Gram staining are 84.6% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, Gram staining is a rapid, non-invasive, sensitive and specific method for MalF diagnosis. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, F

  16. Efficacy of ablative fractional laser-assisted photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic cheilitis: 12-month follow-up results of a prospective, randomized, comparative trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, S H; Kim, K H; Song, K-H

    2015-07-01

    Early identification and treatment of actinic cheilitis (AC) is recommended. Although photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive therapeutic option for AC, PDT for AC does not result in the same satisfactory outcomes as in actinic keratosis (AK). The aim of our study was to compare efficacy, recurrence rate, cosmetic outcome and safety between erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet ablative fractional laser-assisted methyl aminolaevulinate-PDT (Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT) and standard MAL-PDT. Thirty-three patients with histologically confirmed AC randomly received either one session of Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT or two sessions of MAL-PDT. In the MAL-PDT group, the second session of MAL-PDT was administered 7 days later. Patients were followed up at 1 week and 3 and 12 months, and biopsies were taken from all patients at 3 and 12 months after the last treatment session. At the final 12-month follow-up, cosmetic outcomes were assessed. Adverse events were assessed at week 1 of the treatment phase and every subsequent follow-up visit. In the per-protocol (PP) population, Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT was significantly more effective (92% complete response rate) than MAL-PDT (59%; P = 0.040) at the 3-month follow-up, and differences in efficacy remained significant at the 12-month follow-up (85% in Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT and 29% in MAL-PDT). The recurrence rate was significantly lower for Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT (8%) than for MAL-PDT (50%) group at 12 months (P = 0.029). No significant difference in cosmetic outcome or safety was observed between Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT and MAL-PDT. Ablative fractional laser pretreatment has significant benefit for the treatment of AC with PDT. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Hidemi; Matsuura, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: matsuura.yoshiyuki@d.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    Highlights: {yields} MAL has a bipartite NLS that binds to Imp{alpha} in an extended conformation. {yields} Mutational analyses verified the functional significance of MAL-Imp{alpha} interactions. {yields} Induced folding and NLS-masking by G-actins inhibit nuclear import of MAL. -- Abstract: The coordination of cytoskeletal actin dynamics with gene expression reprogramming is emerging as a crucial mechanism to control diverse cellular processes, including cell migration, differentiation and neuronal circuit assembly. The actin-binding transcriptional coactivator MAL (also known as MRTF-A/MKL1/BSAC) senses G-actin concentration and transduces Rho GTPase signals to serum response factor (SRF). MAL rapidly shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus inmore » unstimulated cells but Rho-induced depletion of G-actin leads to MAL nuclear accumulation and activation of transcription of SRF:MAL-target genes. Although the molecular and structural basis of actin-regulated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of MAL is not understood fully, it is proposed that nuclear import of MAL is mediated by importin {alpha}/{beta} heterodimer, and that G-actin competes with importin {alpha}/{beta} for the binding to MAL. Here we present structural, biochemical and cell biological evidence that MAL has a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the N-terminal 'RPEL' domain containing Arg-Pro-X-X-X-Glu-Leu (RPEL) motifs. The NLS residues of MAL adopt an extended conformation and bind along the surface groove of importin-{alpha}, interacting with the major- and minor-NLS binding sites. We also present a crystal structure of wild-type MAL RPEL domain in complex with five G-actins. Comparison of the importin-{alpha}- and actin-complexes revealed that the binding of G-actins to MAL is associated with folding of NLS residues into a helical conformation that is inappropriate for importin-{alpha} recognition.« less

  18. STS-40 Exp. No. 192 urine monitoring system (UMS) on OV-102's middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-06-14

    STS040-04-036 (5-14 June 1991) --- Closeup view of urine monitoring system and test samples, part of the busy schedule of life sciences testing on the nine-day STS-40/Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-1) mission aboard the earth-orbiting Columbia.

  19. 1.55 um aluminum gallium indium arsenide strained MQW laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chi

    At the 1.55 mum eye-safe, telecommunications operating wavelength, semiconductor diode lasers must have low threshold currents and operate at high temperatures without thermoelectric coolers. Existing diode lasers in this wavelength range based on the GaInAsP/InP materials system are very sensitive to operating temperature. To obtain high temperature, high power 1.55 mum semiconductor diode lasers, the AlGaInAs/InP materials system with strained quantum well (QW) active regions was investigated with the goal of improving temperature performance. A set of lasers with active regions consisting of different numbers of QWs (2 to 4) and different QW strains (1.2% and 1.6%) were designed taking into account the quaternary alloy bandgap of AlGaInAs, the effect of strain on the bandgap, and the quantum size effects within the QW. The active region growth temperature was optimized using photoluminescence intensity. The wafers were first processed into broad-area lasers and measured under pulsed injection. The characteristic threshold current temperature, T0, for all AlGaInAs lasers was higher (60-70 K) than for GaInAsP lasers. No strong dependence of temperature parameters on strain was observed, while properties varied significantly with the number of QWs. With more QWs, both internal efficiency and T0 increases, but internal loss increases, reducing the characteristic temperature of the differential efficiency T1. The results show that uncooled laser operation at 1.55 mum is very promising with strained AlGaInAs QWs. Ridge waveguide devices demonstrated low threshold and high output power as well as good temperature performance under continuous wave operation. Devices with different ridge heights were fabricated from one wafer and their performance was compared. It was found that current spreading was significant in these devices and a simple current density-versus-applied voltage analysis was developed to determine the spreading factor. The analysis shows that the current spreading was not effectively limited until etching went below the doped cladding layer. A recombination coefficient analysis was performed to investigate the effect of strain on Auger recombination predicted by theory. An indirect method to infer both the nonradiative recombination coefficient and the Auger recombination coefficient was initially used. The measured values of the recombination coefficients were consistent with theoretical predictions and measurements based on other material systems. The Auger recombination was lower than expected, indicating that Auger recombination is reduced in these strained QWs. To understand the carrier dynamics, impedance measurements were carried out for the first time in AlGaInAs strained QW lasers. A small-signal, sub-threshold equivalent circuit model was derived from the laser rate equations to model the measured laser impedance. Several characteristic carrier lifetimes were obtained directly from these electrical impedance measurements. From the temperature dependence of the QW escape time, it was found that hole rather than electron leakage is dominant in the AlGaInAs system due to the relatively low valence band offset. This may explain why the improvement of T0 in AlGaInAs QW 1.55 mum active regions is limited.

  20. Met UM Upper-tropospheric summer jet teleconnections: A model assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joao Carvalho, Maria; Rodriguez, Jose; Milton, Sean

    2017-04-01

    The upper tropospheric jet stream has been documented to act as a waveguide (Hoskins and Ambrizzi, 1993) and supporting quasi-stationary Rossby waves (Schubert et al. 2011). These have been associated with remote effects in surface level weather such as rainfall anomalies in the East Asian Summer Monsoon as well as extreme temperature events. The goal of this work was to analyse the intraseasonal to interannual upper level boreal summer jet variability and its coupling with low level atmospheric dynamics within the Met Office Unified Model using climate runs. Using the Wallace and Gutzler (1981) proposed approach to find teleconnection patterns on the 200 hPa level wind, lead-lag correlation and Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis on the upper-level jet and relating the results with surface weather variables as well as dynamical variables, it was found that the model presents too strong jet variability, particularly in the tropical region and. In addition, the model presents high teleconnectivity hotspots with higher importance in areas such as the Mediterranean and Caspian Sea which are important source areas for Rossby Waves. Further to this, the model was found to produce an area of teleconnectivity between the tropical Atlantic and western Africa which is not observed in the reanalysis but coexists with long lasting precipitation biases. As comparison for the model results, ERA-Interim circulation and wind data and the TRMM precipitation dataset were used. In order to assess the relative importance of relevant model parameters in the biases and process errors, work is currently underway using perturbed model parameter ensembles.

  1. Password Complexity Recommendations: xezandpAxat8Um or P4$$w0rd!!!!

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    have we seen the computer screen with fast- scrolling characters, with good answers being indicated one by one? This is not a MasterMind game ! Password...security/2013/ 05/how-crackers-make-minced- meat -out-of-your-passwords (Access Date: 2014-04-02). 18 DRDC-RDDC-2014-R27 DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA (Security

  2. University of Michigan lecture archiving and related activities of the U-M ATLAS Collaboratory Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr, J.; Bhatnagar, T.; Goldfarb, S.; Irrer, J.; McKee, S.; Neal, H. A.

    2008-07-01

    Large scientific collaborations as well as universities have a growing need for multimedia archiving of meetings and courses. Collaborations need to disseminate training and news to their wide-ranging members, and universities seek to provide their students with more useful studying tools. The University of Michigan ATLAS Collaboratory Project has been involved in the recording and archiving of multimedia lectures since 1999. Our software and hardware architecture has been used to record events for CERN, ATLAS, many units inside the University of Michigan, Fermilab, the American Physical Society and the International Conference on Systems Biology at Harvard. Until 2006 our group functioned primarily as a tiny research/development team with special commitments to the archiving of certain ATLAS events. In 2006 we formed the MScribe project, using a larger scale, and highly automated recording system to record and archive eight University courses in a wide array of subjects. Several robotic carts are wheeled around campus by unskilled student helpers to automatically capture and post to the Web audio, video, slides and chalkboard images. The advances the MScribe project has made in automation of these processes, including a robotic camera operator and automated video processing, are now being used to record ATLAS Collaboration events, making them available more quickly than before and enabling the recording of more events.

  3. "I May Be Crackin', But Um Fackin": Racial Humor in "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the utilization of racial humor in Christopher Paul Curtis' novel, "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963." The theoretical perspectives that inform the analysis include critical race theory and humor theory. The results of the analysis reveal that the use of humor in this book is influenced to a significant degree by race and…

  4. Application of 2-um wavelength holmium lasers for treatment of skin diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Ivan A.; Klimov, Igor V.; Tsvetkov, Vladimir B.; Nerobeev, Alexander I.; Sadovnikova, Lija B.; Eliseenko, Vladimir I.

    1994-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental analysis of the efficiency of application of 2 micrometers pulsed holmium laser for cosmetic and plastic surgery and dermatology is carried out. Preliminary experiments were carried out on rats. Solid state 2 micrometers pulsed laser was allowed to operate in free running mode with pulse energy up to 1.5 J and pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz. To deliver emission to the object a flexible quartz fiber without further focusing of 2.5 m in length and 400 micrometers of the core diameter was used. The effect of the different power density emission on the skin was studied. The second stage was the study of the influence of 2 micrometers emission on human skin. The results of the removal of hemangioma, papilloma, telangiectasia, nevus, nevus acantholytic, xanthelasma palpebral, verruca, chloasma, pigmental spots, tattoos, etc. are presented. Precision, simplicity, efficiency, and the high cosmetic effect of these operations is noted.

  5. Broadband 0.25-um Gallium Nitride (GaN) Power Amplifier Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-14

    CP pF RES ID=R1 R=RP Ohm PORT P=1 Z=50 Ohm RP=87.5ohm/mm... CP =-0.31pF/mm For 1.75mm, RP=50ohms, CP =0.54pf CP = 0.31 * size size=1.75 RP = 87.5 / size CAP ID=C1 C=CP1 pF RES ID=R1 R=RP Ohm IND ID=L1 L=LP1 nH CAP...ID=C2 C=Cser2 pF IND ID=L2 L=Lser2 nH IND ID=L3 L=LP1 nH CAP ID=C3 C=CP1 pF PORT P=1 Z=50 Ohm PORT P=2 Z=50 Ohm size=1.75 RP = 87.5 / size CP =

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AKARI NEP Survey sources at 18um (Pearson+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, C. P.; Serjeant, S.; Oyabu, S.; Matsuhara, H.; Wada, T.; Goto, T.; Takagi, T.; Lee, H. M.; Im, M.; Ohyama, Y.; Kim, S. J.; Murata, K.

    2015-04-01

    The NEP-Deep survey at 18u in the IRC-L18W band is constructed from a total of 87 individual pointed observations taken between May 2006 to August 2007, using the IRC Astronomical Observing Template (AOT) designed for deep observations (IRC05), with approximately 2500 second exposures per IRC filter in all mid-infrared bands. The deep imaging IRC05 AOT has no explicit dithering built into the AOT operation, therefore dithering is achieved by layering separate pointed observations on at least three positions on a given piece of sky. The NEP-Wide survey consists of 446 pointed observations with .300 second exposures for each filter. The NEP-Wide survey uses the shallower IRC03 AOT optimized for large area multi-band mapping with the dithering included within the AOT. Note that for both surveys, although images are taken simultaneously in all three IRC channels, the target area of sky in the MIR-L channel is offset from the corresponding area of sky in the NIR/MIR-S channel by ~20arcmin. (2 data files).

  7. The Cauchy Problem for Ut = Delta u(m) When 0 m 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Ecuaciones Funcionales, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid 3, Spain. • * Department of Mathematics, University of Nancy I, B. P. 239...required on u° to provide even a local solution in time, namely * Dpto Ecuaciones Funcionales, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid 3

  8. Interannual rainfall variability over China in the MetUM GA6 and GC2 configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Claudia Christine; Klingaman, Nicholas P.; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Turner, Andrew G.; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Guo, Liang

    2018-05-01

    Six climate simulations of the Met Office Unified Model Global Atmosphere 6.0 and Global Coupled 2.0 configurations are evaluated against observations and reanalysis data for their ability to simulate the mean state and year-to-year variability of precipitation over China. To analyse the sensitivity to air-sea coupling and horizontal resolution, atmosphere-only and coupled integrations at atmospheric horizontal resolutions of N96, N216 and N512 (corresponding to ˜ 200, 90 and 40 km in the zonal direction at the equator, respectively) are analysed. The mean and interannual variance of seasonal precipitation are too high in all simulations over China but improve with finer resolution and coupling. Empirical orthogonal teleconnection (EOT) analysis is applied to simulated and observed precipitation to identify spatial patterns of temporally coherent interannual variability in seasonal precipitation. To connect these patterns to large-scale atmospheric and coupled air-sea processes, atmospheric and oceanic fields are regressed onto the corresponding seasonal mean time series. All simulations reproduce the observed leading pattern of interannual rainfall variability in winter, spring and autumn; the leading pattern in summer is present in all but one simulation. However, only in two simulations are the four leading patterns associated with the observed physical mechanisms. Coupled simulations capture more observed patterns of variability and associate more of them with the correct physical mechanism, compared to atmosphere-only simulations at the same resolution. However, finer resolution does not improve the fidelity of these patterns or their associated mechanisms. This shows that evaluating climate models by only geographical distribution of mean precipitation and its interannual variance is insufficient. The EOT analysis adds knowledge about coherent variability and associated mechanisms.

  9. Isolation of UmRrm75, a gene involved in dimorphism and virulence of Ustilago maydis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ustilago maydis displays dimorphic growth, alternating between a saprophytic haploid yeast form and a filamentous dikaryon, generated by mating of haploid cells and which is an obligate parasite. Induction of the dimorphic transition of haploid strains in vitro by change in ambient pH has been used...

  10. Zum Auf und Ab des Meeresspiegels in Skandinavien: Langer Streit um Eustasie oder Isostasie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, Eugen; Seibold, Ilse

    2012-03-01

    The phenomenon of the rise of the Scandinavian shield during the Holocene and the concomitant fall in level of the Baltic Sea has been investigated for centuries. Already in medieval times, there were reports about the coastlines of the Gulf of Bothnia that are full of relevant observations. During the eighteenth century, scientists such as Celsius and Linnaeus collected observations such as these. The result was that the search for the possible explanations of this rise-and-fall phenomenon intensified. The generally favoured explanation was that there was an active sinking of sea level in the Baltic rather than an active rising of the land surface in Fennoscandia. This was because water was seen as mobile, in contrast to a "terra firma". The relevant discussion was often emotional, and here, we try to illustrate it using material from the Geologenarchiv Freiburg (von Hoff, von Buch and Goethe). No more than a few decades later, it became obvious by the theory of Ice Age that both the sea level and the land could be mobile (eustatic sea level changes—glacial isostasy). Additionally, of course, plate tectonics had some influence: Norway is situated at the western end of the Eurasian plate and is part of a passive continental margin. There are still open research problems, many of which can be addressed using modern methods of satellite-based geophysics and geodesy. Some other aspects as the permanent uplift trend of Scandinavia since the Cambrium or the rhythmic to and fro of magma in the upper mantle during the Pleistocene are mentioned.

  11. Teaching Advanced Concepts in Computer Networks: VNUML-UM Virtualization Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Pereniguez-Garcia, F.; Marin-Lopez, R.; Ruiz-Martinez, P. M.; Skarmeta-Gomez, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    In the teaching of computer networks the main problem that arises is the high price and limited number of network devices the students can work with in the laboratories. Nowadays, with virtualization we can overcome this limitation. In this paper, we present a methodology that allows students to learn advanced computer network concepts through…

  12. Educacao Fisica Escolar: A Construcao de um Conceito (School Physical Education: The Construction of a Concept).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colpas, Ricardo Ducatti

    2000-01-01

    Seeks to understand school physical education praxis in light of the human development theories of Lev Vygotsky. Develops a methodology of teaching and a conception of learning that enables students to recognize physical education as a school discipline connected to a dynamic curriculum. (BT)

  13. Distribution of benthic foraminifers (>125 um) in the surface sediments of the Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Poore, Richard Z.; Foley, Kevin M.

    1999-01-01

    Census data on benthic foraminifers (>125 ?m) in surface sediment samples from 49 box cores are used to define four depth-controlled biofacies, which will aid in the paleoceanographic reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean. The shelf biofacies contains a mix of shallow-water calcareous and agglutinated species from the continental shelves of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas and reflects the variable sedimentologic and oceanic conditions of the Arctic shelves. The intermediate-depth calcareous biofacies, found between 500 and 1,100 meters water depth (mwd), contains abundant Cassidulina teretis , presumably indicating the influence of Atlantic-derived water at this depth. In water depths between 1,100 and 3,500 m, a deepwater calcareous biofacies contains abundant Oridorsalis umbonatus . Below 3,500 mwd, the deepwater mixed calcareous/agglutinated biofacies of the Canada, Makarov, and Eurasian Basins reflects a combination of low productivity, dissolution, and sediment transport. Two other benthic foraminiferal species show specific environmental preferences. Fontbotia wuellerstorfi has a depth distribution between 900 and 3,500 mwd, but maximum abundance occurs in the region of the Mendeleyev Ridge. The elevated abundance of F. wuellerstorfi may be related to increased food supply carried by a branch of Atlantic water that crosses the Lomonosov Ridge near the Russian Continental Shelf. Triloculina frigida is recognized to be a species preferring lower slope sediments commonly disturbed by turbidites and bottom currents. INTRODUCTION At present, our understanding of the Arctic Ocean lags behind our understanding of other oceans, and fundamental questions still exist about its role in and response to global climate change. The Arctic Ocean is particularly sensitive to climatic fluctuations because small changes in the amounts of sea-ice cover can alter global albedo and thermohaline circulation (Aagaard and Carmack, 1994). Numerous questions still exist regarding the nature and timing of paleoclimatic events in the Arctic Ocean. In order to attempt to answer some of these questions, baseline studies are imperative. This report discusses the distribution of benthic foraminifers in surface sediment samples from 49 box cores (figs. 1 and 2, table 1) collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). A modern data set of benthic foraminiferal distribution is necessary for interpreting the paleoclimatic and oceanographic history of the Arctic Ocean.

  14. Alice's adventures in um-derland: Psycholinguistic sources of variation in disfluency production

    PubMed Central

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that three common types of disfluency (fillers, silent pauses, and repeated words) reflect variance in what strategies are available to the production system for responding to difficulty in language production. Participants' speech in a storytelling paradigm was coded for the three disfluency types. Repeats occurred most often when difficult material was already being produced and could be repeated, but fillers and silent pauses occurred most when difficult material was still being planned. Fillers were associated only with conceptual difficulties, consistent with the proposal that they reflect a communicative signal whereas silent pauses and repeats were also related to lexical and phonological difficulties. These differences are discussed in terms of different strategies available to the language production system. PMID:25339788

  15. Endocytosis of a maltose permease is induced when amylolytic enzyme production is repressed in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Mizuki; Ichikawa, Takanori; Matsuura, Yuka; Hasegawa-Shiro, Sachiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2015-09-01

    In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, amylolytic enzyme production is induced by the presence of maltose. Previously, we identified a putative maltose permease (MalP) gene in the maltose-utilizing cluster of A. oryzae. malP disruption causes a significant decrease in α-amylase activity and maltose consumption, indicating that MalP is a maltose transporter required for amylolytic enzyme production in A. oryzae. Although the expression of amylase genes and malP is repressed by the presence of glucose, the effect of glucose on the abundance of functional MalP is unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of glucose and other carbon sources on the subcellular localization of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged MalP. After glucose addition, GFP-MalP at the plasma membrane was internalized and delivered to the vacuole. This glucose-induced internalization of GFP-MalP was inhibited by treatment with latrunculin B, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. Furthermore, GFP-MalP internalization was inhibited by repressing the HECT ubiquitin ligase HulA (ortholog of yeast Rsp5). These results suggest that MalP is transported to the vacuole by endocytosis in the presence of glucose. Besides glucose, mannose and 2-deoxyglucose also induced the endocytosis of GFP-MalP and amylolytic enzyme production was inhibited by the addition of these sugars. However, neither the subcellular localization of GFP-MalP nor amylolytic enzyme production was influenced by the addition of xylose or 3-O-methylglucose. These results imply that MalP endocytosis is induced when amylolytic enzyme production is repressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maltopentaose-conjugated CTA for RAFT polymerization generating nanostructured bioresource-block copolymer.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Daichi; Otsuka, Issei; Borsali, Redouane; Takeda, Koichi; Enomoto, Kazushi; Kawaguchi, Seigou; Narumi, Atsushi

    2014-12-08

    We now describe the synthesis of a new family of oligosaccharide-conjugated functional molecules, which act as chain transfer agents (CTAs) for the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The synthesis was started from the catalyst-free direct N-glycosyl reaction of 5-azidopentylamine onto maltopentaose (Mal5) in dry methanol at room temperature and subsequent N-protected reaction with acetic anhydride, producing a stable oligosaccharide-building block, such as Mal5 with an azidopentyl group (Mal5-N3). The azido group was hydrogenated using platinum dioxide (PtO2) as a catalyst to give Mal5 with aminopentyl group (Mal5-NH2), which was then reacted with CTA molecules bearing activated ester moieties. These reactions produced Mal5-modified macro-CTAs (Mal5-CTAs, 1), which were used for the RAFT polymerizations of styrene (St) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) in DMF. The polymerizations were performed using the [M]0/[1]0 values ranging from 50 to 600, affording the Mal5-hybrid amphiphilic block copolymers (BCPs), such as Mal5-polystyrene (2) and Mal5-poly(methyl methacrylate) (3), with a quantitative end-functionality and the controlled molecular weights between 4310 and 20 300 g mol(-1). The small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements were accomplished for 2 and 3 to ensure their abilities to form phase separated structures in their bulk states with the increasing temperatures from 30 to 190 °C. The featured results were observed for 2 (ϕMal5 = 0.14) and 3 (ϕMal5 = 0.16) at temperatures above 100 °C, where ϕMal5 denotes the volume fraction of the Mal5 unit in the BCP sample. For both BCP samples, the primary scattering peaks q* were clearly observed together with the higher-ordered scattering peaks √2q* and √3q*. Thus, these Mal5-hybrid amphiphilic BCP samples have a body centered cubic (BCC) phase morphology. The domain spacing (d) values of the BCC morphology for 2 (ϕMal5 = 0.14) and 3 (ϕMal5 = 0.16) were 10.4 and 9

  17. 40 CFR 92.132 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. (vii) EAL mode=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. Where: MAL mode=Total aldehyde mass emissions (grams per hour) for each test mode. (2... mode=(DCH2O/106)30.026(DVol)/Vm MCH2O mode=(WCH2O/106)30.026(WVol)/Vm (1) If aldehydes are measured...

  18. 40 CFR 92.132 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. (vii) EAL mode=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. Where: MAL mode=Total aldehyde mass emissions (grams per hour) for each test mode. (2... mode=(DCH2O/106)30.026(DVol)/Vm MCH2O mode=(WCH2O/106)30.026(WVol)/Vm (1) If aldehydes are measured...

  19. 40 CFR 92.132 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. (vii) EAL mode=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. Where: MAL mode=Total aldehyde mass emissions (grams per hour) for each test mode. (2... mode=(DCH2O/106)30.026(DVol)/Vm MCH2O mode=(WCH2O/106)30.026(WVol)/Vm (1) If aldehydes are measured...

  20. 40 CFR 92.132 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. (vii) EAL mode=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. Where: MAL mode=Total aldehyde mass emissions (grams per hour) for each test mode. (2... mode=(DCH2O/106)30.026(DVol)/Vm MCH2O mode=(WCH2O/106)30.026(WVol)/Vm (1) If aldehydes are measured...

  1. 40 CFR 92.132 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. (vii) EAL mode=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. Where: MAL mode=Total aldehyde mass emissions (grams per hour) for each test mode. (2... mode=(DCH2O/106)30.026(DVol)/Vm MCH2O mode=(WCH2O/106)30.026(WVol)/Vm (1) If aldehydes are measured...

  2. Molecular characterization of group A Streptococcus maltodextrin catabolism and its role in pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    Shelburne, Samuel A.; Keith, David B.; Davenport, Michael T.; Horstmann, Nicola; Brennan, Richard G.; Musser, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary We previously demonstrated that the cell-surface lipoprotein MalE contributes to GAS maltose/maltodextrin utilization, but MalE inactivation does not completely abrogate GAS catabolism of maltose or maltotriose. Using a genome-wide approach, we identified the GAS phosphotransferase system (PTS) responsible for non-MalE maltose/maltotriose transport. This PTS is encoded by an open reading frame (M5005_spy1692) previously annotated as ptsG based on homology with the glucose PTS in Bacillus subtilis. Genetic inactivation of M5005_spy1692 significantly reduced transport rates of radiolabeled maltose and maltotriose, but not glucose, leading us to propose its reannotation as malT for maltose transporter. The ΔmalT, ΔmalE, and ΔmalE:malT strains were significantly attenuated in their growth in human saliva and in their ability to catabolize α-glucans digested by purified human salivary α-amylase. Compared to wild-type, the three isogenic mutant strains were significantly impaired in their ability to colonize the mouse oropharynx. Finally, we discovered that the transcript levels of maltodextrin utilization genes are regulated by competitive binding of the maltose repressor MalR and catabolite control protein A. These data provide novel insights into regulation of the GAS maltodextrin genes and their role in GAS host-pathogen interaction, thereby increasing the understanding of links between nutrient acquisition and virulence in common human pathogens. PMID:18485073

  3. Celiac Plexus Block as a Predictor of Surgical Outcome for Sympathetically Mediated Abdominal Pain in a Case of Suspected Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhuo; Fritz, David A; Turner, Suzanne; Hardy, David M; Meiler, Steffen E; Martin, Dan C; Dua, Anterpreet

    2018-02-14

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS), also known as celiac artery compression syndrome, is an uncommon condition classically characterized by chronic abdominal pain, weight loss, and abdominal bruit. Chronic mesenteric ischemia caused by intermittent compression of the celiac artery by the MAL provokes upper abdominal pain that is sympathetically mediated via the celiac plexus. Because it is a diagnosis of exclusion, diagnosis of MALS in the clinical setting is typically challenging. We present an atypical case which highlights the utility of celiac plexus block as both an assistant diagnostic tool and a predictor of surgical outcomes for suspected MALS.

  4. Dissecção aórtica de tipo B de Stanford: relato de caso e revisão de literatura

    PubMed Central

    Michaelis, Wilson; Santos, Antônio Lacerda; Yokohama, Rogério Akira; Andretta, Marianne Ariely; Delazari, Mariana Vieira; Vieira, Luciano; Seguro, Erick Fernando; Sarquis, Lucas Mansano

    2017-01-01

    Resumo O complexo tratamento de dissecção da aorta ainda apresenta controvérsias devido à gravidade do caso e à necessidade de individualização da terapêutica. A gravidade relaciona-se ao difícil diagnóstico pelas queixas inespecíficas e pelas graves complicações inerentes à evolução da doença (ruptura aórtica, síndrome de má perfusão, dissecção retrógrada, dor ou hipertensão refratária). Este relato apresenta um homem de 61 anos, tabagista e hipertenso mal controlado, que evoluiu para dissecção aórtica de tipo B de Stanford. Foi abordado através de técnica endovascular com uso de endoprótese com stent para tratamento do caso após falha do tratamento medicamentoso. O tratamento endovascular mostrou-se uma ferramenta eficaz para o tratamento definitivo, com boa taxa de sobrevida ao final do primeiro ano após o procedimento.

  5. A mutation of the fission yeast EB1 overcomes negative regulation by phosphorylation and stabilizes microtubules

    SciTech Connect

    Iimori, Makoto; Ozaki, Kanako; Chikashige, Yuji

    2012-02-01

    Mal3 is a fission yeast homolog of EB1, a plus-end tracking protein (+ TIP). We have generated a mutation (89R) replacing glutamine with arginine in the calponin homology (CH) domain of Mal3. Analysis of the 89R mutant in vitro has revealed that the mutation confers a higher affinity to microtubules and enhances the intrinsic activity to promote the microtubule-assembly. The mutant Mal3 is no longer a + TIP, but binds strongly the microtubule lattice. Live cell imaging has revealed that while the wild type Mal3 proteins dissociate from the tip of the growing microtubules before the onset of shrinkage, themore » mutant Mal3 proteins persist on microtubules and reduces a rate of shrinkage after a longer pausing period. Consequently, the mutant Mal3 proteins cause abnormal elongation of microtubules composing the spindle and aster. Mal3 is phosphorylated at a cluster of serine/threonine residues in the linker connecting the CH and EB1-like C-terminal motif domains. The phosphorylation occurs in a microtubule-dependent manner and reduces the affinity of Mal3 to microtubules. We propose that because the 89R mutation is resistant to the effect of phosphorylation, it can associate persistently with microtubules and confers a stronger stability of microtubules likely by reinforcing the cylindrical structure. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterize a mutation (mal3-89R) in fission yeast homolog of EB1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mutation enhances the activity to assemble microtubules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mal3 is phosphorylated in a microtubule-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylation negatively regulates the Mal3 activity.« less

  6. Skin tumor development after UV irradiation and photodynamic therapy is unaffected by short-term pretreatment with 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod and calcipotriol. An experimental hairless mouse study.

    PubMed

    Bay, Christiane; Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Lerche, Catharina M; Haedersdal, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) delays ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in hairless mice. Efficacy may be enhanced by combining PDT with antineoplastic or pro-differentiating agents. We investigated if pretreatment with 5-fluorouracil (5FU), imiquimod (IMIQ) or calcipotriol (CAL) before PDT further delays tumor onset. Hairless mice (n=224) were exposed 3 times weekly to 3 standard erythema doses (SED) of UV radiation. Methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL)-PDT sessions were given on days 45 and 90 before SCC development. Three applications of topical 5FU, IMIQ or CAL were given before each PDT session. Fluorescence photography quantified protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) formation. PDT delayed UV-induced SCC development by 59 days (212 days UV-MAL-PDT vs. 153 days UV-control, P<0.001). Pretreatment with 5FU, IMIQ or CAL before PDT did not further delay SCC onset compared to PDT alone (207 days UV-5FU-MAL-PDT, 215 days UV-IMIQ-MAL-PDT, 206 days UV-CAL-MAL-PDT vs. 212 days UV-MAL-PDT, P=ns). PpIX fluorescence intensified by 5FU-pretreatment (median 21,392 au UV-5FU-MAL-PDT, P=0.011), decreased after IMIQ-pretreatment (12,452 au UV-IMIQ-MAL-PDT, P<0.001), and was unaffected by CAL-pretreatment (19,567 au UV-CAL-MAL-PDT, P=ns) compared to MAL alone (18,083 au UV-MAL-PDT). Short-term three-day pretreatment with 5FU, IMIQ and CAL before PDT does not further delay tumor onset in UV-exposed hairless mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiple α-Glucoside Transporter Genes in Brewer’s Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, Lene; Cesar, Lene B.; Meaden, Philip G.; Jakobsen, Mogens

    1999-01-01

    Maltose and maltotriose are the two most abundant fermentable sugars in brewer’s wort, and the rate of uptake of these sugars by brewer’s yeast can have a major impact on fermentation performance. In spite of this, no information is currently available on the genetics of maltose and maltotriose uptake in brewing strains of yeast. In this work, we studied 30 brewing strains of yeast (5 ale strains and 25 lager strains) with the aim of examining the alleles of maltose and maltotriose transporter genes contained by them. To do this, we hybridized gene probes to chromosome blots. Studies performed with laboratory strains have shown that maltose utilization is conferred by any one of five unlinked but highly homologous MAL loci (MAL1 to MAL4 and MAL6). Gene 1 at each locus encodes a maltose transporter. All of the strains of brewer’s yeast examined except two were found to contain MAL11 and MAL31 sequences, and only one of these strains lacked MAL41. MAL21 was not present in the five ale strains and 12 of the lager strains. MAL61 was not found in any of the yeast strains. In three of the lager strains, there was evidence that MAL transporter gene sequences occurred on chromosomes other than those known to carry MAL loci. Sequences corresponding to the AGT1 gene, which encodes a transporter of several α-glucosides, including maltose and maltotriose, were detected in all but one of the yeast strains. Homologues of AGT1 were identified in three of the lager strains, and two of these homologues were mapped, one to chromosome II and the other to chromosome XI. AGT1 appears to be a member of a family of closely related genes, which may have arisen in brewer’s yeast in response to selective pressure. PMID:9925567

  8. Role of Maltose Enzymes in Glycogen Synthesis by Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Tae; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Tran, Phuong Lan; Hong, In-Hee; Yong, Hwan-Ung; Oktavina, Ershita Fitria; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Kim, Jung-Wan; Lee, Tae Soo; Park, Sung-Hoon; Boos, Winfried; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Mutants with deletion mutations in the glg and mal gene clusters of Escherichia coli MC4100 were used to gain insight into glycogen and maltodextrin metabolism. Glycogen content, molecular mass, and branch chain distribution were analyzed in the wild type and in ΔmalP (encoding maltodextrin phosphorylase), ΔmalQ (encoding amylomaltase), ΔglgA (encoding glycogen synthase), and ΔglgA ΔmalP derivatives. The wild type showed increasing amounts of glycogen when grown on glucose, maltose, or maltodextrin. When strains were grown on maltose, the glycogen content was 20 times higher in the ΔmalP strain (0.97 mg/mg protein) than in the wild type (0.05 mg/mg protein). When strains were grown on glucose, the ΔmalP strain and the wild type had similar glycogen contents (0.04 mg/mg and 0.03 mg/mg protein, respectively). The ΔmalQ mutant did not grow on maltose but showed wild-type amounts of glycogen when grown on glucose, demonstrating the exclusive function of GlgA for glycogen synthesis in the absence of maltose metabolism. No glycogen was found in the ΔglgA and ΔglgA ΔmalP strains grown on glucose, but substantial amounts (0.18 and 1.0 mg/mg protein, respectively) were found when they were grown on maltodextrin. This demonstrates that the action of MalQ on maltose or maltodextrin can lead to the formation of glycogen and that MalP controls (inhibits) this pathway. In vitro, MalQ in the presence of GlgB (a branching enzyme) was able to form glycogen from maltose or linear maltodextrins. We propose a model of maltodextrin utilization for the formation of glycogen in the absence of glycogen synthase. PMID:21421758

  9. Does Simulator Sickness Impair Learning Decision Making While Driving a Police Vehicle? (Le mal du simulateur: un frein à l'apprentissage de la prise de décision en conduite d'un véhicule de police?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Eve; Bélanger, Danielle-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The use of driving simulators is an innovation for police training in Quebec. There are some issues related to their impact on training objectives. This article presents the results of a study involving 71 police cadets who participated in six training sessions with a driving simulator. The training sessions were designed for developing the…

  10. Descobrindo o Universo: Relato de Experiência sobre o Ensino de Astronomia nos Anos Iniciais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, C. F.; Albrecht, E.

    2017-12-01

    Astronomy has influenced and fascinated humanity throughout history, such aspects have aided development in different areas of knowledge. However, even having this great influence, its insertion in Brazilian schools is still timid. This paper reports a possibility of working with the theme in basic education. One of the objectives is to understand and analyze the contributions of work with Astronomy in the early years from the perspective of scientific literacy. The methodology employed in the study was qualitative. The teacher in his classroom process acted in a way to mediate the issues that were the starting point of this work. This report of experience deals with a work developed with a group composed by 28 students of the 2nd year of elementary school in a public school of the municipal network of Teaching of São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo. Based on this premise, the teacher offered the possibility for students to formulate hypotheses and to socialize their findings through research. In this perspective, the teacher mediates the conflicts arising from the doubts and questions of the students so that they can research and collect information to learn the concepts. When the student has the opportunity to present his doubts and to define what the subject wants to research, he becomes the protagonist of his learning, understanding that scientific knowledge is not finite but has a spiral movement where the doubts will lead to new research and discoveries. The final product of this work was a book with the record of the researches done by the students being that it made possible an evaluation of the students' understanding of the basic concepts of Astronomy.

  11. Cerebral Palsy. Fact Sheet = La Paralisis Cerebral. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is written in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition of cerebral palsy and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy:…

  12. Una Metodologia de Analisis de la Interaccion Alumno-Orgendaor en la Investigacion Sobre Informatica Educativa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estepa, A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The recording of the interaction between pupil and computer is one of the data sources frequently used in research on the use of computers in teaching. Describes the analysis methodology of these recordings to determine the use of computers in statistics and its adaptation to other research work on the use of computers in education. (Author/MDH)

  13. Iniciativa sobre Efectividad: Un entorno para el aprendizaje (Initiative about Effectiveness: An Environment for Learning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno Garcia, Teresa, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This Spanish- and Portuguese-language bulletin presents articles focusing on the Effectiveness Initiative (EI), a project of the Bernard van Leer Foundation for making a qualitative analysis of those elements of the programs of Early Childhood Development (ECD) that benefit the participants and their communities and cultures. The first article…

  14. Nota sobre el "Se" como Sujeto Indefinido (A Note on "Se" as an Indefinite Subject)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lujan, Marta

    1975-01-01

    Contradicts Pablo Jordan's theory that certain "se" constructions in Spanish are neither passive nor reflexive. It is claimed that syntactic evidence reveals two types of impersonal structures, the impersonal active and the passive reflexive. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  15. Ahorre Energia: Consejos sobre el ahorro de dinero y energia en el hogar (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    Learn how to save money with Energy Saver: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home, from the U.S. Department of Energy. The Energy Saver guide will help you reduce your monthly energy costs and live more efficiently. This guide takes you through the systems and appliances that consume the most energy in your home, and provides solutions to cut costs for you while saving the environment. The Energy Saver guide also includes transportation tips to help you save money at the pump.

  16. Perspectiva sobre una Personalidad Senera: Carmen Fischer Ramirez (Perspective on a Singular Personality: Carmen Fischer Ramirez).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quezeda, Dina Alarcon

    1992-01-01

    Traces the career of Carmen Fischer Ramirez, focusing on her work in improving early childhood education in Chile. Reviews her university career, work with the World Organization for Early Childhood Education, and major publications. (AC)

  17. Sobre la ensenanza de la literatura hispanoamericana (The Teaching of Hispanoamerican Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Keith

    There are three main problems in teaching Latin American literature: (1) It is difficult to maintain a regional overview, while, at the same time, including a sense of the literary history of Latin America; (2) It is necessary to teach literature so that the material seems worthwhile in its own right and not only as a complement to other…

  18. Consideraciones sobre la Ansiedad en la Primera Infancia (Considerations Concerning Anxiety in Early Infancy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Elsa

    The results of an experience obtained while working with children in the early stages of infancy are presented. They are basically observations taken of a child's reaction to sudden changes, particularly separation from its mother. Anxiety was observed in these infants in diverse circumstances; in some cases it was at a normal level and in others…

  19. Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory = Inventario Sobre el Reconocimiento de Diversas Culturas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gertrude B.

    This booklet features a checklist designed to help persons who are involved in providing direct services to culturally diverse, young special needs children to assess their attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward these children. The booklet also contains suggestions and lists of print, film, and filmstrip resources for developing a school program…

  20. Perspectiva General sobre la Sordo-Ceguera (Overview on Deaf-Blindness). DB-LINK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Barbara

    This overview provides basic information on the causes of deaf-blindness and the particular challenges faced by individuals who are deaf-blind. Causes of deaf-blindness include various syndromes, multiple congenital anomalies, prematurity, congenital prenatal dysfunction, and various postnatal causes. Differences between people deaf-blind from…

  1. Información básica sobre la visibilidad

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La contaminación del aire puede generar bruma la cual tiene un impacto adverso en la visibilidad, la salud y el medioambiente. La bruma se produce cuando la luz del sol encuentra diminutas partículas de contaminación en el aire.

  2. Información básica sobre los arrecifes de coral

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Los corales están en todos los océanos del mundo, tanto en las aguas superficiales como en las profundas. Tienen una relación simbiótica con las algas, necesitan aguas transparentes, superficiales, que

  3. Recopilacion Bibliografica Sobre Investigacion y Cambio Cultural (Bibliographic Compilation about Cultural Investigation and Exchange).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centro Latinoamericano de Educacion de Adultos, Santiago (Chile).

    The bibliography forms part of a project to define guidelines for a method of cultural investigation in the education of adults. A brief introduction is followed by a list of libraries and the plan for the listing of entries in the bibliography. Entries are arranged alphabetically by author under the following general headings: background on the…

  4. Nueva investigacion sobre kindergarten de dia completo (Recent Research on All-Day Kindergarten). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Patricia

    Noting that much of the early research on the effects of all-day kindergarten had serious problems with internal and external validity due to inadequate methodological standards, this Spanish-language digest reviews research conducted in the 1990s. The digest discusses the academic, social, and behavioral effects of all-day kindergarten, as well…

  5. Materiales educativos sobre el módulo EnviroAtlas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA ha diseñado un conjunto de planes de estudios y recursos educativos EnviroAtlas para estudiantes de K-16, que potencia la herramienta EnviroAtlas, y permite a los estudiantes participar en una enseñanza práctica altamente interactiva.

  6. Recursos de Trabajo: Informacion sobre Carreras (Occupational Resources: Career Information). CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

    Part of a two-level career education curriculum initially developed for migrant children, the book is the first of three secondary level texts designed to provide high school students with self-awareness, job and role information, and decision-making/goal attaining information related to career education. The text provides job and role information…

  7. Speech and Language Disorders. Fact Sheet = Trastornos del Habla y Lenguaje. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on speech and language disorders is presented in English and Spanish. It provides information on the definition of speech and language disorders and possible causes; the incidence (about one in ten people); and characteristics of delayed communication, speech disorders, and language disorders. It notes educational implications,…

  8. Glasario de Terminos sobre Germinacion de Semillas para Especialistas en Arboles Semilleros

    Treesearch

    F.T. Bonner

    1985-01-01

    The glossary, written in Spanish, is designed for scientists and technicians concerned with testing or research with forest tree seeds. Definitions have been simplified as much as possible without sacrificing their technical meanings.

  9. Simposio interamericano sobre administracion de la educacion (Inter-American Symposium on Educational Administration).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cespedes, Francisco S., Ed.

    The presidents and foreign ministers in Latin America recognize the importance of applying technology to school administration as the first step in any educational reform. In October 1968, the Organization of American States (OAS) [Organizacion de los Estados Americanos (OEA)], sponsored a symposium in Brasilia, Brazil, in cooperation with the…

  10. Questions Often Asked about Special Education Services = Preguntas sobre los servicios de educacion especial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This guide, available in both English and Spanish, answers questions often asked by parents about special education services. Questions and answers address the following topics: where to begin if a parent believes a child needs special education services, services available to very young children, the evaluation process, the Individualized…

  11. Sobre Algumas Tecnicas de Perturbacao Utilizadas no Problema Ressonante 3/1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balthazar, J. M.; Sagnier, J. L.; Ferraz Mello, S.; Koiller, J.; Yokoyama, T.

    1987-05-01

    ABSTRACT. This work concerns with the study of a particular 3/1 resonant problem for which we have determined formal solutions according to the model belonging to the domain of the Restricted Elliptic Problem of Three Bodies. Key & : ASTEROIDS

  12. Mental Retardation. Fact Sheet = El Retraso Mental. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…

  13. Modelo analítico del efecto de PRS sobre satélites GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, A.; Brunini, C.; Usandivaras, J. C.

    El sistema GPS (Global Position System) es, hoy en día, la herramienta de navegación y posicionamiento más potente y lo será sin duda en la próxima década. Gran parte de su valiosa utilidad se debe a la alta precisión que permite lograr y ésta, a su vez, depende, entre otras causas, de la precisión con que se conocen las órbitas de los satélites. La presión de radiación solar (PRS) fija el límite de la precisión con que pueden calcularse en la actualidad las efemérides satelitarias. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer una mejor resolución de este fenómeno. El modelo analítico aquí presentado, se basa en el análisis del comportamiento de los residuos de un ajuste por mínimos cuadrados en el que se utiliza el modelo de PRS propuesto por Beutler. El mismo consiste en un modelo determinista del fenómeno con dos parámetros libres. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto que, aún después de aplicar dichos parámetros, prevalecen en los residuos efectos semidiurnos en las componentes radial,tangencial y normal. Estos resultados obtenidos se comparan con los de un trabajo desarrollado por el Instituto de Berne (Beutler et al., 1994), en el que se utilizaron como pseudo-observaciones las órbitas precisas del IGS (CODE). El intervalo de integración escogido por este centro fueron las semanas 680 y 681. En resumen se tienen arcos de 14 días para todos los satélites, donde las efemérides precisas de los mismos para los 14 días fueron utilizados como pseudo-observaciones. El modelo de fuerza que empleó dicho centro fue básicamente el tradicional en lo que respecta al modelo de las fuerzas gravitacionales, y para la PRS utilizo el modelo standard de Beutler. Los parámetros de este modelo junto con las 6 condiciones iniciales (posición y velocidad) fueron ajustados por el método general de mínimos cuadrados. Los residuos en la componente radial, tangencial y normal, para los satélites con un buen comportamiento, presentan una componente semidiurna. El modelo analítico planteado en este trabajo, predice el comportamiento de los residuos que se observan en las publicaciones más recientes. Esto abre el camino para plantear una estimación distinta de las incógnitas del problema, basado en el método de colocación por mínimos cuadrados. Ello requiere modelar estadísticamente la señal debida a las componentes de la PRS que no son tomadas en cuenta en el modelo determinista.

  14. Como preparar un programa de informacion sobre la asistencia economica (Planning a Financial Aid Awareness Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, written in Spanish, is intended to be used with a set of slides as part of a presentation to students on "How To Apply for Federal Student Aid" ("Como Solicitar la Asistencia Economica Federal para Estudiantes"). The first part of the book is a script based on the slides. After the script is a guide to hosting a financial aid…

  15. Profesionalismo: Un estudio fenomenologico sobre experiencias de universitarios en programas de salud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Ortiz, Wilma J.

    Some studies suggest that, upon admission, medicine programs students display eagerness for community service, aspirations to be useful, and to contribute to society's well-being. Those same studies reflect that qualities of idealism, moral nature, and internal motivation, suffer a subsequent diminishing. The researchers inferred that the main reason for this process of change in the mood and disposition of these future physicians lies in the modeling they receive from medical professionals throughout clinical learning activities, by way of behavior and relationships exhibited during daily interaction with peers, patients and the students themselves. This phenomenological study used a cross-sectional sample to explore the experiences of future health workers as they went through didactic and clinical phases of their training curriculum. The study employed semi-structured interviews and reflective journals to explore those experiences and to discover the meanings ascribed by the participants. The analysis revealed that the students defined "professionalism" in terms of scientific knowledge, commitment, respect for human dignity, comradeship, courtesy, empathy, integrity, altruism, motivation. They also described their feelings as they went through the didactic and clinical experiences, and recognized as very important the extracurricular activities of community service, describing them as useful opportunities which contributed to understand their work in terms of a mission dedicated to the achievement of the social benefit. From their individual perspectives, the clinical environment could, in general, be described as congruent with those characteristics of professionalism. During the study we had the opportunity to share, in a little deeper way, the environment... the world... of this small group of young students as we went on trying to decipher their feelings and thoughts. At the end, we realized the richness of their sensibilities, we perceived the intensity of their moral and ethical convictions, we were able to understand their concerns, worries, struggles and efforts. This life event had profound and significant repercussions in our personal and professional life. As a result, and from now on, we will no longer look at our young scholars and apprentices without imagining a noble spirit, with goals which at times could seem unattainable... without completely visualizing or conceiving real hope for a better country.

  16. Some Considerations on the Number of Erythrocytes; ALGUMAS CONSIDERACOES SOBRE O NUMERO DE ERITROCITOS

    SciTech Connect

    Pieroni, R.R.; Maspes, V.; Jamra, M.A.

    1959-05-01

    The number of red blood cells present in the circulatory system of an individual at any given instant depends on various facts, some of which are related to characteristics of the red cells themselves and some to the processes of formation and destruction. An attempt is made to establish on precise experimental data analytical expressions which relate the number of erythrocytes to parameters defined by the life span of the erythrocytes, the processes of formation and destruction, and time. (J.S.R)

  17. Guia para los padres sobre educacion preescolar (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This handbook, entirely in Spanish, was originally intended for parents whose children attend programs which use "The Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood" (CCEC), but the information is also useful to parents whose children attend early childhood programs using other curriculum models based on child development theories. The purpose…

  18. Las Preguntas Que Hacen los Padres sobre la Escuela (Questions Parents Ask about School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL.

    This guide presents questions that parents frequently ask about their children's school along with answers to those questions. The questions and answers were prepared based on the results of studies conducted by the Partnership for Family Involvement in Education, the U.S. Department of Education, the GTE Foundation, and by the National Center for…

  19. Homework Tips for Parents = Consejos para los padres sobre la tarea escola.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Homework has been a part of students' lives since the beginning of formal school in the United States; the push for increased homework has increased, fueled by rising academic standards. Noting that parents involved can have either a positive or a negative influence on the value of homework, this booklet, in both English and Spanish, offers…

  20. Questions Parents Ask about Schools = Preguntas que hacen los padres sobre las escuelas. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Noting that parents play an important role in the school success of their elementary- and middle-school-aged children, this booklet offers research-based tips to provide both practical guidance and information about a range of education-related topics. Presented in a question-answer format in both English and Spanish versions, the booklet provides…

  1. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  2. Reflexiones Sobre la Capacitacion de Docentes (Reflections on In-Service Teacher Training).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Everyone concerned with educational systems performance agrees that the improvement of teaching qualities is a high priority in any educational effort. Teachers are assigned the role of change agents and are presented with new challenges, e.g., to make education global and permanent, flexible enough to serve in any environment (in or out of the…

  3. Efectos del material particulado (PM) sobre la salud y el medioambiente

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    El tamaño de las partículas se encuentra directamente vinculado con el potencial para provocar problemas de salud. La exposición a estas partículas puede afectar tanto a los pulmones como al corazón. También afectan el medioambiente.

  4. The Absolute Measurement of Beta Activities; SOBRE LA MEDIDA ABSOLUTA DE ACTIVIDADES BETA

    SciTech Connect

    Del Rio, C.S.; Reynaldo, O.J.; Mayquez, E.R.

    1956-01-01

    A new method for the absolute beta counting of solid samples is given. The measurements are made with an inside Geiger-Muller tube of new construction. The backscattering correction, when using an "infinite" thick mounting, is discussed and results for different materials given. (auth)

  5. Informe sobre el proyecto contrastivo hispano-hungaro (Report on the Spanish-Hungarian Contrastive Project)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulei-Szanto, Andres

    1974-01-01

    A description of a contrastive linguistics project in Hungary aiming to augment linguistic theories in the Spanish language and propound theories for scientific and artistic translation. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  6. Efecto del gas nebular sobre la dinámica de un protoplaneta Joviano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionco, R. G.; Brunini, A.

    In order to describe a realist scenario to investigate the formation of giant planets, we analyze the physical structure of the primordial gaseous circumsolar disk, the environment where protoplanets growth. We calculate the gas drag efect onto embrios of 1 M⊕ at 5.2 AU with a new formulation of the dinamycal friction effect. We have found a strong radial migration of the protoplanet, that, in comparison whith the predictions of other formulations of gas drag is, at least, one order of magnitude larger. This result casts doubts about the possible survival of these kinds of planetary embrios. The implications for the modelling of the planetary systems are discussed.

  7. ¿Origen dinámico del polvo sobre la superficie de Iapetus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    We implement the three-dimensional Circular Restricted Three Body Prob- lem for low energy particles entering the Saturn­Iapetus system from the recently discovered dust ring. The distribution of impacts with the surface of Iapetus so obtained shows features resembling that of the dark regions observed in this satellite. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  8. Characterizing the stellar population of a sample of star forming galaxies with high emission of both [OIV]25.9um and [NeII]12.8um

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Paredes, M.; Bruzual, G.; Meléndez, M.; González-Martín, O.

    2017-11-01

    The optical diagnostic diagram te{BPT81, VO87} allow us to discriminate between the different excitation mechanism, like that produce by young stars and that produce by the AGN during the accretion of matter onto the super massive black hole. This kind of tool are important because allow us to study the connection between starburst and AGN. However, despite the great success, the identification of the most heavily dust-obscured systems remains a challenge for optical diagrams. Mid-infrared diagnostic are more suitable to study dust-enshrouded systems, where the effect of dust obscuration can hamper the interpretation of traditional optical diagnostics, since in this spectral range we have access to low-ionization lines (as [Ne II]12.8μm) typical of star forming regions and high ionization lines typical of active galaxies ([OIV]25.9μm), while intermediate ionization-lines ([Ne III]15.3μm) provide a unique scenario where the AGN coexist with active star formation in the host galaxy. In a previous work te{Melendez14} we have carried out extensive and detailed photoionization modeling to successfully separate the different excitation mechanism in the mid-infrared diagnostic diagrams proposed by te{Weaver10}. We successfully modelled the AGN and starburst galaxies ratios lines of [NeIII]/[NeII] Vs [OIV]/[NeIII]. However, we failed in modelling the observed ratio lines in galaxies with a normal star formation activity ([NeIII]/[NeII]<1 and [OIV]/[NeIII]<1). These results suggest the presence of a more complex excitation mechanism in these galaxies. In this project we are using the update stellar population models from te{BC17} that include massive stars, and the update photoionization models from CLOUDY from te{Ferland17}, to characterize the properties of the stellar population that produce the high ionization conditions in these galaxies.

  9. Ultrasonic location system =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, Daniel Filipe

    Esta tese apresenta um sistema de localizacao baseado exclusivamente em ultrassons, nao necessitando de recorrer a qualquer outra tecnologia. Este sistema de localizacao foi concebido para poder operar em ambientes onde qualquer outra tecnologia nao pode ser utilizada ou o seu uso esta condicionado, como sao exemplo aplicacoes subaquaticas ou ambientes hospitalares. O sistema de localizacao proposto faz uso de uma rede de farois fixos permitindo que estacoes moveis se localizem. Devido a necessidade de transmissao de dados e medicao de distancias foi desenvolvido um pulso de ultrassons robusto a ecos que permite realizar ambas as tarefas com sucesso. O sistema de localizacao permite que as estacoes moveis se localizem escutando apenas a informacao em pulsos de ultrassons enviados pelos farois usando para tal um algoritmo baseado em diferencas de tempo de chegada. Desta forma a privacidade dos utilizadores e garantida e o sistema torna-se completamente independente do numero de utilizadores. Por forma a facilitar a implementacao da rede de farois apenas sera necessario determinar manualmente a posicao de alguns dos farois, designados por farois ancora. Estes irao permitir que os restantes farois, completamente autonomos, se possam localizar atraves de um algoritmo iterativo de localizacao baseado na minimizacao de uma funcao de custo. Para que este sistema possa funcionar como previsto sera necessario que os farois possam sincronizar os seus relogios e medir a distancia entre eles. Para tal, esta tese propoe um protocolo de sincronizacao de relogio que permite tambem obter as medidas de distancia entre os farois trocando somente tres mensagens de ultrassons. Adicionalmente, o sistema de localizacao permite que farois danificados possam ser substituidos sem comprometer a operabilidade da rede reduzindo a complexidade na manutencao. Para alem do mencionado, foi igualmente implementado um simulador de ultrassons para ambientes fechados, o qual provou ser bastante

  10. The relationship between English language learning strategies and proficiency of pre-university students: A study case of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-07-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency in English. Fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were judged based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) Results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  11. In-line charge-trapping characterization of dielectrics for sub-0.5-um CMOS technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Pradip K.; Chacon, Carlos M.; Ma, Yi; Horner, Gregory

    1997-09-01

    The advent of ultra-large and giga-scale-integration (ULSI/GSI) has placed considerable emphasis on the development of new gate oxides and interlevel dielectrics capable of meeting strict performance and reliability requirements. The costs and demands associated with ULSI fabrication have in turn fueled the need for cost-effective, rapid and accurate in-line characterization techniques for evaluating dielectric quality. The use of non-contact surface photovoltage characterization techniques provides cost-effective rapid feedback on dielectric quality, reducing costs through the reutilization of control wafers and the elimination of processing time. This technology has been applied to characterize most of the relevant C-V parameters, including flatband voltage (Vfb), density of interface traps (Dit), mobile charge density (Qm), oxide thickness (Tox), oxide resistivity (pox) and total charge (Qtot) for gate and interlevel (ILO) oxides. A novel method of measuring tunneling voltage by this technique on various gate oxides is discussed. For ILO, PECVD and high density plasma dielectrics, surface voltage maps are also presented. Measurements of near-surface silicon quality are described, including minority carrier generation lifetime, and examples of their application in diagnosing manufacturing problems.

  12. Short-term clinical results of knee arthroscopy utilizing the 1.44-um Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Kirk E.; Cummings, Robert S.; Mooar, Pekka A.; Sherk, Henry H.

    1994-09-01

    Two orthopedic surgeons performed 27 knee arthroscopies on 26 patients using the 1.44 micrometers Nd:YAG. Mean patient age was 52.6 years. Six patients had their entire procedure done using the Nd:YAG alone and 20 had their procedures done using both the laser and a conventional arthroscopic side-shaver. Three patients had an additional knee procedure done immediately following their arthroscopy. The mean operative procedure time was 47.25 minutes (SD equals 14.75). The mean energy setting used was 2.2 Joules/Pulse (SD equals 0.89), mean frequency 16.6 Hz (SD equals 6.4), and mean total energy delivered was 9418.7 Joules (SD equals 6032.5). There were 15 patients with a minimum follow-up of at least 4 weeks (mean 8.26 weeks). The final results showed 35% returned to normal baseline, 43% improved from pre-op condition, and 21% were the same as pre-op. None of the patients were worse. The 1.44 micrometers Nd:YAG has a water absorption coefficient nearly identical to the 2.1 micrometers Ho:YAG, which is currently a popular arthroscopic tool. We conclude that the 1.44 micrometers Nd:YAG is an effective alternative for arthroscopic procedures of the knee.

  13. IN Like Flint: How the Innovation Incubator at UM-Flint Fosters Social Entrepreneurship in a City Remaking Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Nic

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the University of Michigan-Flint's Innovation Incubator supports emerging for-profit businesses and nonprofit organizations through programming, business plan development, and ongoing mentorship. The Incubator is especially interested in supporting start-ups that address key social issues in the surrounding community,…

  14. 1.9-um diode-laser-assisted anastomoses in reconstructive microsurgery: preliminary results in 12 patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Schoffs, Michel; Martinot, Veronique L.; Buys, Bruno; Patenotre, Philippe; Lesage, Jean C.; Dhelin, Guy

    1998-01-01

    The authors reported an original 1.9 micrometer diode laser assisted microvascular anastomosis (LAMA) in human. This technique has been applied in 12 patients during reconstructive surgery for digital replantations (n equals 2), for digital revascularizations (n equals 3) and for free flap transfers (n equals 7). Fourteen end-to-end anastomoses (10 arteries, 4 veins) were performed. LAMA were always performed on vessel which did not impede the chance of success of the surgical procedure in case of thrombosis. LAMA was performed with a 1.9 micrometer diode laser after placement of 2 equidistant stitches. The didoes spot was obtained by means of an optic fiber transmitted to the vessel wall via a pencil size hand piece. The used parameters were as followed: spot size equals 400 micrometer, power equals 70 to 220 mW, time equals 0.7 to 2 seconds, mean fluence equals 115 J/cm2. The mechanism involved is a thermal effect on the collagen of the adventitia and media leading to a phenomena which the authors have termed 'heliofusion.' This preliminary trial has permitted to define the modalities of its use in human. The technique is simple, rapid and easily learned. The equipment is not cumbersome, sterilizable and very ergonomic. LAMA does not replace sutures but is complementary, thanks to a reduction in the number of stitches used and to an access to surgical areas which are not easily accessible. This study must be completed by a larger scale study to confirm this technique and its reliability. Others uses could performed on different tissues such as biliary and urinary track, specially under laparoscopic conditions.

  15. Precipitation of Inner-Zone Electrons by Whistler-Mode Waves from the VLF Transmitters UMS and NWC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    model plasmasphere in diffusive equilibrium [ Angerami and Thomas ,1964]. The diffusive-equilibrium model used a 90 to 10 percent H+ to O mixture at 16000...Experiments with the Kosmos- 142 and Kosmos-Z59 artificial satellites, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Radiofiz, Engl. Transl., 18, 996, 1975. Angerami

  16. Identification of the Mechanisms Underlying Antiestrogen Resistance: Breast Cancer Research Partnership between FIU-UM Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    D. Increase in TrxR by sulforaphane contributes to tam sensitivity in tam resistant LCC2 cells by increasing expression of p27. In: Proceedings of...9. Penney R., Felty, Q., Slingerland, J., and Roy, D. (2010) Modulation of thioredoxin reductase by sulforaphane may restore tamoxifen sensitivity

  17. Identification of the Mechanisms Underlying Antiestrogen Resistance: Breast Cancer Research Partnership Between FIU-UM Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    sulforaphane contributes to tam sensitivity in tam resistant LCC2 cells by increasing expression of p27. In: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of...Slingerland, J., and Roy, D. (2010) Modulation of thioredoxin reductase by sulforaphane may restore tamoxifen sensitivity in resistant LCC2 cells

  18. Correlation of 0.67um scatter with local stress in Ge impacted with the modified Cambridge liquid jet device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Michael; Price, D.; Strohecker, Steve

    1994-09-01

    Germanium witness samples were impacted with the NAWCADWAR modified Cambridge liquid jet device introducing varying levels of damage about the center of each sample. Surface damage statistics were collected, scatter measurements were made at 0.67 micrometers and the samples were failed in tension using a bi-axial flexure test setup. The level and character of the damage was correlated with the reflected scatter measurements as a function of local stress and flaw size distribution. Bi-axial flexure data was analyzed to predict fracture stress and the probability of failure of the germanium samples. The mechanical data were then correlated with the scatter data in order to correlate the BRDF with the material failure. The BRDF measurements were taken in several different orientations in order to study the differences in scatter character for the in-plane and out-of-plane conditions.

  19. Fabrication of 0.25-um electrode width SAW filters using x-ray lithography with a laser plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobkowski, Romuald; Li, Yunlei; Fedosejevs, Robert; Broughton, James N.

    1996-05-01

    A process for the fabrication of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with line widths of 250 nm and less, based on x-ray lithography using a laser-plasma source has been developed. The x-ray lithography process is based on keV x-ray emission from Cu plasma produced by 15 Hz, 50 ps, 248 nm KrF excimer laser pulses. The full structure of a 2 GHz surface acoustic wave filter with interdigital transducers in a split-electrode geometry has been manufactured. The devices require patterning a 150 nm thick aluminum layer on a LiNbO3 substrate with electrodes 250 nm wide. The manufacturing process has two main steps: x-ray mask fabrication employing e-beam lithography and x-ray lithography to obtain the final device. The x-ray masks are fabricated on 1 micrometers thick membranes of Si2N4. The line patterns on the masks are written into PMMA resist using a scanning electron microscope which has been interfaced to a personal computer equipped to control the x and y scan voltages. The opaque regions of the x-ray mask are then formed by electroplating fine grain gold into the open spaces in the etched PMMA. The mask and sample are mounted in an exposure cassette with a fixed spacer of 10 micrometers separating them. The sample consists of a LiNbO3 substrate coated with Shipley XP90104C x-ray resist which has been previously characterized. The x-ray patterning is carried out in an exposure chamber with flowing helium background gas in order to minimize debris deposition on the filters. After etching the x-ray resist, the final patterns are produced using metallization and a standard lift-off technique. The SAW filters are then bonded and packaged onto impedance matching striplines. The resultant devices are tested using Scalar Network Analyzers. The final devices produced had a center frequency of 1.93 GHz with a bandwidth of 98 MHz, close to the expected performance of our simple design.

  20. DETERMINATION OF THE STRONG ACIDITY OF ATMOSPHERIC FINE PARTICLES (<2.5 UM) USING ANNULAR DENUDER TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a standardized methodology description for the determination of strong acidity of fine particles (less than 2.5 microns) in ambient air using annular denuder technology. his methodology description includes two parts: art A - Standard Method and Part B - Enhanced M...

  1. Modeling the language learning strategies and English language proficiency of pre-university students in UMS: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.

  2. Combined 1.06- and 1.32-um Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of rectosigmoideal tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, Ladislav; Fanta, J.; Marek, Jan

    1993-07-01

    Since January 1988 we have been using the combined Nd:YAG laser Medicalas. The laser operates on the wavelength of 1.06 micrometers with maximum output power of 100 W, and a wavelength of 1.32 micrometers with maximum output power of 30 W. Introduction of the laser into clinical practice was preceded by experimental operation, where we verified the interaction of laser emittance on both wavelengths with the tissues of colon, stomach, esophagus, and open surgery of the abdominal and thoracic cavities.

  3. CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF PARTICLES (0.01-20.0 UM) IN AN OCCUPIED HOME, REED AND WALLACE, AAAR.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the contribution of outdoor and indoor sources to particle concentrations found in residential indoor air, an extensive monitoring effort has been undertaken in a three-story townhouse located in Reston, VA. Of particular interest was the determination of i...

  4. Modified UMS, Modified SemRep and SemMedDB-UTH | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Cancer.gov

    Modified UMLS, modified SemRep and SemMedDB-UTH – these are resources (UMLS, SemMedDB-UT) and tools (SemRep) created and maintained by National Library of Medicine that we have modified for personalized cancer therapy and returned to the NLM.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxy structural parameters from 3.6um images (Kim+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Gadotti, D. A.; Sheth, K.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Lee, M. G.; Madore, B. F.; Elmegreen, B.; Knapen, J. H.; Zaritsky, D.; Ho, L. C.; Comeron, S.; Holwerda, B.; Hinz, J. L.; Munoz-Mateos, J.-C.; Cisternas, M.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.; Buta, R.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Laine, J.; Menendez-Delmestre, K.; Regan, M. W.; de Swardt, B.; Gil de Paz, A.; Seibert, M.; Mizusawa, T.

    2016-03-01

    We select our samples from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397). We chose galaxies that had already been processed by the first three S4G pipelines (Pipelines 1, 2, and 3; Sheth et al. 2010, cat. J/PASP/122/1397) at the moment of this study (2011 November). In brief, Pipeline processes images and provides science-ready images. Pipeline 2 prepares mask images (to exclude foreground and background objects) for further analysis, and Pipeline 3 derives surface brightness profiles and total magnitudes using IRAF ellipse fits. We excluded highly inclined (b/a<0.5), significantly disturbed, very faint, or irregular galaxies. Galaxies were also discarded if their images are unsuitable for decomposition due to contamination such as a bright foreground star or significant stray light from stars in the IRAC scattering zones. Then we chose barred galaxies from all Hubble types from S0 to Sdm using the numerical Hubble types from Hyperleda (Paturel et al. 2003, cat. VII/237, VII/238). The assessment of the presence of a bar was done visually by K. Sheth, T. Kim, and B. de Swardt. Later, we also confirmed the presence of a bar by checking the mid-infrared classification (Buta et al. 2010, cat. J/ApJS/190/147; Buta et al. 2015, cat. J/ApJS/217/32). A total of 144 barred galaxies were selected that satisfy our criteria, and we list our sample in Table1 with basic information. Table2 presents the measures of structural parameters for all galaxies in the sample obtained from the 2D model fit with BUDDA (BUlge/disk Decomposition Analysis, de Souza et al., 2004ApJS..153..411D; Gadotti, 2008MNRAS.384..420G) code. (2 data files).

  6. Identification of the Mechanisms Underlying Antiestrogen Resistance: Breast Cancer Research Partnership between FIU-UM Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    glutathione modifiers or overexpressing GSH restoring enzymes; and (c) raised or restored levels of Trx by thioredoxin modifiers or overexpressing Trxn. To...the challenge by hiring a Post-Doc (Dr. Alok Deoraj) in place of her. Research • Showed that overexpression of ROS modifiers Trx , Catalase

  7. "Disability Means, um, Dysfunctioning People": A Qualitative Analysis of the Meaning and Experience of Disability among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteleone, Rebecca; Forrester-Jones, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has been little qualitative analysis of the experience of stigma, social comparisons and conception of identity among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study aimed to develop an understanding of how adults with intellectual disabilities experience their own disability, and any implications relating to self-esteem,…

  8. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. 4; 1.2-35um Spectra of Six Standard Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Witteborn, Fred C.; Walker, Russell G.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Wooden, Diane H.

    1995-01-01

    We present five new absolutely calibrated continuous stellar spectra from 1.2 to 35 microns, constructed as far as possible from actual observed spectral fragments taken from the ground, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). These stars, Beta Peg, Delta Boo, Beta And, Beta Gem, and Delta Hya, augment our already created complete absolutely calibrated spectrum for a Tau. All these spectra have a common calibration pedigree. The wavelength coverage is ideal for calibration of many existing and proposed ground-based, airborne, and satellite sensors.

  9. The Navy of Brazil: An Emerging Power at Sea (Marinha do Brasil: Um Poder Emergente no Mar),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    suggests directions for future development. He identifies the basic issues facing the Brazilian Navy: overdependence on foreign equipment, lack of funds...Department of Defense, any other US Government agency, or any agency of a foreign government. .I . I...industry, since he was a full-time faculty member of the Inter-American Defense College while he helped us launch the experiment of including foreign

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 3.6um S4G Galactic bars characterization (Diaz-Garcia+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Garcia, S.; Salo, H.; Laurikainen, E.; Herrera-Endoqui, M.

    2015-11-01

    Here, we provide the bar strength measurements of a sample of ~600 barred galaxies drawn from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (Sheth et al., 2010, Cat. J/PASP/122/1397). Bars were identified based on the morphological classifications by Buta et al. (2015, Cat. J/ApJS/217/32). Besides, we provide a parameterization of the stellar contribution to the rotation curve and an estimate to the stellar-to-halo mass ratio within the optical radius for a sample of 1345 non-highly inclined galaxies (i<65°). The radial force profiles and rotation curve decomposition models of each of these galaxies are also given. Table A1 contains fundamental parameters of the galaxies such as the total stellar mass and distances (values for all the S4G sample are calculated in Munoz-Mateos et al., 2015ApJS..219....3M). Besides, we provide an estimate of the scale-heights and optical radii. We also list the inclination-corrected HI maximum velocities, the parameters of the stellar and halo components of the rotation curves, and the estimates of the halo-to-stellar mass ratios within the optical disk. In Table A2 it is given the gravitational torque parameters and radii, with and without spiral arms and halo correction. In Table A3 it is provided the maximum normalized Fourier amplitudes and radii (for the m = 2, 4, 6 and 8 components) and the bar ellipticities (from Herrera-Endoqui et al., 2015A&A...582A..86H) deprojected to the disk plane using the orientation parameters from S4G Pipeline 4 (Salo et al., 2015, Cat. J/ApJS/219/4). The evaluation of the gravitational torques and m=2 Fourier amplitude at the bar radius is also listed in both tables. In the directory "rfp" we provide the gravitational torque radial profiles, with and without spiral arms and halo correction, even Fourier amplitudes and m=2 phase of 1345 non-highly inclined disk S4G galaxies ("radialforce_profiles.dat"). Likewise, for the same sample, in the directory "rcdm" we tabulate the rotation curve decomposition model ("rotationcurve_decomposition.dat"), with the stellar component inferred from the 3.6~μm imaging and the halo component estimated using the universal rotation curve models). (5 data files).

  11. Aerosol microphysics simulations of the Mt.~Pinatubo eruption with the UM-UKCA composition-climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhomse, S. S.; Emmerson, K. M.; Mann, G. W.; Bellouin, N.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Hommel, R.; Abraham, N. L.; Telford, P.; Braesicke, P.; Dalvi, M.; Johnson, C. E.; O'Connor, F.; Morgenstern, O.; Pyle, J. A.; Deshler, T.; Zawodny, J. M.; Thomason, L. W.

    2014-10-01

    We use a stratosphere-troposphere composition-climate model with interactive sulfur chemistry and aerosol microphysics, to investigate the effect of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption on stratospheric aerosol properties. Satellite measurements indicate that shortly after the eruption, between 14 and 23 Tg of SO2 (7 to 11.5 Tg of sulfur) was present in the tropical stratosphere. Best estimates of the peak global stratospheric aerosol burden are in the range 19 to 26 Tg, or 3.7 to 6.7 Tg of sulfur assuming a composition of between 59 and 77 % H2SO4. In light of this large uncertainty range, we performed two main simulations with 10 and 20 Tg of SO2 injected into the tropical lower stratosphere. Simulated stratospheric aerosol properties through the 1991 to 1995 period are compared against a range of available satellite and in situ measurements. Stratospheric aerosol optical depth (sAOD) and effective radius from both simulations show good qualitative agreement with the observations, with the timing of peak sAOD and decay timescale matching well with the observations in the tropics and mid-latitudes. However, injecting 20 Tg gives a factor of 2 too high stratospheric aerosol mass burden compared to the satellite data, with consequent strong high biases in simulated sAOD and surface area density, with the 10 Tg injection in much better agreement. Our model cannot explain the large fraction of the injected sulfur that the satellite-derived SO2 and aerosol burdens indicate was removed within the first few months after the eruption. We suggest that either there is an additional alternative loss pathway for the SO2 not included in our model (e.g. via accommodation into ash or ice in the volcanic cloud) or that a larger proportion of the injected sulfur was removed via cross-tropopause transport than in our simulations. We also critically evaluate the simulated evolution of the particle size distribution, comparing in detail to balloon-borne optical particle counter (OPC) measurements from Laramie, Wyoming, USA (41° N). Overall, the model captures remarkably well the complex variations in particle concentration profiles across the different OPC size channels. However, for the 19 to 27 km injection height-range used here, both runs have a modest high bias in the lowermost stratosphere for the finest particles (radii less than 250 nm), and the decay timescale is longer in the model for these particles, with a much later return to background conditions. Also, whereas the 10 Tg run compared best to the satellite measurements, a significant low bias is apparent in the coarser size channels in the volcanically perturbed lower stratosphere. Overall, our results suggest that, with appropriate calibration, aerosol microphysics models are capable of capturing the observed variation in particle size distribution in the stratosphere across both volcanically perturbed and quiescent conditions. Furthermore, additional sensitivity simulations suggest that predictions with the models are robust to uncertainties in sub-grid particle formation and nucleation rates in the stratosphere.

  12. The relationship between English language learning strategies and gender among pre-university students: An overview of UMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to analyze the effects psychological gender differences on the relationship between language learning strategies and their proficiency in English language for pre-university students. Previous researchers found that the more employment of language learning strategies, the more successful the learners are and those with higher level of strategy use are female rather than male. In this study, fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  13. Identification of the Mechanisms Underlying Antiestrogen Resistance: Breast Cancer Research Partnership between FIU-UM Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    inhibited in antiestrogen resistant breast cancer cell line LCC-2 when exposed to ebselen or by overexpression of the antioxidant enzyme MnSOD...treatment with the antioxidant ebselen as well as by the overexpression of the antioxidant enzyme MnSOD. We performed comparative studies with the...Tamoxifen and Fulvestrant when treated with the antioxidant ebselen . 6 Challenges and difficulties encountered: Training: Immediately upon

  14. Room temperature 1040fps, 1 megapixel photon-counting image sensor with 1.1um pixel pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoodian, S.; Ma, J.; Starkey, D.; Wang, T. J.; Yamashita, Y.; Fossum, E. R.

    2017-05-01

    A 1Mjot single-bit quanta image sensor (QIS) implemented in a stacked backside-illuminated (BSI) process is presented. This is the first work to report a megapixel photon-counting CMOS-type image sensor to the best of our knowledge. A QIS with 1.1μm pitch tapered-pump-gate jots is implemented with cluster-parallel readout, where each cluster of jots is associated with its own dedicated readout electronics stacked under the cluster. Power dissipation is reduced with this cluster readout because of the reduced column bus parasitic capacitance, which is important for the development of 1Gjot arrays. The QIS functions at 1040fps with binary readout and dissipates only 17.6mW, including I/O pads. The readout signal chain uses a fully differential charge-transfer amplifier (CTA) gain stage before a 1b-ADC to achieve an energy/bit FOM of 16.1pJ/b and 6.9pJ/b for the whole sensor and gain stage+ADC, respectively. Analog outputs with on-chip gain are implemented for pixel characterization purposes.

  15. The Relationship between Perceived Social Support and Maladjustment for Students at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Malecki, Christine Kerres

    2002-01-01

    Study examined the relationship between adolescents' perceived social support and self-reported (mal)adjustment indicators among predominantly at-risk, Hispanic students. Results indicated significant relationships in the expected direction between overall social support and clinical and school (mal)adjustment indicators. Parent and classmate…

  16. Using Multimedia to Enhance Knowledge of Service Attitude in the Hospitality Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Chun Min

    2012-01-01

    Having used a quasi-experimental research model and the ADDIE (Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate) calibration method to gather and implement data, the researcher developed an interactive multimedia assisted learning (MAL) program promoting proper service attitudes in the hospitality industry. In order to gauge MAL program's…

  17. Is There a Child with Epilepsy in the Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakariasen, Hazel

    1979-01-01

    The condition is defined, and some of its manifestations are outlined, including petit mal epilepsy, psychomotor epilepsy, and grand mal epilepsy. Constructive ways to deal with epileptic students are suggested, including specific ways to handle a seizure, should one occur. (DLS)

  18. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT - A SPECIAL ISSUE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning in 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), Office of Research and Development has focused much of its ecological research in the Mid;.Atlantic as part of the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAlA). The goal of MAlA is to improve the assessability o...

  19. 7 CFR 1421.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... such system; or (3) Other such acceptable evidence of title, as determined by CCC. Wool means the fiber... bundled peanut MALs and LDPs to a DMA. In the absence of a centralized MAL and LDP processing system for... accounting systems. Designated Marketing Association (DMA) means an entity, or a subsidiary thereof, that...

  20. 7 CFR 1421.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... such system; or (3) Other such acceptable evidence of title, as determined by CCC. Wool means the fiber... bundled peanut MALs and LDPs to a DMA. In the absence of a centralized MAL and LDP processing system for... accounting systems. Designated Marketing Association (DMA) means an entity, or a subsidiary thereof, that...

  1. Perspectivas Futuras para o Observatório do Pico dos Dias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Albert

    2004-02-01

    Com o Observatório Gemini plenamente operacional e o telescópio SOAR iniciando suas operações em breve, a astronomia observacional brasileira encontra-se no auge de uma transformação profunda que terá um impacto grave no Observatório do Pico dos Dias - OPD. Refletimos aqui sobre a natureza desse impacto e estratégias para manter a competitividade do OPD. Não queremos apresentar receitas prontas, mas idéias que poderão servir como base de discussão sobre o uso inteligente dos telescópios do OPD como parte do conjunto de instrumentos disponíveis à comunidade astronômica brasileira.

  2. Results of celiac trunk stenting during fenestrated or branched aortic endografting.

    PubMed

    Wattez, Hélène; Martin-Gonzalez, Teresa; Lopez, Benjamin; Spear, Rafaëlle; Clough, Rachel E; Hertault, Adrien; Sobocinski, Jonathan; Haulon, Stéphan

    2016-12-01

    Endovascular repair of aortic aneurysms involving the visceral segment of the aorta often requires placement of a covered bridging stent in the celiac axis (CA). The median arcuate ligament (MAL) is a fibrous arch that unites the diaphragmatic crura on either side of the aortic hiatus. The ligament may compress and distort the celiac artery and result in difficult cannulation, or stenosis and occlusion of the vessel. This study evaluated the influence of the MAL compression on the technical success and the patency of the celiac artery after branched and fenestrated endovascular aortic repair. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of consecutive patients treated electively for complex aneurysms with branched and fenestrated endovascular aortic repair between January 2007 and April 2014. All data were collected prospectively. Analysis of preoperative computed tomography angiography on a three-dimensional workstation determined the presence of MAL compression. Patency of the CA bridging stent was assessed during follow-up by computed tomography angiography and duplex ultrasound evaluation. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the outcomes of patients with MAL (MAL+) and without MAL (MAL-) compression. Of 315 patients treated for aortic disease involving the visceral segment during the study period, 113 had endografts designed with a branch (n = 57) or fenestration (n = 56) for the CA. In 45 patients (39.8%), asymptomatic compression of the CA by the MAL was depicted (MAL+). Complex endovascular techniques were required in this group to access the CA in 16 (14.2%) patients (vs none in the MAL- group; P = .003), which lead to a failed bridging stent implantation in seven patients (6.2%). Increased operative time and dose area product were observed in the MAL+ group, but this did not reach statistical significance. In the MAL+ group, no thrombosis of the CA bridging stents were observed during follow-up; an external compression of the CA bridging stent was

  3. A new maltose-inducible high-performance heterologous expression system in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jie; Fu, Gang; Zhang, Dawei; Wen, Jianping

    2017-08-01

    To improve heterologous proteins production, we constructed a maltose-inducible expression system in Bacillus subtilis. An expression system based on the promoter for maltose utilization constructed in B. subtilis. Successively, to improve the performance of the P malA -derived system, mutagenesis was employed by gradually shortening the length of P malA promoter and altering the spacing between the predicted MalR binding site and the -35 region. Furthermore, deletion of the maltose utilization genes (malL and yvdK) improved the P malA promoter activity. Finally, using this efficient maltose-inducible expression system, we enhanced the production of luciferase and D-aminoacylase, compared with the P hpaII system. A maltose-inducible expression system was constructed and evaluated. It could be used for high level expression of heterologous proteins production.

  4. Medial arcuate ligament: a new anatomic landmark facilitates the location of the renal artery in retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wei; Li, Hong Zhao; Zhang, Xu; Song, Yong; Ma, Xin; Dong, Jun; Chen, Wenzheng; Chen, Guang-Fu; Xu, Yong; Lu, Jin Shan; Wang, Bao-Jun; Shi, Tao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a new method for locating the renal artery during retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery. The medial arcuate ligament (MAL) is a tendinous arch in the fascia under the diaphragm that arches across the psoas major muscle and is attached medially to the side of the first or the second lumbar vertebra. The renal artery arises at the level of the intervertebral disc between the L1 and L2 vertebrae. We evaluate the role of the MAL that serves as an anatomic landmark for locating the renal artery during retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery. There is a reproducible consistent anatomic relationship between MAL and the renal artery in 210 cases of retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery. Two main types of the MAL, the "narrow arch" and the "fascial band" types, can be observed. MAL can serve as an accurate and reproducible anatomic landmark for the identification of the renal artery during retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery.

  5. Genetic Analysis of Haploids from Industrial Strains of Baker's Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yuji; Ouchi, Kozo

    1989-01-01

    Strains of baker's yeast conventionally used by the baking industry in Japan were tested for the ability to sporulate and produce viable haploid spores. Three isolates which possessed the properties of baker's yeasts were obtained from single spores. Each strain was a haploid, and one of these strains, YOY34, was characterized. YOY34 fermented maltose and sucrose, but did not utilize galactose, unlike its parental strain. Genetic analysis showed that YOY34 carried two MAL genes, one functional and one cryptic; two SUC genes; and one defective gal gene. The genotype of YOY34 was identified as MATα MAL1 MAL3g SUC2 SUC4 gall. The MAL1 gene from this haploid was constitutively expressed, was dominant over other wild-type MAL tester genes, and gave a weak sucrose fermentation. YOY34 was suitable for both bakery products, like conventional baker's yeasts, and for genetic analysis, like laboratory strains. PMID:16347967

  6. Identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros no método Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas e práticas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend

    2011-01-01

    O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade – soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção. PMID:21709732

  7. Pediatric Chronic Abdominal Pain and Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Review and Psychosocial Comparison.

    PubMed

    Mak, Grace Zee; Lucchetti, Amanda R; Drossos, Tina; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Accurso, Erin C; Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Newman, Erika A; Skelly, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) occurs in children and adolescents with a reported prevalence of 4% to 41% with significant direct and indirect costs to the child, family, and society. Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a vascular compression syndrome of the celiac artery that may cause symptoms of epigastric pain and weight loss and is a frequently overlooked cause of CAP in the pediatric population. We have observed that the psychosocial presentation of patients with MALS is notable for various psychiatric comorbidities. In this article, we review MALS as well as our study results of the psychosocial profile of 30 MALS patients. Our data suggest that children and adolescents with MALS have similar psychosocial profiles to children with other gastrointestinal disorders resulting in CAP. The overlap of physical and psychosocial symptoms of patients who have MALS with other CAP disorders leads us to recommend that patients with CAP should be evaluated for MALS. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(7):e257-e264.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Component-resolved diagnosis of plant food allergy by SPT.

    PubMed

    Asero, R; Jimeno, L; Barber, D

    2008-12-01

    Fruits and vegetables may contain both labile and stable allergens. The former induce only OAS, whereas stable allergens may induce systemic reactions. Component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) of allergy to plant foods is therefore essential for the clinical management of allergic patients. 80 adults allergic to plant foods underwent SPT with purified natural date palm profilin (Pho d 2), purified Mal d 1, a peach extract containing uniquely LTP, and with a kiwi extract containing uniquely stable allergens. 58 (72%) patients were monosensitized: 24 to Mal d 1, 24 to profilin, 7 to LTP, and 3 to kiwi. 22 patients were multi-sensitised: 14 to Mal d 1 and profilin, 2 to Mal d 1 and kiwi, 1 to LTP and profilin, 3 to LTP and Mal d 1, and 2 to LTP, Mal d 1 and profilin. Mal d 1 and LTP sensitisation were associated with apple and peach allergy, respectively, whereas profilin sensitisation was associated with allergy to melon, watermelon, banana, tomato and citrus fruits. 18/21 kiwi-allergic patients were sensitised to one of the cross-reacting allergens, but 2/18 reacted to kiwi-specific allergens as well. In patients with allergy to plant-derived foods CRD can be performed by SPT with purified allergen proteins. In the future, the availability of a larger number of purified natural or recombinant allergens for SPT will represent a simple means to classify food-allergic patients properly on the first visit.

  9. Lipid transfer proteins from fruit: cloning, expression and quantification.

    PubMed

    Zuidmeer, Laurian; van Leeuwen, W Astrid; Budde, Ilona Kleine; Cornelissen, Jessica; Bulder, Ingrid; Rafalska, Ilona; Besolí, Noèlia Telléz; Akkerdaas, Jaap H; Asero, Riccardo; Fernandez Rivas, Montserrat; Rivas, Montserrat Fernandez; Gonzalez Mancebo, Eloina; Mancebo, Eloina Gonzalez; van Ree, Ronald

    2005-08-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are stable, potentially life-threatening allergens in fruits and many other vegetable foods. The aim of this study was to clone and express recombinant apple LTP (Mal d 3), as has previously been done for peach LTP (Pru p 3) and set up quantitative tests for measuring fruit LTPs. cDNA for Mal d 3 and Pru p 3 was cloned, expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris and the resulting proteins were purified via cation exchange chromatography. The immune reactivity of rMal d 3 was compared to nMal d 3 by RAST (inhibition), immunoblotting and basophil histamine release testing. To obtain monoclonal and monospecific polyclonal antibodies, mice and rabbits were immunized with purified nMal d 3. The deduced amino acid sequence of Mal d 3 was identical to the published sequence, Pru p 3 differed at two positions (S9A and S76H). The rMal d 3 had an IgE-binding potency and biological activity close to its natural counterpart. One sandwich ELISA selectively detecting apple LTP and another cross-reactive with cherry, nectarine and hazelnut LTP were developed. In addition, a competitive RIA was developed with polyclonal rabbit antiserum and labeled nMal d 3. rMal d 3 (as shown before for rPru p 3) may be a useful tool for application in component-resolved diagnosis of food allergy. Assays for the measurement of LTP will increase the traceability of this potentially dangerous allergen. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Enterococcus faecalis utilizes maltose by connecting two incompatible metabolic routes via a novel maltose-6’-phosphate phosphatase (MapP)

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Abdelhamid; Blancato, Víctor S.; Repizo, Guillermo; Henry, Céline; Pikis, Andreas; Bourand, Alexa; de Fátima Álvarez, María; Immel, Stefan; Mechakra-Maza, Aicha; Hartke, Axel; Thompson, John; Magni, Christian; Deutscher, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Summary Similar to Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis transports and phosphorylates maltose via a phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):maltose phosphotransferase system (PTS). The maltose-specific PTS permease is encoded by the malT gene. However, E. faecalis lacks a malA gene encoding a 6-phospho-α-glucosidase which in B. subtilis hydrolyses maltose-6’-P into glucose and glucose-6-P. Instead, an operon encoding a maltose phosphorylase (MalP), a phosphoglucomutase and a mutarotase starts upstream from malT. MalP was suggested to split maltose-6-P into glucose-1-P and glucose-6-P. However, purified MalP phosphorolyses maltose but not maltose-6’-P. We discovered that the gene downstream from malT encodes a novel enzyme (MapP) that dephosphorylates maltose-6’-P formed by the PTS. The resulting intracellular maltose is cleaved by MalP into glucose and glucose-1-P. Slow uptake of maltose probably via a maltodextrin ABC transporter allows poor growth for the mapP but not the malP mutant. Synthesis of MapP in a B. subtilis mutant accumulating maltose-6’-P restored growth on maltose. MapP catalyzes the dephosphorylation of intracellular maltose-6’-P, and the resulting maltose is converted by the B. subtilis maltose phosphorylase into glucose and glucose-1-P. MapP therefore connects PTS-mediated maltose uptake to maltose phosphorylase-catalyzed metabolism. Dephosphorylation assays with a wide variety of phospho-substrates revealed that MapP preferably dephosphorylates disaccharides containing an O-α-glycosyl linkage. PMID:23490043

  11. Correlation of sensitizing capacity and T-cell recognition within the Bet v 1 family

    PubMed Central

    Kitzmüller, Claudia; Zulehner, Nora; Roulias, Anargyros; Briza, Peter; Ferreira, Fatima; Faé, Ingrid; Fischer, Gottfried F.; Bohle, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background Bet v 1 is the main sensitizing allergen in birch pollen. Like many other major allergens, it contains an immunodominant T cell–activating region (Bet v 1142-156). Api g 1, the Bet v 1 homolog in celery, lacks the ability to sensitize and is devoid of major T-cell epitopes. Objective We analyzed the T-cell epitopes of Mal d 1, the nonsensitizing Bet v 1 homolog in apple, and assessed possible differences in uptake and antigen processing of Bet v 1, Api g 1, and Mal d 1. Methods For epitope mapping, Mal d 1–specific T-cell lines were stimulated with overlapping synthetic 12-mer peptides. The surface binding, internalization, and intracellular degradation of Bet v 1, Api g 1, and Mal d 1 by antigen-presenting cells were compared by using flow cytometry. All proteins were digested with endolysosomal extracts, and the resulting peptides were identified by means of mass spectrometry. The binding of Bet v 1142-156 and the homologous region in Mal d 1 by HLA class II molecules was analyzed in silico. Results Like Api g 1, Mal d 1 lacked dominant T-cell epitopes. The degree of surface binding and the kinetics of uptake and endolysosomal degradation of Bet v 1, Api g 1, and Mal d 1 were comparable. Endolysosomal degradation of Bet v 1 and Mal d 1 resulted in very similar fragments. The Bet v 1142-156 and Mal d 1141-155 regions showed no striking difference in their binding affinities to the most frequent HLA-DR alleles. Conclusion The sensitizing activity of different Bet v 1 homologs correlates with the presence of immunodominant T-cell epitopes. However, the presence of Bet v 1142-156 is not conferred by differential antigen processing. PMID:25670010

  12. Humanization in the Intensive Care: perception of family and healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Luiz, Flavia Feron; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino; Costa, Márcia Rosa da

    2017-01-01

    Understanding perceptions of family members and healthcare professionals about humanization at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) to direct it to an educational action. Exploratory descriptive and qualitative study conducted in an ICU level 3 of a public hospital in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, with fourteen subjects, eight family members and six healthcare professionals. Data collection carried out through semi-structured interviews and focus group. Content Analysis was used. Emerged categories were: welcoming; communication; ethical and sensible professionalism; unfavorable aspects; perception on humanization; and religiosity/spirituality. Although the subjects have expressed their perceptions about humanization in different ways, both groups pointed out the same needs and priorities to improve humanization in Intensive Care. From the results, we created a reflective manual of humanizing assistance practices for professionals, a board to facilitate communication of these professionals with patients and a guideline book for family members. Compreender as percepções de familiares e profissionais de saúde sobre humanização na Unidade Terapia Intensiva (UTI) para direcionar a uma ação educativa. Estudo exploratório-descritivo qualitativo, realizado em uma UTI nível III de um hospital público de Porto Alegre/RS com 14 sujeitos, sendo oito familiares e seis profissionais de saúde. Coleta de dados realizada por meio de: entrevistas semiestruturadas e grupo focal. Utilizou-se Análise de Conteúdo. As categorias emergidas foram: acolhida; comunicação; profissionalismo ético e sensível; aspectos desfavoráveis; percepção sobre humanização; e religiosidade/espiritualidade. Apesar dos sujeitos expressarem de maneiras distintas suas percepções sobre humanização, os dois grupos comparados elencaram iguais necessidades e prioridades para o aprimoramento da humanização na Terapia Intensiva. A partir dos resultados, criou-se um Manual Reflexivo de pr

  13. Assessment of the usability of a digital learning technology prototype for monitoring intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Lilian Regina de; Évora, Yolanda Dora Martinez; Zem-Mascarenhas, Silvia Helena

    2016-08-29

    to assess the usability of a digital learning technology prototype as a new method for minimally invasive monitoring of intracranial pressure. descriptive study using a quantitative approach on assessing the usability of a prototype based on Nielsen's ten heuristics. Four experts in the area of Human-Computer interaction participated in the study. the evaluation delivered eight violated heuristics and 31 usability problems in the 32 screens of the prototype. the suggestions of the evaluators were critical for developing an intuitive, user-friendly interface and will be included in the final version of the digital learning technology. avaliar a usabilidade de um protótipo educacional digital sobre um novo método para monitoração da pressão intracraniana de forma minimamente invasivo para enfermeiros e médicos. estudo descritivo com abordagem quantitativa sobre a avaliação de usabilidade de um protótipo com base nas dez Heurísticas de Nielsen. Participaram quatro especialistas da área de Interação Humano Computador. a avaliação resultou em oito heurísticas violadas e 31 problemas de usabilidade nas 32 telas do protótipo. as sugestões dos avaliadores foram cruciais para o desenvolvimento de uma interface amigável e intuitiva e serão consideradas na versão final da tecnologia educacional digital. evaluar la usabilidad de un prototipo educacional digital sobre un nuevo método para monitorización de la presión intracraneal, de manera mínimamente invasiva. estudio descriptivo con abordaje cuantitativo sobre la evaluación de usabilidad de un prototipo con base en las diez reglas Heurísticas de Nielsen. Participaron cuatro especialistas del área de Interacción Humana Computador. la evaluación resultó en ocho reglas heurísticas violadas y 31 problemas de usabilidad en las 32 pantallas del prototipo. las sugestiones de los evaluadores fueron cruciales para el desarrollo de una interfaz amigable e intuitiva y éstas serán consideradas en la

  14. A causa das estações do ano: modelos mentais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, J. A. S.; de Araujo, J. F. S.

    2003-08-01

    A década de 70 do século passado foi marcada pelo estudo das concepções alternativas que os alunos trazem para a sala de aula. A identificação destas concepções foi o ponto de partida para promover a mudança conceitual, onde as pré-concepções seriam trocadas pelas concepções científicas. Na década seguinte, surgiram muitas propostas de estratégias educacionais para facilitar esta troca, na sua maioria baseadas na idéia do conflito cognitivo, proposta por Piaget. Entretanto, os resultados pouco animadores conduziram à percepção de que a mudança conceitual é um processo mais complexo. Pelas idéias da Ciência Cognitiva, a mudança conceitual é uma mudança progressiva dos modelos mentais que o aluno tem sobre o mundo físico, através de enriquecimento e revisão. A causa das Estações do Ano é um tópico sobre o qual a maioria dos estudantes apresenta concepções alternativas. Os autores fizeram um levantamento sobre as pré-concepções encontradas em trabalhos sobre o tema (16 referências), procurando encontrar elementos comuns que indicassem a presença de modelos mentais específicos. As pré-concepções encontradas na literatura foram obtidas usando-se diversas metodologias (desde entrevistas clínicas até questionários de múltipla escolha) e envolvendo alunos e professores de diferentes regiões geográficas. A partir de uma análise aprofundada de cada trabalho, e utilizando-se a técnica das Redes Sistêmicas, chegou-se a conclusão que as diversas pré-concepções identificadas (em torno de 50), poderiam ser representadas por 6 modelos mentais, onde a explicação da causa das estações do ano tem um mecanismo causal responsável. Os mecanismos causais identificados foram: a dependência da distância, a dependência da orientação, a dependência conjunta da distância e orientação, a dependência da obstrução, a dependência da velocidade e a dependência da inclinação dos raios solares. Foram ainda identificadas

  15. Accurate Size and Size-Distribution Determination of Polystyrene Latex Nanoparticles in Aqueous Medium Using Dynamic Light Scattering and Asymmetrical Flow Field Flow Fractionation with Multi-Angle Light Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Haruhisa; Nakamura, Ayako; Takahashi, Kayori; Kinugasa, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    Accurate determination of the intensity-average diameter of polystyrene latex (PS-latex) by dynamic light scattering (DLS) was carried out through extrapolation of both the concentration of PS-latex and the observed scattering angle. Intensity-average diameter and size distribution were reliably determined by asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AFFFF) using multi-angle light scattering (MALS) with consideration of band broadening in AFFFF separation. The intensity-average diameter determined by DLS and AFFFF-MALS agreed well within the estimated uncertainties, although the size distribution of PS-latex determined by DLS was less reliable in comparison with that determined by AFFFF-MALS. PMID:28348293

  16. [Homöopathisch-phytotherapeutische Behandlung des Reizdarmsyndroms mit Magen-Darm-Entoxin N®: Eine Anwendungsbeobachtung].

    PubMed

    Märtens, Diane; Range, Natasha; Günnewich, Nils; Gruber, Nicola; Schmidt, Stefan

    Hintergrund: In dieser Anwendungsbeobachtung wird zum ersten Mal die Behandlung des Reizdarmsyndroms (RDS) mit einem homöopathisch-phytotherapeutischen Komplexpräparat beschrieben. Methodik: Ziel der 6-wöchigen Therapie mit dem Magen-Darm-Entoxin N® war die Reduzierung der RDS-Symptomatik sowie die Verbesserung der Lebensqualität. Zielkriterien waren die Veränderungen in der Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) und der Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Quality-of-Life Scale (IBS-QoL). Die Patient/innen (N = 41; Alter 44,0 ± 15,74 Jahre) wurden zu gleichen Teilen in einer Hausarztpraxis (N = 20) und einer Heilpraktikerpraxis (N = 21) rekrutiert. Ergebnisse: Der IBS-QoL-Score verringerte sich signifikant (prä: 35,9 ± 16,3; post: 20,1 ± 13,4; t = 8,504; p < 0,001). Die Effektstärke betrug 1,34 (Cohens d). Der IBS-SSS-Score verringerte sich ebenfalls signifikant (prä: 239,4 ± 83,4; post: 123,7 ± 80,9; t = 7,825; p < 0,001) mit einer Effektstärke von d = 1,24. Die Neben- und Wechselwirkungen waren minimal und signifikante Unterschiede zwischen beiden Praxen wurden nicht gefunden. Schlussfolgerungen: Magen-Darm-Entoxin N® ist eine sichere und sinnvolle Therapieoption bei der Behandlung des RDS. Allerdings sollten randomisierte kontrollierte Studien folgen, um die Spezifizität der Ergebnisse dieser Anwendungsbeobachtung zu stützen. © 2017 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  17. Embolização arterial superseletiva para tratamento de angiomiolipoma em paciente com rim único

    PubMed Central

    Góes, Adenauer Marinho de Oliveira; Jeha, Salim Abdon Haber; Salgado, José Rui Couto

    2016-01-01

    Resumo Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente jovem previamente submetida a nefrectomia direita por apresentar angiomiolipomas renais (AMLRs) e portadora de dois volumosos angiomiolipomas no rim esquerdo remanescente. A paciente foi encaminhada pelo urologista para tratamento endovascular. Realizou-se embolização superseletiva de um dos tumores, localizado no polo renal inferior e em situação subcapsular; apesar de várias tentativas, não foi obtido um cateterismo seletivo suficiente para embolizar o segundo angiomiolipoma (localizado no polo renal superior) sem que um volume considerável de parênquima renal adjacente sofresse isquemia. O procedimento e a recuperação da paciente transcorreram sem complicações. A paciente recebeu alta no primeiro pós-operatório e vem sendo acompanhada ambulatorialmente há 9 meses sem intercorrências. É feita uma breve revisão sobre indicações, aspectos técnicos e complicações do tratamento endovascular dos AMLRs, além de serem discutidas vantagens dessa técnica quando comparada à ressecção cirúrgica dos tumores. PMID:29930580

  18. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Toni; Ficapal-Cusí, Pilar; Aguilar-Martínez, Alicia

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: a pesar de la relevancia nutricional del desayuno para el desarrollo y su asociación a un mejor aprendizaje y rendimiento escolar, numerosos estudios ponen en evidencia que en muchos casos se omite o se hace mal.Objetivo: determinar la calidad del desayuno de estudiantes de entre 10 y 16 años con intención de determinar en qué momento sería conveniente realizar programas educativos sobre la importancia de esta comida y cómo mejorar su calidad.Método: estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal a partir de un cuestionario con preguntas cerradas acerca de los hábitos de alimentación en el desayuno en estudiantes de educación primaria y secundaria.Resultados y conclusión: solo el 18,5% de los estudiantes realiza un desayuno de buena calidad y su mala calidad va aumentando progresivamente con los cursos y se asocia al hecho de desayunar solo. En ambos niveles educativos los alimentos más consumidos en casa pertenecen al grupo de los lácteos y los cereales, mientras que en el centro escolar, el bocadillo resulta el desayuno más habitual; no obstante se observan diferencias entre primaria y secundaria en cuanto al consumo de fruta y bebidas azucaradas, entre otros.Conclusión: sería interesante valorar la instauración de programas de desayuno escolar incluyendo en ellos no solo a estudiantes de primaria, sino también, y especialmente, a adolescentes pues son estos quienes omiten esta comida en mayor proporción. Las intervenciones deberían orientarse a corregir las desviaciones más habituales observadas en cada uno de los niveles educativos.

  19. PubMed

    Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experiências pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A análise pretende contribuir para que políticas públicas dedicadas à promoção da saúde sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promoção do direito à prevenção. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (comunidades católicas, da umbanda, do candomblé e de diferentes denominações evangélicas) sobre iniciação sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tensão entre tradição e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade.

  20. Religiosidade, juventude e sexualidade: entre a autonomia e a rigidez1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experiências pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A análise pretende contribuir para que políticas públicas dedicadas à promoção da saúde sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promoção do direito à prevenção. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (comunidades católicas, da umbanda, do candomblé e de diferentes denominações evangélicas) sobre iniciação sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tensão entre tradição e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade. PMID:21886456